WorldWideScience

Sample records for ranges possibly implying

  1. Are Cryptocurrencies the Future of Money? : Whether a Transition to Cryptocurrency, as National Currency of Sweden, Would be Possible and What it Would Imply for the Swedish Society

    OpenAIRE

    Gartz, Madeleine; Linderbrandt, Ida

    2017-01-01

    The underlying technology of cryptocurrencies is a broadly discussed subject. In Sweden, a growing interest for digital assets and payment methods can be observed. The fact that this coincides with an increasing acceptance for cryptocurrencies creates interesting possibilities. Some claim that cryptocurrency could be the future mean of payment. The objective of this report is therefore to examine whether a cryptocurrency could replace the Swedish krona, and what such a transition would imply ...

  2. Analysis of Knickzones over a Coastal Mountain Range of the Korean Peninsula Implies Intensive Uplifts during the Opening of the East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, J.; Paik, K.

    2017-12-01

    coastal mountain range had not persisted over the Pliocene, and instead the coastal mountain range had developed mostly during the opening of the East Sea, implying that the formation of the coastal mountain range is mainly attributed to the drifting of the Japanese Islands from the Korean Peninsula and consequent opening of the East Sea.

  3. Scaling and long-range dependence in option pricing V: Multiscaling hedging and implied volatility smiles under the fractional Black-Scholes model with transaction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Tian

    2011-05-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing using the fractional Black-Scholes model with transaction costs. Through the ‘anchoring and adjustment’ argument in a discrete time setting, a European call option pricing formula is obtained. The minimal price of an option under transaction costs is obtained. In addition, the relation between scaling and implied volatility smiles is discussed.

  4. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Brown, Brittany Repac, Jeff Gonder

    2013-07-15

    Self-driving or “autonomous” vehicles (AVs) have leapt from science fiction into the forefront of transportation technology news. The technology is likely still years away from widespread commercial adoption, but the recent progress makes it worth considering the potential national impacts of widespread implementation. This poster makes an initial assessment of the energy impacts of AV adoptionon a per-vehicle basis and on total personal vehicle fuel use. While AVs offer numerous potential advantages in energy use, there are significant factors that could decrease or even eliminate the energy benefits under some circumstances. This analysis attempts to describe, quantify, and combine many of the possible effects. The nature and magnitude of these effects remain highly uncertain. This set of effects is very unlikely to be exhaustive, but this analysis approach can serve as a base for future estimates.

  5. Normalization for Implied Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    We study specific nonlinear transformations of the Black-Scholes implied volatility to show remarkable properties of the volatility surface. Model-free bounds on the implied volatility skew are given. Pricing formulas for the European options which are written in terms of the implied volatility are given. In particular, we prove elegant formulas for the fair strikes of the variance swap and the gamma swap.

  6. Differential diagnosis of "Religious or Spiritual Problem" - possibilities and limitations implied by the V-code 62.89 in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusak, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : Work over preparation of DSM-5 has been a stimulus for research and reflection over the impact of religious/spiritual factors on phenomenology, differential diagnosis, course, outcome and prognosis of mental disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the attitude of DSM towards religion and spirituality in the clinical context. Even though DSM is not in use in Poland, in contrast to ICD, it gives a different, not only psychopathological, look at religious or spiritual problems. The paper is based on in-depth analysis of V-code 62.89 ("Religious or spiritual problem") from historical, theoretical and clinical perspective. The introduction of non-reductive approach to religious and spiritual problems to DSM can be considered as a manifestation of the development of this psychiatric classification with regard to the differential diagnosis between religion and spirituality and psychopathology. By placing religion and spirituality mainly in the category of culture, the authors of DSM-5 have established their solution to the age-old debate concerning the significance of religion/spirituality in clinical practice. Even though, DSM-5 offers an expanded understanding of culture and its impact on diagnosis, the V-code 62.89 needs to be improved taking into account some limitations of DSM classification. The development of DSM, from its fourth edition, brought a change into the approach towards religion and spirituality in the context of clinical diagnosis. Introducing V-code 62.89 has increased the possibility of differential diagnosis between religion/spirituality and health/psychopathology. The emphasis on manifestation of cultural diversity has enabled non-reductive and non-pathologising insight into the problems of religious and spirituality. On the other hand, medicalisation and psychiatrisation of various existential problems, which can be seen in subsequent editions of the DSM, encourages pathologising approach towards religious or spiritual

  7. Searches for possible T-odd and P-odd short range interactions using polarized nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu P. H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Various theories predict the possible existence of T-odd and P-odd shortrange forces between spin ½ fermions, proportional to S・r where S is the fermion spin and r is the separation between particles. We use ensembles of polarized nuclei and an un-polarized mass to search for such a force over sub-mm ranges. We established an improved upper bound on the product gsgpn of the scalar coupling to particles in the un-polarized mass and the pseudo-scalar coupling of polarized neutrons for force ranges from 10−4 to 10−2 m, corresponding to a mass range of 2・10−3 to 2・10−5 eV for the exchange boson [1].

  8. Correlation Structures of Correlated Binomial Models and Implied Default Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shintaro; Kitsukawa, Kenji; Hisakado, Masato

    2008-11-01

    We show how to analyze and interpret the correlation structures, the conditional expectation values and correlation coefficients of exchangeable Bernoulli random variables. We study implied default distributions for the iTraxx-CJ tranches and some popular probabilistic models, including the Gaussian copula model, Beta binomial distribution model and long-range Ising model. We interpret the differences in their profiles in terms of the correlation structures. The implied default distribution has singular correlation structures, reflecting the credit market implications. We point out two possible origins of the singular behavior.

  9. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.; Repac, B.; Gonder, J.

    2013-07-01

    This poster presents initial estimates of the net energy impacts of automated vehicles (AVs). Automated vehicle technologies are increasingly recognized as having potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption through mechanisms such as improved efficiency, better routing, lower traffic congestion, and by enabling advanced technologies. However, some effects of AVs could conceivably increase fuel consumption through possible effects such as longer distances traveled, increased use of transportation by underserved groups, and increased travel speeds. The net effect on petroleum use and climate change is still uncertain. To make an aggregate system estimate, we first collect best estimates for the energy impacts of approximately ten effects of AVs. We then use a modified Kaya Identity approach to estimate the range of aggregate effects and avoid double counting. We find that depending on numerous factors, there is a wide range of potential energy impacts. Adoption of automated personal or shared vehicles can lead to significant fuel savings but has potential for backfire.

  10. Possible manifestation of long range forces in high energy hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuraev, Eh.A.; Ferro, P.; Trentadue, L.

    1997-01-01

    Pion-pion and photon-photon scattering are discussed.. We obtain, starting from the impact representation introduced by Cheng and Wu a new contribution to the high energy hadron-hadron scattering amplitude for small transferred momentum q 2 of the form is (q 2 /m 4 )ln(-q 2 /m 2 ). This behaviour may be interpreted as a manifestation of long transverse-range forces between hadrons which, for ρ>> m -1 fall off as ρ -4 . We consider the examples of pion and photon scattering with photons converted in the intermediate state to two pairs of quarks interacting by exchanging two gluon colorless state. A phenomenological approach for proton impact factor is used to analyze proton-proton scattering. The analysis of the lowest order radiative corrections for the case of photon-photon scattering is done. We discuss the possibility of observing the effects of these long range forces

  11. Ramjet Application Possibilities for Increasing Fire Range of the Multiple Launch Rocket Systems Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zubov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a possibility to increase a flying range of the perspective rockets equipped with the control unit with aerodynamic controllers for the multiple launch rocket systems “Smerch”.To increase a flying range and reduce a starting mass of the rocket, the paper studies a possibility to replace the single-mode rocket engine used in the solid-fuel rocket motor for the direct-flow propulsion jet engine (DFPJE with not head sector air intakes. The DFPJE is implemented according to the classical scheme with a fuel charged in the combustion chamber. A separated solid propellant starting accelerator provides the rocket acceleration to reach a speed necessary for the DFPJE to run.When designing the DFPJE a proper choice of not head air intake parameters is one of the most difficult points. For this purpose a COSMOS Flow Simulation software package and analytical dependences were used to define the following: a boundary layer thickness where an air intake is set, maximum permissible and appropriate angles of attack and deviation angles of controllers at the section where the DFPJE works, and some other parameters as well.Calculation of DFPJE characteristics consisted in determining parameters of an air-gas path of the propulsion system, geometrical sizes of the pipeline flow area, sizes of a fuel charge, and dependence of the propulsion system impulse on the flight height and speed. Calculations were performed both in thermodynamic statement of problem and in using software package of COSMOS Flow Simulation.As a result of calculations and design engineering activities the air intake profile is created and mass-dimensional characteristics of DFPJE are defined. Besides, calculations of the starting solid fuel accelerator were carried out. Further design allowed us to create the rocket shape, estimate its mass-dimensional characteristics, and perform ballistic calculations, which proved that achieving a range of 120 km for the rocket is

  12. Long-range GABAergic connections distributed throughout the neocortex and their possible function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki eTamamaki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Features and functions of long range GABAergic projection neurons in the developing cerebral cortex have been reported previously, although until now their significance in the adult cerebral cortex has remained uncertain. The septo-hippocampal circuit is one exception – in this system, long range mature GABAergic projection neurons have been well analyzed and their contribution to the generation of theta-oscillatory behavior in the hippocampus has been documented. To have a clue to the function of the GABAergic projection neurons in the neocortex, we view the long range GABAergic projections those participating in the cortico-cortical, cortico-fugal, and afferent projections in the cerebral cortex. Then, we consider the possibility that the GABAergic projection neurons are involved in the generation, modification, and/or synchronization of oscillations in mature neocortical neuron activity. When markers that identify the GABAergic projection neurons are examined in anatomical and developmental studies, it is clear that neuronal NO synthetase (nNOS-immunoreactivity can readily identify GABAergic projection fibers (i.e. those longer than 1.5 mm. To elucidate the role of the GABAergic projection neurons in the neocortex, it will be necessary to clarify the network constructed by nNOS-positive GABAergic projection neurons and their postsynaptic targets. Thus, our long-range goals will be to label and manipulate (including deleting the GABAergic projection neurons using genetic tools driven by a nNOS promoter. We recognize that this may be a complex endeavor, as most excitatory neurons in the murine neocortex express nNOS transiently. Nevertheless, additional studies characterizing long range GABAergic projection neurons will have great value to the overall understanding of mature cortical function.

  13. Option-implied term structures

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The illiquidity of long-maturity options has made it difficult to study the term structures of option spanning portfolios. This paper proposes a new estimation and inference framework for these option-implied term structures that addresses long-maturity illiquidity. By building a sieve estimator around the risk-neutral valuation equation, the framework theoretically justifies (fat-tailed) extrapolations beyond truncated strikes and between observed maturities while remaining nonparametric. Ne...

  14. Rangewide genetic analysis of Lesser Prairie-Chicken reveals population structure, range expansion, and possible introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; DeYoung, Randall W; Fike, Jennifer; Hagen, Christian A.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Larsson, Lena C.; Patten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has been markedly reduced due to loss and fragmentation of habitat. Portions of the historical range, however, have been recolonized and even expanded due to planting of conservation reserve program (CRP) fields that provide favorable vegetation structure for Lesser Prairie-Chickens. The source population(s) feeding the range expansion is unknown, yet has resulted in overlap between Lesser and Greater Prairie-Chickens (T. cupido) increasing the potential for hybridization. Our objectives were to characterize connectivity and genetic diversity among populations, identify source population(s) of recent range expansion, and examine hybridization with the Greater Prairie-Chicken. We analyzed 640 samples from across the range using 13 microsatellites. We identified three to four populations corresponding largely to ecoregions. The Shinnery Oak Prairie and Sand Sagebrush Prairie represented genetically distinct populations (F ST > 0.034 and F ST > 0.023 respectively). The Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic and Mixed Grass ecoregions appeared admixed (F ST = 0.009). Genetic diversity was similar among ecoregions and N e ranged from 142 (95 % CI 99–236) for the Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic to 296 (95 % CI 233–396) in the Mixed Grass Prairie. No recent migration was detected among ecoregions, except asymmetric dispersal from both the Mixed Grass Prairie and to a lesser extent the Sand Sagebrush Prairie north into adjacent Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic (m = 0.207, 95 % CI 0.116–0.298, m = 0.097, 95 % CI 0.010–0.183, respectively). Indices investigating potential hybridization in the Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic revealed that six of the 13 individuals with hybrid phenotypes were significantly admixed suggesting hybridization. Continued monitoring of diversity within and among ecoregions is warranted as are actions promoting genetic connectivity and range expansion.

  15. Initial land reclamation procedures related to possible Pu-cleanup activities at the Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.

    1976-02-01

    If areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) are to be used for experimental tests of procedures for clean-up of 239 Pu contamination, there are experiences in the Great Basin Desert portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which can serve as guides to reclamation and revegetation of such arid lands. Procedures which will encourage development of the grasses Hilaria jamesii and Oryzopsis hymenoides, as well as the perennial shrubs Eurotia lanata and Atriplex canescens would greatly improve the area as range land

  16. Electronically driven short-range lattice instability: Possible role in superconductive pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, A.

    1991-01-01

    A superconducting pairing mechanism is suggested, mediating by collective and coherent cluster fluctuations in the materials. The model, based on a geometrical frustration, proposes a dynamic effect driven by a special short-range electronic instability. Experimental support for this model is discussed

  17. Possible biomechanical origins of the long-range correlations in stride intervals of walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Deanna H.; Su, Jimmy L.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.

    2007-07-01

    When humans walk, the time duration of each stride varies from one stride to the next. These temporal fluctuations exhibit long-range correlations. It has been suggested that these correlations stem from higher nervous system centers in the brain that control gait cycle timing. Existing proposed models of this phenomenon have focused on neurophysiological mechanisms that might give rise to these long-range correlations, and generally ignored potential alternative mechanical explanations. We hypothesized that a simple mechanical system could also generate similar long-range correlations in stride times. We modified a very simple passive dynamic model of bipedal walking to incorporate forward propulsion through an impulsive force applied to the trailing leg at each push-off. Push-off forces were varied from step to step by incorporating both “sensory” and “motor” noise terms that were regulated by a simple proportional feedback controller. We generated 400 simulations of walking, with different combinations of sensory noise, motor noise, and feedback gain. The stride time data from each simulation were analyzed using detrended fluctuation analysis to compute a scaling exponent, α. This exponent quantified how each stride interval was correlated with previous and subsequent stride intervals over different time scales. For different variations of the noise terms and feedback gain, we obtained short-range correlations (α1.0). Our results indicate that a simple biomechanical model of walking can generate long-range correlations and thus perhaps these correlations are not a complex result of higher level neuronal control, as has been previously suggested.

  18. IMPLIED AUTHOR IN PHILOSOPHICAL NOVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Senkāne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article falls within a number of papers about research on specification of philosophical novels. The aim of this article is to analyze author’s function as a narrative category in classical philosophical novels (Franz Kafka "The Trial" (1925, "The Castle" (1926, Jean-Paul Sartre "Nausea" (1938, Hermann Hesse "The Glass Bead Game" (1943, Albert Camus "The Plague" (1947 and a novel of Latvian prose writer Ilze Šķipsna "Neapsolītās zemes" ["Un-Promised Lands"] (1970. The analysis is based on theoretical ideas of structural narratologists Gerard Genette, William Labov, Seymuor Chatman, Wolf Schmid, as well as philosophers Edmund Husserl, Jean-Paul Sartre, Paul Ricouer and semioticians Yuri Lotman (Юрий Лотман and Umberto Eco. The real author can ”enter” the text only indirectly—as an image, with the help of the storyteller, and the way how this ”entry” happens is determined by the narration of the real author or narrative (communication skills of the author. Thus, the author and implied author are functionally different concepts: author as a real person develops the concept idea, his intention is to define the concept under his original vision; narrator, in its turn, communicates with the reader, representing the concept, and his aim is to select appropriate means of communication with regard to reader’s perceptual abilities.

  19. Estimating implied rates of discount in healthcare decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R R; McNabb, R; Thompson, A G H; Sheldon, T A; Grimley Evans, J

    2003-01-01

    To consider whether implied rates of discounting from the perspectives of individual and society differ, and whether implied rates of discounting in health differ from those implied in choices involving finance or "goods". The study comprised first a review of economics, health economics and social science literature and then an empirical estimate of implied rates of discounting in four fields: personal financial, personal health, public financial and public health, in representative samples of the public and of healthcare professionals. Samples were drawn in the former county and health authority district of South Glamorgan, Wales. The public sample was a representative random sample of men and women, aged over 18 years and drawn from electoral registers. The health professional sample was drawn at random with the cooperation of professional leads to include doctors, nurses, professions allied to medicine, public health, planners and administrators. The literature review revealed few empirical studies in representative samples of the population, few direct comparisons of public with private decision-making and few direct comparisons of health with financial discounting. Implied rates of discounting varied widely and studies suggested that discount rates are higher the smaller the value of the outcome and the shorter the period considered. The relationship between implied discount rates and personal attributes was mixed, possibly reflecting the limited nature of the samples. Although there were few direct comparisons, some studies found that individuals apply different rates of discount to social compared with private comparisons and health compared with financial. The present study also found a wide range of implied discount rates, with little systematic effect of age, gender, educational level or long-term illness. There was evidence, in both samples, that people chose a lower rate of discount in comparisons made on behalf of society than in comparisons made for

  20. ASSESSMENT OF RANGES OF POSSIBLE CHANGE OF TEMPORARY RESISTANCE OF CAST IRON WITH LAMELLAR AND FLAKED GRAPHITE ON THEIR HARDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Sandomirskii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of ranges of possible change of temporary resistance of sB of castings from ductile and gray cast iron is carried out. The analytical description of ranges of change of sВ depending on casting BH hardness is developed. It is shown that the range of change of sВ of pig-iron castings, wider in comparison with steel, with the measured hardness of BH is caused variations of forms and the amount of graphite inclusions at the considered classes of cast iron and influence of thickness of a wall of casting from gray cast iron on dependence of sВ (HB. The result is intended for determination of the guaranteed casting size sВ without her destruction, when there is no information on sВ of check test pieces.

  1. 32 CFR 634.8 - Implied consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Implied consent. 634.8 Section 634.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.8 Implied consent. (a) Implied consent to blood, breath, or urine tests....

  2. Forecasting with Option-Implied Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Chang, Bo Young

    2013-01-01

    This chapter surveys the methods available for extracting information from option prices that can be used in forecasting. We consider option-implied volatilities, skewness, kurtosis, and densities. More generally, we discuss how any forecasting object that is a twice differentiable function...... of the future realization of the underlying risky asset price can utilize option-implied information in a well-defined manner. Going beyond the univariate option-implied density, we also consider results on option-implied covariance, correlation and beta forecasting, as well as the use of option......-implied information in cross-sectional forecasting of equity returns. We discuss how option-implied information can be adjusted for risk premia to remove biases in forecasting regressions....

  3. Investigation into the possibility of vertical transmission of avian bornavirus in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnatte, Pauline; Nagy, Eva; Ojkic, Davor; Crawshaw, Graham; Smith, Dale A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of in ovo infection with avian bornavirus (ABV) in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 53 eggs were opportunistically collected at various stages of embryonic development from 16 free-ranging goose nests at a large urban zoo site where ABV infection is known to be present in this species. ABV RNA was detected in the yolk of one of three unembryonated eggs using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. ABV RNA was not identified in the brains from 23 newly hatched goslings or 19 embryos, nor from three early whole embryos. Antibodies against ABV were not detected in the plasma of any of the hatched goslings using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Possible reasons for the failure to detect ABV RNA in hatchlings or embryos include low sample size, eggs deriving from parents not actively infected with ABV, the testing of only brain tissue, and failure of the virus to replicate in Canada goose embryos. In conclusion, this preliminary investigation demonstrating the presence of ABV RNA in the yolk of a Canada goose egg provides the first evidence for the potential for vertical transmission of ABV in waterfowl.

  4. Estimating the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers: The case of Bantar Gebang in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shunsuke; Araki, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    This article presents informal recycling contributions made by scavengers in the surrounding area of Bantar Gebang final disposal site for municipal solid waste generated in Jakarta. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted through daily conversations with scavengers to identify recycling actors at the site, and then quantitative field surveys were conducted twice. The first survey (n = 504 households) covered 33% of all households in the area, and the second survey (n = 69 households) was conducted to quantify transactions of recyclables among scavengers. Mathematical equations were formulated with assumptions made to estimate the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers. Slightly over 60% of all respondents were involved in informal recycling and over 80% of heads of households were waste pickers, normally referred to as live-in waste pickers and live-out waste pickers at the site. The largest percentage of their spouses were family workers, followed by waste pickers and housewives. Over 95% of all households of respondents had at least one waste picker or one small boss who has a coequal status of a waste picker. Average weight of recyclables collected by waste pickers at the site was estimated to be approximately 100 kg day(-1) per household on the net weight basis. The recycling rate of solid wastes collected by all scavengers at the site was estimated to be in the range of 2.8-7.5% of all solid wastes transported to the site. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Correlation Structures of Correlated Binomial Models and Implied Default Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mori; K. Kitsukawa; M. Hisakado

    2006-01-01

    We show how to analyze and interpret the correlation structures, the conditional expectation values and correlation coefficients of exchangeable Bernoulli random variables. We study implied default distributions for the iTraxx-CJ tranches and some popular probabilistic models, including the Gaussian copula model, Beta binomial distribution model and long-range Ising model. We interpret the differences in their profiles in terms of the correlation structures. The implied default distribution h...

  6. Implied terms in English and Romanian law

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dinu

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the matter of implied terms from the point of view of both English and Romanian law. First, the introductory section provides a brief overview of implied terms, by defining this class of contractual clauses and by providing their general features. Second, the English law position is analysed, where it is generally recognised that a term may be implied in one of three manners, which are described in turn. An emp hasis is made on the Privy Council’s decision in Attorney G...

  7. Option-implied measures of equity risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Bo-Young; Christoffersen, Peter; Vainberg, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Equity risk measured by beta is of great interest to both academics and practitioners. Existing estimates of beta use historical returns. Many studies have found option-implied volatility to be a strong predictor of future realized volatility. We find that option-implied volatility and skewness...... are also good predictors of future realized beta. Motivated by this finding, we establish a set of assumptions needed to construct a beta estimate from option-implied return moments using equity and index options. This beta can be computed using only option data on a single day. It is therefore potentially...

  8. Implied terms in English and Romanian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dinu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the matter of implied terms from the point of view of both English and Romanian law. First, the introductory section provides a brief overview of implied terms, by defining this class of contractual clauses and by providing their general features. Second, the English law position is analysed, where it is generally recognised that a term may be implied in one of three manners, which are described in turn. An emp hasis is made on the Privy Council’s decision in Attorney General of Belize v Belize Telecom Ltd and its impact. Third, the Romanian law position is described, the starting point of the discussion being represented by the provisions of Article 1272 of the 2009 Civil Code. Fourth, the study ends by mentioning some points of comparison between the two legal systems in what concerns the approach towards implied terms.

  9. Clifford Algebra Implying Three Fermion Generations Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    2002-01-01

    The author's idea of algebraic compositeness of fundamental particles, allowing to understand the existence in Nature of three fermion generations, is revisited. It is based on two postulates. Primo, for all fundamental particles of matter the Dirac square-root procedure √p 2 → Γ (N) ·p works, leading to a sequence N=1, 2, 3, ... of Dirac-type equations, where four Dirac-type matrices Γ (N) μ are embedded into a Clifford algebra via a Jacobi definition introducing four ''centre-of-mass'' and (N - 1) x four ''relative'' Dirac-type matrices. These define one ''centre-of-mass'' and N - 1 ''relative'' Dirac bispinor indices. Secundo, the ''centre-of-mass'' Dirac bispinor index is coupled to the Standard Model gauge fields, while N - 1 ''relative'' Dirac bispinor indices are all free indistinguishable physical objects obeying Fermi statistics along with the Pauli principle which requires the full antisymmetry with respect to ''relative'' Dirac indices. This allows only for three Dirac-type equations with N = 1, 3, 5 in the case of N odd, and two with N = 2, 4 in the case of N even. The first of these results implies unavoidably the existence of three and only three generations of fundamental fermions, namely leptons and quarks, as labelled by the Standard Model signature. At the end, a comment is added on the possible shape of Dirac 3 x 3 mass matrices for four sorts of spin-1/2 fundamental fermions appearing in three generations. For charged leptons a prediction is m τ = 1776.80 MeV, when the input of experimental m e and m μ is used. (author)

  10. Clifford Algebra Implying Three Fermion Generations Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolikowski, Wojciech

    2002-09-01

    The author's idea of algebraic compositeness of fundamental particles, allowing to understand the existence in Nature of three fermion generations, is revisited. It is based on two postulates. Primo, for all fundamental particles of matter the Dirac square-root procedure √ {p2} → {Γ }(N)p works, leading to a sequence N = 1,2,3, ... of Dirac-type equations, where four Dirac-type matrices {Γ }(N)μ are embedded into a Clifford algebra via a Jacobi definition introducing four ``centre-of-mass'' and (N-1)× four ``relative'' Dirac-type matrices. These define one ``centre-of-mass'' and (N-1) ``relative'' Dirac bispinor indices. Secundo, the ``centre-of-mass'' Dirac bispinor index is coupled to the Standard Model gauge fields, while (N-1) ``relative'' Dirac bispinor indices are all free indistinguishable physical objects obeying Fermi statistics along with the Pauli principle which requires the full antisymmetry with respect to ``relative'' Dirac indices. This allows only for three Dirac-type equations with N = 1,3,5 in the case of N odd, and two with N = 2,4 in the case of N even. The first of these results implies unavoidably the existence of three and only three generations of fundamental fermions, namely leptons and quarks, as labelled by the Standard Model signature. At the end, a comment is added on the possible shape of Dirac 3x3 mass matrices for four sorts of spin-1/2 fundamental fermions appearing in three generations. For charged leptons a prediction is mτ = 1776.80 MeV, when the input of experimental me and mμ is used.

  11. Competition between crystallization and glassification for particles with short-ranged attraction. Possible applications to protein crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccarelli, E.; Sciortino, F.; Tartaglia, P.; Foffi, G.; McCullagh, G. D.; Lawlor, A.; Dawson, K. A.

    2002-11-01

    We discuss the phase behaviour of spherical hard-core particles, with an attractive potential, as described by a hard-core Yukawa model. The ratio of the range of the attraction to the diameter of the particles is an important control parameter of the problem. Upon decreasing the range of the attraction, the phase diagram changes quite significantly, with the liquid-gas transition becoming metastable, and the crystal being in equilibrium with the fluid, with no intervening liquid. We also study the glass transition lines and, crucially, find that the situation, being very simple for pure repulsive potentials, becomes much richer in competition between glass and crystal phases for short-range attractions. Also a transition between attractive and repulsive glass appears somewhat in analogy with the isostructural equilibrium transition between two crystals.

  12. Coexisting Kondo singlet state with antiferromagnetic long-range order: A possible ground state for Kondo insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Yu Lu

    2000-04-01

    The ground-state phase diagram of a half-filled anisotropic Kondo lattice model is calculated within a mean-field theory. For small transverse exchange coupling J perpendicular perpendicular c1 , the ground state shows an antiferromagnetic long-range order with finite staggered magnetizations of both localized spins and conduction electrons. When J perpendicular > J perpendicular c2 , the long-range order is destroyed and the system is in a disordered Kondo singlet state with a hybridization gap. Both ground states can describe the low-temperature phases of Kondo insulating compounds. Between these two distinct phases, there may be a coexistent regime as a result of the balance between local Kondo screening and magnetic interactions. (author)

  13. Implied Volatility Surface: Construction Methodologies and Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Homescu

    2011-01-01

    The implied volatility surface (IVS) is a fundamental building block in computational finance. We provide a survey of methodologies for constructing such surfaces. We also discuss various topics which can influence the successful construction of IVS in practice: arbitrage-free conditions in both strike and time, how to perform extrapolation outside the core region, choice of calibrating functional and selection of numerical optimization algorithms, volatility surface dynamics and asymptotics.

  14. Possibility of a 4He2 bound state, effective range theory, and very low energy He--He scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uang, Y.; Stwalley, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The best available intermolecular potential for helium by Aziz, Nain, Carley, Taylor, and McConville is shown here for the first time to have a 4 He 2 bound state. Two numerical analyses, namely, eigenvalue solution and effective range theory, are used to support this conclusion. Unlike usual chemically bound species, the binding energy of this very weakly bound level is found to be only 8.3 x 10 -4 K, which is four orders of magnitude smaller than the potential well depth epsilon = 10.8 K. The scattering length for He+He collisions, determined from effective range theory, is used to calculate the elastic cross section in the very low energy limit. The results (1.878 x 10 5 A 2 for 4 He+ 4 He and 6.035 x 10 2 A for 3 He+ 3 He) are consistent with measurements at the lowest velocities yet attained. In terms of the estimated uncertainties of the parameters of the potential of Aziz and co-workers, it is shown that it is very likely that a bound state of the 4 He 2 molecule does in fact exist

  15. Reduced range of the endangered crested capuchin monkey (Sapajus robustus) and a possible hybrid zone with Sapajus nigritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Waldney Pereira; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Rylands, Anthony B

    2017-10-01

    The crested capuchin monkey (Sapajus robustus) is an endangered species endemic to the highly fragmented Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Surveys for S. robustus were carried out over a 25-month period (2003-2005) to obtain more precise geographical limits for the western range of the species. Previously published localities for S. robustus were mapped, and each point was given a 25-km radius "buffer zone." The largest forest remnants in the buffer zones (>300 ha) in Minas Gerais were visited in order to interview the local people and/or survey the forests directly using playback recordings of S. robustus. Camera traps were used in key localities if interviews suggested the presence of capuchins but no animals were sighted during the surveys. Of 127 valid interviews, only 39 people reported the presence of Sapajus in nearby forest fragments. We confirmed the presence of Sapajus in only 19 of these. S. robustus occurred in four, and S. libidinosus, S. nigritus, S. xanthosternos, or S. robustus × S. nigritus (hybrids?) occurred in the remaining 15. Based on our study, the estimated geographical distribution of S. robustus is 119,654 km 2 , which represents a reduction of more than 70,000 km 2 when compared to its formerly described range. The geographical limits as defined in this study are: northeast-the Jequitinhonha River; northwest and west-the Jequitinhonha River; southwest-the Suaçuí Grande River and the Espinhaço mountains; southeast-the Doce River; east-the Atlantic Ocean. A probable hybrid zone where capuchin monkeys have morphological features of both S. nigritus and S. robustus was found between the Santo Antônio and the Suaçuí Grande rivers. The elucidation of the geographical distribution of S. robustus is important for its conservation, facilitating the delineation of priority areas for the creation of reserves and the initiation of studies of the species' ecology and behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Asset allocation using option-implied moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaludin, H.; Abdullah, M. H.; Tolos, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study uses an option-implied distribution as the input in asset allocation. The computation of risk-neutral densities (RND) are based on the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index option and its constituents. Since the RNDs estimation does not incorporate risk premium, the conversion of RND into risk-world density (RWD) is required. The RWD is obtained through parametric calibration using the beta distributions. The mean, volatility, and covariance are then calculated to construct the portfolio. The performance of the portfolio is evaluated by using portfolio volatility and Sharpe ratio.

  17. XBRL How It Implies The Audit Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepky Mardian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to know what is XBRL how it works and it implies to audit process. XBRL as a new tool was expected to produce a timelines reliable and credible financial reporting. With its real-time and interactive data XBRL will help the investor and other stakeholder in receiving storing analyzing the information quickly. While in audit profession XBRL will speed up the audit process save the audit cost and increase the revenue. However in fact XBRL will make it happen if it was implemented and integrated to an information system owned by datainformation provider.

  18. Study of phosphatic nodules as a possible source of uranium mineralization in warcha sandstone of nilawahan group salt range using SSNTD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.A.; Ullah, K.; Ullah, N.; Mohammad, A.

    2004-07-01

    The strong in the sedimentary depositional characteristics between the Warcha Sandstone of Nilawahan Group in the Salt Range and the uranium bearing sandstones of Siwalik Group in the foot hills of Himalaya and Sulaiman Ranges tempted the geologists to investigate the former group for the occurrence of any uranium deposits in it. Like volcanic ash beds in Siwaliks, phosphatic nodules may be a possible source of uranium mineralization in Warcha Sandstone of Nilawahan Group. Samples of phosphatic nodules occurring in the Sandstone of Nilawahan Group Salt Range were analyzed using Solid State Nuclear Track Detention Technique (SSNTD) for the determination of their uranium concentration. The results obtained are quite encouraging and favour the idea of exploring the area in detail for any possible occurrence of uranium deposit. Uranium concentration in these samples ranges from (434 + - 39) ppm to (964+ -81)ppm with and average concentration of (699 + - 62) ppm. (author)

  19. Analysis of Federal Subsidies: Implied Price of Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Craig Cooper; Thomas Foulke

    2010-10-01

    For informed climate change policy, it is important for decision makers to be able to assess how the costs and benefits of federal energy subsidies are distributed and to be able to have some measure to compare them. One way to do this is to evaluate the implied price of carbon (IPC) for a federal subsidy, or set of subsidies; where the IPC is the cost of the subsidy to the U.S. Treasury divided by the emissions reductions it generated. Subsidies with lower IPC are more cost effective at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while subsidies with a negative IPC act to increase emissions. While simple in concept, the IPC is difficult to calculate in practice. Calculation of the IPC requires knowledge of (i) the amount of energy associated with the subsidy, (ii) the amount and type of energy that would have been produced in the absence of the subsidy, and (iii) the greenhouse gas emissions associated with both the subsidized energy and the potential replacement energy. These pieces of information are not consistently available for federal subsidies, and there is considerable uncertainty in cases where the information is available. Thus, exact values for the IPC based upon fully consistent standards cannot be calculated with available data. However, it is possible to estimate a range of potential values sufficient for initial comparisons. This study has employed a range of methods to generate “first order” estimates for the IPC of a range of federal subsidies using static methods that do not account for the dynamics of supply and demand. The study demonstrates that, while the IPC value depends upon how the inquiry is framed and the IPC cannot be calculated in a “one size fits all” manner, IPC calculations can provide a valuable perspective for climate policy analysis. IPC values are most useful when calculated within the perspective of a case study, with the method and parameters of the calculation determined by the case. The IPC of different policy measures can

  20. Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zeqian; Montina, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

  1. Faster than light motion does not imply time travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andréka, Hajnal; Madarász, Judit X; Németi, István; Székely, Gergely; Stannett, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Seeing the many examples in the literature of causality violations based on faster than light (FTL) signals one naturally thinks that FTL motion leads inevitably to the possibility of time travel. We show that this logical inference is invalid by demonstrating a model, based on (3+1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, in which FTL motion is permitted (in every direction without any limitation on speed) yet which does not admit time travel. Moreover, the Principle of Relativity is true in this model in the sense that all observers are equivalent. In short, FTL motion does not imply time travel after all. (paper)

  2. Likelihood ratio decisions in memory: three implied regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Murray; Hilford, Andrew; Maloney, Laurence T

    2009-06-01

    We analyze four general signal detection models for recognition memory that differ in their distributional assumptions. Our analyses show that a basic assumption of signal detection theory, the likelihood ratio decision axis, implies three regularities in recognition memory: (1) the mirror effect, (2) the variance effect, and (3) the z-ROC length effect. For each model, we present the equations that produce the three regularities and show, in computed examples, how they do so. We then show that the regularities appear in data from a range of recognition studies. The analyses and data in our study support the following generalization: Individuals make efficient recognition decisions on the basis of likelihood ratios.

  3. Climate change: believing and seeing implies adapting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Tomé, Margarida; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of factors that trigger human response to climate change is crucial for effective climate change policy communication. Climate change has been claimed to have low salience as a risk issue because it cannot be directly experienced. Still, personal factors such as strength of belief in local effects of climate change have been shown to correlate strongly with responses to climate change and there is a growing literature on the hypothesis that personal experience of climate change (and/or its effects) explains responses to climate change. Here we provide, using survey data from 845 private forest owners operating in a wide range of bio-climatic as well as economic-social-political structures in a latitudinal gradient across Europe, the first evidence that the personal strength of belief and perception of local effects of climate change, highly significantly explain human responses to climate change. A logistic regression model was fitted to the two variables, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.07 (SD ± 0.01) to 0.81 (SD ± 0.03) for self-reported adaptive measures taken. Adding socio-demographic variables improved the fit, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.022 (SD ± 0.008) to 0.91 (SD ± 0.02). We conclude that to explain and predict adaptation to climate change, the combination of personal experience and belief must be considered.

  4. Climate change: believing and seeing implies adapting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Blennow

    Full Text Available Knowledge of factors that trigger human response to climate change is crucial for effective climate change policy communication. Climate change has been claimed to have low salience as a risk issue because it cannot be directly experienced. Still, personal factors such as strength of belief in local effects of climate change have been shown to correlate strongly with responses to climate change and there is a growing literature on the hypothesis that personal experience of climate change (and/or its effects explains responses to climate change. Here we provide, using survey data from 845 private forest owners operating in a wide range of bio-climatic as well as economic-social-political structures in a latitudinal gradient across Europe, the first evidence that the personal strength of belief and perception of local effects of climate change, highly significantly explain human responses to climate change. A logistic regression model was fitted to the two variables, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.07 (SD ± 0.01 to 0.81 (SD ± 0.03 for self-reported adaptive measures taken. Adding socio-demographic variables improved the fit, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.022 (SD ± 0.008 to 0.91 (SD ± 0.02. We conclude that to explain and predict adaptation to climate change, the combination of personal experience and belief must be considered.

  5. Interpreting the implied meridional oceanic energy transport in AMIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, D.A.; Gleckler, P.J.

    1993-09-01

    The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) was outlined in Paper No. CLIM VAR 2.3 (entitled open-quote The validation of ocean surface heat fluxes in AMIP') of these proceedings. Preliminary results of AMIP subproject No. 5 were also summarized. In particular, zonally averaged ocean surface heat fluxes resulting from various AMIP simulations were intercompared, and to the extent possible they were validated with uncertainties in observationally-based estimates of surface heat fluxes. The intercomparison is continued in this paper by examining the Oceanic Meridional Energy Transport (OMET) implied by the net surface heat fluxes of the AMIP simulations. As with the surface heat fluxes of the AMIP simulations. As with the surface heat fluxes, the perspective here will be very cursory. The annual mean implied ocean heat transport can be estimated by integrating the zonally averaged net ocean surface heat flux, N sfc , from one pole to the other. In AGCM simulations (and perhaps reality), the global mean N sfc is typically not in exact balance when averaged over one or more years. Because of this, an important assumption must be made about changes in the distribution of energy in the oceans. Otherwise, the integration will yield a non-zero transport at the endpoint of integration (pole) which is not physically realistic. Here the authors will only look at 10-year means of the AMIP runs, and for simplicity they assume that any long term imbalance in the global averaged N sfc will be sequestered (or released) over the global ocean. Tests have demonstrated that the treatment of how the global average energy imbalance is assumed to be distributed is important, especially when the long term imbalances are in excess of 10 W m -2 . However, this has not had a substantial impact on the qualitative features of the implied heat transport of the AMIP simulations examined thus far

  6. Entropy-based implied volatility and its information content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Xiao (Xiao); C. Zhou (Chen)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper investigates the maximum entropy approach on estimating implied volatility. The entropy approach also allows to measure option implied skewness and kurtosis nonparametrically, and to construct confidence intervals. Simulations show that the en- tropy approach outperforms

  7. Money market rates and implied CCAPM rates: some international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Yamin Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    New Neoclassical Synthesis models equate the instrument of monetary policy to the implied CCAPM rate arising from an Euler equation. This paper identifies monetary policy shocks within six of the G7 countries and examines the movement of money market and implied CCAPM rates. The key result is that an increase in the nominal interest rate leads to a fall in the implied CCAPM rate. Incorporating habit still yields the same result. The findings suggest that the movement of these two rates implie...

  8. Implied Terms: The Foundation in Good Faith and Fair Dealing

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of clarifying English law of implied terms in contracts and explaining their basis in the idea of good faith in performance, it is argued first that two, but no more, types of implied terms can be distinguished (terms implied in fact and terms implied by law), though it is explained why these types are frequently confused. Second, the technique of implication of terms is distinguished in most instances from the task of interpretation of contracts. Third, it is a...

  9. The Forecast Performance of Competing Implied Volatility Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiaras, Leonidas

    This study examines the information content of alternative implied volatility measures for the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index from 1996 until 2007. Along with the popular Black-Scholes and "model-free" implied volatility expectations, the recently proposed corridor implie......, volatility definitions, loss functions and forecast evaluation settings....

  10. Implied liquidity : towards stochastic liquidity modeling and liquidity trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcuera, J.M.; Guillaume, F.M.Y.; Madan, D.B.; Schoutens, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implied (il)liquidity of vanilla options. Implied liquidity is based on the fundamental theory of conic finance, in which the one-price model is abandoned and replaced by a two-price model giving bid and ask prices for traded assets. The pricing is done by

  11. Asymptotic formulae for implied volatility in the Heston model

    OpenAIRE

    Forde, Martin; Jacquier, Antoine; Mijatovic, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we prove an approximate formula expressed in terms of elementary functions for the implied volatility in the Heston model. The formula consists of the constant and first order terms in the large maturity expansion of the implied volatility function. The proof is based on saddlepoint methods and classical properties of holomorphic functions.

  12. Collective memory in primate conflict implied by temporal scaling collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward D; Daniels, Bryan C; Krakauer, David C; Flack, Jessica C

    2017-09-01

    In biological systems, prolonged conflict is costly, whereas contained conflict permits strategic innovation and refinement. Causes of variation in conflict size and duration are not well understood. We use a well-studied primate society model system to study how conflicts grow. We find conflict duration is a 'first to fight' growth process that scales superlinearly, with the number of possible pairwise interactions. This is in contrast with a 'first to fail' process that characterizes peaceful durations. Rescaling conflict distributions reveals a universal curve, showing that the typical time scale of correlated interactions exceeds nearly all individual fights. This temporal correlation implies collective memory across pairwise interactions beyond those assumed in standard models of contagion growth or iterated evolutionary games. By accounting for memory, we make quantitative predictions for interventions that mitigate or enhance the spread of conflict. Managing conflict involves balancing the efficient use of limited resources with an intervention strategy that allows for conflict while keeping it contained and controlled. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Multifractal analysis of implied volatility in index options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, GabJin

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze the statistical and the non-linear properties of the log-variations in implied volatility for the CAC40, DAX and S& P500 daily index options. The price of an index option is generally represented by its implied volatility surface, including its smile and skew properties. We utilize a Lévy process model as the underlying asset to deepen our understanding of the intrinsic property of the implied volatility in the index options and estimate the implied volatility surface. We find that the options pricing models with the exponential Lévy model can reproduce the smile or sneer features of the implied volatility that are observed in real options markets. We study the variation in the implied volatility for at-the-money index call and put options, and we find that the distribution function follows a power-law distribution with an exponent of 3.5 ≤ γ ≤ 4.5. Especially, the variation in the implied volatility exhibits multifractal spectral characteristics, and the global financial crisis has influenced the complexity of the option markets.

  14. Electrodermal responses to implied versus actual violence on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamas, A D; Gruber, M L

    1998-01-01

    The electrodermal response (EDR) of children watching a violent show was measured. Particular attention was paid to the type of violence (actual or implied) that prompted an EDR. In addition, the impact of the auditory component (sounds associated with violence) of the show was evaluated. Implied violent stimuli, such as the villain's face, elicited the strongest EDR. The elements that elicited the weakest responses were the actual violent stimuli, such as stabbing. The background noise and voices of the sound track enhanced the total number of EDRs. The results suggest that implied violence may elicit more fear (as measured by EDRs) than actual violence does and that sounds alone contribute significantly to the emotional response to television violence. One should not, therefore, categorically assume that a show with mostly actual violence evokes less fear than one with mostly implied violence.

  15. Predicting Agency Rating Migrations with Spread Implied Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Jianming Kou; Dr Simone Varotto

    2005-01-01

    Investors traditionally rely on credit ratings to price debt instruments. However, rating agencies are known to be prudent in their approach to rating revisions, which results in delayed ratings adjustments to mutating credit conditions. For a large set of eurobonds we derive credit spread implied ratings and compare them with the ratings issued by rating agencies. Our results indicate that spread implied ratings often anticipate future movement of agency ratings and hence could help track cr...

  16. Uniform Bounds for Black--Scholes Implied Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Tehranchi, Michael Rummine

    2016-01-01

    In this note, Black--Scholes implied volatility is expressed in terms of various optimization problems. From these representations, upper and lower bounds are derived which hold uniformly across moneyness and call price. Various symmetries of the Black--Scholes formula are exploited to derive new bounds from old. These bounds are used to reprove asymptotic formulas for implied volatility at extreme strikes and/or maturities. the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics 10.1137/14095248X

  17. Uniform bounds for Black--Scholes implied volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Tehranchi, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    In this note, Black--Scholes implied volatility is expressed in terms of various optimisation problems. From these representations, upper and lower bounds are derived which hold uniformly across moneyness and call price. Various symmetries of the Black--Scholes formula are exploited to derive new bounds from old. These bounds are used to reprove asymptotic formulae for implied volatility at extreme strikes and/or maturities.

  18. Long memory and the relation between implied and realized volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Bandi; Benoit Perron

    2003-01-01

    We argue that the conventional predictive regression between implied volatility (regressor) and realized volatility over the remaining life of the option (regressand) is likely to be a fractional cointegrating relation. Since cointegration is associated with long-run comovements, this finding modifies the usual interpretation of such regression as a study towards assessing option market efficiency (given a certain option pricing model) and/or short-term unbiasedness of implied volatility as a...

  19. Long memory persistence in the factor of Implied volatility dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Mungo, Julius

    2007-01-01

    The volatility implied by observed market prices as a function of the strike and time to maturity form an Implied Volatility Surface (IV S). Practical applications require reducing the dimension and characterize its dynamics through a small number of factors. Such dimension reduction is summarized by a Dynamic Semiparametric Factor Model (DSFM) that characterizes the IV S itself and their movements across time by a multivariate time series of factor loadings. This paper focuses on investigati...

  20. US Implied Volatility as A predictor of International Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet F. Dicle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides evidence of the US implied volatility’s e ect on international equitymarkets’ returns. This evidence has two main implications: i investors may find that foreign equityreturns adjusting to US implied volatility may not provide true diversification benefits, and ii foreignequity returns may be predicted using US implied volatility. Our sample includes US volatility index(VIX and major equity indexes in twenty countries for the period between January, 2000 throughJuly, 2017. VIX leads eighteen of the international markets and Granger causes seventeen of themarkets after controlling for the S&P-500 index returns and the 2007/2008 US financial crisis. USinvestors looking to diversify US risk may find that international equities may not provide intendeddiversification benefits. Our evidence provides support for predictability of international equity returnsbased on US volatility.

  1. Tachyons imply the existence of a privileged frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoedin, T.; Heylighen, F.

    1985-12-16

    It is shown that the existence of faster-than-light signals (tachyons) would imply the existence (and detectability) of a privileged inertial frame and that one can avoid all problems with reversed-time order only by using absolute synchronization instead of the standard one. The connection between these results and the EPR-paradox is discussed.

  2. Comprehending Implied Meaning in English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated whether second language (L2) proficiency affects pragmatic comprehension, namely the ability to comprehend implied meaning in spoken dialogues, in terms of accuracy and speed of comprehension. Participants included 46 native English speakers at a U.S. university and 160 Japanese students of English in a college in Japan who…

  3. Performance assessment of two whole-lake acoustic positional telemetry systems - is reality mining of free-ranging aquatic animals technologically possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Zajicek, Petr; Klefoth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic positional telemetry systems (APTs) represent a novel approach to study the behaviour of free ranging aquatic animals in the wild at unprecedented detail. System manufactures promise remarkably high temporal and spatial resolution. However, the performance of APTs has rarely been...... rigorously tested at the level of entire ecosystems. Moreover, the effect of habitat structure on system performance has only been poorly documented. Two APTs were deployed to cover two small lakes and a series of standardized stationary tests were conducted to assess system performance. Furthermore...... for stationary transmitters due to accumulation of small tracking errors, moving transmitters can result in both over-and underestimation of distances depending on circumstances. Both deployed APTs were capable of providing high resolution positional data at the scale of entire lakes and are suitable systems...

  4. Computer Simulations Imply Forelimb-Dominated Underwater Flight in Plesiosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plesiosaurians are an extinct group of highly derived Mesozoic marine reptiles with a global distribution that spans 135 million years from the Early Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous. During their long evolutionary history they maintained a unique body plan with two pairs of large wing-like flippers, but their locomotion has been a topic of debate for almost 200 years. Key areas of controversy have concerned the most efficient biologically possible limb stroke, e.g. whether it consisted of rowing, underwater flight, or modified underwater flight, and how the four limbs moved in relation to each other: did they move in or out of phase? Previous studies have investigated plesiosaur swimming using a variety of methods, including skeletal analysis, human swimmers, and robotics. We adopt a novel approach using a digital, three-dimensional, articulated, free-swimming plesiosaur in a simulated fluid. We generated a large number of simulations under various joint degrees of freedom to investigate how the locomotory repertoire changes under different parameters. Within the biologically possible range of limb motion, the simulated plesiosaur swims primarily with its forelimbs using an unmodified underwater flight stroke, essentially the same as turtles and penguins. In contrast, the hindlimbs provide relatively weak thrust in all simulations. We conclude that plesiosaurs were forelimb-dominated swimmers that used their hind limbs mainly for maneuverability and stability.

  5. Comparison of detection limits in environmental analysis--is it possible? An approach on quality assurance in the lower working range by verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, S; Einax, J W

    2001-07-01

    Detection limit, reporting limit and limit of quantitation are analytical parameters which describe the power of analytical methods. These parameters are used for internal quality assurance and externally for competing, especially in the case of trace analysis in environmental compartments. The wide variety of possibilities for computing or obtaining these measures in literature and in legislative rules makes any comparison difficult. Additionally, a host of terms have been used within the analytical community to describe detection and quantitation capabilities. Without trying to create an order for the variety of terms, this paper is aimed at providing a practical proposal for answering the main questions for the analysts concerning quality measures above. These main questions and related parameters were explained and graphically demonstrated. Estimation and verification of these parameters are the two steps to get real measures. A rule for a practical verification is given in a table, where the analyst can read out what to measure, what to estimate and which criteria have to be fulfilled. In this manner verified parameters detection limit, reporting limit and limit of quantitation now are comparable and the analyst himself is responsible to the unambiguity and reliability of these measures.

  6. Intuitive understanding of nonlocality as implied by quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, D.G.; Hiley, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    The fact is brought out that the essential new quality implied by the quantum theory is nonlocality; i.e., that a system cannot be analyzed into parts whose basic properties do not depend on the state of the whole system. This is done in terms of the causal interpretation of the quantum theory, proposed by one of us (D.B.) in 2952, involving the introduction of the ''quantum potential.'' It is shown that this approach implies a new universal type of description, in which the standard or canonical form is always supersystem-system-subsystem; and this leads to the radically new notion of unbroken wholeness of the entire universe. Finally, some of the implications of extending these notions to the relativity domain, and in so doing, a novel concept of time, in terms of which relativity and quantum theory may eventually be brought together, is indicated

  7. Implied Movement in Static Images Reveals Biological Timing Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Nather

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is adapted toward a better understanding of our own movements than those of non-conspecifics. The present study determined whether time perception is affected by pictures of different species by considering the evolutionary scale. Static (“S” and implied movement (“M” images of a dog, cheetah, chimpanzee, and man were presented to undergraduate students. S and M images of the same species were presented in random order or one after the other (S-M or M-S for two groups of participants. Movement, Velocity, and Arousal semantic scales were used to characterize some properties of the images. Implied movement affected time perception, in which M images were overestimated. The results are discussed in terms of visual motion perception related to biological timing processing that could be established early in terms of the adaptation of humankind to the environment.

  8. Language comprehenders retain implied shape and orientation of objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane; van Dantzig, Saskia; Zwaan, Rolf A; Zeelenberg, René

    2009-06-01

    According to theories of embodied cognition, language comprehenders simulate sensorimotor experiences to represent the meaning of what they read. Previous studies have shown that picture recognition is better if the object in the picture matches the orientation or shape implied by a preceding sentence. In order to test whether strategic imagery may explain previous findings, language comprehenders first read a list of sentences in which objects were mentioned. Only once the complete list had been read was recognition memory tested with pictures. Recognition performance was better if the orientation or shape of the object matched that implied by the sentence, both immediately after reading the complete list of sentences and after a 45-min delay. These results suggest that previously found match effects were not due to strategic imagery and show that details of sensorimotor simulations are retained over longer periods.

  9. Implied Materiality and Material Disclosures of Credit Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Eccles, Robert G; Youmans, Timothy John

    2015-01-01

    This first of three papers in our series on materiality in credit ratings will examine the materiality of credit ratings from an “implied materiality” and governance disclosure perspective. In the second paper, we will explore the materiality of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors in credit ratings’ methodologies and introduce the concept of “layered materiality.” In the third paper, we will evaluate current and potential credit rating agency (CRA) business models based on our...

  10. On return rate implied by behavioural present value

    OpenAIRE

    Piasecki, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The future value of a security is described as a random variable. Distribution of this random variable is the formal image of risk uncertainty. On the other side, any present value is defined as a value equivalent to the given future value. This equivalence relationship is a subjective. Thus follows, that present value is described as a fuzzy number, which is depend on the investor's susceptibility to behavioural factors. All above reasons imply, that return rate is given as a fuzzy probabili...

  11. Wave function collapse implies divergence of average displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    2005-01-01

    We show that propagating a truncated discontinuous wave function by Schr\\"odinger's equation, as asserted by the collapse axiom, gives rise to non-existence of the average displacement of the particle on the line. It also implies that there is no Zeno effect. On the other hand, if the truncation is done so that the reduced wave function is continuous, the average coordinate is finite and there is a Zeno effect. Therefore the collapse axiom of measurement needs to be revised.

  12. TEMPORAL INSENSITIVITY OF PVWTP AND IMPLIED DISCOUNT RATES IN CVM

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sooil; Haab, Timothy C.

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of WTP is tested in terms of the present value and the implied discount rates are derived by varying the length of benefit and the temporal payment schedules. Results show that holding the length of the project constant, the present value of willingness to pay does not vary significantly across payment schemes (one time payment, versus life of the project, versus perpetuity). Heteroskedasticity of error term over payment schemes fails to be accepted. Holding the payment scheme...

  13. Implied reading direction and prioritization of letter encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Alex O; Nguyen, Elizabeth H L; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2017-10-01

    Capacity limits hinder processing of multiple stimuli, contributing to poorer performance for identifying two briefly presented letters than for identifying a single letter. Higher accuracy is typically found for identifying the letter on the left, which has been attributed to a right-hemisphere dominance for selective attention. Here, we use rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of letters in two locations at once. The letters to be identified are simultaneous and cued by rings. In the first experiment, we manipulated implied reading direction by rotating or mirror-reversing the letters to face to the left rather than to the right. The left-side performance advantage was eliminated. In the second experiment, letters were positioned above and below fixation, oriented such that they appeared to face downward (90° clockwise rotation) or upward (90° counterclockwise rotation). Again consistent with an effect of implied reading direction, performance was better for the top position in the downward condition, but not in the upward condition. In both experiments, mixture modeling of participants' report errors revealed that attentional sampling from the two locations was approximately simultaneous, ruling out the theory that the letter on one side was processed first, followed by a shift of attention to sample the other letter. Thus, the orientation of the letters apparently controls not when the letters are sampled from the scene, but rather the dynamics of a subsequent process, such as tokenization or memory consolidation. Implied reading direction appears to determine the letter prioritized at a high-level processing bottleneck. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Noninvadability implies noncoexistence for a class of cancellative systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swart, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 38 (2013), s. 1-12 ISSN 1083-589X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : cancellative system * interface tightness * duality * coexistence * Neuhauser-Pacala model * affine voter model * rebellious voter model * balancing selection * branching * annihilation * parity preservation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.627, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/swart-noninvadability implies noncoexistence for a class of cancellative systems.pdf

  15. Toward Possibility: Expanding the Range of Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Maxine

    Signs or signifiers, composing what Lacan in 1968 called the "symbolic order," provide a means for making sense of the world and form a network enabling the human mind to form concepts. The signifier "literacy," for example, is often taken to refer to a fixed, isolatable concept, but this term would not be intelligible were it…

  16. Implied Reading in the Unforgettable Stories of Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal ÇUBUKÇU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iser is literary theoretician and co-founder of the Constance School of Reception Aesthetics, professor Emeritus of English and Comparative Literature at the University of Constance and the University of California, Irvine. When Iser died in 2007 in his eighty-first year, he was one of the most widely known literary theoreticians in the world. His “implied reading” theory claims that texts can themselves also awaken false expectations, alternately bringing about surprise, joy and frustration, which can be the enlargement of experience. The indeterminacy of the text might yield different responses from different readers. To prove that each implied reading is based on the schemata of the readers, this study aims at analysing the stories told by language learners of Turkish who come from 20 countries and whose ages vary between 18-32. The participants are 65 undergraduate and graduate university students, from African, Asian and Balkan countries, who upon watching “Cinderella” were asked to write about the unforgettable folk story or fairy tale. When their stories are item analysed, the results show that the schematas of the learners shape the way they choose and recount the stories. Leraners of Turkish fill in the gaps throughout the story, form a meaningful bond by pulling information from it, participating in a reciprocal relationship, creating and deriving meaning in an extravaganza of interpretation.

  17. Vertebrate Fossils Imply Paleo-elevations of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, T.; Wang, X.; Li, Q.; Wu, F.; Wang, S.; Hou, S.

    2017-12-01

    The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau remains unclear, and its paleo-elevation reconstructions are crucial to interpret the geodynamic evolution and to understand the climatic changes in Asia. Uplift histories of the Tibetan Plateau based on different proxies differ considerably, and two viewpoints are pointedly opposing on the paleo-elevation estimations of the Tibetan Plateau. One viewpoint is that the Tibetan Plateau did not strongly uplift to reach its modern elevation until the Late Miocene, but another one, mainly based on stable isotopes, argues that the Tibetan Plateau formed early during the Indo-Asian collision and reached its modern elevation in the Paleogene or by the Middle Miocene. In 1839, Hugh Falconer firstly reported some rhinocerotid fossils collected from the Zanda Basin in Tibet, China and indicated that the Himalayas have uplifted by more than 2,000 m since several million years ago. In recent years, the vertebrate fossils discovered from the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas implied a high plateau since the late Early Miocene. During the Oligocene, giant rhinos lived in northwestern China to the north of the Tibetan Plateau, while they were also distributed in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent to the south of this plateau, which indicates that the elevation of the Tibetan Plateau was not too high to prevent exchanges of large mammals; giant rhinos, the rhinocerotid Aprotodon, and chalicotheres still dispersed north and south of "Tibetan Plateau". A tropical-subtropical lowland fish fauna was also present in the central part of this plateau during the Late Oligocene, in which Eoanabas thibetana was inferred to be closely related to extant climbing perches from South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast, during the Middle Miocene, the shovel-tusked elephant Platybelodon was found from many localities north of the Tibetan Plateau, while its trace was absent in the Siwaliks of the subcontinent, which implies that the Tibetan Plateau had

  18. Time-to-contact estimation modulated by implied friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Sasaki, Kyoshiro; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    The present study demonstrated that friction cues for target motion affect time-to-contact (TTC) estimation. A circular target moved in a linear path with a constant velocity and was gradually occluded by a static rectangle. The target moved with forward and backward spins or without spin. Observers were asked to respond at the time when the moving target appeared to pass the occluder. The results showed that TTC was significantly longer in the backward spin condition than in the forward and without-spin conditions. Moreover, similar results were obtained when a sound was used to imply friction. Our findings indicate that the observer's experiential knowledge of motion coupled with friction intuitively modulated their TTC estimation.

  19. Short-Term Market Risks Implied by Weekly Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Fusari, Nicola; Todorov, Viktor

    a direct way to study volatility and jump risks. Unlike longer-dated options, they are largely insensitive to the risk of intertemporal shifts in the economic environment. Adopting a novel semi-nonparametric approach, we uncover variation in the negative jump tail risk which is not spanned by market......We study short-term market risks implied by weekly S&P 500 index options. The introduction of weekly options has dramatically shifted the maturity profile of traded options over the last five years, with a substantial proportion now having expiry within one week. Such short-dated options provide......" by the level of market volatility and elude standard asset pricing models....

  20. Implied motion language can influence visual spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David W; Engelen, Jan; Zwaan, Rolf A; Matlock, Teenie; Dale, Rick

    2017-07-01

    How do language and vision interact? Specifically, what impact can language have on visual processing, especially related to spatial memory? What are typically considered errors in visual processing, such as remembering the location of an object to be farther along its motion trajectory than it actually is, can be explained as perceptual achievements that are driven by our ability to anticipate future events. In two experiments, we tested whether the prior presentation of motion language influences visual spatial memory in ways that afford greater perceptual prediction. Experiment 1 showed that motion language influenced judgments for the spatial memory of an object beyond the known effects of implied motion present in the image itself. Experiment 2 replicated this finding. Our findings support a theory of perception as prediction.

  1. Limits on rare B decays B implies μ+μ-K± and B implies μ+μ- K*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anway-Wiese, C.

    1995-01-01

    We report on a search for flavor-changing neutral current decays of B mesons into γγK * and γγK± using data obtained in the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) 1992 endash 1993 data taking run. To reduce the amount of background in our data we use precise tracking information from the CDF silicon vertex detector to pinpoint the location of the decay vertex of the B candidate, and accept only events which have a large decay time.We compare this data to a B meson signal obtained in a similar fashion, but where the muon pairs originate from ψ decays, and calculate the relative branching ratios. In the absence of any indication of flavor-changing neutral current decays we set an upper limits of BR(B implies μμK ± ) much-gt 3.5x10 -5 , and BR(B implies μμK * )much-gt 5.1x10 -5 at 90% confidence level, which are consistent with Standard Model expectations but leave little room for non-standard physics. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. The apparent disappearance of Loligo forbesi from the south of its range in the 1990s: Trends in Loligo spp. abundance in the northeast Atlantic and possible environmental influences

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C; Pierce, G; Wang, J; Robin, J; Poulard, Jean-charles; Pereira, J; Zuur, A; Boyle, P; Bailey, N; Beare, D; Jereb, P; Ragonese, S; Mannini, A; Orsi-relini, L

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, Loligoforbesi has apparently disappeared from much of the southern part of its former range, with catches off the Iberian Peninsula, for example, declining dramatically during the 1990s. The present paper assembles data from fishery and research cruise databases to examine the evidence for a shift in distribution, examine the relationship between abundance of this species and that of the partially sympatric Loligo vulgaris, and identify possible environmental correlates...

  3. Stringent Mitigation Policy Implied By Temperature Impacts on Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F.; Turner, D.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change in order to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained GDP growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth-rates in the Dynamic Integrated Climate and Economy (DICE) model via two pathways, total factor productivity (TFP) growth and capital depreciation. Even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, this damage specification implies that optimal climate policy involves the elimination of emissions in the near future, the stabilization of global temperature change below 2°C, and a social cost of carbon (SCC) an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of growth effects, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages from warming and GDP are three critical uncertainties and an important focus for future research.

  4. A Dynamical Model of Pitch Memory Provides an Improved Basis for Implied Harmony Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Chul

    2017-01-01

    Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies. We model short-term pitch memory as a gradient frequency neural network, which is a biologically realistic model of auditory neural processing. The model is a dynamical system consisting of a network of tonotopically tuned nonlinear oscillators driven by audio signals. The oscillators interact with each other through nonlinear resonance and lateral inhibition, and the pattern of oscillatory traces emerging from the interactions is taken as a measure of pitch salience. We test the model with a collection of unaccompanied tonal melodies to evaluate it as a feature extractor for chord estimation. We show that chord tones are selectively enhanced in the response of the model, thereby increasing the accuracy of implied harmony estimation. We also find that, like other existing features for chord estimation, the performance of the model can be improved by using segmented input signals. We discuss possible ways to expand the present model into a full chord estimation system within the dynamical systems framework. PMID:28522983

  5. A Dynamical Model of Pitch Memory Provides an Improved Basis for Implied Harmony Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Chul

    2017-01-01

    Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies. We model short-term pitch memory as a gradient frequency neural network, which is a biologically realistic model of auditory neural processing. The model is a dynamical system consisting of a network of tonotopically tuned nonlinear oscillators driven by audio signals. The oscillators interact with each other through nonlinear resonance and lateral inhibition, and the pattern of oscillatory traces emerging from the interactions is taken as a measure of pitch salience. We test the model with a collection of unaccompanied tonal melodies to evaluate it as a feature extractor for chord estimation. We show that chord tones are selectively enhanced in the response of the model, thereby increasing the accuracy of implied harmony estimation. We also find that, like other existing features for chord estimation, the performance of the model can be improved by using segmented input signals. We discuss possible ways to expand the present model into a full chord estimation system within the dynamical systems framework.

  6. A Dynamical Model of Pitch Memory Provides an Improved Basis for Implied Harmony Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chul Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies. We model short-term pitch memory as a gradient frequency neural network, which is a biologically realistic model of auditory neural processing. The model is a dynamical system consisting of a network of tonotopically tuned nonlinear oscillators driven by audio signals. The oscillators interact with each other through nonlinear resonance and lateral inhibition, and the pattern of oscillatory traces emerging from the interactions is taken as a measure of pitch salience. We test the model with a collection of unaccompanied tonal melodies to evaluate it as a feature extractor for chord estimation. We show that chord tones are selectively enhanced in the response of the model, thereby increasing the accuracy of implied harmony estimation. We also find that, like other existing features for chord estimation, the performance of the model can be improved by using segmented input signals. We discuss possible ways to expand the present model into a full chord estimation system within the dynamical systems framework.

  7. Global compensation of long-range beam-beam effects with octupole magnets: dynamic aperture simulations for the HL-LHC case and possible usage in LHC and FCC.

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco Garcia, Javier; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has shown with various experimental verifications that one of the main limitations to the collider performance and to a possible upgrade can come from the long-range beam-beam effects which will define the operational parameters (intensities and emittances) and machine set-up (crossing angles and the minimum beta function at the interaction points). The High Luminosity project aims at very high intensities and will therefore need much larger separations to keep the long range effects weak. In the past several studies of possible active compensators have been carried out and experimental studies are planned to explore such schemes in the LHC. In this note we show the feasibility of using octupole magnets to compensate the effects of long range beam-beam interactions by use of dynamical aperture simulations. A prove of principle of such a compensation scheme is shown for the HL-LHC optics. Preliminary studies for the LHC optics ATS and standard are also presented pointing to the import...

  8. What implies the good work for registered nurses in municipal elderly care in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Karin; Aling, Jenny; Östin, Britt-Louise

    2011-08-01

    The aim was to describe registered nurses' perceptions of what the good work implies to them in municipal elderly care. A descriptive design and a structured questionnaire specifically designed for this study were used. Sixty housing units for older people and 213 nurses participated, with a response rate of 62%. The good work included the following aspects: intellectually stimulating without guilt feelings; freedom and independence with the possibility to influence; having appreciative and pleasant fellow workers and a fair and understanding manager; a good physical and risk-free environment; work security and a steady income with the possibility of improving salary through work effort; work effort should be beneficial to others; innovative thinking and initiative should be highly valued; and pride in work without compromising personal values. Employers must take this into consideration to retain those nurses already employed and recruit nurses to municipal elderly care.

  9. The Phenomena Implied by the New Economy from Statistics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani GRADINARU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidity of the informational society to transform into an information and knowledge society determines a perspective on the New Economy which would consider the Internet market and the effect of the Internet information on all economic agents, and the effect of knowledge as economic factor, which imposes the recognition of intangible goods, in general, in the making of economic value as well as the requirements for achieving a lasting society, which cannot be possible but inside the knowledge society, and which would impose in the society economy new technologies, and most important, changes in orientation according to the classic economic thinking.

  10. Do superheavy elements imply the existence of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringle, J.E.; Dearborn, D.S.P.; Fabian, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Some comments are offered on the question of where superheavy elements, such as elements 116, 124 and 126, are likely to have been formed. Most of these elements are thought to have been produced under conditions of explosive nucleosynthesis by what is known as the 'r-process', and particularly in conventional supernova explosions, but it is stated that the ability of the r-process to produce superheavy elements is very uncertain, and the conditions necessary for synthesis of these elements are difficult to realise in astrophysical situations. It is thought that superheavy elements exist in the outer layers of neutron stars, and ideal conditions for the production of superheavy nuclei, such as high neutron flux and rapid β decays, occur in the disruption of a neutron star. Such disruption is possible in two ways, both of which involve a black hole. It is likely that a neutron star is disrupted when it accretes sufficient material for its mass to exceed the maximum mass for stability, and it then has no alternative but to collapse to form a black hole and it seems possible that some of the outer layers are thrown off during the process. It is thus argued that the most likely site for the production of superheavy elements is in the surface layers of a neutron star, and the most plausible means by which these layers can be returned to the interstellar medium involves the intervention or formation of a black hole. (U.K.)

  11. Dark matter properties implied by gamma ray interstellar emission models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong, E-mail: csaba.balazs@monash.edu, E-mail: tong.li@monash.edu [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2017-02-01

    We infer dark matter properties from gamma ray residuals extracted using eight different interstellar emission scenarios proposed by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration to explain the Galactic Center gamma ray excess. Adopting the most plausible simplified ansatz, we assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion interacting with standard fermions via a scalar mediator. To trivially respect flavor constraints, we only couple the mediator to third generation fermions. Using this theoretical hypothesis, and the Fermi residuals, we calculate Bayesian evidences, including Fermi-LAT exclusion limits from 15 dwarf spheroidal galaxies as well. Our evidence ratios single out one of the Fermi scenarios as most compatible with the simplified dark matter model. In this scenario the dark matter (mediator) mass is in the 25-200 (1-1000) GeV range and its annihilation is dominated by bottom quark final state. Our conclusion is that the properties of dark matter extracted from gamma ray data are highly sensitive to the modeling of the interstellar emission.

  12. Scalar utility theory and proportional processing: What does it actually imply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenström, Tom; Wiesner, Karoline; Houston, Alasdair I

    2016-09-07

    Scalar Utility Theory (SUT) is a model used to predict animal and human choice behaviour in the context of reward amount, delay to reward, and variability in these quantities (risk preferences). This article reviews and extends SUT, deriving novel predictions. We show that, contrary to what has been implied in the literature, (1) SUT can predict both risk averse and risk prone behaviour for both reward amounts and delays to reward depending on experimental parameters, (2) SUT implies violations of several concepts of rational behaviour (e.g. it violates strong stochastic transitivity and its equivalents, and leads to probability matching) and (3) SUT can predict, but does not always predict, a linear relationship between risk sensitivity in choices and coefficient of variation in the decision-making experiment. SUT derives from Scalar Expectancy Theory which models uncertainty in behavioural timing using a normal distribution. We show that the above conclusions also hold for other distributions, such as the inverse Gaussian distribution derived from drift-diffusion models. A straightforward way to test the key assumptions of SUT is suggested and possible extensions, future prospects and mechanistic underpinnings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional vs. Structural Modularity: do they imply each other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroczkai, Zoltan

    2009-03-01

    While many deterministic and stochastic processes have been proposed to produce heterogeneous graphs mimicking real-world networks, only a handful of studies attempt to connect structure and dynamics with the function(s) performed by the network. In this talk I will present an approach built on the premise that structure, dynamics, and their observed heterogeneity, are implementations of various functions and their compositions. After a brief review of real-world networks where this connection can explicitly be made, I will focus on biological networks. Biological networks are known to possess functionally specialized modules, which perform tasks almost independently of each other. While proposals have been made for the evolutionary emergence of modularity, it is far from clear that adaptation on evolutionary timescales is the sole mechanism leading to functional specialization. We show that non-evolutionary learning can also lead to the formation of functionally specialized modules in a system exposed to multiple environmental constraints. A natural example suggesting that this is possible is the cerebral cortex, where there are clearly delineated functional areas in spite of the largely uniform anatomical construction of the cortical tissue. However, as numerous experiments show, when damaged, regions specialized for a certain function can be retrained to perform functions normally attributed to other regions. We use the paradigm of neural networks to represent a multitasking system, and use several non-evolutionary learning algorithms as mechanisms for phenotypic adaptation. We show that for a network learning to perform multiple tasks, the degree of independence between the tasks dictates the degree of functional specialization emerging in the network. To uncover the functional modules, we introduce a method of node knockouts that explicitly rates the contribution of each node to different tasks (differential robustness). Through a concrete example we also

  14. Transformations of visual memory induced by implied motions of pattern elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R A; Freyd, J J

    1985-10-01

    Four experiments measured distortions in short-term visual memory induced by displays depicting independent translations of the elements of a pattern. In each experiment, observers saw a sequence of 4 dot patterns and were instructed to remember the third pattern and to compare it with the fourth. The first three patterns depicted translations of the dots in consistent, but separate directions. Error rates and reaction times for rejecting the fourth pattern as different from the third were substantially higher when the dots in that pattern were displaced slightly forward, in the same directions as the implied motions, compared with when the dots were displaced in the opposite, backward directions. These effects showed little variation across interstimulus intervals ranging from 250 to 2,000 ms, and did not depend on whether the displays gave rise to visual apparent motion. However, they were eliminated when the dots in the fourth pattern were displaced by larger amounts in each direction, corresponding to the dot positions in the next and previous patterns in the same inducing sequence. These findings extend our initial report of the phenomenon of "representational momentum" (Freyd & Finke, 1984a), and help to rule out alternatives to the proposal that visual memories tend to undergo, at least to some extent, the transformations implied by a prior sequence of observed events.

  15. Is a monitoring of the remuneration of the grid utilization in the range of paragraph 315 BGB subsequent to the regulation possible?; Ist eine Ueberpruefung von Netznutzungsentgelten im Rahmen des paragraph 315 BGB nach der Regulierung noch moeglich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoleit, Andreas; Goetz, Katharina [Anwaltsbuero Andreas Grigoleit, Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Before the liberalisation of the power market in the year 1998, there were no possibility and necessity to examine the remuneration of grid utilization of the grid operators in an isolated manner for its equity. The aim of the liberalisation of the power market was to prevent the monopolistic position of the local current providers. The final break-through for the examination of the remuneration of grid utilization was obtained at 18th October, 2005. At this day, the Federal High Court (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) decided that the grid operator has to determine the payment according to cheaper discretion. The equity has to be a subject to a determination of a judicial verification. The principle of reasonability would concretize the criterion of cheap discretion in the range of application of the regulation paragraph 315 of the German Civil Code (BGB). The paragraph 23a of the Energy Economy Law (EnWG) now requires the permission of the Federal Network Agency or of the national regulation authorities for the definition of the remuneration of grid utilization. Doubts about are partly announced whether these regulated remunerations are a subject of verification after paragraph 315 BGB.

  16. Free-Flight Tests of 0.11-Scale North American F-100 Airplane Wings to Investigate the Possibility of Flutter in Transonic Speed Range at Varying Angles of Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Burke R.

    1954-01-01

    Free-flight tests in the transonic speed range utilizing rocketpropelled models have been made on three pairs of 0.11-scale North American F-100 airplane wings having an aspect ratio of 3.47, a taper ratio of 0.308, 45 degree sweepback at the quarter-chord line, and thickness ratios of 31 and 5 percent to investigate the possibility of flutte r. Data from tests of two other rocket-propelled models which accidentally fluttered during a drag investigation of the North American F-100 airplane are also presented. The first set of wings (5 percent thick) was tested on a model which was disturbed in pitch by a moving tail and reached a maximum Mach number of 0.85. The wings encountered mild oscillations near the first - bending frequency at high lift coefficients. The second set of wings 9 percent thick was tested up to a maximum Mach number of 0.95 at (2) angles of attack provided by small rocket motors installed in the nose of the model. No oscillations resembling flutter were encountered during the coasting flight between separation from the booster and sustainer firing (Mach numbers from 0.86 to 0.82) or during the sustainer firing at accelerations of about 8g up to the maximum Mach number of the test (0.95). The third set of wings was similar to the first set and was tested up to a maximum Mach number of 1.24. A mild flutter at frequencies near the first-bending frequency of the wings was encountered between a Mach number of 1.15 and a Mach number of 1.06 during both accelerating and coasting flight. The two drag models, which were 0.ll-scale models of the North American F-100 airplane configuration, reached a maximum Mach number of 1.77. The wings of these models had bending and torsional frequencies which were 40 and 89 percent, respectively, of the calculated scaled frequencies of the full-scale 7-percent-thick wing. Both models experienced flutter of the same type as that experienced-by the third set of wings.

  17. A video-rate range sensor based on depth from defocus

    OpenAIRE

    Ghita, Ovidiu; Whelan, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    Recovering the depth information derived from dynamic scenes implies real-time range estimation. This paper addresses the implementation of a bifocal range sensor which estimates the depth by measuring the relative blurring between two images captured with different focal settings. To recover the depth accurately even in cases when the scene is textureless, one possible solution is to project a structured light on the scene. As a consequence, in the scene's spectrum a spatial frequency derive...

  18. Implied and realized volatility in the cross-section of equity options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammann, Manuel; Skovmand, David; Verhofen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Using a complete sample of US equity options, we analyze patterns of implied volatility in the cross-section of equity options with respect to stock characteristics. We find that high-beta stocks, small stocks, stocks with a low-market-to-book ratio, and non-momentum stocks trade at higher implied...

  19. 76 FR 55904 - Michael J. Donahue; Notice of Termination of Exemption By Implied Surrender and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    .... Donahue; Notice of Termination of Exemption By Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and... Commission: a. Type of Proceeding: Termination of exemption by implied surrender. b. Project No.: 6649-008. c... Commission reserves the right to revoke an exemption if any term or condition of the exemption is violated...

  20. 76 FR 58264 - Michael J. Donahue; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    .... Donahue; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and... Commission: a. Type of Proceeding: Termination of exemption by implied surrender. b. Project No.: 6649-008. c... Commission reserves the right to revoke an exemption if any term or condition of the exemption is violated...

  1. 77 FR 2057 - Aquamac Corporation; Notice of Termination of License by Implied Surrender and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Corporation; Notice of Termination of License by Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments and Motions To.... Type of Proceeding: Termination of License by Implied Surrender. b. Project No.: 2927-006. c. Date... authorized, the licensee is in violation of the terms and conditions of the license. l. This notice is...

  2. 77 FR 73653 - Milburnie Hydro Inc.; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Inc.; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and... Commission: a. Type of Proceeding: Termination of exemption by implied surrender. b. Project No.: 7910-006. c... Commission reserves the right to revoke an exemption if any term or condition of the exemption is violated...

  3. 76 FR 55903 - Missisquoi River Technologies; Notice of Termination of Exemption By Implied Surrender and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Technologies; Notice of Termination of Exemption By Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and... Commission: a. Type of Proceeding: Termination of exemption by implied surrender. b. Project No.: 10172-038..., among other things, that the Commission reserves the right to revoke an exemption if any term or...

  4. 76 FR 7840 - American Hydro Power Company; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Power Company; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments, Protests... the Commission: a. Type of Proceeding: Termination of exemption by implied surrender. b. Project No... if any term or condition of the exemption is violated. The project has not operated since 2004, and...

  5. Advising Students or Practicing Law: The Formation of Implied Attorney-Client Relationships with Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    An attorney-client relationship is traditionally created when both parties formally enter into an express agreement regarding the terms of representation and the payment of fees. There are certain circumstances, however, where the attorney-client relationship can be implied from the parties' conduct. An implied attorney-client relationship may…

  6. Universal Property of Quantum Gravity implied by Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy and Boltzmann formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    We search for a universal property of quantum gravity. By u niversal , we mean the independence from any existing model of quantum gravity (such as the super string theory, loop quantum gravity, causal dynamical triangulation, and so on). To do so, we try to put the basis of our discussion on theories established by some experiments. Thus, we focus our attention on thermodynamical and statistical-mechanical basis of the black hole thermodynamics: Let us assume that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is given by the Boltzmann formula applied to the underlying theory of quantum gravity. Under this assumption, the conditions justifying Boltzmann formula together with uniqueness of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy imply a reasonable universal property of quantum gravity. The universal property indicates a repulsive gravity at Planck length scale, otherwise stationary black holes can not be regarded as thermal equilibrium states of gravity. Further, in semi-classical level, we discuss a possible correction of Einstein equation which generates repulsive gravity at Planck length scale.

  7. Fractional Black–Scholes option pricing, volatility calibration and implied Hurst exponents in South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emlyn Flint

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contingent claims on underlying assets are typically priced under a framework that assumes, inter alia, that the log returns of the underlying asset are normally distributed. However, many researchers have shown that this assumption is violated in practice. Such violations include the statistical properties of heavy tails, volatility clustering, leptokurtosis and long memory. This paper considers the pricing of contingent claims when the underlying is assumed to display long memory, an issue that has heretofore not received much attention. Aim: We address several theoretical and practical issues in option pricing and implied volatility calibration in a fractional Black–Scholes market. We introduce a novel eight-parameter fractional Black–Scholes-inspired (FBSI model for the implied volatility surface, and consider in depth the issue of calibration. One of the main benefits of such a model is that it allows one to decompose implied volatility into an independent long-memory component – captured by an implied Hurst exponent – and a conditional implied volatility component. Such a decomposition has useful applications in the areas of derivatives trading, risk management, delta hedging and dynamic asset allocation. Setting: The proposed FBSI volatility model is calibrated to South African equity index options data as well as South African Rand/American Dollar currency options data. However, given the focus on the theoretical development of the model, the results in this paper are applicable across all financial markets. Methods: The FBSI model essentially combines a deterministic function form of the 1-year implied volatility skew with a separate deterministic function for the implied Hurst exponent, thus allowing one to model both observed implied volatility surfaces as well as decompose them into independent volatility and long-memory components respectively. Calibration of the model makes use of a quasi-explicit weighted

  8. The implied volatility of U.S. interest rates: evidence from callable U. S. Treasuries

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Bliss; Ehud I. Ronn

    1995-01-01

    The prices for callable U.S. Treasury securities provide the sole source of evidence concerning the implied volatility of interest rates over the extended 1926-1994 period. This paper uses the prices of callable as well as non-callable Treasury instruments to estimate implied interest rate volatilities for the past sixty years, and, for the more recent 1989-1994 period, the cross-sectional term structures of implied interest rate volatility. We utilize these estimates to perform cross-section...

  9. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  10. Analysing Discursive Practices in Legal Research : How a Single Remark Implies a Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Different linguistic theories of meaning (semantic theories) imply different methods to discuss meaning. Discussing meaning is what legal practitioners frequently do to decide legal issues and, subsequently, legal scholars analyse in their studies these discursive practices of parties, judges and

  11. Market-implied risk-neutral probabilities, actual probabilities, credit risk and news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashidhar Murthy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the credit crisis, this paper investigates links between risk-neutral probabilities of default implied by markets (e.g. from yield spreads and their actual counterparts (e.g. from ratings. It discusses differences between the two and clarifies underlying economic intuition using simple representations of credit risk pricing. Observed large differences across bonds in the ratio of the two probabilities are shown to imply that apparently safer securities can be more sensitive to news.

  12. Can we replace CAPM and the Three-Factor model with Implied Cost of Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Löthman, Robert; Pettersson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Researchers criticize predominant expected return models for being imprecise and based on fundamentally flawed assumptions. This dissertation evaluates Implied Cost of Capital, CAPM and the Three-Factor model abilities to estimate returns. We study each models expected return association to realized return and test for abnormal returns. Our sample covers the period 2000 to 2012 and includes 2916 US firms. We find that Implied Cost of Capital has a stronger association with realized returns th...

  13. LEFT-WING ASYMPTOTICS OF THE IMPLIED VOLATILITY IN THE PRESENCE OF ATOMS

    OpenAIRE

    ARCHIL GULISASHVILI

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the asymptotic behavior of the implied volatility in stochastic asset price models with atoms. In such models, the asset price distribution has a singular component at zero. Examples of models with atoms include the constant elasticity of variance (CEV) model, jump-to-default models, and stochastic models described by processes stopped at the first hitting time of zero. For models with atoms, the behavior of the implied volatility at large strikes is similar to that in mod...

  14. Relationship of the change in implied volatility with the underlying equity index return in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thakolsri, Supachock; Sethapramote, Yuthana; Jiranyakul, Komain

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the relationship between the change in implied volatility index and the underlying stock index return in the Thai stock market. The data used are daily data during November 2010 to December 2013. The regression analysis is performed on stationary series. The empirical results reveal that there is evidence of a significantly negative and asymmetric relationship between the underlying stock index return and the change in implied volatility. The finding in this study gi...

  15. Modeling and Forecasting the Implied Volatility of the WIG20 Index

    OpenAIRE

    Buszkowska-Khemissi, Eliza; Płuciennik, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    The implied volatility is one of the most important notions in the financial market. It informs about the volatility forecasted by the participans of the market. In this paper we calculate the daily implied volatility from options on the WIG20 index. First we test the long memory property of the time series obtained in such a way, and then we model and forcast it as ARFIMA process

  16. Bayesian Forecasting of Options Prices: A Natural Framework for Pooling Historical and Implied Volatiltiy Information

    OpenAIRE

    Darsinos, T.; Satchell, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    Bayesian statistical methods are naturally oriented towards pooling in a rigorous way information from separate sources. It has been suggested that both historical and implied volatilities convey information about future volatility. However, typically in the literature implied and return volatility series are fed separately into models to provide rival forecasts of volatility or options prices. We develop a formal Bayesian framework where we can merge the backward looking information as r...

  17. Motor mapping of implied actions during perception of emotional body language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio

    2012-04-01

    Perceiving and understanding emotional cues is critical for survival. Using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) previous TMS studies have found that watching humans in emotional pictures increases motor excitability relative to seeing landscapes or household objects, suggesting that emotional cues may prime the body for action. Here we tested whether motor facilitation to emotional pictures may reflect the simulation of the human motor behavior implied in the pictures occurring independently of its emotional valence. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to single-pulse TMS of the left motor cortex were recorded from hand muscles during observation and categorization of emotional and neutral pictures. In experiment 1 participants watched neutral, positive and negative IAPS stimuli, while in experiment 2, they watched pictures depicting human emotional (joyful, fearful), neutral body movements and neutral static postures. Experiment 1 confirms the increase in excitability for emotional IAPS stimuli found in previous research and shows, however, that more implied motion is perceived in emotional relative to neutral scenes. Experiment 2 shows that motor excitability and implied motion scores for emotional and neutral body actions were comparable and greater than for static body postures. In keeping with embodied simulation theories, motor response to emotional pictures may reflect the simulation of the action implied in the emotional scenes. Action simulation may occur independently of whether the observed implied action carries emotional or neutral meanings. Our study suggests the need of controlling implied motion when exploring motor response to emotional pictures of humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low Seismic Attenuation in Southern New England Lithosphere Implies Little Heating by the Upwelling Asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, J. M.; Menke, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Northern Appalachian Anomaly (NAA) is a patch of the asthenosphere in southern New England that is unusually hot given its passive margin setting. Previous research has detected large seismic wave delays that imply a temperature of 770 deg C higher than the mantle below the adjacent craton at the same depth. A key outstanding issue is whether the NAA interacts with the lithosphere above it (e.g. by heating it up). We study this issue using Po and So waves from two magnitude >5.5 earthquakes near the Puerto Rico Trench. These waves, propagating in the cold oceanic lithosphere at near Moho speeds, deliver high frequency energy to the shallow continental lithosphere. We hypothesized that: (1) once within the continental lithosphere, Po and So experience attenuation with distance that can be quantified by a quality factor Q, and that (2) any heating of the lithosphere above the NAA would lead to a higher Q than in regions further north or south along the continental margin. Corresponding Po and So velocities would also be lower. The decay rates of Po and So are estimated using least-squares applied to RMS coda amplitudes measured from digital seismograms from stations in northeastern North America, corrected for instrument response. A roughly log-linear decrease in amplitude is observed, corresponding to P and S wave quality factors in the range of 394-1500 and 727-6847, respectively. Measurements are made for four margin-perpendicular geographical bands, with one band overlapping the NAA. We detect no effect on these amplitudes by the NAA; 95% confidence bounds overlap in every case; Furthermore, all quality factors are much higher than the 100 predicted by lab experiments for near-solidus mantle rocks. These results suggest that the NAA is not causing significant heating of the lithosphere above it. The shear velocities, however, are about 10% slower above the NAA - an effect that may be fossil, reflecting processes that occurred millions of years ago.

  19. Object Localization Does Not Imply Awareness of Object Category at the Break of Continuous Flash Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kobylka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In continuous flash suppression (CFS, a dynamic noise masker, presented to one eye, suppresses conscious perception of a test stimulus, presented to the other eye, until the suppressed stimulus comes to awareness after few seconds. But what do we see breaking the dominance of the masker in the transition period? We addressed this question with a dual-task in which observers indicated (i whether the test object was left or right of the fixation mark (localization and (ii whether it was a face or a house (categorization. As done recently Stein et al. (2011a, we used two experimental varieties to rule out confounds with decisional strategy. In the terminated mode, stimulus and masker were presented for distinct durations, and the observers were asked to give both judgments at the end of the trial. In the self-paced mode, presentation lasted until the observers responded. In the self-paced mode, b-CFS durations for object categorization were about half a second longer than for object localization. In the terminated mode, correct categorization rates were consistently lower than correct detection rates, measured at five duration intervals ranging up to 2 s. In both experiments we observed an upright face advantage compared to inverted faces and houses, as concurrently reported in b-CFS studies. Our findings reveal that more time is necessary to enable observers judging the nature of the object, compared to judging that there is “something other” than the noise which can be localized, but not recognized. This suggests gradual transitions in the first break of CFS. Further, the results imply that suppression is such that no cues to object identity are conveyed in potential “leaks” of CFS (Gelbard-Sagiv et al., 2016.

  20. Implied adjusted volatility functions: Empirical evidence from Australian index option market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Hanani Farhah; Hafizah, Mimi

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the implied adjusted volatility functions using the different Leland option pricing models and to assess whether the use of the specified implied adjusted volatility function can lead to an improvement in option valuation accuracy. The implied adjusted volatility is investigated in the context of Standard and Poor/Australian Stock Exchange (S&P/ASX) 200 index options over the course of 2001-2010, which covers the global financial crisis in the mid-2007 until the end of 2008. Both in- and out-of-sample resulted in approximately similar pricing error along the different Leland models. Results indicate that symmetric and asymmetric models of both moneyness ratio and logarithmic transformation of moneyness provide the overall best result in both during and post-crisis periods. We find that in the different period of interval (pre-, during and post-crisis) is subject to a different implied adjusted volatility function which best explains the index options. Hence, it is tremendously important to identify the intervals beforehand in investigating the implied adjusted volatility function.

  1. Analysing Discursive Practices in Legal Research: How a Single Remark Implies a Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van den Hoven

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Different linguistic theories of meaning (semantic theories imply different methods to discuss meaning. Discussing meaning is what legal practitioners frequently do to decide legal issues and, subsequently, legal scholars analyse in their studies these discursive practices of parties, judges and legal experts. Such scholarly analysis reveals a methodical choice on how to discuss meaning and therefore implies positioning oneself towards a semantic theory of meaning, whether the scholar is aware of this or not. Legal practitioners may not be bound to be consistent in their commitment to semantic theories, as their task is to decide legal issues. Legal scholars, however, should be consistent because commitment to a semantic theory implies a distinct position towards important legal theoretical doctrines. In this paper three examples are discussed that require an articulated position of the legal scholar because the discursive practices of legal practitioners show inconsistencies. For each of these examples it can be shown that a scholar’s methodic choice implies commitment to a specific semantic theory, and that adopting such a theory implies a distinct position towards the meaning of the Rule of Law, the separation of powers doctrine and the institutional position of the judge.

  2. Comparison of the Chemical Composition of Mineral Particles Collected in Dunhuang, China and those Collected in the Free Troposphere over Japan: Possible Chemical Modification during Long-Range Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trochkine, D.; Iwasaka, Y.; Matsuki, A.; Yamada, M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Zhang, D.; Shi, G.-Y.; Shen, Z.; Li, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Asian continent is recognized as one of the most important sources of mineral (or soil) particles. These particles have a large potential to effect global changes through the biogeochemical cycle of particulates and through radiative balance (IPCC Third Assessment Report, 2001). Therefore, comparison of particle compositions near the source region and those after long-range transport is important in understanding the long-range particle transport phenomenon. Individual aerosol particles were collected in Dunhuang (40 o 09'N; 94 o 41'E), China. Particles were collected at the campus of the Meteorological Bureau of Dunhuang City (17 August 2001) and near the Mogao Grots, located approximately 30 km from Dunhuang (18 August 2001, 18 October 2001 and 13 January 2002) using a two-stage low-volume impactor. The morphology of individual aerosol particles and their elemental compositions were examined via a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi, S-3000N) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer (Horiba, EMAX-500). The particles collected at these locations were comprised primarily of minerals, with the exception of sulphate particles in the submicron range that were contained in the sample collected on 18 October 2001 (likely, ammonium sulphate). The most abundant elements were found to be Si and Al. Approximately 46-77% of the collected particles were Si-rich particles (composed primarily of quartz and aluminosilicate),and 13-41% of the collected particles were Ca-rich particles,such as calcite (CaCO 3 ), dolomite (CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ),and gypsum (CaSO 4 c2H 2 O). The fractions of Fe-rich, Mg-rich, Ti-rich, K-rich, and Cl-rich were 3-10, 0-7, 0-3, 0-1, and 0-1%, respectively. Similar types of mineral particles were found in the free troposphere over Japan(Trochkine et al., 2002). A number of differences were found to exist between the particles collected in China and those collected in Japan, and these differences can be explained by chemical modification of

  3. Range of wavelengths possible to estimate phase velocities of surface waves in microtremors; Bido tansaho ni okeru suitei kanona bidochu no hyomenha iso sokudo no hacho han`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K; Okada, H; Ling, S [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    To specify the maximum wavelength of the phase velocities that can be estimated by the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method or F-K method in microtremor exploration, investigations were conducted using numerical simulation. In view of feasibility, an equilateral triangle array was employed, the maximum radius of the array having 7 observation points being 0.10km. The dispersion curve of the Rayleigh wave basic mode was calculated from an underground structure model. White noise was used as the incident wave, and, in case the waves came in from multiple directions, a different phase spectrum was assigned to each direction. In searching for the maximum wave length of phase velocities that could be estimated, a limit was imposed upon estimation, and it was prescribed that the wavelength be the limit if the difference between the theoretical value and estimated phase velocity was 5% or higher. As the result, it was found that it is possible to estimate the phase velocity when the wavelength is up to approximately 10 times longer than the array maximum radius in the SPAC method, and up to approximately 5 times longer in case of the F-K method. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The Impact of Jump Distributions on the Implied Volatility of Variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolato, Elisa; Pisani, Camilla; Pedersen, David Sloth

    2017-01-01

    We consider a tractable affine stochastic volatility model that generalizes the seminal Heston (1993) model by augmenting it with jumps in the instantaneous variance process. In this framework, we consider both realized variance options and VIX options, and we examine the impact of the distribution...... of jumps on the associated implied volatility smile. We provide sufficient conditions for the asymptotic behavior of the implied volatility of variance for small and large strikes. In particular, by selecting alternative jump distributions, we show that one can obtain fundamentally different shapes...

  5. Moment generating functions and Normalized implied volatilities: unification and extension via Fukasawa's pricing formula

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Martini, Claude

    2017-01-01

    We extend the model-free formula of [Fukasawa 2012] for $\\mathbb E[\\Psi(X_T)]$, where $X_T=\\log S_T/F$ is the log-price of an asset, to functions $\\Psi$ of exponential growth. The resulting integral representation is written in terms of normalized implied volatilities. Just as Fukasawa's work provides rigourous ground for Chriss and Morokoff's (1999) model-free formula for the log-contract (related to the Variance swap implied variance), we prove an expression for the moment generating functi...

  6. An Hilbert space approach for a class of arbitrage free implied volatilities models

    OpenAIRE

    Brace, A.; Fabbri, G.; Goldys, B.

    2007-01-01

    We present an Hilbert space formulation for a set of implied volatility models introduced in \\cite{BraceGoldys01} in which the authors studied conditions for a family of European call options, varying the maturing time and the strike price $T$ an $K$, to be arbitrage free. The arbitrage free conditions give a system of stochastic PDEs for the evolution of the implied volatility surface ${\\hat\\sigma}_t(T,K)$. We will focus on the family obtained fixing a strike $K$ and varying $T$. In order to...

  7. Evaluation of the GSO:Ce scintillator in the X-ray energy range from 40 to 140 kV for possible applications in medical X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Valais, I.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Linardatos, D.; Sianoudis, I.; Louizi, A.; Dimitropoulos, N.; Vattis, D.; Episkopakis, A.; Nomicos, C.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, under X-ray medical imaging conditions, the X-ray luminescence efficiency (XLE) and the optical quantum gain (OQG) of the Gd 2 SiO 5 :Ce scintillator in single crystal form, suitable for tomographic applications. Intrinsic physical properties and light emission characteristics of the Gd 2 SiO 5 :Ce scintillator, were also studied. Both experimental and Monte Carlo techniques were used. Various X-ray tube voltages (40-140 kV), currently employed in X-ray imaging applications, were used. XLE was found to vary slowly with X-ray tube voltage from (0.021±0.003) to (0.017±0.003). OQG varied from (317±18) to (466±23) light photons per incident X-ray. These values were adequately high for imaging applications using the particular energy range. Additionally, it was found by Monte Carlo simulations that for crystal thicknesses higher than 0.5 cm both XLE and OQG reached saturation levels, indicating that higher thickness crystals are of no practical use in X-ray medical imaging

  8. Killing Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  9. Propiedades insecticidas de la ceniza del complejo volcánico Puyehue-Cordón Caulle y su posible impacto ambiental: Insecticidal properties of ashes from the volcanic complex Puyehue-Caulle Range and their possible environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Buteler

    2011-12-01

    insecticidal effect of volcanic ash and its environmental impact, focusing on the ash accumulated as a result of the eruption of the volcanic complex Puyehue- Caulle Range currently affecting an area of over 7.5 million hectares in the Argentine Patagonia. The chemical composition of ashes from the Puyehue-Caulle Range was analyzed by EDS showing that its major components are O, Si, Al, Fe, Na and K. Laboratory bioassays using two species of insects as a biological model, found that the ashes thoroughly adhere to the insect body surface and are toxic to both species tested, when mixed into the substrate at low concentrations. Susceptibility to ashes differs between the two species when tested in a seven day continuous exposure bioassay [CL99(Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. = 10.25 mg.g-1; CL99((Tribolium castaneum (Herbst = 4.96 mg.g-1]. These results agree with those reported in the literature on effects of volcanic eruptions and suggest that the impact of the ashes from the Puyehue-Caulle Range volcanic complex on the insect community may be radical in the acute deposition phase, with substantial qualitative effects in the chronic phase of exposure. Also, the recovery of populations affected by ash in desert areas where dry ash persists will be slower, and this will have tangible and long-term consequences for insect host plants, pollination and on the development of populations of vertebrate insectivores. By contrast, the presence of ash in humid regions will impact the ecosystem by the addition of nutrients, which in combination with water retention by the ash will lead to a qualitative and quantitative recovery of the populations under favorable conditions.

  10. Size Does Matter: Implied Object Size is Mentally Simulated During Language Comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, Bjorn B.; Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; Bos, Lisanne T.; Van der Schoot, Menno

    2017-01-01

    Embodied theories of language comprehension propose that readers construct a mental simulation of described objects that contains perceptual characteristics of their real-world referents. The present study is the first to investigate directly whether implied object size is mentally simulated during

  11. The Effect of Implied Performer Age and Group Membership on Evaluations of Music Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Ann M.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of implied performer age and group membership on listeners' evaluations of music performances. Undergraduate music majors (n = 23), nonmusic majors (n = 17), and members of a New Horizons ensemble (n = 16) were presented with six 30-second excerpts of concert band performances. Excerpts were presented to all…

  12. Covariance of time-ordered products implies local commutativity of fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate Lorentz covariance of a quantum field theory in terms of covariance of time-ordered products (or other Green's functions). This formulation of Lorentz covariance implies spacelike local commutativity or anticommutativity of fields, sometimes called microscopic causality or microcausality. With this formulation microcausality does not have to be taken as a separate assumption

  13. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  14. No, Virginia, It's Not True What They Say About Publicity's "Implied Third-Party Endorsement" Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Kirk

    1999-01-01

    Re-examines "implied third-party endorsement" as an explanation of publicity's effectiveness. Argues that any effect involves inferences by audience members who use biased processing that favors news and disfavors advertising. Suggests that the presentation of information as news is not necessarily perceived by audiences as an…

  15. Implied Volatility of Interest Rate Options: An Empirical Investigation of the Market Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Hansen, Charlotte Strunk

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the empirical properties of the volatility implied in options on the 13-week US Treasury bill rate. These options have not been studied previously. It is shown that a European style put option on the interest rate is equivalent to a call option on a zero-coupon bond. We apply the LIBOR...

  16. Level Shifts in Volatility and the Implied-Realized Volatility Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; de Magistris, Paolo Santucci

    We propose a simple model in which realized stock market return volatility and implied volatility backed out of option prices are subject to common level shifts corresponding to movements between bull and bear markets. The model is estimated using the Kalman filter in a generalization to the mult......We propose a simple model in which realized stock market return volatility and implied volatility backed out of option prices are subject to common level shifts corresponding to movements between bull and bear markets. The model is estimated using the Kalman filter in a generalization...... to the multivariate case of the univariate level shift technique by Lu and Perron (2008). An application to the S&P500 index and a simulation experiment show that the recently documented empirical properties of strong persistence in volatility and forecastability of future realized volatility from current implied...... volatility, which have been interpreted as long memory (or fractional integration) in volatility and fractional cointegration between implied and realized volatility, are accounted for by occasional common level shifts....

  17. Asymptotic Expansions of the Lognormal Implied Volatility : A Model Free Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cyril Grunspan

    2011-01-01

    We invert the Black-Scholes formula. We consider the cases low strike, large strike, short maturity and large maturity. We give explicitly the first 5 terms of the expansions. A method to compute all the terms by induction is also given. At the money, we have a closed form formula for implied lognormal volatility in terms of a power series in call price.

  18. Aplikasi Algoritma Biseksi dan Newton-Raphson dalam Menaksir Nilai Volatilitas Implied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Dharmawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatilitas adalah suatu besaran yang mengukuran seberapa jauh suatu harga sahambergerak dalam suatu periode tertentu dapat juga diartikan sebagai persentase simpanganbaku dari perubahan harga harian suatu saham. Menurut teori yang dikembangkan oleh Black-Scholes in 1973, semua harga opsi dengan ’underlying asset’ dan waktu jatuh tempo yang samatetapi memiliki nilai exercise yang berbeda akan memiliki nilai volatilitas implied yang sama.Model Black-Scholes dapat dipakai mengestimasi nilai volatilitas implied dari suatu sahamdengan mencari sulusi numerik dari persamaan invers dari model Black-Scholes. Makalah inimendemonstrasikan bagaimana menghitung nilai volatilitas implied suatu saham dengan mengasumsikanbahwa model Black-schole adalah benar dan suatu kontrak opsi dengan denganumur kontrak yang sama akan memiliki harga yang sama. Menggunakan data harga opsi SonyCorporation (SNE, Cisco Systems, Inc (CSCO, dan Canon, Inc (CNJ diperoleh bahwa, ImpliedVolatility memberikan harga yang lebih murah dibandingkan dengan harga opsi darivolatilitas yang dihitung dari data historis. Selain itu, dari hasil iterasi yang diperoleh, metodeNewton-Raphson lebih cepat konvergen dibandingkan dengan metode Bisection.

  19. A Note on the Equivalence between the Normal and the Lognormal Implied Volatility : A Model Free Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grunspan, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    First, we show that implied normal volatility is intimately linked with the incomplete Gamma function. Then, we deduce an expansion on implied normal volatility in terms of the time-value of a European call option. Then, we formulate an equivalence between the implied normal volatility and the lognormal implied volatility with any strike and any model. This generalizes a known result for the SABR model. Finally, we adress the issue of the "breakeven move" of a delta-hedged portfolio.

  20. Revisiting the long memory dynamics of implied-realized volatility relation: A new evidence from wavelet band spectrum regression

    OpenAIRE

    Barunik, Jozef; Barunikova, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the fractional co-integrating relationship between ex-ante implied volatility and ex-post realized volatility. Previous studies on stock index options have found biases and inefficiencies in implied volatility as a forecast of future volatility. It is argued that the concept of corridor implied volatility (CIV) should be used instead of the popular model-free option-implied volatility (MFIV) when assessing the relation as the latter may introduce bias to the estimation. In...

  1. Does “quorum sensing” imply a new type of biological information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2002-01-01

    When dealing with biological communication and information, unifying concepts are necessary in order to couple the different “codes” that are being inductively “cracked” and defined at different emergent and “de-emergent” levels of the biological hierarchy. In this paper I compare the type...... of biological information implied by genetic information with that implied in the concept of “quorum sensing” (which refers to a prokaryotic cell-to-cell communication system) in order to explore if such integration is being achieved. I use the Lux operon paradigm and the Vibrio fischeri – Euprymna scolopes...... symbiotic partnership to exemplify the emergence of informational contexts along the biological hierarchy (from molecules to ecologies). I suggest that the biosemiotic epistemological framework can play an integra¬tive role to overcome the limits of dyadic mechanistic descriptions when relating...

  2. Individual chaos implies collective chaos for weakly mixing discrete dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Gongfu; Ma Xianfeng; Wang Lidong

    2007-01-01

    Let X be a metric space (X,f) a discrete dynamical system, where f:X->X is a continuous function. Let f-bar denote the natural extension of f to the space of all non-empty compact subsets of X endowed with Hausdorff metric induced by d. In this paper we investigate some dynamical properties of f and f-bar . It is proved that f is weakly mixing (mixing) if and only if f-bar is weakly mixing (mixing, respectively). From this, we deduce that weak-mixing of f implies transitivity of f-bar , further, if f is mixing or weakly mixing, then chaoticity of f (individual chaos) implies chaoticity of f-bar (collective chaos) and if X is a closed interval then f-bar is chaotic (in the sense of Devaney) if and only if f is weakly mixing

  3. PERBANDINGAN KEEFISIENAN METODE NEWTON-RAPHSON, METODE SECANT, DAN METODE BISECTION DALAM MENGESTIMASI IMPLIED VOLATILITIES SAHAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA AYU EGA RAHAYUNI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Black-Scholes model suggests that volatility is constant or fixed during the life time of the option certainly known. However, this does not fit with what happen in the real market. Therefore, the volatility has to be estimated. Implied Volatility is the etimated volatility from a market mechanism that is considered as a reasonable way to assess the volatility's value. This study was aimed to compare the Newton-Raphson, Secant, and Bisection method, in estimating the stock volatility value of PT Telkom Indonesia Tbk (TLK. It found that the three methods have the same Implied Volatilities, where Newton-Raphson method gained roots more rapidly than the two others, and it has the smallest relative error greater than Secant and Bisection methods.

  4. Selecting the Best Forecasting-Implied Volatility Model Using Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Abdelmalek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatility is a crucial variable in option pricing and hedging strategies. The aim of this paper is to provide some initial evidence of the empirical relevance of genetic programming to volatility's forecasting. By using real data from S&P500 index options, the genetic programming's ability to forecast Black and Scholes-implied volatility is compared between time series samples and moneyness-time to maturity classes. Total and out-of-sample mean squared errors are used as forecasting's performance measures. Comparisons reveal that the time series model seems to be more accurate in forecasting-implied volatility than moneyness time to maturity models. Overall, results are strongly encouraging and suggest that the genetic programming approach works well in solving financial problems.

  5. The Short-Time Behaviour of VIX Implied Volatilities in a Multifactor Stochastic Volatility Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Andrea; Nicolato, Elisa; Pagliarani, Stefano

    error bounds for VIX futures, options and implied volatilities. In particular, we derive exact asymptotic results for VIX implied volatilities, and their sensitivities, in the joint limit of short time-to-maturity and small log-moneyness. The obtained expansions are explicit, based on elementary...... approximations of equity (SPX) options. However, the generalizations needed to cover the case of VIX options are by no means straightforward as the dynamics of the underlying VIX futures are not explicitly known. To illustrate the accuracy of our technique, we provide numerical implementations for a selection...... functions and they neatly uncover how the VIX skew depends on the specific choice of the volatility and the vol-of-vol processes. Our results are based on perturbation techniques applied to the infinitesimal generator of the underlying process. This methodology has been previously adopted to derive...

  6. Women’s stories implying aspects of anti-Judaism with Christological depiction in Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Shin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the women’s stories that imply aspects of anti-Judaism within Matthew’s depiction of Christology, which is called Matthew’s theology. In fact, Matthew’s community opposed the Jewish system and Jewish leaders and parted from its parent body. Even though Matthew’s community was still similar to the Jewish system, it had significant differences as well. The study discusses these aspects of anti-Judaism that appear in the woman’s stories that include the genealogy of Jesus, the haemorrhaging woman, the Canaanite woman, and the women at the cross and Jesus’ tomb. This study shows proof and examples of anti-Judaism within the stories and thoroughly analyses them. Therefore, it can be confirmed that the women’s stories imply aspects of anti-Judaism with Christological depictions by Matthew’s theological tendency.

  7. No-Arbitrage Condition of Option Implied Volatility and Bandwidth Selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopa, Miloš; Tichý, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2014), s. 751-755 ISSN 0972-0073 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-25911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Option Pricing * Implied Volatility * DAX Index * Local polynomial smoothing Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.222, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kopa-0429805.pdf

  8. HISTORICAL AND IMPLIED VOLATILITY: AN INVESTIGATION INTO NSE NIFTY FUTURES AND OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    N R Parasuraman; P.Janaki Ramudu

    2011-01-01

    The broad objective of the paper is to have an understanding of the movement of volatility over a fair period in respect of the market portfolio. Also, it enables an understanding on how divergent the implied volatility has been from this estimate. It uses Volatility Cone, Volatility Smile and Volatility Surface as the parameters. The study takes different rolling periods percentiles of volatility. Hoadley Options Calculator is used for calculation and analysis purpose. The study empirically...

  9. Portfolio Optimization under Local-Stochastic Volatility: Coefficient Taylor Series Approximations & Implied Sharpe Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Lorig, Matthew; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    We study the finite horizon Merton portfolio optimization problem in a general local-stochastic volatility setting. Using model coefficient expansion techniques, we derive approximations for the both the value function and the optimal investment strategy. We also analyze the `implied Sharpe ratio' and derive a series approximation for this quantity. The zeroth-order approximation of the value function and optimal investment strategy correspond to those obtained by Merton (1969) when the risky...

  10. Predictable dynamics in implied volatility smirk slope : evidence from the S&P 500 options

    OpenAIRE

    Onan, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Management, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references. This study aims to investigate whether there are predictable patterns in the dynamics of implied volatility smirk slopes extracted from the intraday market prices of S&P 500 index options. I compare forecasts obtained from a short memory ARMA model and a long memory ARFIMA model within an out-of-sample context ov...

  11. Range of Possible Beam Current in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, J-B; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Linac4 is a new accelerator under construction at CERN. It is designed to accelerate H- ions to 160MeV, for injection into the existing Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). It is also the front-end of the SPL Linac, a high energy proton driver that will reach the energy of 5GeV. The Linac baseline design has been done for a nominal beam peak current of 70mA but it will certainly have to deal with different currents. 132 out of 155 quadrupoles in the Linac are permanent magnets, this choice of using PMQ having fixed gradient, mainly in the DTL and in the CCDTL may then entail issues concerning the beam transverse matching and quality from current different from the nominal one. In this paper, we present the beam dynamics performances in Linac4 obtained for different currents.

  12. On the (possible range of the category house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study whose aim was to determine whether / confirm that the category house also includes those buildings divided into (many separate dwelling units and consisted of a (very large number of storeys and whether / that they can also serve as a whole decomposed in the research on the house meronomy. The study was based on general dictionaries of the English language, picture dictionaries, dictionaries of architecture and building construction, as well as various non-dictionary sources dealing with houses, buildings, structures and/or offering examples of use of the lexeme house in its basic sense. The results of the study show that 'house' is indifferent to the observed physical features of the structures made for human habitation.

  13. How "ought" exceeds but implies "can": Description and encouragement in moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, John

    2017-11-01

    This paper tests a theory about the relationship between two important topics in moral philosophy and psychology. One topic is the function of normative language, specifically claims that one "ought" to do something. Do these claims function to describe moral responsibilities, encourage specific behavior, or both? The other topic is the relationship between saying that one "ought" to do something and one's ability to do it. In what respect, if any, does what one "ought" to do exceed what one "can" do? The theory tested here has two parts: (1) "ought" claims function to both describe responsibilities and encourage people to fulfill them (the dual-function hypothesis); (2) the two functions relate differently to ability, because the encouragement function is limited by the person's ability, but the descriptive function is not (the interaction hypothesis). If this theory is correct, then in one respect "ought implies can" is false because people have responsibilities that exceed their abilities. But in another respect "ought implies can" is legitimate because it is not worthwhile to encourage people to do things that exceed their ability. Results from two behavioral experiments support the theory that "ought" exceeds but implies "can." Results from a third experiment provide further evidence regarding an "ought" claim's primary function and how contextual features can affect the interpretation of its functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Implied and Local Volatility Surfaces for South African Index and Foreign Exchange Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonie Kotzé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain exotic options cannot be valued using closed-form solutions or even by numerical methods assuming constant volatility. Many exotics are priced in a local volatility framework. Pricing under local volatility has become a field of extensive research in finance, and various models are proposed in order to overcome the shortcomings of the Black-Scholes model that assumes a constant volatility. The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE lists exotic options on its Can-Do platform. Most exotic options listed on the JSE’s derivative exchanges are valued by local volatility models. These models needs a local volatility surface. Dupire derived a mapping from implied volatilities to local volatilities. The JSE uses this mapping in generating the relevant local volatility surfaces and further uses Monte Carlo and Finite Difference methods when pricing exotic options. In this document we discuss various practical issues that influence the successful construction of implied and local volatility surfaces such that pricing engines can be implemented successfully. We focus on arbitrage-free conditions and the choice of calibrating functionals. We illustrate our methodologies by studying the implied and local volatility surfaces of South African equity index and foreign exchange options.

  15. Allocentrically implied target locations are updated in an eye-centred reference frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aidan A; Glover, Christopher V; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2012-04-18

    When reaching to remembered target locations following an intervening eye movement a systematic pattern of error is found indicating eye-centred updating of visuospatial memory. Here we investigated if implicit targets, defined only by allocentric visual cues, are also updated in an eye-centred reference frame as explicit targets are. Participants viewed vertical bars separated by varying distances, and horizontal lines of equivalently varying lengths, implying a "target" location at the midpoint of the stimulus. After determining the implied "target" location from only the allocentric stimuli provided, participants saccaded to an eccentric location, and reached to the remembered "target" location. Irrespective of the type of stimulus reaching errors to these implicit targets are gaze-dependent, and do not differ from those found when reaching to remembered explicit targets. Implicit target locations are coded and updated as a function of relative gaze direction with respect to those implied locations just as explicit targets are, even though no target is specifically represented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The accretion of solar material onto white dwarfs: No mixing with core material implies that the mass of the white dwarf is increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumner Starrfield

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cataclysmic Variables (CVs are close binary star systems with one component a white dwarf (WD and the other a larger cooler star that fills its Roche Lobe. The cooler star is losing mass through the inner Lagrangian point of the binary and some unknown fraction of this material is accreted by the WD. One consequence of the WDs accreting material, is the possibility that they are growing in mass and will eventually reach the Chandrasekhar Limit. This evolution could result in a Supernova Ia (SN Ia explosion and is designated the Single Degenerate Progenitor (SD scenario. This paper is concerned with the SD scenario for SN Ia progenitors. One problem with the single degenerate scenario is that it is generally assumed that the accreting material mixes with WD core material at some time during the accretion phase of evolution and, since the typical WD has a carbon-oxygen CO core, the mixing results in large amounts of carbon and oxygen being brought up into the accreted layers. The presence of enriched carbon causes enhanced nuclear fusion and a Classical Nova explosion. Both observations and theoretical studies of these explosions imply that more mass is ejected than is accreted. Thus, the WD in a Classical Nova system is losing mass and cannot be a SN Ia progenitor. However, the composition in the nuclear burning region is important and, in new calculations reported here, the consequences to the WD of no mixing of accreted material with core material have been investigated so that the material involved in the explosion has only a Solar composition. WDs with a large range in initial masses and mass accretion rates have been evolved. I find that once sufficient material has been accreted, nuclear burning occurs in all evolutionary sequences and continues until a thermonuclear runaway (TNR occurs and the WD either ejects a small amount of material or its radius grows to about 1012 cm and the evolution is ended. In all cases where mass ejection occurs

  17. A reporting system for endometrial cytology: Cytomorphologic criteria-Implied risk of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Niki; Pouliakis, Abraham; Anoinos, Dionysios; Terzakis, Emmanouil; Koureas, Nikolaos; Chrelias, Charalampos; Marios Makris, George; Pappas, Assimakis; Bilirakis, Evripidis; Goudeli, Christina; Damaskou, Vasileia; Papantoniou, Nicolaos; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Karakitsos, Petros

    2016-11-01

    There have been various attempts to assess endometrial lesions on cytological material obtained via direct endometrial sampling. The majority of efforts focus on the description of cytological criteria that lead to classification systems resembling histological reporting formats. These systems have low reproducibility, especially in cases of atypical hyperplasia and well differentiated carcinomas. Moreover, they are not linked to the implied risk of malignancy. The material was collected from women examined at the outpatient department of four participating hospitals. We analyzed 866 consecutive, histologically confirmed cases. The sample collection was performed using the EndoGyn device, and processed via Liquid Based Cytology, namely ThinPrep technique. The diagnostic categories and criteria were established by two cytopathologists experienced in endometrial cytology; performance of the proposed reporting format was assessed on the basis of histological outcome; moreover, the implied risk of malignancy was calculated. The proposed six diagnostic categories are as follows: (i) nondiagnostic or unsatisfactory; (ii) without evidence of hyperplasia or malignancy; (iii) atypical cells of endometrium of undetermined significance; (iv) atypical cells of endometrium of low probability for malignancy; (v) atypical cells of endometrium of high probability for malignancy; and (vi) malignant. The risk of malignancy was 1.42% ± 0.98%, 44.44% ± 32.46% (nine cases), 4.30% ± 4.12%, 89.80% ± 8.47%, and 97.81% ± 2.45%, respectively. We propose a clinically oriented classification scheme consisting of diagnostic categories with well determined criteria. Each diagnostic category is linked with an implied risk of malignancy; thus, clinicians may decide on patient management and eventually reduce unnecessary interventional diagnostic procedures. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:888-901. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Negative masses, even if isolated, imply self-acceleration, hence a catastrophic world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalleri, G.; Tonni, E.

    1997-01-01

    The conjecture of the existence of negative masses together with ordinary positive masses leads to runaway motions even if no self-reaction is considered. Pollard and Dunning-Davies have shown other constraints as a modification of the principle of least action and that negative masses can only exist at negative temperature, and must be adiabatically separate from positive masses. They show here that the self-reaction on a single isolated negative mass implies a runaway motion. Consequently, the consideration of self-fields and relevant self-reaction excludes negative masses even if isolated

  19. Large deviations and stochastic volatility with jumps: asymptotic implied volatility for affine models

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine Jacquier; Martin Keller-Ressel; Aleksandar Mijatovic

    2011-01-01

    Let $\\sigma_t(x)$ denote the implied volatility at maturity $t$ for a strike $K=S_0 e^{xt}$, where $x\\in\\bbR$ and $S_0$ is the current value of the underlying. We show that $\\sigma_t(x)$ has a uniform (in $x$) limit as maturity $t$ tends to infinity, given by the formula $\\sigma_\\infty(x)=\\sqrt{2}(h^*(x)^{1/2}+(h^*(x)-x)^{1/2})$, for $x$ in some compact neighbourhood of zero in the class of affine stochastic volatility models. The function $h^*$ is the convex dual of the limiting cumulant gen...

  20. VaR and CVaR Implied in Option Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Barone Adesi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR (Value at Risk and CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk are implied by option prices. Their relationships to option prices are derived initially under the pricing measure. It does not require assumptions about the distribution of portfolio returns. The effects of changes of measure are modest at the short horizons typically used in applications. The computation of CVaR from option price is very convenient, because this measure is not elicitable, making direct comparisons of statistical inferences from market data problematic.

  1. Large fault fabric of the Ninetyeast Ridge implies near-spreading ridge formation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sager, W.W.; Paul, C.F.; Krishna, K.S.; Pringle, M.S.; Eisin, A.E.; Frey, F.A.; Rao, D.G.; Levchenko, O.V.

    of the high ridge. At 26°S, prominent NE-SW 97 oriented lineations extend southwest from the ridge. Some appear to connect with N-S fracture 98 zone troughs east of NER, implying that the NE-SW features are fracture zone scars formed after 99 the change... to the 105 ridge (Fig. 3). This is especially true for NER south of ~4°S. Where KNOX06RR crossed a 106 gravity lineation, negative gradient features correspond to troughs whereas positive gradient 107 features result from igneous basement highs (Fig. 3...

  2. Asymptotic Behavior of the Stock Price Distribution Density and Implied Volatility in Stochastic Volatility Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulisashvili, Archil; Stein, Elias M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior of distribution densities arising in stock price models with stochastic volatility. The main objects of our interest in the present paper are the density of time averages of the squared volatility process and the density of the stock price process in the Stein-Stein and the Heston model. We find explicit formulas for leading terms in asymptotic expansions of these densities and give error estimates. As an application of our results, sharp asymptotic formulas for the implied volatility in the Stein-Stein and the Heston model are obtained.

  3. Possibility for lepton and quark structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins Simoes, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A model is discussed which describe a composite structure of leptons which implies new lepton interactions. As a result of this model the phenomenology of possible spin 3/2 quarks and leptons is examined. Calculations are presented on new quarks [fr

  4. Effects of Implied Motion and Facing Direction on Positional Preferences in Single-Object Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Langlois, Thomas A

    2017-07-01

    Palmer, Gardner, and Wickens studied aesthetic preferences for pictures of single objects and found a strong inward bias: Right-facing objects were preferred left-of-center and left-facing objects right-of-center. They found no effect of object motion (people and cars showed the same inward bias as chairs and teapots), but the objects were not depicted as moving. Here we measured analogous inward biases with objects depicted as moving with an implied direction and speed by having participants drag-and-drop target objects into the most aesthetically pleasing position. In Experiment 1, human figures were shown diving or falling while moving forward or backward. Aesthetic biases were evident for both inward-facing and inward-moving figures, but the motion-based bias dominated so strongly that backward divers or fallers were preferred moving inward but facing outward. Experiment 2 investigated implied speed effects using images of humans, horses, and cars moving at different speeds (e.g., standing, walking, trotting, and galloping horses). Inward motion or facing biases were again present, and differences in their magnitude due to speed were evident. Unexpectedly, faster moving objects were generally preferred closer to frame center than slower moving objects. These results are discussed in terms of the combined effects of prospective, future-oriented biases, and retrospective, past-oriented biases.

  5. Why is this energy range so interesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.

    1984-01-01

    I briefly review the theoretical limits on the relevant physical scales in the various cases. I then make some remarks on possible high precision measurements. Finally I discuss the light fragments of the new particle spectra implied by the various theoretical options, as well as some suggestions to detect them. (orig./HSI)

  6. Potential physiological effects of pharmaceutical compounds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) implied by transcriptomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Miriam; Alonso, Esteban; Aparicio, Irene; Bron, James E; Santos, Juan Luis; Taggart, John B; Leaver, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    environmentally relevant concentrations of the selected pharmaceutical compounds acetaminophen, carbamazepine, and atenolol produced differences in the expression of 659, 700, and 480 candidate genes, respectively. KEGG annotation numbers (KO annotations) were obtained for between 26.57% and 33.33% of these differently expressed genes per treatment in comparison to non-exposure conditions. Pathways that showed to be induced did not always follow previously reported targets or metabolic routes for the employed treatments; however, several other pathways have been found (four or more features) to be significantly induced. Energy-related pathways have been altered under exposure in all the selected treatments, indicating a possible energy budget leakage due to additional processes resulting from the exposure to environmental contaminants. Observed induction of pathways may indicate additional processes involved in the mode of action of the selected pharmaceuticals which may not have been detected with conventional methods like quantitative PCR in which only suspected features are analyzed punctually for effects. The employment of novel high-throughput screening techniques in combination with global pathway analysis methods, even if the organism is not completely annotated, allows the examination of a much broader range of candidates for potential effects of exposure at the gene level. The continuously growing number of annotations of representative species relevant for environmental quality testing is facilitating pathway analysis processes for not completely annotated organisms. KEGG has shown to be a useful tool for the analysis of induced pathways from data generated by microarray techniques with the selected pharmaceutical contaminants acetaminophen, carbamazepine, and atenolol, but further studies have to be carried out in order to determine if a similar expression pattern in terms of fold change quantity and pathways is observed after long-term exposure. Together with the

  7. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    . Peromyscus generally used and maintained several or many different home sites and refuges in various parts of their home ranges, and frequently shifted about so that their principal activities centered on different sets of holes at different times. Once established, many Peromyscus remained in the same general area for a long time, perhaps for the duration of their lives. Extent of their travels in different directions and intensity of use of different portions of their home ranges varied within a general area in response to habitat changes, loss of neighbors, or other factors. Various authors have obtained both direct and indirect evidence of territoriality, in some degree, among certain species of Peromyscus. Young mice dispersed from their birth sites to establish home ranges of their own. Adults also sometimes left their home areas; some re-established elsewhere; others returned after exploratory travels. Most populations contained a certain proportion of transients; these may have been wanderers or individuals exploring out from established home ranges or seeking new ones. When areas were depopulated by removal trapping, other Peromyscus invaded. Invasion rates generally followed seasonal trends of reproduction and population density. Peromyscus removed from their home areas and released elsewhere returned home from various distances, but fewer returned from greater distances than from nearby; speed of return increased with successive trials. The consensus from present evidence is that ho-ming is made possible by a combination of random wandering and familiarity with a larger area than the day-to-day range. Records of juvenile wanderings during the dispersal phase and of adult explorations very nearly encompassed the distances over which any substantial amount of successful homing occurred. Methods of measuring sizes of home ranges and the limitations of these measurements were discussed in brief synopsis. It was co

  8. Relative sensory sparing in the diabetic foot implied through vibration testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd O'Brien

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dorsal aspect of the hallux is often cited as the anatomic location of choice for vibration testing in the feet of diabetic patients. To validate this preference, vibration tests were performed and compared at the hallux and 5th metatarsal head in diabetic patients with established neuropathy. Methods: Twenty-eight neuropathic, diabetic patients and 17 non-neuropathic, non-diabetic patients underwent timed vibration testing (TVT with a novel 128 Hz electronic tuning fork (ETF at the hallux and 5th metatarsal head. Results: TVT values in the feet of diabetic patients were found to be reduced at both locations compared to controls. Unexpectedly, these values were significantly lower at the hallux (P < 0.001 compared to the 5th metatarsal head. Conclusion: This study confirms the hallux as the most appropriate location for vibration testing and implies relative sensory sparing at the 5th metatarsal head, a finding not previously reported in diabetic patients.

  9. [Discussion on ideological concept implied in traditional reinforcing and reducing method of acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyun; Zhao, Jingsheng

    2017-11-12

    The forming and development of traditional reinforcing and reducing method of acupuncture was rooted in traditional culture of China, and was based on the ancients' special understanding of nature, life and diseases, therefore its principle and methods were inevitably influenced by philosophy culture and medicine concept at that time. With deep study on Inner Canon of Huangdi and representative reinforcing and reducing method of acupuncture, the implied ideological concept, including contradiction view and profit-loss view in ancient dialectic, yin-yang balance theory, concept of life flow, monophyletic theory of qi , theory of existence of disease-evil, yin - yang astrology theory, theory of inter-promotion of five elements, were summarized and analyzed. The clarified and systematic understanding on guiding ideology of reinforcing and reducing method of acupuncture could significantly promote the understanding on principle, method, content and manipulation.

  10. The chain rule implies Tsirelson's bound: an approach from generalized mutual information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri; Murao, Mio

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze an information theoretical derivation of Tsirelson's bound based on information causality, we introduce a generalized mutual information (GMI), defined as the optimal coding rate of a channel with classical inputs and general probabilistic outputs. In the case where the outputs are quantum, the GMI coincides with the quantum mutual information. In general, the GMI does not necessarily satisfy the chain rule. We prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived by imposing the chain rule on the GMI. We formulate a principle, which we call the no-supersignaling condition, which states that the assistance of nonlocal correlations does not increase the capability of classical communication. We prove that this condition is equivalent to the no-signaling condition. As a result, we show that Tsirelson's bound is implied by the nonpositivity of the quantitative difference between information causality and no-supersignaling. (paper)

  11. What the success of brain imaging implies about the neural code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Olivia; Love, Bradley C

    2017-01-19

    The success of fMRI places constraints on the nature of the neural code. The fact that researchers can infer similarities between neural representations, despite fMRI's limitations, implies that certain neural coding schemes are more likely than others. For fMRI to succeed given its low temporal and spatial resolution, the neural code must be smooth at the voxel and functional level such that similar stimuli engender similar internal representations. Through proof and simulation, we determine which coding schemes are plausible given both fMRI's successes and its limitations in measuring neural activity. Deep neural network approaches, which have been forwarded as computational accounts of the ventral stream, are consistent with the success of fMRI, though functional smoothness breaks down in the later network layers. These results have implications for the nature of the neural code and ventral stream, as well as what can be successfully investigated with fMRI.

  12. The dynamic conditional relationship between stock market returns and implied volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Y.; Ryu, Doojin; Song, Jeongseok

    2017-09-01

    Using the dynamic conditional correlation multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (DCC-MGARCH) model, we empirically examine the dynamic relationship between stock market returns (KOSPI200 returns) and implied volatility (VKOSPI), as well as their statistical mechanics, in the Korean market, a representative and leading emerging market. We consider four macroeconomic variables (exchange rates, risk-free rates, term spreads, and credit spreads) as potential determinants of the dynamic conditional correlation between returns and volatility. Of these macroeconomic variables, the change in exchange rates has a significant impact on the dynamic correlation between KOSPI200 returns and the VKOSPI, especially during the recent financial crisis. We also find that the risk-free rate has a marginal effect on this dynamic conditional relationship.

  13. Does a massive neutrino imply to go beyond the standard model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Diberder, F.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Davier, M.

    2002-01-01

    This article gathers the 15 contributions to this seminar. The purpose of this seminar was to define up to which extend the standard model is challenged by massive neutrinos. A non-zero mass for neutrinos, even a few eV, would solve the problem of the missing mass of the universe, and it would mean no more need for supersymmetry and its neutralinos. A massless neutrino theoretically implies a symmetry and an interaction that are not described by the standard model. In some aspects, it appears that a non-zero mass is natural within the framework of the standard model, and for some scientists the smallness of this value could be the hint of the need for a new physics

  14. Optimal Plant Carbon Allocation Implies a Biological Control on Nitrogen Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, I. C.; Stocker, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    The degree to which nitrogen availability limits the terrestrial C sink under rising CO2 is a key uncertainty in carbon cycle and climate change projections. Results from ecosystem manipulation studies and meta-analyses suggest that plant C allocation to roots adjusts dynamically under varying degrees of nitrogen availability and other soil fertility parameters. In addition, the ratio of biomass production to GPP appears to decline under nutrient scarcity. This reflects increasing plant C exudation into the soil (Cex) with decreasing nutrient availability. Cex is consumed by an array of soil organisms and may imply an improvement of nutrient availability to the plant. Thus, N availability is under biological control, but incurs a C cost. In spite of clear observational support, this concept is left unaccounted for in Earth system models. We develop a model for the coupled cycles of C and N in terrestrial ecosystems to explore optimal plant C allocation under rising CO2 and its implications for the ecosystem C balance. The model follows a balanced growth approach, accounting for the trade-offs between leaf versus root growth and Cex in balancing C fixation and N uptake. We assume that Cex is proportional to root mass, and that the ratio of N uptake (Nup) to Cex is proportional to inorganic N concentration in the soil solution. We further assume that Cex is consumed by N2-fixing processes if the ratio of Nup:Cex falls below the inverse of the C cost of N2-fixation. Our analysis thereby accounts for the feedbacks between ecosystem C and N cycling and stoichiometry. We address the question of how the plant C economy will adjust under rising atmospheric CO2 and what this implies for the ecosystem C balance and the degree of N limitation.

  15. Enacted and implied stigma for dementia in a community in south-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, Akindele O; Fagbola, Motunrayo A; Olakehinde, Olaide; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2016-07-01

    Dementia is a chronic progressive disease that mostly affects the elderly. There is often a stigma surrounding dementia patients because of poor awareness about the disease. In Nigeria, this stigma and related attitudes have not been fully explored. In this study, we assessed the attitude of people towards demented individuals in a transitional community in Nigeria. The study used a mixed methods approach. Focused group discussions exploring the concept of dementia were conducted among six community groups, and quantitative data was obtained from an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 313 respondents were selected with a cluster sampling technique. Only 212 respondents (67.7%) were aware of dementia. 'Memory loss disease', 'ageing disease', 'disease of insanity', 'brain disorder', 'disease of forgetfulness', and 'dull brain' are the common names used to describe dementia in the community. Enacted stigma was evident as 36% of respondents felt dementia was associated with shame and embarrassment in the community. Implied stigma was evident in another third that opined that demented individuals would prefer not to know or let others know that they have the disease. Also, 28% were of the opinion that people do not take those with dementia seriously. Of the 22 (10.4%) that reported having received structured information about dementia, 16 (72.7%) got the information from health facilities. Qualitative data revealed the presence of enacted stigma in the community as some referred to affected individuals by derogatory names such as 'madman'. Some statements from the focus group discussion participants also gave useful insights into the scorn with which demented individuals are sometimes treated. The presence of enacted and implied stigma related to dementia within the community calls for concern. More research efforts are needed to unravel the burden of stigma within communities and best practice for stigma-reducing interventions. © 2015 The Authors

  16. Explaining the level of credit spreads: Option-implied jump risk premia in a firm value model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, K.J.M.; Driessen, J.; Maenhout, P.

    2008-01-01

    We study whether option-implied jump risk premia can explain the high observed level of credit spreads. We use a structural jump-diffusion firm value model to assess the level of credit spreads generated by option-implied jump risk premia. Prices and returns of equity index and individual options

  17. 32 CFR 701.120 - Processing requests that cite or imply PA, Freedom of Information (FOIA), or PA/FOIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Privacy Program § 701.120 Processing requests that cite or imply PA, Freedom of Information (FOIA), or PA... maximum release of information allowed under the Acts. (d) Processing time limits. DON activities shall... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing requests that cite or imply PA...

  18. 78 FR 13665 - L.E. Bell Construction Company, Inc.; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Construction Company, Inc.; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments... initiated by the Commission: a. Type of Proceeding: Termination of exemption by implied surrender. b... reserves the right to revoke an exemption if any term or condition of the exemption is violated. The...

  19. 76 FR 52657 - Herschel L. Webster; Revonda Amthor; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    .... Webster; Revonda Amthor; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments... initiated by the Commission: a. Type of Proceeding: Termination of exemption by implied surrender. b... exemption if any term or condition of the exemption is violated. The project has not operated since 1996 and...

  20. Health Complaints Associated with Poor Rental Housing Conditions in Arkansas: The Only State without a Landlord's Implied Warranty of Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Ashley E; Stewart, M Kate; Felix, Holly C; Sealy, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Arkansas is the only U.S. state that does not have a landlord's implied warranty of habitability, meaning tenants have a requirement for maintaining their rental properties at certain habitability standards, but landlords are not legally required to contribute to those minimum health and safety standards. This project assessed the possibility that this lack of landlord responsibility affects tenants' perceived health. Using surveys and interviews, we collected self-reported data on the prevalence and description of problems faced by renters who needed household repairs from their landlords. Of almost 1,000 renters, one-third of them had experienced a problem with their landlord making needed repairs; and one-quarter of those had a health issue they attributed to their housing conditions. Common issues included problems with plumbing, heating, or cooling systems, and pest or rodent control. Reported health problems included elevated stress levels, breathing problems, headaches, high blood pressure, and bites or infections. Hispanic respondents and those with less than a high school education were both significantly more likely to report problems with their landlords not making repairs as requested. These data suggest that the lack of landlord requirements may negatively impact the condition of rental properties and, therefore, may negatively impact the health of Arkansas renters.

  1. Corporate Moral Duties: Consequentialism, Collective Moral Agency and the “Ought” Implies “Can” Maxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Martins Zanitelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim according to which corporations are morally responsible is a controversial one. At the same time, it is nowadays common to assign moral duties to companies, especially in work confronting the business and human rights issue. Can companies bear moral duties without being morally responsible? This article presents three different accounts of the duty to follow the course of action with the best consequences (consequentialist duty. The ascription of that duty to business is compatible with the claim that, by not being volitional agents, companies are not morally responsible for anything they do. The paper also addresses two possible objections against the claim that companies bear the duty of taking the course of action with the best consequences. These objections state that corporations are incapable of acting, be it in a general way (i.e. corporations do not possess the moral status of agents, be it regarding particular acts (the objection grounded on the “ought” implies “can” maxim.

  2. The role of implied motion in engaging audiences for health promotion: encouraging naps on a college campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Guadagno, Marie; Hughes Wagner, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Lack of sleep among college students negatively impacts health and academic outcomes. Building on research that implied motion imagery increases brain activity, this project tested visual design strategies to increase viewers' engagement with a health communication campaign promoting napping to improve sleep habits. PARTICIPANTS (N = 194) were recruited from a large southwestern university in October 2012. Utilizing an experimental design, participants were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: an implied motion superhero spokes-character, a static superhero spokes-character, and a control group. The use of implied motion did not achieve the hypothesized effect on message elaboration, but superheroes are a promising persuasive tool for health promotion campaigns for college audiences. Implications for sleep health promotion campaigns and the role of implied motion in message design strategies are discussed, as well as future directions for research on the depiction of implied motion as it relates to theoretical development.

  3. Spatially robust estimates of biological nitrogen (N) fixation imply substantial human alteration of the tropical N cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Benjamin W; Smith, W Kolby; Townsend, Alan R; Nasto, Megan K; Reed, Sasha C; Chazdon, Robin L; Cleveland, Cory C

    2014-06-03

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is the largest natural source of exogenous nitrogen (N) to unmanaged ecosystems and also the primary baseline against which anthropogenic changes to the N cycle are measured. Rates of BNF in tropical rainforest are thought to be among the highest on Earth, but they are notoriously difficult to quantify and are based on little empirical data. We adapted a sampling strategy from community ecology to generate spatial estimates of symbiotic and free-living BNF in secondary and primary forest sites that span a typical range of tropical forest legume abundance. Although total BNF was higher in secondary than primary forest, overall rates were roughly five times lower than previous estimates for the tropical forest biome. We found strong correlations between symbiotic BNF and legume abundance, but we also show that spatially free-living BNF often exceeds symbiotic inputs. Our results suggest that BNF in tropical forest has been overestimated, and our data are consistent with a recent top-down estimate of global BNF that implied but did not measure low tropical BNF rates. Finally, comparing tropical BNF within the historical area of tropical rainforest with current anthropogenic N inputs indicates that humans have already at least doubled reactive N inputs to the tropical forest biome, a far greater change than previously thought. Because N inputs are increasing faster in the tropics than anywhere on Earth, both the proportion and the effects of human N enrichment are likely to grow in the future.

  4. Spatially robust estimates of biological nitrogen (N) fixation imply substantial human alteration of the tropical N cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Benjamin W.; Smith, William K.; Townsend, Alan R.; Nasto, Megan K.; Reed, Sasha C.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is the largest natural source of exogenous nitrogen (N) to unmanaged ecosystems and also the primary baseline against which anthropogenic changes to the N cycle are measured. Rates of BNF in tropical rainforest are thought to be among the highest on Earth, but they are notoriously difficult to quantify and are based on little empirical data. We adapted a sampling strategy from community ecology to generate spatial estimates of symbiotic and free-living BNF in secondary and primary forest sites that span a typical range of tropical forest legume abundance. Although total BNF was higher in secondary than primary forest, overall rates were roughly five times lower than previous estimates for the tropical forest biome. We found strong correlations between symbiotic BNF and legume abundance, but we also show that spatially free-living BNF often exceeds symbiotic inputs. Our results suggest that BNF in tropical forest has been overestimated, and our data are consistent with a recent top-down estimate of global BNF that implied but did not measure low tropical BNF rates. Finally, comparing tropical BNF within the historical area of tropical rainforest with current anthropogenic N inputs indicates that humans have already at least doubled reactive N inputs to the tropical forest biome, a far greater change than previously thought. Because N inputs are increasing faster in the tropics than anywhere on Earth, both the proportion and the effects of human N enrichment are likely to grow in the future.

  5. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph W Pridmore

    Full Text Available This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0 in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones. Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  6. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Ralph W

    2013-01-01

    This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors) but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral) functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure) hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique) over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0) in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones.) Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  7. Exploring the assumed invariance of implied emission factors for forest biomass in greenhouse gas inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James E.; Heath, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    Reviews of each nation's annual greenhouse gas inventory submissions including forestland are part of the ongoing reporting process of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Goals of these reviews include improving quality and consistency within and among reports. One method of facilitating comparisons is the use of a standard index such as an implied emission factor (IEF), which for forest biomass indicates net rate of carbon emission or sequestration per area. Guidance on the use of IEFs in reviews is limited, but there is an expectation that values should be relatively constant both over time and across spatial scales. To address this hypothesis, we examine IEFs over time, derived from U.S. forests at plot-, state-, and national-levels. Results show that at increasingly aggregated levels, relative heterogeneity decreases but can still be substantial. A net increase in U.S. whole-forest IEFs over time is consistent with results from temperate forests of nations in the European Community. IEFs are better viewed as a distribution of values rather than one constant value principally because of sensitivities to productivity, disturbance, and land use change, which can all vary considerably across a nation's forest land.

  8. Large-scale subduction of continental crust implied by India-Asia mass-balance calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Miquela; Rowley, David B.; Currie, Brian; Colman, Albert S.

    2016-11-01

    Continental crust is buoyant compared with its oceanic counterpart and resists subduction into the mantle. When two continents collide, the mass balance for the continental crust is therefore assumed to be maintained. Here we use estimates of pre-collisional crustal thickness and convergence history derived from plate kinematic models to calculate the crustal mass balance in the India-Asia collisional system. Using the current best estimates for the timing of the diachronous onset of collision between India and Eurasia, we find that about 50% of the pre-collisional continental crustal mass cannot be accounted for in the crustal reservoir preserved at Earth's surface today--represented by the mass preserved in the thickened crust that makes up the Himalaya, Tibet and much of adjacent Asia, as well as southeast Asian tectonic escape and exported eroded sediments. This implies large-scale subduction of continental crust during the collision, with a mass equivalent to about 15% of the total oceanic crustal subduction flux since 56 million years ago. We suggest that similar contamination of the mantle by direct input of radiogenic continental crustal materials during past continent-continent collisions is reflected in some ocean crust and ocean island basalt geochemistry. The subduction of continental crust may therefore contribute significantly to the evolution of mantle geochemistry.

  9. Market-implied spread for earthquake CAT bonds: financial implications of engineering decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnjanovic, Ivan; Aslan, Zafer; Mander, John

    2010-12-01

    In the event of natural and man-made disasters, owners of large-scale infrastructure facilities (assets) need contingency plans to effectively restore the operations within the acceptable timescales. Traditionally, the insurance sector provides the coverage against potential losses. However, there are many problems associated with this traditional approach to risk transfer including counterparty risk and litigation. Recently, a number of innovative risk mitigation methods, termed alternative risk transfer (ART) methods, have been introduced to address these problems. One of the most important ART methods is catastrophe (CAT) bonds. The objective of this article is to develop an integrative model that links engineering design parameters with financial indicators including spread and bond rating. The developed framework is based on a four-step structural loss model and transformed survival model to determine expected excess returns. We illustrate the framework for a seismically designed bridge using two unique CAT bond contracts. The results show a nonlinear relationship between engineering design parameters and market-implied spread. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Analysis of model implied volatility for jump diffusion models: Empirical evidence from the Nordpool market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomikos, Nikos K.; Soldatos, Orestes A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we examine the importance of mean reversion and spikes in the stochastic behaviour of the underlying asset when pricing options on power. We propose a model that is flexible in its formulation and captures the stylized features of power prices in a parsimonious way. The main feature of the model is that it incorporates two different speeds of mean reversion to capture the differences in price behaviour between normal and spiky periods. We derive semi-closed form solutions for European option prices using transform analysis and then examine the properties of the implied volatilities that the model generates. We find that the presence of jumps generates prominent volatility skews which depend on the sign of the mean jump size. We also show that mean reversion reduces the volatility smile as time to maturity increases. In addition, mean reversion induces volatility skews particularly for ITM options, even in the absence of jumps. Finally, jump size volatility and jump intensity mainly affect the kurtosis and thus the curvature of the smile with the former having a more important role in making the volatility smile more pronounced and thus increasing the kurtosis of the underlying price distribution.

  11. Possible circumvention of Parker's bound on galactic magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, V.L.

    1983-04-01

    There is a possibility that a magnetic monople has observed. The monopole density implied by the observation appears to violate bounds on the density of such particles derived from the total mass density of the universe and from the existence of galactic magnetic fields. We show that the observation is not inconsistent with these bounds if the monopoles and antimonopoles are bound into positronium - like states with principal quantum n high enough so that the earth's magnetic field will break them apart, but small enough so that the weaker galactic mangetic field will not. We determine a range of values for n and show that lifetimes for such bound states are longer than the current age of the universe

  12. Microstructures imply cataclasis and authigenic mineral formation control geomechanical properties of New Zealand's Alpine Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, B.; Janssen, C.; Schleicher, A. M.; Toy, V. G.; Dresen, G.

    2018-05-01

    The Alpine Fault is capable of generating large (MW > 8) earthquakes and is the main geohazard on South Island, NZ, and late in its 250-291-year seismic cycle. To minimize its hazard potential, it is indispensable to identify and understand the processes influencing the geomechanical behavior and strength-evolution of the fault. High-resolution microstructural, mineralogical and geochemical analyses of the Alpine Fault's core demonstrate wall rock fragmentation, assisted by mineral dissolution, and cementation resulting in the formation of a fine-grained principal slip zone (PSZ). A complex network of anastomosing and mutually cross-cutting calcite veins implies that faulting occurred during episodes of dilation, slip and sealing. Fluid-assisted dilatancy leads to a significant volume increase accommodated by vein formation in the fault core. Undeformed euhedral chlorite crystals and calcite veins that have cut footwall gravels demonstrate that these processes occurred very close to the Earth's surface. Microstructural evidence indicates that cataclastic processes dominate the deformation and we suggest that powder lubrication and grain rolling, particularly influenced by abundant nanoparticles, play a key role in the fault core's velocity-weakening behavior rather than frictional sliding. This is further supported by the absence of smectite, which is reasonable given recently measured geothermal gradients of more than 120 °C km-1 and the impermeable nature of the PSZ, which both limit the growth of this phase and restrict its stability to shallow depths. Our observations demonstrate that high-temperature fluids can influence authigenic mineral formation and thus control the fault's geomechanical behavior and the cyclic evolution of its strength.

  13. Quantifying differences in land use emission estimates implied by definition discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, B. D.; Joos, F.

    2015-11-01

    The quantification of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land use and land use change (eLUC) is essential to understand the drivers of the atmospheric CO2 increase and to inform climate change mitigation policy. Reported values in synthesis reports are commonly derived from different approaches (observation-driven bookkeeping and process-modelling) but recent work has emphasized that inconsistencies between methods may imply substantial differences in eLUC estimates. However, a consistent quantification is lacking and no concise modelling protocol for the separation of primary and secondary components of eLUC has been established. Here, we review differences of eLUC quantification methods and apply an Earth System Model (ESM) of Intermediate Complexity to quantify them. We find that the magnitude of effects due to merely conceptual differences between ESM and offline vegetation model-based quantifications is ~ 20 % for today. Under a future business-as-usual scenario, differences tend to increase further due to slowing land conversion rates and an increasing impact of altered environmental conditions on land-atmosphere fluxes. We establish how coupled Earth System Models may be applied to separate secondary component fluxes of eLUC arising from the replacement of potential C sinks/sources and the land use feedback and show that secondary fluxes derived from offline vegetation models are conceptually and quantitatively not identical to either, nor their sum. Therefore, we argue that synthesis studies should resort to the "least common denominator" of different methods, following the bookkeeping approach where only primary land use emissions are quantified under the assumption of constant environmental boundary conditions.

  14. Large differences in land use emission quantifications implied by definition discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, B. D.; Joos, F.

    2015-03-01

    The quantification of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land use and land use change (eLUC) is essential to understand the drivers of the atmospheric CO2 increase and to inform climate change mitigation policy. Reported values in synthesis reports are commonly derived from different approaches (observation-driven bookkeeping and process-modelling) but recent work has emphasized that inconsistencies between methods may imply substantial differences in eLUC estimates. However, a consistent quantification is lacking and no concise modelling protocol for the separation of primary and secondary components of eLUC has been established. Here, we review the conceptual differences of eLUC quantification methods and apply an Earth System Model to demonstrate that what is claimed to represent total eLUC differs by up to ~20% when quantified from ESM vs. offline vegetation models. Under a future business-as-usual scenario, differences tend to increase further due to slowing land conversion rates and an increasing impact of altered environmental conditions on land-atmosphere fluxes. We establish how coupled Earth System Models may be applied to separate component fluxes of eLUC arising from the replacement of potential C sinks/sources and the land use feedback and show that secondary fluxes derived from offline vegetation models are conceptually and quantitatively not identical to either, nor their sum. Therefore, we argue that synthesis studies and global carbon budget accountings should resort to the "least common denominator" of different methods, following the bookkeeping approach where only primary land use emissions are quantified under the assumption of constant environmental boundary conditions.

  15. Possible future HERA analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-12-01

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing ep collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA pro- gramme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-established data and MC sets, calibrations, and analysis procedures the manpower and expertise needed for a particular analysis is often very much smaller than that needed for an ongoing experiment. Since centrally funded manpower to carry out such analyses is not available any longer, this contribution not only targets experienced self-funded experimentalists, but also theorists and master-level students who might wish to carry out such an analysis.

  16. ep possibility for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of adding an electron ring to ISABELLE is discussed in terms of cost, physics goals, count rate estimates, the detector requirements, and the possibility of producing intermediate bosons. The purpose of adding an electron ring to ISABELLE must be considered to be the study of e + p → e + x, e - p → νx, and e + p → anti νx. Other processes, such as W production, are less interesting for an ep ring than for a pp ring. However, there may be other new particles--such as leptonic quarks--that only turn up here. These processes are, however, exciting. In a 30 day run at L = 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 300 neutrino events are expected at q 2 > 5000 GeV 2 where the propagator is expected to be less than 1 / 4 . Thus the value of the mass in the propagator can be measured to 5%. The ep cross section would be measured over the momentum transfer range 1 2 2 ). This range is large enough that a logarithmic deviation from scaling can be distinguished easily from a power law approach to scaling

  17. Triphenylmethane, a possible moderator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hügle, Th.; Mocko, M.; Hartl, M.A.; Daemen, L.L.; Muhrer, G.

    2014-01-01

    New challenges in neutron scattering result in an increased demand in novel moderator concepts. The most direct way to address the problem would be to change the moderator material itself. However the range of available neutron moderator materials is small. In this paper, we discuss triphenylmethane, a possible moderator material especially promising for cold neutron moderator applications. Our investigations include a parallel experimental and theoretical approach ranging from cross-section measurements and inelastic neutron spectroscopy to molecular modeling. -- Highlights: • Triphenylmethane as a potential moderator material is discussed. • Parallel theoretical and experimental approach. • Possibly very useful for cold neutrons

  18. Does a deformation of special relativity imply energy dependent photon time delays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortés, J. L.; Relancio, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical arguments in favor of energy dependent photon time delays from a modification of special relativity (SR) have met with recent gamma ray observations that put severe constraints on the scale of such deviations. We review the case of the generality of this theoretical prediction in the case of a deformation of SR and find that, at least in the simple model based on the analysis of photon worldlines which is commonly considered, there are many scenarios compatible with a relativity principle which do not contain a photon time delay. This will be the situation for any modified dispersion relation which reduces to E=\\vert p\\vert for photons, independently of the quantum structure of spacetime. This fact opens up the possibility of a phenomenologically consistent relativistic generalization of SR with a new mass scale many orders of magnitude below the Planck mass.

  19. Observations of oxidation products above a forest imply biogenic emissions of very reactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Holzinger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical gradients of mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds have been measured in a Ponderosa pine forest in Central California (38.90° N, 120.63° W, 1315m. These measurements reveal large quantities of previously unreported oxidation products of short lived biogenic precursors. The emission of biogenic precursors must be in the range of 13-66µmol m-2h-1 to produce the observed oxidation products. That is 6-30 times the emissions of total monoterpenes observed above the forest canopy on a molar basis. These reactive precursors constitute a large fraction of biogenic emissions at this site, and are not included in current emission inventories. When oxidized by ozone they should efficiently produce secondary aerosol and hydroxyl radicals.

  20. Backreacted axion field ranges in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baume, Florent; Palti, Eran [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Philosophenweg 19, Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany)

    2016-08-05

    String theory axions are interesting candidates for fields whose potential might be controllable over super-Planckian field ranges and therefore as possible candidates for inflatons in large field inflation. Axion monodromy scenarios are setups where the axion shift symmetry is broken by some effect such that the axion can traverse a large number of periods potentially leading to super-Planckian excursions. We study such scenarios in type IIA string theory where the axion shift symmetry is broken by background fluxes. In particular we calculate the backreaction of the energy density induced by the axion vacuum expectation value on its own field space metric. We find universal behaviour for all the compactifications studied where up to a certain critical axion value there is only a small backreaction effect. Beyond the critical value the backreaction is strong and implies that the proper field distance as measured by the backreacted metric increases at best logarithmically with the axion vev, thereby placing strong limitations on extending the field distance any further. The critical axion value can be made arbitrarily large by the choice of fluxes. However the backreaction of these fluxes on the axion field space metric ensures a precise cancellation such that the proper field distance up to the critical axion value is flux independent and remains sub-Planckian. We also study an axion alignment scenario for type IIA compactifications on a twisted torus with four fundamental axions mixing to leave an axion with an effective decay constant which is flux dependent. There is a choice of fluxes for which the alignment parameter controlling the effective decay constant is unconstrained by tadpoles and can in principle lead to an arbitrarily large effective decay constant. However we show that these fluxes backreact on the fundamental decay constants so as to precisely cancel any enhancement leaving a sub-Planckian effective decay constant.

  1. Discovery of rapid whistlers close to Jupiter implying lightning rates similar to those on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmašová, Ivana; Imai, Masafumi; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, William S.; Hospodarsky, George B.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Connerney, John E. P.; Bolton, Scott J.

    2018-06-01

    Electrical currents in atmospheric lightning strokes generate impulsive radio waves in a broad range of frequencies, called atmospherics. These waves can be modified by their passage through the plasma environment of a planet into the form of dispersed whistlers1. In the Io plasma torus around Jupiter, Voyager 1 detected whistlers as several-seconds-long slowly falling tones at audible frequencies2. These measurements were the first evidence of lightning at Jupiter. Subsequently, Jovian lightning was observed by optical cameras on board several spacecraft in the form of localized flashes of light3-7. Here, we show measurements by the Waves instrument8 on board the Juno spacecraft9-11 that indicate observations of Jovian rapid whistlers: a form of dispersed atmospherics at extremely short timescales of several milliseconds to several tens of milliseconds. On the basis of these measurements, we report over 1,600 lightning detections, the largest set obtained to date. The data were acquired during close approaches to Jupiter between August 2016 and September 2017, at radial distances below 5 Jovian radii. We detected up to four lightning strokes per second, similar to rates in thunderstorms on Earth12 and six times the peak rates from the Voyager 1 observations13.

  2. Symmetrical kinematics does not imply symmetrical kinetics in people with transtibial amputation using cycling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, W Lee; Kogler, Géza F

    2014-01-01

    People with amputation move asymmetrically with regard to kinematics (joint angles) and kinetics (joint forces and moments). Clinicians have traditionally sought to minimize kinematic asymmetries, assuming kinetic asymmetries would also be minimized. A cycling model evaluated locomotor asymmetries. Eight individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation pedaled with 172 mm-length crank arms on both sides (control condition) and with the crank arm length shortened to 162 mm on the amputated side (CRANK condition). Pedaling kinetics and limb kinematics were recorded. Joint kinetics, joint angles (mean and range of motion [ROM]), and pedaling asymmetries were calculated from force pedals and with a motion capture system. A one-way analysis of variance with tukey post hoc compared kinetics and kinematics across limbs. Statistical significance was set to p Pedaling asymmetries did not differ and were 23.0% +/= 9.8% and 23.2% +/= 12% for the control and CRANK conditions, respectively. Our results suggest that minimizing kinematic asymmetries does not relate to kinetic asymmetries as clinically assumed. We propose that future research should concentrate on defining acceptable asymmetry.

  3. A simulation study of gene-by-environment interactions in GWAS implies ample hidden effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigorta, Urko M.; Gibson, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The switch to a modern lifestyle in recent decades has coincided with a rapid increase in prevalence of obesity and other diseases. These shifts in prevalence could be explained by the release of genetic susceptibility for disease in the form of gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions. Yet, the detection of interaction effects requires large sample sizes, little replication has been reported, and a few studies have demonstrated environmental effects only after summing the risk of GWAS alleles into genetic risk scores (GRSxE). We performed extensive simulations of a quantitative trait controlled by 2500 causal variants to inspect the feasibility to detect gene-by-environment interactions in the context of GWAS. The simulated individuals were assigned either to an ancestral or a modern setting that alters the phenotype by increasing the effect size by 1.05–2-fold at a varying fraction of perturbed SNPs (from 1 to 20%). We report two main results. First, for a wide range of realistic scenarios, highly significant GRSxE is detected despite the absence of individual genotype GxE evidence at the contributing loci. Second, an increase in phenotypic variance after environmental perturbation reduces the power to discover susceptibility variants by GWAS in mixed cohorts with individuals from both ancestral and modern environments. We conclude that a pervasive presence of gene-by-environment effects can remain hidden even though it contributes to the genetic architecture of complex traits. PMID:25101110

  4. Identification of eight novel coagulation factor XIII subunit A mutations: implied consequences for structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaskevicius, Vytautas; Biswas, Arijit; Bevans, Carville; Schroeder, Verena; Kohler, Hans Peter; Rott, Hannelore; Halimeh, Susan; Petrides, Petro E; Lenk, Harald; Krause, Manuele; Miterski, Bruno; Harbrecht, Ursula; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2010-06-01

    Severe hereditary coagulation factor XIII deficiency is a rare homozygous bleeding disorder affecting one person in every two million individuals. In contrast, heterozygous factor XIII deficiency is more common, but usually not associated with severe hemorrhage such as intracranial bleeding or hemarthrosis. In most cases, the disease is caused by F13A gene mutations. Causative mutations associated with the F13B gene are rarer. We analyzed ten index patients and three relatives for factor XIII activity using a photometric assay and sequenced their F13A and F13B genes. Additionally, structural analysis of the wild-type protein structure from a previously reported X-ray crystallographic model identified potential structural and functional effects of the missense mutations. All individuals except one were heterozygous for factor XIIIA mutations (average factor XIII activity 51%), while the remaining homozygous individual was found to have severe factor XIII deficiency (<5% of normal factor XIII activity). Eight of the 12 heterozygous patients exhibited a bleeding tendency upon provocation. The identified missense (Pro289Arg, Arg611His, Asp668Gly) and nonsense (Gly390X, Trp664X) mutations are causative for factor XIII deficiency. A Gly592Ser variant identified in three unrelated index patients, as well as in 200 healthy controls (minor allele frequency 0.005), and two further Tyr167Cys and Arg540Gln variants, represent possible candidates for rare F13A gene polymorphisms since they apparently do not have a significant influence on the structure of the factor XIIIA protein. Future in vitro expression studies of the factor XIII mutations are required to confirm their pathological mechanisms.

  5. 16 CFR 303.40 - Use of terms in written advertisements that imply presence of a fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of terms in written advertisements that imply presence of a fiber. 303.40 Section 303.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.40 Use of terms in written...

  6. The Role of Implied Volatility in Forecasting Future Realized Volatility and Jumps in Foreign Exchange, Stock and Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper

    We study the forecasting of future realized volatility in the stock, bond, and foreign exchange markets, as well as the continuous sample path and jump components of this, from variables in the information set, including implied volatility backed out from option prices. Recent nonparametric...

  7. The Role of Implied Motion in Engaging Audiences for Health Promotion: Encouraging Naps on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Guadagno, Marie; Hughes Wagner, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Lack of sleep among college students negatively impacts health and academic outcomes. Building on research that implied motion imagery increases brain activity, this project tested visual design strategies to increase viewers' engagement with a health communication campaign promoting napping to improve sleep habits. Participants:…

  8. Dynamic Estimation of Volatility Risk Premia and Investor Risk Aversion from Option-Implied and Realized Volatilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Gibson, Michael; Zhou, Hao

    experiment confirms that the procedure works well in practice. Implementing the procedure with actual S&P500 option-implied volatilities and high-frequency five-minute-based realized volatilities indicates significant temporal dependencies in the estimated stochastic volatility risk premium, which we in turn...

  9. 75 FR 16099 - Mr. Jerry McMillan and Ms. Christine Smith; Notice of Termination of License by Implied Surrender...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... McMillan and Ms. Christine Smith; Notice of Termination of License by Implied Surrender and Soliciting... surrender b. Project No.: P-9907-018 c. Licensees: Mr. Jerry McMillan and Ms. Christine Smith d. Name of... ] 62,282). The project was transferred to Mr. Jerry McMillan and Ms. Christine Smith by order on...

  10. On a problematic procedure to manipulate response biases in recognition experiments: the case of "implied" base rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröder, Arndt; Malejka, Simone

    2017-07-01

    The experimental manipulation of response biases in recognition-memory tests is an important means for testing recognition models and for estimating their parameters. The textbook manipulations for binary-response formats either vary the payoff scheme or the base rate of targets in the recognition test, with the latter being the more frequently applied procedure. However, some published studies reverted to implying different base rates by instruction rather than actually changing them. Aside from unnecessarily deceiving participants, this procedure may lead to cognitive conflicts that prompt response strategies unknown to the experimenter. To test our objection, implied base rates were compared to actual base rates in a recognition experiment followed by a post-experimental interview to assess participants' response strategies. The behavioural data show that recognition-memory performance was estimated to be lower in the implied base-rate condition. The interview data demonstrate that participants used various second-order response strategies that jeopardise the interpretability of the recognition data. We thus advice researchers against substituting actual base rates with implied base rates.

  11. A TMS study on the contribution of visual area V5 to the perception of implied motion in art and its appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Schiavi, Susanna; Silvanto, Juha; Nadal, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, researchers have sought to understand the brain mechanisms involved in the appreciation of art. Previous studies reported an increased activity in sensory processing regions for artworks that participants find more appealing. Here we investigated the intriguing possibility that activity in cortical area V5-a region in the occipital cortex mediating physical and implied motion detection-is related not only to the generation of a sense of motion from visual cues used in artworks, but also to the appreciation of those artworks. Art-naïve participants viewed a series of paintings and quickly judged whether or not the paintings conveyed a sense of motion, and whether or not they liked them. Triple-pulse TMS applied over V5 while viewing the paintings significantly decreased the perceived sense of motion, and also significantly reduced liking of abstract (but not representational) paintings. Our data demonstrate that V5 is involved in extracting motion information even when the objects whose motion is implied are pictorial representations (as opposed to photographs or film frames), and even in the absence of any figurative content. Moreover, our study suggests that, in the case of untrained people, V5 activity plays a causal role in the appreciation of abstract but not of representational art.

  12. Mappings with closed range and finite dimensional linear spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyahen, S.O.

    1984-09-01

    This paper looks at two settings, each of continuous linear mappings of linear topological spaces. In one setting, the domain space is fixed while the range space varies over a class of linear topological spaces. In the second setting, the range space is fixed while the domain space similarly varies. The interest is in when the requirement that the mappings have a closed range implies that the domain or range space is finite dimensional. Positive results are obtained for metrizable spaces. (author)

  13. Genus-level taxonomic changes implied by the mitochondrial phylogeny of grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shen, Kang-Ning; Fu, Cuizhang; Borsa, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    , Osteomugil))]. Agonostomus monticola and several species with large distribution ranges (including Moolgarda seheli, Mugil cephalus and M. curema) consist of separate lineages whose geographic distribution suggests they are cryptic species, thus warranting further taxonomic work in the Mugilidae at the infra-generic level. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Body Mass Index below Obesity Threshold Implies Similar Cardiovascular Risk among Various Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagir, Gulay Simsek; Bakiner, Okan S; Bozkirli, Emre; Cavlak, Gulhan; Serinsoz, Hulya; Ertorer, M Eda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cardiometabolic risk factors in different polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes. This cross-sectional study was performed between 2010 and 2011. Eighty-nine patients with PCOS and 25 age- and weight-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Patients were grouped using the Rotterdam 2003 criteria as: group 1, oligomenorrhea and/or anovulation (ANOV) and hyperandrogenemia (HA) and/or hyperandrogenism (n = 23); group 2, ANOV and polycystic ovaries (PCO; n = 22); group 3, HA and PCO (n = 22); group 4, ANOV, HA and PCO (n = 22); group 5, controls (n = 25). Laboratory blood tests for diagnosis and cardiometabolic risk assessments were performed. Insulin resistance (IR) was calculated in all patients with the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) formula. An euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test was performed on 5 randomly selected cases in each subgroup, making 25 cases in total, and indicated as the 'M' value (mg/kg/min), which is the total body glucose disposal rate. The mean BMl values of the groups were: group 1, 26.1 ± 5.3; group 2, 27.9 ± 5.2; group 3, 24.3 ± 4.2; group 4, 27.9 ± 7.5; group 5, 24.7 ± 5.2 (p > 0.05). There were no differences in the lipid profile, plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, insulin and M values between the groups (p > 0.05). Phenotypes with oligomenorrhea/anovulation (groups 1, 2 and 4) were more obese than group 3 (p = 0.039). The cardiometabolic risk profile was similar among the PCOS subgroups. This finding could be attributed to the mean BMl values, which, being below 30, were not within the obesity range. Obesity appeared to be an important determinant of high cardiovascular risk in PCOS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Seismic and Gas Analyses Imply Magmatic Intrusion at Iliamna Volcano, Alaska in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejean, S. G.; Werner, C. A.; Buurman, H.; Doukas, M. P.; Kelly, P. J.; Kern, C.; Ketner, D.; Stihler, S.; Thurber, C. H.; West, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    In early 2012, Iliamna Volcano, an ice-covered andesitic stratovolcano located in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska, had a vigorous earthquake swarm that included both brittle-failure earthquakes (Mvolume has otherwise been seismically quiet except during a possible magmatic intrusion at Iliamna in 1996, when it sustained a similar swarm (Roman et al., 2004, J. Volc. Geotherm. Res., v. 130, p. 265-284). Analysis of the relative amplitudes between the small low-frequency and located brittle failure events indicates that their sources are geographically separate, with the low-frequency events sourced closer to the fumarolically active summit region, ~4 km north of the brittle failure events. Airborne gas-emission measurements on March 17 revealed emission rates of up to 2000 and 580 tonnes per day (t/d) of CO2 and SO2, respectively, and a molar C/S ratio of 5. Visual observations from the flight revealed unusually vigorous fumarole activity near the summit. Subsequent measurements on June 20 and 22 showed continued high emissions of up to 1190 and 440 t/d of CO2 and SO2, respectively, with a C/S ratio of 4. These emission measurements are similar to those measured during the height of the 1996 unrest episode and are significantly above background measurements between 1998 and August 2011, which were typically below 100 and 60 t/d of CO2 and SO2. Taken together, gas and seismic data suggest that the earthquake swarm was driven by magmatic intrusion. Gas flux rates are consistent with those measured for degassing andesitic magmas in the shallow crust at other Cook Inlet volcanoes. Increased heat and degassing likely caused small low-frequency events in the shallow hydrothermal system near the volcano's summit, and/or may have destabilized the glacier, triggering shallow low-frequency glacial events. This unrest episode demonstrates how magmatic intrusions can cause spatially disparate earthquake swarms in hydrothermal systems and on pre-existing crustal structures.

  16. Long range correlations in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Off diagonal long range order (ODLRO) correlations are strongly related with the generalized Bose-Einstein condensation. Under certain boundary conditions, one implies the other. These phenomena are of great importance in the description of quantum situations with a macroscopic manifestation (superfluidity, superconductivity, etc.). Since ion pairs are not bosons, the definition of ODLRO is modified. The information contained with the 2-particle propagator (electron pairs) and the consequences that lead to pairs statistics are shown in this presentation. The analogy between long range correlations and fluids is also analyzed. (Author). 17 refs

  17. P-T data from central Bhutan imply distributed extensional shear at the Black Mountain "klippe"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, S. L.; Kohn, M. J.; Long, S. P.; McQuarrie, N.; Tobgay, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Southern Tibetan Detachment system (STDS) occurs along the entire length of the Himalayan orogen, and extensionally emplaces low-grade to unmetamorphosed Tethyan Himalayan (TH) rocks over highly metamorphosed Greater Himalayan sequence (GH) rocks. The base of TH remnants preserved in northern Bhutan all have top-to-the-north shear sense indicators (C'-type shear bands, asymmetric folds, and boudinaged leucogranite dikes) that are interpreted to reflect a discrete shear zone. In contrast, the GH-TH contact in the southernmost TH remnant (the Black Mountain region, central Bhutan) has been interpreted as depositional. A depositional contact limits the magnitude of displacement along the early STDS to 10's of km. If the GH-TH contact in the Black Mountain region is instead a discrete shear zone, as observed farther north, displacement on the STDS could be as high as 100's of km. To discriminate between these two interpretations, we determined peak metamorphic P-T conditions through the GH and TH sections, reasoning that a discrete shear zone would produce a distinct jump in metamorphic temperature, pressure or both. Thin section-scale kinematic indicators reveal pervasive top-to-the-north shear from 2-3 km structurally above the Main Central thrust (MCT) through the rest of the 11 km thick GH and TH sections. P-T conditions were determined from immediately above the MCT to 4 km above the GH-TH contact, with 19 samples from the GH, 6 from the overlying Chekha Fm (TH), and 9 from the overlying Maneting Fm (TH). We applied standard Fe-Mg exchange thermometers and Ca net-transfer barometers involving garnet. P-T conditions range from 700 °C and 11 kbar in migmatitic GHS to 600 °C and 8 kbar at the GH-Chekha contact, and 500 °C and 5 kbar at the top of the Maneting. We found no jumps in either temperature or pressure at any level, but a steeper than lithostatic pressure gradient, which we interpret to result from distributed extensional shear. The average thermal

  18. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  19. Revisiting the long memory dynamics of the implied-realized volatility relationship: New evidence from the wavelet regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Hlínková, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2016), s. 503-514 ISSN 0264-9993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : wavelet band spectrum regression * corridor implied volatility * realized volatility * fractional cointegration Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/barunik-0456186.pdf

  20. The information content of implied volatilities of options on eurodeposit futures traded on the LIFFE: is there long memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Cifarelli, giulio

    2002-01-01

    Under rather general conditions Black - Scholes implied volatilities from at-the-money options appropriately quantify, in each period, the market expectations of the average volatility of the return of the underlying asset until contract expiration. The efficiency of these expectation estimates is investigated here, for options on two major short term interest rate futures contracts traded at the LIFFE, using a long memory framework. Over the 1993 – 1997 time interval the performance of im...

  1. Forecasting Daily Variability of the S and P 100 Stock Index using Historical, Realised and Implied Volatility Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, Siem Jan; Jungbacker, Borus; Hol, Eugenie

    2004-01-01

    The increasing availability of financial market data at intraday frequencies has not only led to the development of improved volatility measurements but has also inspired research into their potential value as an information source for volatility forecasting. In this paper we explore the forecasting value of historical volatility (extracted from daily return series), of implied volatility (extracted from option pricing data) and of realised volatility (computed as the sum of squared high freq...

  2. Forecasting the density of oil futures returns using model-free implied volatility and high-frequency data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ielpo, Florian; Sevi, Benoit

    2013-09-01

    Forecasting the density of returns is useful for many purposes in finance, such as risk management activities, portfolio choice or derivative security pricing. Existing methods to forecast the density of returns either use prices of the asset of interest or option prices on this same asset. The latter method needs to convert the risk-neutral estimate of the density into a physical measure, which is computationally cumbersome. In this paper, we take the view of a practitioner who observes the implied volatility under the form of an index, namely the recent OVX, to forecast the density of oil futures returns for horizons going from 1 to 60 days. Using the recent methodology in Maheu and McCurdy (2011) to compute density predictions, we compare the performance of time series models using implied volatility and either daily or intra-daily futures prices. Our results indicate that models based on implied volatility deliver significantly better density forecasts at all horizons, which is in line with numerous studies delivering the same evidence for volatility point forecast. (authors)

  3. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  4. Possibility Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of possibility fuzzy soft set and its operation and study some of its properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision-making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two possibility fuzzy soft sets and discuss their application in a medical diagnosis problem.

  5. On High-Frequency Topography-Implied Gravity Signals for a Height System Unification Using GOCE-Based Global Geopotential Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grombein, Thomas; Seitz, Kurt; Heck, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    National height reference systems have conventionally been linked to the local mean sea level, observed at individual tide gauges. Due to variations in the sea surface topography, the reference levels of these systems are inconsistent, causing height datum offsets of up to ±1-2 m. For the unification of height systems, a satellite-based method is presented that utilizes global geopotential models (GGMs) derived from ESA's satellite mission Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE). In this context, height datum offsets are estimated within a least squares adjustment by comparing the GGM information with measured GNSS/leveling data. While the GNSS/leveling data comprises the full spectral information, GOCE GGMs are restricted to long wavelengths according to the maximum degree of their spherical harmonic representation. To provide accurate height datum offsets, it is indispensable to account for the remaining signal above this maximum degree, known as the omission error of the GGM. Therefore, a combination of the GOCE information with the high-resolution Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008) is performed. The main contribution of this paper is to analyze the benefit, when high-frequency topography-implied gravity signals are additionally used to reduce the remaining omission error of EGM2008. In terms of a spectral extension, a new method is proposed that does not rely on an assumed spectral consistency of topographic heights and implied gravity as is the case for the residual terrain modeling (RTM) technique. In the first step of this new approach, gravity forward modeling based on tesseroid mass bodies is performed according to the Rock-Water-Ice (RWI) approach. In a second step, the resulting full spectral RWI-based topographic potential values are reduced by the effect of the topographic gravity field model RWI_TOPO_2015, thus, removing the long to medium wavelengths. By using the latest GOCE GGMs, the impact of topography-implied

  6. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  7. Drought-breaking love: An analysis of the moral values implied in ‘Drought’ by Jan Rabie

    OpenAIRE

    C. N. van der Merwe

    1996-01-01

    In this article the tension in 20th century literary theory between absolutism and relativism is discussed. It is argued that, in spite of a movement from absolutism towards relativism, the age-old “absolute” values of truth, beauty and goodness have never been totally forsaken in the creation and the contemplation of literature. In an analysis of “Drought” by Jan Rabie, it is indicated how these values are implied and invoked in Rabie's short story. In conclusion, the fundamental value of lo...

  8. The implied volatility of index options: the evidence of options on the Australian SPI 200 index futures

    OpenAIRE

    Tanha, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the implied volatility component of the Black and Scholes option-pricing model. A recurring finding in the thesis is that in-the-money and out-of ¬the-money options should not be regarded as being on a continuum, but rather as being inherently "different." Additionally, differences across these options are accounted for in relation to behavioural and consumption based models, which, in turn, provide an explanation for the volatility smile. These findings provide a re...

  9. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  10. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  11. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  12. A numerical method to estimate the parameters of the CEV model implied by American option prices: Evidence from NYSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, Luca Vincenzo; Cecere, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a method to compute the parameters of the CEV model implied by American options. • This is the first procedure for calibrating the CEV model to American option prices. • The proposed approach is extensively tested on the NYSE market. • The novel method turns out to be very efficient in computing the CEV model parameters. • The CEV model provides only a marginal improvement over the lognormal model. - Abstract: We develop a highly efficient procedure to forecast the parameters of the constant elasticity of variance (CEV) model implied by American options. In particular, first of all, the American option prices predicted by the CEV model are calculated using an accurate and fast finite difference scheme. Then, the parameters of the CEV model are obtained by minimizing the distance between theoretical and empirical option prices, which yields an optimization problem that is solved using an ad-hoc numerical procedure. The proposed approach, which turns out to be very efficient from the computational standpoint, is used to test the goodness-of-fit of the CEV model in predicting the prices of American options traded on the NYSE. The results obtained reveal that the CEV model does not provide a very good agreement with real market data and yields only a marginal improvement over the more popular Black–Scholes model.

  13. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  14. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  15. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  16. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  17. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  18. Another Theory is Possible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2016-01-01

    The article argues that dissident voices which attempt to theorise Europe differently and advocate another European trajectory have been largely excluded and left unheard in mainstream discussions over the past decade of scholarship and analysis. Dissident voices in European Union studies are tho...... theory, is possible – indeed, probable....

  19. Possibilities of roentgenological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivash, Eh.S.; Sal'man, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Literary and experimental data on estimating possibilities of roentgenologic investigations using an electron optical amplifier, X-ray television and roentgen cinematography are generalized. Different methods of studying gastro-intestinal tract are compared. The advantage of the roentgenologic method over the endoscopic method after stomach resection is shown [ru

  20. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  1. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  2. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  3. Drought-breaking love: An analysis of the moral values implied in ‘Drought’ by Jan Rabie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. van der Merwe

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the tension in 20th century literary theory between absolutism and relativism is discussed. It is argued that, in spite of a movement from absolutism towards relativism, the age-old “absolute” values of truth, beauty and goodness have never been totally forsaken in the creation and the contemplation of literature. In an analysis of “Drought” by Jan Rabie, it is indicated how these values are implied and invoked in Rabie's short story. In conclusion, the fundamental value of love or charity is discussed, a value which contains and supersedes the values of truth, beauty and goodness, and reconciles the tension between absolutism and relativism.

  4. Packaging signals in two single-stranded RNA viruses imply a conserved assembly mechanism and geometry of the packaged genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Eric C; Stockley, Peter G; Twarock, Reidun

    2013-09-09

    The current paradigm for assembly of single-stranded RNA viruses is based on a mechanism involving non-sequence-specific packaging of genomic RNA driven by electrostatic interactions. Recent experiments, however, provide compelling evidence for sequence specificity in this process both in vitro and in vivo. The existence of multiple RNA packaging signals (PSs) within viral genomes has been proposed, which facilitates assembly by binding coat proteins in such a way that they promote the protein-protein contacts needed to build the capsid. The binding energy from these interactions enables the confinement or compaction of the genomic RNAs. Identifying the nature of such PSs is crucial for a full understanding of assembly, which is an as yet untapped potential drug target for this important class of pathogens. Here, for two related bacterial viruses, we determine the sequences and locations of their PSs using Hamiltonian paths, a concept from graph theory, in combination with bioinformatics and structural studies. Their PSs have a common secondary structure motif but distinct consensus sequences and positions within the respective genomes. Despite these differences, the distributions of PSs in both viruses imply defined conformations for the packaged RNA genomes in contact with the protein shell in the capsid, consistent with a recent asymmetric structure determination of the MS2 virion. The PS distributions identified moreover imply a preferred, evolutionarily conserved assembly pathway with respect to the RNA sequence with potentially profound implications for other single-stranded RNA viruses known to have RNA PSs, including many animal and human pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating the implied cost of carbon in future scenarios using a CGE model: The Case of Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, Christopher; Cutler, Harvey; Iverson, Terrence; Keyser, David

    2017-01-01

    Using Colorado as a case study, we develop a state-level computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that reflects the roles of coal, natural gas, wind, solar, and hydroelectricity in supplying electricity. We focus on the economic impact of implementing Colorado's existing Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated in 2013. This requires that 25% of state generation come from qualifying renewable sources by 2020. We evaluate the policy under a variety of assumptions regarding wind integration costs and assumptions on the persistence of federal subsidies for wind. Specifically, we estimate the implied price of carbon as the carbon price at which a state-level policy would pass a state-level cost-benefit analysis, taking account of estimated greenhouse gas emission reductions and ancillary benefits from corresponding reductions in criteria pollutants. Our findings suggest that without the Production Tax Credit (federal aid), the state policy of mandating renewable power generation (RPS) is costly to state actors, with an implied cost of carbon of about $17 per ton of CO2 with a 3% discount rate. Federal aid makes the decision between natural gas and wind nearly cost neutral for Colorado. - Highlights: • If variability cost is low and renewables are federally subsidized, RPS is beneficial. • With no PTC or high variability cost, drop in real consumption less than 0.1%. • With PTC phaseout and high variability cost ICP is low, between $7.16 and $11.45. • With no PTC and high variability cost ICP is between $12.66 and $17.34 per ton.

  6. Health Complaints Associated with Poor Rental Housing Conditions in Arkansas: The Only State without a Landlord’s Implied Warranty of Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Ashley E.; Stewart, M. Kate; Felix, Holly C.; Sealy, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Arkansas is the only U.S. state that does not have a landlord’s implied warranty of habitability, meaning tenants have a requirement for maintaining their rental properties at certain habitability standards, but landlords are not legally required to contribute to those minimum health and safety standards. This project assessed the possibility that this lack of landlord responsibility affects tenants’ perceived health. Using surveys and interviews, we collected self-reported data on the prevalence and description of problems faced by renters who needed household repairs from their landlords. Of almost 1,000 renters, one-third of them had experienced a problem with their landlord making needed repairs; and one-quarter of those had a health issue they attributed to their housing conditions. Common issues included problems with plumbing, heating, or cooling systems, and pest or rodent control. Reported health problems included elevated stress levels, breathing problems, headaches, high blood pressure, and bites or infections. Hispanic respondents and those with less than a high school education were both significantly more likely to report problems with their landlords not making repairs as requested. These data suggest that the lack of landlord requirements may negatively impact the condition of rental properties and, therefore, may negatively impact the health of Arkansas renters. PMID:27933288

  7. Health Complaints Associated with Poor Rental Housing Conditions in Arkansas: The Only State Without a Landlord’s Implied Warranty of Habitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bachelder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Arkansas is the only U.S. state that does not have a landlord’s implied warranty of habitability, meaning tenants have a requirement for maintaining their rental properties at certain habitability standards, but landlords are not legally required to contribute to those minimum health and safety standards. This project assessed the possibility that this lack of landlord responsibility affects tenants’ perceived health. Using surveys and interviews, we collected self-reported data on the prevalence and description of problems faced by renters who needed household repairs from their landlords. Of almost 1000 renters, one third of them had experienced a problem with their landlord making needed repairs; and one-quarter of those had a health issue they attributed to their housing conditions. Common issues included problems with plumbing, heating or cooling systems, and pest or rodent control. Reported health problems included elevated stress levels, breathing problems, headaches, high blood pressure and bites or infections. Hispanic respondents and those with less than a high school education were both significantly more likely to report problems with their landlords not making repairs as requested. The data suggest that the lack of landlord requirements may negatively impact the condition of rental properties, and therefore may negatively impact the health of Arkansas renters.

  8. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  9. Implied motion because of instability in Hokusai Manga activates the human motion-sensitive extrastriate visual cortex: an fMRI study of the impact of visual art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Mariko

    2010-03-10

    The recent development of cognitive neuroscience has invited inference about the neurosensory events underlying the experience of visual arts involving implied motion. We report functional magnetic resonance imaging study demonstrating activation of the human extrastriate motion-sensitive cortex by static images showing implied motion because of instability. We used static line-drawing cartoons of humans by Hokusai Katsushika (called 'Hokusai Manga'), an outstanding Japanese cartoonist as well as famous Ukiyoe artist. We found 'Hokusai Manga' with implied motion by depicting human bodies that are engaged in challenging tonic posture significantly activated the motion-sensitive visual cortex including MT+ in the human extrastriate cortex, while an illustration that does not imply motion, for either humans or objects, did not activate these areas under the same tasks. We conclude that motion-sensitive extrastriate cortex would be a critical region for perception of implied motion in instability.

  10. Towards the Possible Film

    OpenAIRE

    Dawood, S.

    2014-01-01

    Towards the Possible Film is a study in parallel universes – and the sparks that fly when worlds collide. As much of a projection into a far-off future as a flashback to a long-forgotten past, Dawood’s vivid 20-minute tableau combines the resonance of a mythic fable with the hallucinatory haziness of a waking dream. Emerging from the waves, as if transported from another dimension, two blue-skinned astronauts materialise on a red-rocked shoreline (Sidi Ifni in Southern Morocco). Blinking into...

  11. Future possibilities at ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, H.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of the ISOLDE facility at CERN is summarized and recently achieved target/ion-source and separator improvements are presented. New ion source principles being tested include multistep laser ionization, bunched surface ionization, and ECR ion source. The prospects for the high-resolution separator ISOLDE-3 are described. The possibilities of a new ISOLDE installation at the PS Booster at CERN are presented together with the planned features of the new facility. Add-on devices to improve the performance that are presently being discussed are an electrostatic sector field, an electron beam ion stripper, and a high voltage platform for energy boosting. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs

  12. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  13. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  14. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  15. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  16. A Garden of Possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Renowned landscape architect and designer Charles Jencks recently visited CERN along with the architect of the Globe, Hervé Dessimoz, to investigate the possibility of creating a cosmic-inspired garden at the entrance to the Laboratory.   Left to right: Charles Jencks, Peter Higgs, Rolf Heuer in the garden of cosmic speculation. Photo credit: University of Edinburgh/Maverick photo agency Charles Jencks is a master at designing whimsical, intriguing outdoor spaces that hold a much deeper meaning than just an interesting view. His Garden of Cosmic Speculation at his home in Scotland uses designs recalling cosmic forces, DNA, organic cells, spirals of time, black holes and the Universe, made with landform, plants, sculpture and water to re-shape the natural landscape. One of the possible symbols for CERN that came to his mind was the cosmic uroborus, an ancient Egyptian symbol of a snake eating its own tail dating back to 1600 BC. “Many scientists have discussed this as a poss...

  17. New Channels, New Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieterson, Willem; Ebbers, Wolfgang; Østergaard Madsen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of what we call the fourth generation of public sector service channels: social robots. Based on a review of relevant literature we discuss their characteristics and place into multi-channel models of service delivery. We argue that social robots......-channel models of service delivery. This is especially relevant given the current lack of evaluations of such models, the broad range of channels available, and their different stages of deployment at governments around the world. Nevertheless, social robots offer an potentially very relevant addition...

  18. Linkages among U.S. Treasury Bond Yields, Commodity Futures and Stock Market Implied Volatility: New Nonparametric Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vychytilova Jana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore specific cross-asset market correlations over the past fifteen- yearperiod-from January 04, 1999 till April 01, 2015, and within four sub-phases covering both the crisis and the non-crisis periods. On the basis of multivariate statistical methods, we focus on investigating relations between selected well-known market indices- U.S. treasury bond yields- the 30-year treasury yield index (TYX and the 10-year treasury yield (TNX; commodity futures the TR/J CRB; and implied volatility of S&P 500 index- the VIX. We estimate relative logarithmic returns by using monthly close prices adjusted for dividends and splits and run normality and correlation analyses. This paper indicates that the TR/J CRB can be adequately modeled by a normal distribution, whereas the rest of benchmarks do not come from a normal distribution. This paper, inter alia, points out some evidence of a statistically significant negative relationship between bond yields and the VIX in the past fifteen years and a statistically significant negative linkage between the TR/J CRB and the VIX since 2009. In rather general terms, this paper thereafter supports the a priori idea- financial markets are interconnected. Such knowledge can be beneficial for building and testing accurate financial market models, and particularly for the understanding and recognizing market cycles.

  19. Motor facilitation during observation of implied motion: Evidence for a role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Ludovico; Fetterman, Alexander; Concerto, Carmen; Warren, Michael; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Freedberg, David; Chusid, Eileen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2018-06-01

    The phenomenon of motor resonance (the increase in motor cortex excitability during observation of actions) has been previously described. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have demonstrated a similar effect during perception of implied motion (IM). The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seems to be activated during action observation. Furthermore, the role of this brain area in motor resonance to IM is yet to be investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were enrolled into the study. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to stimulate DLPFC aiming to investigate whether stimulation with different polarities would affect the amplitude of motor evoked potential collected during observation of images with and without IM. The results of our experiment indicated that Cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC prevented motor resonance during observation of IM. On the contrary, anodal and sham tDCS did not significantly modulate motor resonance to IM. The current study expands the understanding of the neural circuits engaged during observation of IM. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that action understanding requires the interaction of large networks and that the left DLPFC plays a crucial role in generating motor resonance to IM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The prize - what's possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, K.J.

    1999-05-01

    Recovery factors for comparable reservoirs are often from 10 to 20% higher in the USA than elsewhere. The reason is the relatively low cost of drilling and work-over combined with the high revenue per barrel for the producers in the States. This implies that elsewhere the scope for additional recovery will frequently be of the same order as the noted differences. Another motivation for re-evaluation of older fields is the realisation that irreducible oil saturations measured on core plugs in the past were generally much too high. Consequently, the assumed sweep efficiencies were much too high also, resulting in little incentive for infill drilling or recompletion. A number of factors stimulate the re-evaluation of remaining reserves. Reliable through-casing logging makes the poorly swept zones visible. Detailed structural definition is often possible with 3D seismic. New drilling techniques, like short radius horizontal side tracks, allow economic recompletions of old wells. (Author)

  1. Renewable resources - future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Martin H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy and Related Greenhouse Gas Abatement Technologies (ACRE), its technologies, commercial relationships and markets. The relevance of ACRE to developing country communities which lack reliable, adequate power supplies, is discussed. The opportunities for mutual collaboration between Australia and the developing countries in the application of renewable energy have never been stronger. Renewable energy promises real advantages to those who deploy it wisely, as well as significant job creation. Education at all level together with operational training, public awareness of what is possible and increased system reliability, are also vital ingredients for acceptance of these new technologies. They underpin successful commercialisation. The author concludes with the hope for a united international cooperative approach to the development of the renewable energy industry. (author)

  2. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076

  3. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  4. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  5. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  6. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  7. Phylogeography of a Tertiary relict plant, Meconopsis cambrica (Papaveraceae), implies the existence of northern refugia for a temperate herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtueña, Francisco J; Preston, Chris D; Kadereit, Joachim W

    2012-03-01

    The perennial herb Meconopsis cambrica, a western European endemic, is the only European species of the otherwise Himalayan genus Meconopsis and has been interpreted as a Tertiary relict species. Using rbcL and ITS sequence variation, we date the split between M. cambrica and its sister clade Papaver s.str. to the Middle to Upper Miocene (12.8 Myr, 6.4-19.2 Myr HPD). Within M. cambrica, cpDNA sequence variation reveals the existence of two groups of populations with a comparable level of genetic variation: a northern group from Great Britain, the Massif Central, the western Pyrenees and the Iberian System, and a southern group from the central and eastern Pyrenees. Populations from the Cantabrian Mountains were placed in both groups. Based on ITS sequence variation, the divergence between these two groups can be dated to 1.5 Myr (0.4-2.8 Myr HPD), and the age of the British populations is estimated as 0.37 Myr (0.0-0.9 Myr HPD). Amplified fragment length polymorphism results confirm the distinctive nature of the populations from Britain, the Massif Central and the central and eastern Pyrenees. These patterns of latitudinal variation of M. cambrica differ from patterns of longitudinal differentiation found in many other temperate species and imply glacial survival of the northern populations in northerly refugia. The primary differentiation into northern and southern cpDNA groups dates to near the onset of the Quaternary and suggests that an ancient phylogeographic pattern has survived through several glacial periods. Our data provide evidence that the species has persisted for a long period with a highly fragmented and probably very localized distribution. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Differences in Radiation Dosimetry and Anorectal Function Testing Imply That Anorectal Symptoms May Arise From Different Anatomic Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeenk, Robert Jan; Hopman, Wim P.M.; Hoffmann, Aswin L.; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    . This implies that anal wall and rectal wall should be considered separate organs in radiotherapy planning.

  9. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  10. TELEMAN only rang twice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, D.

    1994-01-01

    TELEMAN is the EC's research and training programme concerning remote handling in ''hazardous or disordered nuclear environments''. After two rounds of contracts, some of which are described here, the next set of projects was to include the construction of practical machines which would be demonstrated on realistic tasks in nuclear plants. However, the Commission has decided that TELEMAN will not continue as a specific programme within its Fourth Framework R and D Programme. An unfortunate consequence of this decision will be the cessation of the TELEMAN Users Group. However, informal discussion between the Commission and various users over the last nine months have indicated the strong possibility that a similar group should be set up to cover all nuclear users of telerobotic systems in Europe. All nuclear users are being canvassed to see what support there would be for the establishment of a European Telerobotic Users Group (EUTRUG). (Author)

  11. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  12. High frequency microseismic noise as possible earthquake precursor

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Sović; Kristina Šariri; Mladen Živčić

    2013-01-01

    Before an earthquake occurs, microseismic noise in high frequency (HF) range, i.e. 2-25 Hz, is being generated during preparation process. These signals change the microseismic noise and, consequently, the spectrum of microseismic noise. Time variation of spectra recorded at the same seismological station could imply the change of the state of noise source. We propose the image moment analysis approach to objectively compare microseismic noise spectra. The result could be used for earthquake ...

  13. Reduced {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake implies decreased myocardial flow reserve in patients with chronic stable angina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Mabuchi, Megumi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Naya, Masanao [Hokkaido University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Kawai, Yuko [Hokko Memorial Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2006-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) is the main energy source for normal myocardium at rest, but in ischemic myocardium, the main energy substrate shifts from LCFA to glucose. {sup 123}I-BMIPP is a radiolabeled LCFA analog. In chronic stable angina without previous infarction, we suppose that reduced {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake is related to the substrate shift in myocardium with decreased myocardial flow reserve (MFR). The purpose of this study was to relate {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake to rest myocardial blood flow (MBF), hyperemic MBF, and MFR assessed with {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). We enrolled 21 patients with chronic stable angina without previous infarction, all of whom underwent {sup 123}I-BMIPP single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and {sup 15}O-water PET. The left ventricle was divided into 13 segments. In each segment, rest MBF and hyperemic MBF were measured by PET. {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake was evaluated as follows: score 0=normal, 1=slightly decreased uptake, 2=moderately decreased uptake, 3=severely decreased uptake, and 4=complete defect. {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake was compared with rest MBF, hyperemic MBF, and MFR. The numbers of segments with {sup 123}I-BMIPP scores 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 178, 40, 25, 24, and 0, respectively. The rest MBFs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 0.93{+-}0.25, 0.86{+-}0.21, 0.97{+-}0.30, and 0.99{+-}0.37 ml/min/g, respectively. The hyperemic MBFs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 2.76{+-}1.29, 1.84{+-}0.74, 1.37{+-}0.39, and 1.08{+-}0.40 ml/min/g, respectively. The MFRs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 3.01{+-}1.38, 2.20{+-}0.95, 1.44{+-}0.22, and 1.10{+-}0.26, respectively. As {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake declined, hyperemic MBF and MFR decreased. In chronic stable angina without previous infarction, reduced {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake implies decreased MFR. (orig.)

  14. Reduced 123I-BMIPP uptake implies decreased myocardial flow reserve in patients with chronic stable angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Mabuchi, Megumi; Naya, Masanao; Kawai, Yuko; Tamaki, Nagara

    2006-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) is the main energy source for normal myocardium at rest, but in ischemic myocardium, the main energy substrate shifts from LCFA to glucose. 123I-BMIPP is a radiolabeled LCFA analog. In chronic stable angina without previous infarction, we suppose that reduced 123I-BMIPP uptake is related to the substrate shift in myocardium with decreased myocardial flow reserve (MFR). The purpose of this study was to relate 123I-BMIPP uptake to rest myocardial blood flow (MBF), hyperemic MBF, and MFR assessed with 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET). We enrolled 21 patients with chronic stable angina without previous infarction, all of whom underwent 123I-BMIPP single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 15O-water PET. The left ventricle was divided into 13 segments. In each segment, rest MBF and hyperemic MBF were measured by PET. 123I-BMIPP uptake was evaluated as follows: score 0=normal, 1=slightly decreased uptake, 2=moderately decreased uptake, 3=severely decreased uptake, and 4=complete defect. 123I-BMIPP uptake was compared with rest MBF, hyperemic MBF, and MFR. The numbers of segments with 123I-BMIPP scores 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 178, 40, 25, 24, and 0, respectively. The rest MBFs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 0.93+/-0.25, 0.86+/-0.21, 0.97+/-0.30, and 0.99+/-0.37 ml/min/g, respectively. The hyperemic MBFs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 2.76+/-1.29, 1.84+/-0.74, 1.37+/-0.39, and 1.08+/-0.40 ml/min/g, respectively. The MFRs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 3.01+/-1.38, 2.20+/-0.95, 1.44+/-0.22, and 1.10+/-0.26, respectively. As 123I-BMIPP uptake declined, hyperemic MBF and MFR decreased. In chronic stable angina without previous infarction, reduced 123I-BMIPP uptake implies decreased MFR.

  15. Reduced 123I-BMIPP uptake implies decreased myocardial flow reserve in patients with chronic stable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Mabuchi, Megumi; Tamaki, Nagara; Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Naya, Masanao; Kawai, Yuko

    2006-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) is the main energy source for normal myocardium at rest, but in ischemic myocardium, the main energy substrate shifts from LCFA to glucose. 123 I-BMIPP is a radiolabeled LCFA analog. In chronic stable angina without previous infarction, we suppose that reduced 123 I-BMIPP uptake is related to the substrate shift in myocardium with decreased myocardial flow reserve (MFR). The purpose of this study was to relate 123 I-BMIPP uptake to rest myocardial blood flow (MBF), hyperemic MBF, and MFR assessed with 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET). We enrolled 21 patients with chronic stable angina without previous infarction, all of whom underwent 123 I-BMIPP single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 15 O-water PET. The left ventricle was divided into 13 segments. In each segment, rest MBF and hyperemic MBF were measured by PET. 123 I-BMIPP uptake was evaluated as follows: score 0=normal, 1=slightly decreased uptake, 2=moderately decreased uptake, 3=severely decreased uptake, and 4=complete defect. 123 I-BMIPP uptake was compared with rest MBF, hyperemic MBF, and MFR. The numbers of segments with 123 I-BMIPP scores 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 178, 40, 25, 24, and 0, respectively. The rest MBFs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 0.93±0.25, 0.86±0.21, 0.97±0.30, and 0.99±0.37 ml/min/g, respectively. The hyperemic MBFs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 2.76±1.29, 1.84±0.74, 1.37±0.39, and 1.08±0.40 ml/min/g, respectively. The MFRs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 3.01±1.38, 2.20±0.95, 1.44±0.22, and 1.10±0.26, respectively. As 123 I-BMIPP uptake declined, hyperemic MBF and MFR decreased. In chronic stable angina without previous infarction, reduced 123 I-BMIPP uptake implies decreased MFR. (orig.)

  16. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  17. Long-time tails do not necessarily imply self-organized criticality or the breakdown of the standard transport paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Ottaviani, M.

    2000-01-01

    Numerical measurements and analytical studies are performed on a stochastic model with features relevant to plasma confinement. Although the model lacks crucial features of self-organized criticality (SOC) and its transport can be computed by standard techniques, it nevertheless exhibits intermittency and algebraic time correlations. This suggests that SOC need not be the explanation for observed long-time tails in experimental fluctuation data. Arguments based on the renormalized spectral balance equation, and simulation of a standard nonlinear paradigm, predict a range of Hurst exponents in reasonable agreement with the observations without invoking submarginal dynamics

  18. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  19. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and uptake ratio of 131I-4-Iodo-phenylacetic acid in normal and tumour implied animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuecs, Z.; Sello, T.; Sathekge, M.

    2012-01-01

    per gram of tissue (%ID/g) is given in Table 1 for nine animals as three were considered outliers predominantly due to a high percentage of activity remaining in the tail after injection. The tumour to background ratio was calculated by comparing the muscle on the left flank as opposed to the right flank where the tumour was induced. The labeling via isotopic exchange did yield a low specific activity of the tracer which meant that a substantial amount of 4-iodo-phenylacetic acid was injected. This would amount to 30 μg per rat or 75 μg/kg or 1.1 μg/ml blood (mass of rats 400g and assuming 7% of body weight is blood). The LD50 value for phenyl acetic acid is 1600 mg/kg for intraperitoneal injection in rats which is orders of magnitude higher than the amount injected and therefore one can assume the 0,075 mg/kg injected 4-iodo-phenyl-acetic acid would not adversely interfere with the biological processes in the rat. The amount of phenyl-acetic acid in normal tissue is 16.8 μg/ml which is also a two orders of magnitude higher than the amount of 4-iodophenyl-acetic acid injected. This implies that the biodistribution of the tracer was not influenced by its metabolic product due to equilibrium with phenyl-acetic acid already present in the body. 131 I-4-iodo-phenyl-acetic acid was successfully prepared and the biodistribution in rats recorded. As expected no target organ was found after 5 h (although at the early stages a high cardiac blood pool uptake was recorded) with fast excretion from all organs via the kidney into the urine. In xenograft mice study a 4% tumour uptake and a tumour to background ratio of 2 was recorded after 5 h although high activity levels in the blood still remained at this time point.

  20. A No-Arbitrage Fractional Cointegration Model for Futures and Spot Daily Ranges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The no-arbitrage relation between futures and spot prices implies an analogous relation between futures and spot daily ranges. The long-memory features of the range-based volatility estimators are analyzed, and fractional cointegration is tested in a semi-parametric framework. In particular, the no...

  1. Long-range terms in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.; Weaver, O.L.

    1986-01-01

    Various separations, or ''gauge choices,'' are possible for the decomposition of the total Hamiltonian into electronic and internuclear terms. We show that, for one particular choice, all long-range Coulomb terms are associated with the internuclear motion. The potential then associated with electronic transitions is non-Coulombic. Some practical consequences of this gauge choice are discussed

  2. Interaction between the C-terminal domains of measles virus nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein: a tight complex implying one binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocquel, David; Habchi, Johnny; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Doizy, Anthony; Oglesbee, Michael; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    The intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (N(TAIL) ) of the measles virus (MeV) nucleoprotein undergoes α-helical folding upon binding to the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the phosphoprotein. The N(TAIL) region involved in binding coupled to folding has been mapped to a conserved region (Box2) encompassing residues 489-506. In the previous studies published in this journal, we obtained experimental evidence supporting a K(D) for the N(TAIL) -XD binding reaction in the nM range and also showed that an additional N(TAIL) region (Box3, aa 517-525) plays a role in binding to XD. In striking contrast with these data, studies published in this journal by Kingston and coworkers pointed out a much less stable complex (K(D) in the μM range) and supported lack of involvement of Box3 in complex formation. The objective of this study was to critically re-evaluate the role of Box3 in N(TAIL) -XD binding. Since our previous studies relied on N(TAIL) -truncated forms possessing an irrelevant Flag sequence appended at their C-terminus, we, herein, generated an N(TAIL) devoid of Box3 and any additional C-terminal residues, as well as a form encompassing only residues 482-525. We then used isothermal titration calorimetry to characterize the binding reactions between XD and these N(TAIL) forms. Results effectively argue for the presence of a single XD-binding site located within Box2, in agreement with the results by Kingston et al., while providing clear experimental support for a high-affinity complex. Altogether, the present data provide mechanistic insights into the replicative machinery of MeV and clarify a hitherto highly debated point. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  3. Photonic limiters with enhanced dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Rodion; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos; Anisimov, Igor; Vitebskiy, Ilya; Chabanov, Andrey

    2018-02-01

    Optical limiters transmit low intensity input light while blocking input light with the intensity exceeding certain limiting threshold. Conventional passive limiters utilize nonlinear optical materials, which are transparent at low light intensity and turn absorptive at high intensity. Strong nonlinear absorption, though, can result in over- heating and destruction of the limiter. Another problem is that the limiting threshold provided by the available optical material with nonlinear absorption is too high for many applications. To address the above problems, the nonlinear material can be incorporated in a photonic structure with engineered dispersion. At low intensity, the photonic structure can display resonant transmission via localized mode(s), while at high intensity the resonant transmission can disappear, and the entire stack can become highly re ective (not absorptive) within a broad frequency range. In the proposed design, the transition from the resonant transmission at low intensity to nearly total re ectivity at high intensity does not rely on nonlinear absorption; instead, it requires only a modest change in the refractive index of the nonlinear material. The latter implies a dramatic increase in the dynamic range of the limiter. The main idea is to eliminate the high-intensity resonant transmission by decoupling the localized (resonant) modes from the input light, rather than suppressing those modes using nonlinear absorption. Similar approach can be used for light modulation and switching.

  4. On the possible adaptive value of coprophagy in free-ranging chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krief, Sabrina; Jamart, Aliette; Hladik, Claude-Marcel

    2004-04-01

    Coprophagy occurred during major periods of feeding on fruits of Dialium spp. (Caesalpiniaceae) in a group of orphaned chimpanzees released in Conkouati Douli National Park, Republic of Congo. Since stress, boredom or food scarcity could not explain coprophagy according to our daily behavioral and veterinary control observations, we suggest that Dialium seeds were the item of interest in the feces. Two types of Dialium seeds were commonly found in the feces after chimpanzees swallowed the mesocarp and whole seeds together. These seeds were either whole and hard or whole/broken and soft imbibed. A mechanical and/or chemical effect of the gut passage may enable the chimpanzees to chew and ingest the seeds, thus providing nutritional intake.

  5. Thermodynamic Description of Synergy in Solvent Extraction: II Thermodynamic Balance of Driving Forces Implied in Synergistic Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J; Bley, M; Dufrêche, J-F; Gourdin, S; Pellet-Rostaing, S; Zemb, T; Dourdain, S

    2017-11-21

    In the second part of this study, we analyze the free energy of transfer in the case of synergistic solvent extraction. This free energy of the transfer of an ion in dynamic equilibrium between two coexisting phases is decomposed into four driving forces combining long-range interactions with the classical complexation free energy associated with the nearest neighbors. We demonstrate how the organometallic complexation is counterbalanced by the cost in free energy related to structural change on the colloidal scale in the solvent phase. These molecular forces of synergistic extraction are driven not only by the entropic term associated with the tight packing of electrolytes in the solvent and by the free energy cost of coextracting water toward the hydrophilic core of the reverse aggregates present but also by the entropic costs in the formation of the reverse aggregate and by the interfacial bending energy of the extractant molecules packed around the extracted species. Considering the sum of the terms, we can rationalize the synergy observed, which cannot be explained by classical extraction modeling. We show an industrial synergistic mixture combining an amide and a phosphate complexing site, where the most efficient/selective mixture is observed for a minimal bending energy and maximal complexation energy.

  6. Low susceptibility of invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans) to a generalist ectoparasite in both its introduced and native ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkel, Paul C; Tuttle, Lillian J; Cure, Katherine; Coile, Ann Marie; Hixon, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Escape from parasites in their native range is one of many mechanisms that can contribute to the success of an invasive species. Gnathiid isopods are blood-feeding ectoparasites that infest a wide range of fish hosts, mostly in coral reef habitats. They are ecologically similar to terrestrial ticks, with the ability to transmit blood-borne parasites and cause damage or even death to heavily infected hosts. Therefore, being highly resistant or highly susceptible to gnathiids can have significant fitness consequences for reef-associated fishes. Indo-Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans) have invaded coastal habitats of the western tropical and subtropical Atlantic and Caribbean regions. We assessed the susceptibility of red lionfish to parasitic gnathiid isopods in both their native Pacific and introduced Atlantic ranges via experimental field studies during which lionfish and other, ecologically-similar reef fishes were caged and exposed to gnathiid infestation on shallow coral reefs. Lionfish in both ranges had very few gnathiids when compared with other species, suggesting that lionfish are not highly susceptible to infestation by generalist ectoparasitic gnathiids. While this pattern implies that release from gnathiid infestation is unlikely to contribute to the success of lionfish as invaders, it does suggest that in environments with high gnathiid densities, lionfish may have an advantage over species that are more susceptible to gnathiids. Also, because lionfish are not completely resistant to gnathiids, our results suggest that lionfish could possibly have transported blood parasites between their native Pacific and invaded Atlantic ranges.

  7. Low susceptibility of invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans to a generalist ectoparasite in both its introduced and native ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Sikkel

    Full Text Available Escape from parasites in their native range is one of many mechanisms that can contribute to the success of an invasive species. Gnathiid isopods are blood-feeding ectoparasites that infest a wide range of fish hosts, mostly in coral reef habitats. They are ecologically similar to terrestrial ticks, with the ability to transmit blood-borne parasites and cause damage or even death to heavily infected hosts. Therefore, being highly resistant or highly susceptible to gnathiids can have significant fitness consequences for reef-associated fishes. Indo-Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans have invaded coastal habitats of the western tropical and subtropical Atlantic and Caribbean regions. We assessed the susceptibility of red lionfish to parasitic gnathiid isopods in both their native Pacific and introduced Atlantic ranges via experimental field studies during which lionfish and other, ecologically-similar reef fishes were caged and exposed to gnathiid infestation on shallow coral reefs. Lionfish in both ranges had very few gnathiids when compared with other species, suggesting that lionfish are not highly susceptible to infestation by generalist ectoparasitic gnathiids. While this pattern implies that release from gnathiid infestation is unlikely to contribute to the success of lionfish as invaders, it does suggest that in environments with high gnathiid densities, lionfish may have an advantage over species that are more susceptible to gnathiids. Also, because lionfish are not completely resistant to gnathiids, our results suggest that lionfish could possibly have transported blood parasites between their native Pacific and invaded Atlantic ranges.

  8. Accumulation of Fe oxyhydroxides in the Peruvian oxygen deficient zone implies non-oxygen dependent Fe oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Maija I.; Lam, Phoebe J.; Moffett, James W.; Till, Claire P.; Lee, Jong-Mi; Toner, Brandy M.; Marcus, Matthew A.

    2017-08-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have been proposed to be an important source of dissolved iron (Fe) into the interior ocean. However, previous studies in OMZs have shown a sharp decrease in total dissolved Fe (dFe) and/or dissolved Fe(II) (dFe(II)) concentrations at the shelf-break, despite constant temperature, salinity and continued lack of oxygen across the shelf-break. The loss of both total dFe and dFe(II) suggests a conversion of the dFe to particulate form, but studies that have coupled the reduction-oxidation (redox) speciation of both dissolved and particulate phases have not previously been done. Here we have measured the redox speciation and concentrations of both dissolved and particulate forms of Fe in samples collected during the U.S. GEOTRACES Eastern tropical Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) cruise in 2013 (GP16). This complete data set allows us to assess possible mechanisms for loss of dFe. We observed an offshore loss of dFe(II) within the oxygen deficient zone (ODZ), where dissolved oxygen is undetectable, accompanied by an increase in total particulate Fe (pFe). Total pFe concentrations were highest in the upper ODZ. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the pFe maximum was primarily in the Fe(III) form as Fe(III) oxyhydroxides. The remarkable similarity in the distributions of total particulate iron and nitrite suggests a role for nitrite in the oxidation of dFe(II) to pFe(III). We present a conceptual model for the rapid redox cycling of Fe that occurs in ODZs, despite the absence of oxygen.

  9. Resolution among major placental mammal interordinal relationships with genome data imply that speciation influenced their earliest radiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janke Axel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of the deeper divergences in the placental mammal tree are still inconclusively resolved despite extensive phylogenomic analyses. A recent analysis of 200 kbp of protein coding sequences yielded only limited support for the relationships among Laurasiatheria (cow, dog, bat and shrew, probably because the divergences occurred only within a few million years from each other. It is generally expected that increasing the amount of data and improving the taxon sampling enhance the resolution of narrow divergences. Therefore these and other difficult splits were examined by phylogenomic analysis of the hitherto largest sequence alignment. The increasingly complete genome data of placental mammals also allowed developing a novel and stringent data search method. Results The rigorous data handling, recursive BLAST, successfully removed the sequences from gene families, including those from well-known families hemoglobin, olfactory, myosin and HOX genes, thus avoiding alignment of possibly paralogous sequences. The current phylogenomic analysis of 3,012 genes (2,844,615 nucleotides from a total of 22 species yielded statistically significant support for most relationships. While some major clades were confirmed using genomic sequence data, the placement of the treeshrew, bat and the relationship between Boreoeutheria, Xenarthra and Afrotheria remained problematic to resolve despite the size of the alignment. Phylogenomic analysis of divergence times dated the basal placental mammal splits at 95–100 million years ago. Many of the following divergences occurred only a few (2–4 million years later. Relationships with narrow divergence time intervals received unexpectedly limited support even from the phylogenomic analyses. Conclusion The narrow temporal window within which some placental divergences took place suggests that inconsistencies and limited resolution of the mammalian tree may have their natural explanation in

  10. Transgene flow: Facts, speculations and possible countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence has accumulated that unintended transgene escape occurs in oilseed rape, maize, cotton and creeping bentgrass. The escaped transgenes are found in variant cultivars, in wild type plants as well as in hybrids of sexually compatible species. The fact that in some cases stacked events are present that have not been planted commercially, implies unintended recombination of transgenic traits. As the consequences of this continuous transgene escape for the ecosystem cannot be reliably predicted, I propose to use more sophisticated approaches of gene technology in future. If possible GM plants should be constructed using either site-directed mutagenesis or cisgenic strategies to avoid the problem of transgene escape. In cases where a transgenic trait is needed, efficient containment should be the standard approach. Various strategies available or in development are discussed. Such a cautious approach in developing novel types of GM crops will enhance the sustainable potential of GM crops and thus increase the public trust in green gene technology. PMID:25523171

  11. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  12. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  13. Time-temperature-burial significance of Devonian anthracite implies former great (approx.6.5 km) depth of burial of Catskill Mountains, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, G.M.; Sanders, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of coalified plant debris in Tully-correlative strata of the Gilboa Formation (uppermost Middle Devonian) within the eastern Catskill Mountains of New York State have been converted to anthracite having a vitrinite reflectance of 2.5%. This implies a level of organic metamorphism (LOM) of 16. The specimens are about 350 m.y. old; if 200 m.y. is taken as the duration of the time of exposure to the maximum geothermal temperature, then the LOM of 16 and other thermal indicators imply a maximum temperature of 190 0 C. Using a geothermal gradient of 26 0 C.km -1 (17 0 F.1,000 ft -1 ), a former depth of burial of 6.5 km is implied. Such former deep burial is not usually inferred for the Catskills, but it is consistent with the idea that the thick (about 6.4 km or 21,000 ft) Carboniferous strata of northeastern Pennsylvania formerly extended northeast far enough to bury the Catskills. The lack of metamorphism of the Paleozoic strata lying about 4.5 km beneath the Tully-correlative rocks and exposed in the adjacent Hudson Valley places low limits on the former geothermal gradient; this supports the concept of great depth of former burial of the Catskills. For example, 6.5 km of former burial and a geothermal gradient of 26 0 C.km -1 imply a temperature of 307 0 C for the base of the Paleozoic. By contrast, only 1 km of former burial requires a geothermal gradient of 170 0 C.km -1 , which would have subjected the base of the Paleozoic to a temperature of 955 0 GAMMA, which is far higher than the 600 to 650 0 C recently inferred for the Acadian-age metamorphism of the Taconic allochthon in southwestern Massachusetts and adjoining areas

  14. Less than one implies zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenninger, Felix L.; Zwart, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show that from an estimate of the form supt≥0 C(t) - cos(at)I < 1, we can conclude that C(t) equals cos(at)I. Here (C(t)) t≥0 is a strongly continuous cosine family on a Banach space.

  15. Does classical liberalism imply democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a fault line running through classical liberalism as to whether or not democratic self-governance is a necessary part of a liberal social order. The democratic and non-democratic strains of classical liberalism are both present today—particularly in the United States. Many contemporary libertarians and neo-Austrian economists represent the non-democratic strain in their promotion of non-democratic sovereign city-states (start-up cities or charter cities. We will take the late James M. Buchanan as a representative of the democratic strain of classical liberalism. Since the fundamental norm of classical liberalism is consent, we must start with the intellectual history of the voluntary slavery contract, the coverture marriage contract, and the voluntary non-democratic constitution (or pactum subjectionis. Next we recover the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience through the Enlightenment (e.g. Spinoza and Hutcheson in the abolitionist and democratic movements. Consent-based governments divide into those based on the subjects’ alienation of power to a sovereign and those based on the citizens’ delegation of power to representatives. Inalienable rights theory rules out that alienation in favor of delegation, so the citizens remain the ultimate principals and the form of government is democratic. Thus the argument concludes in agreement with Buchanan that the classical liberal endorsement of sovereign individuals acting in the marketplace generalizes to the joint action of individuals as the principals in their own organizations.

  16. Doped silicene: Evidence of a wide stability range

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2011-06-17

    The effects of doping on the lattice structure, electronic structure, phonon spectrum, and electron-phonon coupling of low-buckling silicene are studied by first-principles calculations. Although the lattice is found to be very sensitive to the carrier concentration, it is stable in a wide doping range. The frequencies of the E2g-Γ and A′-K Raman modes can be used to probe the carrier concentration. In addition, the phonon dispersion displays Kohn anomalies at the Γ and K points which are reduced by doping. This implies that the electron-phonon coupling cannot be neglected in field-effect transistor applications. Copyright © 2011 EPLA.

  17. Lineages that cheat death: surviving the squeeze on range size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Anthony

    2010-08-01

    Evolutionary lineages differ greatly in their net diversification rates, implying differences in rates of extinction and speciation. Lineages with a large average range size are commonly thought to have reduced extinction risk (although linking low extinction to high diversification has proved elusive). However, climate change cycles can dramatically reduce the geographic range size of even widespread species, and so most species may be periodically reduced to a few populations in small, isolated remnants of their range. This implies a high and synchronous extinction risk for the remaining populations, and so for the species as a whole. Species will only survive through these periods if their individual populations are "threat tolerant," somehow able to persist in spite of the high extinction risk. Threat tolerance is conceptually different from classic extinction resistance, and could theoretically have a stronger relationship with diversification rates than classic resistance. I demonstrate that relationship using primates as a model. I also show that narrowly distributed species have higher threat tolerance than widespread ones, confirming that tolerance is an unusual form of resistance. Extinction resistance may therefore operate by different rules during periods of adverse global environmental change than in more benign periods.

  18. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  19. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  20. Range distributions in multiply implanted targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, S.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Karpuzov, D.S.; Armour, D.G.; Carter, G.; Salford Univ.

    1984-01-01

    Range distributions in inhomogeneous binary targets have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Silicon single crystal targets [(111) orientation] were implanted with 40 keV Pb + ions to fluences in the range from 5x10 14 to 7.5x10 16 cm -2 prior to bombardment with 80 keV Kr + ions to a fluence of 5x10 15 cm -2 . The samples were analysed using high resolution Rutherford backscattering before and after the krypton implantation in order to determine the dependence of the krypton distribution on the amount of lead previously implanted. The theoretical analysis was undertaken using the formalism developed in [1] and the computer simulation was based on the MARLOWE code. The agreement between the experimental, theoretical and computational krypton profiles is very good and the results indicate that accurate prediction of ranges profiles in inhomogeneous binary targets is possible using available theoretical and computational treatments. (orig.)

  1. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...

  2. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  3. Energy System Expectations for Nuclear in the 21. Century: A Plausible Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlois, Lucille M.; McDonald, Alan; Rogner, Hans-Holger; Vera, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines a range of scenarios describing what the world's energy system might look like in the middle of the century, and what nuclear energy's most profitable role might be. The starting point is the 40 non-greenhouse-gas-mitigation scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2000). Given their international authorship and comprehensive review by governments and scientific experts, the SRES scenarios are the state of the art in long-term energy scenarios. However, they do not present the underlying energy system structures in enough detail for specific energy technology and infrastructure analyses. This paper therefore describes initial steps within INPRO (The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles of the International Atomic Energy Agency) to translate the SRES results into a range of possible nuclear energy technology requirements for mid-century. The paper summarizes the four SRES scenarios that will be used in INPRO and the reasons for their selection. It provides illustrative examples of the sort of additional detail that is being developed about the overall energy system implied by each scenario, and about specific scenario features particularly relevant to nuclear energy. As recommended in SRES, the selected scenarios cover all four SRES 'story-line families'. The energy system translations being developed in INPRO are intended to indicate how energy services may be provided in mid-century and to delineate likely technology and infrastructure implications. They will indicate answers to questions like the following. The list is illustrative, not comprehensive. - What kind of nuclear power plants will best fit the mid-century energy system? - What energy forms and other products and services provided by nuclear reactors will best fit the mid-century energy system? - What would be their market shares? - How difficult will it be to site new nuclear

  4. Natural gas in Norway - Possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerstad, H.; Eldegard, T.; Reve, T.; Sunnevaag, K.; Aarrestad, J.

    1995-06-01

    Norway is rich in gas resources. In recent years, gas sales from the Norwegian continental shelf have been in the order of 25 to 30 billion Sm 3 /yr and are expected to increase strongly the next 10 to 15 years. However, a scattered population, a difficult topography, long distances between large potential consumers and where the gas is brought ashore, make it difficult to utilize the gas commercially in this country. Moreover, the gas will have to compete with a highly developed hydro-electric network. This report evaluates possibilities and hindrances in the establishment of a home market for natural gas in Norway. The low population density implies that using gas for preheating of water, heating of rooms etc will not become important except, perhaps, locally, where gas may be available for other reasons. As a source of energy and raw material in many industrial processes, natural gas can become important in some coastal areas and in central parts of eastern Norway. Discussions are in progress on gas power stations for electricity production. This has aroused some controversy because of environmental problems, and for political acceptance gas power will have to replace coal power. As a fuel, gas may be of interest for domestic ferries and for busses. A lack of capital under financial risk and gas prices limit the market development. Although tax policy is presently favourable to gas power, the risk taken by private investors in converting to natural gas is increased by their not knowing for how long the gas will be exempt from environmental tax. 74 refs., 8 figs., 27 tabs

  5. Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K. J.

    2017-09-01

    Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.

  6. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  7. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    entropy saturation behavior of the estimator is analytically described. Simultaneous range-compression and aperture synthesis is experimentally...4 2.1 Circular and Inverse -Circular HAL...2.3 Single Aperture, Multi-λ Imaging ...................................................................................... 14 2.4 Simultaneous Range

  8. Relationship between welfare and individual ranging behaviour in commercial free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, H; Hemsworth, P H; Cronin, G M; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Smith, C L; Rault, J-L

    2018-01-24

    free-range systems provide hens with adequate choice to cope with their environment. Further research into the relationship between individual range access and welfare is needed to test this possibility.

  9. Precise Range Determination Using Laser Ranging Data of LAGEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ryul Kim

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite laser ranging observation of LAGEOS ¥± has been performed using the SLR System at Sheshan Laser Ranging Station, Shanghai Observatory. And we obtained 1,838 observational points The observed range data is corrected by means of system delay correction using ground target observation, atmospheric refraction delay correction, offset correction, general relativistic correction and tide correction including solid tide, polar tide and ocean tide. As a result, the determined range delay mean value is 19.12m and the mean internal accuracy by means of polynomial fitting and least square method is ¡¾7cm. Corrected observational points are 1,340 and noise ratio to total observational points is 27.1%

  10. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  11. Current puzzles and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, S.

    1982-02-01

    Four current puzzles and several future experimental possibilities in high-energy nuclear collision research are discussed. These puzzles are (1) entropy, (2) hydrodynamic flow, (3) anomalon, and (4) particle emission at backward angles in proton-nucleus collisions. The last one seems not to be directly related to the subject of the present school. But it is, because particle emission into the region far beyond the nucleon-nucleon kinematical limit is an interesting subject common for both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions, and the basic mechanism involved is strongly related in these two cases. Future experimental possibilities are described which include: (1) possibilities of studying multibaryonic excited states, (2) applications of neutron-rich isotopes, and (3) other needed experimental tasks. 72 references

  12. ON range searching in the group model and combinatorial discrepancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we establish an intimate connection between dynamic range searching in the group model and combinatorial discrepancy. Our result states that, for a broad class of range searching data structures (including all known upper bounds), it must hold that $t_u t_q=\\Omega(\\mbox{disc}^2......)$, where $t_u$ is the worst case update time, $t_q$ is the worst case query time, and disc is the combinatorial discrepancy of the range searching problem in question. This relation immediately implies a whole range of exceptionally high and near-tight lower bounds for all of the basic range searching...... problems. We list a few of them in the following: (1) For $d$-dimensional halfspace range searching, we get a lower bound of $t_u t_q=\\Omega(n^{1-1/d})$. This comes within an lg lg $n$ factor of the best known upper bound. (2) For orthogonal range searching, we get a lower bound of $t_u t...

  13. Neutrino geophysics - a future possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Dezsoe

    1988-01-01

    The history and basic properties of the neutrinos are reviewed. A new idea: neutrino tomography of the Earth interior is discussed in detail. The main contradiction: the high pervasivity of neutrinos, which makes possible the transillumination of the Earth, and the gigantic technical problems of detection caused by the small cross section is pointed out. The proposed possibilities of detection (radiowaves, sound, muons and Cherenkov light emitted by neutrinos) are described. Proposed futuristic technical ideas (mobile muon detectors aboard trucks, floating proton accelerators of 100 km circumference, moving in the ocean) and supposed geological aims (Earth's core, internal density anomalies, quarries of minerals and crude oil) are discussed. (D.Gy.) 5 figs

  14. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Xavier E

    2005-01-01

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15)

  15. On inertial range scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    Inertial-range scaling laws for two- and three-dimensional turbulence are re-examined within a unified framework. A new correction to Kolmogorov's k -5/3 scaling is derived for the energy inertial range. A related modification is found to Kraichnan's logarithmically corrected two-dimensional enstrophy cascade law that removes its unexpected divergence at the injection wavenumber. The significance of these corrections is illustrated with steady-state energy spectra from recent high-resolution closure computations. The results also underscore the asymptotic nature of inertial-range scaling laws. Implications for conventional numerical simulations are discussed

  16. GPS test range mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  17. Discussion of participation possibilities at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    A group of physicists at TRIUMF have been meeting regularly to discuss options for involvement in experiments that relate closely to the physics that would be undertaken at the KAON Factory. At a meeting held to discuss possibilities for work at KEK in the light of the new facilities that are under construction or proposed as part of the JHP, the topics considered ranged from the ion source to kaon beams. They included measurements of kaon-nucleon elastic and inelastic scattering in the 1600 to 2000 MeV range; transport of polarized proton beams through synchrotrons; the development of laser pumped polarized ion sources and volume cusp H - sources; studies of the problems that high intensity beams will present for the maintenance of H - stripping foils; collaboration on radioactive beam facilities; production of hypernuclei; low energy kaon scattering; and new types of detectors

  18. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In my attempt to adhere to the request that I provide an interpretation of the theme for the session,. 'Critical Engagement, Innovation and Inclusivity', and cognisant of the primary audience,. I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the address. Events since the plenary address ...

  19. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the ... The conundrum of fee-free higher education is not an abstract concept floating ... You can choose to engage with the issue by expressing yourself in many ways. .... Africa today, such as Recognition of Prior Learning (SAQA, 2004), we very ...

  20. Machiavelli’s Possibility Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Holler, Manfred J.; Marciano, Alain

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the thesis that in Arrow’s Possibility Theorem the dictator (merely) serves as a solution to the logical problem of aggregating preference while Machiavelli’s dictator, the Prince, has the historical function to bring order into a world of chaos and thus make society ready for the implementation of a republican structure.

  1. Possible nonvanishing mass of photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Hiromichi; Namiki, Mikio; Yamanaka, Yoshiya; Yokoyama, Kan-ichi.

    1985-05-01

    From phenomenological and field-theoretical considerations on photon mass, we first show that photon is not limitted to being massless at the present stage. Next we illustrate a possibility of formulating a local field theory for massive photons coupled with nonconserved currents, while we cannot do for massless photons. (author)

  2. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Willy

    2016-01-01

    In my attempt to adhere to the request that I provide an interpretation of the theme for the session, "Critical Engagement, Innovation and Inclusivity", and cognisant of the primary audience, I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the address. Events since the plenary address have however…

  3. On probability-possibility transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klir, George J.; Parviz, Behzad

    1992-01-01

    Several probability-possibility transformations are compared in terms of the closeness of preserving second-order properties. The comparison is based on experimental results obtained by computer simulation. Two second-order properties are involved in this study: noninteraction of two distributions and projections of a joint distribution.

  4. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    molecular oxygen in the atmosphere at 60 GHz (figure 9 LIppolito, 1981]). The MMW range is similar to that of the UV links. 3.3.1 Variable Range Similar to...option also requires that the signal be strong enough to overcome the noise from the solar and background sources, although the molecular oxygen and... emisions . Lasing will occur only within the cavity when the alignment is correct and not lasing othem ise. Such a cavity is dcteclable only when an observer

  5. Another Possibility for Boyajian's Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The unusual light curve of the star KIC 8462852, also known as Tabbys star or Boyajians star, has puzzled us since its discovery last year. A new study now explores whether the stars missing flux is due to internal blockage rather than something outside of the star.Mysterious DipsMost explanations for the flux dips of Boyajians star rely on external factors, like this illustrated swarm of comets. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Boyajians star shows unusual episodes of dimming in its light curve by as much as 20%, each lasting a few to tens of days and separated by periods of typically hundreds of days. In addition, archival observations show that it has gradually faded by roughly 15% over the span of the last hundred years. What could be causing both the sporadic flux dips and the long-term fading of this odd star?Explanations thus far have varied from mundane to extreme. Alien megastructures, pieces of smashed planets or comets orbiting the star, and intervening interstellar medium have all been proposed as possible explanations but these require some object external to the star. A new study by researcher Peter Foukal proposes an alternative: what if the source of the flux obstruction is the star itself?Analogy to the SunDecades ago, researchers discovered that our own stars total flux isnt as constant as we thought. When magnetic dark spots on the Suns surface block the heat transport, the Suns luminosity dips slightly. The diverted heat is redistributed in the Suns interior, becoming stored as a very small global heating and expansion of the convective envelope. When the blocking starspot is removed, the Sun appears slightly brighter than it did originally. Its luminosity then gradually relaxes, decaying back to its original value.Model of a stars flux after a 1,000-km starspot is inserted at time t = 0 and removed at time t = ts at a depth of 10,000 km in the convective zone. The stars luminosity dips, then becomes brighter than originally, and then gradually decays. [Foukal

  6. Possible State Approaches to Cryptocurrencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lansky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrencies are a type of digital currencies that are relying on cryptographic proofs for confirmation of transactions. Cryptocurrencies usually achieve a unique combination of three features: ensuring limited anonymity, independence from central authority and double spending attack protection. No other group of currencies, including fiat currencies, has this combination of features. We will define cryptocurrency ownership and account anonymity. We will define cryptocurrency ownership and account anonymity. We will introduce a classification of the types of approaches to regulation of cryptocurrencies by various individual countries. We will present the risks that the use of cryptocurrencies involves and the possibilities of prevention of those risks. We will present the possible use of cryptocurrencies for the benefit of the state. The conclusion addresses the implications of adoption of a cryptocurrency as a national currency.

  7. MOBILE LEARING - possibilities and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes that SMS (Short Message Service) or text-messaging on mobile devices can serve as an extension or possible create another way of learning traditional scholastic content normally associated with the school system. The potential of the SMS is still very much untapped and largely...... unexplored as a pedagogical tool within teaching and learning domains. This paper is inspired by locative arts and ongoing experiments regarding not only SMS based pervasive systems, but also the more complex usage of mobile devices in investigating urban living conditions and experiences both existentially...... and as an exploring mechanism of the cityscape. This paper aims at discussing the potentials and outlining the possibilities for mobile learning in the traditional school setting. The complexity of these issues derives not only from the traditions of the school system, but also from diverging perspectives...

  8. Another possible energy landscape; Un autre paysage energetique possible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    This analysis presents the national energy balances from the national energy accounting. The first part presents the accounting analysis on the electric power consumption and production in France. The second part deals with the global energy accounting, for the energy sources and utilization, together. From these analysis the authors show how the global energy efficiency of production and utilization is possible. Solutions allowing the reduction of the non renewable energies consumption and solution for the nuclear power phaseout are also proposed. (A.L.B.)

  9. Fast long-range connections in transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares Viana, Matheus; Fontoura Costa, Luciano da

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional scaling is applied in order to visualize an analogue of the small-world effect implied by edges having different displacement velocities in transportation networks. Our findings are illustrated for two real-world systems, namely the London urban network (streets and underground) and the US highway network enhanced by some of the main US airlines routes. We also show that the travel time in these two networks is drastically changed by attacks targeting the edges with large displacement velocities. - Highlights: → Multidimensional scaling used to visualize the effects of fast long-range connections. → Fast long-range connections are important to decrease the average travel time. → The average travel time diverges quickly when the network is under target attacks.

  10. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Bioplastics: Development, Possibilities and Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Karpušenkaitė, Aistė; Varžinskas, Visvaldas

    2014-01-01

    New possible ways of plastics manufacture and waste treatment are being searched when trying to tackle the problems related to the growth of waste quantities and decline in non-renewable resources. Presently, the most promising and effective way to solve the mentioned problems is production of bioplastics, but its way to recognition is very slow. One of the barriers is the absence of clear and united opinion throughout the EU Arising new discussions about biodegradable and biobased plastics w...

  12. new possibilities in diagnostic radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Scheel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) allows a non-invasive diffusion-based tissue characterization and thus offers completely new possibilities in the field of diagnostic radiology. On the one hand, this method allows an improved detection of pathological changes at the microstructural level, which are frequently not detectable in conventional MRI methods. On the other hand new strategies for therapy monitoring are feasible by quantification of diffusion parameters (e.g., Parallel, Radial and Mean ...

  13. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  14. The Possibilities of Network Sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Michele

    Technologically networked social forms are broad, extensive and in demand. The rapid development and growth of web 2.0, or the social web, is evidence of the need and indeed hunger for social connectivity: people are searching for many and varied ways of enacting being-together. However, the ways in which we think of, research and write about network(ed) sociality are relatively recent and arguably restricted, warranting further critique and development. This article attempts to do several things: it raises questions about the types of sociality enacted in contemporary techno-society; critically explores the notion of the networked individual and the focus on the individual evident in much of the technology and sociality literature and asks questions about the place of the social in these discussions. It argues for a more well-balanced and multilevelled approach to questions of sociality in networked societies. The article starts from the position that possibilities enabled/afforded by the technologies we have in place have an effect upon the ways in which we understand being in the world together and our possible actions and futures. These possibilities are more than simply supplementary; in many ways they are transformative. The ways in which we grapple with these questions reveals as much about our understandings of sociality as it does about the technologies themselves.

  15. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  16. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-28

    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  17. A new T2 lesion in a patient with the clinically isolated syndrome does not necessarily imply a conversion to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Fioravante; Puthenparampil, Marco; Mallio, Carlo Augusto; Celia, Alessandra Ida; Florio, Lucia; Gallo, Paolo; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    In the follow-up of patients with the clinically isolated syndrome, both clinical and MRI findings should be carefully evaluated by clinicians to avoid misinterpretation and inappropriate diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. We describe a case of a patient with a previous diagnosis of clinically isolated syndrome who developed a new asymptomatic brain lesion at the MRI follow-up. The careful evaluation of clinical history and radiological findings allowed the correct diagnosis of cocaine-associated ischemic stroke. Our case highlights that, in patients with the clinically isolated syndrome, the appearance of a new lesion on MRI does not necessarily imply a conversion to multiple sclerosis. Among "better explanations", ischemic lesions are of relevance and, in patients without typical risk factors for stroke, rarer causes such as cocaine assumption should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Wide range neutron monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Fumiyasu; Arita, Setsuo; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Matsumiya, Shoichi; Furusato, Ken-ichiro; Nishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention has a function of reliably switching measuring values between a pulse method and a Cambel method even if noise level and saturated level are fluctuated. That is, a proportional range judging means always monitors neutron flux measuring values in a start-up region and neutron flux measuring values in an intermediate power region, so that the proportional range is detected depending on whether the difference or a variation coefficient of both of the measured values is constant or not. A switching value determining means determines a switching value by the result of judgement of the proportional range judging means. A selection/output means selects and outputs measuring signals at a neutron flux level in the start-up region or the intermediate power region by the output of the switching value determining means. With such procedures, since the measuring value is switched after confirming that arrival at the proportional range where the difference or a variation coefficient of the measured value between the pulse processing method and the measured value by the Cambel method is constant, an accurate neutron flux level containing neither noise level nor saturated level can be outputted. (I.S.)

  19. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  20. Heteronuclear Long-Range Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole W.

    The lecture will cover heteronuclear long-range correlation techniques like HMBC, H2BC, and HAT HMBC with the emphasis on determining the number of covalent bonds between two spins being correlated. H2BC and HMBC spectra are quite complementary as a peak can be strong in one of the two spectra...

  1. Systems with Many Degrees of Freedom: from Mean - Theories of Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior in Impurity Models to Implied Binomial Trees for Modeling Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barle, Stanko

    In this dissertation, two dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom are analyzed. One is the system of highly correlated electrons in the two-impurity Kondo problem. The other deals with building a realistic model of diffusion underlying financial markets. The simplest mean-field theory capable of mimicking the non-Fermi liquid behavior of the critical point in the two-impurity Kondo problem is presented. In this approach Landau's adiabaticity assumption--of a one-to-one correspondence between the low-energy excitations of the interacting and noninteracting systems--is violated through the presence of decoupled local degrees of freedom. These do not couple directly to external fields but appear indirectly in the physical properties leading, for example, to the log(T, omega) behavior of the staggered magnetic susceptibility. Also, as observed previously, the correlation function = -1/4 is a consequence of the equal weights of the singlet and triplet impurity configurations at the critical point. In the second problem, a numerical model is developed to describe the diffusion of prices in the market. Implied binomial (or multinomial) trees are constructed to enable practical pricing of derivative securities in consistency with the existing market. The method developed here is capable of accounting for both the strike price and term structure of the implied volatility. It includes the correct treatment of interest rate and dividends which proves robust even if these quantities are unusually large. The method is explained both as a set of individual innovations and, from a different prospective, as a consequence of a single plausible transformation from the tree of spot prices to the tree of futures prices.

  2. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some...... cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis...

  3. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  4. Is self-regulation possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's increasingly prescriptive regulation of the nuclear industry can have deleterious effects, perhaps the most serious being the shift in responsibility for safety from the utility to the NRC. Several factors account for this type of regulation including the nature and structure of the nuclear industry, public opinion and bureaucratic incentives, and the nature of the technology itself. The opportunities to create heightened industry self-regulation (performance-based regulation) deserve further examination. The key to self-regulation is to structure incentives so that it is clearly within the nuclear utilities' interests to build and operate nuclear power facilities in the safest manner possible. 27 references

  5. Satellite communications: possibilities and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, M.

    1986-01-01

    Communication links via satellites are becoming available in Europe, both as part of the development of the telephone system and as special services aimed at data traffic. They offer the possibility of speeds between 50 kb/s and 2 Mb/s, without the problems and long term commitments of long distance land lines. Such links are provided by the PTT's as circuits which can be booked for variable periods, and have error rates which can be very low and well controlled. Problems in networking can arise from the satellite delay, particularly if errors occur in the local connections, and from the leased circuit and tariff philosophies of the PTT's. (Auth.)

  6. Constraining the Depth of a Martian Magma Ocean through Metal-Silicate Partitioning Experiments: The Role of Different Datasets and the Range of Pressure and Temperature Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Chabot, N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mars accretion is known to be fast compared to Earth. Basaltic samples provide a probe into the interior and allow reconstruction of siderophile element contents of the mantle. These estimates can be used to estimate conditions of core formation, as for Earth. Although many assume that Mars went through a magma ocean stage, and possibly even complete melting, the siderophile element content of Mars mantle is consistent with relatively low pressure and temperature (PT) conditions, implying only shallow melting, near 7 GPa and 2073 K. This is a pressure range where some have proposed a change in siderophile element partitioning behavior. We will examine the databases used for parameterization and split them into a low and higher pressure regime to see if the methods used to reach this conclusion agree for the two sets of data.

  7. Future possibilities: summary of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pondrom, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    In ISABELLE, the basic machine will consist of two superconducting rings capable of storing and accelerating high currents of protons to energies up to 400 GeV, and colliding the two beams in six interactions. In order to broaden the experimental capability beyond p--p collisions, two possibilities have traditionally been considered in the past: (1) anti pp collisions, in which antiprotons are somehow stored and accelerated in one of the rings; and (2) ep collisions, in which a third ring is constructed to accelerate electrons. In the 1977 workshop, these two possibilities were reconsidered, the implications of the 400 GeV design were discussed, and some new conclusions were reached. The necessity for high luminosity in anti pp is emphasized, but a definitive best scheme for obtaining this luminosity has not been found. In ep a 20 GeV x 400 GeV combination is appealing, with electrons in a low field conventional ring in the ISABELLE tunnel. It is probably smoother to do ep and pp physics in separate running periods. Vertical crossing is preferred if the electrons are polarized. Synchrotron radiation in the intersecting region remains a problem for detailed design. Extrapolated rate estimates for interesting electromagnetic and weak processes look promising

  8. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  9. Possible phthalates transport into plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils can be contaminated by high concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAE resulting from industrial and intensive agricultural activities. A plant receives water and substances (including pollutants from soil by means of rootage. Water solution received by the roots is distributed in particular by means of xylem. Reception by means of floem is not very considerable. Pollutants (including phthalates can be absorbed by roots either by diffusion by means of soil gas phase or soil liquid phase. Another possible way of pollutant entering into the plant is diffusion from atmosphere. Way of substance entering into the plant is decided by so called Henry constant as well as octanol-water partition coefficient. In case of phthalates, big differences between di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP reception and dioctyl phthalate reception were detected. For example, DBP can enter into the plant by means of gas as well as liquid phase while dioctyl phthalate only by gas phase.This publication summarizes fundamental knowledge on possible phthalates transport into plants.

  10. Wide range neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yorimasa; Fukushima, Toshiki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a wide range neutron-flux monitor adapted such that the flux monitoring function and alarming function can automatically by shifted from pulse counting system to cambel method system. Constitution: A wide range neutron-flux monitor comprises (la) pulse counting system and (lb) cambel-method system for inputting detection signals from neutron detectors and separating them into signals for the pulse measuring system and the cambel measuring system, (2) overlap detection and calculation circuit for detecting the existence of the overlap of two output signals from the (la) and (lb) systems, and (3) trip circuit for judging the abnormal state of neutron detectors upon input of the detection signals. (Seki, T.)

  11. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  12. Wide range neutron detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron detection system for reactor control is described which is operable over a wide range of neutron flux levels. The system includes a fission type ionization chamber neutron detector, means for gamma and alpha signal compensation, and means for operating the neutron detector in the pulse counting mode for low neutron flux levels, and in the direct current mode for high neutron flux levels

  13. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  14. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  15. Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-11

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  16. Increasing Possibilities of Nano suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutradhar, K.B.; Khatun, S.; Luna, I.P.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, a very large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble and thus poorly bioavailable. To avoid this problem, nano technology for drug delivery has gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. Nano refers to particles size range of 1-1000 nm. The reduction of drug particles into the submicron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are part of nano technology. This interacts with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular) scales with a high degree of specificity and can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions can be developed for drug delivery systems as an oral formulation and no noral administration. Here, this review describes the methods of pharmaceutical nano suspension production including advantages and disadvantages, potential benefits, characterization tests, and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery

  17. The Punishment of Tarpeia and Its Possible Iconographic Inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Vacinová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The motif of the Punishment of Tarpeia is surprisingly rare in Roman visual arts. However, the surviving examples show iconographical unity and imply their common primary visual source of inspiration. The article is exploring the possible models considering the less obvious iconographical similarities and resemblances in terms of content found in the Greek art. The cases of the infamous intriguer Dirce and traitor Dolon are discussed, as well as the remarkable resemblances found on some images of the Death of Caeneus. While the latter indicates the inspiration based on free associations and the similar circumstances of death of the both protagonists, Dolon and Dirce seem to influence the creator of the iconographic scheme of the Punishment of Tarpeia in a more straight way.

  18. The Last Possible Outposts for Life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Alfonso F; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of habitable conditions on Mars is often tied to the existence of aquatic habitats and largely constrained to the first billion years of the planet. Here, we propose an alternate, lasting evolutionary trajectory that assumes the colonization of land habitats before the end of the Hesperian period (ca. 3 billion years ago) at a pace similar to life on Earth. Based on the ecological adaptations to increasing dryness observed in dryland ecosystems on Earth, we reconstruct the most likely sequence of events leading to a late extinction of land communities on Mars. We propose a trend of ecological change with increasing dryness from widespread edaphic communities to localized lithic communities and finally to communities exclusively found in hygroscopic substrates, reflecting the need for organisms to maximize access to atmospheric sources of water. If our thought process is correct, it implies the possibility of life on Mars until relatively recent times, perhaps even the present.

  19. ECDIS Possibilities for BWE Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan ŽuŁkin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS development and implementation have been linked primarily to the safety of navigation. Further development allows the implementation from other aspects of navigation. This primarily pertains to the Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens (HAOP from Ballast Water Exchange (BWE and the use of ECDIS system for improving environmental protection. The paper contains an overview of important legal aspects of sea environment protection related to the Ballast Water Management (BWM Convention on global as well as on local scale. Apart from enhancing the safety of navigation, integration of the proposed tool for sea environment protection in the ECDIS with onboard ballast water system can significantly contribute to sea and sea environment protection from harmful substances. In this paper, the architecture of such system is suggested. This approach also ensures a reduction of possible consequences on ecological incidents and human errors.

  20. Possible consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Speeches of Soviet and foreign scientists at the Second Section of 2d All-UNION conference of scientists on problems of peace and prevention of nuclear war related to possible consequences of nuclear war have been considered. It is noted that production of a large amount of aerosol particles, dust, smoke and combustion products due to forest-fires, fires in cities, which change considerably atmosphere properties, will be the greatest effect of nuclear strike from the point of view of global consequencies. ''Nuclear winter'', photosynthesis suppression, plant bioproductivity weakening, long-term climate changes, ozone layer disturbance, mass and irreversible degeneration of all biosphere on the whole are great consequencies of nuclear conflict. Attention is paid to medical service, industrial accidents, radioactive fallouts consequence of radiation and other harmful factors for people in nuclear war

  1. Analysis of possible fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.; Kessler, G.; Engelmann, P.; Maerkl, H.; Stoll, W.

    1978-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of the most important fuel cycles. A rough analysis of fuel cycles is attempted under the aspects of proliferation, status of technical feasibility, resource conservation and waste management and the most important criteria for such an analysis are discussed. Among the multitude of potential combinations of fuel cycles and types of reactors only a few have reached a level of technical feasibility which would make them eligible for commercial implementation within the next decade. However, if, for instance, the higher proliferation resistance of a specific fuel cycle is to be utilized to diminish the worldwide proliferation hazard, that cycle would first of all have to be introduced on an industrial scale as quickly as possible. The analysis shows that the reduction of the bazard of worldwide proliferation will continue to be the objective primarily of international agreements and measures taken in the political realm. (orig.) [de

  2. Future possibilities in migraine genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Laura Aviaja; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Olesen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    Migraine with and without aura (MA and MO, respectively) have a strong genetic basis. Different approaches using linkage-, candidate gene- and genome-wide association studies have been explored, yielding limited results. This may indicate that the genetic component in migraine is due to rare...... variants; capturing these will require more detailed sequencing in order to be discovered. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques such as whole exome and whole genome sequencing have been successful in finding genes in especially monogenic disorders. As the molecular genetics research progresses......, the technology will follow, rendering these approaches more applicable in the search for causative migraine genes in MO and MA. To date, no studies using NGS in migraine genetics have been published. In order to gain insight into the future possibilities of migraine genetics, we have looked at NGS studies...

  3. Are baryonic galactic halos possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.; Hegyi, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    There is little doubt from the rotation curves of spiral galaxies that galactic halos must contain large amounts of dark matter. In this contribution, the authors review arguments which indicate that it is very unlikely that galactic halos contain substantial amounts of baryonic matter. While the authors would like to be able to present a single argument which would rule out baryonic matter, at the present time they are only able to present a collection of arguments each of which argues against one form of baryonic matter. These include: 1) snowballs; 2) gas; 3) low mass stars and Jupiters; 4) high mass stars; and 5) high metalicity objects such as rooks or dust. Black holes, which do not have a well defined baryon number, are also a possible candidate for halo matter. They briefly discuss black holes

  4. POSSIBLE ROLES OF EPIPLOIC APPENDAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Di Noto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, only the energy storage function had been attributed to adipose tissue. However, recent studies have shown that it is also able to secrete several substances which act in a paracrine or endocrine manner, contributing to the maintenance of organism’s homeostasis. It has been reported that the visceral fat has distinctive secreting characteristics. Based on previous scientific observations, here we shall describe the possible functional role of epiploic appendages. The epiploic appendages may play an important role in the metabolic regulation and/or in immune defense through the secretion of specific factors, such as leptin and some inflammatory cytokines. Leptin has been seen to be involved both in the regulation of hunger signals, in coordination with the hypothalamus, and in complex immune defense processes. The exact understanding of the behavior of this hormone could play a key role in understanding the functions ascribed to the epiploic appendages.

  5. Moving from objects to possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Jared; Gunn, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    and controls that determine indoor climate. A central issue in relating perceptions and experiences of indoor climate to wider structures and systems is finding ways of supporting company, university partners and users to imagine possibilities instead of certainties in terms of innovation potential. Whereas....... This involves opening up pathways within wider structures and systems for improvisation, at the same time finding ways of negotiating openness and closure with materials. How then do design materials support partial understandings of indoor climate between researchers, users and company partners in situated......, researchers and industry partners working in the field of indoor climate emphasize identifiable, measurable, parameters of comfort and focus their efforts on engineering products and systems based upon behavioural models, as researchers interested in the notion of participatory innovation, we engage...

  6. [Possibilities of psychoprophylaxis in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1976-01-01

    The psychiatrist should be given also their share in the prevetion of epilepsy by means of raising the psychiatric culture of the society and teaching the population the principles of mental hygiene and psychoprophylaxia. The possibilities of psychiatry in prophylactic management of patients with developed epilepsy include: 1. Energetic measures for controlling attacks which has many psychoprophylactic aspects. 2. Prevention of psychotraumatizing situations leading to secondary neurotic, psychotic and other reactions and behaviour disorders of the type of homilopathy and sociopathy, 3. Counteracting the development of mental and social disability in epileptics. Treatment of epilepsy should be conducted from its very beginning in cooperation with psychiatrists and therapeutic psychologists. The probems of prophylaxis cannot be separated from prophylactic treatment, psychotherapy sociotherapy and rehabilitation.

  7. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  8. Conducting to non-conducting transition in dual transmission lines using a ternary model with long-range correlated disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, E.; Diez, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we study the behavior of the allowed and forbidden frequencies in disordered classical dual transmission lines when the values of capacitances {C j } are distributed according to a ternary model with long-range correlated disorder. We introduce the disorder from a random sequence with a power spectrum S(k)∝k -(2α-1) , where α≥0.5 is the correlation exponent. From this sequence we generate an asymmetric ternary map using two map parameters b 1 and b 2 , which adjust the occupancy probability of each possible value of the capacitances C j ={C A, C B, C C, }. If the sequence of capacitance values is totally at random α=0.5 (white noise), the electrical transmission line is in the non-conducting state for every frequency ω. When we introduce long-range correlations in the distribution of capacitances, the electrical transmission lines can change their conducting properties and we can find a transition from the non-conducting to conducting state for a fixed system size. This implies the existence of critical values of the map parameters for each correlation exponent α. By performing finite-size scaling we obtain the asymptotic value of the map parameters in the thermodynamic limit for any α. With these data we obtain a phase diagram for the symmetric ternary model, which separates the non-conducting state from the conducting one. This is the fundamental result of this Letter. In addition, introducing one or more impurities in random places of the long-range correlated distribution of capacitances, we observe a dramatic change in the conducting properties of the electrical transmission lines, in such a way that the system jumps from conducting to non-conducting states. We think that this behavior can be considered as a possible mechanism to secure communication.

  9. Application possibilities of the Mesulam Continuous Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    seven years in a variety of settings, such as at school or at home, and should have resulted ... ponded that ADHD is a bogus disorder in an opinion poll on the disorder ... with the child, parent(s) or a teacher and imply a thorough know- ... English. Xhoza. Gender. Male. Female. Age (years) *. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Grade. 1. 2. 3. 527.

  10. Exploring pedagogical possibilities for transformative approaches to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    curriculum and pedagogy and how to address perceptions of science as alienating and .... on the d/Discourse of Physics is not an unproblematic process: it may imply values and ..... block is, but the dot will be hidden when indicating the axes… ..... On splitting hairs: Hierarchy, knowledge and the school curriculum. In.

  11. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF ORBITAL AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspi, Yohai [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl st., 76100, Rehovot (Israel); Showman, Adam P., E-mail: yohai.kaspi@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super-Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggest that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super-Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone—including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks—depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, patterns of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, stellar flux, atmospheric mass, surface gravity, optical thickness, and planetary radius affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global climate.

  12. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF ORBITAL AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspi, Yohai; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super-Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggest that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super-Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone—including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks—depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, patterns of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, stellar flux, atmospheric mass, surface gravity, optical thickness, and planetary radius affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global climate

  13. The possibility of detecting DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, N.S.; Brown, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    IRC + 10216, a bright infrared late type carbon star, is observed to have millimetre range line emission of the species 12 CO, 13 CO, CS, C 2 H, HC 3 N, CN, HCN, SiS and SiO in an extended envelope around the central infrared sources. A model explaining the line emission in terms of infrared pumping between the two lowest vibrational levels, first proposed for IRC + 10216, was used to calculate antenna temperatures for various rotational transitions of HC 3 N; since there is a prima facie agreement between the calculated and observed values for HC 3 N we have attempted the same calculation for DC 3 N. (J.R.)

  14. Dynamical critical scaling of electric field fluctuations in the greater cusp and magnetotail implied by HF radar observations of F-region Doppler velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Akasofu's solar wind ε parameter describes the coupling of solar wind energy to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Analysis of fluctuations in ε using model independent scaling techniques including the peaks of probability density functions (PDFs and generalised structure function (GSF analysis show the fluctuations were self-affine (mono-fractal, single exponent scaling over 9 octaves of time scale from ~46 s to ~9.1 h. However, the peak scaling exponent α0 was a function of the fluctuation bin size, so caution is required when comparing the exponents for different data sets sampled in different ways. The same generic scaling techniques revealed the organisation and functional form of concurrent fluctuations in azimuthal magnetospheric electric fields implied by SuperDARN HF radar measurements of line-of-sight Doppler velocity, vLOS, made in the high-latitude austral ionosphere. The PDFs of vLOS fluctuation were calculated for time scales between 1 min and 256 min, and were sorted into noon sector results obtained with the Halley radar, and midnight sector results obtained with the TIGER radar. The PDFs were further sorted according to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, as well as ionospheric regions of high and low Doppler spectral width. High spectral widths tend to occur at higher latitude, mostly on open field lines but also on closed field lines just equatorward of the open-closed boundary, whereas low spectral widths are concentrated on closed field lines deeper inside the magnetosphere. The vLOS fluctuations were most self-affine (i.e. like the solar wind ε parameter on the high spectral width field lines in the noon sector ionosphere (i.e. the greater cusp, but suggested multi-fractal behaviour on closed field lines in the midnight sector (i.e. the central plasma sheet. Long tails in the PDFs imply that "microbursts" in ionospheric convection

  15. Dynamical critical scaling of electric field fluctuations in the greater cusp and magnetotail implied by HF radar observations of F-region Doppler velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Akasofu's solar wind ε parameter describes the coupling of solar wind energy to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Analysis of fluctuations in ε using model independent scaling techniques including the peaks of probability density functions (PDFs and generalised structure function (GSF analysis show the fluctuations were self-affine (mono-fractal, single exponent scaling over 9 octaves of time scale from ~46 s to ~9.1 h. However, the peak scaling exponent α0 was a function of the fluctuation bin size, so caution is required when comparing the exponents for different data sets sampled in different ways. The same generic scaling techniques revealed the organisation and functional form of concurrent fluctuations in azimuthal magnetospheric electric fields implied by SuperDARN HF radar measurements of line-of-sight Doppler velocity, vLOS, made in the high-latitude austral ionosphere. The PDFs of vLOS fluctuation were calculated for time scales between 1 min and 256 min, and were sorted into noon sector results obtained with the Halley radar, and midnight sector results obtained with the TIGER radar. The PDFs were further sorted according to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, as well as ionospheric regions of high and low Doppler spectral width. High spectral widths tend to occur at higher latitude, mostly on open field lines but also on closed field lines just equatorward of the open-closed boundary, whereas low spectral widths are concentrated on closed field lines deeper inside the magnetosphere. The vLOS fluctuations were most self-affine (i.e. like the solar wind ε parameter on the high spectral width field lines in the noon sector ionosphere (i.e. the greater cusp, but suggested multi-fractal behaviour on closed field lines in the midnight sector (i.e. the central plasma sheet. Long tails in the PDFs imply that "microbursts" in ionospheric convection occur far more frequently, especially on open field lines, than can be

  16. Wide range radiation monitoring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    There is described a simple and rugged detector capable of measuring radiation fields over the range of 0.02 R/hr up to 10/8 R/hr or higher. The device consists of an emitter element of high atomic number material which is connected to the center conductor of a signal cable. This emitter element is positioned in a spaced-apart relationship between collector element of a low atomic number material with a gap region between the emitter element and the adjacent collector elements

  17. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  18. Are Negative Option Prices Possible? The Callable U.S. Treasury-Bond Puzzle.

    OpenAIRE

    Longstaff, Francis A

    1992-01-01

    Market prices for callable Treasury bonds often imply negative values for the implicit call option. The author considers a variety of possible explanations for these negative values including the Treasury's track record in calling bonds optimally, tax-related effects, tax-timing options, and bond liquidity. None of these factors accounts for the negative values. Although the costs of short selling may explain why these apparent arbitrage opportunities persist over time, why these implicit cal...

  19. Uncertainty Relations and Possible Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg Jaeger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty principle can be understood as a condition of joint indeterminacy of classes of properties in quantum theory. The mathematical expressions most closely associated with this principle have been the uncertainty relations, various inequalities exemplified by the well known expression regarding position and momentum introduced by Heisenberg. Here, recent work involving a new sort of “logical” indeterminacy principle and associated relations introduced by Pitowsky, expressable directly in terms of probabilities of outcomes of measurements of sharp quantum observables, is reviewed and its quantum nature is discussed. These novel relations are derivable from Boolean “conditions of possible experience” of the quantum realm and have been considered both as fundamentally logical and as fundamentally geometrical. This work focuses on the relationship of indeterminacy to the propositions regarding the values of discrete, sharp observables of quantum systems. Here, reasons for favoring each of these two positions are considered. Finally, with an eye toward future research related to indeterminacy relations, further novel approaches grounded in category theory and intended to capture and reconceptualize the complementarity characteristics of quantum propositions are discussed in relation to the former.

  20. Gene doping: possibilities and practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dominic J

    2009-01-01

    Our ever-increasing understanding of the genetic control of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function together with recent technical improvements in genetic manipulation generates mounting concern over the possibility of such technology being abused by athletes in their quest for improved performance. Genetic manipulation in the context of athletic performance is commonly referred to as gene doping. A review of the literature was performed to identify the genes and methodologies most likely to be used for gene doping and the technologies that might be used to identify such doping. A large number of candidate performance-enhancing genes have been identified from animal studies, many of them using transgenic mice. Only a limited number have been shown to be effective following gene transfer into adults. Those that seem most likely to be abused are genes that exert their effects locally and leave little, if any, trace in blood or urine. There is currently no evidence that gene doping has yet been undertaken in competitive athletes but the anti-doping authorities will need to remain vigilant in reviewing this rapidly emerging technology. The detection of gene doping involves some different challenges from other agents and a number of promising approaches are currently being explored. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. One Antimatter— Two Possible Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Klimenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional thermodynamics, which is formulated for our world populated by radiation and matter, can be extended to describe physical properties of antimatter in two mutually exclusive ways: CP-invariant or CPT-invariant. Here we refer to invariance of physical laws under charge (C, parity (P and time reversal (T transformations. While in quantum field theory CPT invariance is a theorem confirmed by experiments, the symmetry principles applied to macroscopic phenomena or to the whole of the Universe represent only hypotheses. Since both versions of thermodynamics are different only in their treatment of antimatter, but are the same in describing our world dominated by matter, making a clear experimentally justified choice between CP invariance and CPT invariance in context of thermodynamics is not possible at present. This work investigates the comparative properties of the CP- and CPT-invariant extensions of thermodynamics (focusing on the latter, which is less conventional than the former and examines conditions under which these extensions can be experimentally tested.

  2. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  3. Dynamic Planar Range Maxima Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Tsakalidis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    We consider the dynamic two-dimensional maxima query problem. Let P be a set of n points in the plane. A point is maximal if it is not dominated by any other point in P. We describe two data structures that support the reporting of the t maximal points that dominate a given query point, and allow...... for insertions and deletions of points in P. In the pointer machine model we present a linear space data structure with O(logn + t) worst case query time and O(logn) worst case update time. This is the first dynamic data structure for the planar maxima dominance query problem that achieves these bounds...... are integers in the range U = {0, …,2 w  − 1 }. We present a linear space data structure that supports 3-sided range maxima queries in O(logn/loglogn+t) worst case time and updates in O(logn/loglogn) worst case time. These are the first sublogarithmic worst case bounds for all operations in the RAM model....

  4. Range-Measuring Video Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Briscoe, Jeri M.; Corder, Eric L.; Broderick, David

    2006-01-01

    Optoelectronic sensors of a proposed type would perform the functions of both electronic cameras and triangulation- type laser range finders. That is to say, these sensors would both (1) generate ordinary video or snapshot digital images and (2) measure the distances to selected spots in the images. These sensors would be well suited to use on robots that are required to measure distances to targets in their work spaces. In addition, these sensors could be used for all the purposes for which electronic cameras have been used heretofore. The simplest sensor of this type, illustrated schematically in the upper part of the figure, would include a laser, an electronic camera (either video or snapshot), a frame-grabber/image-capturing circuit, an image-data-storage memory circuit, and an image-data processor. There would be no moving parts. The laser would be positioned at a lateral distance d to one side of the camera and would be aimed parallel to the optical axis of the camera. When the range of a target in the field of view of the camera was required, the laser would be turned on and an image of the target would be stored and preprocessed to locate the angle (a) between the optical axis and the line of sight to the centroid of the laser spot.

  5. Long-range correlated percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrib, A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a study of the percolation problem with long-range correlations in the site or bond occupations. An extension of the Harris criterion for the relevance of the correlations is derived for the case that the correlations decay as x/sup -a/ for large distances x. For a d the correlations are relevant if dν-2<0. Applying this criterion to the behavior that results when the correlations are relevant, we argue that the new behavior will have ν/sub long/ = 2/a. It is shown that the correlated bond percolation problem is equivalent to a q-state Potts model with quenched disorder in the limit q→1. With the use of this result, a renormalization-group study of the problem is presented, expanding in epsilon = 6-d and in delta = 4-a. In addition to the normal percolation fixed point, we find a new long-range fixed point. The crossover to this new fixed point follows the extended Harris criterion, and the fixed point has exponents ν/sub long/ = 2/a (as predicted) and eta/sub long/ = (1/11)(delta-epsilon). Finally, several results on the percolation properties of the Ising model at its critical point are shown to be in agreement with the predictions of this paper

  6. Long-range alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  7. The Possibilities of Slovakian Pyrethrum Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possibilities for pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium(Trevir. Vis. production in southern regions of Slovakia, with an emphasis on target marketing,management constraints and further research. Pyrethrum is not a traditionalcrop in Slovakia but prospects have opened up for its cultivation. The high yields andquality of some suitable pyrethrum ecotypes provide the grounds for effective field productionunder favorable conditions. Pyrethrum yielding 1.275 t of dried flowers per hectareand having at least 1.5% pyrethrum content can be a profitable and highly lucrativecrop with an economic result ranging from 413 to 1071 € per ha. A SWOT analysisrevealed that pyrethrum production in Slovakia could take a course of an offensivestrategy. However, intensive production of this commodity needs further development.Prospects for this non-traditional crop in Slovakia are also promising in terms of developmentof farming systems in which plant protection products of botanical origin wouldbe welcome. Improved processing and stabilization of extract would further increasethe possibilities.

  8. Food, Tourism and Health: a Possible Sinergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Hrelia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food is a significant aspect of the tourist’s experience of a destination. While the term “wine and food tourism ” is too often addressed only to the taste of the product, the more aseptic definition of “food tourism” wants to focus the attention also on the health properties of local products. Healthy eating is not about strict nutrition philosophies, staying unrealistically thin, or depriving ourselves of the foods we love. Rather, it is about feeling great, having more energy, stabilizing our mood, and keeping ourselves as healthy as possible, all of which can be achieved by learning some nutrition basics and using them in a way that works for us. We can expand our range of healthy food choices and learn how to plan ahead to create and maintain a tasty, healthy diet. Not only the psychological, but also the physical benefits of tourism appear to have gained increasing importance and healthy nutrition represents one of the most important determinants. Food tourism can be considered a potential benefit for human health.Understanding tourists’ needs and wants in terms of healthy food consumption is of paramount importance to hospitality businesses. Food, tourism and health could really be a possible synergy.

  9. Reproduction in moose at their southern range limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Joel S.; Hersey, Kent R.; Hafen, Konrad; Monteith, Kevin L.; DeCesare, Nicholas J.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; MacNulty, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is a critical fitness component in large herbivores. Biogeographic models predict that populations occurring at the edges of the range may have compromised reproductive rates because of inferior habitat at range peripheries. When reproductive rates are chronically low, ungulate populations may lack the resiliency to rebound quickly after periods of environmental stress, and this effect may be greatest for heat-sensitive organisms at their southern range limit. To assess the demographic vulnerability of moose ( Alces alces ), we studied relationships between reproductive rates, maternal age, and rump fat in the southernmost naturally occurring moose population in North America. For prime-aged moose in our study, pregnancy rates were high (92%), but moose aged 9 years had low pregnancy rates (32% and 38%, respectively). The relationship between rump fat and pregnancy was nonlinear such that a threshold of at least 2mm of rump fat yielded a high probability of being pregnant midwinter. In contrast, among pregnant moose, the probability of both producing a calf and recruiting it until spring increased linearly with rump fat. We also conducted a meta-analysis of pregnancy and twinning rates for adult (≥ 2 years) moose across a latitudinal gradient to compare reproductive rates from our study to other populations in North America. Moose living at southern latitudes tended to have lower reproductive rates than those living in the core of moose range, implying that southern moose populations may be demographically more vulnerable than northern moose populations.

  10. The spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of the implied market information and characteristics of the correlation coefficient matrix of the international crude oil price returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Lixin; Ding, Zhenqi; Zhen, Zaili; Wang, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    The international crude oil market plays a crucial role in economies, and the studies of the correlation, risk and synchronization of the international crude oil market have important implications for the security and stability of the country, avoidance of business risk and people's daily lives. We investigate the information and characteristics of the international crude oil market (1999-2015) based on the random matrix theory (RMT). Firstly, we identify richer information in the largest eigenvalues deviating from RMT predictions for the international crude oil market; the international crude oil market can be roughly divided into ten different periods by the methods of eigenvectors and characteristic combination, and the implied market information of the correlation coefficient matrix is advanced. Secondly, we study the characteristics of the international crude oil market by the methods of system risk entropy, dynamic synchronous ratio, dynamic non-synchronous ratio and dynamic clustering algorithm. The results show that the international crude oil market is full of risk. The synchronization of the international crude oil market is very strong, and WTI and Brent occupy a very important position in the international crude oil market. (orig.)

  11. High temporal and spatial diversity in marine RNA viruses implies that they have an important role in mortality and structuring plankton communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Anne Gustavsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Viruses in the order Picornavirales infect eukaryotes, and are widely distributed in coastal waters. Amplicon deep-sequencing of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp revealed diverse and highly uneven communities of picorna-like viruses in the coastal waters of British Columbia (B.C., Canada. Almost 300 000 pyrosequence reads revealed 145 operational taxonomic units (OTUs based on 95% sequence similarity at the amino-acid level. Each sample had between 24 and 71 OTUs and there was little overlap among samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that some clades of OTUs were only found at one site; whereas, other groups included OTUs from all sites. Since most of these OTUs are likely from viruses that infect eukaryotic phytoplankton, and viral isolates infecting phytoplankton are strain-specific; each OTU probably arose from the lysis of a specific phytoplankton taxon. Moreover, the patchiness in OTU distribution, and the high turnover of viruses in the mixed layer, implies continuous infection and lysis by RNA viruses of a diverse array of eukaryotic phytoplankton taxa. Hence, these viruses are likely important elements structuring the phytoplankton community, and play a significant role in nutrient cycling and energy transfer.

  12. The spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of the implied market information and characteristics of the correlation coefficient matrix of the international crude oil price returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Lixin [Jiangsu University, Energy Development and Environmental Protection Strategy Research Center, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing Normal University, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Ding, Zhenqi; Zhen, Zaili [Jiangsu University, Energy Development and Environmental Protection Strategy Research Center, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Minggang [Nanjing Normal University, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-08-15

    The international crude oil market plays a crucial role in economies, and the studies of the correlation, risk and synchronization of the international crude oil market have important implications for the security and stability of the country, avoidance of business risk and people's daily lives. We investigate the information and characteristics of the international crude oil market (1999-2015) based on the random matrix theory (RMT). Firstly, we identify richer information in the largest eigenvalues deviating from RMT predictions for the international crude oil market; the international crude oil market can be roughly divided into ten different periods by the methods of eigenvectors and characteristic combination, and the implied market information of the correlation coefficient matrix is advanced. Secondly, we study the characteristics of the international crude oil market by the methods of system risk entropy, dynamic synchronous ratio, dynamic non-synchronous ratio and dynamic clustering algorithm. The results show that the international crude oil market is full of risk. The synchronization of the international crude oil market is very strong, and WTI and Brent occupy a very important position in the international crude oil market. (orig.)

  13. Contributions of China’s Wood-Based Panels to CO2 Emission and Removal Implied by the Energy Consumption Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle analysis on wood-based panels in terms of CO2 flux can be used to quantitatively assess the climate change contributions of these materials. In this study, the annual CO2 flux between 1990 and 2015 was calculated through gate-to-gate life cycle analysis of wood-based panels. As implied by the energy consumption standards, China’s wood-based panels used to be carbon sources during the period 1990–2007, with the average contribution to CO2 emissions of 9.20 Mt/year. The implementation of new standards and the development of Cleaner production technologies in China, decreased the energy consumption per panel. China’s wood-based panels acted as a carbon sink between 2008 and 2015, with the average contribution to CO2 removal of 31.71 Mt/year. Plywood produced the largest contributions to the emission and removal of CO2, and was followed by fiberboard and particleboard. China’s wood-based panels, with good prospects and strong demands projected in the future, can potentially contribute to climate change mitigation.

  14. THE POSSIBILITY OF LEGUMES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinushkin A.P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary receptacles improve profitability legumes are limiting demonstrations and acts of plant diseases and pests. Pathogens are 25-50% lower yield of soybean, chickpea, beans, peas. Pests focally up to 87% of viable seeds sown reduce the number of plants per 1 ha. Only effective protection against disease and estimates of crop production can increase the average profitability of legume crops by 15-30%. Livestock is very important, but in the Southern Urals requires real support for its production with a positive balance (in the calculations with a deviation of 5%. The most important resource in our opinion may be a reduction in price of fodder. Thus, legumes are sought for animal protein. Soybeans, chickpeas, beans, peas universal culture and the possibility of their use in the food balance for a healthy diet of ordinary people engaged in recreational and other sports niche expands further improve the profitability of their production. Regulation of the balance of the distribution of food and feed produced grain legumes allows fine regulation of the cost of fodder for a particular type of livestock activities. Phytosanitary capabilities , the balance of influence of legumes on arable land, also requires a fine regulation of these processes. Obtaining long-term public support for this production is unlikely in the WTO because actual search for ways to improve the profitability of production of agricultural technologies. In our view, a comprehensive approach taking into account the capacity of local markets for crop production. Such activity can act as a guaranteed quality of agro-technology and animal products from local resources specific zonal conditions of production.

  15. An extended range neutron rem counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Nuccetelli, C.; Pelliccioni, M.; Silari, M.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to assess the possibility of extending the sensitivity of a neutron rem counter of the Andersson-Braun type up to several hundred MeV. The validity of the model adopted has first been checked by comparing with experimental data the calculated response curve and the angular dependence of the sensitivity for a well known commercial rem counter. Next, a number of modifications to the configuration of the moderator-attenuator have been investigated. The response functions and angular distributions produced by two simple solutions yielding an instrument with a sensitivity extended up to 400 MeV are presented. The response of the original rem counter and of its two modified versions to nine test spectra has also been calculated. The resulting instrument is transportable rather than portable, but the availability of an extended range neutron survey meter would be of great advantage at medium and high energy particle accelerator facilities. (orig.)

  16. Understanding synthesis imaging dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, R.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a general framework for quantifying the many different contributions to the noise budget of an image made with an array of dishes or aperture array stations. Each noise contribution to the visibility data is associated with a relevant correlation timescale and frequency bandwidth so that the net impact on a complete observation can be assessed when a particular effect is not captured in the instrumental calibration. All quantities are parameterised as function of observing frequency and the visibility baseline length. We apply the resulting noise budget analysis to a wide range of existing and planned telescope systems that will operate between about 100 MHz and 5 GHz to ascertain the magnitude of the calibration challenges that they must overcome to achieve thermal noise limited performance. We conclude that calibration challenges are increased in several respects by small dimensions of the dishes or aperture array stations. It will be more challenging to achieve thermal noise limited performance using 15 m class dishes rather than the 25 m dishes of current arrays. Some of the performance risks are mitigated by the deployment of phased array feeds and more with the choice of an (alt,az,pol) mount, although a larger dish diameter offers the best prospects for risk mitigation. Many improvements to imaging performance can be anticipated at the expense of greater complexity in calibration algorithms. However, a fundamental limitation is ultimately imposed by an insufficient number of data constraints relative to calibration variables. The upcoming aperture array systems will be operating in a regime that has never previously been addressed, where a wide range of effects are expected to exceed the thermal noise by two to three orders of magnitude. Achieving routine thermal noise limited imaging performance with these systems presents an extreme challenge. The magnitude of that challenge is inversely related to the aperture array station diameter.

  17. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  18. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  19. Electrical conduction in solid materials physicochemical bases and possible applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suchet, J P

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials (Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications) investigates the physicochemical bases and possible applications of electrical conduction in solid materials, with emphasis on conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Topics range from the interatomic bonds of conductors to the effective atomic charge in conventional semiconductors and magnetic transitions in switching semiconductors. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a description of electrical conduction in conductors and semiconductors, metals and alloys, as well as interatomic bon

  20. Is it possible to determine firearm calibre and shooting range from the examination of gunshot residue in close range gunshot wounds? An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Gradaščević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was determining the type of weapon and shooting distance depending on chemical analysis of inorganic gunshot residue from the skin gunshot wounds in experimental animals (pigs.Methods: Experimental study was conducted in order to determine components and their percentage in gunshot residue (GSR. In 60 samples, pig skin was shot by fi ring projectiles from four different weapons and from three different distances (contact wound and near contact wound from 5 cm and 10 cm. The methodology included determining the presence of inorganic material: antimony, barium, lead, nickel, zinc and copper in the skin and subcutaneous tissue using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS.Results: Formula for determining weapon type was provided cutt-off points for different weapons, with 78.6% of original grouped cases being correctly classifi ed. Formula for determining weapon type was provided cutt-off points for different distances, with 58.9% of original grouped cases being correctly classified, which was slightly less reliable compared to weapon type discrimination analysis.Conclusion: The presented study showed that chemical analysis of GSR in entrance wound with AAS could be useful in determining the type of weapon, as well as the shooting distance, i.e. in our study, determiningwhether the wound is contact or near contact. This could be particularly useful in postmortally putrefi ed or charred bodies with gunshot wounds.

  1. A possible radiocancerogenesis explanatory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenta, G.; Trenta, A.

    2000-01-01

    When the radiation induced experimental tumours are plotted against a wide range of doses, then no or not statistical significant values are seen at low doses ( c that an exposed cell will exceed all the three stages is: P c =(1-e -kD ) 3 , where k is the single mutation probability per unit of dose. The mutation process is opposed by the protection and repair mechanisms, like: the antioxidative systems, the repairing enzymatic systems, and so on. They are certainly very efficient being able to repair the numerous 'natural' mutations every day a living organism is subject. It is also plausible to think the lower the dose, the more efficient the repair will be. If this is the case, supposing α being the not exposed cell repairing efficiency, and assuming a Poisson distribution for the repair process of irradiated cell as a function of dose, then the repairing probability in the exposed cell would be: P n =αe -βD , where β is a suitable constant. Therefore the probability the cell will not be repaired is: P r =1-αe -βD . In a living organism among the pool of irradiated cells just the ones escaping the apoptosis and the killing immune system will reach the final malignancy stage. This total killing efficiency increases with increasing doses, following a Poisson distribution in accordance with the radiobiological evidence of the surviving probability: P s =e -D/D0 . Where D 0 is the lethal 50% dose. The final probability of a cell to became cancerous in a living organism because of the radiation will be: P=(1-e -kD ) 3 (1-αe -βD )e -D/D0 . As could be seen the curve shape is in accordance with the experimental probability of neoplastic transformation per irradiated cell and, if reasonable and suitable values for: k, α, β and D 0 are assumed, bearing in mind the number of cells a human organism is constituted, realistic values for the radiation induced cancer risk are obtained. (author)

  2. Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy

  3. Innovation Races with the Possibility of Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Subhasish M. Chowdhury; Stephen Martin

    2011-01-01

    The standard innovation race specification assumes a memoryless exponential distribution for the time to success of an R&D project. This specification implies that a project succeeds, eventually, with probability one. We introduce a positive probability that an R&D project fails. With this modified specification, we compare the non-cooperative and cooperative R&D in terms of innovation effort, consumer surplus, and net social welfare.

  4. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  5. Short-range order of amorphous FeNiB alloy after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglierini, M.; Sitek, J.; Baluch, S.; Cirak, J.; Lipka, J.

    1990-01-01

    Transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study irradiation-induced changes in the short-range order of an amorphous Fe 80-x Ni x B 20 alloy. Neutron irradiation led to an increase of the width of a hyperfine field distribution implying atomic rearrangement towards disordering. Changes in a mean value of a HFD and Moessbauer line areas can be associated with a reorientation of spins due to radiation damage. (orig.)

  6. Long-Range Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Stromswold, D.C.; Hansen, R.R.; Reeder, P.L.; Barnett, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron detector designed for detecting neutron sources at distances of 50 to 100 m has been constructed and tested. This detector has a large surface area (1 m 2 ) to enhance detection efficiency, and it contains a collimator and shielding to achieve direction sensitivity and reduce background. An unusual feature of the detector is that it contains no added moderator, such as polyethylene, to moderate fast neutrons before they reach the 3 He detector. As a result, the detector is sensitive mainly to thermal neutrons. The moderator-free design reduces the weight of the detector, making it more portable, and it also aids in achieving directional sensitivity and background reduction. Test results show that moderated fission-neutron sources of strength about 3 x 10 5 n/s can be detected at a distance out to 70 m in a counting time of 1000 s. The best angular resolution of the detector is obtained at distances of 30 m or less. As the separation .distance between the source and detector increases, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the measured signal increases with a resultant decrease in the ability to detect the direction to a distant source. Applications for which the long-range detector appears to be suitable include detecting remote neutron sources (including sources in moving vehicles) and monitoring neutron storage vaults for the intrusion of humans and the effects they make on the detected neutron signal. Also, the detector can be used to measure waste for the presence of transuranic material in the presence of high gamma-ray background. A test with a neutron source (3 x 10 5 n/s) in a vehicle showed that the detector could readily measure an increase in count rate at a distance of 10 m for vehicle speeds up to 35 mph (the highest speed tested). These results. indicate that the source should be detectable at this distance at speeds up to 55 mph

  7. Magnetic short range order and the exchange coupling in magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antropov, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss our recent results of time-dependent density functional simulations of magnetic properties of Fe and Ni at finite temperatures. These results indicated that a strong magnetic short range order is responsible for the magnetic properties of elementary Ni and any itinerant magnet in general. We demonstrated that one can use the value of the magnetic short range order parameter to produce new quantitative classification of magnets. We also discuss the nature of the exchange coupling and its connection with the short range order. The spin-wave like propagating and diffusive excitations in paramagnetic localized systems with small short range order have been predicted while in the itinerant systems the short range order is more complicated. The possible smallness of the quantum factor in the itinerant magnets with short range order is discussed

  8. Interplay of long-range and short-range Coulomb interactions in an Anderson-Mott insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baćani, Mirko; Novak, Mario; Orbanić, Filip; Prša, Krunoslav; Kokanović, Ivan; Babić, Dinko

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we tackle the complexity of coexisting disorder and Coulomb electron-electron interactions (CEEIs) in solids by addressing a strongly disordered system with intricate CEEIs and a screening that changes both with charge carrier doping level Q and temperature T . We report on an experimental comparative study of the T dependencies of the electrical conductivity σ and magnetic susceptibility χ of polyaniline pellets doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid over a wide range. This material is special within the class of doped polyaniline by exhibiting in the electronic transport a crossover between a low-T variable range hopping (VRH) and a high-T nearest-neighbor hopping (NNH) well below room temperature. Moreover, there is evidence of a soft Coulomb gap ΔC in the disorder band, which implies the existence of a long-range CEEI. Simultaneously, there is an onsite CEEI manifested as a Hubbard gap U and originating in the electronic structure of doped polyaniline, which consists of localized electron states with dynamically varying occupancy. Therefore, our samples represent an Anderson-Mott insulator in which long-range and short-range CEEIs coexist. The main result of the study is the presence of a crossover between low- and high-T regimes not only in σ (T ) but also in χ (T ) , the crossover temperature T* being essentially the same for both observables over the entire doping range. The relatively large electron localization length along the polymer chains results in U being small, between 12 and 20 meV for the high and low Q , respectively. Therefore, the thermal energy at T* is sufficiently large to lead to an effective closing of the Hubbard gap and the consequent appearance of NNH in the electronic transport within the disorder band. ΔC is considerably larger than U , decreasing from 190 to 30 meV as Q increases, and plays the role of an activation energy in the NNH.

  9. Observed Orbit Effects during Long Range Beam-Beam Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    Possible limitations due to long range beam-beam effects at the LHC have been studied and are presented in this note. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, the crossing angles were reduced to enhance long range beam-beam effects. The analysis of the effects on the dynamic aperture and losses are documented in [1]. This note concentrates on the bunch-by-bunch orbit effects observed during the experiment.

  10. Genome sequencing and analysis reveals possible determinants of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Alexander M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a major risk factor in clinical and community settings due to the range of etiologies caused by the organism. We have identified unique immunological and ultrastructural properties associated with nasal carriage isolates denoting a role for bacterial factors in nasal carriage. However, despite extensive molecular level characterizations by several groups suggesting factors necessary for colonization on nasal epithelium, genetic determinants of nasal carriage are unknown. Herein, we have set a genomic foundation for unraveling the bacterial determinants of nasal carriage in S. aureus. Results MLST analysis revealed no lineage specific differences between carrier and non-carrier strains suggesting a role for mobile genetic elements. We completely sequenced a model carrier isolate (D30 and a model non-carrier strain (930918-3 to identify differential gene content. Comparison revealed the presence of 84 genes unique to the carrier strain and strongly suggests a role for Type VII secretion systems in nasal carriage. These genes, along with a putative pathogenicity island (SaPIBov present uniquely in the carrier strains are likely important in affecting carriage. Further, PCR-based genotyping of other clinical isolates for a specific subset of these 84 genes raise the possibility of nasal carriage being caused by multiple gene sets. Conclusion Our data suggest that carriage is likely a heterogeneic phenotypic trait and implies a role for nucleotide level polymorphism in carriage. Complete genome level analyses of multiple carriage strains of S. aureus will be important in clarifying molecular determinants of S. aureus nasal carriage.

  11. THE PTF ORION PROJECT: A POSSIBLE PLANET TRANSITING A T-TAURI STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eyken, Julian C.; Ciardi, David R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Plavchan, Peter; Akeson, Rachel L.; Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Dawn M. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, M/S 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bender, Chad F.; Mahadevan, Suvrath [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Brown, Timothy M.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Szkody, Paula [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Boden, Andrew F. [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hoard, D. W., E-mail: vaneyken@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, M/S 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2012-08-10

    We report observations of a possible young transiting planet orbiting a previously known weak-lined T-Tauri star in the 7-10 Myr old Orion-OB1a/25-Ori region. The candidate was found as part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) Orion project. It has a photometric transit period of 0.448413 {+-} 0.000040 days, and appears in both 2009 and 2010 PTF data. Follow-up low-precision radial velocity (RV) observations and adaptive optics imaging suggest that the star is not an eclipsing binary, and that it is unlikely that a background source is blended with the target and mimicking the observed transit. RV observations with the Hobby-Eberly and Keck telescopes yield an RV that has the same period as the photometric event, but is offset in phase from the transit center by Almost-Equal-To - 0.22 periods. The amplitude (half range) of the RV variations is 2.4 km s{sup -1} and is comparable with the expected RV amplitude that stellar spots could induce. The RV curve is likely dominated by stellar spot modulation and provides an upper limit to the projected companion mass of M{sub p}sin i{sub orb} {approx}< 4.8 {+-} 1.2 M{sub Jup}; when combined with the orbital inclination, i{sub orb}, of the candidate planet from modeling of the transit light curve, we find an upper limit on the mass of the planetary candidate of M{sub p} {approx}< 5.5 {+-} 1.4 M{sub Jup}. This limit implies that the planet is orbiting close to, if not inside, its Roche limiting orbital radius, so that it may be undergoing active mass loss and evaporation.

  12. THE PTF ORION PROJECT: A POSSIBLE PLANET TRANSITING A T-TAURI STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eyken, Julian C.; Ciardi, David R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Plavchan, Peter; Akeson, Rachel L.; Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Bender, Chad F.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Brown, Timothy M.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Crepp, Justin R.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howell, Steve B.; Szkody, Paula; Boden, Andrew F.; Hoard, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of a possible young transiting planet orbiting a previously known weak-lined T-Tauri star in the 7-10 Myr old Orion-OB1a/25-Ori region. The candidate was found as part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) Orion project. It has a photometric transit period of 0.448413 ± 0.000040 days, and appears in both 2009 and 2010 PTF data. Follow-up low-precision radial velocity (RV) observations and adaptive optics imaging suggest that the star is not an eclipsing binary, and that it is unlikely that a background source is blended with the target and mimicking the observed transit. RV observations with the Hobby-Eberly and Keck telescopes yield an RV that has the same period as the photometric event, but is offset in phase from the transit center by ≈ – 0.22 periods. The amplitude (half range) of the RV variations is 2.4 km s –1 and is comparable with the expected RV amplitude that stellar spots could induce. The RV curve is likely dominated by stellar spot modulation and provides an upper limit to the projected companion mass of M p sin i orb ∼ Jup ; when combined with the orbital inclination, i orb , of the candidate planet from modeling of the transit light curve, we find an upper limit on the mass of the planetary candidate of M p ∼ Jup . This limit implies that the planet is orbiting close to, if not inside, its Roche limiting orbital radius, so that it may be undergoing active mass loss and evaporation.

  13. The Shell Collapsar—A Possible Alternative to Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor W. Marshall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that a consistent description is possible for gravitationally collapsed bodies, in which collapse stops before the object reaches its gravitational radius, the density reaching a maximum close to the surface and then decreasing towards the centre. The way towards such a description was indicated in the classic Oppenheimer-Snyder (OS 1939 analysis of a dust star. The title of that article implied support for a black-hole solution, but the present article shows that the final OS density distribution accords with gravastar and other shell models. The parallel Oppenheimer-Volkoff (OV study of 1939 used the equation of state for a neutron gas, but could consider only stationary solutions of the field equations. Recently we found that the OV equation of state permits solutions with minimal rather than maximal central density, and here we find a similar topology for the OS dust collapsar; a uniform dust-ball which starts with large radius, and correspondingly small density, and collapses to a shell at the gravitational radius with density decreasing monotonically towards the centre. Though no longer considered central in black-hole theory, the OS dust model gave the first exact, time-dependent solution of the field equations. Regarded as a limiting case of OV, it indicates the possibility of neutron stars of unlimited mass with a similar shell topology. Progress in observational astronomy will distinguish this class of collapsars from black holes.

  14. Fast radio bursts and their possible neutron star origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, J. W. T.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of the ‘Lorimer Burst’, a little over a decade ago, ignited renewed interest in searching for short-duration radio transients (Lorimer et al 2007 Science 318 777). This event is now considered to be the first established Fast Radio Burst (FRB), which is a class of millisecond-duration radio transients (Thornton et al 2013 Science 341 53). The large dispersive delays observed in FRBs distinguish them from the individual bright pulses from Galactic pulsars, and suggests that they originate deep in extragalactic space. Amazingly, FRBs are not rare: the implied event rate ranges up to many thousands of events per sky, per day (Champion et al 2016 MNRAS 460 L30). The fact that only two dozen FRBs have been discovered to date is a consequence of the limited sensitivity and field of view of current radio telescopes (Petroff et al 2016 PASA 33 e045). The precise localization of FRB 121102, the first and currently only FRB observed to repeat (Spitler et al 2014 ApJ 790 101; Spitler et al 2016 Nature 531 202; Scholz et al 2016 ApJ 833 177), has led to the unambiguous identification of its host galaxy and thus proven its extragalactic origin and large energy scale (Chatterjee et al 2017 Nature 541 58; Tendulkar et al 2017 ApJL 834 L7; Marcote et al 2017 ApJL 834 L8). It remains unclear, however, whether all FRBs are capable of repeating [many appear far less active (Petroff et al 2015 MNRAS 454 457)] or whether FRB 121102 implies that there are multiple sub-classes. Regardless, the repetitive nature of FRB 121102 and its localization to within a star-forming region in the host galaxy (Bassa et al 2017 ApJL 843 L8) imply that the bursts might originate from an exceptionally powerful neutron star - one necessarily quite unlike any we have observed in the Milky Way. In these proceedings, I give a very brief introduction to the FRB phenomenon and focus primarily on the insights that FRB 121102 has provided thus far.

  15. POTENTIALS OF IMAGE BASED ACTIVE RANGING TO CAPTURE DYNAMIC SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jutzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining a 3D description of man-made and natural environments is a basic task in Computer Vision and Remote Sensing. To this end, laser scanning is currently one of the dominating techniques to gather reliable 3D information. The scanning principle inherently needs a certain time interval to acquire the 3D point cloud. On the other hand, new active sensors provide the possibility of capturing range information by images with a single measurement. With this new technique image-based active ranging is possible which allows capturing dynamic scenes, e.g. like walking pedestrians in a yard or moving vehicles. Unfortunately most of these range imaging sensors have strong technical limitations and are not yet sufficient for airborne data acquisition. It can be seen from the recent development of highly specialized (far-range imaging sensors – so called flash-light lasers – that most of the limitations could be alleviated soon, so that future systems will be equipped with improved image size and potentially expanded operating range. The presented work is a first step towards the development of methods capable for application of range images in outdoor environments. To this end, an experimental setup was set up for investigating these proposed possibilities. With the experimental setup a measurement campaign was carried out and first results will be presented within this paper.

  16. Networking and distance learning for teachers: A classification of possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty

    1995-01-01

    Computer based communication technologies, or what could be more conveniently called networking, are bringing new possibilities into teacher education in many different ways. As with distance education more generally they can facilitate flexibility in time and place of learning, but the range of

  17. Current use and possibilities of robots in care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Robots are seen as one of the possibilities to provide care to older people, especially when care by humans becomes scarce and too expensive. In the past sixty years, however, robots have diversified into many different types with a very broad range of functionalities. Despite this large

  18. Ranging behavior relates to welfare indicators pre- and post-range access in commercial free-range broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the effect of accessing an outdoor range on chicken welfare. We tracked individual ranging behavior of 538 mixed-sex Ross 308 chickens on a commercial farm across 4 flocks in winter and summer. Before range access, at 17 to 19 d of age, and post-range access, at 30 to 33 and 42 to 46 d of age in winter and summer flocks respectively, welfare indicators were measured on chickens (pre-range: winter N = 292; summer N = 280; post-range: winter N = 131; summer N = 140), including weight, gait score, dermatitis and plumage condition. Post-ranging autopsies were performed (winter: N = 170; summer: N = 60) to assess breast burn, leg health, and ascites. Fewer chickens accessed the range in winter flocks (32.5%) than summer flocks (82.1%). Few relationships between welfare and ranging were identified in winter, likely due to minimal ranging and the earlier age of post-ranging data collection compared to summer flocks. In summer flocks prior to range access, chickens that accessed the range weighed 4.9% less (P = 0.03) than chickens that did not access the range. Pre-ranging weight, gait score, and overall plumage cover predicted the amount of range use by ranging chickens in summer flocks (P ranging behavior. In summer flocks post-range access, ranging chickens weighed 12.8% less than non-ranging chickens (P range visits were associated with lower weight (P range was associated with lower weight (P range in summer is partly related to changes in broiler chicken welfare. Further investigations are required to determine causation.

  19. Seven Possible Cave Skylights on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Seven very dark holes on the north slope of a Martian volcano have been proposed as possible cave skylights, based on day-night temperature patterns suggesting they are openings to subsurface spaces. These six excerpts of images taken in visible-wavelength light by the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter show the seven openings. Solar illumination comes from the left in each frame. The volcano is Arsia Mons, at 9 degrees south latitude, 239 degrees east longitude. The features have been given informal names to aid comparative discussion (see figure 1). They range in diameter from about 100 meters (328 feet) to about 225 meters (738 feet). The candidate cave skylights are (A) 'Dena,' (B) 'Chloe,' (C) 'Wendy,' (D) 'Annie,' (E) 'Abby' (left) and 'Nikki,' and (F) 'Jeanne.' Arrows signify north and the direction of illumination. Mars Odyssey is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The orbiter's Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, Santa Barbara, Calif., and is operated by Arizona State University.

  20. [Contemporary possibilities of intraocular pressure measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornová, J; Baxant, A

    2013-10-01

    Authors introduced current possibilities of measuring intraocular pressure (IOP). A list of available methods of monitoring IOP is published; contact measurement method IOP directly on the cornea, but also over upper lid, methodology of minimal contact and non-contact measurement. Following contact methods are described; former measurements of IOP by impression Schiotz tonometer and the current methodology applanation. So far as the gold standard measurement Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) is considered, another methodology with applanation measurements are compared: Pascal dynamic contoured tonometer (DCT ), BioResonator - resonant applanation tonometer (ART ), digital applanation tonometer Tonopen and last hit: continuous measurement of IOP by Sensimed Triggerfish. Orientation and rapid assessment is palpation pressure control over the lid and measuring by tonometer Diaton. Rebound tonometer (RBT) iCare belongs to measurements with minimal contact, no need anesthetic drops and fluorescein, therefore a self - home version of IOP measurements (Icare ONE) is developed. Non-contact measurement of IOP by different pneumotonometers is popular for screening assessment of IOP. Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) is a non-contact applanation IOP measurement and reveals additional properties of the cornea. In the discussion of a range methodology is evaluated, the experience of other authors and their own experience is compared. For monitoring of patients is necessary to select the most suitable methodology, measure repeatedly and accurately to allow long-term monitoring of intraocular pressure.

  1. Divergent Response Profile in Activated Cord Blood T cells from First-born Child Implies Birth-order-associated in Utero Immune Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Marie; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Thysen, Anna Hammerich

    2016-01-01

    Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied the associa...... programing may contribute to later development of immune-mediated diseases by increasing overall immune reactivity in first-born children as compared to younger siblings.......Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied...

  2. Determination of thorium in the range of low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.; Lieser, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    Methods for the determination of Th in the range of low concentrations are compiled and discussed. Application of spectrophotometry and voltammetry is investigated. Spectrophotometry is applicable down to concentrations of the order of 0.1 μg/l as long as the ratio U:Th is low. Voltammetric determination of Th is not possible in the presence of Al. (orig.)

  3. Netherlands Army Long Range Anti Armour Study - Status Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, P.A.B. van

    1989-01-01

    At the end of the nineties the munition for the TOW weapon system in use at The Netherlands army, has to be replaced. The Life of Type of The Tow carrier ends in 2005. The long range anti armour study is to gain insight into the possibilities and limitations for the Netherlands army to deploy future

  4. Progress of the volume FEL (VFEL) experiments in millimeter range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshevsky, V. G.; Batrakov, K. G.; Gurinovich, A. A.; Ilienko, I. I.; Lobko, A. S.; Molchanov, P. V.; Moroz, V. I.; Sofronov, P. F.; Stolyarsky, V. I.

    2003-07-01

    Use of non-one-dimensional distributed feedback in Volume Free Electron Laser gives possibility of frequency tuning in wide range. In present work, dependence of lasing process on the angle between resonant diffraction grating grooves and direction of electron beam velocity is discussed.

  5. Heterodyne range imaging as an alternative to photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, Adrian; Cree, Michael; Carnegie, Dale; Payne, Andrew; Conroy, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state full-field range imaging technology, capable of determining the distance to objects in a scene simultaneously for every pixel in an image, has recently achieved sub-millimeter distance measurement precision. With this level of precision, it is becoming practical to use this technology for high precision three-dimensional metrology applications. Compared to photogrammetry, range imaging has the advantages of requiring only one viewing angle, a relatively short measurement time, and simplistic fast data processing. In this paper we fist review the range imaging technology, then describe an experiment comparing both photogrammetric and range imaging measurements of a calibration block with attached retro-reflective targets. The results show that the range imaging approach exhibits errors of approximately 0.5 mm in-plane and almost 5 mm out-of-plane; however, these errors appear to be mostly systematic. We then proceed to examine the physical nature and characteristics of the image ranging technology and discuss the possible causes of these systematic errors. Also discussed is the potential for further system characterization and calibration to compensate for the range determination and other errors, which could possibly lead to three-dimensional measurement precision approaching that of photogrammetry.

  6. Biomimetically grown apatite spheres from aggregated bioglass nanoparticles with ultrahigh porosity and surface area imply potential drug delivery and cell engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Buitrago, Jennifer O; Yang, Sung Hee; Kim, Hae-Won

    2017-09-15

    Here we communicate the generation of biomimetically grown apatite spheres from aggregated bioglass nanoparticles and the potential properties applicable for drug delivery and cell/tissue engineering. Ion releasing nanoparticulates of bioglass (85%SiO 2 -15%CaO) in a mineralizing medium show an intriguing dynamic phenomenon - aggregation, mineralization to apatite, integration and growth into micron-sized (1.5-3μm) spheres. During the progressive ionic dissolution/precipitation reactions, nano-to-micro-morphology, glass-to-crystal composition, and the physico-chemical properties (porosity, surface area, and charge) change dynamically. With increasing reaction period, the apatite becomes more crystallized with increased crystallinity and crystal size, and gets a composition closer to the stoichiometry. The developed microspheres exhibit hierarchical surface nanostructure, negative charge (ς-potential of -20mV), and ultrahigh mesoporosity (mesopore size of 6.1nm, and the resultant surface area of 63.7m 2 /g and pore volume of 0.153cm 3 /g) at 14days of mineralization, which are even higher than those of its precursor bioglass nanoparticles. Thanks to these properties, the biomimetic mineral microspheres take up biological molecules effectively, i.e., loading capacity of positive-charged protein is over 10%. Of note, the release is highly sustainable at a constant rate, i.e., profiling almost 'zero-order' kinetics for 4weeks, suggesting the potential usefulness as protein delivery systems. The biomimetic mineral microspheres hold some remnant Si in the core region, and release calcium, phosphate, and silicate ions over the test period, implying the long-term ionic-related therapeutic functions. The mesenchymal stem cells favour the biomimetic spheres with an excellent viability. Due to the merit of sizes (a few micrometers), the spheres can be intercalated into cells, mediating cellular interactions in 3D cell-spheroid engineering, and also can stimulate osteogenic

  7. A new undulator for the extension of the spectral range of the CLIO FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouille, O.; Berset, J.M.; Glotin, F. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We built a new undulator in order to extend the lasing range of the CLIO infrared FEL. Presently, CLIO operates in the wavelength range 2 - 17 {mu}m. Beyond 14 {mu}m, the power decreases rapidly, because of the diffraction losses of the vacuum chamber (7 mm height and 2 m long). Thus, lasing at higher wavelengths implies installing a chamber with a height approximately twice. Then the minimum gap is increased and the maximum deflection parameter, K, is reduced from 2 to 1 : the laser tunability is greatly reduced. This is why a new undulator has been built.

  8. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  9. Moved range monitor of a refueling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Masaaki; Sakanaka, Tadao; Kayano, Hiroyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To incorporate light receiving and emitting elements in a face monitor to thereby increase accuracy and reliability to facilitate handling in the refueling of a BWR power plant. Constitution: In the present invention, a refueling machine and a face monitoring light receiving and emitting elements are analogously coupled whereby the face monitoring light receiving and emitting elements may be moved so as to be analogous to a route along which the refueling machine has moved. A shielding plate is positioned in the middle of the light receiving and emitting elements, and the shielding plate is machined so as to be outside of action. The range of action of the refueling machine may be monitored depending on the light receiving state of the light receiving element. Since the present invention utilizes the permeating light as described above, it is possible to detect positions more accurately than the mechanical switch. In addition, the detection section is of the non-contact system and the light receiving element comprises a hot cell, and therefore the service life is extended and the reliability is high. (Nakamura, S.)

  10. Long-range Rocky Flats utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this Study was to provide information concerning the Rocky Flats Plant and its operations that will be useful to the Nation's decision-makers in determining the long-range future of the Plant. This Study was conducted under the premise that national defense policy must be supported and, accordingly, the capabilities at Rocky Flats must be maintained there or at some other location(s). The Study, therefore, makes no attempt to speculate on how possible future changes in national defense policy might affect decisions regarding the utilization of Rocky Flats. Factors pertinent to decisions regarding Rocky Flats, which are included in the Study, are: physical condition of the Plant and its vulnerabilities to natural phenomena; risks associated with plutonium to Plant workers and the public posed by postulated natural phenomena and operational accidents; identification of alternative actions regarding the future use of the Rocky Flats Plant with associated costs and time scales; local socioeconomic impacts if Rocky Flats operations were relocated; and potential for other uses if Rocky Flats facilities were vacated. The results of the tasks performed in support of this Study are summarized in the context of these five factors

  11. Relativistic tests with lunar laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, F.; Müller, J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the recent version of the lunar laser ranging (LLR) analysis model at the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE), Leibniz Universität Hannover and highlights a few tests of Einstein’s theory of gravitation using LLR data. Investigations related to a possible temporal variation of the gravitational constant, the equivalence principle, the PPN parameters β and γ as well as the geodetic precession were carried out. The LLR analysis model was updated by gravitational effects of the Sun and planets with the Moon as extended body. The higher-order gravitational interaction between Earth and Moon as well as effects of the solid Earth tides on the lunar motion were refined. The basis for the modeled lunar rotation is now a 2-layer core/mantle model according to the DE430 ephemeris. The validity of Einstein’s theory was studied using this updated analysis model and an LLR data set from 1970 to January 2015. Within the estimated accuracies, no deviations from Einstein’s theory are detected. A relative temporal variation of the gravitational constant is estimated as \\dot{G}/G_0=(7.1+/-7.6)×10-14~yr-1 , the test of the equivalence principle gives Δ(m_g/m_i)EM=(-3+/-5)×10-14 and the Nordtvedt parameter \

  12. Possible new roles for tolerable risk mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, T.

    1989-01-01

    In his report on the Sizewell B Inquiry, the Inspector, Sir Frank Layfield, Q.C. introduced the term ''tolerable risk''. He regarded this as a better concept than the much abused and mis-interpreted phrase ''acceptable risk''. The application of tolerable risk implies that, even after regulation and incorporation of appropriate design safety criteria, there will always be a residual risk over which elements of the public will remain uneasy. They may tolerate, but they do not accept. They only tolerate because they have come to trust the process by which safety is assessed and delivered. This interpretation also implies that no safety target, the central theme of this meeting, should ever be regarded as stable or final. Such targets should continually be argued about and subject to regular searching review. Above all, such targets need to be re-justified to a doubting public so that they can be assured that the safety delivery process, namely the principles and management methods to ensure safety levels are actually met, is accountable and open for them to inspect. Thus the ''tolerable zone'' of nuclear plant safety is the product of procedures not simply assessments. These procedures need to be robust and adaptable. They need to be able to incorporate diversity of viewpoints and have a capacity to enable all who are involved to learn from each other's viewpoints and experience. In short the safety determination process needs to be more participatory and creative. (author)

  13. Does the expansion of German high voltage power supply system imply health risks?; Geht vom Ausbau elektrischer Hochspannungsleitungen eine Gefahr fuer die menschliche Gesundheit aus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappos, Andreas D.

    2016-07-01

    The decision of the German parliament to gradually close down nuclear power plants mainly located in the south of Germany and to support wind farms in the North Sea mud flats as the dominant regenerative energy source requires the strengthening and enlargement of the power supply system with the installation of new long distance high voltage power lines. The legally fixed dimension and formality of the actual planning process are discussed as well as the legal regulations for the protection of human health. Guided by the assessment of IARC a ''possible'' carcinogenic effect of low frequency electromagnetic fields on people living in the vicinity of high voltage power lines has to be considered. Therefore from a preventive viewpoint the minimal distance of 400 m between newly planned high voltage power lines and human settlements required by law seem justified.

  14. Hard probes of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Arrington, D. W. Higinbotham, G. Rosner, M. Sargsian

    2012-10-01

    The strong interaction of nucleons at short distances leads to a high-momentum component to the nuclear wave function, associated with short-range correlations between nucleons. These short-range, high-momentum structures in nuclei are one of the least well understood aspects of nuclear matter, relating to strength outside of the typical mean-field approaches to calculating the structure of nuclei. While it is difficult to study these short-range components, significant progress has been made over the last decade in determining how to cleanly isolate short-range correlations in nuclei. We have moved from asking if such structures exist, to mapping out their strength in nuclei and studying their microscopic structure. A combination of several different measurements, made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures, has led to significant progress, and provided significant new information on the nature of these small, highly-excited structures in nuclei. We review the general issues related to short-range correlations, survey recent experiments aimed at probing these short-range structures, and lay out future possibilities to further these studies.

  15. POSSIBLE RECESSION CURVE APPLICATIONS FOR RETENTION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liberacki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to present possible applications of recession flow curve in a small lowland watershed retention discharge size evaluation. The examined woodland micro catchment area of 0.52 sq km is located in Puszcza Zielonka in central Wielkopolska. The Hutka catchment is typically woody with high retention abilities. The catchment of the Hutka watercourse is forested in 89%, the other 11% is covered by swamps and wasteland. The predominant sites are fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw, fresh coniferous forest (Bśw and alder carr forest (Ol. Landscape in catchment is characterized by a large number of interior depressions, filled partly with rainwater or peatbogs, with poorly developed natural drainage. The watercourses do not exceed 1 km in length, the mean width is approx. 0.5 m, while mean depth ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m. During hydrological research conducted in 1997/1998–1999/2000, 35 major (characteristic raised water stages were observed in Hutka after substantial precipitation. The recession curve dating from 18–24 September 2000 has the α and n rates nearest to average. Comparing the model curve and the curve created by observing watercourse flow, one can notice their resemblance and that they have similar ordinate values as well as shape. In the case of other recession curves, the maximum differences of ordinate values are also about 0.1–0.2 l/s/km2. The measuured α and n rates do not reveal any regularities. There are no significant statistical Horton model parameter (for recession flow curves dependencies between α and n and e.g. initial flows (Qo or the whole period of high water waves (Qp. Consequently, calculated relation between these parameters is only an approximation for the general evaluation of the retention discharge in the catchment area towards retention with flow function.

  16. THE VARIABILITY OF HCN IN TITAN’S UPPER ATMOSPHERE AS IMPLIED BY THE CASSINI ION-NEUTRAL MASS SPECTROMETER MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, J.; Cao, Y.-T. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Lavvas, P. P. [Groupe de Spectroscopie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, Universite de Reims, Champagne-Ardenne, CNRS UMR F-7331 (France); Koskinen, T. T. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    HCN is an important constituent in Titan’s upper atmosphere, serving as the main coolant in the local energy budget. In this study, we derive the HCN abundance at the altitude range of 960–1400 km, combining the Ion-Neutral Mass Spectrometer data acquired during a large number of Cassini flybys with Titan. Typically, the HCN abundance declines modestly with increasing altitude and flattens to a near constant level above 1200 km. The data reveal a tendency for dayside depletion of HCN, which is clearly visible below 1000 km but weakens with increasing altitude. Despite the absence of convincing anti-correlation between HCN volume mixing ratio and neutral temperature, we argue that the variability in HCN abundance makes an important contribution to the large temperature variability observed in Titan’s upper atmosphere.

  17. Unexpected ancestry of Populus seedlings from a hybrid zone implies a large role for postzygotic selection in the maintenance of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtke, Dorothea; Gompert, Zachariah; Lexer, Christian; Buerkle, C Alex

    2014-09-01

    In the context of potential interspecific gene flow, the integrity of species will be maintained by reproductive barriers that reduce genetic exchange, including traits associated with prezygotic isolation or poor performance of hybrids. Hybrid zones can be used to study the importance of different reproductive barriers, particularly when both parental species and hybrids occur in close spatial proximity. We investigated the importance of barriers to gene flow that act early vs. late in the life cycle of European Populus by quantifying the prevalence of homospecific and hybrid matings within a mosaic hybrid zone. We obtained genotypic data for 11 976 loci from progeny and their maternal parents and constructed a Bayesian model to estimate individual admixture proportions and hybrid classes for sampled trees and for the unsampled pollen parent. Matings that included one or two hybrid parents were common, resulting in admixture proportions of progeny that spanned the whole range of potential ancestries between the two parental species. This result contrasts strongly with the distribution of admixture proportions in adult trees, where intermediate hybrids and each of the parental species are separated into three discrete ancestry clusters. The existence of the full range of hybrids in seedlings is consistent with weak reproductive isolation early in the life cycle of Populus. Instead, a considerable amount of selection must take place between the seedling stage and maturity to remove many hybrid seedlings. Our results highlight that high hybridization rates and appreciable hybrid fitness do not necessarily conflict with the maintenance of species integrity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Possible signatures of the hadronisation scale in parton jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochs, W.

    1987-01-01

    Models for hardon production in hard collisions differ widely in the energy scale characteristic of the transition from the primary partonic to the secondary hadronic phase of jet evolution. We investigate possible experimental signatures for the existence of both phases. In particular, we consider multiplicity and energy moments, long range charge correlations and angular correlations as a function of total energy or near the exclusive two body limit in e + e - annihilation and deep inelastic scattering processes. The possibility of a dual correspondence between hadronic and partonic states is discussed. (orig.)

  19. [From virtue bioethics to bioethics personalistic: is integration possible?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyze how the idea of virtue as an important element of human ethical action is slowly being lost. There are proposals both in ethics and in bioethics to rehabilitate virtue and to consider it as a very important element of human morality. In particular, in the health sector the rehabilitation of virtue, would imply greater focus on the ethical character of professionals and personal improvement rather than on training for the resolution of ethical cases. Such guidance would also improve the health professional-patient relationship with an increase not only in the technical quality but also in human dimension of health sciences. However, this orientation or tendency in bioethics suffers from a deficit in reasoning due to lack of a complete theory of human action that covers the good and also norms. The second part of the article looks at the relation between of virtue and personalistic bioethics. Virtue is considered as an important element of human action and is integrated with the good and norms. After analyzing and distinguishing between what is today considered personalistic bioethics and the contributions of personalism to bioethics, the paper concludes that the integration of virtue in personalistic bioethics is not only possible but desirable to overcome the ethical minimalism that has resulted from modern day principlism driven bioethics.

  20. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathee, Angela; Jager, Pieter de; Naidoo, Shan; Naicker, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  1. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathee, Angela [South African Medical Research Council, Environment & Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041 (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); University of Johannesburg (Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences), PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Jager, Pieter de [University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); National Health Laboratory Service (Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, National Institute for Occupational Health), PO Box 4788, Johannesburg 2000 (South Africa); Naidoo, Shan [University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Naicker, Nisha [South African Medical Research Council, Environment & Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041 (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); University of Johannesburg, Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  2. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Baier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3, to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3 calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3 is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3 to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS directly measured net P(O3 in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3 was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3 was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3 for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3 behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3 and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2 discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3 discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model–data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3, then these results would imply that P(O3 in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3 regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone

  3. Does Plan B work? Home range estimations from stored on board and transmitted data sets produced by GPS-telemetry in the Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Jaime A; Molina, Eduardo; González, Tania; Armenteras, Dolors

    2016-12-01

    Telemetry based on Global Positioning Systems (GPS) makes possible to gather large quantities of information in a very fine scale and work with species that were impossible to study in the past. When working with GPS telemetry, the option of storing data on board could be more desirable than the sole satellite transmitted data, due to the increase in the amount of locations available for analysis. Nonetheless, the uncertainty in the retrieving of the collar unit makes satellite-transmitted technologies something to take into account. Therefore, differences between store-on-board (SoB) and satellite-transmitted (IT) data sets need to be considered. Differences between SoB and IT data collected from two lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris), were explored by means of the calculation of home range areas by three different methods: the Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP), the Fixed Kernel Density Estimator (KDE) and the Brownian Bridges (BB). Results showed that SoB and IT data sets for the same individual were similar, with fix ranging from 63 % to 85 % respectively, and 16 m to 17 m horizontal errors. Depending on the total number of locations available for each individual, the home ranges estimated showed differences between 2.7 % and 79.3 %, for the 50 % probability contour and between 9.9 % and 61.8 % for the 95 % probability contour. These differences imply variations in the spatial coincidence of the estimated home ranges. We concluded that the use of IT data is not a good option for the estimation of home range areas if the collar settings have not been designed specifically for this use. Nonetheless, geographical representations of the IT based estimators could be of great help to identify areas of use, besides its assistance to locate the collar for its retrieval at the end of the field season and as a proximate backup when collars disappear.

  4. Perspectives on clinical possibility: elements of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiffi, Daniele; Zanotti, Renzo

    2016-08-01

    Possibility is one of the most common modalities in reasoning and argumentation. Various kinds of modal concepts have been identified in philosophical and logical discussion of the metaphysics of modality. We focus here on the concept of clinical possibility. A critical analysis of what is intended as clinical possibility has not yet received sufficient examination, although the concept is extensively used in clinical reasoning. We present arguments to emphasize some desirable features associated with the concept of clinical possibility. We argue that almost all clinical possibilities are potentialities, that is, possibilities that may be actualized by effective, appropriate and feasible interventions. However, in some limited cases, even mere possibilities - which may or may not be actualized, since we do not have the required knowledge - may be involved in clinical reasoning, and we present some examples in this paper. We then introduce some basic views on the nature of possibility showing their validity and limitations when applied to the concept of clinical possibility. Lastly, we conjecture that clinical possibility is a normative modality that can be formalized in a multimodal system with epistemic and deontic logical operators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The initiation of lateral roots in the primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) implies a reactivation of cell proliferation in a group of founder pericycle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, M Victoria; Lloret, Pedro G; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Salguero, Julio

    2016-03-15

    The initiation of lateral roots (LRs) has generally been viewed as a reactivation of proliferative activity in pericycle cells that are committed to initiate primordia. However, it is also possible that pericycle founder cells that initiate LRs never cease proliferative activity but rather are displaced to the most distal root zones while undertaking successive stages of LR initiation. In this study, we tested these two alternative hypotheses by examining the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) into the DNA of meristematic root cells of Zea mays. According to the values for the length of the cell cycle and values for cell displacement along the maize root, our results strongly suggest that pericycle cells that initiate LR primordia ceased proliferative activity upon exiting the meristematic zone. This finding is supported by the existence of a root zone between 4 and 20mm from the root cap junction, in which neither mitotic cells nor labelled nuclei were observed in phloem pericycle cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses of an adenovirus isolated from a corn snake (Elaphe guttata) imply a common origin with members of the proposed new genus Atadenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Szilvia L; Benko, Mária; Elo, Péter; Ursu, Krisztina; Dán, Adám; Ahne, Winfried; Harrach, Balázs

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 60% of the genome of an adenovirus isolated from a corn snake (Elaphe guttata) was cloned and sequenced. The results of homology searches showed that the genes of the corn snake adenovirus (SnAdV-1) were closest to their counterparts in members of the recently proposed new genus ATADENOVIRUS: In phylogenetic analyses of the complete hexon and protease genes, SnAdV-1 indeed clustered together with the atadenoviruses. The characteristic features in the genome organization of SnAdV-1 included the presence of a gene homologous to that for protein p32K, the lack of structural proteins V and IX and the absence of homologues of the E1A and E3 regions. These characteristics are in accordance with the genus-defining markers of atadenoviruses. Comparison of the cleavage sites of the viral protease in core protein pVII also confirmed SnAdV-1 as a candidate member of the genus ATADENOVIRUS: Thus, the hypothesis on the possible reptilian origin of atadenoviruses (Harrach, Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 48, 484-490, 2000) seems to be supported. However, the base composition of DNA sequence (>18 kb) determined from the SnAdV-1 genome showed an equilibrated GC content of 51%, which is unusual for an atadenovirus.

  7. Testing for long-range dependence in the Brazilian term structure of interest rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence of fractional dynamics in interest rates for different maturities for Brazil. A variation of a newly developed test for long-range dependence, the V/S statistic, with a post-blackening bootstrap is employed. Results suggest that Brazilian interest rates possess strong long-range dependence in volatility, even when considering the structural break in 1999. These findings imply that the development of policy models that give rise to long-range dependence in interest rates' volatility could be very useful. The long-short-term interest rates spread has strong long-range dependence, which suggests that traditional tests of expectation hypothesis of the term structure of interest rates may be misspecified.

  8. Farm water as a possible source of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Igor M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of drinking water depends on the water sources, but also on the quality of the water distribution system which supplies the water on to the final user. In addition, the possibility of contamination of water used for watering animals in the farm buildings depends on the hygienic conditions on farms. Microbiological quality of water on farms in Serbia has not been one of the main focuses of animal breeders, although according to the Food Safety Law water is considered as food. As feed safety for the animals, which includes microbiological analyses, is an important concern of breeder farmers, it is also important to control the water safety in order not to become a cause of the animal health problems. Change of the water quality is not important only from the sanitary epidemiological point of view, but the presence of different microorganisms, especially fungi, can cause changes in taste and smell, as organoleptic properties of water. According to legal regulations, there is no difference between the quality requirements for drinking water relative to the water supply intended for animals. For the aforementioned reasons, the subject of this study is microbiological control of water samples from the drinkers for animals at farms. The aim of the work is to examine which fungi are possibly present in the water and what their number is. In total, 35 samples of water from pig and poultry farms were tested. The method of direct seeding and filtration was used. The presence of different types of mold (Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp., Mucor sp. and Rhizopus sp., and Candida sp. was determined. The results indicate the necessity of microbiological control of water for watering of farm animals, which implies the analysis for the presence of molds. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR31071

  9. Possible systematics in the VLBI catalogs as seen from Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.; Zhu, Z.; Liu, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: In order to investigate the systematic errors in the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) positions of extragalactic sources (quasars) and the global differences between Gaia and VLBI catalogs, we use the first data release of Gaia (Gaia DR1) quasar positions as the reference and study the positional offsets of the second realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) and the Goddard VLBI solution 2016a (gsf2016a) catalogs. Methods: We select a sample of 1032 common sources among three catalogs and adopt two methods to represent the systematics: considering the differential orientation (offset) and declination bias; analyzing with the vector spherical harmonics (VSH) functions. Results: Between two VLBI catalogs and Gaia DR1, we find that: i) the estimated orientation is consistent with the alignment accuracy of Gaia DR1 to ICRF, of 0.1 mas, but the southern and northern hemispheres show opposite orientations; ii) the declination bias in the southern hemisphere between Gaia DR1 and ICRF2 is estimated to be +152 μas, much larger than that between Gaia DR1 and gsf2016a which is +34 μas. Between two VLBI catalogs, we find that: i) the rotation component shows that ICRF2 and gsf2016a are generally consistent within 30 μas; ii) the glide component and quadrupole component report two declination-dependent offsets: dipolar deformation of +50 μas along the Z-axis, and quadrupolar deformation of -50 μas that would induce a pattern of sin2δ. Conclusions: The significant declination bias between Gaia DR1 and ICRF2 catalogs reported in previous studies is possibly attributed to the systematic errors of ICRF2 in the southern hemisphere. The global differences between ICRF2 and gsf2016a catalogs imply that possible, mainly declination-dependent systematics exit in the VLBI positions and need further investigations in the future Gaia data release and the next generation of ICRF.

  10. Colored Range Searching in Linear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Vind, Søren Juhl

    2014-01-01

    In colored range searching, we are given a set of n colored points in d ≥ 2 dimensions to store, and want to support orthogonal range queries taking colors into account. In the colored range counting problem, a query must report the number of distinct colors found in the query range, while...... an answer to the colored range reporting problem must report the distinct colors in the query range. We give the first linear space data structure for both problems in two dimensions (d = 2) with o(n) worst case query time. We also give the first data structure obtaining almost-linear space usage and o...

  11. Brief report on a systematic review of youth violence prevention through media campaigns: Does the limited yield of strong evidence imply methodological challenges or absence of effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tali; Bowman, Brett; McGrath, Chloe; Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-10-01

    We present a brief report on a systematic review which identified, assessed and synthesized the existing evidence of the effectiveness of media campaigns in reducing youth violence. Search strategies made use of terms for youth, violence and a range of terms relating to the intervention. An array of academic databases and websites were searched. Although media campaigns to reduce violence are widespread, only six studies met the inclusion criteria. There is little strong evidence to support a direct link between media campaigns and a reduction in youth violence. Several studies measure proxies for violence such as empathy or opinions related to violence, but the link between these measures and violence perpetration is unclear. Nonetheless, some evidence suggests that a targeted and context-specific campaign, especially when combined with other measures, can reduce violence. However, such campaigns are less cost-effective to replicate over large populations than generalised campaigns. It is unclear whether the paucity of evidence represents a null effect or methodological challenges with evaluating media campaigns. Future studies need to be carefully planned to accommodate for methodological difficulties as well as to identify the specific elements of campaigns that work, especially in lower and middle income countries. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Possibility of high temperature superconducting phases in PdH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Paolo; Di Gioacchino, Daniele; Borelli, Rodolfo; Vinko, Jenny Darja

    2003-05-01

    Possible new superconducting phases with a high critical transition temperature (Tc) have been found in stable palladium-hydrogen (PdHx) samples for stoichiometric ratio x=H/Pd⩾1, in addition to the well-known low critical transition temperature (0⩽Tc⩽9) when x is in the range (0.75⩽x⩽1.00). Possible new measured superconducting phases with critical temperature in the range 51⩽Tc⩽295 K occur. This Tc varies considerably with every milli part of x when x exceeds unit. A superconducting critical current density Jc⩾6.1×104 A cm-2 has been measured at 77 K with HDC=0 T.

  13. Possibility of high temperature superconducting phases in PdH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripodi, Paolo; Di Gioacchino, Daniele; Borelli, Rodolfo; Vinko, Jenny Darja

    2003-05-15

    Possible new superconducting phases with a high critical transition temperature (T{sub c}) have been found in stable palladium-hydrogen (PdH{sub x}) samples for stoichiometric ratio x=H/Pd{>=}1, in addition to the well-known low critical transition temperature (0{<=}T{sub c}{<=}9) when x is in the range (0.75{<=}x{<=}1.00). Possible new measured superconducting phases with critical temperature in the range 51{<=}T{sub c}{<=}295 K occur. This T{sub c} varies considerably with every milli part of x when x exceeds unit. A superconducting critical current density J{sub c}{>=}6.1x10{sup 4} A cm{sup -2} has been measured at 77 K with H{sub DC}=0 T.

  14. Internal roosting location is associated with differential use of the outdoor range by free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, I C; Weeks, C A; Norman, K I; Knowles, T G; Nicol, C J

    2018-04-01

    1. In commercial free-range systems for laying hens, popholes to the outdoor range are often installed on one side of the house only. In multi-tier systems, it is possible that some individuals fail to access the range due to internal barriers to movement. 2. Five commercial multi-tier flocks from different units were studied. For each flock, two different colour markers were used to distinguish 200 birds roosting near the popholes (NP-Roost) and 200 birds roosting far from the popholes (FP-Roost) at night. The following day, counts of marked birds on the range and inside the house were performed. 3. Significantly more NP-Roost birds were observed in all areas of the outdoor range than FP-Roost birds the next day. Distance of FP area from the popholes was very strongly positively correlated with effect size in the adjacent range area. 4. Additionally, in the indoor area far from the popholes (FP) more FP-Roost birds were observed the next day than NP-Roost birds. In the indoor area near to the popholes (NP) more NP-Roost birds were observed the next day than FP-Roost birds. 5. These results suggest that roosting location is associated with differential range use when popholes are only available on one side of the shed as birds that roosted far from the popholes used the range less.

  15. Commercial possibilities for stranded conventional gas from Alaska's North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stranded gas resources are defined for this study as gas resources in discrete accumulations that are not currently commercially producible, or producible at full potential, for either physical or economic reasons. Approximately 35 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of stranded gas was identified on Alaska’s North Slope. The commercialization of this resource requires facilities to transport gas to markets where sales revenue will be sufficient to offset the cost of constructing and operating a gas delivery system. With the advent of the shale gas revolution, plans for a gas pipeline to the conterminous US have been shelved (at least temporarily) and the State and resource owners are considering a liquefied natural gas (LNG) export project that targets Asian markets. This paper focuses on competitive conditions for Asian gas import markets by estimating delivered costs of competing supplies from central Asia, Russia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia in the context of a range of import gas demand projections for the period from 2020 to 2040. These suppliers’ costs are based on the cost of developing, producing, and delivering to markets tranches of the nearly 600 TCF of recoverable gas from their own conventional stranded gas fields. The results of these analyses imply that Alaska’s gas exports to Asia will likely encounter substantial competitive challenges. The sustainability of Asia’s oil-indexed LNG pricing is also discussed in light of a potentially intense level of competition.

  16. Do voluntary strength, proprioception, range of motion, or postural sway predict occurrence of lateral ankle sprain?

    OpenAIRE

    de Noronha, M; Refshauge, K M; Herbert, R D; Kilbreath, S L

    2006-01-01

    Prevention of ankle sprain, the most common sporting injury, is only possible once risk factors have been identified. Voluntary strength, proprioception, postural sway, and range of motion are possible risk factors. A systematic review was carried out to investigate these possiblities. Eligible studies were those with longitudinal design investigating ankle sprain in subjects aged ⩾15 years. The studies had to have measured range of motion, voluntary strength, proprioception, or postural sway...

  17. CURRENT REPERFUSION THERAPY POSSIBILITIES IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Konstantinova

    2015-01-01

    discussion. The benefits of a novel pharmacoinvasive approach to treating patients with acute coronary syndrome, as well as possible promises for its use to manage patients with ischemic stroke are depicted. The main results of a large STREAM trial, showing that early prehospital thrombolysis in conjunction with tenecteplase administration and subsequent PCI enables effective myocardial reperfusion in patients with ECG ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome within 3 hours after the occurrence of the first symptoms of the disease and in the absence of a chance of doing primary PCI within one hour after the first medical contact, are given and discussed. Reperfusion therapy for ischemic stroke now implies the preference of systemic thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. The established inadequate efficiency and safety of this technique lend impetus to a search for new approaches and novel fibrinolytic agents. Tenecteplase is a probable alternative to alteplase in treating patients with ischemic stroke. 

  18. Does Adolescent Risk Taking Imply Weak Executive Function? A Prospective Study of Relations between Working Memory Performance, Impulsivity, and Risk Taking in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12 at baseline) in three annual assessments to determine its relation to two forms of impulsivity (sensation seeking and acting without thinking) and a wide range of risk and externalizing behavior. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a model in which differential activation of the dorsal and ventral striatum produces imbalance in the function of these brain regions. For youth high in sensation seeking, both regions were predicted to develop with age. However, for youth high in the tendency to act without thinking, the ventral striatum was expected to dominate. The model predicted that working memory ability would exhibit (1) early weakness in youth high in acting without thinking but (2) growing strength in those high in sensation seeking. In addition, it predicted that (3) acting without thinking would be more strongly related to risk and externalizing behavior than sensation seeking. Finally, it predicted that (4) controlling for acting without thinking, sensation seeking would predict later increases in risky and externalizing behavior. All four of these predictions were confirmed. The results indicate that the rise in sensation seeking that occurs during adolescence is not accompanied by a deficit in executive function and therefore requires different intervention strategies from those for youth whose impulsivity is characterized by early signs of acting without thinking. PMID:21884327

  19. Time-series variations of the short-lived Ra in coastal waters: implying input of SGD to the coastal zone of Da-Chia River, Taichung, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Feng-Hsin; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lin, In-Tain; Huh, Chih-An

    2015-04-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway for materials exchanging between land and sea. Input of SGD carries the associated nutrients, trace metals, and inorganic carbon that may makes great impacts on ecosystem in the coastal zone. Due to the variability of SGD magnitude, it is difficult to estimate the flux of those associated materials around the world. Even in the same area, SGD magnitude also varies in response to tide fluctuation and seasonal change on hydraulic gradient. Thus, long-term investigation is in need. In Taiwan, the SGD study is rare and the intrusion of seawater in the coastal aquifer is emphasized in previous studies. According to the information from Hydrogeological Data Bank (Central Geological Survey, MOEA), some areas still show potentiality of SGD. Here, we report the preliminary investigation result of SGD at Gaomei Wildlife Conservation Area which located at the south of the Da-Chia River mouth. This study area is characterized by a great tidal rang and a shallow aquifer with high groundwater recharge rate. Time-series measurement of the short-lived Ra in surface water was done in both dry and wet seasons at a tidal flat site and shows different trends of excess Ra-224 between dry and wet seasons. High excess Ra-224 activities (>20 dpm/100L) occurred at high tide in dry season but at low tide in wet season. The plot of salinity versus excess Ra-224, showing non-conservative curve, suggests that high excess Ra-224 activities derive from desorption in dry season but from SGD input in wet season.

  20. Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation, the Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF) is the creation of a laser range-finder with a wide field-of-view (FOV) and a directional...

  1. Photonic bandgap structures for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along periodically thickness-modulated metal stripes embedded in dielectric is studied both theoretically and experimentally for light wavelengths in the telecom range. We demonstrate that symmetric (with respect to the film surface) nm......-size thickness variations result in the pronounced band gap effect, and obtain very good agreement between measured and simulated (transmission and reflection) spectra. This effect is exploited to realize a compact wavelength add-drop filter with the bandwidth of -20 nm centered at 1550 nm. The possibilities...

  2. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  3. Development of the full range vange vacuum gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, B. H.; In, S. R.; Jung, K. S.; Jeong, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    The pirani, enning end full range gauges developed during this study had made good characteristics compared with the measured results of customized other gauges, and this results show the possibility of developing the gauges by ourselves in Korea. In order to make a competition with the customized gauges of other countries, it is necessary to upgrade several points to have good characteristics over the large range of the pressure. The new effort will be made in developing the full scale gauge in the next year

  4. Netherlands Army Long Range Anti Armour Study - Status Report

    OpenAIRE

    Schagen, P.A.B. van

    1989-01-01

    At the end of the nineties the munition for the TOW weapon system in use at The Netherlands army, has to be replaced. The Life of Type of The Tow carrier ends in 2005. The long range anti armour study is to gain insight into the possibilities and limitations for the Netherlands army to deploy future (time period 1995-2000) weapon systems in the long range anti armour battle. The first study results are expected at the end of 1989. The study is sponsored by the Netherlands army and is carried ...

  5. Study of beam-beam long range compensation with octupoles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Tambasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Long range beam-beam effects are responsible for particle losses and define fundamental operational parameters of colliders (i.e. crossing angles, intensities, emittances, ${\\beta}$${^∗}$). In this study we propose octuple magnets as a possible scheme to efficiently compensate long-range beam-beam interactions with a global correction scheme. The impact and improvements on the dynamic aperture of colliding beams together with estimates of the luminosity potentials are dis- cussed for the HL-LHC upgrade and extrapolations made for the FCC project.

  6. Lead Pollution of Shooting Range Soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    range. Most of the shooting range soils contained high levels of Pb in the range above 2000 mg kg–1 far exceeding the United States ... N. Sehube, R. Kelebemang, O. Totolo, M. Laetsang, O. Kamwi and P. Dinake,. 21 ..... Eng. Sci., 1999, 16,.

  7. Magnetic short range order in Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, H.R.

    1976-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate magnetic short range order in Gd for 80 0 K 0 K. Short range order exists throughout this range from well below T/sub C/ = 291 0 K to well above it and can be reasonably well described by an anisotropic Orstein-Zernike form for chi

  8. Transcription of Byzantine Chant - Problems, Possibilities, Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Discusses the problems and possibilities for transsription of Byzantine chant on the basis of medieval musical manuscripts. A relatively 'neutral' style of transcription is suggested for musicological purposes.......Discusses the problems and possibilities for transsription of Byzantine chant on the basis of medieval musical manuscripts. A relatively 'neutral' style of transcription is suggested for musicological purposes....

  9. Transmission Range Assignment with Balancing Connectivity in Clustered Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Abd Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the main challenge for researchers in the field of wireless sensor networks is associated with reducing the energy consumption as much as possible to increase the lifetime of the nodes and improve the performance of the network. Furthermore, delivery of data to its destination is also an important key issue that represents throughput of the network. On the other hand, transmission range assignment in clustered wireless networks is the bottleneck of the balance between energy con...

  10. Publishing and the academic world passion, purpose and possible futures

    CERN Document Server

    Mertkan, Sefika

    2016-01-01

    Within the Academy, itself a changing and increasingly entrepreneurial entity, publishing is no longer an option; it is the universal currency that secures a position, tenure and promotion; it is key to academic life. Providing a panoramic picture of the changing publishing climate, "Academic Life and the Publishing Landscape "will empower scholars by enabling them to navigate this changing terrain more successfully. This book provides guidance from a range of contributors who use their own wide expertise in writing and publication to document the challenges faced by scholars at different career stages and in different locations. It covers a wide range of debates on publishing, spilt into the following three sections: Mapping the Publication Landscape, Writing for Publication Learning from Successful Voices, Further Challenges and Possibilities. With topics ranging from the process of preparing manuscripts for publication, including chapters on calculating journal rankings and understanding t...

  11. Comet nuclei and Trojan asteroids - A new link and a possible mechanism for comet splittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, W.K.; Tholen, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Relatively elongated shapes, implied by recent evidence of a greater incidence of high amplitude lightcurves for comet nuclei and Trojan asteroids than for similarly scaled main belt asteroids, are suggested to have evolved among comet nuclei and Trojans due to volatile loss. It is further suggested that such an evolutionary course may account for observed comet splitting; rotational splitting may specifically occur as a result of evolution in the direction of an elongated shape through sublimation. Supporting these hypotheses, the few m/sec separation velocities projected for rotationally splitting elongated nuclei are precisely in the observed range. 40 refs

  12. Drought stress limits the geographic ranges of two tree species via different physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, Leander D L; HilleRisLambers, Janneke

    2016-03-01

    Range shifts are among the most ubiquitous ecological responses to anthropogenic climate change and have large consequences for ecosystems. Unfortunately, the ecophysiological forces that constrain range boundaries are poorly understood, making it difficult to mechanistically project range shifts. To explore the physiological mechanisms by which drought stress controls dry range boundaries in trees, we quantified elevational variation in drought tolerance and in drought avoidance-related functional traits of a widespread gymnosperm (ponderosa pine - Pinus ponderosa) and angiosperm (trembling aspen - Populus tremuloides) tree species in the southwestern USA. Specifically, we quantified tree-to-tree variation in growth, water stress (predawn and midday xylem tension), drought avoidance traits (branch conductivity, leaf/needle size, tree height, leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio), and drought tolerance traits (xylem resistance to embolism, hydraulic safety margin, wood density) at the range margins and range center of each species. Although water stress increased and growth declined strongly at lower range margins of both species, ponderosa pine and aspen showed contrasting patterns of clinal trait variation. Trembling aspen increased its drought tolerance at its dry range edge by growing stronger but more carbon dense branch and leaf tissues, implying an increased cost of growth at its range boundary. By contrast, ponderosa pine showed little elevational variation in drought-related traits but avoided drought stress at low elevations by limiting transpiration through stomatal closure, such that its dry range boundary is associated with limited carbon assimilation even in average climatic conditions. Thus, the same climatic factor (drought) may drive range boundaries through different physiological mechanisms - a result that has important implications for process-based modeling approaches to tree biogeography. Further, we show that comparing intraspecific patterns of

  13. Ultra-wideband ranging precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGougan, Glenn; O'Keefe, Kyle; Klukas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of ultra-wideband (UWB) in the context of ranging applications and assesses the precision and accuracy of UWB ranging from both a theoretical perspective and a practical perspective using real data. The paper begins with a brief history of UWB technology and the most current definition of what constitutes an UWB signal. The potential precision of UWB ranging is assessed using Cramer–Rao lower bound analysis. UWB ranging methods are described and potential error sources are discussed. Two types of commercially available UWB ranging radios are introduced which are used in testing. Actual ranging accuracy is assessed from line-of-sight testing under benign signal conditions by comparison to high-accuracy electronic distance measurements and to ranges derived from GPS real-time kinematic positioning. Range measurements obtained in outdoor testing with line-of-sight obstructions and strong reflection sources are compared to ranges derived from classically surveyed positions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential applications for UWB ranging

  14. HEVC for high dynamic range services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hwan; Zhao, Jie; Misra, Kiran; Segall, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Displays capable of showing a greater range of luminance values can render content containing high dynamic range information in a way such that the viewers have a more immersive experience. This paper introduces the design aspects of a high dynamic range (HDR) system, and examines the performance of the HDR processing chain in terms of compression efficiency. Specifically it examines the relation between recently introduced Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) ST 2084 transfer function and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. SMPTE ST 2084 is designed to cover the full range of an HDR signal from 0 to 10,000 nits, however in many situations the valid signal range of actual video might be smaller than SMPTE ST 2084 supported range. The above restricted signal range results in restricted range of code values for input video data and adversely impacts compression efficiency. In this paper, we propose a code value remapping method that extends the restricted range code values into the full range code values so that the existing standards such as HEVC may better compress the video content. The paper also identifies related non-normative encoder-only changes that are required for remapping method for a fair comparison with anchor. Results are presented comparing the efficiency of the current approach versus the proposed remapping method for HM-16.2.

  15. Medium-range dielectric order in systems with collectivized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismagilov, A.M.; Kopaev, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of formation of a medium-range dielectric order (on a scale much larger than the interatomic one) due to electron-electron correlations and to scattering by an impurity in a system near a phase transition into a long-range order state is solved by a microscopic approach. It is shown that for a weak impurity potential the effect of medium-range order formation is stronger than the effect of long-range order suppression related to scattering by an impurity. The influence of medium-range order on the one-particle excitation spectrum and on the density of states is considered. It is found that since the medium-range order in a system is due to correlations of electron and hole states open-quotes coupledclose quotes by a continuous set of inhomogeneity vectors (in contrast to the long-range order formed on a discrete set of such vectors), the density of states varies on an energy scale determined by the mean absolute value of these vectors. Therefore in a system undergoing phase transition into an inhomogeneous state with the modulus q 0 of inhomogeneity vectors the medium-range order forms in the density of states a pseudogap of scale length v F q 0 (v F is the Fermi velocity). This distinguishes such a system substantially from one, which tends to a phase transition into a homogeneous state (q 0 ≡0), where the medium-range order forms a pseudogap of scale length v F /ξ much-lt v F q 0 (ξ is the correlation length). The possible role of medium dielectric order effects in high-T c superconductors is discussed. 30 refs., 6 figs

  16. Realtime identification of the propagation direction of received echoes in long range ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myoung Seon; Heo, Won Nyoung

    2013-01-01

    In long range ultrasonic testing, a phased array probe composed of multiple identical transducers with an uniform interval of one quarter wavelength is usually used for the transmission or reception directivity control. This paper shows that the propagation directions of individual echoes can be identified in real time by displaying the inputs of a process for summing the constitution reception signals after compensating the phase difference due to the transducer interval, together with the output of the process. A constructive interference of the constitution echoes indicates a forward direction echo propagating along an intended direction while a destructive interference implies a reverse direction echo propagating along the direction opposite to the intended one

  17. Study of pseudo noise CW diode laser for ranging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo S.; Ramaswami, Ravi

    1992-01-01

    A new Pseudo Random Noise (PN) modulated CW diode laser radar system is being developed for real time ranging of targets at both close and large distances (greater than 10 KM) to satisy a wide range of applications: from robotics to future space applications. Results from computer modeling and statistical analysis, along with some preliminary data obtained from a prototype system, are presented. The received signal is averaged for a short time to recover the target response function. It is found that even with uncooperative targets, based on the design parameters used (200-mW laser and 20-cm receiver), accurate ranging is possible up to about 15 KM, beyond which signal to noise ratio (SNR) becomes too small for real time analog detection.

  18. Using Elementary Mechanics to Estimate the Maximum Range of ICBMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    North Korea's development of nuclear weapons and, more recently, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) has added a grave threat to world order. The threat presented by these weapons depends critically on missile range, i.e., the ability to reach North America or Europe while carrying a nuclear warhead. Using the limited information available from near-vertical test flights, how do arms control experts estimate the maximum range of an ICBM? The purpose of this paper is to show, using mathematics and concepts appropriate to a first-year calculus-based mechanics class, how a missile's range can be estimated from the (observable) altitude attained during its test flights. This topic—while grim—affords an ideal opportunity to show students how the application of basic physical principles can inform and influence public policy. For students who are already familiar with Kepler's laws, it should be possible to present in a single class period.

  19. Clinical evaluation of a medical high dynamic range display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchessoux, Cedric; Paepe, Lode de; Vanovermeire, Olivier; Albani, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent new medical displays do have higher contrast and higher luminance but do not have a High Dynamic Range (HDR). HDR implies a minimum luminance value close to zero. A medical HDR display prototype based on two Liquid Crystal layers has been developed. The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential clinical benefit of such display in comparison with a low dynamic range (LDR) display. Methods: The study evaluated the clinical performance of the displays in a search and detection task. Eight radiologists read chest x-ray images some of which contained simulated lung nodules. The study used a JAFROC (Jacknife Free Receiver Operating Characteristic) approach for analyzing FROC data. The calculated figure of merit (FoM) is the probability that a lesion is rated higher than all rated nonlesions on all images. Time per case and accuracy for locating the center of the nodules were also compared. The nodules were simulated using Samei’s model. 214 CR and DR images [half were “healthy images” (chest nodule-free) and half “diseased images”] were used resulting in a total number of nodules equal to 199 with 25 images with 1 nodule, 51 images with 2 nodules, and 24 images with 3 nodules. A dedicated software interface was designed for visualizing the images for each session. For the JAFROC1 statistical analysis, the study is done per nodule category: all nodules, difficult nodules, and very difficult nodules. Results: For all nodules, the averaged FoM HDR is slightly higher than FoM LDR with 0.09% of difference. For the difficult nodules, the averaged FoM HDR is slightly higher than FoM LDR with 1.38% of difference. The averaged FoM HDR is slightly higher than FoM LDR with 0.71% of difference. For the true positive fraction (TPF), both displays (the HDR and the LDR ones) have similar TPF for all nodules, but looking at difficult and very difficult nodules, there are more TP for the HDR display. The true positive fraction has been also computed in

  20. Alcohol on Campus and Possible Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, E. T.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews laws and court cases relating to alcohol and possible civil and criminal liability. Suggests a number of risk management principles, including knowledge of the law, policies forbidding hazing, fostering alcohol awareness, and discipline. (JAC)

  1. Short-range and long-range forces in quantum theory: selected topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Short-range forces (SRF) are encountered when the effects of the parity-violating (PV) weak neutral current are considered in atomic systems. We consider these and other SRF that are associated with operators that contain delta functions. Identities which convert a delta-function matrix element to that of a global operator are reviewed. Past and possible future applications of such identities are described. It has been found that use of these identities can substantially improve the results obtained with less accurate wave functions. We present a further application to the hyperfine structure of the ground state of lithium where we again find that results are improved by the use of an identity. A long-range force (LRF) is here defined to be one that is associated with a potential V(r) that is asymptotically of the form lambda r - 1 (r 0 /r)/sup N-1/. We use a dispersion-theoretic approach to study LRF between hadrons due to two-glucon exchange within the framework of quantum chromodynamics. Such an LRF is usually related to the presence of a spectrum of physical states that extends to zero mass. A speculative scheme put forward by Feinberg and Sucher is used to avoid requiring the existence of massless gluons as observable particles. Semi-quantitative expressions for the two-glucon exchange potential between hadrons and, in particular, between two nucleons are obtained. Limits on two-gluon corrections to πp forward scattering dispersion relations are used to provide an upper bound for lambda, the coupling constant in the nucleon-nucleon potential. For N greater than or equal to 7, expected on heuristic grounds, we obtain the bound lambda less than or equal to 10 6 , which is very weak; gluon effects as treated here do not lead to significant effects in the dispersion-theoretic analysis of πp scattering

  2. Toward a possible next geomagnetic transition?

    OpenAIRE

    A. De Santis; E. Qamili; L. Wu

    2013-01-01

    The geomagnetic field is subject to possible reversals or excursions of polarity during its temporal evolution. Considering that: (a) the typical average time between one reversal and the next (the so-called chron) is around 300 000 yr, (b) the last reversal occurred around 780 000 yr ago, (c) more excursions (rapid changes of polarity) can occur within the same chron and (d) the geomagnetic field dipole is currently decreasing, a possible imminent geomagne...

  3. NOURISHMENT OF TEENAGE AND YOUTHFUL, POSSIBLE RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    DOLÉNKOVÁ, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Nutrition of adolescents, possibly hazards My bachelor work draws attention to possible hazards on inappropriate nutrition of adolescents especially on obesity risk, mental anorexia and mental bulimia. The theoretical section is focused on fundamental information about rational nutrition, alternative nutrition and problems with occurence of obesity, mental anorexia and mental bulimia. Rational nutrition is characterized by suitable and adequate food input, ideally qualitatively and ...

  4. The Large Customer Reactive Power Control Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Małkowski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors wish to draw attention to the rationale for, and the possibility of, the use of local reactive power sources by the Transmission Node Master Controller (TNMC. Large Customers (LC are one of the possible reactive power sources. The paper presents the issues related to the need for coordination between the control systems installed in the LC network, and coordination between control systems of the LC as well as master control systems in the network.

  5. Information society and new learning possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Nunes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The following communication starts with a reflection about the present society, linking it with the potential of using technology to support the training activity. Then, a brief reference about andragogy and the main characteristics of an adult learner is done. Follows some electronic learning possibilities and a report on the practical application of the “Student Response System” (SRS tool, illustrating the m-learning possibilities at the level of adult learning

  6. Reliability assessment using the concept of possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, R.; Zhao, G.

    1994-01-01

    The role of the possibility theory in the quantitative approach to the reliability of large scale systems, in particular man-machine systems, is discussed. According to the original idea due to professor L.A. Zadeh, an error rate may be associated with a possibility distribution and a probability distribution. They describe the potentiallity and the actuality for error. This is especially important for the analysis of big accidents

  7. Willow Flycatcher Range - CWHR [ds594

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  8. Great Blue Heron Range - CWHR [ds609

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  9. Western Pond Turtle Range - CWHR [ds598

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  10. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  11. Caspian Tern Range - CWHR [ds604

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  12. Bank Swallow Range - CWHR [ds606

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  13. Close range photogrammetry and machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, KB

    1996-01-01

    This book presents the methodology, algorithms, techniques and equipment necessary to achieve real time digital photogrammetric solutions, together with contemporary examples of close range photogrammetry.

  14. Common Loon Range - CWHR [ds603

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  15. Yellow Warbler Range - CWHR [ds607

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  16. Black Swift Range - CWHR [ds605

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  17. Autonomous system for launch vehicle range safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam

    2001-02-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .

  18. Black Rail Range - CWHR [ds595

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  19. Bald Eagle Range - CWHR [ds600

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  20. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...