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Sample records for ranges northern territory

  1. Surface rupture and vertical deformation associated with 20 May 2016 M6 Petermann Ranges earthquake, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan; Clark, Dan; King, Tamarah; Quigley, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Surface-rupturing earthquakes in stable continental regions (SCRs) occur infrequently, though when they occur in heavily populated regions the damage and loss of life can be severe (e.g., 2001 Bhuj earthquake). Quantifying the surface-rupture characteristics of these low-probability events is therefore important, both to improve understanding of the on- and off-fault deformation field near the rupture trace and to provide additional constraints on earthquake magnitude to rupture length and displacement, which are critical inputs for seismic hazard calculations. This investigation focuses on the 24 August 2016 M6.0 Petermann Ranges earthquake, Northern Territory, Australia. We use 0.3-0.5 m high-resolution optical Worldview satellite imagery to map the trace of the surface rupture associated with the earthquake. From our mapping, we are able to trace the rupture over a length of 20 km, trending NW, and exhibiting apparent north-side-up motion. To quantify the magnitude of vertical surface deformation, we use stereo Worldview images processed using NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline software to generate pre- and post-earthquake digital terrain models with a spatial resolution of 1.5 to 2 m. The surface scarp is apparent in much of the post-event digital terrain model. Initial efforts to difference the pre- and post-event digital terrain models yield noisy results, though we detect vertical deformation of 0.2 to 0.6 m over length scales of 100 m to 1 km from the mapped trace of the rupture. Ongoing efforts to remove ramps and perform spatial smoothing will improve our understanding of the extent and pattern of vertical deformation. Additionally, we will compare our results with InSAR and field measurements obtained following the earthquake.

  2. Count and detection-nondetection survey data of barred owls (Strix varia) in historical breeding territories of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the Oregon Coast Ranges, 1995-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains count and detection-nondetection data of Barred Owls from 106 historical breeding territories of Northern Spotted Owl territories (i.e. sites)...

  3. The Cinematic Northern Territory of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Australia’s Northern Territory has been inscribed on film as an unspoilt wilderness, an iconic national resource and as a threatening horror landscape. From the definition of ‘the Territory’ as a definitive national location in The Overlanders (1946), this most remote and vacant area of a sparsely populated continent has been promoted as a unique and marketable landscape for Australian cinema. This is epitomised by the convergence of cinema and tourist advertising campaigns with the productio...

  4. Drinking and Smoking Habits of Students at Northern Territory University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Adrian S.

    Persons in the Northern Territory who drink have the highest per capita daily consumption of alcohol and the highest rate of tobacco smoking in Australia. This study identifies the drinking patterns and demographic and personal variables that might predict risk levels for Northern Territory University (NTU) students and therefore give direction to…

  5. Health inequity in the Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Understanding health inequity is necessary for addressing the disparities in health outcomes in many populations, including the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. This report investigates the links between Indigenous health outcomes and socioeconomic disadvantage in the Northern Territory of Australia (NT). Methods Data sources include deaths, public hospital admissions between 2005 and 2007, and Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas from the 2006 Census. Age-sex standardisation, standardised rate ratio, concentration index and Poisson regression model are used for statistical analysis. Results There was a strong inverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and both mortality and morbidity rates. Mortality and morbidity rates in the low SES group were approximately twice those in the medium SES group, which were, in turn, 50% higher than those in the high SES group. The gradient was present for most disease categories for both deaths and hospital admissions. Residents in remote and very remote areas experienced higher mortality and hospital morbidity than non-remote areas. Approximately 25-30% of the NT Indigenous health disparity may be explained by socioeconomic disadvantage. Conclusions Socioeconomic disadvantage is a shared common denominator for the main causes of deaths and principal diagnoses of hospitalisations for the NT population. Closing the gap in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations will require improving the socioeconomic conditions of Indigenous Australians. PMID:24034417

  6. Irukandji syndrome case series from Australia's Tropical Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, Christopher P; Waugh, Edith B; Jacups, Susan P; Currie, Bart J

    2009-09-01

    We describe Irukandji syndrome (a painful hypercatecholaminergic condition caused by jellyfish envenoming) in Australia's Northern Territory. We collected prospectively a standardized data set on patients presenting to health facilities in the Northern Territory. Additional cases were identified retrospectively. Data collected included demographic, geographic, seasonal, and environmental features, as well as sting details, clinical manifestations, investigations, management, and outcomes. From 1990 to 2007, Irukandji syndrome affected 87 people. Age ranged from 1 to 51 years (64% male victims; 41% children [63% indigenous]). Activities associated with stings included snorkeling or scuba diving (35%) and swimming (29%). Stings commonly occurred in water greater than 2 m deep (63%), with fine weather (73%) and still or light breeze (70%). Seasonal variation was bimodal; peaks in May and October corresponded to prevailing offshore winds in the Darwin and Gove areas, respectively. Pain was severe (65%), with rapid onset (<30 minutes in 79%). Sting lesions (visible in 63%) were mild, and nematocysts (detected in 7 cases) had variable morphology. Systemic features were common, including hypertension and ECG abnormalities. Severe complications included troponin-level increases (2 cases) and cardiomyopathy with ventricular tachycardia (1 case), but no fatalities. Management included vinegar as first aid (66%), parenteral opioids (70%) (range 2 to 82.5 mg morphine equivalents in adults), and magnesium sulfate (3 cases). Hospital admission (49%) and aeromedical retrieval (16%) were commonplace. Irukandji syndrome in the Northern Territory was clinically consistent with previous studies but had distinct seasonal, geographic, and environmental features. Indigenous children in remote coastal communities are at risk, and there is room for improvement in prevention and management.

  7. Characteristics of trauma mortality in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathleen M; Brearley, Matt B; Hudson, Steven M; Ward, Linda; Read, David J

    2017-12-01

    While factors including remoteness, alcohol consumption, age and Indigenous ethnicity are well-documented associations of trauma mortality, less is known of trauma seasonality. This is particularly relevant to Australia's Northern Territory, with its tropical regions experiencing a climate of wet (hot and humid) and dry (warm) seasons annually. The aim of this study was to therefore, examine the characteristics of trauma mortality in the Top End, Northern Territory, Australia. A retrospective review of the National Coroners Information System (NCIS) database from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2007 analysed four-hundred and sixteen traumatic deaths where the trauma event and death occurred within the Top End of the Northern Territory. The annual traumatic death rate for the Top End was 58.7 per 100 000, with variance between regions (accessible 38.1; remote 119.1 per 100000, respectively). Overall alcohol was involved in 56.5% of cases. The three most frequent mechanisms of death were suicide, transport related and assault, accounting for 81.5% of deaths. These respective mechanisms of death demonstrated seasonal influence, with transport related deaths 2.5 times more likely to occur in the dry than the wet season (p Territory were evident, with contrasting seasonal and regional profiles. Based upon the data of this investigation, existing programmes to minimise trauma in the Northern Territory ought to be evaluated for seasonal and regional specificity.

  8. Burkholderia pseudomallei Genotype Distribution in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Stephanie N J; Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; McRobb, Evan; Mayo, Mark; Kaestli, Mirjam; Spratt, Brian G; Currie, Bart J

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis is a tropical disease of high mortality caused by the environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. We have collected clinical isolates from the highly endemic Northern Territory of Australia routinely since 1989, and animal and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates since 1991. Here we provide a complete record of all B. pseudomallei multilocus sequence types (STs) found in the Northern Territory to date, and distribution maps of the eight most common environmental STs. We observed surprisingly restricted geographic distributions of STs, which is contrary to previous reports suggesting widespread environmental dissemination of this bacterium. Our data suggest that B. pseudomallei from soil and water does not frequently disperse long distances following severe weather events or by migration of infected animals. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Vitamin D insufficiency among hospitalised children in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Michael J; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Chang, Anne B; Andrews, Ross M

    2014-07-01

    Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) are the most common reason for hospitalisation of young children in the Northern Territory of Australia. International studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with increased risk of ALRI in paediatric populations, but this has not been explored in tropical regions such as the Top End of the Northern Territory. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among children hospitalised with ALRI in the Northern Territory. Vitamin D serum metabolite (25OHD3) levels were retrospectively measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 74 children (64% male; 57% Indigenous) aged less than 3 years admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital in the Northern Territory of Australia between May 2008 and May 2010. There were 44 (59%) ALRI-classified hospitalisations and 30 (41%) non-ALRI-classified hospitalisations. The most common ALRI diagnoses were bronchiolitis (n = 22, 30%) and pneumonia (n = 21, 28%), whereas the most common non-ALRI diagnosis was gastroenteritis (n = 20, 27%). Overall, 24/74 (32%) children had 25OHD3 levels <75 nmol/L (insufficiency). For children hospitalised with ALRI, 23% (10/44) had vitamin D insufficiency compared with 47% (14/30) among children hospitalised for other reasons (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.11-1.03; P = 0.043). Twelve of the 20 (60%) children hospitalised for gastroenteritis had vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency was observed in almost one-third of these hospitalised children. Children hospitalised with an ALRI were less likely to have vitamin D insufficiency compared with children hospitalised for other conditions (predominantly gastroenteritis). © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Rural electrification: Waste biomass Russian northern territories. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamian, S. [ECOTRADE, Inc., Glendale, CA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The primary objective of this pre-feasibility evaluation is to examine the economic and technical feasibility of replacing distillate fuel with local waste biomass in the village of Verkhni-Ozerski, Arkhangelsk Region, Russia. This village is evaluated as a pilot location representing the off-grid villages in the Russian Northern Territories. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has agreed to provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MFE). MFE has identified the Northern Territories as a priority area requiring NREL`s assistance. The program initially affects about 900 off-grid villages. Biomass and wind energy, and to a lesser extent small hydro (depending on resource availability) are expected to play the dominant role in the program, Geothermal energy may also have a role in the Russian Far East. The Arkhangelsk, Kariela, and Krasnoyarsk Regions, all in the Russian Northern Territories, have abundant forest resources and forest products industries, making them strong candidates for implementation of small-scale waste biomass-to-energy projects. The 900 or so villages included in the renewable energy program span nine administrative regions and autonomous republics. The regional authorities in the Northern Territories proposed these villages to MFE for consideration in the renewable energy program according to the following selection criteria: (a) Remote off-grid location, (b) high cost of transporting fuel, old age of existing power generation equipment, and (d) preliminary determination as to availability of alternative energy resources. Inclusion of indigenous minorities in the program was also heavily emphasized. The prefeasibility study demonstrates that the project merits continuation and a full feasibility analysis. The demonstrated rate of return and net positive cash flow, the willingness of Onegales and local/regional authorities to cooperate, and the immense social benefits are all good reasons to continue the project.

  11. A New Species of Mesonivirus from the Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Roy A.; Davis, Steven S.; Weir, Richard; Kurucz, Nina; Whelan, Peter; Allcock, Richard; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; O’Brien, Caitlin A.; Hobson-Peters, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe Casuarina virus (CASV), a new virus in the family Mesoniviridae. This is the first report of a mesonivirus in Australia, which extends the geographical range of this virus family to 3 continents. The virus was isolated in 2010 from Coquillettidia xanthogaster mosquitoes during surveillance in the suburbs of Darwin, the capital of the Northern Territory. Cryo-electron microscopy of the CASV virions revealed spherical particles of 65 nm in size with large club-shaped projections of approximately 15 nm in length. The new virus was most closely related to Alphamesonivirus 1, the only currently recognized species in the family. In 2013 a further 5 putative new mesonivirus species were described: Hana, Méno, Nsé, Moumo and Dak Nong viruses. The evolutionary distance between CASV and two of its closest relatives, Cavally and Hana viruses (Jones-Taylor-Thornton distance of 0.151 and 0.224, respectively), along with its isolation from a different genus of mosquitoes captured on a separate continent indicate that CASV is a new species. PMID:24670468

  12. Comparative estimates of Kamchatka territory development in the context of northern territories of foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Shelomentsev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article promotes an approach to assess the prospects of regional development on the basis of the synthesis of comparative and historical methods of research. According to the authors, the comparative analysis of the similar functioning of the socio-economic systems forms deeper understanding what part factors and methods of state regulation play in regional development, and also their place in socio-economic and geopolitical space. The object of the research is Kamchatka territory as the region playing strategically important role in socio-economic development of Russia and also northern territories of the other countries comparable with Kamchatka on the bass if environmental conditions such as Iceland, Greenland, USA (Alaska, Canada (Yukon, and Japan (Hokkaido. On the basis of allocation of the general signs of regional socio-economic systems and creation of the regional development models forming the basis for comparative estimates, the article analyses the territories, which are comparable on the base of climatic, geographic, economic, geopolitical conditions, but thus significantly different due to the level of economic familiarity. The generalization of the extensive statistical material characterizing various spheres of activity at these territories, including branch structure of the economy, its infrastructure security, demographic situation, the budgetary and financial sphere are given. It allows defining the crucial features of the regional economy development models. In the conclusion, the authors emphasize that ignoring of the essential relations among the regional system elements and internal and external factors deprives a research of historical and socio-economic basis.

  13. FACTOR IN ENSURING A BALANCED BUDGET NORTHERN TERRITORIES

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    Tatiana Anatol’evna Naidenova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main tools of sustainable development of the country as a whole and its individual regions are federal and regional budgets. At the same time a prerequisite for the use of this tool is its equilibrium. It is the basic principle of a responsible fiscal policy. The article describes the factors to equilibrium. on the budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation. The measures to ensure budgetary equilibrium in the northern regions of the Russian Federation are offered.The purpose of the article. Substantiating the measures to balance the budgets of the northern Russian Federation subjects on the basis of analysis of the factors that directly affect the mobilization of potential tax revenues to regional budgets.Method and methodology of work. Theoretical and empirical methods, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction.Results of the study. To ensure factors unbalanced budgets northern territories. The proposals the balance of revenues and expenditures of the regional budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation are submitted.Application area. Finance authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation.

  14. Wind-Diesel Hybrid Systems for Russia's Northern Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgian, V.; Touryan, K.; Bezrukikh, P.; Karghiev, V.

    1999-09-01

    This paper will summarize the DOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MF&E) activities in Russia's Northern Territories in the field of hybrid wind-diesel power systems over the last three years (1997-1999). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project, including resource assessment, system design, site identification, training and system monitoring. As a result, several wind-diesel systems have been installed and are operating in the Arkhangelsk/Murmansk regions and in Chukotka. NREL designed and provided sets of data acquisition equipment to monitor several of the first pilot wind-diesel systems. NREL's computer simulation models are being used for performance data analysis and optimizing of future system configurations.

  15. Internet policy and Australia’s Northern Territory Intervention

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    Ellie Rennie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Australia’s Commonwealth Government took a dramatic new approach to the governance of remote Indigenous communities. The ‘Northern Territory Intervention’ aimed to combat abuse and violence in remote Indigenous communities, and included far-reaching changes to welfare administration, employment programmes and policing. This paper considers a hitherto obscure aspect of the Intervention: the surveillance of publicly funded computers and internet use. Between 2007 and 2012, providers of internet and computer access facilities in the affected communities were required to audit and record computer use. In this paper we examine the legal and policy dimensions of this case of governmental surveillance, using interviews, published materials and documents obtained through freedom of information processes.

  16. Pollen of the Spermacoce (Rubiaceae) species from the Northern Territory of Australia: morphology and taxonomic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessein, S.; Harwood, R.; Smets, E.; Robbrecht, E.

    2005-01-01

    Complementary to the revision of the genus Spermacoce in the Northern Territory of Australia, pollen morphology of 48 of the 53 native Spermacoce species from the Northern Territory has been investigated by scanning electron and light microscopy. There is considerable variation for most diagnostic

  17. Teachers' Emotional Responses to New Pedagogical Tools in High Challenge Settings: Illustrations from the Northern Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of teachers' emotions in adopting new pedagogical tools in urban and remote schools in the Northern Territory. The discussion is illustrated through case study material of Northern Territory teachers who had taken up using a web-based early childhood literacy resource called ABRACADABRA. A sociocultural perspective is…

  18. Trajectories of women's homelessness in Canada's 3 northern territories

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    Rose Schmidt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repairing the Holes in the Net was a 2-year, multilevel action research project designed to inform the development of culturally appropriate and gender-specific services for northern women who are homeless or marginally housed and who face mental health and substance use concerns. The study was designed to learn about the barriers and supports experienced by homeless women in the North when accessing mental health care, shelter, housing and other services; and to inform the work of northern service providers and policy advocates in a position to implement adjustments in their praxis. Methods: This article describes the trajectories of women's service access and their ideas for service improvement from 61 qualitative, semi-structured interviews conducted with homeless women in Whitehorse, Yukon (YT, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NT, and Iqualit, Nunavut (NU. Results: Unresolved trauma, poverty and social exclusion, inability to find and maintain housing and ineffective services emerged as interconnected and multifaceted challenges related to women's service engagement. In the face of these challenges, women displayed significant resilience and resistance, and offered important ideas for service improvement. Conclusions: The 4 interconnected systemic challenges identified in the research, coupled with specific ideas for change cited by the resilient homeless women interviewed, offer points of entry to improve service policy and delivery. Implementing trauma-informed approaches emerged as a key example of how access to, and quality of, services could be improved for homeless women in the North.

  19. Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, David M; Trembizki, Ella; Buckley, Cameron; Freeman, Kevin; Baird, Robert W; Beaman, Miles; Chen, Marcus; Donovan, Basil; Kundu, Ratan L; Fairley, Christopher K; Guy, Rebecca; Hogan, Tiffany; Kaldor, John M; Karimi, Mahdad; Limnios, Athena; Regan, David G; Ryder, Nathan; Su, Jiunn-Yih; Ward, James; Lahra, Monica M

    2017-09-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a globally recognized health threat; new strategies are needed to enhance AMR surveillance. The Northern Territory of Australia is unique in that 2 different first-line therapies, based primarily on geographic location, are used for gonorrhea treatment. We tested 1,629 N. gonorrhoeae nucleic acid amplification test-positive clinical samples, collected from regions where ceftriaxone plus azithromycin or amoxicillin plus azithromycin are recommended first-line treatments, by using 8 N. gonorrhoeae AMR PCR assays. We compared results with those from routine culture-based surveillance data. PCR data confirmed an absence of ceftriaxone resistance and a low level of azithromycin resistance (0.2%), and that penicillin resistance was <5% in amoxicillin plus azithromycin regions. Rates of ciprofloxacin resistance and penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae were lower when molecular methods were used. Molecular methods to detect N. gonorrhoeae AMR can increase the evidence base for treatment guidelines, particularly in settings where culture-based surveillance is limited.

  20. High burden of invasive group A streptococcal disease in the Northern Territory of Australia.

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    Boyd, R; Patel, M; Currie, B J; Holt, D C; Harris, T; Krause, V

    2016-04-01

    Although the incidence of invasive group A streptococcal disease in northern Australia is very high, little is known of the regional epidemiology and molecular characteristics. We conducted a case series of Northern Territory residents reported between 2011 and 2013 with Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from a normally sterile site. Of the 128 reported episodes, the incidence was disproportionately high in the Indigenous population at 69·7/100 000 compared to 8·8/100 000 in the non-Indigenous population. Novel to the Northern Territory is the extremely high incidence in haemodialysis patients of 2205·9/100 000 population; and for whom targeted infection control measures could prevent transmission. The incidences in the tropical north and semi-arid Central Australian regions were similar. Case fatality was 8% (10/128) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome occurred in 14 (11%) episodes. Molecular typing of 82 isolates identified 28 emm types, of which 63 (77%) were represented by four emm clusters. Typing confirmed transmission between infant twins. While the diverse range of emm types presents a challenge for effective coverage by vaccine formulations, the limited number of emm clusters raises optimism should cluster-specific cross-protection prove efficacious. Further studies are required to determine effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis for contacts and to inform public health response.

  1. Roaming behaviour of dogs in four remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia: preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S; Burleigh, A; Dürr, S; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    To estimate the home range (HR) and investigate the potential predictors for roaming of 58 dogs in four Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory. Prospective study. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to the dogs for 1-4 days, recording location fixes every 1-3 min. Utilisation distributions (UDs) and extended (95% isopleth) and core (50% isopleth) HRs of dogs were determined. Potential predictors of roaming were assessed. Estimated core (median, 0.27 ha) and extended (median, 3.1 ha) HRs differed significantly (P = 0.0225 and 0.0345, respectively) between the four communities; dogs in the coastal community travelled significantly (P dogs in the three inland communities studied. Significant associations were found between extended HR size and sex (P = 0.0050) and sex + neuter (P = 0.0218), and between core HR size and sex (P = 0.0010), neuter status (P = 0.0255) and sex + neuter (P = 0.0025). Entire males roamed more than neutered females. The core HR of dogs with poor/fair body condition scores (BCSs) was larger than dogs with ideal/obese BCSs (P = 0.0394). Neutered male dogs also travelled more per day than entire female dogs (P = 0.0475). Roaming information can be used to inform the management of dogs in remote communities and to design disease control programs. Widespread data collection across the Northern Territory should be undertaken to further investigate the associations found in this study, considering that data were collected during relatively short periods of time in one season. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. The Northern Territories: Case Study in Japanese-Soviet Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    their part, the Japanese, under the isolation of the Tokugawa shogunate, had promoted trade with the Ainu, fished in the northern waters, and... Tokugawa shogunate finally incorporated Iturup and Kunashir into the Hokkaido province in 1800. No Russians had ever exercised any control over these two

  3. An annotated checklist of the fishes of the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Helen K; Williams, Rex S; Hammer, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    There are 1474 fish species now known from the Northern Territory, in 195 families, with a number of these species still undescribed. The 1474 species include 120 new records for the NT and three for Australia, while nine non-native species exist as small feral populations.The most speciose family is the Gobiidae (gobies), with 150 recognised species, and is the main fish group inhabiting coral reef and mangrove areas. The fish fauna of the Northern Territory occupies several biogeographical regions, which include the internal river drainages of Australia and the Sahul Shelf adjoining New Guinea and Indonesia. The Northern Territory's fish fauna most closely resembles that of north-western Western Australia, and many species are shared with this region. Among the Northern Territory's fish fauna are 55 species considered to be threatened under various listings (ASFB, EPBC), with the poor state of knowledge of the NT's fish populations and their true distributions hindering assessment. Many sampling gaps remain and the basic biology of most species is unknown.

  4. Trends in incidence of head and neck cancer in the northern territory, Australia, between 2007 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Rama; Singh, Jagtar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-01-01

    Incidence trends of head and neck cancer (HNC) have implications for screening strategies, disease management, guiding health policy making, and are needed to further oral cancer research. This paper aims to describe trends in age-adjusted HNC incidence rates focusing on changes across calendar period between 2007 and 2010 in Australian Northern Territory. Age-adjusted incidence rates of HNC were calculated for 2007- 2010 using Northern Territory population based data assembled by Department of Health, Northern Territory Government of Australia. Changes in the HNC rate ratio (RR) and Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) between 2007-2008, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 were calculated. A total of 171 HNC patients were recorded by the Northern Territory Department of Health during the time period between 2007 and 2010, out of which, 135 were males (78.9% of male HNC patients) and 36 were females (21.1% of female HNC patients). In conclusion, HNC incidence rate has decreased in the Northern Territory Australian males but remains unchanged in Australian females. High incidences of HNC may be associated with the high smoking rate and high alcohol consumption in the Northern Territory. Continued monitoring of trends in HNC incidence rates is crucial to inform Northern Territory based cancer prevention strategies.

  5. Understanding coastal processes to assist with coastal erosion management in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyes, S. G.; Wasson, R. J.; Munksgaard, N. C.; Evans, K. G.; Brinkman, R.; Williams, D. K.

    2017-02-01

    Sand transport pathways in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia, are being investigated to assist with coastal management. Coastal erosion, which threatens public and private infrastructure, is one of the major problems along the harbour beaches. A study of sediment transport is essential to identify the challenges encountered by the stakeholders in coastal management. Darwin Harbour, located in the tropical, cyclone prone area of Australia, was, until recently, considered a near pristine estuary. A semi-diurnal macro-tidal embayment, the tidal variation in the harbour reaches up to 8 m with a mean tidal range of 3.7 m. The beach morphology consists of sandy pocket beaches between coastal cliffs, sandbars, rocky shore platforms, tidal flats and mangrove fringes. A two-dimensional depth averaged finite-element hydrodynamic model (RMA-2), coupled with a sediment transport model (RMA-11) from Resource Modelling Associates, has been used to infer the sources and the depositional areas of sand in the harbour. Grain size distributions and geochemical analysis are also used to characterize the sand and its source(s). Initial results show that the beach sand is mostly of offshore origin with small sand input from the rivers. Potential supplementary sand sources are the eroded materials from the shore platforms and the rocky cliffs. Due to the rapid development in Darwin Harbour, this study is fundamental in understanding coastal processes to support decision making in coastal management, particularly in a macro-tidal, tropical estuary.

  6. Notification and management of congenital syphilis in the Northern Territory 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Charlie; Su, Jiunn-Yih; Francis, Joshua R; Ishwar, Alice; Ryder, Nathan

    2015-09-30

    To determine whether cases of congenital syphilis in the Northern Territory between 2009 and 2014 were correctly notified based on probable or confirmed case criteria stipulated by the Communicable Diseases Network Australia (CDNA). Pregnant women with positive syphilis serology defined as reactive treponemal test and rapid plasma reagin titre ≥1:8 were identified from the Northern Territory Syphilis Register Information System. Risk classification was performed based on local guidelines, and CDNA criteria for probable/confirmed cases of congenital syphilis were applied to determine whether cases were appropriately notified. Thirty-four cases of positive maternal syphilis serology in pregnancy were identified from 31 women; all were Indigenous. Twenty-one cases fulfilled criteria for probable congenital syphilis; 1 case was formally notified to the Centre for Disease Control. Twenty cases (95%) fulfilling CDNA criteria for probable congenital syphilis were not notified over the study period. Application of standard case definitions significantly increases the rate of congenital syphilis cases in the Northern Territory. Improved education regarding CDNA criteria for notification of congenital syphilis is necessary for clinicians and public health staff. Emerging evidence has supported the recent simplification of CDNA criteria for notification of congenital syphilis, effective 1 July 2015.

  7. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Byrnes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories, injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objective: To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design: Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078. Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results: The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001 and fighting (p=0.02 injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01. Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94, average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97 or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91, not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85, not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97 and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98 were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59. Conclusions: Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are

  8. The caribou of the northern Yukon Territory: A history of man's interest in them with special reference to wildlife biology

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a DRAFT report on the caribou of the northern Yukon territory. This report specifically examines the relationship humans have with caribou. History of...

  9. Barred owls and landscape attributes influence territory occupancy of northern spotted owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovern, Stan G; Forsman, Eric D; Olson, Gail S; Biswell, Brian L; Taylor, Margaret; Anthony, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    We used multi-season occupancy analyses to model 2 fates of northern spotted owl territories in relation to habitat amount, habitat fragmentation, and the presence of barred owls in Washington State, USA, 1989-2005. Local colonization is the probability a territory unoccupied by a spotted owl in year i would be occupied in year i  + 1, and local extinction is the probability a territory that was occupied by a spotted owl in year i would be unoccupied in year i  + 1. We found a negative relationship between local extinction probability and amount of late-seral forest edge. We found a negative relationship between colonization probability and the number of late-seral forest patches (higher fragmentation), and a negative relationship between colonization probability and the amount of non-habitat within 600 m of a spotted owl territory center (Akaike weight = 0.59). The presence of barred owls was positively related to extinction probability and negatively related to detection probability of spotted owls. The negative relationship between presence of barred owls and detectability of spotted owls indicated that spotted owls could be modifying their calling behavior in the presence of barred owls. The positive relationship between barred owl detections and local extinction probability suggests that because of competition with barred owls, spotted owls are being displaced. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana): Characteristics in the Northern Territory 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, Briony; McAuliffe, Gary N; Baird, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    Review of dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) presentations to Northern Territory (NT) Government health-care facilities over 12 years. We postulated H. nana infections would remain unchanged despite the introduction of deworming programmes as H. nana is not eradicated with albendazole treatment. A retrospective observational analysis of consecutive microbiologically confirmed cases of H. nana identified by NT Government health-care facilities between 2002 and 2013. Four hundred sixty-one episodes of H. nana infection were identified over the 12-year period from 68 387 faecal samples. Infections were overwhelmingly in young children with a median age of patients being 3.0 years (interquartile range 2.25-4.67). Patients were predominantly Indigenous (98.9%, P = 0.001) and infections occurred across the entire NT. Infections were associated with anaemia (18.2%) and eosinophilia (39.6%). The annual prevalence of NT Government health-care facility diagnosed H. nana infection remains relatively constant from 6.9 {4.8-9.0 (confidence interval (CI))} cases per 10 000 Indigenous population in 2002, compared with 6.6 (4.7-8.4 CI) cases per 10 000 Indigenous population in 2013. Infection rates in Indigenous children <5 years of age were: 46.1 (16.4-75.8 CI) cases/10 000 in 2002, compared with 44.3 (15.3-73.3 CI) cases/10 000 Indigenous population in 2013. H. nana is the most frequently identified cestode (tapeworm) in NT Government health-care facilities. H. nana remains endemic throughout the NT, predominantly infecting Indigenous children less than 5 years of age. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei Near-Neighbor Species in the Northern Territory of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, Jennifer L.; Mayo, Mark; Warrington, Stephanie D.; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mullins, Travis; Wagner, David M.; Currie, Bart J.; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Identification and characterization of near-neighbor species are critical to the development of robust molecular diagnostic tools for biothreat agents. One such agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, a soil bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, is lacking in this area because of its genomic diversity and widespread geographic distribution. The Burkholderia genus contains over 60 species and occupies a large range of environments including soil, plants, rhizospheres, water, animals and humans. The identification of novel species in new locations necessitates the need to identify the true global distribution of Burkholderia species, especially the members that are closely related to B. pseudomallei. In our current study, we used the Burkholderia-specific recA sequencing assay to analyze environmental samples from the Darwin region in the Northern Territory of Australia where melioidosis is endemic. Burkholderia recA PCR negative samples were further characterized using 16s rRNA sequencing for species identification. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that over 70% of the bacterial isolates were identified as B. ubonensis indicating that this species is common in the soil where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals many novel branches within the B. cepacia complex, one novel B. oklahomensis-like species, and one novel branch containing one isolate that is distinct from all other samples on the phylogenetic tree. During the analysis with recA sequencing, we discovered 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the reverse priming region of B. oklahomensis. A degenerate primer was developed and is proposed for future use. We conclude that the recA sequencing technique is an effective tool to classify Burkholderia and identify soil organisms in a melioidosis endemic area. PMID:26121041

  12. Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei Near-Neighbor Species in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Ginther

    Full Text Available Identification and characterization of near-neighbor species are critical to the development of robust molecular diagnostic tools for biothreat agents. One such agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, a soil bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, is lacking in this area because of its genomic diversity and widespread geographic distribution. The Burkholderia genus contains over 60 species and occupies a large range of environments including soil, plants, rhizospheres, water, animals and humans. The identification of novel species in new locations necessitates the need to identify the true global distribution of Burkholderia species, especially the members that are closely related to B. pseudomallei. In our current study, we used the Burkholderia-specific recA sequencing assay to analyze environmental samples from the Darwin region in the Northern Territory of Australia where melioidosis is endemic. Burkholderia recA PCR negative samples were further characterized using 16s rRNA sequencing for species identification. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that over 70% of the bacterial isolates were identified as B. ubonensis indicating that this species is common in the soil where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals many novel branches within the B. cepacia complex, one novel B. oklahomensis-like species, and one novel branch containing one isolate that is distinct from all other samples on the phylogenetic tree. During the analysis with recA sequencing, we discovered 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the reverse priming region of B. oklahomensis. A degenerate primer was developed and is proposed for future use. We conclude that the recA sequencing technique is an effective tool to classify Burkholderia and identify soil organisms in a melioidosis endemic area.

  13. Social and territorial control of Northern Mali by Jihadism in a context of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nievas Bullejos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the control of northern Mali by jihadist armed groups between 2012 and 2013. First, the factors that created the situation of crisis prior to the occupation that ended up facilitating the outbreak of the tuareg rebellion, have been explored as well as the subsequent triumph of the jihadists hosts. Second, a review is made of the tuareg conflict and the main features of the myriad jihadi groups who settled in northern Mali in recent years. In addition, the control of the territory in northern Mali and its population by jihadists until the intervention of the French military that expelled them, is also analyzed. To illustrate life under the jihadist yoke, this study uses the case of a particular region in northern Mali and the testimonies of people who lived through the laws that jihadists enforced upon them to turn into reality an assumed Islamic state in the heart of Western Africa. To conclude, the state and local response to the crisis is addressed, including and the current situation in northern Mali.

  14. Molecular evidence of Rickettsia felis infection in dogs from northern territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rees Robert L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in dogs from a remote indigenous community in the Northern Territory (NT was determined using molecular tools. Blood samples collected from 130 dogs in the community of Maningrida were subjected to a spotted fever group (SFG-specific PCR targeting the ompB gene followed by a Rickettsia felis-specific PCR targeting the gltA gene of R. felis. Rickettsia felis ompB and gltA genes were amplified from the blood of 3 dogs. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in indigenous community dogs in NT.

  15. Oral health inequalities among indigenous and nonindigenous children in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lisa M; Armfield, Jason M; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F

    2006-08-01

    To describe oral health inequalities among indigenous and nonindigenous children in the Northern Territory of Australia using an area-based measure of socioeconomic status (SES). Data were obtained from indigenous and nonindigenous 4-13-year-old children enrolled in the Northern Territory School Dental Service in 2002-2003. The Socio-Economic Indices For Areas (SEIFA) were used to determine socioeconomic relationships with dental disease experience. Some 12,584 children were examined, 35.1% of whom were indigenous. Across all age-groups, socially disadvantaged indigenous children experienced higher mean dmft and DMFT levels than their similarly aged, similarly disadvantaged nonindigenous counterparts. Indigenous children aged 5 years had almost four times the dmft of their nonindigenous counterparts in the same disadvantage category (P children aged 10 years had almost five times the DMFT of similarly disadvantaged nonindigenous children (P children, respectively, whereby those with the highest dmft/DMFT levels were in the most disadvantaged SES category and those least disadvantaged had the lowest dmft/DMFT levels. In most age-groups, indigenous children who were least disadvantaged had worse oral health than the most disadvantaged nonindigenous children. The findings suggest that indigenous status and SES have strong oral health outcome correlations but are not mutually dependent, that is, indigenous status influences oral health outcomes irrespective of social disadvantage. From a health policy perspective, greater oral health gains may be possible by concentrating public health and clinical effort among all indigenous children irrespective of SES status.

  16. Telemedicine in the Northern Territory: an assessment of patient perceptions in the preoperative anaesthetic clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon; Spain, Brian; Hicks, Chelsea; London, James; Tay, Stanley

    2015-06-01

    We investigated patient perceptions of a virtual preoperative anaesthesia evaluation clinic linking Royal Darwin Hospital to Katherine Hospital. Descriptive study, cross-sectional survey. Regional and rural areas of Northern Territory, Australia. Sample includes 27 respondents, five Indigenous, 18 non-Indigenous and four unknown. Introduction of a preoperative anaesthesia evaluation clinic. We designed a 10-item, 5-point Likert scale questionnaire assessing patient perceptions in four domains: (i) technical quality; (ii) perceived efficacy; (iii) affective patient experience; and (iv) patient preference. Qualitative responses are also reported. Twenty-seven out of 35 patients (77%) completed the questionnaire. Ninety-eight per cent were in positive agreement on technical quality with a mean score of 1.35 (SD: 0.53); Ninety-five per cent on perceived efficacy, 1.35 (SD: 0.65); Eighty-four per cent in negative agreement on affective patient experience (negative perception item), 4.19 (SD: 1.07); Eighty-one per cent in negative agreement on patient preference (negative perception item), 4.23 (SD: 1.14). There were no significant differences in the answers between Indigenous (five patients) and non-Indigenous patients (18 patients). Our study confirms the acceptability of telemedicine in the remote assessment of preoperative patients in the Northern Territory, with positive perceptions in all four domains. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  17. The comparative cost of food and beverages at remote Indigenous communities, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; Chatfield, Mark; Moodie, Marjory; Altman, Jon; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-04-01

    To determine the average price difference between foods and beverages in remote Indigenous community stores and capital city supermarkets and explore differences across products. A cross-sectional survey compared prices derived from point-of-sale data in 20 remote Northern Territory stores with supermarkets in capital cities of the Northern Territory and South Australia for groceries commonly purchased in remote stores. Average price differences for products, supply categories and food groups were examined. The 443 products examined represented 63% of food and beverage expenditure in remote stores. Remote products were, on average, 60% and 68% more expensive than advertised prices for Darwin and Adelaide supermarkets, respectively. The average price difference for fresh products was half that of packaged groceries for Darwin supermarkets and more than 50% for food groups that contributed most to purchasing. Strategies employed by manufacturers and supermarkets, such as promotional pricing, and supermarkets' generic products lead to lower prices. These opportunities are not equally available to remote customers and are a major driver of price disparity. Food affordability for already disadvantaged residents of remote communities could be improved by policies targeted at manufacturers, wholesalers and/or major supermarket chains. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Off-label use of rituximab in autoimmune disease in the Top End of the Northern Territory, 2008-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongseelashote, Sarah; Tayal, Vipin; Bourke, Peter Francis

    2018-02-01

    Rituximab, an anti-CD20 B-cell depleting monoclonal antibody, is increasingly prescribed off-label for a range of autoimmune diseases. There has not previously been an audit of off-label rituximab use in the Northern Territory, where the majority of patients are Aboriginal. To evaluate retrospectively off-label rituximab use in autoimmune diseases in the Top End of the Northern Territory. We performed a retrospective audit of 8 years of off-label rituximab use at the Royal Darwin Hospital, the sole tertiary referral centre for the Darwin, Katherine and East Arnhem regions. Electronic and paper records were reviewed for demographic information, diagnosis/indication for rituximab, doses, previous/concomitant immunosuppression, clinical outcomes and specific adverse events. Rituximab was prescribed off-label to 66 patients for 24 autoimmune diseases. The majority of patients (62.1%) were Aboriginal and 60.6% female. The most common indications were refractory/relapsing disease despite standard therapies (68.7%) or severe disease with rituximab incorporated into an induction immunosuppressive regimen (19.4%). Systemic lupus erythematosus was the underlying diagnosis in 28.8% of cases. A clinically significant response was demonstrated in 74.2% of cases overall. There were 18 clinically significant infections; however, 13 were in patients receiving concurrent immunosuppressive therapy. There was a total of nine deaths from any cause. Rituximab has been used off-label for a range of autoimmune diseases in this population with a high proportion of Aboriginal patients successfully and safely in the majority of cases. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Post-retirement intentions of nurses and midwives living and working in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, Katharina; Carson, D B

    2014-01-01

    Previous research undertaken in the Northern Territory of Australia has identified interest among nurses in engaging in the active workforce post-retirement. Relatively little is known about which nurses are interested in such engagement, and the types of work arrangements that might be of interest. This study aims to provide an enhanced understanding of the retirement plans and post-retirement employment intentions of nurses and midwives living and working in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. An online survey was developed to examine retirement intentions, and investigate the types and facilitators significant for post-retirement engagement. The results indicated a strong interest among nurses and midwives in engaging in post-retirement work, with 73.2% of respondents (n=207) having considered continuing in the active workforce. The most preferred types of engagement included the gradual reduction of hours in current workplaces, part-year or seasonal employment, short-term placements, job-sharing or job-rotation, mentoring, research and policy development or acting as 'Northern Territory representatives' promoting jobs to prospective nurses and midwives elsewhere in Australia. A range of facilitators for post-retirement engagement was found, including for nurses who had not currently considered such engagement. The data collected from this research also identified barriers to post-retirement employment. The most favoured facilitators were financial incentives (90.0% of respondents identified it as a facilitator for post-retirement engagement), followed by support from line management (82.0%). Regardless of whether they had considered engaging post-retirement, the largest proportion of respondents intended to leave the NT for the time of their retirement (33.7%). The most prominent barrier to post-retirement engagement was that only a smaller proportion intended to retire in the NT (24.1%). Importantly, many nurses who had not currently considered post

  20. Northern Leopard Frog Range - CWHR [ds593

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  1. Meningitis and a Febrile Vomiting illness Caused by Echovirus Type 4, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua S.; Harnett, Gerry B.; Williams, Simon H.; Speers, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In July 2007, a cluster of meningitis cases caused by an echovirus 4 strain was detected in 1 indigenous community in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Illness was characterized by fever, vomiting, and headache. Over the next 4 months, additional cases of meningitis and the fever and vomiting syndrome emerged in other indigenous communities and subsequently in the major urban center of Darwin. We describe the epidemiology of 95 laboratory-confirmed meningitis cases and conclude that the epidemic fever and vomiting syndrome was caused by the same enterovirus. Nucleotide sequencing of the whole genome verified this enterovirus (AUS250G) as a strain of echovirus type 4. Viral protein 1 nucleotide sequencing demonstrated 96% homology with an echovirus 4 strain responsible for a large outbreak of meningitis in the Yanbian Prefecture of China in 1996. PMID:20031044

  2. Comment on Boretti (2013), `Statistical analysis of the temperature records for the Northern Territory of Australia'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Blair C.; Jones, David A.

    2015-04-01

    Boretti (Theor Appl Clim 114:567-573, 2013) presents an analysis of observed temperature trends in the Northern Territory, Australia, and claims that this analysis is inconsistent with trends reported by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and thus that the Bureau of Meteorology results are flawed. This paper presents evidence that the results presented by Boretti (2013) are at least partly attributable to his failure to account for inhomogeneities in the underlying station data and to the use of time periods for trends which are different to those in the Bureau of Meteorology analyses with which he is comparing them. The evidence, as presented in this paper, therefore fails to support his conclusions of inconsistencies between the Bureau of Meteorology analyses and the station data.

  3. Patterns of paediatric emergency presentations to a tertiary referral centre in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntsma, Davina; Lithgow, Anna; O'Neill, Evan; Palmer, Didier; Morris, Peter; Acworth, Jason; Babl, Franz E

    2017-12-01

    To describe epidemiological data concerning paediatric attendances at the ED of Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of paediatric emergency presentations to the RDH ED during 2004 and 2013. Epidemiological data, including demographics, admission rates and diagnostic grouping, were analysed using descriptive and comparative statistical methods. We compared data with findings from a baseline epidemiological study by the Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT) conducted in 2004. A total of 12 745 and 15 378 paediatric presentations (age 0-18 years) to the RDH ED were analysed for the years 2004 and 2013 respectively. In 2004, the mean age of children presenting to RDH was 7.1 years, and 56.0% were female. Indigenous patients accounted for 31.2% of presentations at RDH and were significantly more likely to be admitted than non-Indigenous patients (31.6% vs 12.8%, OR 3.24, 95% CI 2.95-3.55). Children Territory. Overall, there was a disproportionate rate of presentation and admission among Indigenous children. Other key findings were higher proportions of cellulitis, head injury and adolescent presentations. These findings can assist in service planning and in directing future research specific to children in the Northern Territory. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  4. Low uptake of Aboriginal interpreters in healthcare: exploration of current use in Australia's Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Anna P; Lowell, Anne; Murphy, Jean; Dias, Tara; Butler, Deborah; Spain, Brian; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Campbell, Lauren; Bauert, Barbara; Salter, Claire; Tune, Kylie; Cass, Alan

    2017-11-15

    In Australia's Northern Territory, most Aboriginal people primarily speak an Aboriginal language. Poor communication between healthcare providers and Aboriginal people results in adverse outcomes including death. This study aimed to identify remediable barriers to utilisation of Aboriginal Interpreter services at the Northern Territory's tertiary hospital, which currently manages over 25,000 Aboriginal inpatients annually. This is a multi-method study using key stakeholder discussions, medical file audit, bookings data from the Aboriginal Interpreter Service 2000-2015 and an online cross-sectional staff survey. The Donabedian framework was used to categorise findings into structure, process and outcome. Six key stakeholder meetings each with approximately 15 participants were conducted. A key structural barrier identified was lack of onsite interpreters. Interpreter bookings data revealed that only 7603 requests were made during the 15-year period, with completion of requests decreasing from 337/362 (93.1%) in 2003-4 to 649/831 (78.1%) in 2014-15 (p < 0.001). Non-completion was more common for minority languages (p < 0.001). Medical files of 103 Aboriginal inpatients were audited. Language was documented for 13/103 (12.6%). Up to 60/103 (58.3%) spoke an Aboriginal language primarily. Of 422 staff who participated in the survey, 18.0% had not received 'cultural competency' training; of those who did, 58/222 (26.2%) indicated it was insufficient. The Aboriginal Interpreter Service effectiveness was reported to be good by 209/368 (56.8%), but only 101/367 (27.5%) found it timely. Key process barriers identified by staff included booking complexities, time constraints, inadequate delivery of tools and training, and greater convenience of unofficial interpreters. We identified multiple structural and process barriers resulting in the outcomes of poor language documentation and low rates of interpreter bookings. Findings are now informing interventions to improve

  5. Promoting Assessment for Learning through Curriculum-Based Performance Standards: Teacher Responses in the Northern Territory of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Lisl

    2017-01-01

    Governments in Australia claim that standards-based reforms to schooling will result in greater use of assessment for and as learning. This study analyses the assessment practices that evolved within the planned curricula for senior secondary schooling in the Northern Territory of Australia during standards-based reforms. Case-study methodology…

  6. Remote and Invisible: The Voices of Female Indigenous Educational Leaders in Northern Territory Remote Community Schools in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Martha

    2017-01-01

    While the literature on women and educational leadership has been addressed in substantive ways in recent years, the experiences that reflect female Australian educational leaders are rare. This article reports findings from a study of five female Indigenous principals in the Northern Territory utilising biographic narratives and foregrounds their…

  7. Prevalence and distribution of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverauskas, Claudia E; Nasir, Amar; Reichel, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia has never been determined. A total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the NT Government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the Northern Territory were tested by commercial ELISA for anti-N. caninum antibodies. The water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence of 88.3% (95% CI ± 2.9%), while 31.8% (±6.1%) of the cattle sera tested positive for N. caninum antibodies. Individual buffalo from the same herd, sampled over years, showed considerable fluctuations in S/P ratios. Overall, seropositivity was consistent across buffalo herds, and showed a slight decline over the years. The study presents evidence for the first time that N. caninum infection in water buffalo in the Northern Territory is a highly endemic and that infection rates are higher than those for cattle. This is important for an understanding of any potential sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum in Northern Australia. This survey also tests cattle from that territory for the first time for evidence of N. caninum infection and makes an important contribution to the understanding of disease management issues for the beef industry in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatitis B virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 co-infection in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Ian; Davies, Jane; Baird, Rob W

    2017-05-01

    To establish the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) serological markers in the Northern Territory, Australia. A retrospective serological study of patients presenting to public healthcare facilities in the Northern Territory between 2008 and 2015 was performed in order to determine the presence and relationships of serological markers of HBV and HTLV-1. Seven hundred and forty individual patients were found to be serologically positive for HTLV-1 in the Northern Territory over the 8-year period. Hepatitis B results were available for 521 of these patients. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity was demonstrated in 15.9% (83/521) of this cohort, which was significantly different to the HTLV-1-negative group (3.7%, 125/3354) (pTerritory. When considering the higher exposure to HBV in HTLV-1-positive individuals, the clearance of HBV appears lower than in those individuals testing HTLV-1-negative. A lower prevalence of clearance in HTVL-1-positive individuals than in HTLV-1-negative individuals, as signified by formation of HBVcAb and HBVsAb in HTVL-1 positive individual's may equate to higher prevalence of ongoing coinfection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Revegetation strategies for bauxite refinery residue: a case study of Alcan Gove in Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, J Bernhard; Fulton, Ian; Menzies, Neal W

    2006-03-01

    Alumina extraction from bauxite ore with strong alkali produces waste bauxite refinery residue consisting of residue sand and red mud. The amount and composition of refinery residue depend on the purity of the bauxite ore and extraction conditions, and differs between refineries. The refinery residue is usually stored in engineered disposal areas that eventually have to be revegetated. This is challenging because of the alkaline and sodic nature of the residue. At Alcan Gove's bauxite refinery in Gove, Northern Territory, Australia, research into revegetation of bauxite residue has been conducted since the mid-1970s. In this review, we discuss approaches taken by Alcan Gove to achieve revegetation outcomes (soil capping of refinery residue) on wet-slurry disposal areas. Problems encountered in the past include poor drainage and water logging during the wet season, and salt scalding and capillary rise during the dry season. The amount of available water in the soil capping is the most important determinant of vegetation survival in the seasonally dry climate. Vegetation cover was found to prevent deterioration of the soil cover by minimising capillary rise of alkalinity from the refinery residue. The sodicity and alkalinity of the residue in old impoundments has diminished slightly over the 25 years since it was deposited. However, development of a blocky structure in red mud, presumably due to desiccation, allows root penetration, thereby supplying additional water to salt and alkali-tolerant plant species. This has led to the establishment of an ecosystem that approaches a native woodland.

  10. Trends in hospital admissions involving suicidal behaviour in the Northern Territory, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckning, Bernard A; Li, Shu Qin; Cunningham, Teresa; Guthridge, Steven; Robinson, Gary; Nagel, Tricia; Silburn, Sven

    2016-06-01

    To investigate trends in hospital admissions involving suicidal behaviour in the Northern Territory (NT) resident population over the period 2001-2013. Estimates of age-standardised rates and average changes in the annual rate of hospital admissions involving suicidal behaviour were calculated by socio-demographic characteristics and types of suicidal behaviour. Overall rates for Indigenous admissions were 2.7 times higher than non-Indigenous admissions and had increased by almost twice as much. While male and female rates of admission were similar for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous residents, the average annual change in rates was greater for Indigenous females (13.4%) compared to males (8.8%) and for non-Indigenous males (7.7%) compared to females (5.2%). Younger and middle-aged Indigenous admissions experienced increasing rates of admissions, whilst trends were similar across age groups for non-Indigenous admissions. Admissions with a diagnosis of suicidal ideation increased the most across all groups. Trends in intentional self-harm admissions differed according to Indigenous status and sex. There have been substantial increases in hospital admissions involving suicidal behaviour in the NT, most markedly for Indigenous residents. Indigenous females and youth appear to be at increasing risk. The steep increase in suicidal ideation across all groups warrants further investigation. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  11. Assessment and management of latent tuberculosis infection in a refugee population in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauer, James M; Krause, Vicki L

    2011-06-06

    To assess the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in recently arrived refugees in the Northern Territory and to obtain comprehensive data for rates of treatment acceptance and completion for this condition. Prospective data collection and follow-up of all 471 newly arrived refugees seen at the Centre for Disease Control, NT refugee health clinic from February 2006 to January 2009. Rates of LTBI determined by tuberculin skin testing; subsequent assessment and treatment compared with local protocols. 458 of 465 eligible refugees were adequately assessed for LTBI, of whom 146 (31.9%) were diagnosed with LTBI. Older age, male sex and World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean region of birth were associated with increased prevalences of LTBI. Of the refugees diagnosed with LTBI, 10 failed to attend for follow-up and 15 were not offered treatment. Isoniazid therapy was accepted by 93 of 121 refugees (76.9%), and 41 of these (44.1%) completed treatment. The most common reasons for discontinuation of therapy were medication-related side effects (most often gastrointestinal) and loss to follow-up. Increasing age was associated with failure to complete treatment. Outcomes of assessment and treatment for LTBI in newly arrived refugees in the NT are comparable to those for other target groups screened in developed countries. Loss to follow-up caused significant attrition in numbers, but complete data were obtained for a large proportion of eligible refugees. Most refugees who are offered treatment for LTBI accept, but less than half complete treatment.

  12. Estimating hydraulic properties from tidal attenuation in the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, territory of Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, Kolja; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Jenson, John W.; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2013-05-01

    Tidal-signal attenuations are analyzed to compute hydraulic diffusivities and estimate regional hydraulic conductivities of the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, Territory of Guam (Pacific Ocean), USA. The results indicate a significant tidal-damping effect at the coastal boundary. Hydraulic diffusivities computed using a simple analytical solution for well responses to tidal forcings near the periphery of the island are two orders of magnitude lower than for wells in the island's interior. Based on assigned specific yields of ˜0.01-0.4, estimated hydraulic conductivities are ˜20-800 m/day for peripheral wells, and ˜2,000-90,000 m/day for interior wells. The lower conductivity of the peripheral rocks relative to the interior rocks may best be explained by the effects of karst evolution: (1) dissolutional enhancement of horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the interior; (2) case-hardening and concurrent reduction of local hydraulic conductivity in the cliffs and steeply inclined rocks of the periphery; and (3) the stronger influence of higher-conductivity regional-scale features in the interior relative to the periphery. A simple numerical model calibrated with measured water levels and tidal response estimates values for hydraulic conductivity and storage parameters consistent with the analytical solution. The study demonstrates how simple techniques can be useful for characterizing regional aquifer properties.

  13. The Northern Territory's cask wine levy: health and taxation policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D; Chikritzhs, T; Stockwell, T

    1999-12-01

    To examine the effect of the application, and removal, in the Northern Territory of a levy on the sale of cask wine--a beverage shown to contribute disproportionately to alcohol-related harm. Using data on licensee purchases of alcoholic beverages and ABS population data, estimates were made of per capita consumption of pure alcohol by beverage type. Time series variables were analysed using multiple linear regression analysis. Prior to the introduction of the levy, quarterly per capita consumption of cask wine among persons aged > or = 15 years was 0.73 litres. During the levy period, this fell to 0.49 litres and following removal of the levy rose to 0.58 litres. Imposition of the levy had no significant effect on the consumption of other beverages. Taxation is an effective means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harm. In the interests of public health, support should be given to the introduction of a tiered tax based on alcohol content.

  14. An outbreak of salmonellosis associated with duck prosciutto at a Northern Territory restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Anthony Dk; Morton, Claire N; Heath, Joshua Ni; Lim, Justin A; Schiek, Anninka I; Davis, Stephanie; Krause, Vicki L; Markey, Peter G

    2017-03-31

    In June 2015, an outbreak of salmonellosis occurred among people who had eaten at a restaurant in Darwin, Northern Territory over 2 consecutive nights. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of diners who ate at the restaurant on 19 and 20 June 2015. Diners were telephoned and a questionnaire recorded symptoms and menu items consumed. An outbreak case was defined as anyone with laboratory confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium PT9 (STm9) or a clinically compatible illness after eating at the restaurant. Environmental health officers inspected the premises and collected food samples. We contacted 79/83 of the cohort (response rate 95%); 21 were cases (attack rate 27%), and 9 had laboratory confirmed STm9 infection. The most commonly reported symptoms were diarrhoea (100%), abdominal pain (95%), fever (95%) and nausea (95%). Fifteen people sought medical attention and 7 presented to hospital. The outbreak was most likely caused by consumption of duck prosciutto, which was consumed by all cases (OR 18.6, CI 3.0-∞, P < 0.01) and was prepared on site. Salmonella was not detected in any food samples but a standard plate count of 2 x 107 colony forming units per gram on samples of duck prosciutto demonstrated bacterial contamination. The restaurant used inappropriate methodology for curing the duck prosciutto. Restaurants should consider purchasing pre-made cured meats, or if preparing them on site, ensure that they adhere to safe methods of production.

  15. Traditional food availability and consumption in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Megan; Brown, Clare; Georga, Claire; Miles, Edward; Wilson, Alyce; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-06-01

    To explore availability, variety and frequency consumption of traditional foods and their role in alleviating food insecurity in remote Aboriginal Australia. Availability was assessed through repeated semi-structured interviews and consumption via a survey. Quantitative data were described and qualitative data classified. Aboriginal and non-Indigenous key informants (n=30 in 2013; n=19 in 2014) from 20 Northern Territory (NT) communities participated in interviews. Aboriginal primary household shoppers (n=73 in 2014) in five of these communities participated in a survey. Traditional foods were reported to be available year-round in all 20 communities. Most participants (89%) reported consuming a variety of traditional foods at least fortnightly and 71% at least weekly. Seventy-six per cent reported being food insecure, with 40% obtaining traditional food during these times. Traditional food is consumed frequently by Aboriginal people living in remote NT. Implications for public health: Quantifying dietary contribution of traditional food would complement estimated population dietary intake. It would contribute evidence of nutrition transition and differences in intakes across age groups and inform dietary, environmental and social interventions and policy. Designing and conducting assessment of traditional food intake in conjunction with Aboriginal leaders warrants consideration. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Estimating hydraulic properties from tidal attenuation in the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, territory of Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, Kolja; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Jenson, John W.; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal-signal attenuations are analyzed to compute hydraulic diffusivities and estimate regional hydraulic conductivities of the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, Territory of Guam (Pacific Ocean), USA. The results indicate a significant tidal-damping effect at the coastal boundary. Hydraulic diffusivities computed using a simple analytical solution for well responses to tidal forcings near the periphery of the island are two orders of magnitude lower than for wells in the island’s interior. Based on assigned specific yields of ~0.01–0.4, estimated hydraulic conductivities are ~20–800 m/day for peripheral wells, and ~2,000–90,000 m/day for interior wells. The lower conductivity of the peripheral rocks relative to the interior rocks may best be explained by the effects of karst evolution: (1) dissolutional enhancement of horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the interior; (2) case-hardening and concurrent reduction of local hydraulic conductivity in the cliffs and steeply inclined rocks of the periphery; and (3) the stronger influence of higher-conductivity regional-scale features in the interior relative to the periphery. A simple numerical model calibrated with measured water levels and tidal response estimates values for hydraulic conductivity and storage parameters consistent with the analytical solution. The study demonstrates how simple techniques can be useful for characterizing regional aquifer properties.

  17. End-stage renal disease in the Northern Territory: current and future treatment costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jiqiong; Hoy, Wendy; Zhao, Yuejen; Beaver, Carol; Eagar, Kathy

    2002-05-20

    To compare hospital costs of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients having haemodialysis treatment and forecast the future treatment cost. The costs of patients with HD in the "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory were estimated for the financial years 1996/97 and 1997/98 using a hospital costing model. We used an Autoregression Integrated Moving Average model to predict future demand. 165 patients (101 Aboriginal and 64 non-Aboriginal) were treated at a total cost of $12.4 million in this two-year period. These 165 patients represented 0.7% of inpatients, 8.8% of total inpatient costs and 31.6% of total inpatient episodes of care in the Top End region. $9.5 million (77%) was spent on routine haemodialysis treatment and $2.9m (23%) on other hospitalisations. The average cost per routine haemodialysis treatment over the two-year period was $527, or $78 600 per patient treatment year. Hospitalisations for comorbidities occurred in 86% of Aboriginal and 39% of non-Aboriginal patients. Average cost per patient, number of admissions and length of hospital stays were all significantly greater for Aboriginals. We predict an average increase in the number of treatments of 12% each year over the next five years and a five-year cost of $49.8m. A multipronged strategy designed to reduce the prevalence and costs of renal failure is required.

  18. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as "Indigenous") is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have searched published papers, publicly available government and health department reports web sites reporting relevant data on these three risk factors in the Northern Territory. The high rate of family and domestic violence and assaults in the Australian Territory indicates an increased correlation with high risk alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. Heavy drinking pattern and harmful use of alcohol among Indigenous people are more likely to be associated with the incidence of violent assaults and physical injuries in the Northern Territory. We are trying to emphasize our understanding of co-occurring risk factors on the alcohol - violence relationship and urging a need for interventional approaches to reduce the public health issues in the Northern Territory.

  19. Placental inflammation is associated with rural and remote residence in the Northern Territory, Australia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Cecelia M; Arbuckle, Susan; Thomas, Sujatha; Rode, Jurgen; Turner, Robin; Jeffery, Heather E

    2015-02-14

    The Northern Territory has the highest rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality in Australia. Placental histopathology has not been studied in this high-risk group of women. This is the first study to detail the placental pathology in Indigenous women and to compare the findings with non-Indigenous women in the Northern Territory. There were a total of 269 deliveries during a three-month period from the 27(th) of June to the 27(th) of August 2009. Seventy-one (71%) percent of all placentas were examined macroscopically, sectioned then reviewed by a Perinatal Pathologist, blinded to the maternal history and outcomes. Indigenous women were found to have higher rates of histologically confirmed chorioamnionitis and or a fetal inflammatory response compared with non-Indigenous women (46% versus 26%; OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.5). In contrast, non-Indigenous women were twice as likely to show vascular related pathology (31% versus 14%; OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.3-5.9). Indigenous women had significantly higher rates of potentially modifiable risk factors for placental inflammation including genitourinary infections, anaemia and smoking. After adjusting for confounders, histological chorioamnionitis and fetal inflammatory response was significantly associated with rural or remote residence (Adjusted OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.08 - 5.8). This study has revealed a complex aetiology underlying a high prevalence of placental inflammation in the Northern Territory. Placental inflammation is associated with rural and remote residence, which may represent greater impact of systemic disadvantage, particularly affecting Indigenous women in the Northern Territory.

  20. Gambling, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in remote indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Matthew

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent government reports have identified gambling, along with alcohol abuse, drug abuse and pornography, as contributing to child neglect and abuse in Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory (NT. These reports also identify gaps in empirical evidence upon which to base sound policy. To address this shortfall, data from ten remote Indigenous communities was analysed to determine the relationship between gambling problems, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in indigenous communities. Methods Logistic regression was used to assess associations between gambling problems, community contexts, housing conditions and child health. Separate multivariable models were developed for carer reported gambling problems in houses and six child health outcomes. Results Carer reported gambling problems in households across the ten communities ranged from 10% to 74%. Inland tropical communities had the highest level of reported gambling problems. Less access to a doctor in the community showed evidence of a multivariable adjusted association with gambling problems in houses. No housing variables showed evidence for a multivariable association with reported gambling problems. There was evidence for gambling problems having a multivariable adjusted association with carer report of scabies and ear infection in children. Conclusions The analyses provide evidence that gambling is a significant problem in Indigenous communities and that gambling problems in households is related to poor child health outcomes. A comprehensive (prevention, treatment, regulation and education public health approach to harm minimisation associated with gambling amongst the Indigenous population is required that builds on current normative community regulation of gambling.

  1. Working in hot conditions--a study of electrical utility workers in the northern territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Matt; Harrington, Phillip; Lee, Doug; Taylor, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions of Australia's Northern Territory are seasonally conducive to excessive body heat storage by outdoor workers. For electrical utility workers who periodically work at height, in confined space, and in proximity to live power sources, the impact of the climate may be considered a hazardous condition. Therefore, this study examined the physiological and fluid balance responses of 20 power network workers (31.5 years; 86.0 kg; 1.71 m; BMI 29.5) throughout work shifts in the Northern and Southern regions of the Northern Territory, Australia. Twenty male heat-acclimatized power network workers provided written informed consent to be monitored during maintenance of electrical infrastructure that included replacing power pole components and transformer and substation repairs in the Northern (n = 13) and Southern regions (n = 7) of the Northern Territory (mean wet-bulb globe temperatures of 32.0°C and 28.7°C, respectively). An ingestible telemetry pill provided measurement of gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), that when combined with heart rate values, provided physiological strain index (PSI). Urine specific gravity, sweat rate, and level of dehydration were also determined. The Tgi values of this study were within the ISO9886 limit for monitored, heat-acclimatized workers, with a peak of 38.4°C. Mean PSI was 2.6, which represents overall low strain, with periods of moderate strain. Urinary analysis indicated that workers were dehydrated prior to and following the work shift, however the mean sweat rate of 0.44 L.h(-1) was matched by fluid consumption of 0.42 L.h(-1) to limit body mass loss to 0.1% during the shift. This study demonstrates that heat acclimatized electrical utility workers adhere to ISO9886 requirements when undertaking self-paced activity in hot conditions.

  2. Renal transplantation in indigenous Australians of the Northern Territory: closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majoni, S W; Abeyaratne, A

    2013-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease causes high morbidity and mortality among Indigenous Australians of the Northern Territory (NT). Studies have shown chronic kidney disease rates of 4-10 times higher in indigenous than non-indigenous Australians and prevalent dialysis rates of 700-1200 per million population. For most patients with end-stage renal failure, renal transplantation provides the optimal treatment for people with end-stage renal disease. It reduces morbidity and mortality, and improves survival and quality of life. Graft and patient survival rates of over 80% at 5 years depending on the donor source (deceased vs living donor) are expected worldwide. However, this is not the case in Indigenous Australians of the NT where graft and patient survival are both around 50% at 5 years suggesting death with functioning graft as the most common cause of graft loss. It would provide the best treatment option for indigenous people most of who live in remote (18%) and very remote communities (63%). Many have to relocate from their communities to urban or regional centres for dialysis. Available options to avoid relocation include peritoneal dialysis, home haemodialysis and community health centre dialysis, but the acceptance rates for these are low, hence renal transplantation would provide the best option. There is evidence of identified barriers to renal transplantation for indigenous people of the NT. This review explores published data on why rates of renal transplantation in indigenous people of the NT are low and the reasons for poor outcomes highlighting possible areas of improvement. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Owned dog and cat populations in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, A; McMahon, S; Kiely, S

    2015-05-01

    To determine the population of owned dogs and cats in Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory (NT), and compare the data with those for the average Australian household. Results of 20 Indigenous community animal health programs were analysed for species present and dog and cat numbers. The female breeding and puppy populations were also identified. The average dog population density was significantly higher than the average Australian household, with an average of 24.4 dogs per 10 households, but the average cat population density was similar (3.3 cats per 10 households). Numbers of other species were not determined. The average percentage of puppies in these communities was 17.6% of the treated canine population, the average percentage of breeding canine females was 18.6% of the treated canine population, and the average percentage of breeding feline females was 19.7% of the total feline population. Dog populations in NT Indigenous communities were at least 6.3-fold higher per household compared with data for the rest of Australia. Cat populations per household were similar to the overall population. Factors contributing to the relatively high dog populations in remote Indigenous communities include a lack of veterinary presence, community remoteness, poor socioeconomic factors, poor house and yard designs, cultural reasons, communal beliefs, lack of community animal management and a lack of funding. We believe that animal health programs are an important way of addressing a number of these issues. Other elements that should be addressed include improving house and yard design, increasing education regarding animal health, care and welfare, and increasing the training and presence of health and animal professionals. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Oral health behaviours and perceptions reported by Indigenous Australians living in Darwin, Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasena, N; Kapellas, K; Skilton, M; Maple-Brown, L; Brown, A; Bartold, P M; O'Dea, K; Celermajer, D; Slade, G; Jamieson, L M

    2014-03-01

    To describe the reported oral health behaviours and perceptions of Indigenous Australians living in Darwin, Northern Territory and to compare those with estimates for Darwin and Australia derived from the National Survey of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH). A total of 181 Indigenous Australians aged 22 years and over living in Darwin, participating in screening for a wider randomised clinical trial, were included. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, oral health status including oral health behaviours and perceptions was collected using a questionnaire. Differences between the Darwin study (DS) participants and Australians in NSAOH were made based on non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Almost 72% of DS participants had last seen a dentist over a year earlier, compared to 47% and 39% of NSAOH Darwin and Australian participants, respectively. A higher proportion of DS participants usually visited a dentist because of a problem than NSAOH Darwin and NSAOH Australian participants. A higher proportion of DS participants had avoided or delayed a dental visit because of cost than NSAOH participants. Over three times as many DS participants rated their oral health as fair/poor compared to NSAOH participants. A higher proportion of DS participants had perceived gum disease and one or more symptoms of gum disease than NSAOH participants. A higher proportion of DS participants experienced toothache, felt uncomfortable about appearance of their mouth and avoided eating because of oral problems than NSAOH participants. A higher proportion of Indigenous Australians living in Darwin presented with non-optimal oral health behaviours and perceptions compared with both the Darwin and Australian general populations.

  5. Trachoma elimination in remote Indigenous Northern Territory communities: baseline health-promotion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Fiona D; Baunach, Emma; McKenzie, Rosemary; Taylor, Hugh R

    2014-01-01

    Identify trachoma knowledge, attitudes and practice of staff in clinics, schools and community workplace settings to optimise trachoma-elimination health-promotion programs in the Katherine West Health Board region of the Northern Territory. Prior to the introduction of a suite of health promotion resources the Indigenous Eye Health Unit and Katherine West Health Board conducted a baseline survey of open, multi-choice and closed questions regarding knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to trachoma with 72 staff members over a 6-month period in 2010-11. Data were analysed for differences between settings. Two significant barriers and one enabling factor were identified. One in five staff members in clinics and 29% of staff members in schools were unaware they lived and worked in a trachoma-endemic area. One-third of school staff and 38% of clinic staff considered it normal for children to have dirty faces. However, the majority of participants felt comfortable talking about hygiene issues with others. The presence of dirty faces in young Indigenous children underpins the continuing prevalence of trachoma. Increasing the awareness of the health effects of children's nasal and ocular secretions and changing community acceptance of dirty faces as the norm will reduce the risk of trachoma and other childhood infections. Staff in clinics, schools and community work settings can play a role in trachoma elimination by actively encouraging clean faces whenever they are dirty and by including face washing in holistic hygiene and health education. Staff in schools may need additional support. Trachoma-elimination health promotion should increase awareness of trachoma prevalence and encourage all who work and live in remote Indigenous communities to take action to promote facial cleanliness and good hygiene practices.

  6. Coal and oil shale of Early Carboniferous age in northern Canada - significance for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic interpretations. [Canada - Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, A.R.; Goodarzi, F.; Potter, J. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) coal beds and oil shale occur at several locations in northern Canada. In the northern Yukon Territory coal of semi-anthracite/anthracite rank occurs in the Kayak Formation in the British Mountains and at Hoidahl Dome near the headwaters of Blow River. Farther south in the Liard Basin, Northwest Territories, coals of high volatile bituminous rank occur in the Mattson Formation. In the Arctic Islands thicker beds of the Emma Fiord Formation, the oldest unit in the Sverdrup Basin, contain thin coal seams and oil shale on Devon Island, near the southern edge of the basin and on Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere islands on the north side of the basin. Organic matter in the Devon Island section is at a low maturity level (R[sub o, max] % 0.26-0.50), whereas that from Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg has reached the level of meta-anthracite. Depositional environments for these carbonaceous sediments were different. The coal-bearing Kayak strata accumulated in a coastal plain setting overlain transgressively by younger marine beds. The Mattson coal beds appear to have formed in a prograding delta, but coal and oil shale in the Emma Ford were deposited in lacustrine environments in a rift basin. These Canadian occurrences resemble penecontemporaneous deposits in Svalbard and elsewhere, adjacent to the present-day Arctic Ocean. They formed at low latitudes where conditions were favourable for the preservation of carbonaceous matter. Prior to the opening of the Arctic Ocean basin in Mesozoic times, sites on the mainland were undoubtedly closer to sites in the Arctic Islands than they are today.

  7. Home range utilisation and territorial behaviour of lions (Panthera leo on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika B Lehmann

    Full Text Available Interventionist conservation management of territorial large carnivores has increased in recent years, especially in South Africa. Understanding of spatial ecology is an important component of predator conservation and management. Spatial patterns are influenced by many, often interacting, factors making elucidation of key drivers difficult. We had the opportunity to study a simplified system, a single pride of lions (Panthera leo after reintroduction onto the 85 km(2 Karongwe Game Reserve, from 1999-2005, using radio-telemetry. In 2002 one male was removed from the paired coalition which had been present for the first three years. A second pride and male were in a fenced reserve adjacent of them to the east. This made it possible to separate social and resource factors in both a coalition and single male scenario, and the driving factors these seem to have on spatial ecology. Male ranging behaviour was not affected by coalition size, being driven more by resource rather than social factors. The females responded to the lions on the adjacent reserve by avoiding the area closest to them, therefore females may be more driven by social factors. Home range size and the resource response to water are important factors to consider when reintroducing lions to a small reserve, and it is hoped that these findings lead to other similar studies which will contribute to sound decisions regarding the management of lions on small reserves.

  8. Russia’s Territorial Size as a Concept for International Politics: Nikita Panin’s Northern System (1760–1770

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin D. Bugrov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The actual paper deals with the issue of conceptual grounds of Russian political thought in its international aspect. The author argues that Russian politicians of the 18th century were paying special attention to the fact of Russia’s unique territorial size, which was used as a conceptual basis for building a distinctive model of international policy for the Empire. The ‘Northern System’, installed by Nikita Panin, a prominent statesman at the court of Catherine the Great Russian who masterminded Russian foreign policy from 1764 to 1779. The author demonstrates that Panin understood Russian Empire as a territorial giant which doesn’t need expansion of its borders anymore and therefore could propose a diplomatic system based on stability, peace and commerce. That system was putting emphasis upon the concision of Russian diplomatic domination and the ‘natural interests’ of the states of Northern and Eastern Europe. The similar understanding of Russia’s uniqueness in terms of territorial size would became a basis for proposing similar models for international regulations, in which Russia’s vast size was to be seen as a precondition for a role of a peacemaker rather than expansionist.

  9. Opportunities and challenges related to the development of small modular reactors in mines in the Northern Territories of Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam-Aggrey, H., E-mail: godfree17@hotmail.com [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are being touted as safer, more cost effective, and more flexible than traditional nuclear power plants. Consequently, it has been argued that SMR technology is pivotal to the revitalization of the nuclear industry at the national and global levels. Drawing mainly on previously published literature, this paper explores the opportunities and challenges related to the deployment of SMRs in the northern territories of Canada. The paper examines the potential role of SMRs in providing an opportunity for remote mines in northern Canada to reduce their vulnerability and dependence on costly, high-carbon diesel fuel. The paper also outlines and discusses some of the potential socio-economic barriers that could impede the successful introduction of SMRs in the territories. These issues include: economic factors (such as the price of primary minerals and economics of mineral exploration, and the cost of SMR deployment), the lack of infrastructure in the territories to support mining developments, and the issues pertaining to the social acceptance of nuclear power generation. (author)

  10. Northern Territory Heart Failure Initiative-Clinical Audit (NTHFI-CA)-a prospective database on the quality of care and outcomes for acute decompensated heart failure admission in the Northern Territory: study design and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Tinsley, Jeff; Smith, David; Haste, Mark; Nadarajan, Kangaharan; Ilton, Marcus; Battersby, Malcolm; Stewart, Simon; Brown, Alex

    2014-01-29

    Congestive heart failure is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Australia. Accurate data for the Northern Territory and Indigenous Australians are not presently available. The economic burden of this chronic cardiovascular disease is felt by all funding bodies and it still remains unclear what impact current measures have on preventing the ongoing disease burden and how much of this filters down to more remote areas. Clear differentials also exist in rural areas including a larger Indigenous community, greater disease burden, differing aetiologies for heart failure as well as service and infrastructure discrepancies. It is becoming increasingly clear that urban solutions will not affect regional outcomes. To understand regional issues relevant to heart failure management, an understanding of the key performance indicators in that setting is critical. The Northern Territory Heart Failure Initiative-Clinical Audit (NTHFI-CA) is a prospective registry of acute heart failure admissions over a 12-month period across the two main Northern Territory tertiary hospitals. The study collects information across six domains and five dimensions of healthcare. The study aims to set in place an evidenced and reproducible audit system for heart failure and inform the developing heart failure disease management programme. The findings, is believed, will assist the development of solutions to narrow the outcomes divide between remote and urban Australia and between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians, in case they exist. A combination of descriptive statistics and mixed effects modelling will be used to analyse the data. This study has been approved by respective ethics committees of both the admitting institutions. All participants will be provided a written informed consent which will be completed prior to enrolment in the study. The study results will be disseminated through local and international health conferences and peer reviewed manuscripts.

  11. Northern Territory Heart Failure Initiative–Clinical Audit (NTHFI–CA)–a prospective database on the quality of care and outcomes for acute decompensated heart failure admission in the Northern Territory: study design and rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Tinsley, Jeff; Smith, David; Haste, Mark; Nadarajan, Kangaharan; Ilton, Marcus; Battersby, Malcolm; Stewart, Simon; Brown, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Congestive heart failure is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Australia. Accurate data for the Northern Territory and Indigenous Australians are not presently available. The economic burden of this chronic cardiovascular disease is felt by all funding bodies and it still remains unclear what impact current measures have on preventing the ongoing disease burden and how much of this filters down to more remote areas. Clear differentials also exist in rural areas including a larger Indigenous community, greater disease burden, differing aetiologies for heart failure as well as service and infrastructure discrepancies. It is becoming increasingly clear that urban solutions will not affect regional outcomes. To understand regional issues relevant to heart failure management, an understanding of the key performance indicators in that setting is critical. Methods and analysis The Northern Territory Heart Failure Initiative—Clinical Audit (NTHFI-CA) is a prospective registry of acute heart failure admissions over a 12-month period across the two main Northern Territory tertiary hospitals. The study collects information across six domains and five dimensions of healthcare. The study aims to set in place an evidenced and reproducible audit system for heart failure and inform the developing heart failure disease management programme. The findings, is believed, will assist the development of solutions to narrow the outcomes divide between remote and urban Australia and between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians, in case they exist. A combination of descriptive statistics and mixed effects modelling will be used to analyse the data. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by respective ethics committees of both the admitting institutions. All participants will be provided a written informed consent which will be completed prior to enrolment in the study. The study results will be disseminated through local and international

  12. Seasonal variability of respiratory syncytial virus infection in the Top End of the Northern Territory (2012-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Peter; McLeod, Charlie; Baird, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in the Top End of the Northern Territory and investigate potential drivers of seasonality including rainfall and humidex (humidity and heat index). We performed a retrospective audit of laboratory confirmed cases of RSV from January 2012 to August 2014. Demographic details including age, sex and ethnicity were examined. RSV cases were correlated with monthly rainfall and humidex. There were 272 positive isolates detected from 4305 clinical samples (positivity rate 6.3%). The majority of cases occurred in children Territory has a distinct RSV season that correlates with rainfall and humidex, which differs from Southern Australian disease patterns. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Projecting demands for renal replacement therapy in the Northern Territory: a stochastic Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jiqiong; Zhao, Yuejen; Lawton, Paul; Guthridge, Steven; McDonald, Stephen P; Cass, Alan

    2017-05-30

    Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effects of different health intervention strategies on demand for renal replacement therapy (RRT) services in the Northern Territory (NT).Methods A Markov chain simulation model was developed to estimate demand for haemodialysis (HD) and kidney transplantation (Tx) over the next 10 years, based on RRT registry data between 2002 and 2013. Four policy-relevant scenarios were evaluated: (1) increased Tx; (2) increased self-care dialysis; (3) reduced incidence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD); and (4) reduced mortality.Results There were 957 new cases of ESKD during the study period, with most patients being Indigenous people (85%). The median age was 50 years at onset and 57 years at death, 12 and 13 years younger respectively than Australian medians. The prevalence of RRT increased 5.6% annually, 20% higher than the national rate (4.7%). If current trends continue (baseline scenario), the demand for facility-based HD (FHD) would approach 100000 treatments (95% confidence interval 75000-121000) in 2023, a 5% annual increase. Increasing Tx (0.3%), increasing self-care (5%) and reducing incidence (5%) each attenuate demand for FHD to ~70000 annually by 2023.Conclusions The present study demonstrates the effects of changing service patterns to increase Tx, self-care and prevention, all of which will substantially attenuate the growth in FHD requirements in the NT.What is known about the topic? The burden of ESKD is projected to increase in the NT, with demand for FHD doubling every 15 years. Little is known about the potential effect of changes in health policy and clinical practice on demand.What does this paper add? This study assessed the usefulness of a stochastic Markov model to evaluate the effects of potential policy changes on FHD demand.What are the implications for practitioners? The scenarios simulated by the stochastic Markov models suggest that changes in current ESKD management practices

  14. Territory Boundary Polygons, Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI), 1999, US Census Bureau

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Boundaries of the northern most islands of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Siapan, Rota and Tinian are not included in these data set. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and...

  15. Hepatitis B virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 co-infection in the Northern Territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Marr

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: A significantly higher prevalence rate of HBV was found in HTLV-1-positive individuals from the Northern Territory. When considering the higher exposure to HBV in HTLV-1-positive individuals, the clearance of HBV appears lower than in those individuals testing HTLV-1-negative. A lower prevalence of clearance in HTVL-1-positive individuals than in HTLV-1-negative individuals, as signified by formation of HBVcAb and HBVsAb in HTVL-1 positive individual’s may equate to higher prevalence of ongoing coinfection.

  16. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit is 633 square miles and consists of 35 groundwater basins and subbasins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Mathany and Belitz, 2015). These basins and subbasins were grouped into two study areas based primarily on locality. The groundwater basins and subbasins located inland, not adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, were aggregated into the Interior Basins (NOCO-IN) study area. The groundwater basins and subbasins adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were aggregated into the Coastal Basins (NOCO-CO) study area (Mathany and others, 2011).

  17. Differential Effects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on Remote and Indigenous Groups, Northern Territory, Australia, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Karen Louise; McDonnell, Joseph; Kelso, Anne; Markey, Peter Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza spread through the Northern Territory, Australia, during June–August 2009. We performed 2 cross-sectional serologic surveys on specimens from Northern Territory residents, with 445 specimens obtained prepandemic and 1,689 specimens postpandemic. Antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition against reference virus A/California/7/2009 on serum samples collected opportunistically from outpatients. All specimens had data for patients’ gender, age, and address, with patients’ indigenous status determined for 94.1%. Protective immunity (titer >40) was present in 7.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.2%–10.1%) of prepandemic specimens and 19.5% (95% CI 17.6%–21.4%) of postpandemic specimens, giving a population-standardized attack rate of 14.9% (95% CI 11.0%–18.9%). Prepandemic proportion of immune persons was greater with increasing age but did not differ by other demographic characteristics. Postpandemic proportion of immune persons was greater in younger groups and around double in indigenous persons. Postpandemic proportion immune was geographically heterogeneous, particularly among remote-living and indigenous groups. PMID:21888786

  18. Methods and approaches to support Indigenous water planning: An example from the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoverman, Suzanne; Ayre, Margaret

    2012-12-01

    SummaryIndigenous land owners of the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory Australia have begun the first formal freshwater allocation planning process in Australia entirely within Indigenous lands and waterways. The process is managed by the Northern Territory government agency responsible for water planning, the Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, in partnership with the Tiwi Land Council, the principal representative body for Tiwi Islanders on matters of land and water management and governance. Participatory planning methods ('tools') were developed to facilitate community participation in Tiwi water planning. The tools, selected for their potential to generate involvement in the planning process needed both to incorporate Indigenous knowledge of water use and management and raise awareness in the Indigenous community of Western science and water resources management. In consultation with the water planner and Tiwi Land Council officers, the researchers selected four main tools to develop, trial and evaluate. Results demonstrate that the tools provided mechanisms which acknowledge traditional management systems, improve community engagement, and build confidence in the water planning process. The researchers found that participatory planning approaches supported Tiwi natural resource management institutions both in determining appropriate institutional arrangements and clarifying roles and responsibilities in the Islands' Water Management Strategy.

  19. Rhetoric, Aboriginal Australians and the Northern Territory Intervention: A Socio-legal Investigation into Pre-legislative Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Roffee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented within this article is a systematic discourse analysis of the arguments used by the then Australian Prime Minister and also the Minister for Indigenous Affairs in explaining and justifying the extensive and contentious intervention by the federal government into remote Northern Territory Aboriginal communities. The methods used within this article extend the socio-legal toolbox, providing a contextually appropriate, interdisciplinary methodology that analyses the speech act’s rhetorical properties. Although many academics use sound-bites of pre-legislative speech in order to support their claims, this analysis is concerned with investigating the contents of the speech acts in order to understand how the Prime Minister’s and Minister for Indigenous Affairs’ argumentations sought to achieve consensus to facilitate the enactment of legislation. Those seeking to understand legislative endeavours, policy makers and speech actors will find that paying structured attention to the rhetorical properties of speech acts yields opportunities to strengthen their insight. The analysis here indicates three features in the argumentation: the duality in the Prime Minister’s and Minister’s use of the Northern Territory Government’s Little Children are Sacred report; the failure to sufficiently detail the linkages between the Intervention and the measures combatting child sexual abuse; and the omission of recognition of Aboriginal agency and consultation.

  20. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory.

  1. APPLICATION OF SENTINEL-1 RADAR DATA FOR MAPPING HARD-TO-REACH NORTHERN TERRITORIES

    OpenAIRE

    Е. А. Baldina; N. R. Nikolaev; K. A. Troshko

    2017-01-01

    The new European space satellites Sentinel-1A and 1B with C-band radars on board, launched in 2014 and 2016 respectively, provide regular radar data on the Earth’s surface with high temporal resolution. These new non-commercial data provides extensive opportunities for research of remote Arctic territories, poorly supplied with optical images due to cloud conditions. Difficulties in recognizing objects on radar images can be compensated for by the possibility of using multiple repeated survey...

  2. Networking in Education: From Concept to Action--An Analytical View on the Educational Territories of Priority Intervention (TEIP) in Northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; da Silva, Sofia Marques; Araújo, Helena C

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of school principals' perspectives on networking concerning schools and school clusters from areas of social vulnerability (Educational Territories of Priority Intervention (TEIP)) in Northern Portugal. The meanings, purpose, benefits and difficulties of networking in education are examined, based on interviews…

  3. A Share in the Future...Only for Those Who Become Like "Us"!: Challenging the "Standardisation" Reform Approach to Indigenous Education in the Northern Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillman, David

    2017-01-01

    The global standardization reform movement in education has seduced many Indigenous education policy makers in Australia, providing a powerful neoliberal discourse to further consolidate their focus on Indigenous educational defcit. "A Share in the Future", the latest review of Indigenous education in the Northern Territory is an…

  4. APPLICATION OF SENTINEL-1 RADAR DATA FOR MAPPING HARD-TO-REACH NORTHERN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. А. Baldina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new European space satellites Sentinel-1A and 1B with C-band radars on board, launched in 2014 and 2016 respectively, provide regular radar data on the Earth’s surface with high temporal resolution. These new non-commercial data provides extensive opportunities for research of remote Arctic territories, poorly supplied with optical images due to cloud conditions. Difficulties in recognizing objects on radar images can be compensated for by the possibility of using multiple repeated surveys, which make it possible to identify areas of the terrain which are similar in character of changes. In the study, four Sentinel-1A images of the largest from the New Siberian islands – Kotelny – were used, which were acquired during the summer period from July 3 to August 20, 2015. After preprocessing aimed at improving the visual properties and coregistration of the multitemporal images, an automated clustering of the multitemporal image set was carried out. Clustering results were analyzed on comparison with additional sources of spatial information. Both specialized software for Sentinel-1 radar data processing - SNAP, and the GIS software complex ArcGIS were used. The latter provided the creation of the spatial data base for comparing the results of radar data processing and cartographic sources. The map of the territory zoning was obtained as clustering results which is based on the changes in the normalized radar cross section (sigma nought over the summer period, and the approximate correspondence of the areas to the main types of the relief and landscapes of the island was established.

  5. Prospective study of Chironex fleckeri and other box jellyfish stings in the "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Bart J; Jacups, Susan P

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of box jellyfish envenoming in the Top End of the Northern Territory and, in particular, confirmed stings from the major Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Prospective collection of clinical data and skin scrapings or sticky-tape tests for nematocyst identification from patients presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital and remote coastal community health clinics in the Northern Territory, spanning 10 950 km of coastline; analysis of tidal, weather and seasonal data. All patients with jellyfish sting details recorded between 1 April 1991 and 30 May 2004. Demographic and clinical features, use of C. fleckeri antivenom, and associations between weather, seasonal and tidal factors and confirmed C. fleckeri stings. Of 606 jellyfish stings documented, 225 were confirmed to have been caused by C. fleckeri. 37% of C. fleckeri stings were in children, 92% occurred during the "stinger season" (1 October to 1 June), 83% occurred in water 1 m or less deep, and 17% occurred while victims were entering the water. Stings were least common on outgoing tides (P < 0.001) and commonest between 15:00 and 18:00 (P < 0.001) and on days with wind speed less than that month's average (P < 0.001). Nearly all victims experienced immediate pain, but this could often be controlled with ice; only 30% required parenteral narcotics and 8% required hospital admission. Cardiorespiratory arrest occurred within several minutes of the sting in the one fatal case, involving a 3-year-old girl with only 1.2 m of visible tentacle contact. C. fleckeri antivenom was given to another 21 patients, none of whom had life-threatening features at the time they were given antivenom. Most C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening; patients who die usually have cardiopulmonary arrest within minutes of the sting. The potential benefit of antivenom and magnesium under these circumstances remains to be shown, but a protocol with their rapid use is recommended

  6. The Northern Territory Intervention: The Symbolic Value of ‘Authentic’ Indigeneity and Impoverishment, and the Interests of the (Progressive Liberal Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Rolls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In August 2007 the federal Howard government announced The Northern Territory National Emergency Response, known more prosaically as ‘The Intervention’. This initiative was hurriedly implemented to address a broad range of issues highlighted in ‘The Report of the Northern Territory Board of Inquiry into the Protection of Aboriginal Children from Sexual Abuse’. The report bore a title expressing a traditional Yolngu belief (north east Arnhem Land that for some unexplained reason had been translated into a language from the central desert. This was paraphrased in the emotive and cloying English subtitle ‘Little Children are Sacred,’ and it is the latter by which the report is widely known. This paper does not canvass the ‘Intervention’ itself, but a specific albeit long standing issue it brought to the fore. Implicitly if not explicitly, many critics find in the ostensibly classical Aboriginal cultures of remote and impoverished communities an authentic indigeneity. For a range of interests arising most often external to the communities concerned, there is a reluctance to countenance any prospective change that could stem the replenishing of these supposed wellsprings of originary authenticity. In this respect both settler and Aboriginal critics have found common ground in arguing that they represent the interests of the communities on whose behalf they supposedly speak. In elaborating these issues the following paper discusses the divisions between opponents and supporters of the ‘emergency response’, the tension between those with investments in the issues of rights, racism, and identity, and the interests of those experiencing the impoverished conditions of so many remote and regional communities. Central to these debates is the fraught issue of who can speak for whom, with an Aboriginal elite finding their authority as spokespeople challenged by those whose interests they presume to represent. These issues help explain why

  7. Northern Territories and Japan-Russia Relations: Will the Knot ever Untie?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La llegada del Partido Democrático de Japón (PDJ al poder en Septiembre del 2009 de la mano de su líder, Yukio Hatoyama, ponía fin al reino casi ininterrumpido del Partido Liberal Democrático (PLD desde el fin de la IIª Guerra Mundial. Con el nuevo gobierno llegaban también promesas de cambio en la diplomacia japonesa. Las relaciones Japón-Rusia, bloqueadas como siempre por el persistente contencioso territorial de los "Territorios del Norte", nombre bajo el cual Japón reclama las cuatro islas más meridionales del Archipiélago de las Kuriles y que pertenecen a la Federación Rusa, tenían para muchos, buenas perspectivas por delante. Sin embargo, apenas un año más tarde, las esperanzas depositadas en la "revolución diplomática", se venían calamitosamente abajo con la dimisión de Hatoyama. Su sucesor, el primer ministro Naoto Kan, se tuvo que enfrentar a una Rusia mucho más asertiva que manifestaba su estrategia asiática con la inédita visita de su presidente Dmitri Medvedev en noviembre del 2010 de la Isla de Kunashiri y que desde entonces viene apostando por el desarrollo económico y refuerzo militar de las Islas Kuriles. Tal reorientación ocurría precisamente cuando Japón hacía frente a unas relaciones con los EEUU muy dañadas, con nuevas disputas con China y con las devastadoras consecuencias del Gran Terremoto del Tohoku del 11 de marzo del 2011. Bajo el actual primer ministro, Yoshihiko Noda, ambos países tienen pendiente mejorar unas relaciones que han alcanzado su peor nivel desde hace años. Queda por ver si la creciente cooperación en un ámbito en el que presentan una clara complementaridad, el de la energía, redundará en una mejora de aquellos otros ámbitos donde reina el más absoluto inmovilismo.

  8. Too much ‘Dreaming’: Evaluations of the Northern Territory National Emergency Response Intervention 2007–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Altman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Territory National Emergency Response Intervention (the Intervention of 2007 was a bold experiment by the Howard Government. The Intervention was developed quickly without comprehensive policy development based on evidence or consultation. During its five-year statutory life (ending August 2012, the absence of coherent policy logic has seen the Intervention fundamentally reframed by the Rudd and Gillard Governments. The unprecedented and controversial nature of the Intervention has seen extraordinary levels of monitoring, review and evaluation, but the absence of an overarching evaluation strategy has resulted in a fragmented and confused approach. In this article, we do not seek to critique the Intervention itself or to assess whether these multiple monitoring and evaluation exercises have been successes or failures. Indeed, our review illustrates that in highly contested policy areas, notions of success, failure and the evaluations themselves become politically charged. Instead we make a series of critical observations regarding this contradictory messiness of evaluations, using political science and anthropological frameworks to draw wider conclusions about the nature and logic of evaluation fetishism. We conclude that evaluations of the Intervention have not led to greater transparency, accountability and monitoring of outcomes and outputs. The Intervention evaluations instead are consistent with the view that they are both obfuscating mechanisms and techniques of governance designed to allay public concern and normalise the governance of marginalised Indigenous Australian spaces.

  9. Assessment of recharge to groundwater systems in the arid southwestern part of Northern Territory, Australia, using chlorine-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Richard; Wischusen, John; Jacobson, Gerry; Fifield, Keith

    1999-08-01

    The sustainability of community water supplies drawn from shallow aquifers in the arid southwest of the Northern Territory has been evaluated using the radioactive isotope chlorine-36 (36Cl). These aquifers include fractured sandstones of the Ngalia Basin, fractured metamorphic rocks and Cainozoic sands and gravels. 36Cl/Cl ratios for these shallow, regional groundwaters exhibit a bimodal distribution with peaks at 205 (±7) and 170 (±7)×10-15. The higher ratio probably represents modern (Holocene) recharge, diluted with windblown salts from local playa lakes, and occurs mostly around the margin of the basin. The lower ratio corresponds to a 36Cl "age", or mean residence time, of 80-100 ka, implying that the last major recharge occurred during the last interglacial interval (Oxygen Isotope Stage 5). These values are mainly observed in the interior of the Ngalia Basin. Lower values of the 36Cl/Cl ratio measured near playa lakes are affected by addition of chloride from remobilised salts. Finite carbon-14 (14C) data for the groundwaters are at variance with the 36Cl results, but a depth profile suggests low recharge, allowing diffusion of recent atmospheric carbon to the water table. The 36Cl results have important implications for groundwater management in this region, with substantial recharge only occurring during favourable, wet, interglacial climatic regimes; most community water supplies are dependent on these "old" waters.

  10. Arbovirus models to provide practical management tools for mosquito control and disease prevention in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacups, Susan P; Whelan, Peter I; Harley, David

    2011-03-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) causes the most common human arbovirus disease in Australia. Although the disease is nonfatal, the associated arthritis and postinfection fatigue can be debilitating for many months, impacting on workforce participation. We sought to create an early-warning system to notify of approaching RRV disease outbreak conditions for major townships in the Northern Territory. By applying a logistic regression model to meteorologic factors, including rainfall, a postestimation analysis of sensitivity and specificity can create rainfall cut-points. These rainfall cut-points indicate the rainfall level above which previous epidemic conditions have occurred. Furthermore, rainfall cut-points indirectly adjust for vertebrate host data from the agile wallaby (Macropus agilis) as the life cycle of the agile wallaby is intricately meshed with the wet season. Once generated, cut-points can thus be used prospectively to allow timely implementation of larval survey and control measures and public health warnings to preemptively reduce RRV disease incidence. Cut-points are location specific and have the capacity to replace previously used models, which require data management and input, and rarely provide timely notification for vector control requirements and public health warnings. These methods can be adapted for use elsewhere.

  11. A study of radium bioaccumulation in freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, in the Magela Creek catchment, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Brazier, Jenny; Humphrey, Chris; Ryan, Bruce; Esparon, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, along Magela Creek in Australia's Northern Territory were examined to study radionuclide activities in mussel flesh and to investigate whether the Ranger Uranium mine is contributing to the radium loads in mussels downstream of the mine. Radium loads in mussels of the same age were highest in Bowerbird Billabong, located 20 km upstream of the mine site. Variations in the ratio of [Ra]:[Ca] in filtered water at the sampling sites accounted for the variations found in mussel radium loads with natural increases in calcium (Ca) in surface waters in a downstream gradient along the Magela Creek catchment gradually reducing radium uptake in mussels. At Mudginberri Billabong, 12 km downstream of the mine, concentration factors for radium have not significantly changed over the past 25 years since the mine commenced operations and this, coupled with a gradual decrease of the (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios observed along the catchment, indicates that the (226)Ra accumulated in mussels is of natural rather than mine origin. The (228)Th/(228)Ra ratio has been used to model radium uptake and a radium biological half-life in mussels of approximately 13 years has been determined. The long biological half-life and the low Ca concentrations in the water account for the high radium concentration factor of 30,000-60,000 measured in mussels from the Magela Creek catchment.

  12. Molecular and morphological description of a Hepatozoon species in reptiles and their ticks in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcins, Inger-Marie E; Ujvari, Beata; Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    Ticks, representing 3 species of Amblyomma, were collected from the water python (Liasis fuscus) and 3 additional reptile species in the Northern Territory, Australia, and tested for the presence of Hepatozoon sp., the most common blood parasites of snakes. In addition, blood smears were collected from 5 reptiles, including the water python, and examined for the presence of the parasite. Hepatozoon sp. DNA was detected in all tick and reptile species, with 57.7% of tick samples (n = 187) and 35.6% of blood smears (n=35) showing evidence of infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene demonstrated that half of the sequences obtained from positive tick samples matched closest with a Hepatozoon species previously identified in the water python population. The remaining sequences were found to be more closely related to mammalian and amphibian Hepatozoon species. This study confirms that species of Amblyomma harbor DNA of the same Hepatozoon species detected in the water pythons. The detection of an additional genotype suggests the ticks may be exposed to 2 Hepatozoon species, providing further opportunity to study multiple host-vector-parasite relationships.

  13. Sociological Aspects of Rotational Employment in the Northern Territories of Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Nikolaevich Silin

    2015-09-01

    period of development of northern oil and gas resources the workers were employed in the Middle Ob region, nowadays the fall in oil production volumes has encouraged the formed groups of workers to begin working for the development of Eastern Siberia, Yamal, etc. The article substantiates the necessity of developing new interdisciplinary research on the basis of acquired results to mitigate negative social consequences of commuting and implementing a sociological monitoring system

  14. Acute Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis in the Northern Territory of Australia: A Review of 16 Years Data and Comparison with the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine S.; Cheng, Allen C.; Markey, Peter G.; Towers, Rebecca J.; Richardson, Leisha J.; Fagan, Peter K.; Scott, Lesley; Krause, Vicki L.; Currie, Bart J.

    2011-01-01

    Data relating to acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) from the notifiable diseases surveillance system in the Northern Territory of Australia was extracted and analyzed. Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes from confirmed cases were emm sequence typed. From 1991 to July 2008, there were 415 confirmed cases and 23 probable cases of APSGN notified. Four hundred fifteen (94.7%) of these were Indigenous Australians and 428 (97.7%) were people living in remote or very remote locations. The median age of cases was 7 years (range 0–54). The incidence of confirmed cases was 12.5/100,000 person-years, with an incidence in Indigenous Australian children younger than 15 years of age of 94.3 cases/100,000 person-years. The overall rate ratio of confirmed cases in Indigenous Australians to non-Indigenous Australians was 53.6 (95% confidence interval 32.6–94.8). Outbreaks of disease across multiple communities occurred in 1995 (N = 68), 2000 (N = 55), and 2005 (N = 87 [confirmed cases]). Various emm types of S. pyogenes were isolated from cases of APSGN including some types not previously recognized to be nephritogenic. The widespread outbreak in 2005 was caused by emm55.0 S. pyogenes. Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis continues to occur in remote Indigenous communities in Australia at rates comparable to or higher than those estimated in developing countries. Improvements in preventative and outbreak control strategies are needed. PMID:21976576

  15. The High Court, Kable and the constitutional validity of criminal property confiscation laws : Attorney-General (Northern Territory) v Emmerson

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Examination of Kable principle in recent case law - jurisprudential shifts in Kable doctrine - territory and state laws validly providing for forfeiture of property of convicted person - significance...

  16. Low uptake of Aboriginal interpreters in healthcare: exploration of current use in Australia’s Northern Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P. Ralph

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia’s Northern Territory, most Aboriginal people primarily speak an Aboriginal language. Poor communication between healthcare providers and Aboriginal people results in adverse outcomes including death. This study aimed to identify remediable barriers to utilisation of Aboriginal Interpreter services at the Northern Territory’s tertiary hospital, which currently manages over 25,000 Aboriginal inpatients annually. Methods This is a multi-method study using key stakeholder discussions, medical file audit, bookings data from the Aboriginal Interpreter Service 2000–2015 and an online cross-sectional staff survey. The Donabedian framework was used to categorise findings into structure, process and outcome. Results Six key stakeholder meetings each with approximately 15 participants were conducted. A key structural barrier identified was lack of onsite interpreters. Interpreter bookings data revealed that only 7603 requests were made during the 15-year period, with completion of requests decreasing from 337/362 (93.1% in 2003–4 to 649/831 (78.1% in 2014–15 (p < 0.001. Non-completion was more common for minority languages (p < 0.001. Medical files of 103 Aboriginal inpatients were audited. Language was documented for 13/103 (12.6%. Up to 60/103 (58.3% spoke an Aboriginal language primarily. Of 422 staff who participated in the survey, 18.0% had not received ‘cultural competency’ training; of those who did, 58/222 (26.2% indicated it was insufficient. The Aboriginal Interpreter Service effectiveness was reported to be good by 209/368 (56.8%, but only 101/367 (27.5% found it timely. Key process barriers identified by staff included booking complexities, time constraints, inadequate delivery of tools and training, and greater convenience of unofficial interpreters. Conclusion We identified multiple structural and process barriers resulting in the outcomes of poor language documentation and low rates of

  17. Radium concentration factors in passionfruit (Passiflora foetida) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David; Martin, Paul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil into the edible fruit of the wild passionfruit species Passiflora foetida was investigated, using selective extraction from the soil samples. A wide range of environmental exposure conditions were represented by the locations that were sampled, including both natural soils, and soils influenced by past and present uranium mining activities. The bioavailable (226)Ra fraction in soils was found to be a better predictor of (226)Ra fruit activity concentrations than the total soil activity concentration, or any of the other fractions studied. Concentration Factors (CFs) derived using the bioavailable fraction varied by only a factor of 7 between different locations, whereas CFs derived using other fractions and total soil varied by up to two orders of magnitude. CFs were highest for those soils containing the lowest concentrations of Mg, Ca and Ba, and approached a saturation value at higher soil concentrations. This finding suggests that group II elements influence radium uptake, most likely the result of increased pressure on the plant to take up essential nutrient group II elements from soil with the lower concentrations, with Ra being taken up as an analogue element. It is also possible that at higher concentrations of bioavailable Ca and Mg in the soil, these ions will outcompete Ra for adsorption sites in the soil and/or on the root surfaces. The study also shows that (228)Ra can potentially be a significant contributor to ingestion doses and should also be considered when assessing committed effective doses from the ingestion of fruits. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends in cancer incidence and survival for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, John R; Zhang, Xiaohua; Dempsey, Karen; Garling, Lindy; Guthridge, Steven

    2016-11-21

    To assess trends in cancer incidence and survival for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory. Retrospective analysis of population-based cancer registration data. New cancer diagnoses in the NT, 1991-2012. Age-adjusted incidence rates; rate ratios comparing incidence in NT Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations with that for other Australians; 5-year survival; multivariable Poisson regression of excess mortality. The incidence of most cancers in the NT non-Indigenous population was similar to that for other Australians. For the NT Indigenous population, the incidence of cancer at several sites was much higher (v other Australians: lung, 84% higher; head and neck, 325% higher; liver, 366% higher; cervix, 120% higher). With the exception of cervical cancer (65% decrease), incidence rates in the Indigenous population did not fall between 1991-1996 and 2007-2012. The incidence of several other cancers (breast, bowel, prostate, melanoma) was much lower in 1991-1996 than for other Australians, but had increased markedly by 2007-2012 (breast, 274% increase; bowel, 120% increase; prostate, 116% increase). Five-year survival was lower for NT Indigenous than for NT non-Indigenous patients, but had increased for both populations between 1991-2000 and 2001-2010. The incidence of several cancers that were formerly less common in NT Indigenous people has increased, without a concomitant reduction in the incidence of higher incidence cancers (several of which are smoking-related). The excess burden of cancer in this population will persist until lifestyle risks are mitigated, particularly by reducing the extraordinarily high prevalence of smoking.

  19. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Rickettsia felis exposure in dogs from Southeast Queensland and the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Sze-Fui; Abdad, Mohammad Y; Kopp, Steven R; Stenos, John; Rees, Robert L; Traub, Rebecca J

    2013-06-03

    The recent detection of Rickettsia felis DNA in dogs in Australia suggests that dogs are potential mammalian reservoir hosts for this emerging rickettsia. To date, there is no published report addressing the seroprevalence of R. felis in dogs in Australia. Antigens for R. felis were produced by inoculating confluent XTC-2 monolayer cell cultures with three pools of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) homogenates. Infection was confirmed by real-time (qPCR), conventional or nested PCRs targeting the ompB, gltA, 17 kDa and ompA genes. Two hundred and ninety-two dogs from Southeast Queensland and the Northern Territory were tested for the presence of R. felis antibodies using a microimmunofluorescence (IF) test and the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for exposure were determined using both uni- and multi-variate analyses. Rickettsia felis was successfully isolated in cell culture from all three cat-flea pools. One hundred and forty-eight dogs (50.7%) showed seropositivity with titres ≥64 and 54 (18.5%) with titres ≥128. At antibody titres ≥64, dogs with active ectoparasite control were less likely to be seropositive to R. felis (OR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.20 - 5.56). This first reported isolation of R. felis in cell culture in Australia allowed for the production of antigen for serological testing of dogs. Results of this serological testing reflects the ubiquitous exposure of dogs to R. felis and advocate for owner vigilance with regards to ectoparasite control on domestic pets.

  20. Stroke incidence and case-fatality among Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations in the Northern Territory of Australia, 1999-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jiqiong; Condon, John R; Zhao, Yuejen; Guthridge, Steven L

    2015-07-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in Australia. The impact of stroke on the Australia Indigenous people is, however, unclear. This study describes hospital-based stroke incidence and case fatality in the Northern Territory population in Australia. Retrospective study of Northern Territory residents with a first-ever stroke episode and case fatality among Northern Territory residents in 1999-2011. The rate ratio of age-adjusted stroke incidence between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations was 2·8 for men and 2·7 for women, similar to those reported elsewhere in Australia. The rate ratio increased to 3·8 (95% confidence interval: 3·4-4·3) after adjusting for multiple risk factors. There was no change in annual incidence between 1999 and 2011 for either non-Indigenous (incidence rate ratio per year 1·01, 95% confidence interval: 1·00-1·03) or Indigenous people (incidence rate ratio: 1·00, 95% confidence interval: 0·98-1·02), although incidence did increase for non-Indigenous people in the 15-39 year age group (incidence rate ratio: 1·09, 95% confidence interval: 1·02-1·17) and for Indigenous people in the 40-64 year age group (incidence rate ratio: 1·03, 95% confidence interva1·00-1·06). The case fatality rate decreased from 22% in 1999 to 12% in 2011. In-hospital deaths were more common among; older and Indigenous people, for those with other chronic diseases, and from haemorrhagic stroke compared with ischemic stroke. In the Northern Territory, as elsewhere in Australia, Indigenous Australians are more likely than other Australians to suffer a stroke. Lack of falling in incidence in the Northern Territory population highlights the importance for ongoing comprehensive primary and acute care in reducing risk factors and managing stroke patients. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Stroke Organization.

  1. Public Land Survey (Township, Range, and Section) for northern Arizona, including Grand Canyon National Park.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This ALRIS (Arizona Land Resource Information System) coverage contains Public Land Survey gridding and labels for Townships, Ranges, and Sections for Northern Arizona

  2. Geology of the Lake Pillsbury area, northern coast ranges, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etter, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Rock units in the Lake Pillsbury area are Franciscan Complex and non-Franciscan (Great Valley Sequence-type) strata and surficial deposits. Franciscan units include relatively coherent sequences, broken-formations, and malanges comprising chiefly graywackes and mudstone, with variable abundances of both native and exotic blocks. Non-Franciscan units comprise generally mildly deformed coherent sequences of graywacke, shale, conglomerate, and limestone. A larger portion of the Lake Pillsbury area is underlain by non-Franciscan lithologies than had been indicated by previous mapping. Franciscan strata range in age from Mid-Jurassic or older to Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian .); non-Franciscan strata range from Jurassic (Tithonian) to Middle Tertiary. The distributions of metamorphic minerals in graywackes (chiefly lawsonite, aragonite, jadeitic pyroxene, glaucophane, pumpellyite, and laumontite) indicate that most Franciscan rocks have undergone high pressure - low temperature blue-schist metamorphism, and that non-Franciscan rocks have undergone lower pressure, zeolite metamorphism. Franciscan rocks are, on average, more dense than non-Franciscan rocks. Franciscan graywackes contain virtually no detrital K-feldspar; K-feldspar content of non-Franciscan sandstones increases with decreasing age and inferred depth of burial. Overall, compositions and physical properties of Lake Pillsbury non-Franciscan sandstones are similar to those of sandstones of the same age from Great Valley Sequence strata.

  3. Thermobarometry in a migmatitic terrane, northern Front Range, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munn, B.J.; Tracy, R.J. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Thermobarometric techniques were applied to migmatized rocks from the Cache La Poudre River Canyon. The dominant pelitic assemblage is grt-bt-sil-qz-pl-kfs; stromatic migmatites are abundant. The area was sampled for grt-bearing pelites and amphibolites suitable for grt-bt or grt-hb thermometry and grt-sil-pl-qz or gt-hb-pl-qz barometry. In these texturally complex rocks, garnets exhibit varying degrees of resorption with embayed edges and highly irregular crystal outlines. Garnet compositional maps show complex retrograde zoning with distinct Mn-enriched rims. Analytical points near the rims but inside the retrograde Mn-enriched zone represent compositions as close as possible to those formed at peak conditions, based on the premise that resorption of garnet during retrogression produces rims which are enriched in Mn and Fe. Compositional maps and detailed traverses were used to interpret prograde and retrograde zoning in each garnet to choose points most representative of the peak composition. The authors P-T calculations used these garnet points with matrix bt, hb and pl. Thermobarometeric calculations from outcrops in the eastern part of the canyon yield a peak T of 725 [+-] 50 C and a peak P of 7 [+-] 0.5 kbar. The higher temperature and pressure reported here are consistent with observed phase equilibria and the migmatized nature of the area, and reflect the complicated metamorphic history of the Front Range. Andalusite previously identified in this area is localized in occurrence and retrograde in origin, and is probably related to 1.4 Ga granitic plutonism or to an episode of post-peak deformation; cordierite is typically associated with andalusite in this area (Abbott, 1970). Thus far, neither cordierite nor andalusite has been observed in any of their samples from the Poudre canyon, providing evidence for higher peak P. Therefore, peak metamorphism occurred at about 7 kbar; retrograde metamorphism occurred at lower P during decompression.

  4. Heating, cooling, and uplift during Tertiary time, northern Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.A.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in a wide area of the northern Sangre de Cristo Range show effects of heating during Tertiary time. Heating is tentatively interpreted as a response to burial during Laramide folding and thrusting and also to high heat flow during Rio Grande rifting. Fission-track ages of apatite across a section of the range show that rocks cooled abruptly below 120oC, the blocking temperature for apatite, approx 19 Ma ago. Cooling was probably in response to rapid uplift and erosion of the northern Sangre de Cristo Range during early Rio Grande rifting.-from Authors

  5. Late winter home range and habitat use of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Kely N. Mertz; Jennifer M. Menzel; Kenneth K. Sturm

    2007-01-01

    We radio-tracked two male and one female Virginia northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia at Snowshoe Mountain Resort, in winter 2003 and Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in winter 2004, respectively, to document winter home range and habitat use in or near ski areas. Male home range...

  6. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-12-03

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993-2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden.

  7. "We need our own food, to grow our own veggies…" Remote Aboriginal food gardens in the Top End of Australia's Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Andrew; O'Dea, Kerin; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2013-10-01

    Remote Aboriginal community gardens (gardens) frequently operate below their full potential. A set of gardening sustainability principles may improve their planning, operation and long-term sustainability. This paper aims to document the principles of sustainability of non-profit remote Aboriginal community gardens in the Top End of the Northern Territory. Throughout 2011, gardens in the Top End of the Northern Territory were visited. Interviews and observational data were used to explore the principles of garden sustainability with participants. Subsequent iterative thematic analysis informed development of a set of gardening sustainability principles. Principles of sustainability included effective garden planning; community autonomy, consultation and engagement; growing community vetted crops; employing long-term, effective, culturally sensitive managers; long-term, transparent funding organisations and cycles; garden integration into existing food supply chains; culturally appropriate employment arrangements; and physical aspects of successful gardening. This work uniquely consults gardeners, managers and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people of both genders in the largest reported study of its type, resulting in new and expanded findings, particularly including new social factors for gardening success. Expanding the understanding of what makes gardens work to include the important social factors identified here may have merit. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Reference section for the Minturn Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian), northern Sangre de Cristo Range, Custer County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, D.A.; Clark, R.F.; Soulliere, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This reference section of the Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation was measured in the northern Sangre de Cristo Range; the section provides a basis for comparison with the type Minturn and with possibly equivalent strata elsewhere in southern Colorado. The name "Minturn" was first applied to strata of Middle Pennsylvanian age near the town of Minturn in central Colorado (Tweto, 1949, p. 194-228; Tweto and Lovering, 1977, p. 33–53), about 180 km north of the section described, and has been extended to strata of approximately the same age that contain marine limestones in the northern Sangre de Cristo Range (Brill, 1952; Bolyard, 1959; Scott and Taylor, 1974). The Minturn reference section continues upward into the principal reference section of the overlying Pennsylvanian and Permian Sangre de Cristo Formation (Lindsey and Schaefer, 1984), and these two sections together provide a continuous record of upper Paleozoic strata in the northern Sangre de Cristo Range.

  9. Survival and home-range size of Northern Spotted Owls in southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jason W.; Dugger, Katie M.; Anthony, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    In the Klamath province of southwestern Oregon, Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) occur in complex, productive forests that historically supported frequent fires of variable severity. However, little is known about the relationships between Spotted Owl survival and home-range size and the characteristics of fire-prone, mixed-conifer forests of the Klamath province. Thus, the objectives of this study were to estimate monthly survival rates and home-range size in relation to habitat characteristics for Northern Spotted Owls in southwestern Oregon. Home-range size and survival of 15 Northern Spotted Owls was monitored using radiotelemetry in the Ashland Ranger District of the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest from September 2006 to October 2008. Habitat classes within Spotted Owl home ranges were characterized using a remote-sensed vegetation map of the study area. Estimates of monthly survival ranged from 0.89 to 1.0 and were positively correlated with the number of late-seral habitat patches and the amount of edge, and negatively correlated with the mean nearest neighbor distance between late-seral habitats. Annual home-range size varied from to 189 to 894 ha ( x =  576; SE  =  75), with little difference between breeding and nonbreeding home ranges. Breeding-season home-range size increased with the amount of hard edge, and the amount of old and mature forest combined. Core area, annual and nonbreeding season home-range sizes all increased with increased amounts of hard edge, suggesting that increased fragmentation is associated with larger core and home-range sizes. Although no effect of the amount of late-seral stage forest on either survival or home-range size was detected, these results are the first to concurrently demonstrate increased forest fragmentation with decreased survival and increased home-range size of Northern Spotted Owls.

  10. The Role of Social Work in Palliative Care : A Comparison across Canada’s Three Northern Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuelle Novik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative research study was conducted in northern Canada in 2007 which examined the realities and issues surrounding palliative care with seniors in remote northern settings. As a profession with a recognized role in supporting those who are dying and those who are bereaved, social work has been integral to the development of palliative care support services in northern Canada. However, in regions of the North where the social work profession is less developed and less recognized, the role for social work remains understated.

  11. Home-range Size and Habitat Used by the Northern Myotis (Myotis septentrionalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S.F.; Menzel, M.A.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Miller, K.V.; Edwards, J.W.; Wood, P.B.

    2003-01-01

    We examined home range size and habitat use of nine female northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) within an intensively managed forest in the central Appalachians of West Virginia. Using the 95% adaptive kernel method, we calculated a mean home range of 65 ha. Northern myotis used recent diameter-limit harvests and road corridors more than expected based on availability of these habitats. Intact forest stands and more open deferment harvested stands were used less than expected based on the availability of these habitats, although intact forest stands still constituted the overall majority of habitat used. Partial timber harvests that leave a relatively closed canopy appear to promote or improve northern myotis foraging habitat in heavily forested landscapes. However, the long-term ecological impacts on bats and other biota from this silviculturally unacceptable practice are unclear.

  12. Transient Quaternary erosion and tectonic inversion of the Northern Range, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkle, Jeanette C.; Owen, Lewis A.; Weber, John; Caffee, Marc W.; Hammer, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    Cosmogenic 10Be measured in sediments from Northern Range catchments on the island of Trinidad reveals low millennial-scale rates of erosion (average 40 mm/ka) that increase roughly eightfold, from 11 to 92 mm/ka, eastward across the mountain range. These results, in conjunction with an analysis of mountain morphometrics, are consistent with Quaternary east-side-up tilting of the Northern Range, which has occurred recently ( 100 ka). The highest millennial-scale erosion rates coincide spatially with Quaternary east-side surface uplift (albeit not in magnitude), high modern rainfall rates, low topographic relief, and convex longitudinal stream profiles, indicating transient Quaternary erosion. We interpret that hillslope adjustment and erosion of the Northern Range is buffered from climatic and tectonic forcings by dense tropical vegetation cover, thick saprolite, and porous regolith. Compared with longer-term, thermochronology exhumation rates, we document that an order of magnitude deceleration of and reversal in the locus of erosion and exhumation has occurred during the Pliocene to the Holocene. We suggest that these combined data sets highlight distinct syn- and post-collisional phases of Northern Range development that are related to a major change in relative Caribbean-South American plate motion from oblique convergence to transform motion. Oblique collision during the mid-Miocene likely caused relatively higher rates of and asymmetric exhumation of the Northern Range. Post-collisional mountain-scale tilting is likely caused by a combination of crustal extension in the Gulf of Paria and by deep subsurface lithospheric detachment processes that drives dynamic topography.

  13. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina Province, Northern Territory, Australia: Implications for the Neoproterozoic to Devonian evolution of central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Madeline L.; Jowitt, Simon M.; Saleem, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Petrological and geochemical data for magmatic mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina and Aileron provinces of the Eastern Arunta region, Northern Territory, Australia constrain the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of magmatic events covering ~ 500 million years. Six geochemically distinct magmatic suites, here named A-F, have been identified and provide evidence of the tectonic history of this region and also are linked to two mineralisation-related magmatic events: the Lloyd Gabbro (Ni-Cu-PGE mineralisation) and the Riddoch Amphibolite (Cyprus-style Cu-Co volcanogenic massive sulphide mineralisation). The whole-rock geochemistry of Suites A and F is indicative of melts derived from a range of mantle depths (garnet to spinel lherzolite) and source enrichment. Suite D is likely related to the ~ 1070 Ma Warakurna/Giles event of central Australia, including the Alcurra (Musgrave) and Stuart (Arunta) dyke swarms, and likely formed through either: a) melting of subduction modified, sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) by an upwelling mantle plume; or b) a combination of intra-plate tectonic processes involving a long-lived thermal anomaly, lithospheric-scale architecture that focussed magmatism, and large-scale tectonism. Suite F represents more alkaline magmas, derived from a deeper source, but most likely formed during the same Warakurna LIP event (possibly contemporaneously) as Suite D. Suite E (the Riddoch Amphibolite) was most likely emplaced in a back-arc basin (BAB) setting at ~ 600 Ma, coincident with Delamerian subduction and BAB formation along the eastern Proterozoic margin of Australia from Queensland to the eastern Arunta and possibly further south. Subsequent destabilisation of the SCLM underneath the North Australian Craton generated the ~ 510 Ma Kalkarindji LIP in the form of Suite B intrusions that assimilated some of the older Suite E (Riddoch) material. This event is locally known as the ~ 506 Ma Stanovos Igneous Suite and represents the most

  14. Northern Territory perspectives on heart failure with comorbidities – understanding trial validity and exploring collaborative opportunities to broaden the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyngkaran, P; Majoni, W; Cass, A; Sanders, Prashanthan; Ronco, C; Brady, S; Kangaharan, N; Ilton, M; Hare, D L; Thomas, M C

    2015-06-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is an ambulatory care sensitive condition, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, rarely with cure. Outpatient based pharmacological management represents the main and most important aspect of care, and is usually lifelong. This narrative styled opinion review looks at the pharmacological agents recommended in the guidelines in context of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. We explore the concept of validity, a term used to describe the basis of standardising a particular trial or study and the population to which it is applicable. We aim to highlight the problems of the current guidelines based approach. We also present alternatives that could utilise the core principles from major trials, while incorporating regional considerations, which could benefit clients living in the NT and remote Australia. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New craniodental remains of Wakaleo alcootaensis (Diprotodontia: Thylacoleonidae) a carnivorous marsupial from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of the Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    New jaws and teeth referable to the rare thylacoleonid marsupial Wakaleo alcootaensis are figured and described. The species is the geologically youngest known member of the genus and is only known from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of the Northern Territory, Australia. A revised diagnosis of the species is presented which is found to be morphologically distinct from its congeners. W. alcootaensis can be distinguished from other species of Wakaleo by its greater size, deeply recessed masseteric fossa, more steeply angled I1, loss of P2, greater P3 to M1 ratio and loss of M3. Several characters of W. alcootaensis, including the increase in size, steeply angled I1, increase of the relative size of P3, and reduction of the molar row are present in at least some species of Thylacoleo. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these character states are convergences and that there was parallel evolution in these two thylacoleonid lineages. PMID:26587359

  16. Tree range expansion in eastern North America fails to keep pace with climate warming at northern range limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittaro, Fabian; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian; Nock, Charles A

    2017-08-01

    Rising global temperatures are suggested to be drivers of shifts in tree species ranges. The resulting changes in community composition may negatively impact forest ecosystem function. However, long-term shifts in tree species ranges remain poorly documented. We test for shifts in the northern range limits of 16 temperate tree species in Quebec, Canada, using forest inventory data spanning three decades, 15° of longitude and 7° of latitude. Range shifts were correlated with climate warming and dispersal traits to understand potential mechanisms underlying changes. Shifts were calculated as the change in the 95th percentile of latitudinal occurrence between two inventory periods (1970-1978, 2000-2012) and for two life stages: saplings and adults. We also examined sapling and adult range offsets within each inventory, and changes in the offset through time. Tree species ranges shifted predominantly northward, although species responses varied. As expected shifts were greater for tree saplings, 0.34 km yr -1 , than for adults, 0.13 km yr -1 . Range limits were generally further north for adults compared to saplings, but the difference diminished through time, consistent with patterns observed for range shifts within each life stage. This suggests caution should be exercised when interpreting geographic range offsets between life stages as evidence of range shifts in the absence of temporal data. Species latitudinal velocities were on average <50% of the velocity required to equal the spatial velocity of climate change and were mostly unrelated to dispersal traits. Finally, our results add to the body of evidence suggesting tree species are mostly limited in their capacity to track climate warming, supporting concerns that warming will negatively impact the functioning of forest ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Chronic respiratory disease in the regional and remote population of the Northern Territory Top End: A perspective from the specialist respiratory outreach service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruavit, Anuk; Fox, Melissa; Pearson, Rebecca; Heraganahally, Subash

    2017-10-01

    To study the demographic, rates and types of chronic respiratory conditions in Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients in regional and remote communities of Northern Territory Top End, who were referred to the specialist respiratory outreach service. A retrospective, observational study over a 2 years period. Remote community health clinics within the Northern Territory Top End visited by the specialist respiratory outreach team. Only patients referred to respiratory specialist outreach team were included. There were 444 participants, with 210 males and 234 females. In total, 79.3% were Indigenous. The rates of chronic respiratory disease diagnoses and smoking status within the different communities and health district regions. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was the most common primary respiratory condition in our cohort of patients (50.5%) followed by sleep apnoea in (14.2%), bronchiectasis in (11.6%), asthma (11%), interstitial lung disease (2.5%), nodule/cancer (1.8%) sarcoidosis (0.2%) and others (9.2%). COPD, smoking status and bronchiectasis was more frequently noted among the Indigenous patients compared to non-Indigenous patients (56.3% versus 28.3%, P < 0.001), (52.6% versus 25.0%, P < 0.001), and (12.5% versus 3.3%, P = 0.01) respectively. Obstructive sleep apnoea was more commonly diagnosed in non-Indigenous patients. Indigenous patients of the remote and rural communities of the Top End have significantly higher rates of smoking and COPD compared to non-Indigenous patients. Bronchiectasis is also more common among Indigenous patients. Further efforts are warranted to develop strategies to address the disparity and optimise the respiratory outreach service to this population. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Analysis of clinical presentation, pathological spectra, treatment and outcomes of biopsy-proven acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis in adult indigenous people of the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Ganesh; Abeyaratne, Asanga; Sundaram, Madhivanan; Fernandes, David Kiran; Pawar, Basant; Perry, Greg John; Sajiv, Cherian; Majoni, Sandawana William

    2017-05-01

    Acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis is common in indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Australia. It is a major risk factor for the high prevalence of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to analyse the clinical presentation, pathological spectra, treatment and outcomes of biopsy-proven acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis in the Northern Territory. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all adult patients (≥18 years) who were diagnosed with acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis on native renal biopsies from 01/01/2004 to 31/05/2014. The outcome measure was end-stage renal disease requiring long-term dialysis. Forty-three of 340 patients who had renal biopsies had acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis. Most were Aboriginals (88.4%). They had co-morbidities; diabetes mellitus (60.5%), hypertension (60.5%) and smoking (56.4%). Forty-nine per cent had multiple pathologies on biopsy. Predominant histological pattern was diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (72%). Main sites of infections were skin (47.6%) and upper respiratory tract infection (26.2%) with streptococcus and staphylococcus as predominant organisms. Fifty per cent of patients developed end-stage renal disease. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, those on dialysis had higher baseline creatinine (P = 0.003), higher albumin/creatinine ratio at presentation (P = 0.023), higher serum creatinine at presentation (P = 0.02) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at presentation (P = 0.012). Overall, most patients had pre-existing pathology with superimposed acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis that led to poor outcomes in our cohort. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  19. Climatically induced floristic changes across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the northern high latitudes, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, K.D.; Sweet, A.R.; Cameron, A.R. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    1995-06-01

    Global temperature decline associated with the Eocene-Oligocene transition resulted in extinctions of plants and animals in both marine and nonmarine environments. The extensive stratigraphic exposures, well-preserved palynological assemblages, and interbedded coal seams of the nonmarine Amphitheatre Formation, Burwash Basin, Yukon Territory, provide a comprehensive record of this transition. The formation spans a paleoclimatically significant interval otherwise poorly represented in high-latitude deposits of the northwestern Cordiller. Palynological data constrained by the chronologic and stratigraphic framework established for the Amphitheatre Formation indicate that the global temperature decline resulted in a shift from warm temperate, angiosperm-dominated to cooler temperate, gymnosperm-dominated (mainly coniferous) forest types. Petrographic compositional changes in the coals document the same plant community changes. The floristic data also indicate that, at high latitudes, there may have been a change to a wetter and less seasonal climate during the overall global cooling trend.

  20. Combining familiarity and landscape features helps break down the barriers between movements and home ranges in a non-territorial large herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Pascal; Garel, Mathieu; Bourgoin, Gilles; Duparc, Antoine; Dubray, Dominique; Maillard, Daniel; Loison, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Recent advances in animal ecology have enabled identification of certain mechanisms that lead to the emergence of territories and home ranges from movements considered as unbounded. Among them, memory and familiarity have been identified as key parameters in cognitive maps driving animal navigation, but have been only recently used in empirical analyses of animal movements. At the same time, the influence of landscape features on movements of numerous species and on space division in territorial animals has been highlighted. Despite their potential as exocentric information in cognitive maps and as boundaries for home ranges, few studies have investigated their role in the design of home ranges of non-territorial species. Using step selection analyses, we assessed the relative contribution of habitat characteristics, familiarity preferences and linear landscape features in movement step selection of 60 GPS-collared Mediterranean mouflon Ovis gmelini musimon × Ovis sp. monitored in southern France. Then, we evaluated the influence of these movement-impeding landscape features on the design of home ranges by testing for a non-random distribution of these behavioural barriers within sections of space differentially used by mouflon. We reveal that familiarity and landscape features are key determinants of movements, relegating to a lower level certain habitat constraints (e.g. food/cover trade-off) that we had previously identified as important for this species. Mouflon generally avoid crossing both anthropogenic (i.e. roads, tracks and hiking trails) and natural landscape features (i.e. ridges, talwegs and forest edges) while moving in the opposite direction, preferentially toward familiar areas. These specific behaviours largely depend on the relative position of each movement step regarding distance to the landscape features or level of familiarity in the surroundings. We also revealed cascading consequences on the design of home ranges in which most landscape

  1. Port Competition in the Northern Range from Le Havre to Hamburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Thorez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The main European ports of the Northern Range facingstrong competition develop various strategies. Rotterdam andLe Havre, fast transit, Antwe1p, logistic activities with storage,Hamburg, hub for central and eastem Europe. These strategieswill be described in the paper.All of them are building new container terminals and usenew tools in technology of communications to increase trafficand to enable shipping lines to achieve their own strategies. Thenew equipments will also b.: analysed.In the last years, the competition is mainly on the links withthe hinterland. Major ports t1y to enlarge their hinterlands bytransshipment, railway con"idors, waterway connections andhighways. The importance of ports and inland intermodalnodes is growing.Nowadays, port competition in the Northern Range is locatednot only in the ports.

  2. Effects of selective logging on large mammal populations in a remote indigenous territory in the northern Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Mayor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal populations is highly likely to be the result of hunting associated with logging operations. We used hunting registers to estimate the monthly and yearly biomass extracted during timber operations and to calculate the catch per unit effort (CPUE in subsistence hunting in the community of Esperanza 2 to 5 years before logging activities started and 4 to 7 years after logging began. We also used line transects and the distance method to estimate animal densities before and after logging. We found that 1389 hunted animals and 27,459 kg of mammal biomass were extracted per year from logging concessions. CPUE for ungulates declined; however, it increased for other mammal orders, such as rodents and primates, indicating a shift to alternative prey items. Although collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu and tapirs (Tapirus terrestris may also have declined in numbers, this shift may have been caused by a possibly natural population crash in white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari that coincided with the logging periods. We found no evidence that populations of primates were reduced by the logging activities. Because primates are sensitive to hunting, and their populations were of principal concern as logging commenced, this indicates that these forests remain of high conservation value. The unusual socioeconomic situation of these remote territories may mean that they are compatible with wildlife conservation in the Yavari-Mirin basin.

  3. Impact of Long-Range Dust Transport on Northern California in Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Bergmann, D; Chuang, C; Bench, G; Cliff, S; Kelly, P; Perry, K; VanCuren, T

    2005-02-10

    It has been well documented that spectacular dust storms in Asia (e.g. the events in 1998 and 2001) can affect the USA through long-range transport of dust across the Pacific. However, our observations and modeling show that the majority of dust at sites in Lassen National Park and Trinity Alps (Northern California) in spring 2002 (a year with no spectacular Asian dust events) is still from long-range intercontinental transport across the Pacific. We implemented the interactive dust emission algorithm of Ginoux et al. (2004) into the LLNL 3-D global atmospheric chemistry and aerosol transport model (IMPACT), then ran the model using a separate tracer for each dust emission region, using hi-resolution (1 x 1 degree) meteorological data from the NASA GMAO GEOS-3 assimilation system for 2001 and 2002. We also experimentally analyzed size- and time-resolved aerosol samples at Lassen National Park and Trinity Alps in the spring of 2002, which were taken as part of NOAA's ITCT 2k2 measurement campaign. The model-predicted time-series of soil dust over Northern California agrees remarkably well with our measurements, with a strong temporal correlation between the observations and intercontinental transport of dust across the Pacific in the model. Hence, we conclude that the majority of dust we sampled in Northern California in spring 2002, with aerodynamic diameters of 0.56-5 microns, is from long-range intercontinental transport across the Pacific. The strong correlations also strongly validate atmospheric transport in the IMPACT model over the Northern Pacific in spring.

  4. Creating ecotourism territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores territorial struggles around ecotourism in community-based conservation in wildlife rich Northern Tanzania. At the centre of analysis are two emblematic and distinctly different ecotourism business models that rely on a particular territorialization of property relations...... political ecology inspired by the framework of multiple environmentalities, the paper shows how ecotourism companies employ different techniques of government to secure business-friendly environments and territories in neoliberal conservation. Different business models underpin different processes...... of territorialization that in turn produce different modes of engagements and regimes of rule and authority. While the case of ecotourism through land sharing reinforces village land rights through a neoliberal environmentality, ecotourism through land appropriation illustrates how neoliberal, sovereign and truth...

  5. Range shifts and global warming: ecological responses of Empetrum nigrum. to experimental warming at its northern (high Arctic) and southern (Atlantic) geographical range margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, B.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Greve Alsos, I.; Bronken Eidesen, P.; van Breda, J.; de Korte, M.; van Rijckevorsel, J.; Rozema, J.

    2012-01-01

    Global change is expected to lead to range shifts of plant species. The ecological mechanisms underpinning these shifts are currently not well understood. Here, we compared ecological responses possibly underlying southern range contraction and northern range expansion of Empetrum nigrum, a key

  6. Orofacial features of subjects aged 18-30 years in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is a universal term referred to herein to collectively denote a series of functional disorders of orofacial structures, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ and the masticatory muscles in particular. Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders within the observed sample population of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija, as well as the frequency of signs and symptoms of this type of disorder. Methods: The study involved a sample of 300 subjects, aged 18-30 years. The sample comprised the target student population attending the University of Pristina, Kosovska Mitrovica. A random sample, intended for sampling without replacement, was drawn from the target population. All subjects underwent the Helkimo clinical dysfunction index analysis. Results of the analysis were quantified and expressed numerically, based on severity, as the Helkimo anamnestic dysfunction index (Ai and the clinical dysfunction index (Di with specific values assigned thereto accordingly. Results: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders within the observed sample population totaled 50.7% (Di> 0. In the majority of patients a mild form of TMP (67% was reported. Temporomandibular disorders were more common in women than in men, who appear to be three times as likely to develop the respective condition, demonstrating the ratio of 3:1. The most common TMD signs and symptoms implied mandibular kinetics disturbances (46% and TMJ sounds (45%. The prevalence of pain during mandibular movements amounted to 9%, the palpable TMJ sensitivity to 20% and the palpable sensitivity of masticatory muscles 18%. Headache and otalgia were represented with 13%, that is, 3% in the observed sample. Conclusion: Temporomandibular disorder analysis demonstrates high incidence in the population of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija. These findings indicate the need for an extensive prevention

  7. Modelling seasonal habitat suitability for wide-ranging species: Invasive wild pigs in northern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G Froese

    Full Text Available Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis. We integrated important ecological factors such as variability in environmental conditions, breeding requirements and home range movements. The habitat model was parameterized during a structured, iterative expert elicitation process and applied to a wet season and a dry season scenario. Model performance and uncertainty was evaluated against independent distributional data sets. Validation results showed that an expert-averaged model accurately predicted empirical wild pig presences in northern Australia for both seasonal scenarios. Model uncertainty was largely associated with different expert assumptions about wild pigs' resource-seeking home range movements. Habitat suitability varied considerably between seasons, retracting to resource-abundant rainforest, wetland and agricultural refuge areas during the dry season and expanding widely into surrounding grassland floodplains, savanna woodlands and coastal shrubs during the wet season. Overall, our model suggested that suitable wild pig habitat is less widely available in northern Australia than previously thought. Mapped results may be used to quantify impacts, assess risks, justify management investments and target control activities. Our methods are applicable to other wide-ranging species, especially in data-poor situations.

  8. Modelling seasonal habitat suitability for wide-ranging species: Invasive wild pigs in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Jens G; Smith, Carl S; Durr, Peter A; McAlpine, Clive A; van Klinken, Rieks D

    2017-01-01

    Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis. We integrated important ecological factors such as variability in environmental conditions, breeding requirements and home range movements. The habitat model was parameterized during a structured, iterative expert elicitation process and applied to a wet season and a dry season scenario. Model performance and uncertainty was evaluated against independent distributional data sets. Validation results showed that an expert-averaged model accurately predicted empirical wild pig presences in northern Australia for both seasonal scenarios. Model uncertainty was largely associated with different expert assumptions about wild pigs' resource-seeking home range movements. Habitat suitability varied considerably between seasons, retracting to resource-abundant rainforest, wetland and agricultural refuge areas during the dry season and expanding widely into surrounding grassland floodplains, savanna woodlands and coastal shrubs during the wet season. Overall, our model suggested that suitable wild pig habitat is less widely available in northern Australia than previously thought. Mapped results may be used to quantify impacts, assess risks, justify management investments and target control activities. Our methods are applicable to other wide-ranging species, especially in data-poor situations.

  9. Integrative overview of the herpetofauna from Serra da Mocidade, a granitic mountain range in northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Leandro J.C.L.; de Almeida, Alexandre P.; de Fraga, Rafael; Rojas, Rommel R.; Pirani, Renata M.; Silva, Ariane A.A.; de Carvalho, Vinícius T.; Gordo, Marcelo; Werneck, Fernanda P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Brazilian mountain ranges from the Guiana Shield highlands are largely unexplored, with an understudied herpetofauna. Here the amphibian and reptile species diversity of the remote Serra da Mocidade mountain range, located in extreme northern Brazil, is reported upon, and biogeographical affinities and taxonomic highlights are discussed. A 22-days expedition to this mountain range was undertaken during which specimens were sampled at four distinct altitudinal levels (600, 960, 1,060 and 1,365 m above sea level) using six complementary methods. Specimens were identified through an integrated approach that considered morphological, bioacoustical, and molecular analyses. Fifty-one species (23 amphibians and 28 reptiles) were found, a comparable richness to other mountain ranges in the region. The recorded assemblage showed a mixed compositional influence from assemblages typical of other mountain ranges and lowland forest habitats in the region. Most of the taxa occupying the Serra da Mocidade mountain range are typical of the Guiana Shield or widely distributed in the Amazon. Extensions of known distribution ranges and candidate undescribed taxa are also recorded. This is the first herpetofaunal expedition that accessed the higher altitudinal levels of this mountain range, contributing to the basic knowledge of these groups in remote areas. PMID:29302235

  10. Reference range of serum homocysteine level for the northern Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mojtaba Jafary

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homocysteine (Hcy, an intermediate form generated during the metabolism of methionine, is associated with cardiovascular diseases. There is little information available about serum concentration of Hcy in healthy Iranian population. In the present study, we assessed the reference range of serum Hcy level among inhabitants of the northern Persian Gulf. Methods: In the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study (PGHHS which used a multistage, stratified, clustered sampling, we measured fasting serum Hcy level using enzyme immunoassay method with an accuracy limit of 1 µmol/ L. Confounding factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, drugs and chronic diseases were eliminated. Reference range for homocysteine level was considered between 5 and 95 percentiles. Results: A total of 886 participants (39.3% female, 60.7% male were evaluated. Mean plasma Hcy level was 14.58 ± 7.29 µmol/ L and was higher in men than women. Reference range for Hcy level was 8.35-31.1 µmol/ L in males and 2.39-24.31 µmol/ L in females. There was no difference among age groups for serum Hcy level. Conclusion: The Hcy level in the northern Persian Gulf general population is high. Since high Hcy level has been shown as a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases in various studies, it is essential to study the reasons of this high level of Hcy in this region.

  11. Range extension of Microgomphus souteri Fraser, 1924 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae to northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Halali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During opportunistic surveys conducted at Collem (Goa, a specimen of male Microgomphus souteri Fraser 1924 was collected on 14th September 2013. Another male specimen was collected on 28th June 2014. Microgomphus souteri Fraser 1924 is recorded for the first time in northern Western Ghats and is a new record for Goa. Type specimen was described from Coorg (Karnataka and was later recorded from Kerala. The discovery of this species in Goa has expanded its range to the north of the Western Ghats. With this discovery currently 88 species of Odonata are now known from the state. 

  12. The current status of the distribution range of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Curculionidae: Solytinae) in northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Valerio-Mendoza; F. Armendariz-Toledano; G. Cuellar-Rodriguez; Jose F. Negron; G. Zuniga

    2017-01-01

    The distribution range of the western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is supported only by scattered records in the northern parts of Mexico, suggesting that its populations may be marginal and rare in this region. In this study, we review the geographical distribution of D. brevicomis in northern Mexico and perform a geometric...

  13. The logics of planned birthplace for remote Australian Aboriginal women in the northern territory: A discourse and content analysis of clinical practice manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Sarah; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry

    2015-10-01

    the aim of this research is to review the content, and describe the structural and contextual discourse around planned birthplace in six clinical practice manuals used to care for pregnant Aboriginal women in Australia׳s remote Northern Territory. The purpose is to better understand where, how and why planned birthplaces for Aboriginal women have changed over time. content and discourse analysis was applied to the written texts pertaining to maternal health care and the results placed within a theoretical framework of Daviss׳s Logic. the manuals demonstrate the use of predominantly scientific and clinical logic to sanction birthplace. Planned birthplace choices have declined over time, with hospital now represented as the only place to give birth. This is in opposition to Aboriginal women׳s longstanding requests and is not supported by robust scientific evidence. despite scientific and clinical logics dominating the sanctioning of birthplace for Aboriginal women, conjecture is apparent between assumed logics and evidence. There needs to be further critical reflection on why Aboriginal women do not have planned birthplace choices, and these reasons, once identified, debated and addressed both in research agendas and policy re-development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of Giardia duodenalis Assemblages A and B among Children Living in a Remote Indigenous Community of the Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Amy J.; Holt, Deborah C.; Andrews, Ross M.; Power, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Giardiasis is a communicable gastrointestinal disease caused by Giardia duodenalis and two genetic assemblages, A and B, cause human infection. In remote Indigenous communities of Australia, giardiasis is highly prevalent among children but disease transmission is poorly understood. This study investigated the prevalence of Giardia and genetic subtypes contributing to human disease in a remote Indigenous community, in the Northern Territory of Australia. Eighty-seven faecal samples were collected from 74 children (<15 years) over an 18 month period, and the distribution of positive cases relative to participant age and gender were examined. Screening by microscopy and 18S rRNA PCR amplification showed 66.7% (58/87) of faecal samples were positive for Giardia. Both males and females were equally affected and high detection rates were obtained for participants aged 0–<5 years and 5–<10 years (66.0 and 60.0% respectively). For 58.6% of the positive samples, Giardia was only detected by 18S rRNA PCR. Approximately 75% of cases were assemblage B, and subassemblage analyses using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene demonstrated that a variety of genetic variants were present. The high proportion of positive cases that were not detectable by microscopy, and dominance of assemblage B cases highlights the need for further research in this community, to assess the contribution of Giardia to chronic gastrointestinal disease among children, and to understand conditions conductive to assemblage B transmission. PMID:25412502

  15. Relative Frequency, Characteristics, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella spp. in the Northern Territory of Australia, 2000–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Gary N.; Hennessy, Jann; Baird, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio, Aeromonas, Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella (VACS) are water-associated Gram-negative organisms that can cause a variety of infections. The frequency, patient characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibilities for 468 isolates from 442 patients from the Northern Territory were reviewed. Aeromonas spp. (312 of 468; 67%) were most commonly isolated followed by Vibrio spp. (71 of 468; 15%), Shewanella spp. (61 of 468; 13%), and C. violaceum (24 of 468; 5%). A strong male predominance was found (male to female ratio of 2.3:1). Skin and soft tissue isolations (373 of 468; 80%) from lower limb infections (222 of 371; 60%) were the most common clinical manifestation. The episodes were usually polymicrobial (281 of 468; 60%). Coisolates included Staphylococcus aureus (137 of 468; 29%), β-hemolytic streptococci (74 of 468; 16%), enterobacteriaceae (111 of 468; 24%), non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (35 of 468; 7%), and other VACS organisms (37 of 468; 8%). Antimicrobial resistance of VACS organisms to ciprofloxacin (0–4%), cefepime (0–3%), and gentamicin (0–0.8%) and Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Shewanella to cotrimoxazole (0–3%) was rarely shown. For water-associated lower limb skin and soft tissue infections in the tropics, clinicians should consider empirical antimicrobial therapy with agents active against S. aureus and VACS organisms. PMID:25548380

  16. Assessing the Impact of Recycled Water Quality and Clogging on Infiltration Rates at A Pioneering Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT Site in Alice Springs, Northern Territory (NT, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Barry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration techniques for managed aquifer recharge (MAR, such as soil aquifer treatment (SAT can facilitate low-cost water recycling and supplement groundwater resources. However there are still challenges in sustaining adequate infiltration rates in the presence of lower permeability sediments, especially when wastewater containing suspended solids and nutrients is used to recharge the aquifer. To gain a better insight into reductions in infiltration rates during MAR, a field investigation was carried out via soil aquifer treatment (SAT using recharge basins located within a mixture of fine and coarse grained riverine deposits in Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia. A total of 2.6 Mm3 was delivered via five SAT basins over six years; this evaluation focused on three years of operation (2011–2014, recharging 1.5 Mm3 treated wastewater via an expanded recharge area of approximately 38,400 m2. Average infiltration rates per basin varied from 0.1 to 1 m/day due to heterogeneous soil characteristics and variability in recharge water quality. A treatment upgrade to include sand filtration and UV disinfection (in 2013 prior to recharge improved the average infiltration rate per basin by 40% to 100%.

  17. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Children in a Remote Aboriginal Community in the Northern Territory: Hookworm is Rare but Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura Persist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah C. Holt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: soil-transmitted helminths are a problem worldwide, largely affecting disadvantaged populations. The little data available indicates high rates of infection in some remote Aboriginal communities in Australia. Studies of helminths were carried out in the same remote community in the Northern Territory in 1994–1996 and 2010–2011; (2 Methods: fecal samples were collected from children aged <10 years and examined for helminths by direct smear microscopy. In the 2010–2011 study, some fecal samples were also analyzed by agar plate culture and PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis DNA. Serological analysis of fingerprick dried blood spots using a S. stercoralis NIE antigen was also conducted; (3 Results and Conclusions: a reduction in fecal samples positive for S. stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura was seen between the studies in 1994–1996 and 2010–2011, likely reflecting public health measures undertaken in the region to reduce intestinal helminths. Comparison of methods to detect S. stercoralis showed that PCR of fecal samples and serological testing of dried blood spots was at least as sensitive as direct smear microscopy and agar plate culture. These methods have advantages for use in remote field studies.

  18. Tephrochronology, magnetostratigraphy and mammalian faunas of Middle and Early Pleistocene sediments at two sites on the Old Crow River, northern Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, John A.; Pearce, G. William; Preece, Shari J.; Schweger, Charles E.; Morlan, Richard E.; Pearce, Nicholas J. G.; Perkins, T. William

    2013-01-01

    Alluvial and lacustrine sediments exposed beneath late Pleistocene glaciolacustrine silt and clay at two sites along the Old Crow River, northern Yukon Territory, are rich in fossils and contain tephra beds. Surprise Creek tephra (SZt) occurs in the lower part of the alluvial sequence at CRH47 and Little Timber tephra (LTt) is present near the base of the exposure at CRH94. Surprise Creek tephra has a glass fission-track age of 0.17 ± 0.07 Ma and Little Timber tephra is 1.37 ± 0.12 Ma. All sediments at CRH47 have a normal remanent magnetic polarity and those near LTt at CRH94 have a reversed polarity — in agreement with the geomagnetic time scale. Small mammal remains from sediments near LTt support an Early Pleistocene age but the chronology is not so clear at CRH47 because of the large error associated with the SZt age determination. Tephrochronological and paleomagnetic considerations point to an MIS 7 age for the interglacial beds just below SZt at CRH47 and at Chester Bluffs in east-central Alaska, but mammalian fossils recovered from sediments close to SZt suggest a late Irvingtonian age, therefore older than MIS 7. Further studies are needed to resolve this problem.

  19. Home range, den selection and habitat use of Carolina northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggins, Corinne A.; Silvis, Alexander; Kelly, Christine A.; Ford, W. Mark

    2017-01-01

    Context: Understanding habitat selection is important for determining conservation and management strategies for endangered species. The Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) is an endangered subspecies found in the high-elevation montane forests of the southern Appalachians, USA. The primary use of nest boxes to monitor CNFS has provided biased information on habitat use for this subspecies, as nest boxes are typically placed in suitable denning habitat.Aims: We conducted a radio-telemetry study on CNFS to determine home range, den site selection and habitat use at multiple spatial scales.Methods: We radio-collared 21 CNFS in 2012 and 2014–15. We tracked squirrels to diurnal den sites and during night-time activity.Key results: The MCP (minimum convex polygon) home range at 95% for males was 5.2 ± 1.2 ha and for females was 4.0 ± 0.7. The BRB (biased random bridge) home range at 95% for males was 10.8 ± 3.8 ha and for females was 8.3 ± 2.1. Den site (n = 81) selection occurred more frequently in montane conifer dominate forests (81.4%) vs northern hardwood forests or conifer–northern hardwood forests (9.9% and 8.7%, respectively). We assessed habitat selection using Euclidean distance-based analysis at the 2nd order and 3rd order scale. We found that squirrels were non-randomly selecting for habitat at both 2nd and 3rd order scales.Conclusions: At both spatial scales, CNFS preferentially selected for montane conifer forests more than expected based on availability on the landscape. Squirrels selected neither for nor against northern hardwood forests, regardless of availability on the landscape. Additionally, CNFS denned in montane conifer forests more than other habitat types.Implications: Our results highlight the importance of montane conifer to CNFS in the southern Appalachians. Management and restoration activities that increase the quality, connectivity and extent of this naturally rare forest type may be

  20. Recent changes in agrarian systems of the Microregion of Toledo and Northern Pioneer Territory in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Soares Júnior

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the period of 1950 through 2000, a green-revolution-based model mostly for commodities boosted global agricultural production. From the 70’s, this design became consolidated in Brazil and other countries because of policies and strategies by states and private groups. However, some doubts has been raised on its environmental and socioeconomic issues, in special for family farming. This study aimed to contribute by identifying changes and resistance in agricultural structures, systems and demographic aspects of this model and its adoption by farmers. It was carried out in the state of Paraná - Brazil, within the microregion of Toledo and in the northern pioneer area, which represent the history and diversity of this state about socioeconomic and human aspects, as well as technical development. It was based on statistics of agricultural censuses (1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1996 and 2006, population censuses (1970, 1980, 1991, 2000 and 2010 and municipal agricultural production data (1980-2012. Data from both areas were compared to each other and analyzed in face of state changes. There has been a decrease in farming properties and rural population, with an outstanding decline in the number of young people and women. Moreover, results showed a large reduction of properties with 20 to 50 ha, and an increase in those of up to 2 ha. Such decline is due to technological standard changes throughout the period, as well as recent grants offered to rural areas, as housing and leisure spaces. Both regions showed expansion of soybean plantations, but integrating distinctively to agriculture and, finally, family farming continuity, despite the intense changes.

  1. Holocene environmental change in the subarctic alpine treeline in northern British Columbia and the southern Yukon Territory, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisaric, M.F.J.

    2001-07-01

    Compilations of temperature data show that compared to the last several hundred years, the temperature in many parts of the world has been very high. This warmer temperature is believed to be caused by an increase in anthropogenically derived greenhouse gases. It was argued that instrumental temperature records are not adequate for assessing the impact of human activity on climate because they are very short, and a knowledge of past climatic variations is needed for longer time scales to accurately assess the natural variability of climate. Past climatic variations can also be used to see how vegetation will respond to additional warming in the coming century. This study examined the relationship between modern vegetation and pollen and stomate dispersal with particular reference to treeline dynamics and vegetation-climate relationships in the subalpine treeline in northwestern Canada. The study examined whether major vegetation assemblages can be distinguished from one another through pollen and stomate characteristics. It also investigated postglacial treeline fluctuations in the northern Rocky Mountains to see if they are driven by seasonal and latitudinal changes in distribution of solar radiation, or if they are driven by disturbance factors such as fire. Lastly, the study examined whether the twentieth century temperature increases in northeastern British Columbia and the Yukon have exceeded the natural variability of temperature in the region during the past centuries. Results suggest that climate-growth relationships are complex and the factors controlling them change with time, but it was determined that vegetation development is related to both climate change and higher fire activity. The higher temperatures in the past century most probably reflect increased levels of greenhouse gases.

  2. Influence of tropical storms in the Northern Indian Ocean on dust entrainment and long-range transport.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.

    Ninety five tropical cyclonic events (tropical storms, depressions and cyclones) between 2001 and 2010 were studied to determine their impact on dust outbreaks and long-range transport over the northern Indian Ocean and south Asia. In addition...

  3. Marking Territory: Legislated Genres, Stakeholder Beliefs, and the Possibilities for Common Ground in the Mexican Wolf Blue Range Reintroduction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study analyzing the interaction of administrative genres and stakeholder beliefs in the Mexican Wolf Blue Range Reintroduction Project (MWBRRP) in New Mexico and Arizona. The author examines this interaction through an analysis of a set of 944 recorded public comments (with administrative responses) concerning…

  4. Zinc and mercury in soils and plants of technogenic pollution territories (on example yavoriv military range and the factory "radical"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Олеговна Крюченко

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of geochemical studies of anthropogenic heavy metal pollution of surface sediments and vegetation from a variety of sources: zinc - for example Yavorоv military range Lviv region and mercury - the former plant "Radical" Kyiv. Geochemical anomalies identified elements in soils are installed depending on their behavior in the system "soil-plant".

  5. Northern range edge equilibrium of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. not achieved in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortmans, W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The geographic distributions of a species, be it native or alien, is expected to be limited at some point by environmental conditions. In this situation, a range edge equilibrium (REE takes place, i.e., populations occurring beyond the edge have a growth rate reduced below replacement. The occurrence of REE has never been tested for an invasive species. In Western Europe, the invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. has spread in most parts of southern and central France, where it can be found in very high densities in sunflower fields, but seems to be limited in its northwards expansion. It is currently unknown whether the range has reached a limit or not. Information about how the species responds to sunflower competition is also lacking. Objectives. This work addressed two questions: Has the northern part of A. artemisiifolia invaded range in Western Europe reached REE? How is A. artemisiifolia performance influenced by sunflower competition? Method. Plots were established in an agricultural field ca. 250 km north to the current invaded range, in Belgium. We planted A. artemisiifolia seedlings with or without sunflower competition. The following year, the population growth rates and the soil seed bank were assessed. Results. The species established populations with relatively high growth rates and soil seed bank. Sunflower competition did not have a significant impact on plant performance. Conclusions. The results invalidate the hypothesis of equilibrium at the current margin of A. artemisiifolia invaded range, and suggest a significant potential for invasion northwards.

  6. Biogeochemical Impact of Long-Range Transported Dust over Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Wang, S. H.; Hsu, N. C.

    2011-01-01

    Transpacific transport and impact of Asian dust aerosols have been well documented (e.g., results from ACE-Asia and regional follow-on campaigns), but little is known about dust invasion to the South China Sea (SCS). On 19-21 March 2010, a fierce Asian dust storm affected large areas from the Gobi deserts to the West Pacific, including Taiwan and Hong Kong. As a pilot study of the 7-SEAS (Seven South East Asian Studies) in the northern SCS, detailed characteristics of long-range transported dust aerosols were first observed by a comprehensive set of ground-based instruments deployed at the Dongsha islands (20deg42'52" N, 116deg43'51" E). Aerosol measurements such as particle mass concentrations, size distribution, optical properties, hygroscopicity, and vertical profiles help illustrate the evolution of this dust outbreak. Our results indicate that these dust particles were mixed with anthropogenic and marine aerosols, and transported near the surface. Satellite assessment of biogeochemical impact of dust deposition into open oceans is hindered by our current inability in retrieving areal dust properties and ocean colors over an extensive period of time, particularly under the influence of cloudy conditions. In this paper, we analyze the changes of retrieved Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration over the northern SCS, considered as oligotophic waters in the spring, from long-term SeaWiFS measurements since 1997. Over the past decade, six long-range transported dust events are identified based on spatiotemporal evolutions of PM10 measurements from regional monitoring stations, with the aid of trajectory analysis. Multi-year composites of Chl-a imagery for dust event and non-dust background during March-April are applied to overcome insufficient retrievals of Chl-a due to cloudy environment. Due to anthropogenic modification within a shallow boundary layer off the densely populated and industrial southeast coast of China, the iron ion activation of deliquescent dust

  7. Comparison of three methods for the recovery of skin pathogens from impetigo swabs collected in a remote community of Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Asha C; Tong, Steven Y C; Chatfield, Mark D; Andrews, Ross M; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2013-06-01

    Impetigo is a common infection in children living in remote areas. Immediate plating of impetigo swabs is the gold standard for bacterial recovery but is rarely feasible in remote regions. Bacterial culture increases our understanding of antibiotic resistance and strain diversity, which guides treatment protocols and epidemiological monitoring. We investigated three practical alternatives for recovering Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus from transported swabs: dry swabs transported at 4°C with desiccant and plated within 48 h; swabs inoculated into skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB), transported at 4°C, stored at -70°C and plated within 61 days; and ESwabs inoculated into Amies broth, transported at 4°C and plated within 48 h. Detection of Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus from simultaneously collected swabs was compared for the dry vs STGGB (36 sores) and the STGGB vs Amies (39 sores) methods. Swabs were collected from 43 children (75 sores sampled) in a remote community of Northern Territory, Australia in November 2011. The children had impetigo and were participating in the Skin Sore Trial [Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000858291]. Recovery of Strep. pyogenes for dry vs STGGB was 72% (26/36) and 92% (33/36) and for STGGB vs Amies was 92% (36/39) for both methods. Staphylococcus aureus recovery for dry vs STGGB was 69% (25/36) and 72% 26/36) and for STGGB vs Amies was 74% (29/39) and 85% (33/39). STGGB and Amies media provided higher recovery of Strep. pyogenes than dry swabs. These results and the opportunity to batch and store specimens for molecular studies support the use of STGGB transport media for future impetigo research.

  8. The impact of health promotion on trachoma knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) of staff in three work settings in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Fiona D; Jones, Kelly; Ritte, Rebecca; Brown, Haley E; Taylor, Hugh R

    2017-05-01

    Globally, trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness and Australia is the only developed country with endemic trachoma. It is found in remote Indigenous communities burdened with poverty, overcrowding and poor hygiene. Lack of culturally appropriate health promotion, a small trachoma workforce and lack of awareness and support for trachoma elimination in general, were early barriers. A cross-sectional pre-post study using a convenience sample, was conducted in clinics, schools and community work-settings from 63 of the 82 remote Aboriginal communities identified as being at risk of trachoma in the Northern Territory (NT). The study assessed the effect of a multi-component health promotion strategy aimed at increasing knowledge, attitude and practice amongst health, education and community support settings staff. Data were collected between 2010 and 2012. The health promotion initiatives were introduced in communities in staggered delivery over a one-year period; 272 participants were surveyed at baseline and 261 at follow-up. Trachoma related knowledge, attitudes and practice increased across all settings and for all primary outcome measures. Across all settings, there was a significant increase in the proportion of participants reporting the most important thing to do if a child has a 'dirty' face is to 'wash it every time its dirty' (61.6% cf 69.7%; X2p = 0.047), a significant reduction in the proportion of respondents answering 'no' to the question "Is it normal for kids to have dirty faces in your community' (40.5% cf 29.6%; X2p = 0.009) and a significant increase in reported capacity to teach others about trachoma prevention (70.8% cf 83.3%; X2p community support staff working with children and in remote NT communities. In the early stages of the trachoma health promotion program, this increased trachoma awareness and improved local workforce capacity and support for trachoma elimination in three health promotion settings in remote communities in

  9. Impact of perinatal health and socio-demographic factors on school education outcomes: A population study of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthridge, Steven; Li, Lin; Silburn, Sven; Li, Shu Qin; McKenzie, John; Lynch, John

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the association between early-life risk factors and school education outcomes. This is an historical cohort study of 7601 children (61% were Indigenous) born in the Northern Territory between 1999 and 2004. Information was linked, for each child on: perinatal health, student enrolment and National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) Year 3 results. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between selected risk factors and a NAPLAN result 'below' the national minimum standard (NMS) in reading and numeracy. Indigenous children had much higher odds, than non-Indigenous children, of a result below the NMS for both reading (odds ratio (OR): 8.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.55-9.74) ) and numeracy (OR: 11.52, 95% CI: 9.94-13.35). When adjusted for all other variables, the increased odds were attenuated for both reading (OR: 2.89, 95% CI: 2.46-3.40) and numeracy (OR: 3.19, 95% CI: 2.65-3.84). Common risk factors for Indigenous and non-Indigenous children included higher birth order, maternal smoking in pregnancy and being a boy. There were gradients of decreasing risk with increasing education level of primary care giver and increasing maternal age. Among Indigenous children only, risks increased when living in remote areas, with younger age (<8 years) and low birthweight. The study highlights that many of the risk factors associated with poor education outcomes among Indigenous children are shared with the general population. The results inform a targeted, cross-agency response to address modifiable early-life risk factors for educational disadvantage. Data linkage, using existing administrative datasets, provides a useful addition to methods that identify priority areas for prevention and early intervention. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Assessing feasibility, compliance and toxicity of concomitant chemo-radiotherapy in head and neck cancers in the Northern Territory: initial experience and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ajay; Baxi, Siddhartha; Hoyne, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Comprehensive oncology services have recently been introduced in the Northern Territory (NT) enabling delivery of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSC). The purpose of this study is to assess feasibility, compliance and toxicity of CCRT in remote Australia. Chart review was conducted for all patients >18 years, with biopsy-proven LAHNSC, receiving curative intent CCRT between January 2010 and September 2012. The study population comprised of 26 patients, 20 Caucasian and 6 Indigenous, having a median age of 58 years, with most common sites of involvement being the oropharynx (n = 16) and the oral cavity (n = 6). Major risk factors were smoking and alcoholism. Cardiovascular disease, viral hepatitis, latent tuberculosis and strongyloidosis were the major comorbidities. Fifty-eight per cent (n = 15) required assisted feeding. All patients received intensity modulated radiotherapy. Systemic therapy comprised of cisplatin or carboplatin/cetuximab. Most common acute (grade 3/4) toxicities were mucositis, dysphagia and dermatological in 54%, 31% and 23% respectively. Complications were infection and gastrostomy insertion related. Hospitalisation occurred in 23%, treatment break >2 days in 38%, with no difference in toxicities between indigenous and nonindigenous patients. Platinum use was associated with greater nausea (P = 0.003), renal dysfunction (P = 0.03) and ototoxicity (P = 0.04) and cetuximab with dermatological reactions (P = 0.05). At median follow-up of 16 months, overall survival was 58% with progression-free survival of 50%. We have demonstrated good compliance rates, tolerance and feasibility outcomes. The seeming preponderance of LAHNSC in the NT is cause for concern. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation

  11. Visual outcomes following vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy amongst Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidonis, Georgia; Hassall, Mark M; Phillips, Russell; Raymond, Grant; Saha, Niladri; Wong, George Hc; Gilhotra, Jagjit S; Liu, Ebony; Burdon, Kathryn P; Henderson, Tim; Newland, Henry; Lake, Stewart R; Craig, Jamie E

    2017-10-16

    Visual outcomes following diabetic vitrectomy have not previously been studied in an Australian population. This analysis aimed to determine the rate of, and factors associated with visual success following diabetic vitrectomy performed for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, and investigate factors predisposing to early progression to diabetic retinopathy (DR) requiring vitrectomy. Retrospective, population-based audit. All patients undergoing vitrectomy for the complications of DR in South Australia (SA) and the Northern Territory (NT) between 2007 and 2011. Medical records were audited and data collected, including demographics, diabetic history, past treatment for DR, indication for vitrectomy and visual acuity pre and postoperatively. Visual success (gain of ≥15 ETDRS letters) at 6 and 12 months, postoperatively. A total of 495 diabetic vitrectomies, for 404 eyes of 335 patients were performed in SA and NT between 2007 and 2011. 77 (23%) patients requiring diabetic vitrectomy were Indigenous Australians. 87% of patients undergoing diabetic vitrectomy had stable or improved vision at 1 year, postoperatively. There was no significant difference between indigenous and non-indigenous eyes achieving visual success (P = 0.929). Timely preoperative laser treatment (P = 0.03) and preoperative visual acuity (P = 0.01) were the predominant factors associated with visual success. Indigenous patients are just as likely to have improved vision following diabetic vitrectomy as non-Indigenous Australians. However, the small subset of indigenous patients with blind eyes prior to vitrectomy are significantly less likely to improve from surgery. The underlying factors associated with poor outcomes in this group requires further exploration. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  12. Improving health service delivery for women with diabetes in pregnancy in remote Australia: survey of care in the Northern Territory Diabetes in Pregnancy Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura; Connors, Christine; Whitbread, Cherie; Brown, Alex; Oats, Jeremy; Maple-Brown, Louise

    2014-12-01

    In the Northern Territory (NT), 38% of 3500 births each year are to Indigenous women, 80% of whom live in regional and remote areas. Compared with the general Australian population, rates of pre-existing type 2 diabetes in pregnancy are 10-fold higher and rates of gestational diabetes are 1.5-fold higher among Indigenous women. Current practices in screening for diabetes in pregnancy in remote Australia are not known. To assess current health service delivery for NT women with diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) by surveying healthcare professionals' views and practices in DIP screening and management. A cross-sectional survey of NT healthcare professionals providing clinical care for women with DIP was conducted based on pre-identified themes of communication, care-coordination, education, orientation and guidelines, logistics and access, and information technology. Of the 116 responders to the survey, 78% were primary healthcare professionals, 32% midwives and 25% general practitioners. High staff turnover was evident: of Central Australian professionals, only 33% (urban) and 18% (regional/remote) had been in their current position over 5 years. DIP screening was conducted at first antenatal visit by 66% and at 24-28-week gestation by 81%. Only 50% of respondents agreed that most women at their health service received appropriate care for DIP, and 41% of primary care practitioners were neutral or not confident in their skills to manage DIP. It is promising that many healthcare professionals report following new guidelines in conducting early pregnancy screening for DIP in high risk women. Several challenges were identified in healthcare delivery to a high risk population in remote Australia. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Mining pollution and the diet of the purple-striped Gudgeon Mogurnda Mogurnda Richardson (Eleotridae) in the Finniss River, Northern Territory, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffree, R.A.; Williams, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    During the dry season of 1974, collections of the purple-striped Gudgeon Mogurnda Mogurnda were taken from the Finniss River of the Northern Territory; during the wet season, this river receives acidic and metallic pollutants from the formerly mined area of Rum Jungle. The fish consumed a great variety of foods, with high abundances of dytiscidae, chironomidae, ceratopogonidae, trichoptera, odonata, copepoda, decapoda, and pisces. For no food was there a significant regression against habitat descriptors in both of the zones; this emphasizes that pollution effects are more complex than simply depressing or raising the abundances of the dietary species. Five foods were more abundant in the diets of the polluted zone, and three in those of the unpolluted zone. The dietary abundances of two foods, both crustacean, increased in the polluted zone, compared to the unpolluted zone, through the dry season. Two categories of foods: (1) those obtaining oxygen directly from the atmosphere or via a film or bubble of air; and (2) the converse set (aquatic respirers), were contrasted for their usefulness in distinguishing between the zones, by both hierarchical agglomerative and discriminant function analyses. One collection from the polluted zone was reclassified as unpolluted on the basis of its grouping behaviour. The relevance for pollution studies of dietary analysis of euryphagous fish, rather than sampling aquatic fauna directly, is discussed in terms of food substitution, switching, strategies for abundance and recovery by the fauna, and possible effects of the pollutants on the fish as an intervening collector. Downstream patterns of abundance of the invertebrate fauna in this study are broadly similar to those of other studies in which such chemically diverse metals as Pb, Zn, and Cu are the pollutants, but there are differences for some faunal components.

  14. A cost-consequences analysis of a midwifery group practice for Aboriginal mothers and infants in the top end of the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Gold, Lisa; Josif, Cath; Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Steenkamp, Malinda; Barclay, Lesley; Zhao, Yuejen; Tracy, Sally; Kildea, Sue

    2014-04-01

    to compare the cost-effectiveness of two models of service delivery: Midwifery Group Practice (MGP) and baseline cohort. a retrospective and prospective cohort study. a regional hospital in Northern Territory (NT), Australia. baseline cohort included all Aboriginal mothers (n=412), and their infants (n=416), from two remote communities who gave birth between 2004 and 2006. The MGP cohort included all Aboriginal mothers (n=310), and their infants (n=315), from seven communities who gave birth between 2009 and 2011. The baseline cohort mothers and infant's medical records were retrospectively audited and the MGP cohort data were prospectively collected. All the direct costs, from the Department of Health (DH) perspective, occurred from the first antenatal presentation to six weeks post partum for mothers and up to 28 days post births for infants were included for analysis. analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0 and Stata 12.1. Independent sample of t-tests and χ2 were conducted. women receiving MGP care had significantly more antenatal care, more ultrasounds, were more likely to be admitted to hospital antenatally, and had more postnatal care in town. The MGP cohort had significantly reduced average length of stay for infants admitted to Special Care Nursery (SCN). There was no significant difference between the two cohorts for major birth outcomes such as mode of birth, preterm birth rate and low birth weight. Costs savings (mean A$703) were found, although these were not statistically significant, for women and their infants receiving MGP care compared to the baseline cohort. for remote dwelling Aboriginal women of all risk who travelled to town for birth, MGP was likely to be cost effective, and women received better care and resulting in equivalent birth outcomes compared with the baseline maternity care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandawana William Majoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9 years. 1244 (79.3% were Indigenous. 44.2% (n=693 were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1 versus 57.4 (15.2, p<0.001] and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35 versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5, p<0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522 versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0, p<0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37 versus 28% (20–38, p=0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2=0.11, p<0.001, no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p<0.001, and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p<0.001, Indigenous ethnicity (p<0.001, urea reduction ratio (p=0.001, and gender (p<0.001 after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation.

  16. The impacts of low-cost treatment options upon scale formation potential in remote communities reliant on hard groundwaters. A case study: Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsela, Andrew S; Jones, Adele M; Collins, Richard N; Waite, T David

    2012-02-01

    The majority of small, remote communities within the Northern Territory (NT) in Central Australia are reliant on groundwater as their primary supply of domestic, potable water. Saturation indices for a variety of relevant minerals were calculated using available thermodynamic speciation codes on collected groundwater data across the NT. These saturation indices were used to assess the theoretical formation of problematic mineral-scale, which manifests itself by forming stubborn coatings on domestic appliances and fixtures. The results of this research show that 63% of the measured sites within the NT have the potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) scale, increasing to 91% in arid, central regions. The data also suggests that all groundwaters are over-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium-bridged ferric-silica polymers, based on the crystalline mineral index (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)), although the quantitative impact of this scale is limited by low iron concentrations. An assessment of possible low-cost/low-technology management options was made, including; lowering the temperature of hot-water systems, diluting groundwater with rainwater and modifying the pH of the source water. Source water pH modification (generally a reduction to pH 7.0) was shown to clearly alleviate potential carbonate-based scale formation, over and above the other two options, albeit at a greater technical and capital expense. Although low-cost/low-technology treatment options are unlikely to remove severe scale-related issues, their place in small, remote communities with minor scale problems should be investigated further, owing to the social, technical and capital barriers involved with installing advanced treatment plants (e.g. reverse osmosis) in such locations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spread of plant pathogens and insect vectors at the northern range margin of cypress in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocca, Alessia; Zanini, Corrado; Aimi, Andrea; Frigimelica, Gabriella; La Porta, Nicola; Battisti, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    The Mediterranean cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens) is a multi-purpose tree widely used in the Mediterranean region. An anthropogenic range expansion of cypress has taken place at the northern margin of the range in Italy in recent decades, driven by ornamental planting in spite of climatic constraints imposed by low winter temperature. The expansion has created new habitats for pathogens and pests, which strongly limit tree survival in the historical (core) part of the range. Based on the enemy release hypothesis, we predicted that damage should be lower in the expansion area. By comparing tree and seed cone damage by pathogens and pests in core and expansion areas of Trentino, a district in the southern Alps, we showed that tree damage was significantly higher in the core area. Seed cones of C. sempervirens are intensively colonized by an aggressive and specific pathogen (the canker fungus Seiridium cardinale, Coelomycetes), associated with seed insect vectors Megastigmus wachtli (Hymenoptera Torymidae) and Orsillus maculatus (Heteroptera Lygaeidae). In contrast, we observed lower tree damage in the expansion area, where a non-aggressive fungus ( Pestalotiopsis funerea, Coelomycetes) was more frequently associated with the same insect vectors. Our results indicate that both insect species have a great potential to reach the range margin, representing a continuous threat of the arrival of fungal pathogens to trees planted at extreme sites. Global warming may accelerate this process since both insects and fungi profit from increased temperature. In the future, cypress planted at the range margin may then face similar pest and pathogen threats as in the historical range.

  18. Monitoring cetaceans in the North Pacific: analysis of retrospective SOSUS data and acoustic detection on the Northern Edge Range

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    To comply with environmental laws, the U.S. Navy has increasingly relied on acoustic detection and tracking for marine mammal monitoring/mitigation. In the North Pacific, much of what is known about large whale seasonal occurrence comes from Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) arrays. SOSUS provides broad basin-scale assessments of large whale seasonal occurrence, but cannot provide detail at the regional level, in particular here for the Navy's Northern Edge (Training) Range in the northern...

  19. Range maps of terrestrial species in the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Barbara C. Wales; Rick. Demmer

    2003-01-01

    Current range distribution maps are presented for 14 invertebrate, 26 amphibian, 26 reptile, 339 bird, and 125 mammal species and selected subspecies (530 total taxa) of the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins in the United States. Also presented are maps of historical ranges of 3 bird and 10 mammal species, and 6 maps of...

  20. Features of Duration and Borders of the Bedding of Snow Cover in the Conditions of Climatic Changes in the Territory of Northern Kazakhstan According to Land and Space Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikov, Vitaliy; Turulina, Galina; Polyakova, Svetlana; Muratova, Nadiya; Kauazov, Azamat; Abugalieva, Aigul; Tazhibayeva, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Precipitation and air temperature datasets from 34 meteorological stations were analyzed to reveal the regional climate changes at the territory in North Kazakhstan over the last 58 years (i.e., 1950-2008). Peculiarities and conditions of snow cover formation and melting have been analyzed at territory of Northern Kazakhstan using surface and space monitoring data. Methods of both the geo-informational processing of remote probing data and statistical processing of databases on snow cover, air temperature and precipitations have been used. Analysis of snow cover observations data for territory of Northern Kazakhstan has shown that the stable snow cover might be observed since the middle of November till the beginning of April. In a few last decades the tendency is observed for longevity decrease of snow cover bedding that appears to be on the background air temperature increase and insignificant increase of cold period precipitations due to the later bedding of the snow cover and its earlier destruction. Peculiarities of atmospheric circulation in Atlantic-Eurasian sector of Northern Semi sphere and their influence of formation of snow cover at territory of Northern Kazakhstan. The higher longevity of the snow cover bedding is defined by the predominance of E form circulation and lower longevity - by the predominance of W+C circulation form. Analysis conducted of the highest height of snow cover bedding has shown that for period of 1936-2012 in the most cases the statistically reliable decreasing trends are observed with the linear trend coefficients of 0,50 - 0,60 cm/year. The method is offered for determination of probable characteristics of the snow cover decade height. Using data of space monitoring are allocated the frontiers of snow cover bedding for the period of snow melting 1982-2008 and the snow cover melting maps are developed. The results further confirm the proposition that snow cover availability is an important and limiting factor in the generation

  1. Describing and analysing primary health care system support for chronic illness care in Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory – use of the Chronic Care Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Allison

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from chronic illness such as diabetes, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Improving the understanding of how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver chronic illness care will inform efforts to improve the quality of care for Indigenous people. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory. Using the Chronic Care Model as a framework, we carried out a mail-out survey to collect information on material, financial and human resources relating to chronic illness care in participating health centres. Follow up face-to-face interviews with health centre staff were conducted to identify successes and difficulties in the systems in relation to providing chronic illness care to community members. Results Participating health centres had distinct areas of strength and weakness in each component of systems: 1 organisational influence – strengthened by inclusion of chronic illness goals in business plans, appointment of designated chronic disease coordinators and introduction of external clinical audits, but weakened by lack of training in disease prevention and health promotion and limited access to Medicare funding; 2 community linkages – facilitated by working together with community organisations (e.g. local stores and running community-based programs (e.g. "health week", but detracted by a shortage of staff especially of Aboriginal health workers working in the community; 3 self management – promoted through patient education and goal setting with clients, but impeded by limited focus on family and community-based activities due to understaffing; 4 decision support – facilitated by distribution of clinical guidelines and their integration with daily care, but limited by inadequate access to and support from specialists; 5 delivery system

  2. The impacts of low-cost treatment options upon scale formation potential in remote communities reliant on hard groundwaters. A case study: Northern Territory, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsela, Andrew S., E-mail: a.kinsela@unsw.edu.au [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Jones, Adele M., E-mail: adele.jones@unsw.edu.au [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Collins, Richard N., E-mail: richard.collins@unsw.edu.au [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Waite, T. David, E-mail: d.waite@unsw.edu.au [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2012-02-01

    The majority of small, remote communities within the Northern Territory (NT) in Central Australia are reliant on groundwater as their primary supply of domestic, potable water. Saturation indices for a variety of relevant minerals were calculated using available thermodynamic speciation codes on collected groundwater data across the NT. These saturation indices were used to assess the theoretical formation of problematic mineral-scale, which manifests itself by forming stubborn coatings on domestic appliances and fixtures. The results of this research show that 63% of the measured sites within the NT have the potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) scale, increasing to 91% in arid, central regions. The data also suggests that all groundwaters are over-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium-bridged ferric-silica polymers, based on the crystalline mineral index (Ca{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12}), although the quantitative impact of this scale is limited by low iron concentrations. An assessment of possible low-cost/low-technology management options was made, including; lowering the temperature of hot-water systems, diluting groundwater with rainwater and modifying the pH of the source water. Source water pH modification (generally a reduction to pH 7.0) was shown to clearly alleviate potential carbonate-based scale formation, over and above the other two options, albeit at a greater technical and capital expense. Although low-cost/low-technology treatment options are unlikely to remove severe scale-related issues, their place in small, remote communities with minor scale problems should be investigated further, owing to the social, technical and capital barriers involved with installing advanced treatment plants (e.g. reverse osmosis) in such locations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaling potential of small communities reliant on hard groundwaters were analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oversaturation of carbonate- and silica

  3. The impact of health promotion on trachoma knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP of staff in three work settings in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona D Lange

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness and Australia is the only developed country with endemic trachoma. It is found in remote Indigenous communities burdened with poverty, overcrowding and poor hygiene. Lack of culturally appropriate health promotion, a small trachoma workforce and lack of awareness and support for trachoma elimination in general, were early barriers.A cross-sectional pre-post study using a convenience sample, was conducted in clinics, schools and community work-settings from 63 of the 82 remote Aboriginal communities identified as being at risk of trachoma in the Northern Territory (NT. The study assessed the effect of a multi-component health promotion strategy aimed at increasing knowledge, attitude and practice amongst health, education and community support settings staff. Data were collected between 2010 and 2012. The health promotion initiatives were introduced in communities in staggered delivery over a one-year period; 272 participants were surveyed at baseline and 261 at follow-up.Trachoma related knowledge, attitudes and practice increased across all settings and for all primary outcome measures. Across all settings, there was a significant increase in the proportion of participants reporting the most important thing to do if a child has a 'dirty' face is to 'wash it every time its dirty' (61.6% cf 69.7%; X2p = 0.047, a significant reduction in the proportion of respondents answering 'no' to the question "Is it normal for kids to have dirty faces in your community' (40.5% cf 29.6%; X2p = 0.009 and a significant increase in reported capacity to teach others about trachoma prevention (70.8% cf 83.3%; X2p <0.001.Health promotion was associated with increased trachoma knowledge, attitude and practice amongst health, education and community support staff working with children and in remote NT communities. In the early stages of the trachoma health promotion program, this increased trachoma

  4. From the bush to the big smoke--development of a hybrid urban community based medical education program in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S; Smedts, A; Campbell, N; Sager, R; Lowe, M; Strasser, S

    2009-01-01

    The Northern Territory (NT) of Australia is a unique setting for training medical students. This learning environment is characterised by Aboriginal health and an emphasis on rural and remote primary care practice. For over a decade the NT Clinical School (NTCS) of Flinders University has been teaching undergraduate medical students in the NT. Community based medical education (CBME) has been demonstrated to be an effective method of learning medicine, particularly in rural settings. As a result, it is rapidly gaining popularity in Australia and other countries. The NTCS adopted this model some years ago with the implementation of its Rural Clinical School; however, urban models of CBME are much less well developed than those in rural areas. There is considerable pressure to better incorporate CBME into medical student teaching environment, particularly because of the projected massive increase in student numbers over the next few years. To date, the community setting of urban Darwin, the NT capital city, has not been well utilised for medical student training. In 2008, the NTCS enrolled its first cohort of students in a new hybrid CBME program based in urban Darwin. This report describes the process and challenges involved in development of the program, including justification for a hybrid model and the adaptation of a rural model to an urban setting. Relationships were established and formalised with key partners and stakeholders, including GPs and general practices, Aboriginal medical services, community based healthcare providers and other general practice and community organisations. Other significant issues included curriculum development and review, development of learning materials and the establishment of robust evaluation methods. Development of the CBME model in Darwin posed a number of key challenges. Although the experience of past rural programs was useful, a number of distinct differences were evident in the urban setting. Change leadership and inter

  5. Long-term trends in supply and sustainability of the health workforce in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuejen; Russell, Deborah J; Guthridge, Steven; Ramjan, Mark; Jones, Michael P; Humphreys, John S; Carey, Timothy A; Wakerman, John

    2017-12-19

    International evidence suggests that a key to improving health and attaining more equitable health outcomes for disadvantaged populations is a health system with a strong primary care sector. Longstanding problems with health workforce supply and turnover in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory (NT), Australia, jeopardise primary care delivery and the effort to overcome the substantial gaps in health outcomes for this population. This research describes temporal changes in workforce supply in government-operated clinics in remote NT communities through a period in which there has been a substantial increase in health funding. Descriptive and Markov-switching dynamic regression analysis of NT Government Department of Health payroll and financial data for the resident health workforce in 54 remote clinics, 2004-2015. The workforce included registered Remote Area Nurses and Midwives (nurses), Aboriginal Health Practitioners (AHPs) and staff in administrative and logistic roles. total number of unique employees per year; average annual headcounts; average full-time equivalent (FTE) positions; agency employed nurse FTE estimates; high and low supply state estimates. Overall increases in workforce supply occurred between 2004 and 2015, especially for administrative and logistic positions. Supply of nurses and AHPs increased from an average 2.6 to 3.2 FTE per clinic, although supply of AHPs has declined since 2010. Each year almost twice as many individual NT government-employed nurses or AHPs are required for each FTE position. Following funding increases, some clinics doubled their nursing and AHP workforce and achieved relative stability in supply. However, most clinics increased staffing to a much smaller extent or not at all, typically experiencing a "fading" of supply following an initial increase associated with greater funding, and frequently cycling periods of higher and lower staffing levels. Overall increases in workforce supply in remote NT

  6. Better health outcomes at lower costs: the benefits of primary care utilisation for chronic disease management in remote Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuejen; Thomas, Susan L; Guthridge, Steven L; Wakerman, John

    2014-10-04

    Indigenous residents living in remote communities in Australia's Northern Territory experience higher rates of preventable chronic disease and have poorer access to appropriate health services compared to other Australians. This study compared health outcomes and costs at different levels of primary care utilisation to determine if primary care represents an efficient use of resources for Indigenous patients with common chronic diseases namely hypertension, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and renal disease. This was an historical cohort study involving a total of 14,184 Indigenous residents, aged 15 years and over, who lived in remote communities and used a remote clinic or public hospital from 2002 to 2011. Individual level demographic and clinical data were drawn from primary care and hospital care information systems using a unique patient identifier. A propensity score was used to improve comparability between high, medium and low primary care utilisation groups. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and acceptability curves were used to analyse four health outcome measures: total and, avoidable hospital admissions, deaths and years of life lost. Compared to the low utilisation group, medium and high levels of primary care utilisation were associated with decreases in total and avoidable hospitalisations, deaths and years of life lost. Higher levels of primary care utilisation for renal disease reduced avoidable hospitalisations by 82-85%, deaths 72-75%, and years of life lost 78-81%. For patients with ischaemic heart disease, the reduction in avoidable hospitalisations was 63-78%, deaths 63-66% and years of life lost 69-73%. In terms of cost-effectiveness, primary care for renal disease and diabetes ranked as more cost-effective, followed by hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. Primary care for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the least cost-effective of the five conditions. Primary care in remote

  7. Enhanced SO2 Concentrations Observed over Northern India: Role of Long-range Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, C.; Lal, S.; Naja, M.; Chand, Duli; Venkataramani, S.; Joshi, H.; Pant, P.

    2013-01-17

    Volcanic emissions and coal burning are among the major sources of SO2 over the continental environment. In this study, we show episodes of long-range transport of volcanic SO2 from Africa to Northern India using satellite observations. Monthly averaged SO2 from OMI were of the order of 0.6-0.9 DU during November, 2008 over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), which far exceeded background values (<0.3 DU) retrieved from observations across different locations over North India during 2005-2010. The columnar SO2 loadings were much higher on November 6 over most of the IGP and even exceeded 6 DU, a factor of 10 higher than background levels at some places. These enhanced SO2 levels were, however, not reciprocated in satellite derived NO2 or CO columns, indicating transport from a non-anthropogenic source of SO2. Backward trajectory analysis revealed strong winds in the free troposphere, which originated from the Dalaffilla volcanic eruption over the Afar region of Ethiopia during November 4-6, 2008. Wind streams and stable atmospheric conditions were conducive to the long-range transport of volcanic plume into the IGP. As most of the local aerosols over IGP region are below 3 km, a well separated layer at 4-5 km is observed from CALIPSO, most likely as a result of this transport. Apart from known anthropogenic sources, the additional transport of volcanic SO2 over the IGP region would have implications to air quality and radiation balance over this region.

  8. Primary production in an impounded baldcypress swamp (Taxodium distichum) at the northern limit of the range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)swamps to maintain themselves near the northern limit of their range depends on their levels of production, which is not only are response to climate but also to local environmental factors(e.g., impoundment). We asked if primary production was reduced under impounded conditions and if species' responses to impoundment were individualistic or more generalized. To examine long-term production trends in a permanently impounded baldcypress swamp, a 6-year study of leaf litterfall was conducted in Buttonland Swamp, Illinois, which had been impounded for 10 years before the beginning of the study. Buttonland Swamp is at the northern boundary of the baldcypress swamp region along the Cache River, Illinois, in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley of the United States. When the litter production of impounded sites was compared to those with natural hydrology in the same region, impounded sites had about half of the total litterfall of natural sites. Overall, leaf litterfall rates declined during the study(201 vs. 113 gm-2 yr-1), but the pattern was negatively correlated with water depth, which explained 97% of the variation in the data. Along the transect with the lowest mean minimum water depth(<0.5 cm), leaf litterfall decreased linearly over 6 years from 377 to 154gm-2 yr-1. Total leaf litterfall rates were lower at the other three depths(5, 43, and 49 cm mean minimum water depths)and remained below 200 gm-2 yr -1 throughout the study. Acer saccharinum, Nyssa aquatica, and Salix nigra were most responsible for the decline in total leaf litterfall. Amounts of leaf litterfall of T. distichum and Liquidambar styraciflua also generally decreased, while that of Cephalanthus occidentalis increased overtime. Because species' responses to environmental factors such as impoundment are individualistic, models should be based on the responses of individual species, rather than on communities. Our study further suggests that the

  9. The Sudbury impact layer in the paleoproterozoiciron ranges of northern Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.; Horton, J. Wright; King, David A.

    2010-01-01

    A layer of breccia that contains fragments of impact ejecta has been found at 10 sites in the Paleoproterozoic iron ranges of northern Michigan, in the Lake Superior region of the United States. Radiometric age constraints from events predating and postdating deposition of the breccia are ca. 1875 Ma and 1830 Ma. The major bolide impact that occurred at 1850 Ma at Sudbury, Ontario, 500–700 km east of these sites, is the likely causative event. The Michigan sites described here, along with previously described sites in Minnesota and Ontario, define an extensive ejecta-bearing deposit throughout the Paleoproterozoic iron ranges of the Lake Superior region that we refer to as the Sudbury impact layer. The layer at the sites in Michigan exhibits a range of thicknesses, lithologic characters, and sedimentary settings. The diversity of rock types and internal stratigraphic details of the layer imply that several different processes of transport and deposition are represented, but the detailed investigations needed to document them are incomplete. Many of the sites had been described and interpreted previously as products of common terrestrial processes, but the presence of relict shock-induced planar deformation features in quartz indicates that the breccia layer is in fact the product of an extraterrestrial impact. At most localities, this layer also contains relict fragments of altered devitrified glass and/or accretionary lapilli. One immediate use of the impact layer is as an ultraprecise time line that ties together the well-known stratigraphic sequences of the various geographically separated iron ranges, the correlation of which has remained controversial for many decades. The Sudbury impact layer most commonly lies at a horizon that records a significant change in the character of sediments across the region. The impact layer marks the end of a major period of banded iron formation deposition that was succeeded by deposition of fine clastic rocks, commonly

  10. The Current Status of the Distribution Range of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Curculionidae: Solytinae) in Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio-Mendoza, O; Armendáriz-Toledano, F; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, G; Negrón, José F

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The distribution range of the western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is supported only by scattered records in the northern parts of Mexico, suggesting that its populations may be marginal and rare in this region. In this study, we review the geographical distribution of D. brevicomis in northern Mexico and perform a geometric morphometric analysis of seminal rod shape to evaluate its reliability for identifying this species with respect to other members of the Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex. Our results provide 30 new records, with 26 distributed in the Sierra Madre Occidental and 4 in the Sierra Madre Oriental. These records extend the known distribution range of D. brevicomis to Durango and Tamaulipas states in northern Mexico. Furthermore, we find high geographic variation in size and shape of the seminal rod, with conspicous differences among individuals from different geographical regions, namely west and east of the Great Basin and between mountain systems in Mexico. PMID:28922899

  11. The diversity and abundance of polychaetes (Annelida) are altered in sediments impacted by alumina refinery discharge in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J; Glasby, Christopher J; McGuinness, Keith A; Parry, David L; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Gibb, Karen S

    2013-12-01

    We collected polychaete diversity and abundance data at a range of impacted and reference sites near an alumina refinery in Melville Bay, northern Australia. The aims were to measure the impact of sediment modified by the alumina refinery discharge on polychaete communities and secondly to gather baseline data from which to measure future changes. Polychaete communities in both soft-bottom habitats and subtidal areas adjacent to mangrove forests were studied. We also developed and deployed an artificial substratum device to sample polychaetes associated with hard-substrate habitats. For each habitat, polychaete community composition was different between impacted and reference sites and at multiple time points. The impact of future changes either from bioremediation or management practices can be measured against these baseline data. Indicator species analysis was used to identify polychaete species that were significantly different at the locations tested, and we discuss their potential as indicator species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Composite Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin

    2012-01-01

    and assembly of the fibre reinforced composite structure Composite Territories, in which the property of bending is activated and varied so as to match solely through material means a desired form. This case study demonstrates how one might extend the geometric model so that it is able to engage and reconcile...

  13. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile (1,639-square-kilometer) Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The study unit is composed of two study areas (Interior Basins and Coastal Basins) and is located in northern California in Napa, Sonoma, Lake, Colusa, Mendocino, Glenn, Humboldt, and Del Norte Counties. The GAMA-PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the USGS and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  14. A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Lanterman Range, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Antonia; Läufer, Andreas; Crispini, Laura; Capponi, Giovanni; Lisker, Frank

    2017-04-01

    During the GANOVEX XI (German North Victoria Land Expedition) in 2015-16, a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out over the Lanterman Range in northern Victoria Land (NVL). The helicopter-based survey aimed to resolve the fine structure over the so-called Lanterman Suture Zone, which represents one of the main key areas regarding geodynamic evolution of NVL during the Early Palaeozoic Ross Orogeny. This was achieved by reducing the flight line spacing to 1-2 km with 10 km tie lines and flying in a terrain-following mode. The survey was completed by ground truth magnetic susceptibility readings by using a Kappameter KM-7. The Ross-aged basement of NVL is subdivided into three tectonometamorphic so-called "terranes", comprising from W to E the Wilson-, the Bowers- and the Robertson Bay Terrane. They are generally interpreted to have formed by accretion processes at the Palaeo-Pacific active continental margin of East Gondwana in the Cambrian and Ordovician. The survey over the Lanterman Range covered parts of the two western terranes, namely the Wilson and Bowers terranes, which are separated by the Lanterman Fault Zone. This polyphase tectonic discontinuity is characterized by a belt of mafic and ultramafic rocks comprising metabasites with eclogite-facies relicts. Preliminary results show two distinct and nearly parallel magnetic lineaments in the survey area that will be further interpreted by combined magnetic susceptibility measurements and geological field data. One magnetic lineament correlates well with the known boundary between the Wilson and Bowers terranes, which comprises also a metaconglomerate belt with mafic to ultramafic clasts. The second, further easterly magnetic lineament is so far not supported by outcrops of associated highly magnetic rocks in the field. Similar parallel structures have been observed further to the southeast and seem to be offset by a major sinistral strike-slip fault zone of possibly post-Jurassic age. One

  15. Acoustic Territoriality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Under the heading of "Gang i København" a number of initiatives was presented by the Lord Mayer and the Technical and Environmental Mayer of Copenhagen in May 2006. The aim of the initiative, which roughly translates to Lively Copenhagen, was both to make Copenhagen a livelier city in terms of ci...... this article outline a few approaches to a theory of acoustic territoriality....

  16. Sources and Seasonality of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeleira, A.; Pollack, I. B.; Sive, B. C.; Zaragoza, J.; Lindaas, J.; Fischer, E. V.; Farmer, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) of Colorado, with a growing population of over 3 million, was deemed an ozone (O3) nonattainment area (NAA) in 2008 despite continued work on NOx reductions. Ground-level O3 is produced from photochemical catalytic cycles initiated by the OH oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and propagated through reactions involving peroxy (HO2+RO2) and NOx (NO + NO2) radicals. We measured a suite of speciated VOCs during two 8-week deployments (March-May 2015, July-September 2015) at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Erie, CO. The spring deployment overlapped with the NOAA SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) campaign. The BAO site lies at an urban-rural interface in the NFRMA with multiple urban centers surrounding the site, a major interstate highway within 2 miles, local suburban development in Erie, agricultural operations in the surrounding counties, and recent rapid expansion of oil and gas development in adjacent Weld County. VOCs were measured hourly with a custom-built online gas chromatography system along with measurements of O3, NOx, PAN, CO, and CH4. VOC measurements included C2-C8 hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C1-C2 halocarbons, and several oxygenated species (OVOCs: methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, acetaldehyde). Using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) we have identified four distinct VOC sources in the spring and five in the summer: 1) Oil and Natural Gas (ONG, e.g. C2 - C5 alkanes), 2) Traffic (e.g. ethyne & aromatics), 3) Background species (e.g. long-lived halogenated species), 4) Secondary production (e.g. C3-C5 alkyl nitrates & OVOCs), and for summer 5) Biogenic (e.g. isoprene). Using the source factors generated from the PMF analysis we calculated the VOC reactivity (VOCr) of each source. For both seasons, the ONG factor dominates VOCr in the mornings. In spring afternoons, a combination of background species and secondary products make up a large percentage of VOCr as

  17. Mass movements and infiltration on abandoned terraces in the Iberian Range, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnáez, José; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Ruiz-Flaño, Purificación; Pascual, Nuria; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2017-04-01

    Terraced slopes were one of the most common agricultural landscapes in mountain areas of the Mediterranean region. Built to ensure agricultural production, terraces have acted as an effective soil conservation system at both slope and catchment scale. Demographic and socioeconomic changes in the last 60 years in the Mediterranean mountains have led to the abandonment of terraces. The consequent lack of maintenance of such agricultural structures has triggered diverse erosion processes. At the beginning of the 20th century, the upper valleys of the Leza, Jubera and Cidacos rivers, in the Iberian range (northern Spain), held more than 10,000 inhabitants and a cultivated area of 21,021 ha, of which 13,274 ha were farming terraces (63% of the agricultural space). At present, these terraces are abandoned. The most common erosion processes on the walls of abandoned terraces are stone collapses, which leave the riser completely unprotected, and small mass movements. A total amount of 240 terrace failures with mass movement were identified in the 53 studied plots, which means an average number of 4.5 per plot and 10.6 per 100 m of wall. At plot scale, the average volume of debris was 15.1 m3 (33.1 m3 for every 100 m of wall). Soil infiltration capacity and the way the water flows downslope may be the main triggers for mass movements. Rainfall simulations carried out in the study area showed an average infiltration coefficient above 75%. Infiltration coefficients were higher on concave hillslopes (above 85%), probably because the plots in these sectors were intensively tilled in the past, with plowed and permeable anthropogenic soils. The infiltrated water becomes a destabilizing factor for the terrace wall. The lack of deep percolation due to a more impermeable substrate (e.g., the original soil of the slope) favours the accumulation of water within the artificial soil, behind the stone wall. The increasing weight of the material can cause the activation of mass movements

  18. Frontier mutualism: coevolutionary patterns at the northern range limit of the leaf-cutter ant-fungus symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich G; Mikheyev, Alexander S; Solomon, Scott E; Cooper, Michael

    2011-10-22

    Tropical leaf-cutter ants cultivate the fungus Attamyces bromatificus in a many-to-one, diffuse coevolutionary relationship where ant and fungal partners re-associate frequently over time. To evaluate whether ant-Attamyces coevolution is more specific (tighter) in peripheral populations, we characterized the host-specificities of Attamyces genotypes at their northern, subtropical range limits (southern USA, Mexico and Cuba). Population-genetic patterns of northern Attamyces reveal features that have so far not been observed in the diffusely coevolving, tropical ant-Attamyces associations. These unique features include (i) cases of one-to-one ant-Attamyces specialization that tighten coevolution at the northern frontier; (ii) distributions of genetically identical Attamyces clones over large areas (up to 81 000 km(2), approx. the area of Ireland, Austria or Panama); (iii) admixture rates between Attamyces lineages that appear lower in northern than in tropical populations; and (iv) long-distance gene flow of Attamyces across a dispersal barrier for leaf-cutter ants (ocean between mainland North America and Cuba). The latter suggests that Attamyces fungi may occasionally disperse independently of the ants, contrary to the traditional assumption that Attamyces fungi depend entirely on leaf-cutter queens for dispersal. Peripheral populations in Argentina or at mid-elevation sites in the Andes may reveal additional regional variants in ant-Attamyces coevolution. Studies of such populations are most likely to inform models of coextinctions of obligate mutualistic partners that are doubly stressed by habitat marginality and by environmental change.

  19. An Examination of Visa Free Travel for Russian and Chinese Citizens to U.S. Territories in the Pacific (Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    was not long (1565) until the Spanish claimed sovereignty over the islands. About a century later, the permanent colonization of the islands by the...culture on Guam was influenced by 300 years of Spanish rule before it became a U.S. Trust Territory. Guam relies on tourism as its primary source of... Spanish created significant friction with the native Chamorro people until 1696, when they took an oath of allegiance to Spain. The Spanish held

  20. TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR IN CERTAIN HORNED UNGULATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    above, the territorial males have no constant harems with them (Walther 1964; 1968; Estes 1967). The territories, which average about 200 m in diameter, are located within the home ranges of female herds and the single territorial males are visited by the roaming females during their daily circuit. This means that females ...

  1. Population structure as revealed by mtDNA and microsatellites in northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, throughout their range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobette R Dickerson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus; NFS is a widely distributed pinniped that has been shown to exhibit a high degree of philopatry to islands, breeding areas on an island, and even to specific segments of breeding areas. This level of philopatry could conceivably lead to highly genetically divergent populations. However, northern fur seals have the potential for dispersal across large distances and have experienced repeated rapid population expansions following glacial retreat and the more recent cessation of intensive harvest pressure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microsatellite and mitochondrial loci, we examined population structure in NFS throughout their range. We found only weak population genetic structure among breeding islands including significant F(ST and Phi(ST values between eastern and western Pacific islands. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that insufficient time since rapid population expansion events (both post glacial and following the cessation of intense harvest pressure mixed with low levels of contemporary migration have resulted in an absence of genetic structure across the entire northern fur seal range.

  2. The Transition From Effusive to Explosive Volcanism, Crustal Recycling and Granitic Plutonism in the Paleocene Sifton Range Complex, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovic, A.; Francis, D.

    2004-05-01

    The uplifted plutons of the eastern Coast Plutonic Complex (CPC) of the northern Canadian Cordillera are in contact with coeval volcanic suites of the early Tertiary Sloko-Skukum Group, and offer a unique opportunity for addressing the relationship between continental calc-alkaline volcanic sequences and subduction-related granitoid suites. The Sifton Range complex (SRC) is the Yukon's largest Paleogene erosional remnant (240 km2), comprising 900 m of volcanic stratigraphy, and is intruded by the CPC granites dated at 57.2 Ma. It displays a classic subduction-related geochemical signature with depletions in HFSE relative to LILE. The volcanic rocks range between medium and high-K orogenic suites, and display a transitional calc-alkaline to tholeiitic fractionation trend. The epizonal two-feldspar granites are chemically indistinguishable from the evolved SRC lavas and are characterized by highly elevated LREE (La/Sm N ch = 5-11), and Th (12-18 ppm) concentrations. Furthermore, the complex exhibits a striking relationship between rock compositions and styles of eruption, such that a reduction in abundance of lavas with increasing SiO2 is correlated with the appearance of evolved pyroclastic rocks and granitic plutonism. Crystal fractionation models of the compositional interval between basaltic andesite and andesite (52-62 wt.% SiO2) using the thermodynamic algorithms Melts of Ghiorso and Sack (1995), and Xstaln (Francis) are consistent with evolution at moderately wet (1.5 wt.% H2O), upper crustal (1.5 kb) conditions with fO2 close to the QFM buffer. Two-step, assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) models are required to explain the anomalous Th concentrations of the evolved rocks, and involve contamination by the enriched SRC rhyolite of up to 33 % by mass over the dacite range, followed by assimilation of over 150 % by mass beyond rhyodacite compositions (> 67 wt.% SiO2). The unrealistically high contamination parameter (r > 2.5, De Paolo, 1981) of the

  3. Frontier mutualism: coevolutionary patterns at the northern range limit of the leaf-cutter ant–fungus symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich G.; Mikheyev, Alexander S.; Solomon, Scott E.; Cooper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Tropical leaf-cutter ants cultivate the fungus Attamyces bromatificus in a many-to-one, diffuse coevolutionary relationship where ant and fungal partners re-associate frequently over time. To evaluate whether ant–Attamyces coevolution is more specific (tighter) in peripheral populations, we characterized the host-specificities of Attamyces genotypes at their northern, subtropical range limits (southern USA, Mexico and Cuba). Population-genetic patterns of northern Attamyces reveal features that have so far not been observed in the diffusely coevolving, tropical ant–Attamyces associations. These unique features include (i) cases of one-to-one ant–Attamyces specialization that tighten coevolution at the northern frontier; (ii) distributions of genetically identical Attamyces clones over large areas (up to 81 000 km2, approx. the area of Ireland, Austria or Panama); (iii) admixture rates between Attamyces lineages that appear lower in northern than in tropical populations; and (iv) long-distance gene flow of Attamyces across a dispersal barrier for leaf-cutter ants (ocean between mainland North America and Cuba). The latter suggests that Attamyces fungi may occasionally disperse independently of the ants, contrary to the traditional assumption that Attamyces fungi depend entirely on leaf-cutter queens for dispersal. Peripheral populations in Argentina or at mid-elevation sites in the Andes may reveal additional regional variants in ant–Attamyces coevolution. Studies of such populations are most likely to inform models of coextinctions of obligate mutualistic partners that are doubly stressed by habitat marginality and by environmental change. PMID:21389026

  4. The abiotic and biotic factors limiting establishment of predatory fishes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alofs, Karen M; Jackson, Donald A

    2015-06-01

    There is a poor understanding of the importance of biotic interactions in determining species distributions with climate change. Theory from invasion biology suggests that the success of species introductions outside of their historical ranges may be either positively (biotic acceptance) or negatively (biotic resistance) related to native biodiversity. Using data on fish community composition from two survey periods separated by approximately 28 years during which climate was warming, we examined the factors influencing the establishment of three predatory centrarchids: Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), Largemouth Bass (M. salmoides), and Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) in lakes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario. Variance partitioning demonstrated that, at a regional scale, abiotic factors play a stronger role in determining the establishment of these species than biotic factors. Pairing lakes within watersheds where each species had established with lakes sharing similar abiotic conditions where the species had not established revealed both positive and negative relationships between the establishment of centrarchids and the historical presence of other predatory species. The establishment of these species near their northern range boundaries is primarily determined by abiotic factors at a regional scale; however, biotic factors become important at the lake-to-lake scale. Studies of exotic species invasions have previously highlighted how spatial scale mediates the importance of abiotic vs. biotic factors on species establishment. Our study demonstrates how concepts from invasion biology can inform our understanding of the factors controlling species distributions with changing climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Trees tracking a warmer climate: the Holocene range shift of hazel (Corylus avellana) in northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppä, H.; Schurgers, G.; Miller, P.A.; Bjune, A.E.; Giesecke, T.; Kühl, N.; Renssen, H.; Salonen, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Palaeoecological records provide a rich source of information to explore how plant distribution ranges respond to climate changes, but their use is complicated by the fact that, especially when based on pollen data, they are often spatially too inaccurate to reliably determine past range limits. To

  6. Home range and habitat use of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Stephens, Brail S.; Hackett, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    Background: For imperiled marine turtles, use of satellite telemetry has proven to be an effective method in determining long distance movements. However, the large size of the tag, relatively high cost and low spatial resolution of this method make it more difficult to examine fine-scale movements of individuals, particularly at foraging grounds where animals are frequently submerged. Acoustic telemetry offers a more suitable method of assessing fine-scale movement patterns with a smaller tag that provides more precise locations. We used acoustic telemetry to define home ranges and describe habitat use of juvenile green turtles at a temperate foraging ground in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Jaguar interactions with pumas and prey at the northern edge of jaguars’ range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina E. Gutiérrez-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first study that evaluates jaguar-puma interactions in the arid lands of northern Mexico, where jaguars have their northernmost breeding population and both predators are persecuted for livestock depredation. We tested whether jaguars are the dominant species in this unique ecosystem, where: (1 pumas outnumber jaguars, (2 pumas are better adapted to arid environments, and (3 jaguars and pumas are of similar size. We analyzed four years of data with two approaches; a two species conditional occupancy model and an activity patterns analysis. We used camera location and prey presence as covariates for jaguar and puma detection and presence probabilities. We also explored overlap in activities of predators and prey. Where both species were detected, peccary presence was positively correlated with both jaguar and puma presence, whereas in areas where jaguars were detected but pumas were not, deer presence explained the probability of jaguar presence. We found that both predators were more likely to co-occur together than to be found independently, and so we rejected the hypothesis that jaguars were the dominant species in our study area. Predators were mainly nocturnal and their activity patterns overlapped by 60%. Jaguar, as compared with puma, overlapped more with deer and calves; puma overlapped with calves more than with other prey, suggesting a preference. We believe exploring predator relationships at different scales may help elucidate mechanisms that regulate their coexistence.

  8. Habitat selection by the wood turtle (Clemmys insculpta) at the northern limit of its range

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arvisais M; Levesque E; Bourgeois J-C; Daigle C; Masse D; Jutras J

    2004-01-01

    ...), in the Mauricie region of Quebec, Canada. We also determined if this species used habitats according to availability within a home range and identified habitat features influencing habitat selection...

  9. Low larval densities in northern populations reinforce range expansion by a Mediterranean damselfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therry, Lieven; Swaegers, Janne; Dinh, Khuong Van

    2016-01-01

    towards the very edge of the expansion front has been neglected. Density effects may, however, have a profound direct impact on traits involved in range expansion and influence range dynamics. 2. In this study, we contrast the effects of high conspecific larval density typical for established populations...... and low larval density typical for newly founded populations at the edge of the expansion front on a set of larval traits that may affect the range dynamics in the poleward moving damselfly Coenagrion scitulum. We therefore ran an outdoor mesocosm experiment with a low- and high-density treatment close...... in voltinism) at low conspecific density will translate in increased population growth rates. Furthermore, nutritional advantages at low conspecific density may increase investment in dispersal ability. Together, these direct and delayed density-dependent effects that gradually increase towards the expansion...

  10. Fuel and stand characteristics in p. pine infested with mountain pine beetle, Ips beetle, and southwestern dwarf mistletoe in Colorado's Northern Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Russell D. Beam; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2008-01-01

    In the ponderosa pine forests of the northern Front Range of Colorado, downed woody debris amounts, fuel arrangement, and stand characteristics were assessed in areas infested with southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and

  11. Selection and spatial Arrangement of rest sites within Northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D.D.; Montgomery, R.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.; Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Kays, R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning

  12. Selection and spatial arrangement of rest sites within northern tamandua home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D. D.; Montgomery, R. A.; Millspaugh, J. J.; Jansen, P. A.; Garzon-Lopez, C. X.; Kays, R.

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning

  13. Northern range expansion of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus): Analysis of mosquito data from Connecticut, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Shepard, John J; Thomas, Michael C

    2017-05-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an invasive species and important arbovirus vector that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1980's where it continues to expand its range. Winter temperature is an important constraint to its northward expansion, with potential range limits located between the 0° and -5°C mean cold month isotherm. Connecticut is located within this climatic zone and therefore, Ae. albopictus was monitored statewide to assess its northern range expansion and to delineate where populations can stably persist. Ae. albopictus females were monitored at fixed trapping sites throughout Connecticut from June-October over a 20-year period, 1997-2016. In addition, Ae. albopictus larvae and pupae were collected from tire habitats and tires were retrieved from the field in the spring and flooded to evaluate overwintering success of hatching larvae. Ae. albopictus was first detected during statewide surveillance when a single adult female was collected in 2006. This species was not collected again until 2010 and was subsequently detected each successive year with increasing abundance and distribution except following the unusually cold winters of 2014 and 2015. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were most abundant in urban and suburban locations along the southwestern shoreline of Connecticut; however, single specimens were occasionally detected in central parts of the state. Field-collected females were also screened for arbovirus infection yielding two isolations of Cache Valley virus and one isolation of West Nile virus, highlighting the threat posed by this mosquito. Ae. albopictus overwintered in Connecticut under mild winter conditions as shown by recovery of hatched larvae from field collected tires in spring and by early season detection of larvae and pupae. This study documents the establishment and expansion of Ae. albopictus at the northern boundary of its range in the northeastern U.S. and provides a baseline for monitoring the future spread

  14. Northern range expansion of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus: Analysis of mosquito data from Connecticut, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Armstrong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is an invasive species and important arbovirus vector that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1980's where it continues to expand its range. Winter temperature is an important constraint to its northward expansion, with potential range limits located between the 0° and -5°C mean cold month isotherm. Connecticut is located within this climatic zone and therefore, Ae. albopictus was monitored statewide to assess its northern range expansion and to delineate where populations can stably persist.Ae. albopictus females were monitored at fixed trapping sites throughout Connecticut from June-October over a 20-year period, 1997-2016. In addition, Ae. albopictus larvae and pupae were collected from tire habitats and tires were retrieved from the field in the spring and flooded to evaluate overwintering success of hatching larvae. Ae. albopictus was first detected during statewide surveillance when a single adult female was collected in 2006. This species was not collected again until 2010 and was subsequently detected each successive year with increasing abundance and distribution except following the unusually cold winters of 2014 and 2015. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were most abundant in urban and suburban locations along the southwestern shoreline of Connecticut; however, single specimens were occasionally detected in central parts of the state. Field-collected females were also screened for arbovirus infection yielding two isolations of Cache Valley virus and one isolation of West Nile virus, highlighting the threat posed by this mosquito. Ae. albopictus overwintered in Connecticut under mild winter conditions as shown by recovery of hatched larvae from field collected tires in spring and by early season detection of larvae and pupae.This study documents the establishment and expansion of Ae. albopictus at the northern boundary of its range in the northeastern U.S. and provides a baseline for monitoring

  15. Fuel load and flight ranges of blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla in northern Iberia during autumn and spring migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN ARIZAGA, EMILIO BARBA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuel accumulation, mainly as fatty acids, is one of the main characteristics of migratory birds. Studying to what extent each population or species manages fuel load and how it varies along routes of migration or between seasons (autumn and spring migrations is crucial to our understanding of bird migration strategies. Our aim here was to analyse whether migratory blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla passing through northern Iberia differ in their mean fuel loads, rate of fuel accumulation and 'potential' flight ranges between migration seasons. Blackcaps were mist netted for 4 h-periods beginning at dawn from 16 September to 15 November 2003–2005, and from 1 March to 30 April 2004–2006 in a European Atlantic hedgerow at Loza, northern Iberia. Both fuel load and fuel deposition rate (this latter assessed with difference in body mass of within-season recaptured individuals were higher in autumn than in spring. Possible hypotheses explaining these results could be seasonal-associated variations in food availability (likely lower during spring than during autumn, the fact that a fraction of the migrants captured in spring could breed close to the study area and different selective pressures for breeding and wintering [Current Zoology 55 (6: 401–410, 2009].

  16. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from June to November 2009, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP) and the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NOCO study unit was the thirtieth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  17. Snow cover dynamics and hydrological regime of the Hunza River basin, Karakoram Range, Northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tahir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A major proportion of flow in the Indus River is contributed by its snow- and glacier-fed river catchments situated in the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindukush ranges. It is therefore essential to understand the cryosphere dynamics in this area for water resource management. The MODIS MOD10A2 remote-sensing database of snow cover products from March 2000 to December 2009 was selected to analyse the snow cover changes in the Hunza River basin (the snow- and glacier-fed sub-catchment of the Indus River. A database of daily flows for the Hunza River at Dainyor Bridge over a period of 40 yr and climate data (precipitation and temperature for 10 yr from three meteorological stations within the catchment was made available to investigate the hydrological regime in the area. Analysis of remotely sensed cryosphere (snow and ice cover data during the last decade (2000–2009 suggest a rather slight expansion of cryosphere in the area in contrast to most of the regions in the world where glaciers are melting rapidly. This increase in snow cover may be the result of an increase in winter precipitation caused by westerly circulation. The impact of global warming is not effective because a large part of the basin area lies under high altitudes where the temperature remains negative throughout most of the year.

  18. Habitat Preferences and Growth of Ruditapes bruguieri (Bivalvia: Veneridae at the Northern Boundary of Its Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Silina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is the first attempt to study growth and some morphological parameters of the clam Ruditapes bruguieri, as well as its habitat preferences. It is found that R. bruguieri lives on bottom sediments including pebble and coarse- and medium-grained sand with a slight admixture of silt. At the study area, this bivalve inhabits sea waters with good aeration, stable oceanic water salinity, and a high oxygen concentration. The annual fluctuations of the water temperature from 13-14°C (in winter to 22–29°C (in summer are close to the threshold temperature values, within which the species can exist. Near the boundary of the species range, along the Jeju Island coasts, south of Republic of Korea, 83.8% of all clams die during the coldest period of the year. Here, annual rings are formed on R. bruguieri shells during winter. The maximum age of R. bruguieri, determined during the study, is 6.5 years, but the clam samples contain mainly individuals at 3.0–3.5 years of age (34%. The largest clam dimensions are 36.0 × 26.5 mm (length × height of shell. At the study area, a usual shell length is 20.0–32.0 mm (75% of all the collected individuals.

  19. Climate, fire size, and biophysical setting control fire severity and spatial pattern in the northern Cascade Range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansler, C Alina; McKenzie, Donald

    2014-07-01

    Warmer and drier climate over the past few decades has brought larger fire sizes and increased annual area burned in forested ecosystems of western North America, and continued increases in annual area burned are expected due to climate change. As warming continues, fires may also increase in severity and produce larger contiguous patches of severely burned areas. We used remotely sensed burn-severity data from 125 fires in the northern Cascade Range of Washington, USA, to explore relationships between fire size, severity, and the spatial pattern of severity. We examined relationships between climate and the annual area burned and the size of wildfires over a 25-year period. We tested the hypothesis that increased fire size is commensurate with increased burn severity and increased spatial aggregation of severely burned areas. We also asked how local ecological controls might modulate these relationships by comparing results over the whole study area (the northern Cascade Range) to those from four ecological subsections within it. We found significant positive relationships between climate and fire size, and between fire size and the proportion of high severity and spatial-pattern metrics that quantify the spatial aggregation of high-severity areas within fires, but the strength and significance of these relationships varied among the four subsections. In areas with more contiguous subalpine forests and less complex topography, the proportion and spatial aggregation of severely burned areas were more strongly correlated with fire size. If fire sizes increase in a warming climate, changes in the extent, severity, and spatial pattern of fire regimes are likely to be more pronounced in higher-severity fire regimes with less complex topography and more continuous fuels.

  20. Exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores, horses and domestic dogs to Leptospira spp in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Silva Pinto Jorge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease affecting most mammals and is distributed throughout the world. Several species of domestic and wild animals may act as reservoirs for this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores, horses and domestic dogs on a private reserve located in the northern Pantanal (Brazil and the surrounding areas to Leptospira spp from 2002-2006, 75 free-ranging wild carnivores were captured in the Pantanal and serum samples were collected. In addition, samples from 103 domestic dogs and 23 horses in the region were collected. Serum samples were tested for the presence of Leptospira antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. Thirty-two wild carnivores (42.7% were considered positive with titres > 100, and 18 domestic dogs (17.5% and 20 horses (74.1% were also found to be positive. Our study showed that horses, dogs and several species of free-ranging wild carnivores have been exposed to Leptospira spp in the Pantanal, suggesting that the peculiar characteristics of this biome, such as high temperatures and an extended period of flooding, may favour bacterial persistence and transmission. In this region, wild carnivores and horses seem to be important hosts for the epidemiology of Leptospira species.

  1. Exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores, horses and domestic dogs to Leptospira spp in the northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Rodrigo Silva Pinto; Ferreira, Fernando; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Vasconcellos, Silvio de Arruda; Lima, Edson de Souza; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Souza, Gisele Oliveira de

    2011-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease affecting most mammals and is distributed throughout the world. Several species of domestic and wild animals may act as reservoirs for this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores, horses and domestic dogs on a private reserve located in the northern Pantanal (Brazil) and the surrounding areas to Leptospira spp from 2002-2006, 75 free-ranging wild carnivores were captured in the Pantanal and serum samples were collected. In addition, samples from 103 domestic dogs and 23 horses in the region were collected. Serum samples were tested for the presence of Leptospira antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. Thirty-two wild carnivores (42.7%) were considered positive with titres ≥ 100, and 18 domestic dogs (17.5%) and 20 horses (74.1%) were also found to be positive. Our study showed that horses, dogs and several species of free-ranging wild carnivores have been exposed to Leptospira spp in the Pantanal, suggesting that the peculiar characteristics of this biome, such as high temperatures and an extended period of flooding, may favour bacterial persistence and transmission. In this region, wild carnivores and horses seem to be important hosts for the epidemiology of Leptospira species.

  2. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on islands at its northern range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozos Michaelides

    Full Text Available Populations at range limits are often characterized by lower genetic diversity, increased genetic isolation and differentiation relative to populations at the core of geographical ranges. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that populations situated at range limits might be the result of human introductions rather than natural dispersal. It is therefore important to document the origin and genetic diversity of marginal populations to establish conservation priorities. In this study, we investigate the phylogeography and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the common European wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK and in the Chausey archipelago. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 200 individuals of P. muralis to infer the phylogeography of the island populations using Bayesian approaches. We also genotyped 484 individuals from 21 populations at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure and diversity of island and mainland (Western France populations. We detected four unique haplotypes in the island populations that formed a sub-clade within the Western France clade. There was a significant reduction in genetic diversity (HO, HE and AR of the island populations in relation to the mainland. The small fragmented island populations at the northern range margin of the common wall lizard distribution are most likely native, with genetic differentiation reflecting isolation following sea level increase approximately 7000 BP. Genetic diversity is lower on islands than in marginal populations on the mainland, potentially as a result of early founder effects or long-term isolation. The combination of restriction to specific localities and an inability to expand their range into adjacent suitable locations might make the island populations more vulnerable to extinction.

  3. Preventive medical care in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory: a follow-up study of the impact of clinical guidelines, computerised recall and reminder systems, and audit and feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Damin

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to improve delivery of preventive medical services have been shown to be effective in North America and the UK. However, there are few studies of the extent to which the impact of such interventions has been sustained, or of the impact of such interventions in disadvantaged populations or remote settings. This paper describes the trends in delivery of preventive medical services following a multifaceted intervention in remote community health centres in the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods The intervention comprised the development and dissemination of best practice guidelines supported by an electronic client register, recall and reminder systems and associated staff training, and audit and feedback. Clinical records in seven community health centres were audited at regular intervals against best practice guidelines over a period of three years, with feedback of audit findings to health centre staff and management. Results Levels of service delivery varied between services and between communities. There was an initial improvement in service levels for most services following the intervention, but improvements were in general not fully sustained over the three year period. Conclusions Improvements in service delivery are consistent with the international experience, although baseline and follow-up levels are in many cases higher than reported for comparable studies in North America and the UK. Sustainability of improvements may be achieved by institutionalisation of relevant work practices and enhanced health centre capacity.

  4. Fig trees at the northern limit of their range: the distributions of cryptic pollinators indicate multiple glacial refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Compton, Stephen G; Liu, Min; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2012-04-01

    Climatic oscillations during the last few million years had well-documented effects on the distributions and genomes of temperate plants and animals, but much less is known of their impacts on tropical and subtropical species. In contrast to Europe and North America, ice-sheets did not cover most of China during glacial periods, and the effects of glacial cycles were less dramatic. Fig trees are a predominantly tropical group pollinated by host-specific fig wasps. We employed partial mitochondrial COI (918 bp) and nuclear ITS2 (462 bp) gene sequences to investigate the genetic structure and demographic histories of the wasps that pollinate the subtropical Ficus pumila var. pumila in Southeastern China. Deep genetic divergence in both mitochondrial (7.2-11.6%) and nuclear genes (1.6-2.9%) indicates that three pollinator species are present and that they diverged about 4.72 and 6.00 Myr bp. This predates the Quaternary ice ages, but corresponds with the formation of the Taiwan Strait and uplifting of the Wuyi-Xianxia Mountains. The three pollinators have largely allopatric distribution patterns in China and display different postglacial demographic histories. Wiebesia spp. 1 and 2 occupy, respectively, the northern and southern regions of the mainland host range. Their populations both underwent significant postglacial spatial expansions, but at different times and at different rates. Wiebesia sp. 3 is largely restricted to northern islands and shows less evidence of recent population expansion. Their mainly allopatric distributions and different demographic histories are consistent with host plant postglacial expansion from three distinct refugia and suggest one mechanism whereby fig trees gain multiple pollinators. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The long-range transport of aerosols from northern China to Hong Kong - a multi-technique study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; Chim, K. S.; Kot, S. C.

    The results of the inorganic and organic analyses of aerosol samples collected on the east and west sides of Hong Kong during a dust episode (9-10 May 1996) are reported. The origin of the dust was traced to Northern China. The dust reached Hong Kong by way of the East China Sea. The characteristics of the inorganic elements and organic compounds were quite different from the non-episodic samples collected on 1-2 April 1996, EPD (Environmental Protection Department, Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China) results for April-May 1994, and our early studies (Zheng et al., 1997. Atmospheric Environment 31(2), 227-237.). Results from X-ray spectrometry showed pronounced increase in the relative abundance of Al, Fe, Ca, S and Cl in the dust samples compared to the non-episodic samples. The high abundance of Cl in the dust samples suggested the aerosols experienced long-range transport by way of the sea. ICP-MS analysis revealed higher concentrations of Fe, Ca, S and Pb in the episodic samples relative to the values measured during April-May 1994 by EPD. The high Ca content in the soil samples is a characteristic of northern Chinese crustal material (Liu et al., 1985). Hong Kong aerosols are characterized by high octadecenoic acid concentration due to heavy urbanization and Chinese-style stir-fry cooking. A much lower C 18:1/C 18:0 ratio was found in the episodic samples, however, suggesting the aerosols were transported from a long distance. The high ratio of ⩾C 20/Asian Dust. This is the first scientific report of Asian Dust in Hong Kong.

  6. Experimentally altered navigational demands induce changes in the cortical forebrain of free-ranging northern pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus o. oreganus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Matthew L; Frazier, Julius A; Taylor, Emily N; Strand, Christine R

    2012-01-01

    The hippocampus of birds and mammals plays a crucial role in spatial memory and navigation. The hippocampus exhibits plasticity in adulthood in response to diverse environmental factors associated with spatial demands placed on an animal. The medial and dorsal cortices of the telencephalon of squamate reptiles have been implicated as functional homologues to the hippocampus. This study sought to experimentally manipulate the navigational demands placed on free-ranging northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus o. oreganus) to provide direct evidence of the relationship between spatial demands and neuroplasticity in the cortical telencephalon of the squamate brain. Adult male rattlesnakes were radio-tracked for 2 months, during which time 1 of 3 treatments was imposed weekly, namely 225-meter translocation in a random direction, 225-meter walk and release at that day's capture site (handling control) or undisturbed (control). Snakes were then sacrificed and the brains were removed and processed for histological analysis of cortical features. The activity range was larger in the translocated (Tr) group compared to the handled (Hd) and undisturbed control (Cn) groups when measured via 95% minimum convex polygon (MCP). At the 100% MCP level, Tr snakes had larger activity ranges than the Cn snakes only. The volume of the medial cortex (MC) was larger in the Tr group compared to the Cn group. The MC of Hd snakes was not significantly different from that of either of the other groups. No differences in dorsal cortex (DC) or lateral cortex volumes were detected among the groups. Numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells in the MC and DC 3 weeks after BrdU injection were not affected by treatment. This study establishes a causal relationship between navigational demands and greater MC volume in a free-ranging reptile. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  8. Larval gizzard shad characteristics in Lake Oahe, South Dakota: A species at the northern edge of its range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincel, Mark J.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Edwards, Kris R.

    2013-01-01

    Gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum, have generally been restricted to the lower Missouri River impoundments in South Dakota. In recent years, gizzard shad numbers have increased in Lake Oahe, marking the northern-most natural population. These increases could potentially affect recreational fishes. Specifically, questions arise about larval gizzard shad growth dynamics and if age-0 gizzard shad in Lake Oahe will exhibit fast or slow growth, both of which can have profound effects on piscivore populations in this reservoir. In this study, we evaluated larval gizzard shad hatch timing, growth, and density in Lake Oahe. We collected larval gizzard shad from six sites from May to July 2008 and used sagittal otoliths to estimate the growth and back-calculate the hatch date. We found that larval gizzard shad hatched earlier in the upper part of the reservoir compared to the lower portion and that hatch date appeared to correspond to warming water temperatures. The peak larval gizzard shad density ranged from 0.6 to 33.6 (#/100 m3) and varied significantly among reservoir sites. Larval gizzard shad growth ranged from 0.24 to 0.57 (mm/d) and differed spatially within the reservoir. We found no relationship between the larval gizzard shad growth or density and small- or large-bodied zooplankton density (p > 0.05). As this population exhibits slow growth and low densities, gizzard shad should remain a suitable forage option for recreational fishes in Lake Oahe.

  9. Fine-Scale Movements and Home Ranges of Red Snapper around Artificial Reefs in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piraino, Maria N; Szedlmayer, Stephen T

    2014-01-01

    Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus are generally associated with artificial reef habitats in the northern Gulf of Mexico, but whether this association results in fish production is still controversial...

  10. Digital data for preliminary geologic map of the Mount Hood 30- by 60-minute quadrangle, northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina Ma,; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mount Hood 30- by 60-minute quadrangle covers the axis and east flank of the Cascade Range in northern Oregon. Its namesake, Mount Hood volcano, dominates the view in the northwest quarter of the quadrangle, but the entire area is underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Cascade Range. Since the time of the Columbia River Basalt Group about 15 million years (m.y.) ago, the locus and composition of Cascade Range volcanism have shifted sporadically across the map area. Andesitic eruptions were predominant in the western part from about 14 to 10 m.y. ago (Salmon and Sandy Rivers area), producing the Rhododendron Formation and overlying lava flows. From about 8 to 6.5 m.y. ago, lithic pyroclastic debris of the Dalles Formation was shed by chiefly andesitic volcanoes in the north-central part of the map area (Hood River valley escarpment). Andesitic to dacitic volcanism was again predominant about 5 to 3 m.y. ago, with known eruptive centers located from Lookout Mountain westward to Lolo Pass, probably including the area now occupied by Mount Hood. A major episode of mafic volcanism-basalt and basaltic andesite-began about 3-4 m.y. ago and lasted until about 2 m.y. ago. Volcanism since about 2 m.y. ago has been concentrated along the axis of the High Cascades. North and south of Mount Hood these youngest rocks are predominantly basaltic andesite lava flows; whereas at Mount Hood itself, andesite is predominant, forming pyroclastic and debris-flow deposits and lava flows.

  11. ATTENUATION OF SEISMIC WAVES IN THE LITHOSPHERE OF THE NORTHERN PART OF THE BASIN AND RANGE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Dobrynina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the study of attenuation of seismic waves in the lithosphere and upper mantle of the northern part of the Basin and Range Province (BRP (Fig. 1. In this study, the coda-wave method [Aki, Chouet, 1975] is applied to process data collected in the seismic experiment conducted in 1988–1989, PASSCAL Basin and Range Passive Seismic Experiment [Owens, Randall, 1989], including records of 66 earthquakes and explosions (Mb=1.1–5.0 which occurred in BRP (Fig. 2.The effective seismic quality factor by the coda is calculated using the single-backscattering model [Aki, Chouet, 1975]. The QC values are calculated for 18 values of the lapse time window W from 10 to 95 sec with the step of 5 sec at six (6 central frequencies (0.3, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 Hz. In total, 7776 individual measurements of QC were done. It is observed that the quality factor QC is strongly dependent on the frequency and the lapse time window W: QC increases from 12±6 to 359±17 for the central frequencies of 0.3 and 12.0 Hz when the lapse time window is W=10 sec and from 87±6 to 1177±87 for the same frequencies when W=95 sec (Fig. 6. On the basis of the QС values obtained for all the lapse time windows W empirical relationships of quality factors and frequencies are calculated according to [Mitchell, 1981], and values of quality factor Q0 at reference frequency f0 (f0=1 Hz and frequency parameter n (which is close to 1 and varies depending on the heterogeneity of the medium [Aki, 1981] are obtained. In this study, Q0 varies from 60±8 to 222±17, the frequency parameter ranges from 0.57±0.04 to 0.84±0.05, and the attenuation coefficient δ varies from 0.015 to 0.004 km–1, depending on W (Fig. 8; similar values of attenuation parameters are typical of regions with high tectonic activity [Mak et al., 2004].In the single-backscattering model, the dependence of the attenuation parameters from the lapse time window can be explained in terms

  12. NKS NordRisk. Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A. (Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Lauritzen, Bent; Mikkelsen, Torben (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    Within the NKS NordRisk project, 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe', the NKS NordRisk Atlas has been developed. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected nuclear risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere. A number of case studies of long-term long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides has been developed, based on two years of meteorological data. Radionuclide concentrations in air and radionuclide depositions have been evaluated and examples of long-term averages of the dispersion and deposition and of the variability around these mean values are provided. (au)

  13. Multi-source analysis reveals latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in range of Ixodes ricinus at its northern distribution limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffersen Anja B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence for a latitudinal and altitudinal shift in the distribution range of Ixodes ricinus. The reported incidence of tick-borne disease in humans is on the rise in many European countries and has raised political concern and attracted media attention. It is disputed which factors are responsible for these trends, though many ascribe shifts in distribution range to climate changes. Any possible climate effect would be most easily noticeable close to the tick's geographical distribution limits. In Norway- being the northern limit of this species in Europe- no documentation of changes in range has been published. The objectives of this study were to describe the distribution of I. ricinus in Norway and to evaluate if any range shifts have occurred relative to historical descriptions. Methods Multiple data sources - such as tick-sighting reports from veterinarians, hunters, and the general public - and surveillance of human and animal tick-borne diseases were compared to describe the present distribution of I. ricinus in Norway. Correlation between data sources and visual comparison of maps revealed spatial consistency. In order to identify the main spatial pattern of tick abundance, a principal component analysis (PCA was used to obtain a weighted mean of four data sources. The weighted mean explained 67% of the variation of the data sources covering Norway's 430 municipalities and was used to depict the present distribution of I. ricinus. To evaluate if any geographical range shift has occurred in recent decades, the present distribution was compared to historical data from 1943 and 1983. Results Tick-borne disease and/or observations of I. ricinus was reported in municipalities up to an altitude of 583 metres above sea level (MASL and is now present in coastal municipalities north to approximately 69°N. Conclusion I. ricinus is currently found further north and at higher altitudes than described in

  14. Territorial stigmatization and local belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sune Qvotrup; Christensen, Ann-Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Loïc Wacquant has made a widely read and debated contribution to critical research on contemporary urban marginality. A central part of the theoretical framework is that residents of deprived areas internalize territorial stigmatization, which then has a range of negative effects. Based on empiri...

  15. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Alina L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Methods Fifteen adult moose aged 3–15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15–23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 2 5.5-8 kPa. All moose were acidemic (ph2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa. Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. Conclusions The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen.

  16. The impact of forest conversion on bird communities in the northern flank of the Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalya Subasinghe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Initiating proper conservation and management strategies requires assessing the consequences of forest conversion into human land use systems on tropical biodiversity. This study characterized bird species diversity and composition and vegetation structural components in four land use types in the northern flank of the Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, which is a part of a world heritage site in Sri Lanka: an undisturbed forest and three human-modified land uses for cardamom, pinus, and abandoned tea plantations. Using the fixed radius point count method, 1,023 individuals belonging to 51 bird species were recorded. The cardamom plantation with native shade trees had a bird species richness and composition comparable to an undisturbed forest (one-way analysis of variance; p > 0.05, Jaccard index = 0.56. Based on the Shannon–Wiener index, the overall species diversity was highest in the undisturbed forest. Pearson's correlation coefficient suggested a strong positive linear relationship between bird species richness with canopy cover (r = 0.738 and vertical stratification (r = 0.813. Land use systems formed by considerable alterations to vegetation structure significantly reduce bird diversity and supports a bird community that is less comparable to an undisturbed forest.

  17. Recent Variability of the Observed Diurnal Temperature Range in the Karakoram and its Surrounding Mountains of Northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, M. I.; Waqas, A.; H, A.

    2016-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variability in the observed daily diurnal temperature range (DTR) for the recent 30-year period (1985-2015) is examined from a total of 17 stations in Hindukush Karakoram Himalaya region, Northern Pakistan (HKNP). Maximum temperature, minimum temperature and cloud cover data are used to establish possible relationship with regional DTR. The regional annual mean DTR (average of the 17 stations) is 13.59, with a maximum in autumn (14.99 °C) and minimum in winter (12.14 °C). The DTR in the HKNP increases with an annual rate of 0.03 °C decade-1 calculated by the Mann-Kendall method. This observed DTR trend is in clear contrast to the narrowing of DTR seen worldwide. Correlation analysis show that trend in DTR is primarily control by greater warming in maximum temperature and a slight cooling in minimum temperature in HKNP. Strong negative correlation is found between the DTR and observed cloud cover data in all seasons, indicating that variability in cloud cover have huge impact on the variation of DTR in this particular region. The statistically significant increasing trend of DTR along with decreasing trend of cloud cover explicitly in spring season suggests an early melt of snow and ice covers of the region, consequently change the hydrological cycle of the region demands better water resource managements in HKNP in coming years.

  18. Relationship of Cryofacies, Surface and Subsurface Terrain Conditions in the Brooks Range and Foothills of Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balser, A.; Jones, J. B.; Jorgenson, T.

    2016-12-01

    Permafrost landscape responses to climate change and disturbance impact local ecology and global greenhouse gas concentrations, but the nature and magnitude of response is linked with vegetation, terrain and permafrost properties which vary markedly across landscapes. As a subsurface property, permafrost conditions are difficult to characterize across landscapes, and modelled estimates rely upon relationships among permafrost characteristics and surface properties. While a general relationship among landscape and permafrost properties has been recognized throughout the arctic, the nature of these relationships is poorly documented in many regions, limiting modelling capability. We examined relationships among permafrost, terrain and vegetation within the Brooks Range and foothills of northern Alaska using field data from diverse sites within a multiple factor analysis ordination to identify and describe these relationships in this region, and to facilitate future modelling and ecological research. Terrain, vegetation and permafrost conditions were correlated throughout the region, with field sites falling into four statistically-separable groups based on ordination results. Our results identify index variables for honing field sampling and statistical analysis, illustrate the nature of relationships in the region, support future modelling of permafrost properties, and suggest a state factor approach for organizing data and ideas relevant for modelling of permafrost properties at a regional scale.

  19. Source characterization of volatile organic compounds in the Colorado Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area during spring and summer 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeleira, A.; Pollack, I. B.; Sive, B.; Zhou, Y.; Fischer, E. V.; Farmer, D. K.

    2017-03-01

    Hourly measurements of 46 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Erie, CO, were collected over 16 weeks in spring and summer 2015. Average VOC reactivity (1.2 s-1 in spring and 2.4 s-1 in summer) was lower than most other U.S. urban sites. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified five VOC factors in the spring, corresponding to sources from (1) long-lived oil and natural gas (ONG-long lived), (2) short-lived oil and natural gas (ONG-short lived), (3) traffic, (4) background, and (5) secondary chemical production. In the summer, an additional biogenic factor was dominated by isoprene. While ONG-related VOCs were the single largest contributor (40-60%) to the calculated VOC reactivity with hydroxyl radicals (OH) throughout the morning in both spring and summer, the biogenic factor substantially enhanced afternoon and evening (2-10 P.M. local time) VOC reactivity (average of 21%; maxima of 49% of VOC reactivity) during summertime. These results contrast with a previous summer 2012 campaign which showed that biogenics contributed only 8% of VOC reactivity on average. The interannual differences suggest that the role of biogenic VOCs in the Colorado Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) varies with environmental conditions such as drought stress. Overall, the NFRMA was more strongly influenced by ONG sources of VOCs than other urban and suburban regions in the U.S.

  20. Lipid and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and seed of avocado fruits harvested at northern range in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaga, Fumio; Matsuyama, Kaori; Abe, Shin; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Itoh, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    The lipid and fatty acid composition of the mesocarp and seed of avocado fruit grown and harvested in Japan, which is located at the northern range of the avacado, was investigated and compared to an imported avocado purchased commercially. The potential of the avocado mesocarp as an agricultural product in Japan was also explored. Total lipids (TL) accounted for approximately 20% of the mesocarp. Further analysis showed that the neutral lipid (NL) fraction accounted for at least 95% of the TL, and almost 90% of NL was triacylglycerol. Monoenoic acids accounted for at least 65% of the total fatty acids, and oleic acid, which is regarded as an especially important functional component of avacado accounted for approximately 50% of the monounsaturated fatty acids. A comparison of the Japanese avocado cultivars and an imported avocado cultivar in the present study revealed no significant differences in the lipid and fatty acid compositions. Therefore, production of avocado fruit, which is rich in various nutritional components, is expected to be increased on a larger number of farms in Japan in the future. It is believed to be necessary to carry out further verification, such as the establishment of a cultivation technique adoptable to Japan, examination of optimal soil and land features, and cultivar selection.

  1. Woodland dynamics at the northern range periphery: a challenge for protected area management in a changing world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L Powell

    Full Text Available Managers of protected natural areas increasingly are confronted with novel ecological conditions and conflicting objectives to preserve the past while fostering resilience for an uncertain future. This dilemma may be pronounced at range peripheries where rates of change are accelerated and ongoing invasions often are perceived as threats to local ecosystems. We provide an example from City of Rocks National Reserve (CIRO in southern Idaho, positioned at the northern range periphery of pinyon-juniper (P-J woodland. Reserve managers are concerned about P-J woodland encroachment into adjacent sagebrush steppe, but the rates and biophysical variability of encroachment are not well documented and management options are not well understood. We quantified the rate and extent of woodland change between 1950 and 2009 based on a random sample of aerial photo interpretation plots distributed across biophysical gradients. Our study revealed that woodland cover remained at approximately 20% of the study area over the 59-year period. In the absence of disturbance, P-J woodlands exhibited the highest rate of increase among vegetation types at 0.37% yr(-1. Overall, late-successional P-J stands increased in area by over 100% through the process of densification (infilling. However, wildfires during the period resulted in a net decrease of woody evergreen vegetation, particularly among early and mid-successional P-J stands. Elevated wildfire risk associated with expanding novel annual grasslands and drought is likely to continue to be a fundamental driver of change in CIRO woodlands. Because P-J woodlands contribute to regional biodiversity and may contract at trailing edges with global warming, CIRO may become important to P-J woodland conservation in the future. Our study provides a widely applicable toolset for assessing woodland ecotone dynamics that can help managers reconcile the competing demands to maintain historical fidelity and contribute meaningfully

  2. Cross-scale analysis of the region effect on vascular plant species diversity in southern and northern European mountain ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region to quantify four diversity components: (i total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity, (ii number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity, (iii pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity and (iv number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity. We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity

  3. Cross-scale analysis of the region effect on vascular plant species diversity in southern and northern European mountain ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-12-22

    The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For instance, plot connectivity and/or selection for high dispersal

  4. Home Range, Movement, and Distribution Patterns of the Threatened Dragonfly Sympetrum depressiusculum (Odonata: Libellulidae): A Thousand Times Greater Territory to Protect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolný, Aleš; Harabiš, Filip; Mižičová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Dragonflies are good indicators of environmental health and biodiversity. Most studies addressing dragonfly ecology have focused on the importance of aquatic habitats, while the value of surrounding terrestrial habitats has often been overlooked. However, species associated with temporary aquatic habitats must persist in terrestrial environments for long periods. Little is known about the importance of terrestrial habitat patches for dragonflies, or about other factors that initiate or influence dispersal behaviour. The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between population dynamics of the threatened dragonfly species Sympetrum depressiusculum at its natal site and its dispersal behaviour or routine movements within its terrestrial home range. We used a mark–release–recapture method (marking 2,881 adults) and exuviae collection with the Jolly–Seber model and generalized linear models to analyse seasonal and spatial patterns of routine movement in a heterogeneous Central European landscape. Our results show that utilisation of terrestrial habitat patches by adult dragonflies is not random and may be relatively long term (approximately 3 mo). Adult dragonflies were present only in areas with dense vegetation that provided sufficient resources; the insects were absent from active agricultural patches (p = 0.019). These findings demonstrate that even a species tightly linked to its natal site utilises an area that is several orders of magnitude larger than the natal site. Therefore, negative trends in the occurrence of various dragonfly species may be associated not only with disturbances to their aquatic habitats, but also with changes in the surrounding terrestrial landscape. PMID:25006671

  5. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    KALYA SUBASINGHE; AMILA P. SUMANAPALA

    2014-01-01

    Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR) has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five ...

  6. Movements of wolves at the northern extreme of the species' range, including during four months of darkness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Information about wolf (Canis lupus movements anywhere near the northern extreme of the species' range in the High Arctic (>75°N latitude are lacking. There, wolves prey primarily on muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus and must survive 4 months of 24 hr/day winter darkness and temperatures reaching -53 C. The extent to which wolves remain active and prey on muskoxen during the dark period are unknown, for the closest area where information is available about winter wolf movements is >2,250 km south. We studied a pack of ≥20 wolves on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada (80°N latitude from July 2009 through mid-April 2010 by collaring a lead wolf with a Global Positioning System (GPS/Argos radio collar. The collar recorded the wolf's precise locations at 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. daily and transmitted the locations by satellite to our email. Straight-line distances between consecutive 12-hr locations varied between 0 and 76 km. Mean (SE linear distance between consecutive locations (n = 554 was 11 (0.5 km. Total minimum distance traveled was 5,979 km, and total area covered was 6,640 km(2, the largest wolf range reported. The wolf and presumably his pack once made a 263-km (straight-line distance foray to the southeast during 19-28 January 2010, returning 29 January to 1 February at an average of 41 km/day straight-line distances between 12-hr locations. This study produced the first detailed movement information about any large mammal in the High Arctic, and the average movements during the dark period did not differ from those afterwards. Wolf movements during the dark period in the highest latitudes match those of the other seasons and generally those of wolves in lower latitudes, and, at least with the gross movements measurable by our methods, the 4-month period without direct sunlight produced little change in movements.

  7. Ages, geochemistry and tectonic implications of the Cambrian igneous rocks in the northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yongjiang; Li, Yanrong; Li, Weimin; Wen, Quanbo; Liu, Binqiang; Zhou, Jianping; Zhao, Yingli

    2017-08-01

    The Xinlin-Xiguitu suture zone, located in the Great Xing'an Range, NE China, in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), represents the boundary between the Erguna and Xing'an micro-continental blocks. The exact location of the Xinlin-Xiguitu suture zone has been debated, especially, the location of the northern extension of the suture zone. In this study, based on a detailed field, geochemical, geochronological and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope study, we focus our work on the Cambrian igneous rocks in the Erguna-Xing'an block. The Xinglong granitoids, mainly include ∼520 Ma diorite, ∼470 Ma monzogranite and ∼480 Ma pyroxene diorite. The granitoids show medium to high-K calc-alkaline series characteristics with post-collision granite affinity. The circa 500 Ma granitoids have low εHf (t) values (-16.6 to +2.2) and ancient two-stage model (TDM2) ages between 1317 Ma and 2528 Ma. These results indicate the primary magmas of the Xinglong granitoids were probably derived from the partial melting of a dominantly Paleo-Mesoproterozoic ;old; crustal source with possible different degrees of addition of juvenile materials, and formed in a post-collision tectonic setting after the amalgamation of the Erguna and Xing'an blocks. Compared with the Xinglong granitoids, the Duobaoshan igneous rocks are consisted of the approximately coeval rhyolitic tuffs (491 ± 5 Ma) and ultramafic intrusions (497 ± 5 Ma) within the Duobaoshan Formation. They are generally enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), consistent with the geochemistry of igneous rocks from island arcs or active continental margins. The ultramafic rocks have high positive εHf (t) values (+1.3 to +15) and εNd (t) (+1.86 to +2.28), and relatively young two-stage model (TDM2) ages and low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70628-0.70853), indicating the partial melting of a depleted mantle source from a subducted slab in

  8. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California. [Northern Coast Range, Sacramento Valley, and the Modoc Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Heat capacity mapping mission images of about 80,000 sq km in northern California were qualitatively evaluated for usefulness in regional geologic investigations of structure and lithology. The thermal characteristics recorded vary among the several geomorphic provinces and depend chiefly on the topographic expression and vegetation cover. Identification of rock types, or groups of rock types, was most successfully carried out within the semiarid parts of the region; however, extensive features, such as faults, folds and volcanic fields could be delineated. Comparisons of seasonally obtained HCMM images are of limited value except in semiarid regions.

  9. Territoriality: the example of the White Rhinoceros | Owen-Smith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Territoriality is exhibited by certain adult males and has the following features: (i) mutually exclusive ranges of 1-2 km2; (ii) a dominant assertiveness in interactions within the territory; (iii) specialised scent marking techniques using dung and urine; (iv) exclusive participation in reproduction. Territories may be shared with ...

  10. Northern range expansion of European populations of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi is associated with global warming-correlated genetic admixture and population-specific temperature adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Tautz, Diethard

    2013-04-01

    Poleward range expansions are observed for an increasing number of species, which may be an effect of global warming during the past decades. However, it is still not clear in how far these expansions reflect simple geographical shifts of species ranges, or whether new genetic adaptations play a role as well. Here, we analyse the expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi into Northern Europe during the last century. We have used a range-wide sampling of contemporary populations and historical specimens from museums to trace the phylogeography and genetic changes associated with the range shift. Based on the analysis of mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP markers, we observe a higher level of genetic diversity in the expanding populations, apparently due to admixture of formerly isolated lineages. Using reciprocal transplant experiments for testing overwintering tolerance, as well as temperature preference and tolerance tests in the laboratory, we find that the invading spiders have possibly shifted their temperature niche. This may be a key adaptation for survival in Northern latitudes. The museum samples allow a reconstruction of the invasion's genetic history. A first, small-scale range shift started around 1930, in parallel with the onset of global warming. A more massive invasion of Northern Europe associated with genetic admixture and morphological changes occurred in later decades. We suggest that the latter range expansion into far Northern latitudes may be a consequence of the admixture that provided the genetic material for adaptations to new environmental regimes. Hence, global warming could have facilitated the initial admixture of populations and this resulted in genetic lineages with new habitat preferences. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Geology of Precambrian rocks and isotope geochemistry of shear zones in the Big Narrows area, northern Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jeffrey T.

    1970-01-01

    Rocks within the Big Narrows and Poudre Park quadrangles located in the northern Front Range of Colorado are Precambrian metasedimentary and metaigneous schists and gneisses and plutonic igneous rocks. These are locally mantled by extensive late Tertiary and Quaternary fluvial gravels. The southern boundary of the Log Cabin batholith lies within the area studied. A detailed chronology of polyphase deformation, metamorphism and plutonism has been established. Early isoclinal folding (F1) was followed by a major period of plastic deformation (F2), sillimanite-microcline grade regional metamorphism, migmatization and synkinematic Boulder Creek granodiorite plutonism (1.7 b.y.). Macroscopic doubly plunging antiformal and synformal structures were developed. P-T conditions at the peak of metamorphism were probably about 670?C and 4.5 Kb. Water pressures may locally have differed from load pressures. The 1.4 b.y. Silver Plume granite plutonism was post kinematic and on the basis of petrographic and field criteria can be divided into three facies. Emplacement was by forcible injection and assimilation. Microscopic and mesoscopic folds which postdate the formation of the characteristic mineral phases during the 1.7 b.y. metamorphism are correlated with the emplacement of the Silver Plume Log Cabin batholith. Extensive retrograde metamorphism was associated with this event. A major period of mylonitization postdates Silver Plume plutonism and produced large E-W and NE trending shear zones. A detailed study of the Rb/Sr isotope geochemistry of the layered mylonites demonstrated that the mylonitization and associated re- crystallization homogenized the Rb87/Sr 86 ratios. Whole-rock dating techniques applied to the layered mylonites indicate a probable age of 1.2 b.y. Petrographic studies suggest that the mylonitization-recrystallization process produced hornfels facies assemblages in the adjacent metasediments. Minor Laramide faulting, mineralization and igneous activity

  12. Stratigraphic sections, depositional environments, and metal content of the upper part of the Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, Northern Sangre De Cristo Range, Custer and Saguache counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.F.; Walz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The calcareous upper part of the 2,000-meter-thick Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation (Lindsey and others, 1985) in the northern Sangre de Cristo Range is a key stratigraphic interval for correlating rocks and mapping the structure of the range. The stratigraphy of this complex and heretofore poorly known interval is reported here in order to provide a basis for correlation among the structural blocks in the range. Inferred depositional environments of the upper part of the Minturn Formation are described briefly.

  13. What do fault patterns reveal about the latest phase of extension within the Northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex, Nevada, USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Riley, Paul; Lerback, Jory

    2016-08-01

    The Northern Snake Range is a classic example of a metamorphic core complex, Basin-and-Range province, United States. It is composed of a plastically deformed footwall and a brittlely deformed hanging wall, separated by the Northern Snake Range low-angle detachment (NSRD). Brittle deformation, however, is not confined to the hanging wall. This paper focuses on exposures in Cove Canyon, located on the SE flank of the Northern Snake Range, where penetrative, homogeneous faults are well exposed throughout the hanging wall, footwall and NSRD, and overprint early plastic deformation. These late-stage fault sets assisted Eocene-Miocene extension. Detailed analysis of the faults reveals the following: (1) The shortening direction defined by faults is similar to the shortening direction defined by the stretching lineation in the footwall mylonites, indicating that the extensional kinematic history remained unchanged as the rocks were uplifted into the elastico-frictional regime. (2) After ∼17 Ma, extension may have continued entirely within elastic-frictional regime via cataclastic flow. (3) This latest deformation phase may have been accommodated by a single, continuous event. (3) Faults within NSRD boudins indicate that deformation within the detachment zone was non-coaxial during the latest phase of extension.

  14. Late Quaternary river terrace sequences in the eastern Kunlun Range, northern Tibet: A combined record of climatic change and surface uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An; Smith, Jacqueline A.; Wang, Guocan; Zhang, Kexin; Xiang, Shuyuan; Liu, Demin

    2009-04-01

    The Kunlun Range, a reactivated orogenic belt, constitutes the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The extreme relief and major landforms of the Kunlun Range are a product of late Cenozoic tectonics and erosion. However, well-developed late Quaternary terraces that occur along the northern slope of the Kunlun Range probably resulted from climatic change rather than surface uplift. The terrace sequences formed in thick Quaternary valley fills and have total incision depths of 50-60 m. Optically stimulated luminescence dating was employed to place time controls on the valley fills and associated terraces. Dating results suggest that periods of significant aggradation were synchronous between different rivers and correspond to the last glacial stage. The abrupt change from aggradation to incision occurred between 21.9 ± 2.7 and 16 ± 2.2 ka, coincident with the last glacial-interglacial transition. Additional terraces developed during the late glacial period and early to middle Holocene. Based on a broader set of chronological data in northern Tibet, at least four regional incision periods can be recognized. Chronological data, terrace elevation profiles, and climate proxy records suggest that these terracing periods were triggered by cool and/or wet climatic conditions. A geometric survey of the riverbed longitudinal profile suggests that surface uplift serves as a potential dynamic forcing for long-term incision. A model is proposed for terrace formation as a response to climatic perturbation in an uplifted mountain range.

  15. Estimating the total prevalence and incidence of end-stage kidney disease among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in the Northern Territory of Australia, using multiple data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Guthridge, Steven; Li, Shu Qin; Zhao, Yuejen; Lawton, Paul; Cass, Alan

    2018-01-15

    Most estimates for End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) prevalence and incidence are based on renal replacement therapy (RRT) registers. However, not all people with ESKD will commence RRT and estimates based only on RRT registry data will underestimate the true burden of ESKD in the community. This study estimates the total number of Northern Territory (NT) residents with ESKD including: those receiving RRT, those diagnosed but not receiving RRT and an estimate of "undiagnosed" cases. Four data sources were used to identify NT residents with a diagnosis of ESKD: public hospital admissions, Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry registrations, death registrations and, for the Aboriginal population only, electronic primary care records. Three data sources contained information recorded between 1 July 2008 and 31 December 2013, death registration data extended to 31 December 2014 to capture 2013 prevalent cases. A capture-recapture method was used to estimate both diagnosed and undiagnosed cases by making use of probability patterns of overlapping multiple data sources. In 2013, the estimated ESKD prevalence in the NT Aboriginal population was 11.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 10.24-11.78) per 1000, and 0.90 (95% CI 0.76-1.05) per 1000 in the NT non-Aboriginal population. The age-adjusted rates were 17.97 (95% CI 17.82-18.11) and 1.07 (95% CI 1.05-1.09) per 1000 in the NT Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations respectively. The proportion of individuals receiving RRT was 71.4% of Aboriginal and 75.5% of non-Aboriginal prevalent ESKD cases. The age-adjusted ESKD incidence was also greater for the Aboriginal (5.26 (95% CI 4.44-6.08) per 1000 population) than non-Aboriginal population (0.36 (95% CI 0.25-0.47) per 1000). This study provides comprehensive estimates of the burden of ESKD including those cases that are not identified in relevant health data sources. The results are important for informing strategies to reduce the total burden of ESKD and

  16. Territoriality as Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2010-01-01

      The present paper questions the idea of unity in a circumvented coherent territory as it has been naturalized in modern social and political theory. The paper demonstrates that there was nothing democratic in that idea and in the historical constructions of European state territories....... The argument is displayed through a system analysis of territories as codified systems. The sociology offered by Niklas Luhmann is used to take a theoretical grasp over historical materials and historical sociology, thus the paper also test Luhmann's abstract theory in its capacity to analyse seemingly more...... concrete evidences as space, land, roads and bricks. The paper discusses especially the history of French territorialisation from 1500 to 1900 as model for state-territory.The methodological devices of the paper are, first, to observe the territorial state system as an improbable system emerged through...

  17. Mapping of reindeer ranges in the Kautokeino area, Northern Norway, by use of Landsat 5/TM data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tømmervik

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the utility of Landsat 5/TM data to detect and map reindeer ranges (winter ranges. The area which has been investigated is the Ávzze area in Kautokeino, Northern Norway, on the means of Landsat 5 TM-data. A «hybrid» non-supervised/supervised classification routine was elaborated and applied in this project. The initial stage was an analysis of several bandcombinations, and the 5/4/3 combination gave the preferable combination as input to the cluster algorithm (unsupervised classification. The image was divided in 4 sections of size 512 samples and 512 lines. One of this sections (the section which cover the ground truth map was selected for the non-supervised classification. In the beginning 17 classes were merged, and a median filter was applied for the resultant image, which comprises 12 classes. The statistics from the final result from the non-supervised classification were then used together with the TM bandcombination 5/4/3 for the whole image, as input to the minimum distance classification algorithm. This algorithm was applied to every section in turn. A mosaic of the 4 sections was then made and a median filter was then registred to a digitalized map (UTM-pro-jection. The final result was a colored thematic map over the whole area. The classification of the scene was successful with an overall classification of 90-1 (X% for lichen-heaths (9dx/9c/9a/9av Dry shrub, fresh shrub and birch-forests (6d/6dv/6dx shrubtype with lichen. The condition of the lichen-heaths could be detected on a sufficient level on the basis of the satellite data, but further analysis will be done here. The accuracy of the digital classification was assessed on a quantitative basis. Visual classification and interpretation of the satellite imagery showed that areas of conflict (roads, agriculture could be detected. In chapter 6. «Resultater og diskusjon» some other results from other studies/investigations carried out in

  18. Couch potatoes do better: Delayed dispersal and territory size affect the duration of territory occupancy in a monogamous mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank

    2017-06-01

    In territorial, socially monogamous species, the establishment and defense of a territory are an important strategy to maximize individual fitness, but the factors responsible for the duration of territory occupancy are rarely studied, especially in long-lived mammals. A long-term monitoring program in southeast Norway spanning over 18 years allowed us to follow the individual life histories of Eurasian beavers ( Castor fiber ) from adolescence in their natal family group to dispersal and territory establishment until the end of territory occupancy. We investigated whether territory size, resource availability, population density, and dispersal age could explain the duration of territory occupancy, which ranged from 1 to 11 years. The duration of territory occupancy was positively related to dispersal age, suggesting that individuals that delayed dispersal had a competitive advantage due to a larger body mass. This is in support with the maturation hypothesis, which states that an animal should await its physical and behavioral maturation before the acquisition of a territory. Further, we found that individuals that established in medium-sized territories occupied them longer as compared to individuals in small or large territories. This suggests that large territories are more costly to defend due to an increased patrolling effort, and small territories might not have sufficient resources. The lifetime reproductive success ranged from zero to six kits and generally increased with an increasing duration of territory occupancy. Our findings show the importance of holding a territory and demonstrate that dispersal decisions and territory selection have important consequences for the fitness of an individual.

  19. New narrow-range endemic land snails from the sky islands of northern South Africa (Gastropoda: Streptaxidae and Urocyclidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Herbert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One new genus and five new species of land snails are described from high altitude, insular, Afrotemperate forest habitats in northern South Africa. The distribution of these species is discussed in relation to other narrowly endemic land snails occurring in this and neighbouring regions. The new genus is Ptilototheca gen. nov.; the five new species are: Gulella davisae sp. nov., G. hadroglossa sp. nov., Ptilototheca soutpansbergensis gen. et sp. nov., Sheldonia monsmaripi sp. nov. and S. wolkbergensis sp. nov.

  20. Modern territorial statehood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Nicholas Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This theoretical study considers the interplay between the rights and responsibilities of (postcolonial) states in forming the underpinnings of public international law. It considers the ways states administer their territory, in some cases after having inherited colonially defined boundaries. It

  1. Territory, Rights and Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    the governing structure and the acts of the governed that rupture, resist or appropriate it. In this framework, the thesis first of all looks at the spatial configurations of national citizenship by analysing the trajectories in which the interrelated concepts of territory, rights and mobility participate...... looks at two different notions of territory – a statist one and a networked one – that are visible in the official discourses, yet it highlights the fact that the technologies that are supposed to produce each type of territoriality often converge. Thus I read the politics of Eurostar and the Channel...... Tunnel project as one that involves competing patterns of territoriality and manifests the dynamics between facilitated and obstructed mobilities at a moving border. However, the permeability of this border is partly enabled by the uneven and ambiguous configurations of Schengenland itself, and draws...

  2. NKS NordRisk II: Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith Korsholm, U.; Havskov Soerensen, J. (Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Copenhagen (Denmark)); Astrup, P.; Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-04-15

    The present atlas has been developed within the NKS/NordRisk-II project 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe'. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from 16 nuclear risk sites on the Northern Hemisphere. The atmospheric dispersion model calculations cover a period of 30 days following each release to ensure almost complete deposition of the dispersed material. The atlas contains maps showing the total deposition and time-integrated air concentration of Cs-137 and I-131 based on three years of meteorological data spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and corresponding time evolution of the ensemble mean atmospheric dispersion. (Author)

  3. Assembling Sustainable Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The authors show how certification assembles ‘sustainable’ territories through a complex layering of regulatory authority in which both government and nongovernment entities claim rule-making authority, sometimes working together, sometimes in parallel, sometimes competitively. It is argued...... dynamic in assembling sustainable territories, and that certification always involves state agencies in determining how the key elements that comprise it are defined. Whereas some state agencies have been suspicious of sustainability certification, others have embraced it or even used it to extend...

  4. El panorama territorial colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Robledo Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available i. Antecedentes constitucionales. ii. Bases constitucionales del ordenamiento territorial colombiano a partir de 1991. La convivencia de dos principios. A. Principio unitario. B. Principio de autonomía de los entes territoriales. iii. Las piezas del “rompecabezas territorial”. A. Las entidades territoriales de rango constitucional. B. Las entidades territoriales de rango legal. C. Otras formas de organización territorial. iv. Balance y perspectivas

  5. A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Swai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD or ‘Gumboro disease’ seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90 of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (χ2 = 16.1, P < 0.001 between the study sites. The flock seroprevalence was found to vary from 37.5 % to 91 % between districts and from 75%to 90%between regions. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in northern Tanzania.

  6. Des ancêtres aux esprits du lieu. Centralisation politique et évolution des rituels collectifs dans le Nord Laos Ancestors and Territorial Spirits. Political Changes and Changing Worship in Northern Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Bouté

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Avant les réformes religieuses entreprises par les révolutionnaires communistes lors de leur arrivée au pouvoir au Laos en 1975, les Phounoy réalisaient plusieurs rituels collectifs qui avaient comme caractéristique commune de solliciter, pour l’ensemble d’une communauté partageant le même territoire, protection et prospérité auprès d’un couple d’esprits mâle (apha et femelle (aba, souvent identifiés respectivement aux esprits du ciel (montha dat et de la terre (mithon dat. Ces deux entités étaient toujours honorées aux côtés – voire confondues avec – d’autres esprits dont la nature différait selon que les rituels étaient effectués de part et d’autre de la rivière Ou, qui scinde en deux le territoire occupé par les Phounoy : sur la rive droite, les esprits associés aux figures du ciel et de la terre étaient des esprits associés à des forces du lieu, tandis que ceux honorés sur la rive gauche, étaient considérés comme des ancêtres fondateurs. Pourtant, d’après les premiers textes publiés sur cette population (Roux 1924 ; Aymé 1930 ainsi que de mémoire d’anciens, les ancêtres tenaient une place essentielle dans les cultes collectifs effectués sur la rive droite au début du xxesiècle. Dans cet article, je tacherai alors de comprendre comment et pourquoi les figures d’esprits sur la rive droite de la rivière Ou, mais aussi les fonctions des officiants qui leur étaient attachés, se sont progressivement transformées entre les années 1920 et les années 1970.Prior to the religious reforms carried out by the Communists after they came to the power in 1975, the Phounoy–a small society in Northern Laos–used to perform various collective spirit cults. All those cults shared the following characteristic : the worship of a couple of male (apha and female (aba spirits–identified respectively as the Sky spirit (montha dat and the Earth spirit (mithon dat. Both entities were worshipped

  7. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  8. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  9. A late Frasnian (Late Devonian) radiolarian, sponge spicule, and conodont fauna from the Slaven Chert, northern Shoshone Range, Roberts Mountains allochthon, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boundy-Sanders, S. Q.; Sandberg, C.A.; Murchey, B.L.; Harris, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Co-occuring conodonts, radiolarians, and sponge spicules from the type locality of the Slaven Chert, northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, indicate that the radiolarian and sponge spicule assemblage described herein correlates with the Late rhenana conodont Zone (late Frasnian). The moderately well preserved radiolarians are the first Frasnian-age fauna described from the Western Hemisphere. They include spumellarians, Ceratoikiscum, and Paleoscenidium, and a radiolarian which we have assigned to a new genus, Durahelenifore Boundy-Sanders and Murchey, with its type species, Durahelenifore robustum Boundy-Sanders and Murchey. Sponge spicules include umbellate microscleres of the Subclass Amphidiscophora, Order Hemidiscosa, previously documented only in Pennsylvanian and younger rocks.

  10. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kan; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George; Zhang, Jiachen; Tao, Wei; Cheng, Yanli; Tao, Shu

    2017-07-01

    The response of surface ozone (O3) concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR) analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage between basin-scale SST

  11. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of surface ozone (O3 concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM. Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage

  12. Field evidence of colonisation by Holm Oak, at the northern margin of its distribution range, during the Anthropocene period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzon, Sylvain; Urli, Morgane; Samalens, Jean-Charles; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Lischke, Heike; Sin, Fabrice; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Porté, Annabel J

    2013-01-01

    A major unknown in the context of current climate change is the extent to which populations of slowly migrating species, such as trees, will track shifting climates. Niche modelling generally predicts substantial northward shifts of suitable habitats. There is therefore an urgent need for field-based forest observations to corroborate these extensive model simulations. We used forest inventory data providing presence/absence information from just over a century (1880-2010) for a Mediterranean species (Quercus ilex) in forests located at the northern edge of its distribution. The main goals of the study were (i) to investigate whether this species has actually spread into new areas during the Anthropocene period and (ii) to provide a direct estimation of tree migration rate. We show that Q. ilex has colonised substantial new areas over the last century. However, the maximum rate of colonisation by this species (22 to 57 m/year) was much slower than predicted by the models and necessary to follow changes in habitat suitability since 1880. Our results suggest that the rates of tree dispersion and establishment may also be too low to track shifts in bioclimatic envelopes in the future. The inclusion of contemporary, rather than historical, migration rates into models should improve our understanding of the response of species to climate change.

  13. Field Evidence of Colonisation by Holm Oak, at the Northern Margin of Its Distribution Range, during the Anthropocene Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzon, Sylvain; Urli, Morgane; Samalens, Jean-Charles; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Lischke, Heike; Sin, Fabrice; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Porté, Annabel J.

    2013-01-01

    A major unknown in the context of current climate change is the extent to which populations of slowly migrating species, such as trees, will track shifting climates. Niche modelling generally predicts substantial northward shifts of suitable habitats. There is therefore an urgent need for field-based forest observations to corroborate these extensive model simulations. We used forest inventory data providing presence/absence information from just over a century (1880–2010) for a Mediterranean species (Quercus ilex) in forests located at the northern edge of its distribution. The main goals of the study were (i) to investigate whether this species has actually spread into new areas during the Anthropocene period and (ii) to provide a direct estimation of tree migration rate. We show that Q. ilex has colonised substantial new areas over the last century. However, the maximum rate of colonisation by this species (22 to 57 m/year) was much slower than predicted by the models and necessary to follow changes in habitat suitability since 1880. Our results suggest that the rates of tree dispersion and establishment may also be too low to track shifts in bioclimatic envelopes in the future. The inclusion of contemporary, rather than historical, migration rates into models should improve our understanding of the response of species to climate change. PMID:24260391

  14. Heavy metal and trace elements in riparian vegetation and macrophytes associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia Andean Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Andrea; Arribére, María A; Arcagni, Marina; Williams, Natalia; Rizzo, Andrea; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia was studied for heavy metal and trace element contents, regarding their elemental contribution to these aquatic ecosystems. The research focused on native species and exotic vascular plant Salix spp. potential for absorbing heavy metals and trace elements. The native species studied were riparian Amomyrtus luma, Austrocedrus chilensis, Chusquea culeou, Desfontainia fulgens, Escallonia rubra, Gaultheria mucronata, Lomatia hirsuta, Luma apiculata, Maytenus boaria, Myrceugenia exsucca, Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus dombeyi, Schinus patagonicus, and Weinmannia trichosperma, and macrophytes Hydrocotyle chamaemorus, Isöetes chubutiana, Galium sp., Myriophyllum quitense, Nitella sp. (algae), Potamogeton linguatus, Ranunculus sp., and Schoenoplectus californicus. Fresh leaves were analyzed as well as leaves decomposing within the aquatic bodies, collected from lakes Futalaufquen and Rivadavia (Los Alerces National Park), and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi (Nahuel Huapi National Park). The elements studied were heavy metals Ag, As, Cd, Hg, and U, major elements Ca, K, and Fe, and trace elements Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn. Geochemical tracers La and Sm were also determined to evaluate contamination of the biological tissues by geological particulate (sediment, soil, dust) and to implement concentration corrections.

  15. La discrecionalidad territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Hernández Vidal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de enriquecer el concepto de autonomía territorial, el presente escrito propone una interpretación extensiva de la discrecionalidad administrativa. La discrecionalidad es la libertad de juicio y decisión que otorga la ley a las autoridades administrativas en el ejercicio de sus funciones, técnica legislativa que parece apropiada usar cuando el legislador quiera legislar sobre el núcleo esencial de la autonomía territorial. De esta manera se evitaría una violación de esa autonomía por la limitación desproporcionada de la facultad territorial para gestionar sus propios intereses. La alternativa se presenta también como una herramienta para dar más dinamismo a la acción del Estado, asimilando las nuevas prácticas de la administración pública.

  16. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALYA SUBASINGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  17. Experimental forests, ranges, and watersheds in the Northern Rocky Mountains: A compendium of outdoor laboratories in Utah, Idaho, and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman C. Schmidt; Judy L. Friede

    1996-01-01

    This is a compendium of experimental forests, ranges, watersheds, and other outdoor laboratories, formally established by the Forest Service and Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the universities in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. The purposes, histories, natural resource bases, data bases, past and current studies, locations, and who...

  18. Patagonia: nature and territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Fabián Schweitzer

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the place occupied by Patagonia in today’s fin de siècle scenario of commodities, hegemony crisis and multi-polar world emergence concurring with the convergence of consumerist guidelines, all of which would apparently lead to an in-depth socio-ecological crisis as well as to an accelerated dispute over nature and territory sense.

  19. Territory Abuja, Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria 's development of the new Federal Capital Territory in the central part ofthe country named Abuja 8,000 km! in size greatly impacted on all spheres oflives oft/1e host communities However, the host communities of 845 settlements with over. 3/6, 000 people were exposed to urban violence and there was fear that ...

  20. Global corporative territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Silveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Each historial period can be seen as a socio-spatial order, a moment in the socio-spatial formation which requires an analysis (more and more complex every day of two important dimensions. First of all, we can analyze what is there, the existence of the territory used, the territory as it is used today from an articulation of the key variables of the time; that is to say, the so-called techno-science complex, with the information and financial contents as well. These variables reveal the hegemonic spatial facade, and their analysis shows how territory works. Secondly, we should pay attention to movement; that is, how the territory is being used and how it could be used. In other words, we should take a look at the possibilities offered by the historical context we are immersed in, which may or may not come true. The scientifically and technically named present state, whose dynamics answers to the totalitarianism of information and finance, can also be the result of other possibilities and combinations which start to come up timidly as ways of life and work.

  1. Ice cloud formation potential by free tropospheric particles from long-range transport over the Northern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; Alpert, Peter A.; Zhang, Bo; Schum, Simeon; Dzepina, Katja; Wright, Kendra; Owen, R. Chris; Fialho, Paulo; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2017-03-01

    Long-range transported free tropospheric particles can play a significant role on heterogeneous ice nucleation. Using optical and electron microscopy we examine the physicochemical characteristics of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Particles were collected on substrates from the free troposphere at the remote Pico Mountain Observatory in the Azores Islands, after long-range transport and aging over the Atlantic Ocean. We investigate four specific events to study the ice formation potential by the collected particles with different ages and transport patterns. We use single-particle analysis, as well as bulk analysis to characterize particle populations. Both analyses show substantial differences in particle composition between samples from the four events; in addition, single-particle microscopy analysis indicates that most particles are coated by organic material. The identified INPs contained mixtures of dust, aged sea salt and soot, and organic material acquired either at the source or during transport. The temperature and relative humidity (RH) at which ice formed, varied only by 5% between samples, despite differences in particle composition, sources, and transport patterns. We hypothesize that this small variation in the onset RH may be due to the coating material on the particles. This study underscores and motivates the need to further investigate how long-range transported and atmospherically aged free tropospheric particles impact ice cloud formation.

  2. Distribution, nesting activities, and age-class of territorial pairs of golden eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Patrick S.; Wiens, J. David

    2017-03-22

    The substantial numbers of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed by collisions with oldgeneration wind turbines each year at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California has been well documented from previous studies. Few eagle nests have been documented in the APWRA, however, and adults and subadults 3+ years of age killed by turbines were generally not associated with nearby territories. We searched a subset of randomly selected survey plots for territorial pairs of golden eagles and associated nesting attempts within the APWRA as part of a broader investigation of population dynamics in the surrounding northern Diablo Range. In contrast to limited historical observations from 1988 to 2013, our surveys documented up to 15 territorial pairs within 3.2 kilometers (km) of wind turbines at the APWRA annually, 9 of which were not previously documented or only observed intermittently during historical surveys. We found evidence of nesting activity by adult pairs at least once during our study at six of these territories. We also determined that 23–36 percent of territories identified within 3.2 km of the APWRA had a subadult pair member, but that no pairs with a subadult member attempted to nest. These data will be useful to developers, wildlife managers, and future raptor studies in the area to evaluate and minimize the potential effects of wind energy or other development activities on previously unknown territorial pairs in the area.

  3. Fluctuating and Directional Asymmetry of the Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis: Improving Methods of Morphological Analysis to Explore Species Performance at the Northern Border of Its Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Lajus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we examined morphological variation at different levels to study performance and population structuring of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Our objectives were: (i to develop an integrated technique for analyzing morphological variation in blue mussels and, based on this technique; (ii to perform a morphometric description of mussels from the northern part of their range; and (iii to verify the hypothesis that populations at the outer range of their distribution have reduced performance due to harsh climatic conditions. Means, directional asymmetry (i.e., systematic differences between left and right structures, fluctuating asymmetry (random deviations from perfect symmetry, a measure of developmental instability, factorial variation (difference between total variance and variance of fluctuating asymmetry, an indirect index of genotypic variation, and measurement error were examined for 14 bilateral characters of muscle scars on mussel shells. Also, we analyzed one non-bilateral character. For the first time directional asymmetry—approaching 13% of the right:left ratio—was described in blue mussels. Measurement error, often ignored in morphometric studies, contributed 26% of total variance. Accurately addressing these methodical challenges is key to further and improved ecological interpretations. Morphological differences were found between (i samples from estuarine areas in the White and Pechora Seas and (ii samples from Barents Sea areas with oceanic salinity. Samples from the first group exhibited lower fluctuating asymmetry, indicating higher developmental stability likely due to better feeding conditions and lower factorial variation, which may result from lower genotypic variation. Absence of correlation between fluctuating asymmetry and temperature suggests that low temperatures in the northern border of their range do not degrade the performance of adult blue mussels in this region.

  4. Long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial biomarkers by the Asian winter monsoon: Evidence from fresh snow from Sapporo, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Seki, Osamu

    2011-07-01

    Molecular distributions of terrestrial biomarkers were investigated in fresh snow samples from Sapporo, northern Japan, to better understand the long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial organic matter by the Asian winter monsoon. Stable carbon (δ 13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotope ratios of C 22-C 28n-alkanoic acids were also measured to decipher their source regions. The snow samples are found to contain higher plant-derived n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids as major components. Relative abundances of these three biomarker classes suggest that they are likely derived from higher plants in the Asian continent. The C 27/C 31 ratios of terrestrial n-alkanes in the snow samples range from 1.3 to 5.5, being similar to those of the plants growing in the latitudes >40°N of East Asia. The δ 13C values of the n-alkanoic acids in the snow samples (-33.4 to -27.6‰) are similar to those of typical C 3 gymnosperm from Sapporo (-34.9 to -29.3‰). However, the δD values of the n-alkanoic acids (-208 to -148‰) are found to be significantly depleted with deuterium (by ˜72‰) than those of plant leaves from Sapporo. Such depletion can be most likely interpreted by the long-range atmospheric transport of the n-alkanoic acids from vegetation in the latitudes further north of Sapporo because the δD values of terrestrial higher plants tend to decrease northward in East Asia reflecting the δD of precipitation. Together with the results of backward trajectory analyses, this study suggests that the terrestrial biomarkers in the Sapporo snow samples are likely transported from Siberia, Russian Far East and northeast China to northern Japan by the Asian winter monsoon.

  5. Medicinal management of corneal opacity in free ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta of Shivalik hills in Western Himalayas, Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corneal opacification was diagnosed in 17 free ranging rhesus macaques during detailed ophthalmic examination as a part of clinical health examination, at the monkey rescue sterilization centre in Hamirpur Himachal Pradesh, India. The cornea was completely opaque permitting only a little vision with respect to the affected eye. Medical management with topical ciprofloxacin and prednisolone along with ketoprofen and vitamin A was instituted. The corneal lesions subsided completely within one week following treatment. The treatment protocol successfully eliminated the discomfort and intraocular lesions with no serious subsequent irritation due to the treatment in these animals.

  6. Measured sections and discussion of the main turbidite member, Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, northern Sangre de Cristo Range, Custer and Saguache counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulliere, S.J.; DeAngelis, B.L.; Lindsey, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Turbidites are sediments deposited by turbid density currents. The turbidites described here are interpreted as prodelta deposits that formed in front of fan deltas and alluvial fans during the uplift of the ancestral Rocky Mountains in Pennsylvanian time. Laterally extensive, lenticular sand bodies deposited by turbidity flows crop out in the Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation in the northern Sangre de Crísto Range, Custer and Saguache Counties, Colo. (figs. 1, 2). One of the turbidite-bearing intervals, informally designated the "main turbidite member," lies 90.6 m above the base of the Minturn; it reaches 150 m in thickness and extends more than 13 km along strike. The internal stratigraphy and sedimentary structures of the main turbidite member are described from the measured sections presented here.

  7. Baltazor KGRA and vicinity, Nevada: geothermal reservoir assessment case study, northern Basin and Range province. Final report, 1 October 1978-31 January 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Baltazor KGRA and McGee/Painted Hills geothermal prospects are located in northern Humboldt County, Nevada along the northwestern margin of the Basin and Range province. Exploration work other than drilling has included groundwater sampling, a microearthquake study, a geologic literature search and photogeologic mapping, compilation of aeromagnetic and gravity mapping, soil mercury surveying, electrical resistivity and self-potential surveys and detailed hydrothermal alteration mapping. Exploration drilling included 27 shallow temperature gradient holes, four intermediate-depth gradient wells and one 3703-foot deep test, Baltazor 45-14. The deep test penetrated Miocene rhyolite, andesite, basalt and andesitic basalt flows before excessive hold deviation forced an end to drilling and completion as a deep temperature observation well. A temperature survey two weeks after completion obtained a 119.7/sup 0/C (247.4/sup 0/F) reading at survey total depth, 1110 m (3640 feet).

  8. On the Trend of the Annual Mean, Maximum, and Minimum Temperature and the Diurnal Temperature Range in the Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, Dataset, 1844 -2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Examined are the annual averages, 10-year moving averages, decadal averages, and sunspot cycle (SC) length averages of the mean, maximum, and minimum surface air temperatures and the diurnal temperature range (DTR) for the Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, during the interval 1844-2012. Strong upward trends are apparent in the Armagh surface-air temperatures (ASAT), while a strong downward trend is apparent in the DTR, especially when the ASAT data are averaged by decade or over individual SC lengths. The long-term decrease in the decadaland SC-averaged annual DTR occurs because the annual minimum temperatures have risen more quickly than the annual maximum temperatures. Estimates are given for the Armagh annual mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures and the DTR for the current decade (2010-2019) and SC24.

  9. Beyond territory and scarcity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The attainment of sound and sustainable environmental management is one of humanity's greatest challenges this century, particularly in Africa, which is still heavily dependent on the exploitation of natural and agricultural resources and is faced with rapid population growth. Yet, this challenge...... alternatives to the strong natural determinism that reduces natural resource management to questions of territory and scarcity. - Presenting material and methodologies that explore the different contexts in which social and cultural values intervene, and discovering more than "rational choice" in the agency...... of individuals. - Examining the relevance of the different conceptions of territory for the ways in which people manage, or attempt to manage, natural resources. - Placing their research within the framework of the developing discussion on policy and politics in natural resource management. The studies are drawn...

  10. The influence of vegetation cover on debris-flow density during an extreme rainfall in the northern Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengers, Francis; McGuire, Luke; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Baum, Rex L.; Staley, Dennis M.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    We explored regional influences on debris-flow initiation throughout the Colorado Front Range (Colorado, USA) by exploiting a unique data set of more than 1100 debris flows that initiated during a 5 day rainstorm in 2013. Using geospatial data, we examined the influence of rain, hillslope angle, hillslope aspect, and vegetation density on debris-flow initiation. In particular we used a greenness index to differentiate areas of high tree density from grass and bare soil. The data demonstrated an overwhelming propensity for debris-flow initiation on south-facing hillslopes. However, when the debris-flow density was analyzed with respect to total rainfall and greenness we found that most debris flows occurred in areas of high rainfall and low tree density, regardless of hillslope aspect. These results indicate that present-day tree density exerts a stronger influence on debris-flow initiation locations than aspect-driven variations in soil and bedrock properties that developed over longer time scales.

  11. Transformation of industrial territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, N. I.; Kolocova, I. I.

    2017-08-01

    The problem of removing industrial enterprises from the historical center of the city and the subsequent effective use of the territories has been relevant for Western countries. Nowadays, the problem is crucial for Russia, its megacities and regional centers. The paper analyzes successful projects of transforming industrial facilities into cultural, business and residential objects in the world and in Russia. The patterns of the project development have been determined and presented in the paper.

  12. OPEN DISCUSSION ON TERRITORIALITY The discussion was ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. F. R. W AL THER: I would like to make the following suggestions which have emanated from my work on homed ungulates. The use which an animal makes of space enables one to recognise three categories: (1) Action area includes both of the other two, i.e. home range and territory. It includes migration routes and ...

  13. Communication accross territory boundaries: distance dependent responses in nightingale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprau, P.; Roth, T.; Schmidt, Rouven; Amrhein, V.; Naguib, M.

    2010-01-01

    In communication, vocal signals are often used for long-range signaling. Yet, little experimental evidence is available on the role of territorial signals across territory boundaries and their effectiveness at different propagation distances. In many songbird species, song overlapping and rapid

  14. The potential of audiomagnetotellurics in the study of geothermal fields: A case study from the northern segment of the La Candelaria Range, northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona, Hernan; Favetto, Alicia; Peri, Veronica Gisel; Pomposiello, Cristina; Ungarelli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Despite its reduced penetration depth, audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) studies can be used to determine a broad range of features related to little studied geothermal fields. This technique requires a stepwise interpretation of results taking into consideration diverse information (e.g. topographic, hydrological, geological and/or structural data) to constrain the characteristics of the study area. In this work, an AMT study was performed at the hot springs in the northern segment of the La Candelaria Range in order to characterize the area at depth. Geometric aspects of the shallow subsurface were determined based on the dimensional and distortion analysis of the impedance tensors. Also, the correlation between structural features and regional strikes allowed us to define two geoelectric domains, useful to determine the controls on fluid circulation. The subsurface resistivity distribution was determined through 1D and 2D models. The patterns of the 1D models were compared with the morpho-structure of the range. Shallow and deep conductive zones were defined and a possible shallow geothermal system scheme proposed. A strong correlation was found between the AMT results and the geological framework of the region, showing the relevance of using AMT in geothermal areas during the early stages of subsurface prospecting.

  15. Tropical species at the northern limit of their range: composition and distribution in Bermuda's benthic habitats in relation to depth and light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Sarah A; Coates, Kathryn A; Kenworthy, W Judson; Fourqurean, James W

    2013-08-01

    Surveys were undertaken on the shallow Bermuda marine platform between 2006 and 2008 to provide a baseline of the distribution, condition and environmental characteristics of benthic communities. Bermuda is located in temperate latitudes but coral reefs, tropical seagrasses and calcareous green algae are common in the shallow waters of the platform. The dominant organisms of these communities are all living at or near their northern latitudinal range limits in the Atlantic Ocean. Among the major benthic autotrophs surveyed, seagrasses were most restricted by light availability. We found that the relatively slow-growing and long-lived seagrass Thalassia testudinum is restricted to habitats with much higher light availability than in the tropical locations where this species is commonly found. In contrast, the faster growing tropical seagrasses in Bermuda, Syringodium filiforme, Halodule sp. and Halophila decipiens, had similar ecological compensation depths (ECD) as in tropical locations. Increasing sea surface temperatures, concomitant with global climate change, may either drive or allow the poleward extensions of the ranges of such tropical species. However, due to latitudinal light limitations at least one abundant and common tropical autotroph, T. testudinum, is able to occupy only shallower depths at the more temperate latitudes of Bermuda. We hypothesize that the poleward shift of seagrass species ranges would be accompanied by restrictions to even shallower depths of T. testudinum and by very different seagrass community structures than in tropical locations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence from carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) thermometry for the Late Cretaceous `Nevadaplano' in the northern Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, K. E.; Koch, P. L.; Eiler, J.

    2010-12-01

    From the middle Mesozoic to the present, the topography of the Basin and Range province (BRP) of the western Cordillera of North America has evolved in response to diverse tectonic forces, though the details are unclear for most of this period over most of this area. Much of the research on this region has focused on the Cenozoic record of paleoelevation during extension in the BRP. Some geodynamic models of this episode require high elevation prior to extension, but few studies have quantified the elevation of the pre-existing topography that developed during the Mesozoic in response to sustained convergence along the western coast of North America. Some workers have argued that the region was a high elevation plateau, the ‘Nevadaplano,’ analogous to the South American Altiplano. We tested this hypothesis using carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) temperature estimates from Late Cretaceous lacustrine and paleosol carbonates. These samples come from the Sheep Pass Formation in east-central Nevada (presumed from geologic indications to be atop the plateau), and the North Horn Formation in central Utah on the eastern edge of the Sevier fold and thrust belt (presumably lower elevation). The textural characteristics, stable isotope compositions and carbonate clumped isotope temperature estimates from secondary carbonates in these units suggest that, despite moderate burial, primary carbonate samples have undergone little diagenetic alteration. Average temperatures from these two sites (23°C for the NV suite and 38°C for the UT suite) suggest that during the late Cretaceous (~66.5 Ma for the NV suite and 72 Ma for the UT suite), the NV site was ~15°C cooler than the UT site. This thermal gradient implies an elevation difference between the two sites of ~2.5 km, given certain assumptions: 1) there was little global or regional climate change during the ~5 million years between formation of these samples, 2) precipitation of both the lacustrine and paleosol carbonates

  17. Pandemic H1N1 influenza isolated from free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Goldstein

    Full Text Available Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris in 2010. Nasal swabs were collected from 42 adult female seals in April 2010, just after the animals had returned to the central California coast from their short post-breeding migration in the northeast Pacific. Swabs from two seals tested positive by RT-PCR for the matrix gene, and virus was isolated from each by inoculation into embryonic chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing revealed greater than 99% homology with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1 that emerged in humans from swine in 2009. Analysis of more than 300 serum samples showed that samples collected early in 2010 (n = 100 were negative and by April animals began to test positive for antibodies against the pH1N1 virus (HI titer of ≥1∶40, supporting the molecular findings. In vitro characterizations studies revealed that viral replication was indistinguishable from that of reference strains of pH1N1 in canine kidney cells, but replication was inefficient in human epithelial respiratory cells, indicating these isolates may be elephant seal adapted viruses. Thus findings confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 that was circulating in people in 2009 occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast. This is the first report of pH1N1 (A/Elephant seal/California/1/2010 in any marine mammal and provides evidence for cross species transmission of influenza viruses in free-ranging wildlife and movement of influenza viruses between humans and wildlife.

  18. Sampling considerations for demographic and habitat studies of Northern Goshawks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Reynolds; J. David Wiens; Suzanne M. Joy; Susan R. Salafsky

    2005-01-01

    We used mark-recapture methods to monitor Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) and their nests over 12 yr in an increasing sample of breeding territories (37 in 1991 to 121 in 2002) in northern Arizona. As many as 8 yr of repeated nest searching were required to identify the population of breeders, as individuals skipped egg-laying on territories...

  19. The effects of past, present and future climate change on range-wide genetic diversity in northern North Atlantic marine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Provan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is now accepted that changes in the Earth’s climate are having a profound effect on the distributions of a wide variety of species. One aspect of these changes that has only recently received any attention, however, is their potential effect on levels of within-species genetic diversity. Theoretical, empirical and modelling studies suggest that the impact of trailing-edge population extirpation on range-wide intraspecific diversity will be most pronounced in species that harbour the majority of their genetic variation at low latitudes as a result of changes during the Quaternary glaciations. In the present review, I describe the historical factors that have determined current patterns of genetic variation across the ranges of Northern North Atlantic species, highlight the fact that the majority of these species do indeed harbour a disproportionate level of genetic diversity in rear-edge populations, and outline how combined species distribution modelling and genetic analyses can provide insights into the potential effects of climate change on their overall genetic diversity.

  20. Between Maps and Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus; Stricker, Jan Høgh

    2016-01-01

    This audio paper departs from an artwork made by Andreas Führer called The Map is Not The Territory D’Or; a score for a soundwalk in the town of Roskilde, Denmark. The basic sound materials used in the audio paper are 1) an interview in Danish with the artist, 2) a voice over of a theoretical text...... in English, and 3) recordings from performances of the piece, including walking, breathing exercises, and the sounds of ventilation systems and other environmental sound. By mingling these different materials, and by using ‘map’ and ‘territory’ as metaphors, the paper complicates issues of representation...

  1. Territories, Peoples, Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Cassese

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nation States have three defining characteristics: government of a territory, rapport with a group of people and ownership of a sovereign power. All three of these characteristics are undergoing changes. Several developments involve a redefinition of the “State” and produce numerous contradictions, which can only be solved if we consider the historicity of both the phenomenal essence and the conceptual essence of the State. We need to rethink and reconceptualise the State within the context of the new tendencies and transformations delineated by globalisation.

  2. Territory: An Unknown Quantity in Debates on Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are complaints about territorial cohesion being a vague concept, but in relevant debates territory, too, figures as an unknown quantity. Thus, is it the fixed property of any state, region or local administrative unit, or is it a malleable social construct; rather than being filled with bounded territories, does space overall contain a dynamic network with fuzzy internal, as well as external boundaries, with implications for territorial cohesion? After all, if the former were to be true, territorial cohesion would refer to qualities of what is inside bounded territories. If it were to be the latter, then the meaning of territorial cohesion would include qualities of the relations within a complex network of socially constructed, sometimes ephemeral constructs. There are implications for the ways subsidiarity and multi-level governance are invoked in EU discourse where there is a similar failure to question the underlying notion of territory. What is relevant here is the distinction between a ‘territorial’ and ‘relational’ geography. Considered opinion suggests that these alternatives can and, in view of the persistence of the principle of territorial representation, must be reconciled. However, though firmly entrenched, some constitutional theorists question the very principle. The debate is far from conclusive but at least it shows that discussion, even of this apparently fundamental principle is possible.

  3. Petrology, geochemistry and thermobarometry of the northern area of the Flamenco pluton, Coastal Range batholith, northern Chile. A thermal approach to the emplacement processes in the Jurassic andean batholiths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Natalia; Díaz-Alvarado, Juan; Rodríguez, Carmen; Riveros, Karl; Fuentes, Paulina

    2016-04-01

    The Flamenco pluton is part of a N-S alignment of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic intrusive belt comprising the westernmost part of the Coastal Range batholith in northern Chile. The Jurassic-Cretaceous voluminous magmatism related to subduction in the western active continental margin of Gondwana is emplaced in the predominantly metasedimentary Paleozoic host-rocks of the Las Tórtolas formation, which in the northern area of the Flamenco pluton present an intense deformation, including the Chañaral mélange. Geochemically, the Flamenco pluton shows a wide compositional variability (SiO2 between 48wt % and 67wt %). Gabbros, Qtz-diorites and tonalites, mesocratic and leucocratic granodiorites are classified as calc-alkaline, calcic, magnesian and metaluminous magmatism. Flamenco granitoids define cotectic linear evolution trends, typical of magmatic fractionation processes. Geochemical trends are consistent with magmas evolved from undersaturated and low-pressure melts, even though the absence of transitional contacts between intrusive units precludes in-situ fractionation. Although some granodioritic samples show crossed geochemical trends that point to the compositional field of metasediments, and large euhedral prismatic pinnite-biotite crystals, typical Crd pseudomorph, are observed in contact magmatic facies, geochemical assimilation processes are short range, and the occurrence of host-rocks xenoliths is limited to a few meters from the pluton contact. A thermal approach to the emplacement process has been constrained through the thermobarometric results and a 2D thermo-numerical model of the contact aureole. Some Qtz-diorites and granodiorites located in the north area of the pluton exhibit granulitic textures as Hbl-Pl-Qtz triple junctions, poikiloblastic Kfs and Qtz recrystallization. The Hbl-Pl pairs have been used for the thermobarometric study of this metamorphic process, resulting granoblastic equilibrium temperatures between 770 and 790 °C, whereas

  4. Investigation of the influence of transport from oil and natural gas regions on elevated ozone levels in the northern Colorado front range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jason M; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-02-01

    The Northern Colorado Front Range (NCFR) has been in exceedance of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) since 2004, which has led to much debate over the sources of ozone precursors to the region, as this area is home to both the Denver, CO, metropolitan area and the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which has experienced rapid growth of oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations and associated emissions. Several recent studies have reported elevated levels of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as a result of O&NG emissions and the potential for significant ozone production from these emissions, despite implementation of stricter O&NG VOC emissions regulations in 2008. Approximately 88% of 1-hr elevated ozone events (>75 ppbv) occur during June-August, indicating that elevated ozone levels are driven by regional photochemistry. Analyses of surface ozone and wind observations from two sites, namely, South Boulder and the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, both near Boulder, CO, show a preponderance of elevated ozone events associated with east-to-west airflow from regions with O&NG operations in the N-ESE, and a relatively minor contribution of transport from the Denver Metropolitan area to the SE-S. Transport from upwind areas associated with abundant O&NG operations accounts for on the order of 65% (mean for both sites) of 1-hr averaged elevated ozone levels, while the Denver urban corridor accounts for 9%. These correlations contribute to mounting evidence that air transport from areas with O&NG operation has a significant impact on ozone and air quality in the NCFR. This article builds on several previous pieces of research that implied significant contributions from oil and natural gas emissions on ozone production in the Northern Colorado Front Range. By correlating increased ozone events with transport analyses we show that there is a high abundance of transport events with elevated ozone originating from the Denver-Julesburg oil and natural gas

  5. Arctic wildlife sketches: Bison of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the bison of the northwest territories. Historical range, physical description, reproduction, mortality, distribution, and the future of bison in...

  6. Tourism and territorial structure in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Gallegos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of the territorial structure of tourism in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. To do this, the study is divided into two major parts: first, theoretical aspects, given support to our analysis, and a brief history of tourism in the Northern borderlands of Mexico are presented. Then, four basic components of the territorial structure of tourism in Ciudad Juarez are examined: natural and cultural attractions, urban land-use, communications network centred around the city and visitors and tourist flows.

  7. Deforestation induces shallow landsliding in the montane and subalpine belts of the Urbión Mountains, Iberian Range, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Beguería, Santiago; Arnáez, José; Sanjuán, Yasmina; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Gómez-Villar, Amelia; Álvarez-Martínez, Javier; Coba-Pérez, Paz

    2017-11-01

    In this study the spatial distribution of shallow landslides in the upper montane and subalpine belts of the Urbión Mountains (Iberian Range, northern Spain) was investigated, particularly in relation to the spatial organization of deforestation and land cover. The upper montane and subalpine belts have been deforested several times since the Neolithic Period, to enlarge the area of summer grasslands for feeding transhumant sheep flocks. Consequently, the timberline was lowered by 400-600 m, and increased the occurrence of severe erosion processes, particularly shallow landslides. This study shows that most of the landslide scars are in the summer grasslands area, and that a remarkable extent of the subalpine belt area has been subjected to mass movements. In addition to land use, the soil characteristics and topography help explain the development of conditions most favorable to landsliding. Shallow landslide susceptibility was highest in the upper parts of the slopes near the divides, in areas having slope gradients of 10-30° and deep soils with an increasing proportion of clay with depth. The landslides were clustered and not randomly distributed, and the causes of this spatial distribution are discussed. The current trend of woody encroachment in the upper montane and subalpine belts, resulting from decreasing livestock pressure, will probably reduce the susceptibility of these areas to shallow landslides in the future.

  8. An Upper Turonian fine-grained shallow marine stromatolite bed from the Muñecas Formation, Northern Iberian Ranges, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, M.; Sánchez, F.; Walliser, E. O.; Reitner, J.

    2012-07-01

    A fine-grained stromatolite bed, laterally continuous on the kilometer scale and with small synoptic relief, crops out in the Muñecas Formation in the Northern Iberian Ranges. The Muñecas Fm. was deposited during the late Turonian on a shallow water platform in the Upper Cretaceous intracratonic Iberian basin. The stromatolite bed has a tabular to domed biostromal macrostructure. Its internal mesostructure consists of planar, wavy to hemispherical stromatoids that display a broad spectrum of microstructures, including dense micrite, bahamite peloids, peloidal to clotted microfabrics, irregular micritic-wall tubes, which are suggestive of algae and filamentous microframeworks, which are suggestive of filamentous cyanobacteria. Various stromatolite growth stages have been linked to the dominance of different accretion processes. The accretion of the entire fine-grained stromatolite involves a complex mosaic of processes: trapping and binding of quartz-silt grains and bahamites, which form the agglutinated parts of some laminae, and microbially induced precipitation, which forms spongiostromic and micritic laminae. Tubiform and filamentous microframeworks resembling porostromatate or skeletal stromatolitic growth were also recognized. Laser ICP-MS measurements of Al, Si, Mg, Mn, Sr, S and Fe were analyzed to detect the influence of siliciclastic inputs and major trends during stromatolite accretion. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions from the stromatolite and associated facies were used to identify possible microbial signatures. These data describes a unique and well-preserved example of a shallow marine Upper Turonian fine-grained stromatolite.

  9. Range expansion of Ixodes ricinus to higher altitude, and co-infestation of small rodents with Dermacentor marginatus in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Elisa; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ragagli, Charlotte; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Selmi, Marco; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Tomassone, Laura

    2014-10-01

    Immature ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus) were collected from small rodents (Apodemus spp. and Myodes glareolus), in the Northern Apennines, Italy, at an altitude up to 1650 m above sea level (a.s.l.), from 2009 through 2012. While D. marginatus had been found at the same location in studies carried out in 1994, I. ricinus was very rare or absent. Prevalence (95% confidence interval) of infestation by I. ricinus larvae on Apodemus spp. was 54.4% (47.5, 61.2), and it was greater than prevalence of D. marginatus larvae on the same hosts (23.3%, 17.8, 29.5). The mean (standard deviation) numbers of I. ricinus and D. marginatus larvae per individual Apodemus spp. were similar: 2.3 (4.1) and 2.1 (9.8), respectively. The monthly infestation pattern of the two tick species on Apodemus spp. were different. I. ricinus larvae were more frequent in June and September, than in July-August. I. ricinus nymphs were generally rare, and were most frequently found in July. The prevalence of D. marginatus larvae peaked in July-August, whereas nymphs were mostly active in August-September. Increasing population densities of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and increasing temperatures, in the last decades, in the Apennine area might have contributed to the observed range expansion of I. ricinus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Amphibian chytrid fungus and ranaviruses in the Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Danna M; Ruthig, Gregory R; Collins, James P; Kutz, Susan J; Carrière, Suzanne; Gau, Robert J; Veitch, Alasdair M; Larter, Nicholas C; Tate, Douglas P; Guthrie, Glen; Allaire, Daniel G; Popko, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    Pathogens can cause serious declines in host species, and knowing where pathogens associated with host declines occur facilitates understanding host-pathogen ecology. Suspected drivers of global amphibian declines include infectious diseases, with 2 pathogens in particular, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranaviruses, causing concern. We explored the host range and geographic distribution of Bd and ranaviruses in the Taiga Plains ecoregion of the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2007 and 2008. Both pathogens were detected, greatly extending their known geographic distributions. Ranaviruses were widespread geographically, but found only in wood frogs. In contrast, Bd was found at a single site, but was detected in all 3 species of amphibians in the survey area (wood frogs, boreal chorus frogs, western toads). The presence of Bd in the Northwest Territories is not congruent with predicted distributions based on niche models, even though findings from other studies at northern latitudes are consistent with those same models. Unexpectedly, we also found evidence that swabs routinely used to collect samples for Bd screening detected fewer infections than toe clips. Our use and handling of the swabs was consistent with other studies, and the cause of the apparent lack of integrity of swabs is unknown. The ranaviruses detected in our study were confirmed to be Frog Virus 3 by sequence analysis of a diagnostic 500 bp region of the major capsid protein gene. It is unknown whether Bd or ranaviruses are recent arrivals to the Canadian north. However, the genetic analyses required to answer that question can inform larger debates about the origin of Bd in North America as well as the potential effects of climate change and industrial development on the distributions of these important amphibian pathogens.

  11. Roaming behaviour and home range estimation of domestic dogs in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia using four different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2014-11-15

    Disease transmission parameters are the core of epidemic models, but are difficult to estimate, especially in the absence of outbreak data. Investigation of the roaming behaviour, home range (HR) and utilization distribution (UD) can provide the foundation for such parameter estimation in free-ranging animals. The objectives of this study were to estimate HR and UD of 69 domestic dogs in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia and to compare four different methods (the minimum convex polygon, MCP; the location-based kernel density estimation, LKDE; the biased random bridge, BRB; and Time Local Convex Hull, T-LoCoH) for investigation of UD and estimating HR sizes. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to community dogs for a period of 1-3 days and positions (fixes) were recorded every minute. Median core HRs (50% isopleth) of the 69 dogs were estimated to range from 0.2 to 0.4 ha and the more extended HR (95% isopleth) to range from 2.5 to 5.3 ha, depending on the method used. The HR and UD shapes were found to be generally circular around the dog owner's house. However, some individuals were found to roam much more with a HR size of 40-104 ha and cover large areas of their community or occasionally beyond. These far roaming dogs are of particular interest for infectious disease transmission. Occasionally, dogs were taken between communities and out of communities for hunting, which enables the contact of dogs between communities and with wildlife (such as dingoes). The BRB and T-LoCoH are the only two methods applied here which integrate the consecutiveness of GPS locations into the analysis, a substantial advantage. The recently developed BRB method produced significantly larger HR estimates than the other two methods; however, the variability of HR sizes was lower compared to the other methods. Advantages of the BRB method include a more realistic analytical approach (kernel density estimation based on movements

  12. Reconnaissance exploration geochemistry in the central Brooks Range, northern Alaska: Implications for exploration of sediment-hosted zinc-lead-silver deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Kelley, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A reconnaissance geochemical survey was conducted in the southern Killik River quadrangle, central Brooks Range, northern Alaska. The Brooks Range lies within the zone of continuous permafrost which may partially inhibit chemical weathering and oxidation. The minus 30-mesh and nonmagnetic heavy-mineral concentrate fractions of sediment samples were chosen as the sample media for the survey so that mechanical rather than chemical dispersion patterns would be enhanced. A total of 263 sites were sampled within the southern half of the Killik River quadrangle at an average sample density of approximately one sample per 12 km2. All samples were submitted for multi-element analyses. In the western and central Brooks Range, several known sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag(-Ba) deposits occur within a belt of Paleozoic rocks of the Endicott Mountains allochthon. Exploration for this type of deposit in the Brook Range is difficult, due to the inherently high background values for Ba, Zn and Pb in shale and the common occurrence of metamorphic quartz-calcite veins, many of which contain traces of sulfide minerals. Stream sediments derived from these sources produce numerous geochemical anomalies which are not necessarily associated with significant mineralization. R-mode factor analysis provides a means of distinguishing between element associations related to lithology and those related to possible mineralization. Factor analysis applied to the multi-element data from the southern Killik River quadrangle resulted in the discovery of two additional Zn-Pb-Ag mineral occurrences of considerable areal extent which are 80-100 km east of any previously known deposit. These have been informally named the Kady and Vidlee. Several lithogeochemical element associations, or factors, and three factors which represent sulfide mineralization were identified: Ag-Pb-Zn (galena and sphalerite) and Fe-Ni-Co-Cu (pyrite ?? chalcopyrite) in the concentrate samples and Cd-Zn-Pb-As-Mn in the sediment

  13. An examination of the social determinants of health as factors related to health, healing and prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in a northern context – the brightening our home fires project, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Badry

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Brightening Our Home Fires (BOHF project was conceptualized as an exploratory project to examine the issue of the prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD from a women’s health perspective in the Northwest Territories (NT. While dominant discourse suggests that FASD is preventable by abstention from alcohol during pregnancy, a broader perspective would indicate that alcohol and pregnancy is a far more complex issue, that is, bound in location, economics, social and cultural views of health. This project was prevention focused and a social determinant of health (SDH perspective informed this research. Methods. The BOHF project was a qualitative research project using a participatory action research framework to examine women’s health and healing in the north. The methodology utilized was Photovoice. Women were provided training in digital photography and given cameras to use and keep. The primary research question utilized was: What does health and healing look like for you in your community? Women described their photos, individually or in groups around this central topic. This research was FASD informed, and women participants were aware this was an FASD prevention funded project whose approach focused on a broader context of health and lived experience. Results. This project drew 30 participants from: Yellowknife, Lutsel ‘ke, Behchokö and Ulukhaktok. These four different communities across the NT represented Dene and Inuit culture. The qualitative data analysis offered themes of importance to women’s health in the north including: land and tradition; housing; poverty; food; family; health, mental health and trauma, and travel. Photovoice provides a non-threatening way to engage in dialogue on complex health and social issues.

  14. An examination of the social determinants of health as factors related to health, healing and prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in a northern context--the Brightening Our Home Fires Project, Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badry, Dorothy; Felske, Aileen Wight

    2013-01-01

    The Brightening Our Home Fires (BOHF) project was conceptualized as an exploratory project to examine the issue of the prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) from a women's health perspective in the Northwest Territories (NT). While dominant discourse suggests that FASD is preventable by abstention from alcohol during pregnancy, a broader perspective would indicate that alcohol and pregnancy is a far more complex issue, that is, bound in location, economics, social and cultural views of health. This project was prevention focused and a social determinant of health (SDH) perspective informed this research. The BOHF project was a qualitative research project using a participatory action research framework to examine women's health and healing in the north. The methodology utilized was Photovoice. Women were provided training in digital photography and given cameras to use and keep. The primary research question utilized was: What does health and healing look like for you in your community? Women described their photos, individually or in groups around this central topic. This research was FASD informed, and women participants were aware this was an FASD prevention funded project whose approach focused on a broader context of health and lived experience. This project drew 30 participants from: Yellowknife, Lutsel 'ke, Behchokö and Ulukhaktok. These four different communities across the NT represented Dene and Inuit culture. The qualitative data analysis offered themes of importance to women's health in the north including: land and tradition; housing; poverty; food; family; health, mental health and trauma, and travel. Photovoice provides a non-threatening way to engage in dialogue on complex health and social issues.

  15. Developing Indicators of Territorial Cohesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea; Farrugia, Nadia

    (EU). The objective of territorial cohesion, which builds on the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), is to help achieve a more balanced development by reducing existing disparities, avoiding territorial imbalances and by making sectoral policies, which have a spatial impact and regional...

  16. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  17. Predicting potential ranges of primary malaria vectors and malaria in northern South America based on projected changes in climate, land cover and human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Temitope O; Fuller, Douglas O; Qualls, Whitney A; Herrera, Socrates V; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Quinones, Martha L; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Beier, John C

    2015-08-20

    Changes in land use and land cover (LULC) as well as climate are likely to affect the geographic distribution of malaria vectors and parasites in the coming decades. At present, malaria transmission is concentrated mainly in the Amazon basin where extensive agriculture, mining, and logging activities have resulted in changes to local and regional hydrology, massive loss of forest cover, and increased contact between malaria vectors and hosts. Employing presence-only records, bioclimatic, topographic, hydrologic, LULC and human population data, we modeled the distribution of malaria and two of its dominant vectors, Anopheles darlingi, and Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. in northern South America using the species distribution modeling platform Maxent. Results from our land change modeling indicate that about 70,000 km(2) of forest land would be lost by 2050 and 78,000 km(2) by 2070 compared to 2010. The Maxent model predicted zones of relatively high habitat suitability for malaria and the vectors mainly within the Amazon and along coastlines. While areas with malaria are expected to decrease in line with current downward trends, both vectors are predicted to experience range expansions in the future. Elevation, annual precipitation and temperature were influential in all models both current and future. Human population mostly affected An. darlingi distribution while LULC changes influenced An. nuneztovari s.l. distribution. As the region tackles the challenge of malaria elimination, investigations such as this could be useful for planning and management purposes and aid in predicting and addressing potential impediments to elimination.

  18. Surface ozone in the Colorado northern Front Range and the influence of oil and gas development during FRAPPE/DISCOVER-AQ in summer 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Cheadle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High mixing ratios of ozone (O3 in the northern Front Range (NFR of Colorado are not limited to the urban Denver area but were also observed in rural areas where oil and gas activity is the primary source of O3 precursors. On individual days, oil and gas O3 precursors can contribute in excess of 30 ppb to O3 growth and can lead to exceedances of the EPA O3 National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Data used in this study were gathered from continuous surface O3 monitors for June–August 2013–2015 as well as additional flask measurements and mobile laboratories that were part of the FRAPPE/DISCOVER-AQ field campaign of July–August 2014. Overall observed O3 levels during the summer of 2014 were lower than in 2013, likely due to cooler and damper weather than an average summer. This study determined the median hourly surface O3 mixing ratio in the NFR on summer days with limited photochemical production to be approximately 45–55 ppb. Mobile laboratory and flask data collected on three days provide representative case studies of different O3 formation environments in and around Greeley, Colorado. Observations of several gases (including methane, ethane, CO, nitrous oxide along with O3 are used to identify sources of O3 precursor emissions. A July 23 survey demonstrated low O3 (45–60 ppb while August 3 and August 13 surveys recorded O3 levels of 75–80 ppb or more. August 3 exemplifies influence of moderate urban and high oil and gas O3 precursor emissions. August 13 demonstrates high oil and gas emissions, low agricultural emissions, and CO measurements that were well correlated with ethane from oil and gas, suggesting an oil and gas related activity as a NOx and O3 precursor source. Low isoprene levels indicated that they were not a significant contributor to O3 precursors measured during the case studies.

  19. State territoriality and beyond: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.D.; Knippenberg, H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses relationships between state territoriality, political fragmentation, cultural assimilation, and social movement; relationship among states, territoriality and indigenous people of the Sami homeland, politics of territorial identification of Anglo-Montrealers, (the Quebec problem), and

  20. VOC Measurements in the Northern Colorado Front Range Metropolitan Area: Investigating the Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Emissions on O3 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeleira, A.; Farmer, D.; Fischer, E. V.; Pollack, I. B.; Zaragoza, J.

    2015-12-01

    Authors: Ilana Pollock1,2, Jake Zaragoza2, Emily V. Fischer2, Delphine K. Farmer11. Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 2. Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO During summer months, the Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) of Colorado consistently violates the 75 ppbv 8-hour EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ambient ozone (O3), despite continued reduction in anthropogenic emissions. The region has been deemed an O3 non-attainment zone since 2008. Ground-level O3 is produced from photochemical catalytic cycles involving OH radicals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and NOx (NO + NO2). VOC emissions in the NFRMA are dominated by anthropogenic sources and influenced by biogenic and agricultural sources, while NOx emissions are mainly from automobile exhaust. A growing concern in the region is the role of oil and natural gas (ONG) on VOC concentrations and the potential for O3 production. Increases in local VOC emissions will likely cause subsequent increase in local O3 concentrations as PO3 increases in a region that is already affected by high O3episodes. As a part of the SONGNEX 2015 (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) campaign, we measured a broad suite of speciated VOCs during two 8-week deployments (March-May 2015, July-September 2015) at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Erie, CO. VOC measurements were made with a custom-online multichannel gas chromatography system (50+ compounds hourly), along with measurements of O3, SO2, NOx, NOy, PAN, CO, CO2, and CH4. We use these data to investigate the role of different VOC sources, and ONG in particular, in contributing to VOC reactivity and thus instantaneous O3 production. Preliminary analysis of the Spring VOC data indicates that VOC reactivity is dominated by light alkanes typical of ONG emissions - specifically propane, consistent with previous winter-time studies. We will use the observed temperature

  1. THE UNEMPLOYED TERRITORIAL PROFESSIONAL REORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuela NECŞULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with the assessment regarding the relation between partial occupancy, education and the unemployed reorientation. The main section of the article analyzes from a statistical point of view the unemployed territorial reorientation concentrationing upon a county area according to data provided by AJOFM Argeş. There are emphasized here not only tendencies, structural dynamics but also processes of concentration and diversification upon age groups. A few final remarks are closing in an optimistic manner the analysis of the unemployed territorial reorientation in the specified territory.

  2. Inventory and state of activity of rockglaciers in the Ile and Kungöy Ranges of Northern Tien Shan from satellite SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Kääb, Andreas; Bolch, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The best visual expression of mountain permafrost are rockglaciers, which, in contrast to the permafrost itself, can be mapped and monitored directly using remotely sensed data. Studies carried out in various parts of the European Alps have shown surface acceleration of rockglaciers and even destabilization of several such landforms over the two last decades, potentially related to the changing permafrost creep conditions. Changes in rockglacier motion are therefore believed to be the most indicative short- to medium-term response of rockglaciers to environmental changes and thus an indicator of mountain permafrost conditions in general. The ESA DUE GlobPermafrost project develops, validates and implements EO products to support research communities and international organizations in their work on better understanding permafrost characteristics and dynamics. Within this project we are building up a worldwide long-term monitoring network of active rockglacier motion investigated using remote sensing techniques. All sites are analysed through a uniform set of data and methods, and results are thus comparable. In order to quantify the rate of movement and the relative changes over time we consider two remote sensing methods: (i) matching of repeat optical data and (ii) satellite radar interferometry. In this contribution, we focus on the potential of recent high spatial resolution SAR data for the analysis of periglacial processes in mountain environments with special attention to the Ile and Kungöy Ranges of Northern Tien Shan at the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, an area which contains a high number of large and comparably fast (> 1m/yr) rockglaciers and is of interest as dry-season water resource and source of natural hazards. As demonstrated in the past with investigations conducted in the Swiss Alps, the visual analysis of differential SAR interferograms can be employed for the rough estimation of the surface deformation rates of rockglaciers and

  3. Cost of territorial maintenance by Parodon nasus (Osteichthyes: Parodontidae in a Neotropical stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Elias Silva

    Full Text Available The combined demand over a certain resource may exceed its immediate supply, which can then lead to competition between individuals. This competition may result in territorial behavior. In this study we determine the density and spatial distribution, describe the interactions arising from territorial behavior and evaluate the costs of keeping the territories defended by adults of Parodon nasus. The study was conducted in Camarinha Stream located in the Serra das Araras Ecological Station, Porto Estrela, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The density was constant throughout the length of the stream, with a mean (± standard deviation of 1.01 ind./m² (± 0.14. Our results show that the spatial distribution of individuals in the area ranged between uniform and random. The territories were defended more often against intraspecific than interspecific intruders. The time that the owners of the territories devoted to defending them was not influenced by the size of the territories. However, owners of larger territories spent more time foraging than owners of smaller territories. As a result, owners of larger territories had less time to rest than owners of smaller territories. The results of this study show behavioral patterns relevant to understanding the relationship between size and territorial maintenance cost of P. nasus and other species of fish with territorial behavior.

  4. Territorializing policies or generating territorial polices, practical reflexions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gallicchio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The working hypotheses are three: Local development is a political strategy of change. We are not speaking of a new paradigm, methodology, or a new scholarly theoretical framework, but by contrast, a political change strategy. In this sense we are in front of an instrument that is more ¨social political¨ than ¨technical¨, strictlyspeaking.Given what has already been stated, and the experience of Latin America it is necessary to debate around territorializing policies vs. policies that are territorialized. Two main issues arise, on the one hand, the influence of territory throughout the entire process of local policy making (agenda setting, formulation, implementation,monitoring and evaluation, and what it means to defend ¨territorial sovereignty¨ in articulating strategies.Finally, that the space to go in depth in terms of generation of territorial policies (the raison d etre of a political strategy demands action in multilevel governance (local, regional, national, local economic development and social capital.

  5. Long-Range Weather Forecasting In The Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martazinova, V. F.; Ivanova, E. K.

    2004-12-01

    The operational system for long range weather forecasting (LRF) was developed by Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute (UHMI) in the result of studies of general circulation and on the long-range weather forecasting which were began in 1975 by research group leaded by Prof. V. Martazinova. Three key approaches are used in the operational system LRF of UHMI: (1) Floating analog method (FAM); (2) Two-month quasi-periodicity of atmospheric processes in the troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere; (3)Ethalon-field approach. The based on the pattern recognition technique FAM is the continuation of the ideas of former Soviet Union school of long-range forecasting. The traditional method of analog was generalized and advanced as the method of "floating analog" (Martazinova and Sologub, 1986; Martazinova, 1989; 2001). FAM requires only geometrical similarity of the planetary high-level frontal zone and surface pressure on the Northern Hemisphere. The limiting conditions of the coincidence in time and space are lifted. The use of FAM made it possible to reveal the two-month quasi-periodicity of synoptic situation in the Northern Hemisphere. The strong changes of weather within month are predicted using statistical "ethalon field" approach that was developed for classification of meteorological fields in the climate research and the long-range forecasting (Martazinova and Prokhorenko, 1991). The meteorological information for the forecast is used only for the last two months before the target month. The fields of geopotential and pressure are recognized by the "ethalon-field-analog" which corresponds to two-month quasi-periodicity of the ethalon-fields. The forecast for days the strong changes of weather over the territory of Ukraine in next two months. Recognition of daily synoptic situations of last two months by the synoptic situation of two-month quasi-periodicity of atmospheric processes for ethalons when there are waves of cold and heat, strong precipitation, strong

  6. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  7. Regions and the Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ianos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion is an important target of European Union, constantly promoted by its institutions and their representatives. In the context of the Europe 2020 strategy, one of the most important support documents, the region represents a very important issue, being considered to be the key to its successfulness. The region is seen as a support for the smart growth and all the operational policy concepts try to make use of the spatial potential, by taking better account of the territorial specificities. Two main questions play attention: the need to transform the present-day developmental regions into administrative ones is a priority? What kind of regionalization it must to be promoted? Correlating these issues with already defined territorial cohesion, the administrative region is a real tool for the future territorial development. The experience of the last 14 years asks urgently the building of a new territorial administrative reform, giving competences to regions. For instant, each development region is a construction resulted from a free association of the counties. Their role in the regional development is much reduced one, because their regional councils are not elected; decisions taken at this level are consultative for the social, economical, cultural or political actors.

  8. Innovative model of development of traditionally industrial territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Anatolyevna Kozlova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The consideration in this paper is given to innovative model of development of traditionally industrial territories. We emphasize the following basic approaches to the employment of innovative potential of territories: diversification and restructuring of local economy, integration and disintegration of life-sustaining activity of neighboring territories, progressive economic advance, as well as simultaneous combination of several approaches (mixed model. Progressive model of development is sufficiently popular and is related tothe increasing already existing potential of territories. In practice,it doesn’t generally suppose essential changes in sectoral structure of local economy and means developing existing productions and spheres of activity of territory. Mixed model of structural transformations is characterized through the fact, that it supposes simultaneous use of different elements from the models counted. It allows: firstly, to adopt in a bigger extent a complex of measures to conditions of certain territory; secondly, to take into account a broader range of exogenous and endogenous factors; thirdly, to raise the effectiveness of the program of structural transformations being realized

  9. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the

  10. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  11. Long-range transport pathways of tropospheric source gases originating in Asia into the northern lower stratosphere during the Asian monsoon season 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vogel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS using artificial tracers of air mass origin are used to analyze transport mechanisms from the Asian monsoon region into the lower stratosphere. In a case study, the transport of air masses from the Asian monsoon anticyclone originating in India/China by an eastward-migrating anticyclone which broke off from the main anticyclone on 20 September 2012 and filaments separated at the northeastern flank of the anticyclone are analyzed. Enhanced contributions of young air masses (younger than 5 months are found within the separated anticyclone confined at the top by the thermal tropopause. Further, these air masses are confined by the anticyclonic circulation and, on the polar side, by the subtropical jet such that the vertical structure resembles a bubble within the upper troposphere. Subsequently, these air masses are transported eastwards along the subtropical jet and enter the lower stratosphere by quasi-horizontal transport in a region of double tropopauses most likely associated with Rossby wave breaking events. As a result, thin filaments with enhanced signatures of tropospheric trace gases were measured in the lower stratosphere over Europe during the TACTS/ESMVal campaign in September 2012 in very good agreement with CLaMS simulations. Our simulations demonstrate that source regions in Asia and in the Pacific Ocean have a significant impact on the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. Young, moist air masses, in particular at the end of the monsoon season in September/October 2012, flooded the extratropical lower stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphere with contributions of up to  ≈  30 % at 380 K (with the remaining fraction being aged air. In contrast, the contribution of young air masses to the Southern Hemisphere is much lower. At the end of October 2012, approximately 1.5 ppmv H2O is found in the lower

  12. Kids’ rooms as plus territory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida

    2006-01-01

    they domesticate, capture territories and places. What do our children do to get place, space and rooms, which belong to them? How do they do home? ?To home oneself? can be understood as a self-technology or a tactic (de Certeau, 1984), a tactic to make space around oneself on the places one stay. A way to commit...

  13. Review of "Charting New Territory"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina

    2011-01-01

    "Charting New Territory: Tapping Charter Schools to Turn Around the Nation's Dropout Factories" argues for a more prominent role for charter operators in turning around perennially low-performing high schools. However, the report's ultimate findings and conclusions are out of proportion to the strength of the research evidence on school…

  14. Challenges of Conducting Systematic Research in Australia's Northern Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Janet; Harper, Helen; Lea, Tess; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Chalkiti, Kalotina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges of conducting systematic research, using our experiences of conducting a study to evaluate the effectiveness of ABRACADABRA, an online tool for early childhood literacy instruction as the contextual framework. By discussing how the research team resolved such perennial issues as high teacher turnover, low or…

  15. TERRITORIALITY: THE EXAMPLE OF THE WHITE RHINOCEROS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interactions within the territory; (iii) specialised scent marking techniques using dung and urine; (iv) exclusive participation in reproduction. Territories may be shared with one or more subsidiary bulls. Territoriality in the white rhino may be characterised as a space-correlated dominance relationship with the function of ...

  16. Observations on Territorial Behaviour of Springbok, Antidorcas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some adult males defended territories of up to 40 ha in size all year round. Most males were seen both alone and with females on their territories. Males did not have permanent harems, since groups of females were fluid in composition and highly mobile. Groups of females moved into and out of male territories at will, ...

  17. City Hall and Territorial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Borrás Querol

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic conditions impose a new role upon the local administration, a new one added to its traditional role as administrators of public services and managers of the local territory. City Halls are increasingly widening their action area to include spheres of interest that were previously not dealt with: fundamentally – jobs promotion and encouraging economic development. With respect to this, the article describes the important experience of the City Hall of Alcalá la Real (Jaén, whose trajectory of enacting strategies for local development are alternatives to the model of speculative development, strategies whose objective is to direct the potential for local community development by matching the interests of the citizens and the system of productivity in a balanced and sustainable manner, thereby contributing not only to the creation of new businesses and favoring the creation of jobs, but the advancement of territorial balance and social cohesion.

  18. The End of Eastern Territoriality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasev, Nikolay Rumenov; Vrangbæk, Karsten; Krepelka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    How does compliance to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) rulings on patient mobility in the new Member States compare to the old Member States? Studying the new Member States’ compliance practices would highlight the state of territoriality, the CJEU’s effective influence and the ......How does compliance to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) rulings on patient mobility in the new Member States compare to the old Member States? Studying the new Member States’ compliance practices would highlight the state of territoriality, the CJEU’s effective influence....... For the results in the old Member States we rely on Obermaier’s 2009 “The End of Territoriality”. The study is qualitative in nature and relies mostly on qualitative semi-structured interviews with experts from ministries of health, health insurers and legal experts from all three countries. We distinguish...

  19. Mondialization: The negation of territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present some weaknesses and inconsistence of the mondialization/globalization concept, especially regarding obvious negation of territoriality as a principle and a crude reality of uneven spatial distribution of resources, wealth and population on global scale. The domination of the globalism and neo-liberalism in the spheres of economy, society, culture and even language leads toward greater differences, in such intensity that some authors describe it as a "clash of civilizations". Loosing territoriality means loosing "raison d’etre" of spatial planning. Some efforts to introduce participation as a planning solution for the beginning of the new century is actually a Trojan horse and a step in the wrong direction.

  20. Prey availability affects territory size, but not territorial display behavior, in green anole lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Chelsea M.; Battles, Andrew C.; Sparks, Michelle N.; Johnson, Michele A.

    2017-10-01

    The availability of food resources can affect the size and shape of territories, as well as the behaviors used to defend territories, in a variety of animal taxa. However, individuals within a population may respond differently to variation in food availability if the benefits of territoriality vary among those individuals. For example, benefits to territoriality may differ for animals of differing sizes, because larger individuals may require greater territory size to acquire required resources, or territorial behavior may differ between the sexes if males and females defend different resources in their territories. In this study, we tested whether arthropod abundance and biomass were associated with natural variation in territory size and defense in insectivorous green anole lizards, Anolis carolinensis. Our results showed that both male and female lizards had smaller territories in a habitat with greater prey biomass than lizards in habitats with less available prey, but the rates of aggressive behaviors used to defend territories did not differ among these habitats. Further, we did not find a relationship between body size and territory size, and the sexes did not differ in their relationships between food availability and territory size or behavioral defense. Together, these results suggest that differences in food availability influenced male and female territorial strategies similarly, and that territory size may be more strongly associated with variation in food resources than social display behavior. Thus, anole investment in the behavioral defense of a territory may not vary with territory quality.

  1. Integrated territorial management and governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel

    This was the last in a series of three postgraduate workshops undertaken by the ENECON project during the period 2012-2014. A total of 28 master’s students, postgraduate students and lecturers from the Nordic-Baltic region gathered at the Utzon Centre in Aalborg to discuss territorial governance,......, spatial planning and policy, and polycentric development, amongst other relevant themes and domains associated with evidence from ESPON projects such as TERCO, METROBORDER, LUPA, TOWN, TANGO, and others....

  2. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  3. The recent record of climate on the range of the George River Caribou Herd, Northern Québec and Labrador, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Jacobs

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Records from permanent meteorological stations in and around the range of the George River Caribou Herd have been analyzed for the 1950-1991 period in order to identify climatic factors potentially influencing the numbers, condition, and distribution of caribou. Winter conditions identified include a significant temperature decrease over the period and some years of extreme snowfall. Spatial variations in snow cover may be responsible for shifts in winter range. Indications are that summer climate has not varied significantly, but spring and summer conditions may not have been particularly favourable for plant productivity in the summer range of females and calves. Climatological observations more representative of the summer range are needed for a better understanding of ecological relationships there.

  4. Reflections to conceptualize the supportive territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Emilio Pérez Villa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inputs to the debate around the concepts of space, and territory, are introduced in order to reach an initial proposal on the concept of Supportive Territory. Understanding the concept of territory as a category which exceeds the level of generality of the concept of space. The territory as a space determined by relations of power, with obvious, not overt, limits; unlike the concept of space, allows the introduction of a political variable, thinking the space, which is built as both a territory as a product of relations of power, domination and resistance.

  5. Crop and field boundary influences on the activity of a wide range of beneficial invertebrate groups on a split conventional/organic farm in northern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, M D; Leifert, C

    2011-04-01

    Activity of 12 beneficial invertebrate groups was assessed in 2005 and 2006 on a farm in northern England split into conventional and organic management halves, using pitfall and pan traps set in both crops and field boundaries. Management, crop and boundary structure influences on invertebrate activity were assessed, as was the relationship between crop and boundary type. Classification of crop and boundary assemblages produced three and two groups, respectively, in both years. Organic arable crops had well-defined assemblages in both years; and, while grass and grass/clover fields were separated from conventional arable fields in 2005, there was mixing in 2006. One boundary group, in both years, was dominated by conventional arable fields with tall herbaceous boundary vegetation. The other group had more organic arable and grassy fields with shorter boundary vegetation. Redundancy analyses showed that a number of groups (Cantharidae, Coccinellidae, Syrphidae, Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, Proctotrupoidea, Lycosidae) were more active in organic arable fields with more Staphylinidae in conventional arable crops and no obvious trend with Carabidae, Hemiptera, Neuroptera and Linyphiidae. Activity of some groups, especially Coccinellidae, Syrphidae and parasitic wasps, was strongly related to weed cover. Staphylinidae were most active in tall herbaceous boundaries by conventional arable crops with more of a number of groups (Cantharidae, Coccinellidae, parasitic wasps) in short herbaceous boundaries by organic arable crops. Organic management produced most differences in aerially-dispersed invertebrates, and management had a profound effect on activity in field boundaries. Possible management prescriptions to increase invertebrate activity include changing sowing times, weed cover manipulation and field boundary and margin management.

  6. Effects of climate change on subterranean termite territory size: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2011-01-01

    In order to study how climate change affects the territory size of subterranean termites, a lattice model was used to simulate the foraging territory of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), and the minimized local rules that are based on empirical data from the development of termites' foraging territory was applied. A landscape was generated by randomly assigning values ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 to each lattice site, which represented the spatially distributed property of the landscape. At the beginning of the simulation run, N territory seeds - one for each founding pair, were randomly distributed on the lattice space. The territories grew during the summer and shrank during the winter. In the model, the effects of climate change were demonstrated by changes in two variables: the period of the summer season, T, and the percentage of the remaining termite cells, σ, after the shrinkage. The territory size distribution was investigated in the size descending order for the values of T (= 10, 15, ... , 50) and σ (= 10, 15, ... , 50) at a steady state after a sufficiently long time period. The distribution was separated into two regions: the larger-sized territories and the smaller-sized territories. The slope, m, of the distribution of territory size on a semi-log scale for the larger-sized territories was maximal with T (45 ≤ T ≤ 50) in the maximal range and with σ in the optimal range (30 ≤ σ ≤ 40), regardless of the value of N. The results suggest that the climate change can influence the termite territory size distribution under the proper balance of T and σ in combination.

  7. Territorialities and territorialization with autonomy in the agroecological practices

    OpenAIRE

    Saquet, Marcos Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Nuestro objetivo es comprender la producción agroecológica familiar por medio de las nociones de territorialidad y temporalidad en una perspectiva pluridimensional, considerando los aspectos culturales, económicos y políticos. Optamos por un abordaje territorial histórico-crítico, relacional y reticular que reconozca los cambios y las continuidades, subrayando la cultura campesina, las redes de cooperación y las relaciones de poder. Los procedimientos utilizados en el proceso de investigación...

  8. Moving the boundaries of forest and land use history - the case of Upper East Region in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wardell, David Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure......Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure...

  9. The range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878): distributions and sympatry of four tamarin species in Colombia, Ecuador, and northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matauschek, Christian; Aquino, Rolando; Encarnación, Filomeno; Heymann, Eckhard W.; de la Torre, Stella; Mittermeier, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878), in Amazonian Peru and Ecuador is of particular relevance, not only because it is poorly known but also because it was on the basis of its supposed sympatry with the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus) that Thorington (Am J Primatol 15:367–371, 1988) argued that it is a distinct species rather than a saddleback tamarin subspecies, as was believed by Hershkovitz (Living new world monkeys, vol I. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1977). A number of surveys have been carried out since 1988 in the supposed range of S. tripartitus, in both Ecuador and Peru. Here we summarize and discuss these issues and provide a new suggestion for the geographic range of this species; that is, between the ríos Napo and Curaray in Peru and extending east into Ecuador. We also review current evidence for the distributions of Spix’s black-mantle tamarin (S. nigricollis nigricollis), Graells’ black-mantle tamarin (S. n. graellsi), and the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus), which are also poorly known, and examine the evidence regarding sympatry between them. We conclude that despite the existence of a number of specimens with collecting localities that indicate overlap in their geographic ranges, the fact that the four tamarin species are of similar size and undoubtedly very similar in their feeding habits militates strongly against the occurrence of sympatry among them. PMID:20878203

  10. A 26,600 yr record of climate and vegetation from Rice Lake in the Eel River drainage of the northern California Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rice Lake, (40'41" N; 123'30" W, 1109 m elev.) lies in the transition zone of the precipitation dipole in the western United States, which is reflected by the present vegetation - a mosaic of mesic northern mixed hardwood-evergreen forests (Quercus spp., Pinus spp., Calocedrus/Juniperus) and more arid southern oak foothill woodlands (Quercus spp.) that borders the westernmost edge of coastal redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) forest. The site, which lies on the active Lake Mountain fault zone, is now a large (~15 ha) sagpond that dries in summer. Between ~26,600 yr - ~15,000 yr, a permanent lake with aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) occupied the core site. Montane conifer forests, with pine (Pinus, spp.), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), spruce (Picea spp), and western hemlock (T. heterophylla) covered the region. Climatic parameters of modern montane coniferous forest and the continued presence of aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) suggest higher precipitation and lower temperatures during the last glacial. Charcoal (fire event frequency) was minimal. Rapid oscillations of oak, the riparian alder (Alnus), pine, Cupressaceae (Juniperus, Calocedrus), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzeii), and fir (Abies) characterize the deglacial, and reflect rapid changes in precipitation and temperatures, e.g, Bølling-Allerød warming and Younger Dryas cooling. Between ~15,000 yr and ~13,000 yr, aquatic vegetation of the lake abruptly decreased. Expansion of oak, tanoak (Lithocarpus), shrubs (cf. Ceanothus) and decline of pine and montane conifers, along with the development of marshes with Typha and Cyperaceae on the former lakebed, imply early Holocene warming and decreasing precipitation. This is supported by an increase in charcoal, which is attributed to forest fires. Between ~5,000 yr - ~6,000 yr, a short interval of increased precipitation (inferred from a peak in alder and decrease in Cupressaceae) initiates the development of modern mixed hardwood-evergreen forest. Correlative data

  11. Baseline geotechnical and permafrost data from new field sites established in the Mackenzie corridor south of Norman Wells, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.L.; Riseborough, D.W.; Ednie, M.; Chartrand, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Nguyen, T.-N. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Ice Service; Ye, S. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a field program that was undertaken in February and March 2007 to address gaps in baseline environmental information in the Mackenzie Valley, south of Norman Wells, Northwest Territories. Sites were selected so as to create a sample that represented a range of ground-thermal, terrain, and vegetation conditions. Boreholes were drilled to depths of 20 metres, and 16 locations yielded data suitable for characterizing subsurface materials, including soil properties and ground-ice conditions. The data acquired from 20 boreholes that were preserved and instrumented with temperature cables allowed a preliminary characterization of the ground-thermal regime. Key baseline information was generated for an array of representative terrain types. This information has value for northern planning development and assessing the environmental impact of disturbances and climate change. The ongoing collection of data from the thermal monitoring sites will contribute to improved characterization of permafrost conditions and change detection. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. Territorial Defense, Education, and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Sierra Pardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article carries out a series of reflections regarding the social and economic conditions in which the cultivation of oil palm affected the Bajo Atrato region of the Department of Chocó at the end of the nineteen nineties. It also discusses the actions carried out by communities, companies, and organizations in solidarity with the region’s cause, since these expressions make it possible to understand the role of organization and education in territorial defense processes. Finally, the article examines the different tensions, struggles, challenges, and contradictions inherent to these types of processes.

  13. The Political and Territorial Development of Nations without States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2010-12-01

    ambitions towards national independence. The territorial and political reconstruction of nation-states has been successful, but it did not solve all ethnic problems. The European political map reveals another interesting phenomenon: a double state for some nations. These are particularly typical for the Balkans. Because of political and territorial development after the Second World War and during the transition period in the 1990s and beyond, the principle of immutable political borders (logically encompassing the creation of new nation-states as well led to further political and territorial divisions and (in fact, paradoxically fragmentation. Some of these “inner” autonomous territories are functioning as de facto states. The cases of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus or Republika Srpska in Bosnia-Herzegovina are good examples of these processes. This development has not garnered much political support in most European countries or at the EU level. However, it is an undesirable reality and is certainly one of changes among the political and territorial (or even greater challenges for the Europe of tomorrow. It forces a reexamination of the phenomenon and value of nations. The existence of nations without states represents a potential for the creation of new (nation states.

  14. Interacting effects of climate change, landscape conversion, and harvest on carnivore populations at the range margin: marten and lynx in the northern Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Assessing the effects of climate change on threatened species requires moving beyond simple bioclimatic models to models that incorporate interactions among climatic trends, landscape change, environmental stochasticity, and species life history. Populations of marten (Martes americana) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) in southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States represent peninsular extensions of boreal ranges and illustrate the potential impact of these threats on semi-isolated populations at the range margin. Decreased snowfall may affect marten and lynx through decreased prey vulnerability and decreased competitive advantage over sympatric carnivores. I used a spatially explicit population model to assess potential effects of predicted changes in snowfall by 2055 on regional marten and lynx populations. The models' habitat rankings were derived from previous static models that correlated regional distribution with snowfall and vegetation data. Trapping scenarios were parameterized as a 10% proportional decrease in survival, and logging scenarios were parameterized as a 10% decrease in the extent of older coniferous or mixed forest. Both species showed stronger declines in the simulations due to climate change than to overexploitation or logging. Marten populations declined 40% because of climate change, 16% because of logging, and 30% because of trapping. Lynx populations declined 59% because of climate change, 36% because of trapping, and 20% in scenarios evaluating the effects of population cycles. Climate change interacted with logging in its effects on the marten and with trapping in its effects on the lynx, increasing overall vulnerability. For both species larger lowland populations were vulnerable to climate change, which suggests that contraction may occur in the core of their current regional range as well as among smaller peripheral populations. Despite their greater data requirements compared with bioclimatic models, mesoscale spatial

  15. Geochemistry of altered and mineralized rocks from the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas, northern Hot Creek Range, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J.T.; John, D.A.; Malcolm, M.J.; Briggs, P.H.; Crock, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the St. Johns River Water Management District are investigating the hydrogeology of the Floridan aquifer system. An essential element of this investigation is the design and construction of a monitor well network in the lower saline water-bearing zone which occurs at about 2,000 ft below land surface. During 1985, a well near Ponte Vedra in northeast St. Johns County was completed into the lower saline water-bearing zone at a depth of 1,980 to 2,035 ft below land surface. This well and other wells drilled under this or other programs will be used to monitor water levels and water chemistry of the lower saline zone. Chloride concentrations in water above the lower saline zone ranged from 14 to 270 mg/L and specific conductance ranged from 450 to 1,440 micromhos/cm c. In the lower zone, chloride concentrations were as much as 16,210 mg/L and specific conductance as much as 46,000 micromhos per centimeter. Aquifer head and artesian flow from the well generally increased with depth. Water temperatures also increased from 23 C in the upper part of the aquifer to more than 28 C in the lower saline zone. (USGS)

  16. Pensamiento Superior y Desarrollo Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Racancoj Alonzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexión pretende explicar el papel, fundamental, que juega el pensamiento superior, en la formulación y la práctica de modelos de desarrollo territorial local; para que contribuyan de forma sustantiva, en la transformación de las condiciones socioeconómicas adversas que hoy viven comunidades indígenas y rurales de muchos países, como Guatemala, situación que puede resumirse en altos índices de pobreza y desnutrición. Pero, el pensamiento superior, debe ser competencia de la población con pertenencia a lo local, pues si y solo si esta condición existe, se dará validez y viabilidad al desarrollo territorial. Para alcanzar competencias de pensamiento superior, en los espacios locales, se tiene que superar obstáculos en el modelo de universidad, que hoy estamos familiarizados a ver y pensar; modelos que tienen las características de: herencia colonial, disfunción con la problemática económica, cultural, social y política de la sociedad y la negación de los saberes ancestrales.

  17. Territory size decreases minimally with increasing food abundance in stream salmonids: Implications for population regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, James W A; Weir, Laura K; Steingrímsson, Stefán Ó

    2017-10-01

    How the local density of territorial animals responds to changes in food abundance will depend on the flexibility of territory size. Quantitative estimates of territory size over a broad range of food abundance are relatively rare because of the difficulty of measuring food abundance in the wild. Stream salmonids are an ideal model system for investigating flexibility in territory size, because food abundance can be quantified in the field and manipulated in the laboratory. We conducted a meta-analysis to test whether territory size decreases with increasing food abundance, and a mixed model analysis to test among three competing predictions: with increasing food abundance, territory size will be (1) fixed-the slope of a regression of log territory size vs. log food abundance = 0; (2) flexible and decreasing, as if individuals are defending a fixed amount of food-a slope = -1; and (3) initially compressible, but with an asymptotic minimum size-a slope between 0 and -1. We collected data from 16 studies that manipulated or measured food abundance while monitoring changes in territory size of young-of-the-year salmonids; 10 were experimental laboratory studies, whereas six were observational field studies. Overall, territory size decreased significantly with increasing food abundance; the weighted average correlation coefficient was -0.31. However, the estimated slope of the relationship between log territory size and log food abundance was only -0.23, significantly different from 0, and also significantly shallower than -1. Our estimated slope suggests that attempts to increase the density of territorial salmonids by increasing food abundance and reducing territory size will be inefficient; a 20-fold increase in food abundance would be required to double population density. Our analysis may also have implications for other species with a territorial mosaic social system-i.e. contiguous territories. In these social systems, social inertia will dampen any effects

  18. Changing Endogenous Development: the Territorial Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs István Tóth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze territorial capital as a new paradigm to make best use of endogenous assets. The study is dealing with the preconditions, meaning and possible theoretical taxonomies of territorial capital. In this study I emphasize that the cumulative effects of regional potentials are more important than economies of scale and location factors. I present different approaches and interpretations of territorial capital, then make an attempt to create an own model. I try to find answers for questions, such as why territorial capital shows a new perspective of urban and regional development; how cognitive elements of territorial capital provide increasing return; how territorial capital influences competitiveness and what kind of relation it has with cohesion.

  19. Territoriality of feral pigs in a highly persecuted population on Fort Benning, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparklin, B.D.; Mitchell, M.S.; Hanson, L.B.; Jolley, D.B.; Ditchkoff, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined home range behavior of female feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in a heavily hunted population on Fort Benning Military Reservation in west-central Georgia, USA. We used Global Positioning System location data from 24 individuals representing 18 sounders (i.e., F social groups) combined with markrecapture and camera-trap data to evaluate evidence of territorial behavior at the individual and sounder levels. Through a manipulative experiment, we examined evidence for an inverse relationship between population density and home range size that would be expected for territorial animals. Pigs from the same sounder had extensive home range overlap and did not have exclusive core areas. Sounders had nearly exclusive home ranges and had completely exclusive core areas, suggesting that female feral pigs on Fort Benning were territorial at the sounder level but not at the individual level. Lethal removal maintained stable densities of pigs in our treatment area, whereas density increased in our control area; territory size in the 2 areas was weakly and inversely related to density of pigs. Territorial behavior in feral pigs could influence population density by limiting access to reproductive space. Removal strategies that 1) match distribution of removal efforts to distribution of territories, 2) remove entire sounders instead of individuals, and 3) focus efforts where high-quality food resources strongly influence territorial behaviors may be best for long-term control of feral pigs.

  20. Temporal and spatial stability of red-tailed hawk territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Snyder, H.A.; Bibles, Brent D.; Estabrook, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    We mapped Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) of Puerto Rico in 1998. We combined our 1998 data with that collected during previous studies of Red-tailed Hawks in the LEF to examine population numbers and spatial stability of territorial boundaries over a 26-yr period. We also investigated potential relationships between Red-tailed Hawk territory sizes and topographic and climatic factors. Mean size of 16 defended territories during 1998 was 124.3 ?? 12.0 ha, which was not significantly different from our calculations of mean territory sizes derived from data collected in 1974 and 1984. Aspect and slope influenced territory size with the smallest territories having high slope and easterly aspects. Territory size was small compared to that reported for other parts of the species' range. In addition, there was remarkably little temporal change in the spatial distribution, area, and boundaries of Red-tailed Hawk territories among the study periods. Further, there was substantial boundary overlap (21-27%) between defended territories among the different study periods. The temporal stability of the spatial distribution of Red-tailed Hawk territories in the study area leads us to believe the area might be at or near saturation.

  1. Design Mechanism as Territorial Strategic Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current exigencies that a territory must faced in order to its’ optimalpositioning in future regional competition requires the ability to design theappropriate mechanism which better valorize the territory capability. Such aconstruct is vital for territorial sustainable development and supposes thecreation of a specific body of knowledge from distinctive local resourceexploitation and unique value creation and allocation. Territorial mechanismdesign is a typical management decision about identification, ownership andcontrol of specific strategic capabilities and their combination in a distinctiveterritorial portfolio. The most difficult responsibility is to allocate the territorialvalue added which is a source of conflict among territorial components. Ourcurrent paper research covers the basics of two complementary territorialpillars-rural and tourism potential and proves the lack of specific designmechanisms which explain the current diminishing value of Galati Brailaregion. The proposed management system, relying upon territorial controlmechanism, will ensure knowledge sharing process via collaborative learning,with the final role of appropriate territorial attractivity signals, reinforcingidentity as key factor of territorial attractability. Our paper is fully documentedon there years of data analyzing from territorial area of interest. This offers usthe necessary empiric contrasting for our proposed solution.

  2. Disentangling the effects of date, individual, and territory quality on the seasonal decline in fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärt, Tomas; Knape, Jonas; Low, Matthew; Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora

    2017-08-01

    The seasonal timing of reproduction is a major fitness factor in many organisms. Commonly, individual fitness declines with time in the breeding season. We investigated three suggested but rarely tested hypotheses for this seasonal fitness decline: (1) time per se (date hypothesis), (2) late breeders are of lower quality than early ones (individual quality hypothesis), and (3) late breeders are breeding at poorer territories than early breeders (territory quality hypothesis). We used Bayesian variance component analyses to examine reproductive output (breeding success, number fledged, and number of recruits) from repeated observations of female Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and individual territories from a 20-yr population study. The major part of the observed seasonal decline in reproductive output seemed to be driven by date-related effects, whereas female age and territory type (i.e., known indicators of temporary quality) contributed to a smaller degree. Other, persistent effects linked to individual and territory identity did not show any clear patterns on the seasonal decline in reproductive output. To better disentangle the quality effects (persistent and temporary) of individual and territory from effects caused by the deterioration of the environment we suggest a protocol combining experimental manipulation of breeding time with a variance-covariance partitioning method used here. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmida Mohd Nasir, Nor; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Up until today, Malaysia has used renewable energy technology such as biomass, solar and hydro energy for power generation and co-generation in palm oil industries and also for the generation of electricity, yet, we are still far behind other countries which have started to optimize waves for similar production. Wave power is a renewable energy (RE) transported by ocean waves. It is very eco-friendly and is easily reachable. This paper presents an assessment of wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters including waters of Sabah and Sarawak. In this research, data from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MetMalaysia) is used and is supported by a satellite imaginary obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Malaysia Remote Sensing Agency (ARSM) within the time range of the year 1992 until 2007. There were two types of analyses conducted which were mask analysis and comparative analysis. Mask analysis of a research area is the analysis conducted to filter restricted and sensitive areas. Meanwhile, comparative analysis is an analysis conducted to determine the most potential area for wave power generation. Four comparative analyses which have been carried out were wave power analysis, comparative analysis of wave energy power with the sea topography, hot-spot area analysis and comparative analysis of wave energy with the wind speed. These four analyses underwent clipping processes using Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain the final result. At the end of this research, the most suitable area to develop a wave energy converter was found, which is in the waters of Terengganu and Sarawak. Besides that, it was concluded that the average potential energy that can be generated in Malaysian territorial waters is between 2.8kW/m to 8.6kW/m.

  4. The Territory of the Screen

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    Derek Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking Owen Sheers’s novel, I Saw a Man and its representation of a drone strike in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas as its point of departure, this essay explores three ways in which the killing of an individual from thousands of miles away depends upon a series of screens through which the United States asserts, enacts, and enforces a claim over bodies-in-spaces. These are all nominally technical practices—kill lists; signals intercepts; visual feeds—whose supposed objectivity works to underwrite targeted killing as a rational and reasonable process. But they can each be read instead as part of a political technology that produces and executes ‘killable bodies’. Seen thus, the ‘territory of the screen’ diminishes and even de-materializes the corporeality of the human targets that eventually appear in its sights.

  5. 31 CFR 515.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 515.322 Section 515.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.322 Authorized trade territory; member of the...

  6. 31 CFR 500.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 500.322 Section 500.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 500.322 Authorized trade territory; member of the...

  7. The collective action problem in primate territory economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Erik P; Hellriegel, Barbara; van Schaik, Carel P

    2013-05-22

    Group-living animals often do not maintain territories, but instead have highly overlapping ranges, even though in principle these are economically defendable. We investigate whether this absence of range defence reflects a collective action problem, since a territory can be considered a public good. In a comparative analysis comprising 135 primate species, we find a positive association between range overlap and group size, controlling for economic defendability and phylogenetic non-independence. We subsequently demonstrate that groups with multiple adults of both sexes suffer levels of range overlap twice as high as groups with only a single adult representative of either sex, consistent with the presence of a collective action problem. Finally, we reveal that this collective action problem can be overcome through philopatry of the larger sex. These results suggest that a social complication of group living is a stronger determinant of between-group relations among social animals than ecological factors, but also that collective defence is still achieved where the dominant sex is philopatric and effective defence is critical to reproductive success and survival. In addition, our findings support the idea that human-like warfare, defined as escalated collective territorial conflict, has an evolutionary basis reflected by cases of convergent evolution among non-human primates.

  8. Associations between omega-3 fatty acids, selenium content, and mercury levels in wild-harvested fish from the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Ellen S; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Kornobis, Katherine M; Hanning, Rhona M; Majowicz, Shannon E; Liber, Karsten; Stark, Ken D; Low, George; Swanson, Heidi K; Laird, Brian D

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the risks and benefits of eating wild-harvested fish from the Northwest Territories, Canada, levels of total mercury (HgT) and selenium (Se) and composition of omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) were measured in muscle tissue of fish harvested from lakes in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Average HgT levels ranged from 0.057 mg/kg (cisco) to 0.551 mg/kg (northern pike), while average n-3 FA concentrations ranged from 101 mg/100 g (burbot) to 1,689 mg/100 g (lake trout). In contrast to HgT and n-3 FA, mean Se concentrations were relatively similar among species. Consequently, species such as lake whitefish, cisco, and longnose sucker displayed the highest nutrient levels relative to HgT content. Levels of HgT tended to increase with fish size, while Se and n-3 FA levels were typically not associated with fork length or fish weight. Interestingly, HgT concentration was occasionally inversely related to tissue nutrient content. Significant negative correlations were observed between Hg and n-3 FA for lake trout, northern pike, and walleye. There were also significant negative correlations between Hg and Se noted for lake whitefish, cisco, and northern pike. Samples with the highest nutritional content displayed, on occasion, lower levels of HgT. This study provides valuable information for the design of probabilistic models capable of refining public health messaging related to minimizing Hg risks and maximizing nutrient levels in wild-harvested fish in the Canadian subarctic.

  9. OPEN DISCUSSION ON TERRITORIALITY The discussion was ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estes observed a very similar situation in the wildebeest and he recalled that Single territorial bulls kept their territory in the Ngorongoro crater for months and even years. However, in the neighbouring Serengeti Plains, the wildebeest moved permanently. As this has been ~iscussed al- ready, it will not be repeated here; the ...

  10. TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR OF THE TSESSEBE (DAMALISCUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR OF THE TSESSEBE (DAMALISCUS LUNA TUS. LUNA TUS ... paper is, furthermore, limited to the behavioural aspects of territorial organisation in the species. From a game ... pardus), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), wild dog (Lycaon pictus), hyena (Crocuta crocuta) to the black-backed jackal ...

  11. Territoriality and breeding success in Gurney's sugarbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 25 %of pairs laid eggs, and mating appears to have been constrained by low nectar and arthropod energy availability, and the costs associated with the defence of large territories. Reproductive success was directly related to arthropod availability on territories, with pairs not even appearing to attempt breeding if this is ...

  12. Enforcing order : Territorial reach and maritime piracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daxecker, U.; Prins, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies of piracy focus attention on the institutional determinants of maritime piracy, but neglect variation in governments’ reach over territory. We argue that the effect of state capacity on piracy is a function of states’ ability to extend authority over the country’s entire territory.

  13. Cohesion policy contributing to territorial cohesion : Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.; Peyrony, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper first discusses the present and uncertain future of EU Cohesion policy. The Barca Report argues for all developmental policies, including EU Cohesion policy, to be place-based. This makes for territorial cohesion becoming an important element in the equation. Territory is after all the

  14. EU Territorial Impact Assessment : Under What Conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, W.; Waterhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the start of the making of the ESDP, back in 1989, there has been interest in a ‘Territorial impact assessment’. This interest has been revamped now that the Territorial Cohesion green paper is out. Yet, at the EU level there is still little guidance on how a TIA might be done and on what it

  15. Enduring territoriality: South African immigration control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.

    2008-01-01

    We can evaluate the potential for fundamental change in modern territorial norms by studying the evolving governance of international migration. Many policy-makers have sought to limit unwanted migration by adopting new strategies for controlling access to state territory. Some states have

  16. A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW OF TERRITORIAL COHESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VASILESCU (DUMITRASCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion is a complex concept that cannot be explained by a single definition. During the previous decades, territorial issues represented, undoubtedly, subjects of interest for various policy documents, actions and funding of the European Union, but the asymmetric impact of recent global crisis, doubled by the launch of the Green Paper (2008 and its inclusion in the Lisbon Treaty, in 2009, has underlined the importance of territorial cohesion, as one of the three main pillars of the new cohesion policy. In this context, this article tries to create a holistic perspective on territorial cohesion by analyzing the available studies and to determine its relevance to the European objective of strengthening the regions, promoting territorial integration and producing coherent policies, thus contributing to the sustainable development and global competitiveness of the European Union.

  17. Territory and management of social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldaíza Sposati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article developed in three movements. The territory building is historical construction and distinguishes this reading of which treat the territory as a place, a coverage area under a given geographic boundary. Assigns key character that distinction for the examination of the relationship territory and social policy. Shows that she is not limited to location of social equipment, and distinguishes it from the social policies operation format without territory, whose management logic is standardized, have homogeneous character of procedures, with similarity to financial agencies operation. In the second movement puts in scene the relationship between institutional agents of social services and the citizens who use them for lives being him. Finally highlights the constituent elements of that relationship as: the recognition of heterogeneity as an expression of singular identities; and the territory trajectory constitution that focuses of living on it, and these influenced by these trajectories.

  18. TERRITORIAL AND NON-TERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: “ROMANIAN PARADOX”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN JURA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Whereas in Romania there are 19 national minorities officially acknowledged by Romanian state, up to present, one did not manage to adopt a special law of national minorities. We identify special disposals related to national minorities in Romanian Constitution, in the law of local public administration, the law of education, the law concerning the election of the Chamber of Deputies and Senate, the law related to political parties, the law for the election of the authorities of local public administration, the law concerning the combating of all forms of discrimination. In the last project of the Law concerning the statute of national minorities in Romania, a new concept is introduced: cultural autonomy of minorities. The cultural autonomy is a form of non-territorial autonomy. Nevertheless, Romania is criticised by some international organisations for the fact that the organisations of national minorities represented in the Parliament of Romania have instituted a monopole, therefore no other organisation of any minority is allowed to participate to the elections.

  19. Extra-territorial movements differ between territory holders and subordinates in a large, monogamous rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank

    2017-11-10

    Territorial animals carry out extra-territorial movements (forays) to obtain pre-dispersal information or to increase reproductive success via extra-pair copulation. However, little is known about other purposes and spatial movement patterns of forays. In this study, we GPS-tagged 54 Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), a year-round territorial, monogamous mammal, during the non-mating season. We investigated forays in territory-holding breeders (dominants) and non-breeding (subordinate) family members. Twenty of 46 dominant individuals (44%), and 6 of 10 subordinates (60%) conducted forays. Generally, beavers spent between 0 and 11% of their active time on forays, travelled faster and spend more time in water when on forays compared to intra-territorial movements, suggesting that forays are energetically costly. Further, beavers in smaller territories conducted more forays. Possibly, smaller territories might not have sufficient resources and thus dominant individuals might conduct forays to assess possibilities for territory expansion, and potentially for foraging. Generally, besides territory advertisement (e.g. via scent-marking), forays might serve as an additional mechanism for territory owners to assess neighbours. Subordinates spent more time on forays, moved greater distances and intruded into more territories than dominant individuals did, suggesting that they prospected to gain information on the population density and available mates before dispersal.

  20. Clusters - Territorial Networks. Where to?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Nicoleta Radu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has led to an increased international trade relations between organizations spatially separated. This determined a greater spatial differentiation influenced by local and regional competition production systems. Territoriality has been considered as the main cause for the development of active areas, explaining also the success of certain local systems of production that became competitive on a global scale. The new school of regional competitiveness promoted by Porter (2003 identifies the cluster industry as a source of competitive advantages, supporting the identification and cluster setting – up as an objective of the public policy. In the last few years, clusters became an important basis for the new policies promoted at the level of the European Union. The challenges established through the Lisbon Strategy, respectively “to make the Europe the most competitive and dynamic based knowledge economy”, determinate a new approach of the economic policy in order to increase competitiveness. For the regional economy, the cluster has the aim to develop new strategies focused on the economic sectors of the regional development, by taking into account sectoral advantages. However, in terms of economic activities promoted at regional level, the spatial development is an essential component for increasing EU competitiveness in terms of economic globalization trends, regional networks being considered the most advanced form of cluster in the economic sector.

  1. Wolves adapt territory size, not pack size to local habitat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Andrew M; Anderson, Morgan; Avgar, Tal; Baker, James A; Brown, Glen S; Hagens, Jevon; Iwachewski, Ed; Moffatt, Scott; Mosser, Anna; Patterson, Brent R; Reid, Douglas E B; Rodgers, Arthur R; Shuter, Jen; Street, Garrett M; Thompson, Ian D; Vander Vennen, Lucas M; Fryxell, John M

    2015-09-01

    1. Although local variation in territorial predator density is often correlated with habitat quality, the causal mechanism underlying this frequently observed association is poorly understood and could stem from facultative adjustment in either group size or territory size. 2. To test between these alternative hypotheses, we used a novel statistical framework to construct a winter population-level utilization distribution for wolves (Canis lupus) in northern Ontario, which we then linked to a suite of environmental variables to determine factors influencing wolf space use. Next, we compared habitat quality metrics emerging from this analysis as well as an independent measure of prey abundance, with pack size and territory size to investigate which hypothesis was most supported by the data. 3. We show that wolf space use patterns were concentrated near deciduous, mixed deciduous/coniferous and disturbed forest stands favoured by moose (Alces alces), the predominant prey species in the diet of wolves in northern Ontario, and in proximity to linear corridors, including shorelines and road networks remaining from commercial forestry activities. 4. We then demonstrate that landscape metrics of wolf habitat quality - projected wolf use, probability of moose occupancy and proportion of preferred land cover classes - were inversely related to territory size but unrelated to pack size. 5. These results suggest that wolves in boreal ecosystems alter territory size, but not pack size, in response to local variation in habitat quality. This could be an adaptive strategy to balance trade-offs between territorial defence costs and energetic gains due to resource acquisition. That pack size was not responsive to habitat quality suggests that variation in group size is influenced by other factors such as intraspecific competition between wolf packs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  2. Animal interactions and the emergence of territoriality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giuggioli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the role of interactions in territorial animals relies upon accurate recordings of the behaviour of neighbouring individuals. Such accurate recordings are rarely available from field studies. As a result, quantification of the interaction mechanisms has often relied upon theoretical approaches, which hitherto have been limited to comparisons of macroscopic population-level predictions from un-tested interaction models. Here we present a quantitative framework that possesses a microscopic testable hypothesis on the mechanism of conspecific avoidance mediated by olfactory signals in the form of scent marks. We find that the key parameters controlling territoriality are two: the average territory size, i.e. the inverse of the population density, and the time span during which animal scent marks remain active. Since permanent monitoring of a territorial border is not possible, scent marks need to function in the temporary absence of the resident. As chemical signals carried by the scent only last a finite amount of time, each animal needs to revisit territorial boundaries frequently and refresh its own scent marks in order to deter possible intruders. The size of the territory an animal can maintain is thus proportional to the time necessary for an animal to move between its own territorial boundaries. By using an agent-based model to take into account the possible spatio-temporal movement trajectories of individual animals, we show that the emerging territories are the result of a form of collective animal movement where, different to shoaling, flocking or herding, interactions are highly heterogeneous in space and time. The applicability of our hypothesis has been tested with a prototypical territorial animal, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes.

  3. Territorial fiscal control. Diagnostic and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ariel Sanchez-Torres

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This document contains the research results of the territorial fiscal control improvement proposal project, developed  by  Rosario  University  with  the support by  the  German Technical Cooperation Agency (GTZ. In short, it analyzes and identifies the principal problems of the Colombian territorial fiscal control system on the first level, (Contraloría General de la República Office, Departmental, Municipal and District Controller Offices offering a general view of the performance and the distribution of responsibilities between the different fiscal control bodies. The document is structured as follows: l introduction and constitutional scheme of the fiscal control system, 2 a description of the distribution of responsibilities between the different fiscal control bodies, 3 the development of territorial fiscal control with reference to jurisprudence,  4 territorial fiscal control, 5 quality of territorial fiscal control and 6 reform proposals and conclusions. Among the proposals  analyzed  in this  project  we  have,  the depoliticization  on  the election of the employees in charge of territorial fiscal control, the financing necessary to realize that control, sourced from territorial entities own resources and the achievement of economies of scale thought the merging of control bodies; Another proposal involves the integration of territorial fiscal control with the second level control by means of .the application of support mechanism to the control function exercise by Contraloría General de la República Office, and a improvement of information systems, indicators and evaluations applied by territorial controller offices.

  4. The distribution of life cycle stages of two deep-water pleuronectids, Dover sole ( Microstomus pacificus) and rex sole ( Glyptocephalus zachirus), at the northern extent of their range in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Bailey, Kevin M.

    2007-02-01

    Dover sole ( Microstomus pacificus) and rex sole ( Glyptocephalus zachirus) are both commercially valuable, long-lived pleuronectids that are distributed widely throughout the North Pacific. While their ecology and life cycle have been described for southern stocks, few investigations have focused on these species at higher latitudes. We synthesized historical research survey data among critical developmental stages to determine the distribution of life cycle stages for both species in the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Bottom trawl survey data from 1953 to 2004 (25 519 trawls) were used to characterize adult distribution during the non-spawning and spawning seasons, ichthyoplankton data from 1972 to 2003 (10 776 tows) were used to determine the spatial and vertical distribution of eggs and larvae, and small-meshed shrimp trawl survey data from 1972 to 2004 (6536 trawls) were used to characterize areas utilized by immature stages. During the non-spawning season, adult Dover sole and rex sole were widely distributed from the inner shelf to outer slope. While both species concentrated on the continental slope to spawn, Dover sole spawning areas were more geographically specific than rex sole. Although spawned in deep water, eggs of both species were found in surface waters near spawning areas. Dover sole larvae did not appear to have an organized migration from offshore spawning grounds toward coastal nursery areas, and our data indicated facultative settling to their juvenile habitat in winter. Rex sole larvae progressively moved cross-shelf toward shore as they grew from April to September, and larvae presumably settled in coastal nursery areas in the autumn. In contrast with studies in the southern end of their range, we found no evidence in the GOA that Dover or rex sole have pelagic larval stages longer than nine months; however, more sampling for large larvae is needed in winter offshore of the continental shelf as well as sampling for newly settled larvae over

  5. Rural territorial dynamics in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Chiriboga

    2013-01-01

    This article draws from the preliminary findings of an ongoing appliedresearch program on rural territorial dynamics carried out by the Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP). The article provides some initial findings on 4 territories, of the 11 territories that are part of the overall study. The case studies include the island of Chiloé in southern Chile, the province of Tungurahua in Ecuador, a dairy farm region of Santo Tomás Nicaragua and Cuatro Lagunas near Cuzco Perú. Rur...

  6. Territorial calls in the Little Owl (Athene noctua): spatial dispersion and social interplay of mates and neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Sunde, Peter; Rahbek, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of quantifying spatio-temporal and social factors affecting territorial calls in LittleOwls,we collected data on the calling behaviour of radio tracked individuals from a low-density population in Northern Jutland, Denmark. There was considerable seasonal variation in calling activity...

  7. Redes Chaco: comunicación para la sustentabilidad territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Venier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] El presente trabajo propone un acercamiento a un conjunto de prácticas y nociones que intervienen en la configuración comunicacional dinamizada por un conjunto de actores sociales que se vinculan en una organización denominada Redes Chaco, cuyo funcionamiento responde al modelo de red. Este colectivo se constituye como un espacio relacional que promueve la articulación entre organizaciones que trabajan en torno al interés por crear condiciones para la sustentabilidad territorial de una amplia región reconocida como Gran Chaco Americano (GCHA que abarca territorios del centro y norte de Argentina, y sur de Bolivia y Paraguay. El trabajo, en su interés por reconocer las prácticas comunicacionales, pone en discusión un conjunto de nociones y categorías como las de territorio, sustentabilidad, red y comunicación que aparecen como articuladoras en la organización. [en] This paper proposes an approach to a set of practices and notions that shape the communicative model of a set of social actors who are linked to an organization called Redes Chaco whose operation responds to the network model. This group was established as a relational space that promotes the articulation between organizations working around the interest in creating conditions for territorial sustainability of a large region known as Gran Chaco Americano (GCHA which covered parts of central and northern Argentina, and southern Bolivia and Paraguay. With interest to identify the communication practices, this study raises discuss a set of notions and categories such as territory, sustainability, networking and communication that appear as links in the organization.

  8. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  9. Variation in outpatient consultant physician fees in Australia by specialty and state and territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Gary L; Allen, Amy R

    2017-03-06

    To determine the mean, median and 10th and 90th percentile levels of fees and out-of-pocket costs to the patient for an initial consultation with a consultant physician; to determine any differences in fees and bulk-billing rates between specialties and between states and territories. Analysis of 2015 Medicare claims data for an initial outpatient appointment with a consultant physician (Item 110) in 11 medical specialties representative of common adult non-surgical medical care (cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, geriatric medicine, haematology, immunology/allergy, medical oncology, nephrology, neurology, respiratory medicine and rheumatology). Mean, median, 10th and 90th percentile levels for consultant physician fees and out-of-pocket costs, by medical specialty and state or territory; bulk-billing rate, by medical specialty and state/territory. Bulk-billing rates varied between specialties, with only haematology and medical oncology bulk-billing more than half of initial consultations. Bulk-billing rates also varied between states and territories, with rates in the Northern Territory (76%) nearly double those elsewhere. Most private consultations require a significant out-of-pocket payment by the patient, and these payments varied more than fivefold in some specialties. Without data on quality of care in private outpatient services, the rationale for the marked variations in fees within specialties is unknown. As insurers are prohibited from providing cover for the costs of outpatient care, the impact of out-of-pocket payments on access to private specialist care is unknown.

  10. Territorial stigmatisation and the negotiation of place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2018-01-01

    The article addresses the negotiated meaning of notorious places through a consideration of a recent tendency in Danish TV documentaries where marginalized, often peripheral, places are portrayed and debated. Based partly on sociological research about territorial stigmatisation, partly on location...

  11. Historizing the production of territorial stigmatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Troels Schultz; Delica, Kristian Nagel

    While the past decades has seen a massive political and media driven focus on neglected neighbourhoods and housing estates, bordering a moral panic, it is only recently that scholarly attention has been paid towards the territorial stigmatization of these neighbourhoods. During the last ten years...... we have witnessed a steep increase in the academic publication on Territorial stigmatization and its consequence; however there seem to be a rather large fragmentation in the different approaches, which makes for fragmented discussions and a confusing debate. Secondly the focus of the majority...... of the literature has been on the effects of territorial stigmatization rather than its actual production. This article brings structure to the debate and cast light on the production of territorial stigmatization by analysing a corpus of 119 publications from peer reviewed academic journals. Building...

  12. Territorialities of a Transnational Oil Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosn, Rania

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper explores the territoriality of the Trans-Arabian Pipeline (Tapline), a cross-border pipeline that carries Aramco crude from the wells of its sister concession in eastern Saudi Arabia to the Mediterranean. Through the case study of Tapline, I argue that territorial organization is a necessary force of production for international concessionary enterprises. Given that the flow of oil depended on the continuity of the Aramco operation, the pipeline company was ...

  13. The polymorphic, multilayered and networked urbanised territory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The discussion of the network city has in recent years been supplemented by an increasing interest in reconsidering the notion of territory. Looking into both geographical and urban design theories, we find examples of a focus on how the networks of the city not only connect them irreversibly...... in theory. The concept of The Polymorphic, Multilayered and Networked Urbanised Territory is introduced to grasp the reality experienced in European regions outside the largest and most potent versions of contemporary cities....

  14. Europeans and US nationals in Northern Andean Patagonia: new experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Matossian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has produced a relatively new type of mobility from northern countries towards Latin America. This article discusses the integration of migrants of European and US origin into Northern Andean Patagonia, a tourism-oriented area of outstanding natural beauty. The use of statistical data and qualitative-interpretative instruments shows that this migration has gained importance within the framework of «dissatisfaction-driven migration», as opposed to «deficiency-driven migration». The territorial expression of the phenomenon is not homogeneous within the region. However, the emergence of new socio-territorial and cultural processes merits analysis.

  15. Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The anti-choice lobby has expressed concern that the government may consider reviewing or reforming abortion law in Northern Ireland. The legal status of abortion is similar to that in Britain before the introduction of the 1967 Abortion Act. However, the commemoration of the 30th anniversary of abortion law reform in Britain presents an opportunity to discuss the benefits of such change in Northern Ireland. Such discussion may cause ministers to reconsider the status of abortion. Anticipating possible discussion, some anti-choice Northern Ireland Members of Parliament tabled Early Day Motion (EDM) 352 "Northern Ireland and the Abortion Act," opposing the introduction of abortion services into Northern Ireland. Member of Parliament Harry Barnes tabled an amendment to the motion noting that current abortion law in Northern Ireland violates the standards of international human rights law and that about 2000 women travel from Northern Ireland annually for abortions. EDM 352 has been signed by 17 Members of Parliament; the amendment, by 13.

  16. El reclamo territorial Ayoreo Totobiegosode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Margarita Casaccia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El proceso jurídico-administrativo abierto en 1993 ante los poderes del Estado Paraguayo para la reivindicación de una parte del territorio de los Totobiegosode, grupo local del pueblo Ayoreo, es experiencia singular en el país. En el proceso, los instrumentos jurídicos que garantizan derechos de los pueblos indígenas están sometidos a prueba no sólo en lo relativo a la coherencia de sus postulados, disposiciones y procedimientos, sino también en función a las constricciones del contexto socio-político. El trabajo expone el abordaje interdisciplinario de la gestión conjunta entre los Ayoreo Totobiegosode y profesionales no indígenas, como las distintas dimensiones administradas en la reivindicación territorial: étnica, ambiental, patrimonial cultural y de derechos humanos. La existencia de sub-grupos Totobiegosode sin contacto con la sociedad envolvente, y la transformación acelerada de la región del Chaco Paraguayo, son condiciones particulares de los trámites aún en curso.The legal-administrative process started in 1993 before the Paraguayan governmental powers to claim part of the land of the Totobiegosode, an indigenous local group of the Ayoreo people, is a unique experience in the country. In the process, the legal instruments that guarantee the rights of the indigenous people are not only tested with regards to the coherence of its principles, regulations and procedures, but also with regards to the constraints of the socio-political context. This paper explains the interdisciplinary approach of joint management between the Ayoreo Totobiegosode and non-indigenous team of professionals, such as the different aspects managed during the land claims: ethnic, environmental, cultural heritage and human rights. The existence of sub-groups of Totobiegosode without contact with the surrounding society, currently called "in isolation", and the accelerated transformation of the Paraguayan Chaco region, are particular conditions of

  17. Territory size and habitat selection of Cinnamon-breasted Rock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of our understanding of territorial behaviour in birds comes from studies of temperate species. Territoriality and factors influencing territory size of tropical birds are still poorly studied. In this study, 11 territories of the Cinnamon-breasted Rock Bunting Emberiza tahapisi were measured in the Amurum Forest Reserve ...

  18. 19 CFR 4.84 - Trade with noncontiguous territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade with noncontiguous territory. 4.84 Section 4... noncontiguous territory. (a) No foreign vessel shall depart from a port in noncontiguous territory of the United States for any other port in noncontiguous territory or for any port in any State or the District of...

  19. 49 CFR 236.534 - Entrance to equipped territory; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entrance to equipped territory; requirements. 236... Entrance to equipped territory; requirements. Where trains are not required to stop at the entrance to equipped territory, except when leaving yards and stations and speed until entering equipped territory does...

  20. Territorial choruses of giant otter groups (Pteronura brasiliensis) encode information on group identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Christina A S; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Group living animals often engage in corporate territorial defence. Territorial group vocalizations can provide information about group identity, size and composition. Neighbouring groups may use this information to avoid unfavourable direct conflicts. Giant otters are highly social and territorial animals with an elaborate vocal repertoire. They produce long-range screams when they are alert or excited, i.e. in an alarm, isolation or begging context. Long-range screams are not only produced by one individual at a time ('single screams') but also by multiple group members simultaneously, resulting in a highly conspicuous 'group chorus'. Wild giant otters regularly produce group choruses during interactions with predators, when they detect intruders in their territory or before group reunions after separation. Since single screams and especially group choruses probably contribute to the groups' corporate territorial defence, we hypothesized that group identity is encoded in single screams and group choruses. We analysed vocalizations from five wild and three captive giant otter groups and found statistical evidence for a group signature in group choruses. Results for single screams were less conclusive, which might have been caused by the comparatively lower sample size. We suggest that giant otters may gain information on group identity by listening to group choruses. Group identity likely constitutes important social information for giant otters since territory boundaries of neighbouring groups can overlap and direct inter-group conflicts are severe. Therefore, group chorusing may contribute to the mutual avoidance of members from different groups.

  1. Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Richard T. Reynolds

    1997-01-01

    The Northern Goshawk (hereafter referred to as Goshawk) is a large forest raptor, occupying boreal and temperate forests throughout the Holarctic. In North America, it breeds from Alaska to Newfoundland and south (Fig. 1). This partial migrant winters throughout its breeding range including occasionally the Great Plains and southeastern states; some...

  2. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    structure of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, detailed description of the deep structure of Caspian zone, Kur and Caspian megadepressions, identification of nappe-folded structure of the Absheron Peninsula and the Absheron threshold at the border of Middle and South Caspian, justification of the possible hydrocarbon concentration at the tectonically stratified substantial complexes of mountain and foothill areas, etc. Based on the outcomes of implemented researches, some general conclusions and schemes were drawn for some parts of the project region within the plate tectonics conceptual frameworks, to include the territories of Lesser Caucasus and South Caspian. Analysis and comparison of these data with macroseismic and instrumental data allowed us to conduct seismotectonic studies in a region and develop a new scheme of seismotectonic map with outlined recent and forecasted seismic activity. There also correlated foci zones of earthquakes with subhorizontal and subvertical borders in earth crust, which shows their structure-dynamic relationship. In the one hand, the earthquake foci zones belong to the faults of the basement which extend to sedimentary cover and their intersection knots. On the other hand, there appearing inner-block seismogenic levels, namely, in seismic generation acts all the earth crust: tectonic stress results on movements along fault zones, as well as lateral displacements along non-stable contacts of the structure-substance complexes of different competency.

  3. Hydrocarbons from Calotropis procera in northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, I.B.; Griffiths, D.J.; Home, V.; Williams, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey has been undertaken of the yield of cyclohexane-extractable compounds (biocrude') from natural stands of Calotropis procera from 39 sampling sites in northern Australia. A mean yield of 4.82% 'biocrude' (on a dry weight basis) was obtained from sites in the Northern Territory and north West Australia, against 4.13% from sites in north Queensland. There was no evidence of marked seasonal variations in yield of 'biocrude' and no variations related to soil type. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  4. Hydrocarbons from Calotropis procera in northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, I.B.; Griffiths, D.J.; Home, V.; Williams, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey has been undertaken of the yield of cyclohexane-extractable compounds ('biocrude') from natural stands of Calotropis procera from 39 sampling sites in northern Australia. A mean yield of 4.82% 'biocrude' (on a dry weight basis) was obtained from sites in the Northern Territory and north west Australia, against 4.13% from sites in north Queensland. There was no evidence of marked seasonal variations in yield of 'biocrude' and no variations related to soil type.

  5. Territory and nest site selection patterns by Grasshopper Sparrows in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are showing some of the greatest rates of decline of any North American birds, prompting measures to protect and improve important habitat. We assessed how vegetation structure and composition, habitat features often targeted for management, affected territory and nest site selection by Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) in southeastern Arizona. To identify features important to males establishing territories, we compared vegetation characteristics of known territories and random samples on 2 sites over 5 years. We examined habitat selection patterns of females by comparing characteristics of nest sites with territories over 3 years. Males selected territories in areas of sparser vegetation structure and more tall shrubs (>2 m) than random plots on the site with low shrub densities. Males did not select territories based on the proportion of exotic grasses. Females generally located nest sites in areas with lower small shrub (1–2 m tall) densities than territories overall when possible and preferentially selected native grasses for nest construction. Whether habitat selection was apparent depended upon the range of vegetation structure that was available. We identified an upper threshold above which grass structure seemed to be too high and dense for Grasshopper Sparrows. Our results suggest that some management that reduces vegetative structure may benefit this species in desert grasslands at the nest and territory scale. However, we did not assess initial male habitat selection at a broader landscape scale where their selection patterns may be different and could be influenced by vegetation density and structure outside the range of values sampled in this study.

  6. Integrated Watershed Assessment: The Northern River Basins Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, F. J.; Gummer, W. D.

    2001-05-01

    Begun in 1991 and completed in 1996, the Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) was a \\$12 M initiative established by the governments of Canada, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories to assess the cumulative impacts of development, particularly pulp mill related effluent discharges, on the health of the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. The NRBS was launched in response to concerns expressed by northern residents following the 1991 approval of the Alberta Pacific Pulp Mill in Athabasca. Although initiated by governments, the NRBS was set-up to be `arms-length' and was managed by a 25 member Study Board that represented the many interests in the basins, including industry, environmental groups, aboriginal peoples, health, agriculture, education, municipalities, and the federal, territorial and provincial governments. Overseen by an independent Science Advisory Committee, an integrated research program was designed covering eight scientific components: fate and distribution of contaminants, food chain impacts, nutrients, hydrology/hydraulics and sediment transport, uses of the water resources, drinking water quality, traditional knowledge, and synthesis/modeling. Using a 'weight of evidence' approach with a range of ecological and sociological indicators, cumulative impacts from pulp and paper-related discharges and other point and non-point sources of pollution were determined in relation to the health and contaminant levels of aquatic biota, nutrient and dissolved oxygen-related stress, hydrology and climate related changes, and human health and use of the river basins. Based on this assessment and Study Board deliberations, site-specific and basin-wide scientific and management-related recommendations were made to Ministers regarding regulatory and policy changes, basin management and monitoring options, and future research. The Study reinforces the importance of conducting ecosystem-based , interdisciplinary science and the need for public involvement in

  7. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  8. Droughts in historical times in Polish territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert; Doktor, Radoslaw

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is one of the key environmental, social and economical issues, and it is also followed by political consequences. Impact of climate conditions on countries' economy is increasingly recognized, and a lot of attention is given, both in the global scale and by the individual national governments. In years 2008-2010, at the Poland -Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute was realized the KLIMAT Project on Impact of climate change on environment, economy and society (changes, effects and methods of reducing them, conclusions for science, engineering practice and economic planning) No. POIG01-03-01-14-011/08. The project was financed by the European Union and Polish state budget in frame of Innovative Economy Operational Programme. A very wide range of research was carried out in the different thematic areas. One of them was "Natural disasters and internal safety of the country (civil and economical)." The problem of drought in Poland was developed in terms of meteorology and hydrology. "Proxy" Data Descriptions very often inform about dry years and seasons, hot periods without precipitation. Analysis of historical material allowed to extract the years that have experienced prolonged periods of high temperatures and rainfall shortages. Weather phenomenon defined as drought belongs to extreme events. This information was very helpful in the process of indexing and thus to restore the course and intensity of climatic elements in the past. The analysis covered the period from year 1000 to modern times. Due to the limited information from the period of 1000-1500 the authors focused primarily on the period from 1500 to 2010. Analysis of the collected material has allowed the development of a highly precise temporal structure of the possible occurrence of dry periods to Polish territory.

  9. Territorial Rights, Political Association, and Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Liberals conceive of territorial rights as dependent on the legitimacy of the state, which is in turn understood in terms of the state’s protection of individual rights and freedoms. Such justifications of territorial rights have difficulties in addressing the right to control immigration, which...... is therefore in need of additional justification. The paper considers Christopher Heath Wellman’s liberal proposal for justifying the right to control immigration, which understands the right as derivative of a general right to freedom of association held collectively by the people of the state. The paper...... argues that state legitimacy and freedom of political association fail to connect in the way required to justify a right to control immigration. Wellman’s argument conflates the state as an institution and the people as a political collective and elides the difference between territorial jurisdiction...

  10. Rural territorial dynamics in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chiriboga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws from the preliminary findings of an ongoing appliedresearch program on rural territorial dynamics carried out by the Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP. The article provides some initial findings on 4 territories, of the 11 territories that are part of the overall study. The case studies include the island of Chiloé in southern Chile, the province of Tungurahua in Ecuador, a dairy farm region of Santo Tomás Nicaragua and Cuatro Lagunas near Cuzco Perú. Rural areas in Latin America are characterized by their dual nature with agro-exporting enclaves linked to global value chains alongside impoverished peasant economies, leading to differentiated policy recommendations. The research attempts to find relationships between reduced poverty and inequality in winning regions, measured by three variables, with issues of access to resources, human capital, political empowerment, markets and institutions, with particular attention to innovative social coalitions.

  11. Indicadores ambientales en la Estrategia Territorial Europea

    OpenAIRE

    Colina, Arturo; Marquínez, Jorge; García, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Índice La estrategia territorial europea. El criterio ambiental para una adecuada diferenciación territorial de europa. Propuesta de indicadores ambientales para la diferencia espacial. Conclusiones. Fuentes y bibliografía. Anexo. Lista de indicadores ambientales primarios.ResumenEn las últimas décadas han sido muchos los ámbitos (economía, sociedad, cultura, agricultura, desarrollo, medio ambiente, evaluación de la calidad) en los que se utilizan indicadores para aportar parámetros fiables q...

  12. Astvrorvm Regnvm. Proyecto marco de desarrollo territorial

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Ontiyuelo, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    Astvrorvm Regnvm es un Proyecto Marco de Desarrollo Territorial que parte de la consideración del Patrimonio histórico y artístico altomedieval propio del Reino de Asturias (Ss. VIII-X), en sus diferentes manifestaciones, como activo para el desarrollo, promoción y generación de riqueza social y económica. Para ello tomamos una óptica de gestión territorial, con el objetivo de integrar e interrelacionar sinergias de espacios fragmentados, dispares en sus caracteres geográficos, pero íntimamen...

  13. MAXIMUM RUNOFF OF THE FLOOD ON WADIS OF NORTHERN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    length (El-Hamman, Isser, Summam, El-Karib, etc.). Maximum runoff of the flood on wadis of northern part of Algeria is examined in this work. This is mountain territory with difficult and various relief. Amplitude of height variation. (from 0 up to 2328 m) defines variety of climatic zones, soils and vegetation, which have an.

  14. Tax Collection in Northern Ghana during British Colonail Rule (1898 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... century. The work considers the nature of taxation, methods employed in the collection of the tax, the expenditure and the effects of taxation on the traditional social life of the people. The delay and temporal abolition of taxation had dire consequences for Northern Territories. Archival material was obtained ...

  15. OBSERVATIONS ON TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SPRINGBOK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thomasi, and Estes (1969) for wildebeest. Quantitative study of daily activity of territorial males. Methods. The method used by Spinage (1968) during his study of the Uganda defassa waterbuck was adopted. The activities of springbok were divided into their most basic daily components as follows: grazing; ruminating ...

  16. Incorporating territory compression into population models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, J; Komdeur, J; Sutherland, WJ; Sutherland, William J.

    The ideal despotic distribution, whereby the lifetime reproductive success a territory's owner achieves is unaffected by population density, is a mainstay of behaviour-based population models. We show that the population dynamics of an island population of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus

  17. Mistaking the Map for the Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the issue of the semantics of chemical symbolism in introductory chemistry texts and lectures. Argues that understanding the historical context, the personal struggles of those who mapped the territory of chemistry, and how the meaning of the chemical symbols they used evolved over time are important for building a foundation for…

  18. Resolution of territorial disputes in international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Territorial disputes in international law are resolved by peaceful means, like negotiations, mediation, conciliation, arbitration and in the procedure at the International Court of Justice. Borders between states are, in practice, determined on the basis of the uti possidetis iuris principle and principle of effective control. Historical arguments for territorial acquisition are not generally accepted, because changes of borders have to be a result of democratically expressed will of states. Also, the right of people for self-determination was used in the process of decolonization for creating new states but it has emerged in later years like in the case of East Timor, as a legal title for gaining independence. Apart from the process of decolonization, the right to self-determination is rather unclear and disputable regarding its scope and content. Traditional modes of territorial acquisition still have decisive role in international law. Almost all states rely on them in order to substantiate their claims for possession of certain territories. Therefore, international courts and arbitrations cannot ignore them.

  19. Territorial structure of tourism in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez Crispín

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal the nuclei, flows and surfaces generated by tourism in Guatemala that, nowadays, constitute the basis for the promotion of the country in the international market. Following the trend in Central America, and after a long civil war, Guatemala is encouraging the growth of its tourism economy. The starting point of this research is rooted in the fact that there are only a handful of places, distributed over the Guatemalan territory, that articulate the tourist flows (constituted mainly by international visitors and onto which tourism surfaces are being constructed. We assume that this territorial structure is still weak, does not include all areas of the country and it is mostly dependant on regional emitting markets. The context of the territorial structure of tourism in Guatemala suggests that all countries in the region are competing to get access to the international tourism market and that this competition will be decided in favour of those nations that mastermind the administration of their natural and cultural resources. At the end of the text, we comment on the basics of the territorial structure found by our study.

  20. Human territoriality: an examination of a construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Wickham; Harry C. Zinn

    2001-01-01

    Human territory research has generally been focused in a variety of settings including urban neighborhoods, libraries, mall parking lots, and areas around phones in public places. It refers to an intertwined system of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors that are place specific, socially and culturally influenced, and are linked to person-place transactions dealing with...

  1. Child Homicide on the Territory of Belgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baralic, Ivanka; Savic, Slobodan; Alempijevic, Djordje M.; Jecmenica, Dragan S.; Sbutega-Milosevic, Gorica; Obradovic, Miroljub

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the incidence and other epidemiological and medico-legal characteristics of child homicide in the territory of Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all autopsies carried out at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade during a 15 year period between 1991 and 2005,…

  2. Strengthening territorial development and local management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Paraguay is a country with high levels of political and administrative centralization. Its population is unequally distributed, with both highly congested and sparsely populated regions. The territorial organizational model was hindering further development, so in 1990 a new law allowed for autonomous management of ...

  3. Politics, Global Territories and Educational Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenfil-Burgos, Rosa Nidia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that the problematization of territorial movements in the process of globalization can provide important insights to understand some educational aspects of contemporary migration, especially if the theoretical ingredients involved in the political analysis of the signifying dimension of this process are articulated…

  4. Transforming Territories (Latin America) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to support policies and programs that create greater opportunities and improve the well-being of 900,000 people living in poverty in the rural-urban territories of Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Poverty in the region Two-thirds of people in Latin America and the Caribbean live in areas that have not ...

  5. northern Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar es Salaam,. P O Box 35064, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... National Parks and neighbouring villages in northern Tanzania between 1993 and l996 (Kabigumila 1998a). Most of ..... International Congress ofChelonian Conservation. SOPTOM,. Gonfaron France. pp: ...

  6. NORTHERN GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    August-November; 1996-98 to determine the prevalence of rice pests with emphasis on diseases. Brown .... Cochliobolus miyabeanus = Drechslera oryzae) was the most predominant and most Widely distributed foliar disease of rice in northern Ghana. The disease .... develop into an onion-like gall called an onion leafor.

  7. NORTHERN GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    August-November; 1996-98 to determine the prevalence of rice pests with emphasis on diseases. Brown .... Cochliobolus miyabeanus : Drechslera oryzae) was the most predominant and most widely distributed foliar disease of rice in northern Ghana. The disease .... develop into an onion-like gall called an onion leafor.

  8. Outpatient consultant physician service usage in Australia by specialty and state and territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Gary L; Allen, Amy R

    2017-12-21

    Objectives To determine national service usage for initial and subsequent outpatient consultations with a consultant physician and any variation in service-use patterns between states and territories relative to population. Methods An analysis was conducted of consultant physician Medicare claims data from the year 2014 for an initial (item 110) and subsequent consultation (item 116) and, for patients with multiple morbidities, initial management planning (item 132) and review (133). The analysis included 12 medical specialties representative of common adult non-surgical medical care (cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, general medicine, geriatric medicine, haematology, immunology and allergy, medical oncology, nephrology, neurology, respiratory medicine and rheumatology). Main outcome measures were per-capita service use by medical speciality and by state and territory and ratio of subsequent consultations to initial consultations by medical speciality and by state and territory. Results There was marked variation in per-capita consultant physician service use across the states and territories, tending higher than average in New South Wales and Victoria, and lower than average in the Northern Territory. There was variation between and within specialties across states and territories in the ratio of subsequent consultations to initial consultations. Conclusion Significant per-capita variation in consultant physician utilisation is occurring across Australia. Future studies should explore the variation in greater detail to discern whether workforce issues, access or economic barriers to care, or the possibility of over- or under-servicing in certain geographic areas is leading to this variation. What is known about the topic? There are nearly 11million initial and subsequent consultant physician consultations billed to Medicare per year, incurring nearly A$850million in Medicare benefits. Little attention has been paid to per-capita variation in rates of

  9. Peasant territoriality in the South of Argentina. Productive and labour changes as forms of resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bendini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a context of territorial expansion of capital and social changes in rural life, the article addresses the issue of the persistence of peasant producers in northern Patagonia (Argentina and the development of various adaptive strategies as a form of resistance expulsion as producers. The changes are researched not only in households but also in the areas of life and work of those producers who call themselves "crianceros" in two regions of extensive livestock export oriented, wool and mohair hair. The cases show that the territorial expansion of capital involves social dynamics that go beyond productive and institutional transformations. Family strategies are more complex and also generate changes in other levels of rurality, in the mobility, in the habitat, in the activities of the countryside and towns, in the horizons of rural life. 

  10. Territorial behaviour of the Tsessebe ( Damaliscus lunatus lunatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damaliscus lunatus lunatus Burchell) presently being undertaken in the Kruger National Park. Territorial demarcation and maintenance is achieved by various ritualized displays and marking techniques. Territory marking includes both visual and ...

  11. Northern Pintail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert G.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Guyn, Karla L.; Haukos, David A.; Austin, Jane E.; Miller, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout fall and winter.Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often far from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season.Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in the early 1970s to less than 3 million in

  12. 20 CFR 655.2 - Territory of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territory of Guam. 655.2 Section 655.2... Workers) § 655.2 Territory of Guam. Subpart A of this part does not apply to temporary employment in the Territory of Guam, and the Department of Labor (Department or DOL) does not certify to the USCIS of DHS the...

  13. 19 CFR 146.61 - Constructive transfer to Customs territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive transfer to Customs territory. 146.61... Constructive transfer to Customs territory. The port director shall accept receipt of any entry in proper form... constructively transferred to Customs territory at that time, even though the merchandise remains physically in...

  14. Territory choice during the breeding tenure of male sedge warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Tadeusz; Bielański, Wojciech; Solarz, Wojciech

    2011-12-01

    A territorial male can shift the location of its territory from year to year in order to increase its quality. The male can base its decision on environmental cues or else on its breeding experiences (when territory shift is caused by breeding failure in previous seasons). We tested these possible mechanisms of territory choice in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), a territorial migrating passerine that occupies wetlands. This species bases its territory choices on an environmental cue: tall wetland vegetation cover. We found that the magnitude of territory quality improvement between seasons (measured as the area of tall wetland vegetation) increased throughout the early stages of a male's breeding career as a result of territory shifts dependent on the earliness of arrival. The distance the territory was shifted between seasons depended negatively on the previous year's territory quality and, less clearly, on the previous year's mating success. On the other hand, previous mating or nesting success had no influence on territory quality improvement between seasons as measured in terms of vegetation. The results imply that tall wetland vegetation is a long-term, effective environmental cue and that a preference for territories in which this type of landcover prevails has evolved into a rigid behavioral mechanism, supplemented by short-term individual experiences of breeding failure.

  15. 49 CFR 240.229 - Requirements for joint operations territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for joint operations territory. 240... ENGINEERS Implementation of the Certification Process § 240.229 Requirements for joint operations territory... operating skills concerning the joint operations territory; and (iv) That the person certified as a...

  16. 20 CFR 655.215 - Territory of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territory of Guam. 655.215 Section 655.215... Agricultural Employment § 655.215 Territory of Guam. Subpart C of this part does not apply to temporary employment in the Territory of Guam, and the Department of Labor does not certify to the United States...

  17. 27 CFR 478.117 - Function outside a customs territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... territory. 478.117 Section 478.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Importation § 478.117 Function outside a customs territory. In the insular possessions of the United States outside customs territory, the functions performed by U.S. Customs officers under this subpart within a...

  18. 12 CFR 616.6200 - Out-of-territory leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Out-of-territory leasing. 616.6200 Section 616.6200 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.6200 Out-of-territory leasing. A System institution may make leases outside its chartered territory. ...

  19. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Pertice; Fikowski, Heather; Mauricio, Marshirette; Mackenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. Objective The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. Design This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT) and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990–2012) combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. Results Themes included: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviors; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. Conclusion When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV. PMID:23986894

  20. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertice Moffitt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. Objective. The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. Design. This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990–2012 combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. Results. Themes included: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviours; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. Conclusion. When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV.

  1. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Pertice; Fikowski, Heather; Mauricio, Marshirette; Mackenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT) and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990-2012) combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. THEMES INCLUDED: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviors; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV.

  2. Morphological patterns of urban sprawl territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica I. Stan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global criticism on urban sprawl, the questions which arises are: what can we do with the expansion forms already occurred in most part of our cities; can they be fully or partially integrated into the city? But first, which exactly are the common morphological features of urban expansion areas in large European cities, and (by comparison in Romania? The urban form correlated to these „sparwl patterns” and „sprawl mechanisms” shows more then the lack of planning, but a social input in occuping the territory, related with a specific meaning of the landscape. The paper explores the relationship between the five distinct morphological patterns ways of forming in relation to spatial and landscape shapes which they generate, in the territories of sprawl, all illustrated through case studies of Bucharest.

  3. Scenarios for active learning in smart territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Moggio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is intended to foster a “quantum leap” in the reflection on learning in smart cities/territories. We try to move from a vision according to which education is identified with “infrastructures and services” needed to sustain the smart city “organism” (due also to the social capital that it may produce toward a “new” vision that recovers the founding role of the educative processes, through which the relationships between persons and inhabited territories are continuously reshaped. According to that we present: a a strategic and methodological approach focused on museal field and narrative as key elements of future "learning from smart cities"; b a model of an advanced integrated technological environment (mobile, web, internet of things designed to support such an approach. The need for a different approach to the monitoring of complex learning experiences is also underlined.

  4. Real estate space-territorial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarchenko Vladimir Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the main sustainable tendencies of modern development. The contemporary state of real estate structure is characterized by high level of heterogeneity. In general, the consolidated design document of Moscow urban development, reconstruction and other forms of developing city territories doesn’t take into account the main tendencies of social and economic development, change of scales and structure of city production capacities, priorities of national economy development, or demand particularities, traditional and perspective preferences of citizens of different categories. The article focuses on systematization of basics of real estate space-territorial development strategic analysis. The author analyses the essence of analytical methods, their purpose, levels and analysis projections. The article emphasizes the estimation of economic effectiveness and revelation of urban environment development reserves.

  5. Pedestrian headways - Reflection of territorial social forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbálek, Milan; Hrabák, Pavel; Bukáček, Marek

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the article is to give a more detailed insight into territorial social forces acting between pedestrians by means of headway distribution and spectral rigidity. Probabilistic distribution of time headways between consecutive pedestrians is studied theoretically and experimentally. Several original experiments/empirical observations are presented and compared to data obtained from previously published experiments. The study is restricted to an unidirectional one-lane motion where overtaking is forbidden. The main stress is put on natural choices of mutual interaction represented by logarithmic and hyperbolic potentials leading to gamma and generalized inverse Gaussian distribution respectively. We show that the time headway distribution does not sufficiently reflect the differences between such distributions. The tools related to spectral rigidity and compressibility are chosen instead so as to predict the territorial social forces more accurately. Surprisingly, pedestrian flow seems to show a higher level of synchronization (lower compressibility) than vehicular flow.

  6. From Territorial Defence to Expeditionary Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe; Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    2016-01-01

    After the Cold War the Danish Armed Forces moved away from its traditional role of territorial defense of Danish soil and towards a role as a globally deployable expeditionary force, imbedded with UK and/or US forces. This shift in national strategy amplified the requirements of the young officers......’ ability to think and act strategically in international missions. This article discusses to what extent this has been reflected in the education of the young officers....

  7. Negotiation of territorial boundaries in a songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehrencamp, Sandra L; Ellis, Jesse M; Cropp, Brett F; Koltz, John M

    2014-11-01

    How do territorial neighbors resolve the location of their boundaries? We addressed this question by testing the predictions of 2 nonexclusive game theoretical models for competitive signaling: the sequential assessment game and the territorial bargaining game. Our study species, the banded wren, is a neotropical nonmigratory songbird living in densely packed territorial neighborhoods. The males possess repertoires of approximately 25 song types that are largely shared between neighbors and sequentially delivered with variable switching rates. Over 3 days, boundary disputes among pairs of neighboring males were synchronously recorded, their perch positions were marked, and their behavioral interactions were noted. For each countersinging interaction between 2 focal males, we quantified approach and retreat order, a variety of song and call patterns, closest approach distance, distance from the territorial center, and female presence. Aggressors produced more rattle-buzz songs during the approaching phase of interactions, whereas defenders overlapped their opponent's songs. During the close phase of the interaction, both males matched frequently, but the key determinant of which one retreated first was song-type diversity-first retreaters sang with a higher diversity. Retreaters also produced more unshared song types during the interaction, and in the retreating phase of the interaction, they overlapped more. A negative correlation between song-type diversity asymmetry and contest duration suggested sequential assessment of motivational asymmetry. The use of this graded signal, which varied with distance from the center and indicated a male's motivation to defend a particular position, supported the bargaining model. The bargaining game could be viewed as a series of sequential assessment contests.

  8. Mapping superficial lymphatic territories in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Miranda, Miguel A; Suami, Hiroo; Chang, David W

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the anatomy of the lymphatic system in the rabbit with regard to relationships between the lymphatic vessel and lymph node. According to our previous studies in human cadavers and canines, the superficial lymphatic system could be divided into lymphatic territories. The aim of this study was to completely map the superficial lymphatic system in the rabbit. We used our microinjection technique and histological analysis for dissecting studies and recently developed indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography for demonstrating dynamic lymph flow in living rabbits. Real-time ICG fluorescent lymphography was performed in two living New Zealand White rabbits, and direct dye microinjection of the lymphatic vessels was performed in eight dead rabbits. To assess the relationships between the vascular and lymphatic systems in rabbits, we performed radiocontrast injection into arteries in two dead rabbits prior to the lymphatic injection. The ICG fluorescent lymphography revealed eight lymphatic territories in the preauricular, submandibular, root of the lateral neck, axillary, lumbar, inguinal, root of the tail, and popliteal regions. We injected blue acrylic dye into every lymphatic vessel 0.1 mm in diameter or larger. We then dissected and chased the stained lymphatic vessels proximally until the vessels connected to the first tier lymph node. This procedure was repeated throughout the body until all the relationships between the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes were defined. The lymphatic system of the rabbit could be defined as eight lymphatic territories, each with its own lymphatic vessels and lymph node. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  10. Territory holders and non-territory holders in Ayu fish coexist only in the population growth process due to hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Yuki; Uehara, Takashi; Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin; Tainaka, Kei-Ichi; Ichinose, Genki

    2017-12-01

    Ayu fish form feeding territories during a non-breeding (growing) season. When the density of the fish increases, phases gradually change. In the early growing season, all fish can hold territories at low density. Once all territory sites are occupied, newcomers become floaters. As the density further increases, territory holders have to spend much more time in defending their own territory and lose the time to feed on algae. Eventually, all fish give up their own territories and then form a school. In contrast, when the density decreases, territories are directly reformed from the school. In short, ayu fish exhibit a different transition, called hysteresis, where the two transitions occur widely-apart from each other. The dynamics of this intrinsic phenomena has not been demonstrated in previous studies. We develop a rate equation to describe the population dynamics within territorial competition. Our model successfully reproduces territorial hysteresis and indicates that territory holders and floaters can coexist only in the process of population growth. Moreover, we also find that the two critical densities of territorial hysteresis are conspicuously different from each other when the increase of the density of floaters sharply influences (step-function-like) the territories.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF URBAN BUILT ENVIRONMENT QUALITY ON THE URBANIZED TERRITORIES: INTERREGIONAL COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovsiannikova T. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The urbanization and growth of a cities role, formation of cities as reference points of regions economic development are modern global tendencies. Cities concentrate human and investment resources on their territory, so in large part cities cause competitiveness of the regions in the global market. For preservation of competitive advantages regions need to form on the urbanized territories not only the favorable environment for business, but also for the population life. This paper deals with the problem of an assessment of urban built environment quality, due to urban built environment is a space-material basis of life quality of the population on the urbanized territories. The role of the cities in social and economic development of regions and their considerable influence on competitiveness of territories in the global competition for economic resources are proved. The method of assessment of urban built environment quality on the basis of calculation of an integrated index is proposed. Interregional comparisons on the example of regions of the Siberian and Ural Federal districts are completed. The offered method of assessment of urban built environment quality allows to range the urbanized territories on usefulness for living, to reveal most and the least developed spheres of city infrastructure.

  12. Theoretical Results of Research on Spatial and Territorial Development (on Examples of the North of European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Nikolayevich Lazhentsev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the relationship between the concepts of “spatial” and “territorial” development. It is shown that these concepts are different in their content, but at the same time greatly complement each other in the specific studies. Only in the category of “spatial development”, there are general directions of productive forces, the geographical dimension of a certain type of activity, the economic measurement of distances, line communications and other network structure of the economy. The author includes to the concept of “territorial development” the territory itself as an area of natural and economic capital and territorial management based on it. The study of the spatial and territorial aspects of socio-economic development of the European North of Russia has shown that its immediate future is connected not only to the large projects of creation of new fuel and energy, mineral and timber bases but with the improvement of the existing economic systems on the basis of scientific and technological progress and inter-regional integration. The moving from the developed territories to new Arctic and northern locations is associated with huge costs and requires time for scientific and technical preparations. The modernization of existing industries and clusters is a priority in the development of the productive forces of the European North of Russia. Theoretical and practical recommendations as a result of the study of the spatial and territorial development can be applied in the development of state strategic planning documents. Currently, the practice of strategic planning does not fully explain the content of the concepts of “spatial development” and “territorial development”. And this incompleteness is so essential that its overcoming should be seen as one of the major objectives of regional policy.

  13. Assessment of auditory distance in a territorial songbird: accurate feat or rule of thumb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib; Klump; Hillmann; Grießmann; Teige

    2000-04-01

    Territorial passerines presumably benefit from their ability to use auditory cues to judge the distance to singing conspecifics, by increasing the efficiency of their territorial defence. Here, we report data on the approach of male territorial chaffinches, Fringilla coelebs, to a loudspeaker broadcasting conspecific song simulating a rival at various distances by different amounts of song degradation. Songs were degraded digitally in a computer-simulated forest emulating distances of 0, 20, 40, 80 and 120 m. The approach distance of chaffinches towards the loudspeaker increased with increasing amounts of degradation indicating a perceptual representation of differences in distance of a sound source. We discuss the interindividual variation of male responses with respect to constraints resulting from random variation of ranging cues provided by the environmental song degradation, the perception accuracy and the decision rules. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  14. INVENTORY OF CRANES AND THEIR MODERN STATE ON THE TERRITORY OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Vilkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of information from literary sources for the last 132 years together with the data of the author's records and interviews show presence of three crane species on the territory of Dagestan: the Siberian crane, the common crane and the demoiselle crane. Periods and routes of passage, stays and approximate number of migrating and nesting cranes have been studied. To maintain the crane population on the territory of the republic it is necessary to conserve natural landscapes in the demoiselle crane habitats and in places of temporary stay of the common and Siberian cranes; to establish resting places and enrich forage reserve in areas of the common crane concentration on flyways; to create a net of artificial pools (on the basis of artesian boreholes in semi-desert steppe landscapes of northern Dagestan in order to conserve and control demoiselle crane population; to promote explanatory and educational work among the local population for the purpose of crane conservation on the territory of the republic.

  15. Vocal output predicts territory quality in a Neotropical songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Lilian Tonelli; Maia, Rafael; Dias, Alexandre; Podos, Jeffrey; Macedo, Regina H

    2014-11-01

    Females who choose highly ornamented mates may gain resources that improve offspring production and survival. Studies have focused on the relationship between male quality and the complexity of sexual ornaments; however, less is known of the communicative content of courtship displays, and whether they indicate the quality of resources males can provide to mates. Here, we used blue-black grassquits (Volatinia jacarina) to test the relationship between male display attributes and territory quality, measured as food availability. Our main hypothesis was that territory quality would be better predicted by dynamic displays than by static ornaments. During four breeding seasons in central Brazil, we quantified display song attributes (output and consistency) and the timing of nuptial molt. We measured territorial seed density, body condition, and ectoparasite infestation. We found a positive relationship between song output and territory seed density, suggesting this attribute provides a reliable indicator of territory quality. However, the timing of molt was unrelated to territory quality. Additionally, no other male attribute was associated with seed density. The link between song output and territory quality might reflect variation in male condition in response to territorial resources, or extra time males on higher quality territories have to invest in territorial defense. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Testosterone affects song modulation during simulated territorial intrusions in male black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Apfelbeck

    Full Text Available Although it has been suggested that testosterone plays an important role in resource allocation for competitive behavior, details of the interplay between testosterone, territorial aggression and signal plasticity are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated if testosterone acts specifically on signals that communicate the motivation or ability of individuals to engage in competitive situations in a natural context. We studied the black redstart, a territorial songbird species, during two different life-cycle stages, the early breeding phase in spring and the non-breeding phase in fall. Male territory holders were implanted with the androgen receptor blocker flutamide (Flut and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Let to inhibit the action of testosterone and its estrogenic metabolites. Controls received a placebo treatment. Three days after implantation birds were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion (STI. Song was recorded before, during and after the challenge. In spring, both treatment groups increased the number of elements sung in parts of their song in response to the STI. However, Flut/Let-implanted males reacted to the STI with a decreased maximum acoustic frequency of one song part, while placebo-implanted males did not. Instead, placebo-implanted males sang the atonal part of their song with a broader frequency range. Furthermore, placebo-, but not Flut/Let-implanted males, sang shorter songs with shorter pauses between parts in the STIs. During simulated intrusions in fall, when testosterone levels are naturally low in this species, males of both treatment groups sang similar to Flut/Let-implanted males during breeding. The results suggest that song sung during a territorial encounter is of higher competitive value than song sung in an undisturbed situation and may, therefore, convey information about the motivation or quality of the territory holder. We conclude that testosterone facilitates context-dependent changes

  17. territorial previa a la toma de decisiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Raúl Ruiz Pulpón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La expansión de la agricultura de regadío ha ocasionado una signifi cativa confl ictividad ecológica, económica y social concerniente al uso del agua en la cuenca del Guadiana. Ante la ausencia, en estos últimos treinta años, de enfoques territoriales y sistémicos para la resolución de la problemática, se propone una metodología que permite la clasifi cación territorial de los municipios de la cuenca hidrográfi ca del Guadiana que presenten unas características similares de sus regadíos, con el objeto de plantear un modelo espacial previo a la toma de decisiones sobre la gestión de los recursos hídricos, agrarios y ambientales en Castilla-La Mancha, en consonancia con los preceptos estipulados por la Directiva Marco de Aguas y la Estrategia Territorial Europea

  18. Pigs leptospirosis at the territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations of pig blood samples have been carried out at public pig farms in three Belgrade municipalities: Palilula, Surcin and Obrenovac. The number of tested blood serums of pigs at Palilula was 18990, in Surcin 7739 and in Obrenovac it was 8200. The number of positive blood serums on leptospirosis in pigs was 760, and out of that number the most positive samples (496 were in Surcin, followed by Palilula (217, and the least were found in Obrenovac (47. In the period from 2000 to 2009, there were tested 34929 blood serums of pigs from farms located at the territory of Belgrade. For the investigations there was used the microscopic agglutination test (MAT on seven varieties of L. interrogans: L. pomona, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, L. grippotyphosa, L. sejroe, L. canicola, L. bataviae and L. australis. Seropositivity in pigs was determined in 760 blood serums, or in 2.17%. Leptospirosis prevalence was not very high, but it was constant, which indicates that leptospirosis infection maintained at the territory of Belgrade for ten years throughout our continual investigation.

  19. Living the territoriality: Mapuche tourism and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Rommens

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Mapuche entrepreneurs are shaping the landscape of tourism in southern Chile in the context of indigenous development. Based on ethnographic research in and around Lican Ray, we looked at the impacts of Mapuche tourism ventures on development and deterritorialisation. Furthermore, we consider Mapuche tourism as a strategy of resistance in response to the deepening displacement of Mapuche population and the loss of traditional cultural values. The first section means to give an overview of the complexity of issues regarding (indigenous tourism and development as well as to introduce Mapuche tourism practices. Next, dealing with notions as territoriality and collectivism, we argue that Mapuche entrepreneurs are reappropriating Mapuche culture for development. Mapuche tourism is mobilising alternative ways for development, being and relating to the profound relationship they have with their territory and environment in accordance to their worldview. Finally, following the theories of anthropologists Charles Hale and James Scott, we show how Mapuche tourism is shaped in globalisation through Chile’s neoliberal policy. However, the Mapuche indigenous people active in tourism demonstrate that they possess the agency to construct strategies of ‘cultural resistance’. This article brings new perspectives to the study of indigenous tourism and development and represents Mapuche tourism as an opportunity for both indigenous development and resistance.

  20. Young (inscene: art, culture and territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Akemi Takeiti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the importance of aesthetic inventions on modes of youth subjectivity in the vulnerability and violence contexts. It also intends to reflect on how the actions undertaken by these youth can cut across the discussion between occupational therapy and culture. Therefore, we worked with some fragments of life stories of three young people engaged in cultural collective distinctive - marginal literature soiree, hip hop movement and audiovisual production - in the districts of Brasilândia and Vila Nova Cachoeirinha in the north of the city of São Paulo, whose we could follow through ethnographic incursions in protagonized cultural activities or in which they participate and oral history interviews. The youth subjectivities productions has been configured as a live territory marked not only by poverty and violence experiences, but, also by collective and creative productions, a brand new life style through aesthetic inventions in the periphery where the stigma of being young, negro and poor gives place to an emblem: the pride of being from the periphery. This emblematic territory is highlighted in cultural collective, particularly in Sarau Poetry Brasa and Cinescadão, two strategies of art and culture that invoke an experience resistance, transforming the experiences of violence and vulnerability that are experienced on the outskirts, in ethical, aesthetic and policies practices.

  1. The Structural Geographic Components of a Territorial Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMPEI COCEAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available When using regional geographic approaches, i.e. when applying its concepts to the problems of anthropic communities from a certain territory, is compulsory. In this study we have taken into account the complex and the etymologically adequate meaning of the notion and not the meaning most commonly used at present (i.e. the functional zoning and regionalisation of the territory. Relying on the estimations of territorial surveys, one may give the solutions for the extant malfunctions and for optimising future developments. The geographic components of this parameter (the territorial survey are: the natural support basis, the population and its settlements, the social and economic development level, the technical equipment of the territory, and the extant risks and malfunctions. Indices from 1 to 10 will be summed in order to give us the big picture, namely the present-day situation and the favourability level of that territory for various anthropic interventions.

  2. Territoriality and Consumption Behaviour with Location-based Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis

    2012-01-01

    The development in location-based mobile media has led to the popularity of its use for place experiences. This study explored the concept of territoriality, which is suggested as the underlying human behaviour that influences consumers’ mobility and experience stimulated by the social gaming...... feature of location-based media. From an exploratory investigation with a series of focus group discussions with users of location-based media, this study observed the activities of territorial tagging for the purposes of territorial claim and defence to gain and maintain the perceived territorial control...... over resources and rewards attached to certain places. The ability of location-based media to make the physical territory to interact with informational devices enables territorial behaviour to manifest in the consumption of local establishments, making location-based media a powerful tool...

  3. Contact lens prescribing in the Australian states and territories 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Craig A; Morgan, Philip B

    2002-09-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain current preferences for contact lens prescribing in the Australian states and territories. One thousand questionnaires were randomly distributed to proportionate samples of optometrists in each state of Australia. We requested details of the first 10 patients fitted with contact lenses after receipt of the questionnaire. One hundred and seventy-eight completed questionnaires were returned, detailing contact lens fits to 1,611 patients. The mean age of the patient group was 32.1 +/- 13.0 yrs (65 per cent female). For Australia as a whole: 53 per cent of patients were existing wearers, the remainder were new fits; 93 per cent of new fits were with soft lenses, of which seven per cent were for extended wear. Of the refits, 89 per cent were soft lenses and 18 per cent for extended wear. The lens material of first choice was mid-water-content (62 per cent of all soft lens fits). Only eight per cent of all soft fits were for lenses that were not replaced on a planned basis, with two weeks being the replacement interval of choice in all states and territories. The majority of rigid lenses were prescribed using mid-Dk materials (50 per cent). Analysis of solution prescribing indicates that multi-purpose products were the most common regimens for planned replacement soft lenses. The percentage of hydrogen peroxide prescribed increased as lens replacement became less frequent. By state or territory: practitioners in Tasmania prescribed more extended wear than those in any other state (p = 0.007) and practitioners in Queensland prescribed more daily disposable contact lenses than those in any other state (p = 0.009). Non-planned replacement lenses are now rarely prescribed to patients. Extended-wear lenses and rigid lenses continue to be prescribed more to existing contact lens wearers than to new patients. The impact of soft multifocal lens designs on contact lens prescribing is very small, ranging from 2.6 per cent in Queensland to 4

  4. Golden Eagle Territories and Ecology at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to collect information on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) use of Site 300. During 2014, we conducted surveys at Site 300 and for an area including a 10-mile radius of Site 300. Those surveys documented 42 golden eagle territories including two territories that overlapped with Site 300. These were named ‘Tesla’ and ‘Linac Road’. In 2015, we conducted surveys to refine the territory boundaries of golden eagle territories that overlapped with Site 300 and to document eagle activity at Site 300.

  5. Multidimensional and multiscalar analisis of territorial rural development in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Schneider

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Of late, there have been several political, practical and analytical changes to our understanding of rural development. Diverse efforts have emerged in the analysis and discussion of spatial dynamics such as “rurality”, territories, in the construction of a territorial perspective of rural development. These changes in the forms of identification and measurement of rural development lead us to question the validity and effectiveness of applied methods, inviting us to establish methodologies and analytical criteria coherent with the multiple manifestations and scales of development. This article offers a multidimensional and multi-scalar analytical model for territorial rural development, using our methodology tested in four rural territories of Brazil.

  6. Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc concentrations in kidneys of grey wolves, Canis lupus, from Alaska, Idaho, Montana (USA) and the Northwest Territories (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, S R; Blunck, S A; Petersen, K N; Jones, E M; Koval, J C; Misek, R; Frick, J A; Cluff, H D; Sime, C A; McNay, M; Beckman, K B; Atkinson, M W; Drew, M; Collinge, M D; Bangs, E E; Harper, R G

    2010-11-01

    Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc levels were measured in the kidneys of 115 grey wolves (Canis lupus) from Idaho, Montana and Alaska (United States), and from the Northwest Territories (Canada). No significant differences in the levels of iron or copper were observed between locations, but wolf kidneys from more northern locations had significantly higher cadmium levels (Alaska > Northwest Territories > Montana ≈ Idaho), and wolves from Alaska showed significantly higher zinc than other locations. Additionally, female wolves in Alaska had higher iron levels than males, and adult wolves in Montana had higher copper levels than subadults.

  7. The urgency of outer territories anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of transforming a part of Serbian anthropology into social theoretic management of identity, I suggest both comparative historiographic and ethnographic learning from societies with similar post-colonial experience, with the aim to include the discipline into an urgent defense of Serbia and Belgrade from further ethno-profiteering interests of elites in/from outer territories, left over on the ruins of our ill judged, resource incompatible, exaggerated or immoral twentieth century adventures. Serbian anthropology, written by anthropologists to whom Serbia and Belgrade are "homeland" by origin or civilized choice, should play the key role in the defense of Serbian citizens from the interest of elites in/from the outer "homelands", particularly by revealing the processes for which it is, as a discipline, most expert at – the professionalization of ethnicity, interactive and hybrid nature of identity, instrumental nature of tradition and the identity politics in general. Having in mind the latest attempt, a particularly successful one, conducted by the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century that the lives, health, well-being, dignity and future of persons born in and loyal to the interest of Serbia and Belgrade, in large scale, thoroughly and long term be sacrificed and dedicated to the interests of ethno-profiteering elites in/from outer territories, in this article I point to the possibility to, along with the comparative learning from the above mentioned post-colonial experiences, delicate experiences of urgent anthropology be applied as well as the rich tradition of collective research. This text analyzes the results of first such research, that represenst the initial, praiseworthy and a brave step in the wise striving to engage social sciences and humanities in a search of expert and not mythical/daily-political solutions of the key problem of the Serbian nation – that of how to settle the interests of the

  8. Competitive interactions and resource partitioning between northern spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    The federally threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is the focus of intensive conservation efforts that have led to much forested land being reserved as habitat for the owl and associated wildlife species throughout the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Recently, however, a relatively new threat to spotted owls has emerged in the form of an invasive competitor: the congeneric barred owl (S. varia). As barred owls have rapidly expanded their populations into the entire range of the northern spotted owl, mounting evidence indicates that they are displacing, hybridizing with, and even killing spotted owls. The range expansion by barred owls into western North America has made an already complex conservation issue even more contentious, and a lack of information on the ecological relationships between the 2 species has hampered recovery efforts for northern spotted owls. We investigated spatial relationships, habitat use, diets, survival, and reproduction of sympatric spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon, USA, during 2007–2009. Our overall objective was to determine the potential for and possible consequences of competition for space, habitat, and food between these previously allopatric owl species. Our study included 29 spotted owls and 28 barred owls that were radio-marked in 36 neighboring territories and monitored over a 24-month period. Based on repeated surveys of both species, the number of territories occupied by pairs of barred owls in the 745-km2 study area (82) greatly outnumbered those occupied by pairs of spotted owls (15). Estimates of mean size of home ranges and core-use areas of spotted owls (1,843 ha and 305 ha, respectively) were 2–4 times larger than those of barred owls (581 ha and 188 ha, respectively). Individual spotted and barred owls in adjacent territories often had overlapping home ranges, but interspecific space sharing was largely restricted to broader foraging areas in the home range

  9. Jícama: Producto con Identidad Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Idrovo Avecillas

    2015-11-01

    La jícama es un producto con identidad territorial (PIT, son fragmentos de la perspectiva de tierras aptas para el cultivo, producción, comercialización sostenible que se apega al Plan Nacional del Buen Vivir, que se ajusta al cambio de la Matriz Productiva incluyendo a los sectores involucrados del país, este vegetal andino no es consumido regularmente por los ecuatorianos; los resultados obtenidos en el laboratorio nos indican que es un vegetal rico en: grasa, proteína, humedad, fibra dietética, carbohidratos totales, energía total, energía de la grasa, hierro, sodio, potasio, calcio, vitaminas, entre otras propiedades.

  10. Computerizing a house organ: recharting familiar territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Computerization can offer great advantages. But one publication ideally suited to computerization was slow to take advantage of the new technology. The main reason was reluctance to try an unfamiliar way of doing things. Having now switched to computerization, the publication has reaped many benefits. Among them: production time is faster; costs are lower; errors are fewer. Computerization has not been without minor problems. The most obvious is vulnerability to the rarity of a system failure. Others include the technology's potential reinforcement of overediting and of excessive reliance on extremely rapid response. Such problems, however, do not indicate weaknesses in the technology itself; rather, they reflect an incomplete adaption to it and the need for more realistic expectations. An unwarranted reluctance to innovate can slow advances in communication. Technical communicators must be willing to rechart their own familiar territory.

  11. Dissemination and geovisualization of territorial entities' history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Plumejeaud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative solution for geovisualization of the demographic and administrative history of French municipalities, named "communes" in French. This solution allows for the open dissemination of such data. The challenge is to provide a web interface for unskilled users in order to help them understand complex information about the demographic evolution of French territories. Our approach combines interactive thematic, spatial, and temporal views. We describe our architecture, based on open-source technologies, and the organization of this imperfect geo-historical information in our spatiotemporal database. Our second contribution concerns the concept of an acquaintance graph that has been used to obtain an efficient design with good performance in our geovisualization website.

  12. Persuasive territories in European cultural politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel; Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to view the concept of persuasive technology as a framework for discussing cultural politics on the internet. Taking digital collections as a point of departure, the cases of Europeana and Google Books are to be discussed as promoting different assemblies of information......, practice and identity politics. Through this discussion the study aims to show how the internet becomes territorialized through persuasive mechanisms. Design/methodology/approach – The study applies different concepts on the cases, derived from different fields of social theory, such as “soft power...... cultural politics. Findings – The study points through a conceptual investigation to a new scene for critically debating persuasive technology as digital cultural politics. The cases in question emphasize the relation between microscopic practices and global agendas on the internet, and the study concludes...

  13. Persuasive territories in European cultural politics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel; Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to view the concept of persuasive technology as a framework for discussing cultural politics on the internet. Taking digital collections as a point of departure, the cases of Europeana and Google Books are to be discussed as promoting different assemblies of information......, practice and identity politics. Through this discussion the study aims to show how the internet becomes territorialized through persuasive mechanisms. Design/methodology/approach – The study applies different concepts on the cases, derived from different fields of social theory, such as “soft power...... cultural politics. Findings – The study points through a conceptual investigation to a new scene for critically debating persuasive technology as digital cultural politics. The cases in question emphasize the relation between microscopic practices and global agendas on the internet, and the study concludes...

  14. The epidemiology of afebrile seizures in the pediatric population of the Trans-Baikal Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Marueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the epidemiology of afebrile seizures (ASs in the pediatric  population of the Trans-Baikal Territory in 2004 to 2013.Patients and methods. The data available in the registry of patients with epilepsy and convulsive syndromes in childhood (febrile seizures and isolated convulsion from the Trans-Baikal Territorial Antiepileptic Center (TAEC over 2004–2015 were retrospectivelyanalyzed.Results and discussion. Since the time of setting up the TAEC, the incidence of ASs in the Trans-Baikal Territory ranged from 0.23% (64 cases in 2005 to 0.49 (128 cases in 2008. The prevalence rate for ASs increased from 1.37 (431 cases in 2004 to 4.71 (1232 casesin 2013 per 1,000 pediatric population. The prevalence and incidence of ASs did not substantially differ among the children living in Chita and in the areas of the Trans-Baikal Territory. The rate of AS cases in the structure of the registry of children with epilepsy andconvulsive syndromes decreased from 94.31% in 2004 to 83.19% in 2013. ASs were prevalent in children aged 3 years and 1 month to 7 years. The AS rate ratio between the boys and girls varied from 1:1.1 to 1.1:1.

  15. Radiological monitoring of food on the French territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissieux, T.; Leprieur, F.; Pierrard, O. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (France)

    2014-07-01

    Drink the milk of cows grazing near French nuclear power plants is it really safe in normal times? In case of a nuclear accident leading to release in the environment, what kind of foodstuff can we still eat? In his regulatory mission of environmental monitoring, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) tends to answer these questions by acquiring radioactivity data in the food chain. Food radiological monitoring program by IRSN is implemented with a three scale strategy. Locally, i.e. within the range 0 to 10 kilometers of nuclear installations, foodstuff locally produced and thus potentially exposed to radioactive sources are frequently sampled and analyzed. At the regional level, specific studies are carried out to establish an updated levels baseline of radioactivity in the environment, especially in agricultural productions characteristic of the area concerned. At the national level, monitoring food aims to map the average contamination observed all around the French territory. This work of vigilance is organized in partnerships with other French actors involved in food monitoring. In the event of a nuclear accident or small-scale incidents, it would allow having an efficient support network of samplers and measurers located on the whole French territory and quickly mobilized in short or medium terms. Since 2008, IRSN has developed a food monitoring program with the Directorate general for food (DGAL) and the Directorate general for competition policy, consumer affairs and fraud control (DGCCRF). These directions have a general mission of food safety control (animal and plant products) and animal feed-stuff, which requires the search for chemical, physical, biological and radioactive substances. Likewise, a sampling program of grain products is efficient since 1969 with the support of France Agrimer. In 2013, the food monitoring is based on multi-radionuclides analysis (cesium, iodine, tritium, alpha emitters...) in about 650

  16. Contested Territories: Water Rights and the Struggles over Indigenous Livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Duarte, B.; Manosalvas Nicolalde, R.; Mena Vásconez, P.A.; Roa Avendaño, T.; Vera-Delgado, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the threats to Indigenous water rights and territories in the Andean countries. It analyzes how water and water rights are embedded in Indigenous territories, and how powerful actors and intervention projects tend to undermine local societies and indigenous livelihoods by

  17. Territoriality and Freedom of Language: The Case of Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Jeught, Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    Language law in Belgium is based on two concepts. The territoriality principle entails that official language use varies from one linguistic region to another. The constitutional freedom of language is an essential complement to territoriality and grants residents the right to use the language of their choice. In the monolingual regions of the…

  18. Site attachment of floaters predicts success in territory acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, Leo W.; van de Pol, Martijn

    In many territorial species, a fraction of all mature individuals are classified as floaters, and little is known about how these animals eventually acquire a breeding territory of their own. We observed intrusion behavior of floaters, subsequently removed breeding birds, and then observed floaters

  19. Territorial cohesion post - 2013 : To whomsoever it may concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2010-01-01

    Conceived as a motion for resolution, the paper considers territorial cohesion now being on the statute book, the Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion, Barca making the case for integrated, place-based strategies, the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region and the future of Cohesion policy. The

  20. Territoriality: Defining the Construct in the Organizational Context of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Alan B.; Vineburgh, James H.; Dee, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to make schools more collaborative are likely to evoke concerns and conflicts regarding territory, as administrators, teachers, and staff members are compelled to interact differently in both physical and psychological spaces. Territoriality, as an organizational construct, examines how people negotiate issues of space, ownership,…

  1. EU Territorial Impact Assessment : Under what Conditions?: Final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, W.; Waterhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    Report Commissioned by the Ministry of VROM. Since the start of the making of the ESDP, back in 1989, there has been interest in a ‘Territorial impact assessment’. This interest has been revamped now that the Territorial Cohesion green paper is out. Yet, at the EU level there is still little

  2. Aggressive display and territoriality of the bateleur Terathopius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aggressive display and territoriality of the bateleur Terathopius ecaudatus. R.T. Watson. Abstract. Bateleurs exhibit an aggressive display to conspecifies that incorporates an 'attack' pattern; the display has a territorial function because it drives intruders away from the nest, usually by a gain in altitude by the intruder.

  3. Individual quality explains variation in reproductive success better than territory quality in a long-lived territorial raptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Jabi; Zuberogoitia, Iñigo

    2014-01-01

    Evolution by natural selection depends on the relationship between individual traits and fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from habitat (territory) quality and individual variation. Individual quality and specialization can have a deep impact on fitness, yet in most studies on territorial species the quality of territory and individuals are confused. We aimed to determine if variation in breeding success is better explained by territories, individual quality or a combination of both. We analysed the number of fledglings and the breeding quality index (the difference between the number of fledglings of an individual/breeding pair and the average number of fledglings of the monitored territories in the same year) as part of a long term (16 years) peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) monitoring program with identification of individuals. Using individual and territory identities as correlates of quality, we built Generalised Linear Models with Mixed effects, in which random factors depicted different hypotheses for sources of variation (territory/individual quality) in the reproductive success of unique breeding pairs, males and females, and assessed their performance. Most evidence supported the hypothesis that variation in breeding success is explained by individual identity, particularly male identity, rather than territory. There is also some evidence for inter year variations in the breeding success of females and a territory effect in the case of males. We argue that, in territorial species, individual quality is a major source of variation in breeding success, often masked by territory. Future ecological and conservation studies on habitat use should consider and include the effect of individuals, in order to avoid misleading results.

  4. Individual quality explains variation in reproductive success better than territory quality in a long-lived territorial raptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabi Zabala

    Full Text Available Evolution by natural selection depends on the relationship between individual traits and fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from habitat (territory quality and individual variation. Individual quality and specialization can have a deep impact on fitness, yet in most studies on territorial species the quality of territory and individuals are confused. We aimed to determine if variation in breeding success is better explained by territories, individual quality or a combination of both. We analysed the number of fledglings and the breeding quality index (the difference between the number of fledglings of an individual/breeding pair and the average number of fledglings of the monitored territories in the same year as part of a long term (16 years peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus monitoring program with identification of individuals. Using individual and territory identities as correlates of quality, we built Generalised Linear Models with Mixed effects, in which random factors depicted different hypotheses for sources of variation (territory/individual quality in the reproductive success of unique breeding pairs, males and females, and assessed their performance. Most evidence supported the hypothesis that variation in breeding success is explained by individual identity, particularly male identity, rather than territory. There is also some evidence for inter year variations in the breeding success of females and a territory effect in the case of males. We argue that, in territorial species, individual quality is a major source of variation in breeding success, often masked by territory. Future ecological and conservation studies on habitat use should consider and include the effect of individuals, in order to avoid misleading results.

  5. The role of territory settlement, individual quality, and nesting initiation on productivity of Bell's vireos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara J. Joos; Frank R., III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2014-01-01

    Variation in habitat quality among territories within a heterogeneous patch should influence reproductive success of territory owners. Further, territory settlement order following an ideal despotic distribution (IDD) should predict the fitness of occupants if territory selection is adaptive. We recorded settlement order and monitored nests in territories occupied by...

  6. Cattle cults of the Arabian Neolithic and early territorial societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorriston, Joy; Harrower, Michael; Martin, Louise; Oches, Eric

    2012-01-01

    At the cusp of food production, Near Eastern societies adopted new territorial practices, including archaeologically visible sedentism and nonsedentary social defenses more challenging to identify archaeologically. New archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence for Arabia's earliest-known sacrifices points to territorial maintenance in arid highland southern Yemen. Here sedentism was not an option prior to agriculture. Seasonally mobile pastoralists developed alternate practices to reify cohesive identities, maintain alliances, and defend territories. Archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence implies cattle sacrifices were commemorated with a ring of more than 42 cattle skulls and a stone platform buried by 6,400-year-old floodplain sediments. Associated with numerous hearths, these cattle rites suggest feasting by a large gathering, with important sociopolitical ramifications for territories. A GIS analysis of the early Holocene landscape indicates constrained pasturage supporting small resident human populations. Cattle sacrifice in southern Arabia suggests a model of mid-Holocene Neolithic territorial pastoralism under environmental and cultural conditions that made sedentism unsusta

  7. An African metropolis: the imploded territoriality of Kinshasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana D'Ascenzo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral and segmented nature of the urban network and communication routes in the Democratic Republic of Congo condemns the country to being outwardoriented, allowing little room for integration of national territory and favouring the neighbouring inter-African context. In this situation, the city of Kinshasa is forced to carry not just the weight of its role as capital city but also the burden associated with a territorial expansion that has occurred very much in the post-Independence style, where a veritable territorial implosion has resulted due to the existence of an inward-looking system of relationships. Based on field work, this article discusses the spatial factors existing in the social context under consideration, and identifies, as a result of the interaction of those factors, a complex territoriality that affects all the various facets of the urban fabric. Key words: Kinshasa, urban organisation, spatial expansion, imploded territoriality, peripheral urbanisation, outwardoriented relationships.

  8. Seasonal prevailing surface winds in Northern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Marković, Slobodan B.; Ruman, Albert; Putniković, Suzana

    2017-02-01

    Seasonal prevailing surface winds are analyzed in the territory of Northern Serbia, using observational data from 12 meteorological stations over several decades. In accordance with the general definition of prevailing wind, two special definitions of this term are used. The seasonal wind roses in 16 directions at each station are analyzed. This study shows that the prevailing winds in Northern Serbia have northwestern and southeastern directions. Circulation weather types over Serbia are presented in order to determine the connections between the synoptic circulations and prevailing surface winds. Three controlling pressure centers, i.e., the Mediterranean cyclone, Siberian high, and the Azores anticyclone, appear as the most important large-scale factors that influence the creation of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia. Beside the synoptic cause of the prevailing winds, it is noted that the orography of the eastern Balkans has a major influence on the winds from the second quadrant. It was found that the frequencies of circulation weather types are in agreement with those of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia.

  9. Checklist of vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. territories, and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Richard C.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    1987-01-01

    On 30 January 1980 the Policy Group of the 1978 Interagency Agreement on Classifications and Inventory established a work group on fish and wildlife species names. The participating agencies were the Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Geological Survey, and Soil Conservation Service. The Fish and Wildlife Service was assigned the role of establishing and leading this work group in developing a national list of standard vertebrate species names that is up-to-date and accurate. The Association of Systematic Collections was contracted to develop the reference list. This publication is a revision of portions of the list (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals), including updating to the end of 1985. The geographic areas encompassed by this list are: the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii; the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Navassa Island; the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (the Caroline Islands, Palau Islands, Marshall Islands, and northern Mariana Islands); and the U.S. Territories of American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, the Johnston Islands, Kingman Reef, the Midway Islands, and Wake Islands. Canadian species that do not also occur in the United States have been included. This list includes the names of all Recent species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the geographic areas indicated above. No distinction is made between resident and migratory species or between those that occur regularly and those of casual or accidentally occurrence. The occurrence of all species listed is documented by specimen or photographic evidence. Zoo, aquarium, game park, and hunting preserve populations are not listed, nor are unestablished escapes from such populations. Species that are extinct are marked with a 1. Species whose only occurrence in an area is the result of introduction by man are marked with a 2. Species introduced into one area but native to another

  10. Past and present status of the Indian Tiger in northern West Bengal, India: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the distribution range and the estimates of Tiger (Panthera tigris populations in northern West Bengal from the late 19th century to 2009 were examined in detail. According to a 2004 census there were 70 tigers in the region, while a 2008 estimate put the number at 8-12. The tiger survives only in protected areas of terai and duars extending over about 1000km2 of Buxa, Jaldapara, Neora Valley and Mahananda, the Panighat and Bamanpokhri Ranges of Kurseong Division and the Chilapata and Kodalbusty Ranges under Wildlife-III Division. Tigers became extinct in Chapramari Sanctuary about a decade back; Gorumara sightings were recorded up to the 1980s. The species has already lost about 1000km2 of its historic range in the territorial forest divisions of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar, Dinajpur and Malda Districts. The State Forest Department has undertaken efforts involving regular monitoring, protection measures and habitat improvements and tigers are now being sighted in areas where they were absent for years. Resident tigers appear to be expanding their ranges to new areas, sometimes at higher altitudes as in Neora Valley National Park and Buxa Tiger Reserve crossing into Bhutan and Sikkim.

  11. Everyday territories: homelessness, outreach work and city space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robin James; Hall, Tom

    2017-07-18

    This article develops a situational approach to understanding urban public life and, in particular, the production of urban territories. Our aim is to examine the ways in which city space might be understood as comprising multiple, shifting, mobile and rhythmed territories. We argue that such territories are best understood through attending to their everyday production and negotiation, rather than handling territory as an a priori construct. We develop this argument from the particular case of the street-level politics of homelessness and street care. The experience of street homelessness and the provision of care in the public spaces of the city is characterised by precarious territorial claims made and lost. We describe some of the ways in which care work with rough sleepers is itself precarious; 'homeless', in lacking a distinct setting in which it might get done. Indeed, outreach work takes place within and affirms homeless territories. The affirmation of territory is shown to be central to the relationship developed between the workers and their rough sleeping clients. We also show, however, the ways in which outreach workers operate on territory not their own, twice over. Outreach work is precarious in that it is practised within, and can run counter to, other territorial productions in which the experience of urban need and the work and politics of care are entangled. In sum, this article aims to move beyond static and binary understandings by developing a mobile and situational approach to city space which recognises the intensive yet overlooked work of territorial production. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  12. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  13. Mountain Permafrost in the Yukon Territory, Canada: Mapping and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, A. G.; Bonnaventure, P.; Schultz, E.; Etzelmuller, B.

    2006-12-01

    The distribution and characteristics of mountain permafrost in North America are poorly known compared to lowland permafrost, and predictions of climatic change impacts are therefore subject to a higher degree of uncertainty. Recent DC resistivity soundings in association with borehole temperature information in the Yukon Territory, show the wide range of permafrost conditions that can exist at sites separated by short distances. To provide baseline information for future modelling, efforts are underway to produce a detailed map of permafrost probability in the mountains of the southern half of the Yukon Territory (60-65°N), an area greater than 200 x 103km2. The methodology is based on the Basal Temperature of Snow (BTS) technique, first developed in the European Alps. Ground surface temperatures measured at the base of snow > 80 cm thick in late winter are an indicator of permafrost presence or absence. We have used this method successfully in three study areas of about 200 km2: first, Wolf Creek basin near Whitehorse (Lewkowicz and Ednie, 2004) and now the western side of the Ruby Range adjacent to Kluane Lake, and the Haines Summit area in northwestern British Columbia. In each area, (1) we installed miniature temperature loggers at the ground surface and in the air to check on the timing of the BTS measurements; (2) we measured BTS values in the elevation zone across which permafrost was expected to become widespread; (3) we modelled the BTS spatial field using elevation (from a 30 m DEM) and potential incoming solar radiation (PISR) as the independent variables; and (4) we used logistic regression to compare the modelled BTS values with pit observations made in late-summer of the presence or absence of frozen ground. Both elevation and PISR were significant in the Wolf Creek and Ruby Range sites which have relatively continental climates and fall within the Upper Yukon-Stikine Basin climatic region (Wahl et al., 1987). For the Haines Summit area, however

  14. Perspectiva territorial de la Unión europea: el largo camino hacia la cohesión territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Camacho Ballesta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad de las regiones europeas, exige asumir una perspectiva territorial, que no se debe considerar simplemente como un obstáculo en el camino de la cohesión, sino como un valor añadido que potencia el desarrollo económico y enriquece la convivencia comunitaria. La UE, desde su inicio, intenta superar estas disparidades. En este trabajo se analiza el proceso de incorporación del discurso territorial en el seno de la UE que se plasma en la Estrategia Territorial Europea de los 90, posteriormente, ya en pleno Siglo XXI, se desarrolla la Agenda Territorial y se publica el Libro Verde de la cohesión territorial como hitos más relevantes de este proceso. La evolución tanto del propio concepto de cohesión territorial como de las acciones comunitarias en el ámbito territorial, se han incorporado paulatinamente a la estrategia de desarrollo de la UE, que se plasma en la vigente «Europa 2020», y en último extremo pone en evidencia la necesidad de implementar la dimensión territorial en el conjunto de políticas de la UE, aunque con distinto nivel de implicación.

  15. Problems and Prospects of Tourism Development on Specially Protected Territories of Trans-Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursakova Nadezhda Aleksandrovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The vital topic of the development of tourism in the Volgograd region is studied in the article. The growing demand for recreational resources of local importance is shown. The positive and negative aspects of direct and indirect impact of tourism activities on specially protected natural territories of Trans-Volga region are examined. It is noted that the extreme sensitivity of arid zone landscape to recreational impact, even slight scattered recreational load (the passage of several dozens of people through the territory causes significant changes in phytocenosis – reduced plant cover, the share of weed species. The changes in geobotanical characteristics of the territory clearly persist throughout the growing season, the next season will not eliminate differences in the characteristics of the control and experimental plots. The changes arising from a linear recreational load are even more sustained, and they affect the most attractive natural objects, intensively visited by tourists. The role of the Volga-Akhtuba Floodplain and Eltonsky nature parks in the development of ecological tourism is shown in the article. It is emphasized that the interests of travelers should not be in conflict with the basic objectives of protected areas and should also match with the offered range of destinations. It is proposed to switch the attention of tourists so as not to lose those wishing to visit the territory, do not jeopardize the fragile natural systems. It is proposed to use both global and Russian experience of creating alternative forms of recreation that harmoniously blend into the landscape, contribute to the preservation of natural, historical and cultural heritage of the territory and gave the tourists a sense of belonging to the ethnic traditions of past eras.

  16. Health system resource gaps and associated mortality from pandemic influenza across six Asian territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Rudge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asia has been the focus of considerable investment in pandemic influenza preparedness. Given the wide variation in socio-economic conditions, health system capacity across the region is likely to impact to varying degrees on pandemic mitigation operations. We aimed to estimate and compare the resource gaps, and potential mortalities associated with those gaps, for responding to pandemic influenza within and between six territories in Asia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected health system resource data from Cambodia, Indonesia (Jakarta and Bali, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. We applied a mathematical transmission model to simulate a "mild-to-moderate" pandemic influenza scenario to estimate resource needs, gaps, and attributable mortalities at province level within each territory. The results show that wide variations exist in resource capacities between and within the six territories, with substantial mortalities predicted as a result of resource gaps (referred to here as "avoidable" mortalities, particularly in poorer areas. Severe nationwide shortages of mechanical ventilators were estimated to be a major cause of avoidable mortalities in all territories except Taiwan. Other resources (oseltamivir, hospital beds and human resources are inequitably distributed within countries. Estimates of resource gaps and avoidable mortalities were highly sensitive to model parameters defining the transmissibility and clinical severity of the pandemic scenario. However, geographic patterns observed within and across territories remained similar for the range of parameter values explored. CONCLUSIONS: The findings have important implications for where (both geographically and in terms of which resource types investment is most needed, and the potential impact of resource mobilization for mitigating the disease burden of an influenza pandemic. Effective mobilization of resources across administrative boundaries could go some way

  17. Coal as an option for power generation in US territories of the Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I. Y.

    1981-11-30

    A survey of general considerations relating to the use of coal in US territories and trust territories of the Pacific suggests that coal is a viable option for power generation. Future coal supplies, principally from Australia and the west coast of America, promise to be more than adequate, but large bulk carriers will probably not be able to land coal directly because of inadequate port facilities. Hence, smaller than Panamax-class vessels (60,000 dwt) or some arrangement utilizing self-loading barges or lighters would have to be used. Except for Guam, with peak power requirements on the order of 175 MW/sub e/, most territories have current, albeit inadequate, installations of 1 to 25 MW/sub e/ Turnkey, conventional-coal-fired, electrical-power generating systems are available in that size range. US environmental laws are now applicable to Guam and American Samoa; the trust territories are exempt. However, the small power requirements of many small islands will qualify for exemption from the New Source Performance Standards called for in the Clean Air Act. The principal problems with coal use in the territories, apart from the shallow draft of most harbors, are the limited amount of land available and the high capital costs associated with conversion. Ocean dumping of ash and sludge can be permitted under existing Environmental Protection Agency regulations, and barge-mounted power installations are not out of the question. The feasibility of converting from oil-fired to coal-fired electrical-power generating systems must be determined with site-specific information.

  18. Northscapes: history, technology, and the making of northern environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jørgensen, Dolly; Sörlin, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    .... Approaching the topic through an environmental history lens, the contributors examine a broad range of geographies, including those of Iceland and other islands in the Northern Atlantic, Sweden...

  19. Territorial prevention of natural disasters. Campania Region: a high risk territory. Studies by PLINIVS Centre and open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Zuccaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety of the territory and the environment is a theme much discussed, but often not in organic and competent way. PLINIVS study centre has been studying for several years the impact of potentially disastrous events on the territory and has produced analysis models and scenery simulation of main natural risks regarding Campania territory (seismic, hydrogeological, volcanic, meteo-marine risks, etc.. Knowing the risk, and quantifying it, is important in order to single out critical aspects of the territory (threats and to intervene through mitigation measures and eventually a modern Plan of Civil Protection. Therefore the plan becomes a dynamic process able to control rhythmically the state of the risk and the safety level of the territory, and spatial planning should avail itself of the fundamental contribution of knowledge offered by these tools.

  20. Simulation study of territory size distributions in subterranean termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Wonju; Lee, Sang-Hee

    2011-06-21

    In this study, on the basis of empirical data, we have simulated the foraging tunnel patterns of two subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), using a two-dimensional model. We have defined a territory as a convex polygon containing a tunnel pattern and explored the effects of competition among termite territory colonies on the territory size distribution in the steady state that was attained after a sufficient simulation time. In the model, territorial competition was characterized by a blocking probability P(block) that quantitatively describes the ease with which a tunnel stops its advancement when it meets another tunnel; higher P(block) values imply easier termination. In the beginning of the simulation run, N=10, 20,…,100 territory seeds, representing the founding pair, were randomly distributed on a square area. When the territory density was less (N=20), the differences in the territory size distributions for different P(block) values were small because the territories had sufficient space to grow without strong competitions. Further, when the territory density was higher (N>20), the territory sizes increased in accordance with the combinational effect of P(block) and N. In order to understand these effects better, we introduced an interference coefficient γ. We mathematically derived γ as a function of P(block) and N: γ(N,P(block))=a(N)P(block)/(P(block)+b(N)). a(N) and b(N) are functions of N/(N+c) and d/(N+c), respectively, and c and d are constants characterizing territorial competition. The γ function is applicable to characterize the territoriality of various species and increases with both the P(block) values and N; higher γ values imply higher limitations of the network growth. We used the γ function, fitted the simulation results, and determined the c and d values. In addition, we have briefly discussed the predictability of the present model by comparing it with our previous lattice model

  1. Age and size effects on seed productivity of northern black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Viglas; C. D. Brown; J. F. Johnstone

    2013-01-01

    Slow-growing conifers of the northern boreal forest may require several decades to reach reproductive maturity, making them vulnerable to increases in disturbance frequency. Here, we examine the relationship between stand age and seed productivity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) in Yukon Territory and Alaska....

  2. Documentation of hydrochemical-facies data and ranges of dissolved-solids concentrations for the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina supplement to Professional paper 1404-L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisler, Harold; Knobel, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrochemical-facies data and ranges of dissolved- solids concentrations used to construct hydrochemical-facies maps and sections for U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1404-L have not been previously published. In this report, the data are contained on a 3-1/2 high-density diskette in a file presented in American International Standard Code for Information Exchange (ASCII) format. The file requires about 0.2 megabyte of disk space on an IBM-compatible microcomputer using the MS-DOS operating system.

  3. The territorial-environmental perception in fishing zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nunes da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Geography was always concerned with the study of the relationship between social groups and the environment in which they interact as natural resources for their survival. This relationship was always intertwined by power determinations in the organization of forms of appropriation of natural resources, deriving different types of territorial assets. These territorial assets demonstrate a variety of actors, involved in a certain territory and materializing different actions for the appropriation of space and use of the natural resources. In the case of fishing this is not different, since we verified that fishing practice is witnessed by a variety of actors, fishermen, fishing community, fishing association, fishing zone and regulatory agencies. Each of these actors relate in specific ways to the fishing spaces and material specific actions to define the territory, adopting territorial assets and a diversity of perceptions which sometimes conflict to each other. This study is part of a research which, through direct field research, aims at accomplishing an analysis of the way of life of the fishermen of the Colony of Fishermen Z 62, headquartered in the municipal district of Breves, state of Pará, and of how they acknowledge their territory, in the way they interact with other actors which use the same territory in other ways unrelated to fishing.

  4. A territorial understanding of sustainability in public development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peti, Marton, E-mail: mpeti@vati.hu

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability theories in European Union (EU) development policies are facing significant challenges: it is difficult to transmit context-specific, publicly communicable messages; the recent development policies strengthen the concurrent development paradigm of economic growth and competitiveness; 'climate change' became a more popular environmental integration term than sustainability in the last few years. However, due to the recent crises of the economic growth, there is a great chance to reintroduce a sustainability-based development. A territorial/regional understanding of sustainability can also be an answer for the current challenges, a platform for refreshing the concept with relevant, specific messages that are close to the everyday life. This paper summarises the 'territorial system'-based basic principles of territorial sustainability in a model called AUTHARSIIV (AUTonomy, HARmony, Solidarity, Innovation, Identity and Values). This is a supplementary sustainability content specified for the context of spatial/regional development or planning. The paper also examines the presence of 'general and territorial sustainability' in regional development programmes, and case studies on applying the territorial sustainability principles in planning, assessment, and implementation. According to the results, sustainability is rarely adapted to the conditions of a given sector or a region, and the territorial aspect of sustainability is underrepresented even in territorial programmes. Therefore, the paper proposes a new planning and assessment system that is based on a set of regionally legitimate sustainability values.

  5. Association, property, territory: What is at stake in immigration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklósi Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that states have territorial rights, and that these rights include the right to exclude people who seek admission to their territory. In this paper I will examine whether the most defensible account of territorial rights can provide support to the right to exclude. I will discuss three types of theories of territorial rights. The first account links the right of states to exclude to the prior right of individuals to freedom of association, which is said to include the right not to associate and to dissociate. The second is a Lockean theory that grounds the territorial rights of states, and hence their right to exclude, in the prior right of individuals to private property in the land that constitutes the territory of the state. I argue that these accounts have independently implausible implications, regardless of their implications for the immigration debate. The third account is a Kantian theory that bases the territorial jurisdiction of states on individuals’ duty to create, sustain and submit themselves to a shared system of law that is a necessary condition of guaranteeing their rights and of discharging their duties towards one another. I will argue that the Kantian account is superior to its current alternatives. However, I also suggest that it cannot ground a broad right to exclude.

  6. HiCTMap: Detection and analysis of chromosome territory structure and position by high-throughput imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowhar, Ziad; Gudla, Prabhakar R; Shachar, Sigal; Wangsa, Darawalee; Russ, Jill L; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Ried, Thomas; Raznahan, Armin; Misteli, Tom

    2018-02-10

    The spatial organization of chromosomes in the nuclear space is an extensively studied field that relies on measurements of structural features and 3D positions of chromosomes with high precision and robustness. However, no tools are currently available to image and analyze chromosome territories in a high-throughput format. Here, we have developed High-throughput Chromosome Territory Mapping (HiCTMap), a method for the robust and rapid analysis of 2D and 3D chromosome territory positioning in mammalian cells. HiCTMap is a high-throughput imaging-based chromosome detection method which enables routine analysis of chromosome structure and nuclear position. Using an optimized FISH staining protocol in a 384-well plate format in conjunction with a bespoke automated image analysis workflow, HiCTMap faithfully detects chromosome territories and their position in 2D and 3D in a large population of cells per experimental condition. We apply this novel technique to visualize chromosomes 18, X, and Y in male and female primary human skin fibroblasts, and show accurate detection of the correct number of chromosomes in the respective genotypes. Given the ability to visualize and quantitatively analyze large numbers of nuclei, we use HiCTMap to measure chromosome territory area and volume with high precision and determine the radial position of chromosome territories using either centroid or equidistant-shell analysis. The HiCTMap protocol is also compatible with RNA FISH as demonstrated by simultaneous labeling of X chromosomes and Xist RNA in female cells. We suggest HiCTMap will be a useful tool for routine precision mapping of chromosome territories in a wide range of cell types and tissues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. ANALYSIS OF TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes some aspects of the analysis of territorial development of the region. The focus is on the planned and actual indicators of territorial development of the region. Analysis of the three major indicators of territorial development: the volume of capital investment, tax and non-tax revenues of the consolidated budget, production of industrial and agricultural products. When assessing the proposed region development to assess not only the actual execution of the planned indicators, but in order to assess the effectiveness of regional development planning system to compare planned and actual growth of indicators.

  8. Beyond isolated Atlantises in a infinite ocean : Replacing the climate change and migration nexus in the context of territorial networks in the South Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The Pacific islands are made up of twenty-two countries and territories. Approximately 10 million inhabitants live in about 300 islands (Nansen Initiative, 2013, p. 4). In the last decade, the region has emerged among the media, international institutions and civil society as one of climate change’s icons and hotspots. The United Nations Environment Program declared in 2005 that the inhabitants of Lataw (Tegua island, Torres archipelago, northern Vanuatu) were the ‘Wor...

  9. On Some Aspects of Territorial Competitiveness: Smart Specialization in the Zlin 2020 Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jirí Novosák; Oldrich Hájek; Petr Zahradník; Jana Nekolová

    2013-01-01

      Territorial competitiveness is a development concept often cited these days. Currently, smart specialization represents a politically influential concept how to stimulate territorial competitiveness...

  10. In the Northern Territory Intervention, What is Saved or Rescued and at What Cost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Watson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of the Australian colonial project lies within an ‘originary violence’, in which the state retains a vested interest in maintaining the founding order of things. Inequalities and iniquities are maintained for the purpose of sustaining the life and continuity of the state. The Australian state, founder of a violent (disorder is called upon by the international community to conform and uphold ‘human rights’, but what does this call to conformity require, particularly when the call comes from states which are also founded upon colonial violence? This article argumes that very little is required beyond the masquerade that ‘equality’ for Aboriginal peoples is an on-going project of the state. So for what purpose does the masquerade continue?

  11. Cleanskin Structure, Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia: Evidence for an Impact Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, P. W.; Sweet, I. P.; Mitchell, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Cleanskin structure, Australia, is a 15 km diameter circular feature with central uplift. Evidence for impact-produced shock includes shatter cones, planar fractures with feather features and possible planar deformation features in quartz.

  12. The role of wind energy in the programme of power supply of northern Russia territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezroukikh, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    In this article examined technical, management and economic problems has been arising during working out of above mentioned Power Supply Programm based on the renewable energy sources usage and proved the leading role of wind energy in this Programm. (author)

  13. Are independent mobility and territorial range associated with park visitation among youth?

    OpenAIRE

    Veitch, Jenny; Carver, Alison; Hume, Clare; Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background Parks are important for providing opportunities for physical activity among youth. Apart from engaging in physical activity whilst visiting a park, active transportation (e.g. walking or cycling) to parks is potentially an additional source of physical activity. Previous research has shown that a major barrier to young people visiting parks is their inability to visit parks unaccompanied by an adult. It is not known; however, whether young people who have greater independent mobili...

  14. Making space for wind farms: Practices of territorial stigmatisation in rural Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, David Philipp; Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch

    of territorial stigmatisation are mobilised and aligned by developers and municipalities in order to make space for and legitimise large wind farm projects in rural areas. In doing so, the paper will illustrate how stigmatisation practices are embedded in discourses of rurality as ‘Outskirts......Whilst issues of siting wind farms have mostly revolved around their public acceptance resulting from an unequal distribution of local costs and benefits, the perceived fairness of the planning process and the disruption of places, the challenge of finding adequate locations and getting access...... community involvement and ownership of wind farms, access to diminishing spatial resources reflects a key concern for developers, while putting the role of private landowners at the core of successful projects. By drawing on case studies from rural Northern Denmark it will be demonstrated how narratives...

  15. Schematic paintings and territories in the Late Prehistory of inner Tagus basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Ángeles LANCHARRO GUTIÉRREZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional map of Postpaleolithic Art in the Iberian Peninsula left out a significant part of its inner territories. Their presumed lack of population justified the absence of research projects in the region. However, fieldwork done in the last few years in Neolithic, Megalithic and Chalcolithic settings within this area has suggested demographic abundance and an entirely unknown symbology. An analysis of their near visibility, their prominent position, and their overlapping with areas inhabited from the Neolithic to the late Bronze Age, reveals for the first time the continuing settlement of all the inner ranges and valleys of these territories. Common symbols in classical schematic art play a leading role in the area’s panels. In addition, the oldest figures point to the existence of long graphic sequences.

  16. Agribusiness model approach to territorial food development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murcia Hector Horacio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Several research efforts have coordinated the academic program of Agricultural Business Management from the University De La Salle (Bogota D.C., to the design and implementation of a sustainable agribusiness model applied to food development, with territorial projection. Rural development is considered as a process that aims to improve the current capacity and potential of the inhabitant of the sector, which refers not only to production levels and productivity of agricultural items. It takes into account the guidelines of the Organization of the United Nations “Millennium Development Goals” and considered the concept of sustainable food and agriculture development, including food security and nutrition in an integrated interdisciplinary context, with holistic and systemic dimension. Analysis is specified by a model with an emphasis on sustainable agribusiness production chains related to agricultural food items in a specific region. This model was correlated with farm (technical objectives, family (social purposes and community (collective orientations projects. Within this dimension are considered food development concepts and methodologies of Participatory Action Research (PAR. Finally, it addresses the need to link the results to low-income communities, within the concepts of the “new rurality”.

  17. Engineering geology of the Great Bear River area, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savigny, K.W. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    This report represents the results of an engineering geology study of the Great Bear River valley in the Northwest Territories. For most of its length, the river has a steep gradient and is deeply incised in a narrow valley. These topographic characteristics combined with the enormous reservoir capacity of Great Bear Lake make the valley attractive for hydroelectric development. Topographic characteristics and geographic location also make it an obstacle to linear facilities following the Mackenzie Transportation Corridor, such as pipelines, railroads and roads. The valley is incised up to 50 m below the levels of Mackenzie and Great Bear plains. Quaternary sediments are exposed intermittently along the valley slopes. Rocks of Tertiary age are exposed more or less continuously along the lower reach of Great Bear River, and Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks are exposed where the river crosses McConnell Range at St. Charles Rapids. A single Laurentide till is present and is assumed to represent the Late Wisconsin ice advance. The till generally rests on bedrock, but locally it overlies older alluvial and deltaic sediments. This advance was followed by a lacustrine phase over Mackenzie Plain. The lacustrine phase appears to have ended abruptly with progradation of a deltaic facies. Permafrost is widespread except beneath large lakes, streams and rivers. Postglacial entrenchment by Great Bear River appears to have begun on Mackenzie Plain about 10,000 years ago and approached its present level by approximately 2670 years ago. 38 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Northern forests, Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.H. Pardo; C.L. Goodale; E.A. Lilleskov; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Forests ecological region spans much of Canada, from Saskatchewan to Newfoundland; its southern portion extends into the northern United States (CEC 1997). The U.S. component includes the northern hardwood and spruce-fir forest types and encompasses parts of the Northeast (mountainous regions in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut,...

  19. Military Actions on the Territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1706

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Chmiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irresponsible politics of Augustus II, who allied with Russia and Denmark in a wish to defeat the younger king of Sweden, Charles XII, led to involvement of the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth in Great Northern War (1700-1721. However, the Commonwealth, which was torn by internal disputes at that time, could not defend itself against the invasion of the northern neighbour. The vast territory of the Commonwealth became proving ground for the fighting armies of Sweden, Russia and Saxony. In the meantime, the conflict between the political parties turned into open civil war between supporters and opponents of Augustus II the Strong. The latter ones, with the support of the king of Sweden, Charles XII, and against the Commonwealth law, in 1704 elected Stanislaw Leszczyński as the new king. Despite numerous fights, neither of the parties was able to gain the ultimate victory. The marches, chases and escapes of the fighting armies were called by the contemporaries “both kings’ ducking dance”. Apogee of the fights is dated to 1706. It started as an unsuccessful blockade of the Russian army in Grodno and great victory of the Swedish army in Fraustadt, and ended with the occupation of Saxony and abdication of Augustus II under the Treaty of Altranstadt. The Wettin’s defeat could not be avoided even by the victory over the Swedish army in Kalisz. However, even forcing the king to abdicate the Polish throne did not end the military actions on the Commonwealth territory. 1709 turned to be the crucial year.

  20. Fire and EMS Districts - MDC_FDStationTerritoryInhabited

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Fire Rescue (MDFR) Fire District Station Territories clipped to the extent of inhabited areas. This layer is intended...