WorldWideScience

Sample records for ranges los angeles

  1. Los Angeles og San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    1998-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Los Angeles og San Francisco april-maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H...

  2. The Los Angeles Urbanscape Tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hironaka, Janet H.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Los Angeles Urbanscape Tour, in which the city of Los Angeles provides 11th graders with a living laboratory of the principles studied in-depth in their literature and social studies classrooms. Describes writing assignments which grew out of the tour. (SR)

  3. Palace Revolt in Los Angeles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Antonio Villaraigosa, the mayor of Los Angeles, comes alive when recalling his start in local politics--as a labor organizer agitating for reform inside decrepit and overcrowded schools. In his quest to turn around the schools, the mayor has united working-class Latino parents, civil rights leaders, and big-money Democrats to challenge union…

  4. Los Angeles Beach Harbors, Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    Pacific jack mackerel, sardines and corbina. 2.69 The Port of Los Angeles is extensively used as a base for both sport and commercial boats that carry...concentrations of cadmium , chromium, lead, and nickel and other metals found in seawater, (b) the concentrations of these heavy metals found in some harbor...sediment cores be taken throughout the project area, penetrating the sediment to project depth. The analyses of these samples for mercury, cadmium

  5. The Los Angeles School: difference, politics, city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1980s, urban researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles and the University of Southern California embarked on a concerted effort to study and theorize the Los Angeles region. Their efforts resulted in a number of important theoretical and empirical writings that helped

  6. Aeropuerto internacional de Los Angeles: Edificio "Theme"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1961-10-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente, se ha terminado un nuevo edificio en el aeropuerto de Los Angeles, que constituye una estación aérea, moderna por su forma y servicios de que está dotada, en la que se ha dado cabida a todas las necesidades actuales que el servicio de aeronaves reactores requiere.

  7. 76 FR 13017 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Los Angeles County, California... Environmental Impact Statement on a proposal for the State Route 710 Gap North Closure project in Los Angeles...

  8. Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Areas Regional Cultural History, Los Angeles County, California,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    which they named islands, such as Mormon Island. The Los ’ Bahia de los Fumos’ on Angeles River, when discovered by the account of the many smokes... immigrant groups initiated the fishing industry in and near San Pedro Bay. Young Japanese began diving for abalone off Whites Point, shown here in 1901...Magnolia Street in 1888, the Pine Avenue California Immigrant Union (CIU), which had Municipal Pier was constructed in 1893, and S been the main

  9. Los Angeles Tries Luring Back Dropouts via Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that education leaders in Los Angeles, faced with unrelenting pressure to raise anemic high school graduation rates, are turning to YouTube, MySpace, text messaging, and the radio waves to reach students at risk of dropping out of school and lure back thousands who have already left. The Los Angeles Unified School…

  10. Coca-Cola Hispanic Education Fund: Los Angeles Program Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Cola Bottling Co. of Los Angeles, CA.

    The Coca-Cola Hispanic Education Fund was created in response to the high school dropout problem in Los Angeles. The Fund enables the Coca-Cola Bottling Company of Los Angeles to build upon the successful relationship it has developed in the Hispanic community and maximizes the effectiveness of existing student support programs by directing needy…

  11. Glitches in Los Angeles Payroll System Spark Furor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Thousands of Los Angeles teachers have not been paid properly for months because of errors in a corporate-style payroll system that was introduced in January as part of a sweeping, $95 million computer modernization. The Los Angeles Unified School District acknowledges that the payroll system's rollout was rushed and tainted by numerous…

  12. Reconnaissance of geothermal resources of Los Angeles County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal waters produced from large oil fields are currently the most important geothermal resources in Los Angeles County. Otherwise, the County does not appear to have any large, near-surface geothermal resources. The oil fields produce thermal water because of both the moderate depths of production and normal to above-normal geothermal gradients. Gradients are about 3.0-3.5/sup 0/C/100 meters in the Ventura Basin and range from that up to about 5.5-6.0/sup 0/C/100 meters in the Los Angeles Basin. The hottest fields in the County are west of the Newport-Inglewood Structural Zone. The Los Angeles Basin has substantially more potential for uses of heat from oil fields than does the Ventura Basin because of its large fields and dense urban development. Produced fluid temperatures there range from ambient air to boiling, but most are in the 100-150/sup 0/F range. Daily water production ranges from only a few barrels at some fields to over a million barrels at Wilmington Oil Field; nearly all fields produce less than 50,000 barrels/day. Water salinity generally ranges from about 15,000-35,000 mg/liter NaCl. Fields with the most promise as sources of heat for outside applications are Wilmington, Torrance, Venice Beach, and Lawndale. The centralized treatment facilities are the most favorable sites for extraction of heat within the oil fields. Because of the poor water quality heat exchangers will likely be required rather than direct circulation of the field water to users. The best sites for applications are commercial-industrial areas and possibly institutional structures occupied by large numbers of people.

  13. Edificio de archivos en Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra & Alexander, Arquitectos

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The 80th birthday of Richard Neutra coincides with the completion of this building, a special feature of which is that it has 13 half-floor levels, thus saving space and making it easier to reach the documents. Besides housing the Territorial Archives Office, it accommodates the Territorial Testing Dept., Regional Planning Committee and Territorial Library. 40 ms high rotary sun shields are fitted, made of aluminium. They are controlled automatically by electronic devices, motivated by the solar action, and are thus correctly orientated at any time to provide protection against sun glare. They close altogether when the wind speed is such that they might be damaged. On the main facade looking towards Temple Street, the plastic arts organisation has contributed a large mosaic by Joseph Young, showing a map of the district. This archives building in Los Angeles is a fine exponent of what technology can do for man, and it is a characteristic example of contemporary organic architecture at its best.El principio de la octava década de Neutra coincide con la terminación del edificio, cuya sección nos ofrece trece medias plantas, para economizar espacio y facilitar el alcance de los documentos. Aloja, además de la Oficina Territorial de Archivos, otras varias: Departamento Territorial de Pruebas, Comisión de Planificación Regional y Biblioteca Territorial. Unos «brise-soleils» giratorios, de aluminio, de 40 m de altura, que funcionan automáticamente —controlados por un cerebro electrónico— bajo la acción solar, proporcionan la orientación «adecuada» en cada momento y protegen del brillo lateral, cerrándose cuando el viento sopla con una velocidad que puede serles perjudicial. Como aportación de las Artes Plásticas aparece en la fachada principal, que da a la calle Temple, un gran mosaico, de Joseph Young, del mapa del territorio. Este edificio de archivos en Los Angeles constituye un claro exponente en el que la, técnica est

  14. Los Angeles, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Los Angeles, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  15. Tesoro Los Angeles Refinery Integration and Compliance Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 9 has two announcements pertaining to the Los Angeles Refinery Integration and Compliance project (LARIC project): permit revisions meet all CAA requirements and federal PSD permitting provisions do not apply to this project.

  16. Trilingualism in the Barrio: Mayan Indians in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penalosa, Fernando

    1986-01-01

    The hispanicization of Mayan immigrants in Los Angeles is explored, focusing on the patterns of usage of Mayan, Spanish, and English among men, women, and children, and the trend toward Spanish-English bilingualism. (Author/MSE)

  17. Los Angeles Area Permit Holder Estimated Trash Load Reduction, Los Angeles CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Los Angeles River has been designated as an impaired waterbody due to the large volume of trash it receives from the watershed. To address this problem a Total...

  18. Methane Hotspots in the Los Angeles Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Bush, S.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Lai, C.; Kort, E. A.; Blake, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne observations show that Los Angeles (LA) is a large source of methane to the atmosphere, yet the sources of excess methane from the urban area are poorly constrained. We used a mobile laboratory, a Ford Transit van equipped with cavity ring down spectrometers (Picarro, Inc.), to measure greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2, and CO) mole fractions in LA. On-road surveys across the LA Basin were conducted seasonally to determine patterns of CH4 enrichment in space and over time, with a focus on quantifying methane leaks from known sources. We found fugitive leaks and elevated CH4 concentrations throughout the LA Basin. Some were associated with known sources, such as landfills, wastewater treatment, and oil and gas infrastructure, while others had an unknown origin. Urban CH4 enrichment varied over the course of the year, largely due to seasonal changes in meteorological conditions. Nevertheless, our mobile surveys revealed CH4 hotspots (>200 ppb elevated with respect to background levels) that persisted among seasons. High CH4 concentrations were most easily predicted by proximity to methane sources, particularly near the coast, while elevated CH4 levels were more evenly dispersed in inland areas. CH4 hotspots had a disproportionate impact on excess methane relative to the area they accounted for, typically providing more than a quarter of excess methane measured on a transect. These data improve estimates of the relative roles of specific leaks and emission sectors to LA's excess methane. Depending on the cost of reducing these CH4 leaks, a focus on CH4 emissions may prove an effective way to reduce LA's greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.

  19. Multibeam mapping of the Los Angeles, California Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Dartnell, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The Los Angeles, California Margin was mapped using multibeam echosounders during three separate surveys (Figure 1). In 1996, the USGS surveyed the shelf and slope in Santa Monica Bay from Pt. Dume to south of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The mapping was accomplished using a Kongsberg Simrad EM1000 multibeam sonar system that provided high-quality bathymetry and quantitative backscatter. In 1998, the USGS continued the mapping to the south and surveyed the outer shelf, slope, and proximal basin off Long Beach and Newport using a Kongsberg Simrad EM300 multibeam sonar system. In 1999, the Los Angeles Margin mapping was completed with the surveying of the inner Long Beach shelf from the Palos Verdes Peninsula, south to Newport. This survey used a dual Kongsberg Simrad EM3000D multibeam sonar system. These three surveys were conducted to support USGS projects studying marine pollution and geohazards along the Los Angeles Margin.

  20. Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat, Los Angeles, Calif

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Los Angeles, Calif., is one of the world's largest metropolitan areas with a population of about 15 million people. The urban areas mostly cover the coastal plains and lie within the inland valleys. The intervening and adjacent mountains are generally too rugged for much urban development. This in large part because the mountains are 'young', meaning they are still building (and eroding) in this seismically active (earthquake prone) region. Earthquake faults commonly lie between the mountains and the lowlands. The San Andreas fault, the largest fault in California, likewise divides the very rugged San Gabriel Mountains from the low-relief Mojave Desert, thus forming a straight topographic boundary between the top center and lower right corner of the image. We present two versions of this perspective image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM): one with and one without a graphic overlay that maps faults that have been active in Late Quaternary times (white lines). The fault database was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey.For the annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 2 mB jpeg) The Landsat image used here was acquired on May 4, 2001, about seven weeks before the summer solstice, so natural terrain shading is not particularly strong. It is also not especially apparent given a view direction (northwest) nearly parallel to the sun illumination (shadows generally fall on the backsides of mountains). Consequently, topographic shading derived from the SRTM elevation model was added to the Landsat image, with a false sun illumination from the left (southwest). This synthetic shading enhances the appearance of the topography. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive

  1. Aldo Manuzio a Los Angeles. La collezione Ahmanson-Murphy all'University of California Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Nuovo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dispetto della sua recente fondazione, la collezione Ahmanson-Murphy della University of California Los Angeles è la più ricca di edizioni manuziane fuori dall’Europa, e una delle più vaste del mondo. L'articolo ricostruisce le fasi della sua formazione e catalogazione, inquadrandola nel contesto delle maggiori collezioni di libri antichi presenti a Los Angeles. Franklin D. Murphy (1916-1994, sesto Chancellor di UCLA, spicca come il vero motore di questa grande impresa culturale.

  2. Los Angeles School Board Race Shatters Spending Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2013-01-01

    The price tag to win a seat in this week's primary election for the Los Angeles school board climbed to unprecedented levels, as a massive influx of outside cash has turned a local campaign into a national showdown pitting the long-standing influence of teachers' unions against the expanding imprint of deep-pocketed education activists. The high…

  3. Working Smart: The Los Angeles Workplace Literacy Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Adult and Occupational Education.

    The Working Smart workplace literacy project was sponsored by a public school district and several profit and nonprofit companies and conducted for the hotel and food industry in the Los Angeles area. Literacy instruction was merged with job requirements of the customer service job classifications. Videodisc courseware was developed, as were…

  4. SOFT FLOOR COVERING IN THE LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOL DISTRICTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CUNLIFF, DONALD D.

    A STUDY REGARDING THE INSTALLATION OF CARPET IN SCHOOLS IS DISCUSSED. THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO HAVE A CONSULTANT REVIEW UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE DISTRICT BUILDING AND GROUNDS SERVICES ADMINISTRATOR OF THE LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOL DISTRICTS, THE SOFT FLOOR COVERING INSTALLATIONS AT ARAGON AVENUE AND TWENTY-FOURTH STREET SCHOOLS. SECTIONS…

  5. Increase in Reports of Strongyloides Infection - Los Angeles County, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis; She, Rosemary

    2015-08-28

    During the 1990s, reports of infection with the nematode (roundworm) Strongyloides stercoralis submitted to the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) ranged from 40 to 50 per year, but by 2000, reports had decreased to five per year; in 2006, Strongyloides infection was removed from the LACDPH reportable disease list. Currently, it is only reported at the discretion of Los Angeles County clinicians and laboratories as an unusual disease occurrence. LACDPH currently only monitors case counts and does not investigate reported Strongyloides cases. During 2013-2014, an increase in Strongyloides cases occurred, with 43 cases reported.

  6. Hate Crime in Los Angeles County 1990. A Report to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Bunny Nightwalker

    A report on 1990 hate crimes in Los Angeles County (California) found 275 racially motivated hate crimes, 150 religiously motivated hate crimes, and 125 sexual orientation hate crimes. The data were collected primarily from law enforcement and community agencies. Of the racially motivated crimes, most were aimed at Blacks, followed by Asians. Jews…

  7. Union Oil Center - Los Angeles (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira y Luckman, Arquitectos

    1959-05-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo acento vertical, en la más horizontal de las ciudades del mundo —Los Angeles—, se ha acabado recientemente: el "Union Oil Center", conjunto arquitectónico que expresa un estilo lleno de utilidad, fuerza y belleza.

  8. Hepatitis E Virus in Rats, Los Angeles, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Robert H.; Engle, Ronald E.; Rood, Michael P.; Kabrane-Lazizi, Yamina; Nguyen, Hanh T.; Govindarajan, Sugantha; St. Claire, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    The role of rats in human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections remains controversial. A genetically distinct HEV was recently isolated from rats in Germany, and its genome was sequenced. We have isolated a genetically similar HEV from urban rats in Los Angeles, California, USA, and characterized its ability to infect laboratory rats and nonhuman primates. Two strains of HEV were isolated from serum samples of 134 wild rats that had a seroprevalence of antibodies against HEV of ≈80%. Virus was transmissible to seronegative Sprague-Dawley rats, but transmission was spotty and magnitude and duration of infection were not robust. Viremia was higher in nude rats. Serologic analysis and reverse transcription PCR were comparably sensitive in detecting infection. The sequence of the Los Angeles virus was virtually identical to that of isolates from Germany. Rat HEV was not transmissible to rhesus monkeys, suggesting that it is not a source of human infection. PMID:22172320

  9. Los Angeles Summer Midday Particulate Carbon: Primary and Secondary Aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Turpin, Barbara J.; Huntzicker, James J.; Larson, Susan M.; Cass, Glen R.

    1991-01-01

    Aerosol sampling during photochemically active times across the Los Angeles Basin has provided evidence of secondary formation of organic aerosol from gas-phase precursors at midday. Ambient organic carbon/elemental carbon ratios exceeded the estimated ratio of organic carbon/elemental carbon in primary source emissions on most sampling days at all sites. The concentration of secondary organic aerosol was calculated by using ambient data and estimates of the organic ca...

  10. Learning from Los Angeles: Transport, Urban Form, and Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wachs, Martin

    1993-01-01

    Los Angeles is well known around the world as an automobile-oriented low density community, yet recent transportation policies have emphasized greater capital investment in rail transportation than in highways, and recent policies have attempted to discourage automobile usage through transportation demand management. While these policies have accomplished small shifts toward public transport and somewhat lower dependence upon singly occupied automobiles for work commuting, the financial costs...

  11. Los Angeles Rising: A City that Works for Everyone

    OpenAIRE

    Flaming, Daniel; Toros, Halil; Liu, Yvonne Yen; Burns, Patrick; Herrera, Lucero; Koonse, Tia; Waheed, Saba

    2015-01-01

    For many, Los Angeles evokes images of year-round sunshine and celebrity, a dream city of wealth and possibility. Yet in reality, half of L.A. residents living in poverty are employed, showing that low wages drive poverty as much as unemployment does. This report assesses the benefits and consequences of raising Los Angeles’s minimum wage to $15.25. The result will be an increase of $5.9 billion in wages with a stimulus effect for the region. Paying fair wages will be an adjustment for some b...

  12. Using Research to Improve College Readiness: A Research Partnership between the Los Angeles Unified School District and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Meredith; Yamashiro, Kyo; Farrukh, Adina; Lim, Cynthia; Hayes, Katherine; Wagner, Nicole; White, Jeffrey; Chen, Hansheng

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) serves a large majority of socioeconomically disadvantaged students who are struggling academically and are underprepared for high school graduation and college. This article describes the partnership between LAUSD and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute, and how this collaboration endeavors…

  13. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  14. Alterations in nitrogen biogeochemistry in Los Angeles, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend-Small, A.; Pataki, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    The biogeochemistry and ecology of the Los Angeles region have been heavily altered by humans. Irrigation and fertilization have changed the landscape dramatically, with concomitant changes in the regional N budget. Anthropogenic N additions to the region have resulted in increased losses of N. We studied two aspects of N cycling in Southern California: soil-atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), a powerful greenhouse gas, and dissolved N losses to the coastal ocean in streams and urban runoff. Nitrous oxide fluxes from irrigated and fertilized lawns in the Los Angeles region are similar to results from agricultural fields in Southern California and elsewhere, indicating that urban landscapes may be a significant contributor to regional greenhouse gas budgets. Content of N-15 and O-18 in N2O from agricultural and urban land cover is highly variable, and isotope signatures are not useful indicators of urban versus agricultural N2O sources. We found that the isotopic signature of N2O was highly variable from soils, but very useful for distinguishing among sources of dissolved nitrate. Irrigation in urban areas has also increased the flux of fresh water to the coastal ocean, with concurrent increases in nutrient fluxes to coastal ecosystems. Wastewater and soil N are the major sources of N to Aliso Creek, an urban/suburban stream in the Los Angeles area, with atmospheric N only a small source during infrequent rain events. Inorganic fertilizers do not appear to be a large source of N to the stream. Concentrations of nitrate in this stream are much higher (~ 10 micromoles per liter) than streams in watersheds that are less impacted by humans. N-15 in nitrate in the stream increases along a longitudinal gradient downstream, indicating that denitrification along the stream channel and in riparian areas may be helping to reduce the total N loading to the coastal ocean, although this may also be associated with increases in N2O emissions. Irrigation with recycled

  15. Implementing Municipal Tree Planting: Los Angeles Million-Tree Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincetl, Stephanie

    2010-02-01

    Urban forests are increasingly being seen as an important infrastructure that can help cities remediate their environmental impacts. This work reports on the first steps in implementing a million tree program in Los Angeles and the ways such a biogenic—living—infrastructure has been approached. Numbers of studies have been done to quantify the benefits of urban forests, but little has been written on the process of implementing urban tree planting programs. The investigative methods were primarily qualitative, involving interviews, attending meetings and conducting literature reviews. Results indicate that multiple nonprofit and city agency programs are involved in planting and maintaining trees and this has required coordination among groups that here-to-fore were unaccustomed to having to collaborate. The main finding that emerge from this research is that the implementation of such a program in Los Angeles is more complicated than it may seem due to several interacting factors: the need to rely on multiple public and private organizations to put trees into the ground and to maintain them; coordination of these multiple efforts must be centralized, but requires a great deal of time and effort and maybe resisted by some of the partners; funding for planting and long term maintenance must be pieced together from multiple sources; acceptance of trees by residents varies by neighborhood as does tree canopy cover; appropriate nursery supply can be limited; the location of the program within the city administration is determined by who initiates the program.

  16. 40 CFR 52.229 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.229 Section 52.229... oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a) (b) The following rules are... not interfere with the attainment and maintenance of NAAQS for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons...

  17. 76 FR 53115 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 202; Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 202; Los Angeles, CA Pursuant to its authority... City of Los Angeles, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 202, submitted an application to the Board for...

  18. 76 FR 86 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 202, Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 202, Los Angeles, CA Pursuant to... Commissioners of the City of Los Angeles, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 202, submitted an application to the...

  19. The seafloor off Greater Los Angeles: Visualizing Gigabytes of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. V.

    2002-12-01

    The seafloor off the greater Los Angeles area was mapped with three different high-resolution multibeam echosounders over a period of three field seasons. The mapping was untaken to provide a base map for ongoing marine geological studies in the area. The combined data set covers the entire continental shelf and basin slope from as shallow as the 20-m isobath (in some places the 5-m isobath) on the inner shelf to the 800-m isobath on the basin floor. These data represent more than 5 billion georeferenced depth soundings that cover an area of more than 1000 km2. In addition, each depth sounding location has an associated acoustic backscatter value, thereby effectively doubling the data volume that needs to be visualized. And, when the land area DEM is draped with Landsat imagery, the dataset enlarges to more than 6 billion points. The data can be visualized with many standard GIS packages but statically investigating 2D map views of such a large dataset, one view at a time, is cumbersome and can be tedious. In addition, the bathymetric data have various spatial resolutions that depend on the water depth. A dynamically interactive 3D visualization package that allows georeferenced datasets of mixed spatial resolutions was chosen to enhance the interpretation phase of the dataset. Some of the capabilities of this software will be demonstrated during the presentation. The bathymetric data reveal the complex nature of this basin-margin environment. Large debris avalanches have scarred the basin slope off the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Undercutting along the base of the basin slope suggests current erosion. The morphologies of the submarine canyons in the area range in complexity from a simple single canyon channel, such as Redondo Canyon, to a complex system of canyon channels, such as Newport and San Gabriel Canyons. Distinctive small canyon morphologies suggests the possibility of fresh-water springs outcropping along the San Pedro upper basin slope and along the mid and

  20. UCLA's outreach program of science education in the Los Angeles schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Cayetano, J; Kanowith-Klein, S; Stevens, R

    1999-04-01

    The UCLA School of Medicine's Interactive Multi-media Exercises (IMMEX) Project began its outreach into pre-college education in the Los Angeles area in 1993. The project provides a model in which software and technology are effectively intertwined with teaching, learning, and assessment (of both students' and teachers' performances) in the classroom. The project has evolved into a special collaboration between the medical school and Los Angeles teachers. UCLA faculty and staff work with science teachers and administrators from elementary, middle, and high schools. The program benefits ethnically and racially diverse groups of students in schools ranging from the inner city to the suburbs. The project's primary goal is to use technology to increase students' achievement and interest in science, including medicine, and thus move more students into the medical school pipeline. Evaluations from outside project evaluators (West Ed) as well as from teachers and IMMEX staff show that the project has already had a significant effect on teachers' professional development, classroom practice, and students' achievement in the Los Angeles area.

  1. Chagas disease awareness among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel R; Traina, Mahmoud I; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18-60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Chagas Disease Awareness among Latin American Immigrants Living in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel R.; Traina, Mahmoud I.; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M.; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18–60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

  3. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  4. Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Areas Cultural Resource Survey, Los Angeles County, California,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    came to the mainland in a at low tide were so visibletheywere later called large bay, which they named islands, such as Mormon Island. The Los ’ Bahia ...Colony Tract". In 1882 the Magnolia Street in 1888, the Pine Avenue California Immigrant Union (CIU). which had Municipal Pier was constructed in 1893...structure for its day: massive, as a gathering spot for the oldtimers, many of modern, and yet decorated with Gothic them immigrants who brought their

  5. Julian Murphet. Literature and Race in Los Angeles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Cochoy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La ville de Los Angeles est un défi pour les écrivains américains contemporains, non seulement à cause de son expansion désordonnée, de sa fragmentation géographique, sociale, ethnique ou linguistique, mais aussi à cause de l’omniprésence de l’image qui substitue à la « réalité » urbaine une production abstraite et amnésique, encombrée de clichés improvisés par les bâtisseurs de « Tinseltown » — « the imagineers ». Selon Julian Murphet, la littérature de L. A. témoigne de l’anéantissement de ...

  6. On the Sources of Methane to the Los Angeles Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Paul O.; Mui, Wilton; Fischer, Marc L.; Wunch, Debra; Kort, Eric A.; Blake, Donald R.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Diskin, Glenn S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We use historical and new atmospheric trace gas observations to refine the estimated source of methane (CH4) emitted into California's South Coast Air Basin (the larger Los Angeles metropolitan region). Referenced to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) CO emissions inventory, total CH4 emissions are 0.44 +/- 0.15 Tg each year. To investigate the possible contribution of fossil fuel emissions, we use ambient air observations of methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), and carbon monoxide (CO), together with measured C2H6 to CH4 enhancement ratios in the Los Angeles natural gas supply. The observed atmospheric C2H6 to CH4 ratio during the ARCTAS (2008) and CalNex (2010) aircraft campaigns is similar to the ratio of these gases in the natural gas supplied to the basin during both these campaigns. Thus, at the upper limit (assuming that the only major source of atmospheric C2H6 is fugitive emissions from the natural gas infrastructure) these data are consistent with the attribution of most (0.39 +/- 0.15 Tg yr-1) of the excess CH4 in the basin to uncombusted losses from the natural gas system (approximately 2.5-6% of natural gas delivered to basin customers). However, there are other sources of C2H6 in the region. In particular, emissions of C2H6 (and CH4) from natural gas seeps as well as those associated with petroleum production, both of which are poorly known, will reduce the inferred contribution of the natural gas infrastructure to the total CH4 emissions, potentially significantly. This study highlights both the value and challenges associated with the use of ethane as a tracer for fugitive emissions from the natural gas production and distribution system.

  7. Climate Change and Adaptation Planning on the Los Angeles Aqueduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. B.; Bales, R. C.; Costa-Cabral, M. C.; Chen, L.; Maurer, E. P.; Miller, N. L.; Mills, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on the Eastern Sierra Nevada snowpack and snowmelt timing, using a combination of empirical (i.e., data-based) models, and computer simulation models forced by GCM-projected 21st century climatology (IPCC 2007 AR4 projections). Precipitation from the Eastern Sierra Nevada is one of the main water sources for Los Angeles' more than 4 million people - a source whose future availability is critical to the city's growing population and large economy. Precipitation in the region falls mostly in winter and is stored in the large natural reservoir that is the snowpack. Meltwater from the Eastern Sierra is delivered to the city by the 340-mile long Los Angeles Aqueducts. The analysis is focused on the nature of the impact to the LAA water supplies over the 21st century due to potential climate change, including volume of precipitation, the mix of snowfall and rainfall, shifts in the timing of runoff, interannual variability and multi-year droughts. These impacts further affect the adequacy of seasonal and annual carryover water storage, and potentially water treatment. Most of the snow in the 10,000 km^2 Mono-Owens basins that feed the LAA occurs in a relatively narrow, 10-20 km wide, high-elevation band on the steep slopes of 20 smaller basins whose streams drain into the Owens River and thence LAA. Extending over 240 km in the north-south direction, these basins present special challenges for estimating snowpack amounts and downscaling climate-model data. In addition, there are few meteorological stations and snow measurements in the snow-producing parts of the basins to drive physically based hydrologic modeling.

  8. Immigrant incorporation in the garment industry of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, I; Bernard, R B; Kim, R

    1999-01-01

    This study expands immigrant social network theory and examined employment patterns in the garment industry in Los Angeles, California, among Latino workers employed by Asian immigrant entrepreneurs. The study determined that a large percentage of immigrant employees found their jobs through the immigrant economy. Entrepreneurship increased the supply of local jobs and expanded the economy at destination at no expense to natives. Immigrant entrepreneurs bought firms from nonimmigrant owners or started new ones with an immigrant labor supply. Massey's index is flawed due to its exclusion of the role of entrepreneurs. Migration networks facilitate entrepreneurship, but some ethnic groups have fewer entrepreneurs, such as Mexicans and Central Americans. A 1993 Los Angeles survey identified 3642 garment factories in its county. Mean employment was 27.1 persons. The garment industry was the 4th largest industry in the area in 1996, with 98,700 employees. It represented 6% of all wage and salary employees in the City and 5.5% of the immigrant labor force in the County in 1990. 93% of garment workers in 1990 were immigrants. It is estimated that 51% of garment factory owners were Asians; most employees were Latinos. Census figures on sewing machine operators indicated 47.3% of owners were Whites and 42.45 were Asians. 53.3% of employees were other ethnic groups, 14.5% were Asians, and 32.2% were Whites. It is estimated that 47.2% of total employment was due to the immigration economy. 71.5% of the total employment in the garment industry was in the immigrant sector.

  9. Ridesharing or Ridestealing? Changes in Taxi Ridership and Revenue in Los Angeles 2009-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Waheed, Saba; Herrera, Lucero; Ritoper, Stefanie; Mehta, Jonaki; Romero, Hugo; Narro, Victor

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, Los Angeles increased the minimum wage to one of the highest in the country, leading the way to boost stagnating pay for workers and to ensure that workers are able to earn enough to support themselves and their families. Los Angeles needs to take the same care to ensure quality employment within the taxi industry, particularly in light of the rapid growth of transportation networking companies (TNCs) such as Uber and Lyft into Los Angeles. TNCs are on-demand ride services w...

  10. Turning Sunshine into Noir and Fantasy into Reality: Los Angeles in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Alvina E.

    1998-01-01

    At the University of Delaware, an interdisciplinary college course called "LA.: City of the Angels" incorporated history, political theory, film studies, and literature. The course aimed to deepen student awareness of diversity by deconstructing Hollywood images of Los Angeles and examining the interconnections between regional…

  11. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Most of Los Angeles is visible in this computer-generated north-northeast perspective viewed from above the Pacific Ocean. In the foreground the hilly Palos Verdes peninsula lies to the left of the harbor at Long Beach, and in the middle distance the various communities that comprise the greater Los Angeles area appear as shades of grey and white. In the distance the San Gabriel Mountains rise up to separate the basin from the Mojave Desert, which can be seen near the top of the image.This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated one and one-half times.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.Size: View width 70 kilometers (42 miles), View distance 160 kilometers(100 miles) Location: 34.0 deg. North lat., 118.2 deg. West lon. Orientation

  12. Earthquake hazards of active blind-thrust faults under the central Los Angeles basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John H.; Suppe, John

    1996-04-01

    We document several blind-thrust faults under the Los Angeles basin that, if active and seismogenic, are capable of generating large earthquakes (M = 6.3 to 7.3). Pliocene to Quaternary growth folds imaged in seismic reflection profiles record the existence, size, and slip rates of these blind faults. The growth structures have shapes characteristic of fault-bend folds above blind thrusts, as demonstrated by balanced kinematic models, geologic cross sections, and axial-surface maps. We interpret the Compton-Los Alamitos trend as a growth fold above the Compton ramp, which extends along strike from west Los Angeles to at least the Santa Ana River. The Compton thrust is part of a larger fault system, including a decollement and ramps beneath the Elysian Park and Palos Verdes trends. The Cienegas and Coyote Hills growth folds overlie additional blind thrusts in the Elysian Park trend that are not closely linked to the Compton ramp. Analysis of folded Pliocene to Quaternary strata yields slip rates of 1.4 ± 0.4 mm/yr on the Compton thrust and 1.7 ± 0.4 mm/yr on a ramp beneath the Elysian Park trend. Assuming that slip is released in large earthquakes, we estimate magnitudes of 6.3 to 6.8 for earthquakes on individual ramp segments based on geometric segment sizes derived from axial surface maps. Multiple-segment ruptures could yield larger earthquakes (M = 6.9 to 7.3). Relations among magnitude, coseismic displacement, and slip rate yield an average recurrence interval of 380 years for single-segment earthquakes and a range of 400 to 1300 years for multiple-segment events. If these newly documented blind thrust faults are active, they will contribute substantially to the seismic hazards in Los Angeles because of their locations directly beneath the metropolitan area.

  13. Geologic seepage of methane and light alkanes in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doezema, L. A.; Chang, K.; Baril, R.; Nwachuku, I.; Contreras, P.; Marquez, A.; Howard, D.

    2013-12-01

    Natural geologic seepage of methane from underground oil and natural gas reservoirs has been suggested to be an underreported part of the global methane budget. Other light alkanes are also given off in combination with the methane seepage, making it possible that geologic seepage is also a potentially significant global source of these light alkanes. This study reports C1-C5 findings from geologic seepage made in the Los Angeles region. Microseepage, invisible escape of gases, was measured primarily at Kenneth Hahn Regional Park, while macroseepage, the visible release of gases, was measured at the La Brea Tar Pits. Samples were collected using stainless steel canisters and flux chambers and were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID). Average microseepage flux rates of 0.95 μg m-2 h-1 for ethane and 0.51 μg m-2 h-1 were found for propane, while average macroseepage rates for methane, ethane, and propane were 664, 19.8, and 18.1 mg m-2 h-1 respectively. Relationships between microseepage flux rate and location of underground oil and natural deposit and earthquake fault lines are presented. Additionally, the relative importance of findings in context with global budgets and local air quality is discussed.

  14. Fragmented Flows: Water Supply in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincetl, Stephanie; Porse, Erik; Cheng, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    In the Los Angeles metropolitan region, nearly 100 public and private entities are formally involved in the management and distribution of potable water—a legacy rooted in fragmented urban growth in the area and late 19th century convictions about local control of services. Yet, while policy debates focus on new forms of infrastructure, restructured pricing mechanisms, and other technical fixes, the complex institutional architecture of the present system has received little attention. In this paper, we trace the development of this system, describe its interconnections and disjunctures, and demonstrate the invisibility of water infrastructure in LA in multiple ways—through mapping, statistical analysis, and historical texts. Perverse blessings of past water abundance led to a complex, but less than resilient, system with users accustomed to cheap, easily accessible water. We describe the lack of transparency and accountability in the current system, as well as its shortcomings in building needed new infrastructure and instituting new water rate structures. Adapting to increasing water scarcity and likely droughts must include addressing the architecture of water management.

  15. Evapotranspiration from irrigated turfgrass in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, E.; Bijoor, N. S.; Pataki, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the United States, turfgrasses cover an area larger than any cultivated crop. In arid and semiarid cities, where up to 75% of household water is used for irrigation, turfgrass may contribute to a substantial portion of evapotranspiration (ET) from urban landscapes. However, urban ET and the role of turfgrass have seldom been directly quantified. Using portable chambers, we directly measured ET from irrigated turfgrass in 8 locations in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. We addressed the following questions: (1) How does ET from irrigated turfgrass compare with transpiration of urban trees in the study region? (2) What are the major environmental controls on turfgrass ET? (3) How variable is turfgrass ET spatially and temporally? We found summertime ET from irrigated turfgrass to vary from 2.2 ± 0.2 mm/d to 8.8 ± 0.8 mm/d, which exceeded the maximum, plot-level transpiration of irrigated trees in the study region. The main driver of spatial variability of turfgrass ET was incoming solar radiation. This allowed us to evaluate ET from turfgrass partially shaded by trees as a function of tree canopy cover. Our results contribute to an improved representation of irrigated lawns in urban water budgets and can inform decisions about water-wise landscape planning, which is vital in semi-arid cities facing water shortages.

  16. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority climate change adaptation pilot project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This Climate Change Adaptation Pilot Project Report details the project background of the recently-completed Los Angeles County : Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) Transit Climate Change Adaptation Pilot Project as well as the various wor...

  17. Spatial patterns and source attribution of urban methane in the Los Angeles Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopkins, Francesca M; Kort, Eric A; Bush, Susan E; Ehleringer, James R; Lai, Chun‐Ta; Blake, Donald R; Randerson, James T

    2016-01-01

    ... emissions are the unknown source. We made on‐road measurements to quantify fine‐scale structure of methane and a suite of complementary trace gases across the Los Angeles Basin in June 2013...

  18. Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship for Los Angeles Unified School District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.

    2007-11-01

    This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

  19. Teaching case studies on earthquake preparedness efforts in the transportation sector, Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Through the development of a Harvard Kennedy School case study (intended for : use as curriculum in graduate-level and executive education programs), this project : examines earthquake preparedness and planning processes in the Los Angeles : metropol...

  20. Los Angeles EDDS Site Transportation Cost Analysis for the Pooling Phase July-December 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    comparison with direct shipment to the customer . Pooling is defined as the consolidation of truckload shipments from the depots into large less-than...truckload or truckload lots for transshipment to the customer . Comparison of the cost of EDDS pooling at Los Angeles with the potential cost of direct...shipment to the customer showed that during the second 6 months of operations, the Los Angeles EDDS site has absorbed a loss of approximately $82,000

  1. Age and isotopic systematics of Cretaceous borehole and surface samples from the greater Los Angeles Basin region: Implications for the types of crust that might underlie Los Angeles and their distribution along late Cenozoic fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Wayne R.; Morton, Douglas M.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    Nine U-Pb zircon ages were determined on plutonic rocks sampled from surface outcrops and rock chips of drill core from boreholes within the greater Los Angeles Basin region. In addition, lead-strontium-neodymium (Pb-Sr-Nd) whole-rock isotopic data were obtained for eight of these samples. These results help to characterize the crystalline basement rocks hidden in the subsurface and provide information that bears on the tectonic history of the myriad of fault systems that have dissected the Los Angeles region over the past 15 m.y. Seven of the nine samples have U-Pb ages ranging from 115 to 103 Ma and whole-rock Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics that indicate the crystalline basement underneath the greater Los Angeles Basin region is mostly part of the Peninsular Ranges batholith. Furthermore, these data are interpreted as evidence for (1) the juxtaposition of mid-Cretaceous, northern Peninsular Ranges batholith plutonic rocks against Late Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Transverse Ranges in the San Fernando Valley, probably along the Verdugo fault; (2) the juxtaposition of older northwestern Peninsular Ranges batholith rocks against younger northeastern Peninsular Ranges batholith rocks in the northern Puente Hills, implying transposition of northeastern Peninsular Ranges batholith rocks to the west along unrecognized faults beneath the Chino Basin; and (3) juxtaposition of northern Peninsular Ranges batholith plutonic rocks against Late Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Transverse Ranges along the San Jose fault in the northern San Jose Hills at Ganesha Park. These mainly left-lateral strike-slip faults of the eastern part of the greater Los Angeles Basin region could be the result of block rotation within the adjacent orthogonal, right-lateral, Elsinore-Whittier fault zone to the west and the subparallel San Jacinto fault zone to the east. The San Andreas fault system is the larger, subparallel, driving force further to the east.

  2. Offshore Stratigraphic Controls on Salt-Water Intrusion in Los Angeles Area Coastal Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Ponti, D. J.; Ehman, K. D.; Tinsley, J. C.; Reichard, E. G.

    2002-12-01

    Ground water is a major component of the water supply for the ~10 million residents of Los Angeles County. Ground water pumping, linked to population growth since the early 1900's, caused water levels to decline, reversed seaward hydraulic gradients in some coastal aquifers, and resulted in salt water intrusion. United States Geological Survey geologists and hydrologists are working cooperatively with local water agencies to (1) understand and model the process of salt-water intrusion in this siliciclastic, structurally complex basin, and (2) identify potential pathways for the salt-water intrusion. We collected over 2000 trackline-km of single- and multi-channel intermediate- and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles (60 to 5000 Hz) from the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex and the adjacent San Pedro shelf to develop a 3-dimensional stratigraphic model of the coastal aquifer system. These data define stratal geometries, paleo-channels, and fault traces in the offshore that are potential pathways of salt-water intrusion. The offshore seismic-reflection profiles correlate with onshore geophysical and borehole data collected from four nearby drill sites that were cored continuously to depths ranging to 400 meters. These core holes provide detailed 1-dimensional reference sections that furnish stratigraphic, age, and facies control for the seismic-reflection profiles. The coastal aquifer system is described using sequence stratigraphic concepts as units deposited during eustatic sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene to Recent. Seismic-reflection profiles identify sequence boundaries, and hence aquifer and aquitard units, by the truncation and onlap of reflectors. If and where the sequences crop out on the sea floor provides a potential pathway for intrusion. The youngest unit, the Gaspur aquifer, is intruded with salt water and consists of at least two flat-lying sequences, each marked by basal gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles

  3. Molecular basis for Duarte and Los Angeles variant galactosemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langley, S.D.; Lai, K.; Dembure, P.P. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Human erythrocytes that are homozygous for the Duarte enzyme variant of galactosemia (D/D) have a characteristic isoform on isoelectric focusing and 50% reduction in galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) enzyme activity. The Duarte biochemical phenotype has a molecular genotype of N314D/N314D. The characteristic Duarte isoform is also associated with a variant called the {open_quotes}Los Angeles (LA) phenotype,{close_quotes} which has increased GALT enzyme activity. We evaluated GALT enzyme activity and screened the GALT genes of 145 patients with one or more N314D-containing alleles. We found seven with the LA biochemical phenotype, and all had a 1721C{r_arrow}T transition in exon 7 in cis with the N314D missense mutation. The 1721C{r_arrow}T transition is a neutral polymorphism for leucine at amino acid 218 (L218L). In pedigree analyses, this 1721C{r_arrow}T transition segregated with the LA phenotype of increased GALT activity in three different biochemical phenotypes (LA/N, LA/G, and LA/D). To determine the mechanism for increased activity of the LA variant, we compared GALT mRNA, protein abundance, and enzyme thermal stability in lymphoblast cell lines of D and LA phenotypes with comparable genotypes. GALT protein abundance was increased in LA compared to D alleles, but mRNA was similar among all genotypes. We conclude that the codon change N314D in cis with the base-pair transition 1721C{r_arrow}T produces the LA variant of galactosemia and that this nucleotide change increases GALT activity by increasing GALT protein abundance without increasing transcription or decreasing thermal lability. A favorable codon bias for the mutated codon with consequently increased translation rates is postulated as the mechanism. 23 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Characterizing Air Toxics from Oil Field Operations in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; DeWinter, J. L.; Bai, S.; O'Brien, T.; Vaughn, D.; Peltier, R.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.; Roberts, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Inglewood Oil Field in urban Los Angeles has been in operation for more than 70 years. Neighborhoods surrounding the oil field are concerned with the potential emissions of air toxics from oil field operations. The Baldwin Hills Air Quality Study focused on (1) quantifying air toxics concentrations originating from the Inglewood Oil Field operations, including drilling and well workovers, and (2) assessing the health risk of both acute and chronic exposure to air toxics emitted from oil field operations. Key pollutants identified for characterization included diesel particulate matter (DPM), cadmium, benzene, nickel, formaldehyde, mercury, manganese, acrolein, arsenic, and lead. The field study began in November 2012 and ended in November 2013. Four types of instruments were used to characterize oil field operations: (1) Aethalometers to measure black carbon (BC; as a proxy for DPM); (2) X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) for metals; (3) Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) for volatile organic compounds; and (4) meteorological sensors to help assess the wind patterns, temperature, and humidity that influence pollutant concentrations. Overall concentrations of most of the species measured in the study were quite low for an urban area. We determined that there were statistically significant increases in concentrations of DPM associated with oil field operations when winds were from the west-southwest. BC concentrations increased by 0.036 to 0.056 μg/m3, on average, when winds originated from the west-southwest, compared to annual mean BC concentrations of approximately 0.67 μg/m3. West-southwest winds occurred 53% of the time during the study. No other pollutants showed strong statistical evidence of chronic or acute risk from oil field operations.

  5. Relationship between Los Angeles attrition test and Nordic abrasion test of volcanic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutilová, Kateřina; Prikryl, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Various volcanic rocks contribute significantly to the production of crushed stone in the Czech Republic. When used for road surfacing, results of Los Angeles attrition test (LA value below 25 or 30 depending on the mode of use) together with polished stone value are required. In the recent study, we have focused on the search for possible correlation between results obtained by Los Angeles attrition test and Nordic abrasion test, a test widely employed in Scandinavia. For the experimental study, a set of volcanic rocks from 36 active quarries was used. The rocks under study represent range of volcanic rocks from ultrabasic to acid members, formed form Neoproterozoic to Tertiary. The most favourable results of Los Angeles attrition test (i.e. the lowest LA values) were obtained for basalts (range of values 9.4-19.4) and spilites (range of values 8.4-14.9) which are in fact Neoproterozoic to Late Palaeozoic basalts affected by low grade metamorphism. Nordic abrasion test exhibited much broader range of values (6.4 to 36.9) with average value at 15.2 for basalts, resulting in weak coefficient of determination (0.19). . On contrary, narrow range of values from Nordic abrasion test of spilites (7.2-15.9), very similar to the range of LA values, is reflect in higher coefficient of determination (0.56). On contrary, the least favourable properties (LA values 12.3-29.2, Nordic abrasion 16.8-43.3) have been observed for a group of basic to intermediate rocks classified in older literature as melaphyres and diabases (ranging from basalts to trachyndesites and/or trachybasalts) of Palaeozoic age. However, in this specific group of volcanic rocks, the highest coefficient of determination (0.89) between both tests has been achieved. For volcanic rocks exhibiting acid composition (rhyolites and quartz porphyry), coefficient of determination between LA values (15.1-19.3) and Nordic abrasion test (7.3-21.9) is weak (0.42). The weakest relationship between LA values (14

  6. How Diverse Schools Affect Student Mobility: Charter, Magnet, and Newly Built Institutions in Los Angeles. Los Angeles School Infrastructure Project. Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauter, Luke; Fuller, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that student achievement often suffers when children and families move, leaving behind their school and neighborhood, yet, in urban districts like Los Angeles, mobility is now encouraged by the development of mixed-markets of diverse schools, including charter, pilot, and magnet schools in. Over 60 new school facilities were opened…

  7. HB D Los Angeles in a Brazilian family Hb D Los Angeles em família brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme G. Leoneli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Inherited disorders of hemoglobin, the most common monogenic disease, are now well understood at the molecular level, knowledge, which has led to considerable improvements in their control and management. The Brazilian population is multiethnic, and the correct characterization of the Hb D is important, mainly because the method available for detection of abnormal hemoglobins, present a migration in the same zone at alkaline pH, for Hb S, D, and G for example. In this paper we studied a family with an abnormal hemoglobin like S in alkaline electrophoresis, by appropriated methods including HPLC and molecular analysis, characterized as hemoglobin D Los Angeles.As doenças hereditária da hemoglobina são as mais comuns doenças monogênicas e atualmente bem conhecidas do ponto de vista molecular, fato este que propiciou um avanço no seu controle e manuseio. A população brasileira caracteriza-se pela multiplicidade étnica e a caracterização da Hb D torna-se importante por este dado, associado ao fato de que os métodos de detecção das hemoglobinopatias comumente não identificam esta fração anormal que apresenta a peculiaridade de migração eletroforéticia em pH alcalino na mesma zona observada nas Hb S e G. Neste relato é apresentado um estudo familiar no qual é empregada metodologia adequada, o HLPC, que permite a identificação da Hb D.

  8. Landsat - SRTM Shaded Relief Comparison, Los Angeles and Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs), such as those produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), allow user-controlled visualization of the Earth's landforms that is not possible using satellite imagery alone. This three-view comparison shows Los Angeles, Calif., and vicinity, with a Landsat image (only) on the left, a shaded relief rendering of the SRTM DEM on the right, and a merge of the two data sets in the middle. Note that topographic expression in the Landsat image alone is very subtle due to the fairly high sun angle (63 degrees above the horizon) during the satellite overflight in late morning of a mid-Spring day (May 4, 2001). In contrast, computer generated topographic shading of the DEM provides a pure and bold image of topographic expression with a user specified illumination direction. The middle image shows how combining the Landsat and DEM shaded relief can result in a topographically enhanced satellite image in which the information content of both data sets is merged into a single view.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U

  9. An Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Los Angeles (California USA) Hospitals, Wildfires Highest Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaine, Sabrina A; Sato, Mizuki; Jin, Yufang; Godwin, Hilary

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Although many studies have delineated the variety and magnitude of impacts that climate change is likely to have on health, very little is known about how well hospitals are poised to respond to these impacts. Hypothesis/Problem The hypothesis is that most modern hospitals in urban areas in the United States need to augment their current disaster planning to include climate-related impacts. Using Los Angeles County (California USA) as a case study, historical data for emergency department (ED) visits and projections for extreme-heat events were used to determine how much climate change is likely to increase ED visits by mid-century for each hospital. In addition, historical data about the location of wildfires in Los Angeles County and projections for increased frequency of both wildfires and flooding related to sea-level rise were used to identify which area hospitals will have an increased risk of climate-related wildfires or flooding at mid-century. Only a small fraction of the total number of predicted ED visits at mid-century would likely to be due to climate change. By contrast, a significant portion of hospitals in Los Angeles County are in close proximity to very high fire hazard severity zones (VHFHSZs) and would be at greater risk to wildfire impacts as a result of climate change by mid-century. One hospital in Los Angeles County was anticipated to be at greater risk due to flooding by mid-century as a result of climate-related sea-level rise. This analysis suggests that several Los Angeles County hospitals should focus their climate-change-related planning on building resiliency to wildfires. Adelaine SA , Sato M , Jin Y , Godwin H . An assessment of climate change impacts on Los Angeles (California USA) hospitals, wildfires highest priority. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):556-562.

  10. Three-Dimensional Velocity Model of the Los Angeles Region From Active Source Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, K. A.; Miller, K.; Okaya, D.; Fuis, G.

    2002-12-01

    In 1994, the USGS, along with several other institutions, ran an active source seismic survey through the Los Angeles basin, known as the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE). This experiment had both offshore and onshore shots and receivers which were arranged in 3 lines, each crossing over or near the site of a major (M > 6.5) earthquake epicenter. The offshore component consisted of airgun shots recorded by onshore receivers, ocean bottom seismometers, and a digital streamer. The shots for this portion totaled 25,000, recorded by 10 OBS, a 160 4.2 km digital streamer and 170 single component Reftek DAS units. The on-shore component contained 62 shots along transect 1, recorded by 228 3-component Reftek DAS units, 187 single component SGR's, 183 single component PRS1's, 33 three-component PRS4's, and 18 three-component GEOS's. The goal of LARSE was to produce better images of basins in the the Los Angeles area than that produced by earthquake data. Here, we present a tomographic 3-D velocity model produced by inverting LARSE first arrival refraction travel time picks using the 'First Arrival Seismic Tomography Code (FAST)' (Zelt and Barton, 1998). 3-D ray coverage is best near the western edge of the Los Angeles basin, where the airgun data is recored by seismometers on all three lines. For the rest of the model, there is good 2-D coverage along the ends of the lines. Structures that are imaged include the Santa Monica Basin, the Palos Verdes Fault, the western edge of the Los Angeles Basin, and the San Andreas fault. The sensitivity of the model to perturbations of travel times was tested using the method of Doser et al. (1998). The model is then compared to other published models in order to enhance the understanding of the structures that underlay and surround the Los Angeles Basin.

  11. Diversity and Educational Challenges in Oslo and Los Angeles - A Metropolitan Perspective nr 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Receiving, accommodation and education of children with immigrant background is one of the challenging issues in almost all the metropolitan areas in many countries. In our study we are exploring the impact of demographic changes on political agendas, legal frames, educational approaches, research findings and student achievement in the field of education of linguistic minorities in Oslo, Norway and Los Angeles, USA. Although there are significant historical and socio economical differences between Los Angeles and Oslo, many of the educational challenges facing the educational policy makers and the linguistic minority students are quite similar.

  12. Isotopic measurements of atmospheric methane in Los Angeles, California, USA: Influence of “fugitive” fossil fuel emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Tyler, Stanley C.; Pataki, Diane E.; Xu, Xiaomei; Christensen, Lance E.

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that CH4 emissions in Los Angeles and other large cities may be underestimated. We utilized stable isotopes (13C and D) and radiocarbon (14C) to investigate sources of CH4 in Los Angeles, California. First, we made measurements of δ13C and δD of various CH4 sources in urban areas. Fossil fuel CH4 sources (oil refineries, power plants, traffic, and oil drilling fields) had δ13C values between -45 and -30‰ and dD values between -275 and -100‰, whereas biological CH4 (cows, biofuels, landfills, sewage treatment plants, and cattle feedlots) had δ13C values between -65 and -45‰ and δD values between -350 and -275‰. We made high-altitude observations of CH4 concentration using continuous tunable laser spectroscopy measurements combined with isotope analyses (13C, 14C, and D) of discrete samples to constrain urban CH4 sources. Our data indicate that the dominant source of CH4 in Los Angeles has a δ13C value of approximately -41.5‰ and a δD value between -229 and -208‰. Δ14C of CH4 in urban air samples ranged from +262 to +344‰ (127.1 to 134.9 pMC), depleted with respect to average global background CH4. We conclude that the major source of CH4 in Los Angeles is leakage of fossil fuels, such as from geologic formations, natural gas pipelines, oil refining, and/or power plants. More research is needed to constrain fluxes of CH4 from natural gas distribution and refining, as this flux may increase with greater reliance on natural gas and biogas for energy needs.

  13. Plan regulador comunal como herramienta de gestión para una ciudad intermedia. Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carrasco Carrasco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo, trata sobre los distintos programas y proyectos concebidos en la actualización del Plan Regulador de Los Angeles, que se focaliza no tan sólo en las necesidades del área urbana de Los Angeles, sino en la totalidad del territorio comunal. Producto de este proceso se refundió los cuatro instrumentos de planificación vigentes a la fecha, correspondiente a los planos reguladores de Los Angeles, millantú, Salto del Laja y San Carlos de Purén, generando un único marco regulador con 8 áreas urbanas independientes en el territorio, pero regidas por una ordenanza local y unos criterios de planificación comunes. La puesta en marcha de este instrumento de ordenación territorial, coincide con una etapa de gran dinamismo en el mercado inmobiliario de la ciudad, lo que ha permitido evaluar el comportamiento de las determinaciones del plan, validando los criterios de base del mismo y evidenciando los aspectos que se requiere modificar para el perfeccionamiento del instrumento.

  14. Governing Urban School Districts: Efforts in Los Angeles to Effect Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Epstein, Diana; Vuollo, Mirka

    2006-01-01

    Many urban school district students are dropping out and few of the remaining ones reach state or district achievement goals. These problems make governing urban schools both difficult and important. In 2005-06, the governance structure of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) was examined, debated, criticized, and praised by several…

  15. Silencing to Give Voice : Backstage Preparations in the Undocumented Youth Movement in Los Angeles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorito, T.R.; Nicholls, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Building upon intensive ethnographic research on the undocumented youth movement in Los Angeles, this paper investigates the backstage work done by the leaders and activists within a movement to create cohesive and disciplined frontstage performances. These backstage techniques and strategies are

  16. Los Angeles OneSource System Youth Participant Customer Satisfaction Survey, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisley, Deborah D.; Moore, Richard W.; Patch, Robin N.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Los Angeles OneSource Centers offer low-income youth ages 14-21 services aimed at improving educational achievement, enhancing job skills, and preparing for college. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the youths' satisfaction with services received at 14 OneSource Centers throughout…

  17. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  18. Mexican Entrepreneurs and Markets in the City of Los Angeles: A Case of an Immigrant Enclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Robert M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Explores Mexican-American immigrant entrepreneurial activity in the wholesale produce industry in Los Angeles (California). This activity exhibits the primary characteristics defined for immigrant enclaves, a specific mode of incorporation into the economic sector of the U.S. Describes hierarchical elements of Mexican entrepreneurship that…

  19. EPA Awards $200,000 to two Los Angeles Small Businesses to Develop Sustainable Green Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOS ANGELES - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced $200,000 to two Southern California companies located in Torrance and Northridge to develop sustainable technologies that address environmental issues. A total of $1.9 million was awa

  20. Nutritional Status of Mexican American Preschool Children in East Los Angeles and San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    Results of a 1968 pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children in East Los Angeles and San Diego are reported in this document. Questionnaire data collected from mothers of preschool children are presented in terms of a description of families, prenatal care, clinical examinations, dietary intakes, and biochemical…

  1. Analysis of Pool Distribution Operations at the Los Angeles, California, Regional Freight Consolidation Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    comparison with direct shipment to the customer . This study covers the period January through September 1990. Pooling refers to the movement of freight from a...shipments for short distance hauls to the customer . This study is the third such analysis of the cost effectiveness of pooling operations at the Los Angeles

  2. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. RAND Quarterly Report, October 2008. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This document is the second quarterly progress report for the evaluation of Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs for the Los Angeles County Probation Department. The report covers the period from July 1, 2008, through September 30, 2008. The intent of the report is to provide Probation and the community-based organizations (CBOs)…

  3. Tiene Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Louis M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)

  4. Intergroup Conflict in Los Angeles County Schools. Report on a Survey of Hate Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, CA.

    This report discusses the findings of a survey on school hate crime which was distributed to all schools in Los Angeles County (California). The survey was designed to assess the level of inter-ethnic conflict and hate crime on kindergarten through twelfth-grade campuses. Chapter 1 discusses the background of the problem, including information…

  5. 75 FR 47536 - Foreign-Trade Zone 202-Los Angeles, CA; Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 202--Los Angeles, CA; Application for Expansion An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the Board of Harbor... Foreign-Trade Zones Act, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the regulations of the Board (15 CFR part 400...

  6. A life cycle carbon dioxide inventory of the Million Trees Los Angeles Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Alissa Kendall

    2014-01-01

    PurposeThis study seeks to answer the question, “Will the Million Trees LA (Million Trees Los Angeles, MTLA) program be a carbon dioxide (CO2) sink or source?” Because there has never been a full accounting of CO2 emissions, it is unclear if urban tree planting initiatives (TPIs) are likely to be...

  7. Potential for a large earthquake near Los Angeles inferred from the 2014 La Habra earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Grant Ludwig, Lisa; Parker, Jay W; Rundle, John B; Wang, Jun; Pierce, Marlon; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Hensley, Scott

    2015-09-01

    Tectonic motion across the Los Angeles region is distributed across an intricate network of strike-slip and thrust faults that will be released in destructive earthquakes similar to or larger than the 1933 M6.4 Long Beach and 1994 M6.7 Northridge events. Here we show that Los Angeles regional thrust, strike-slip, and oblique faults are connected and move concurrently with measurable surface deformation, even in moderate magnitude earthquakes, as part of a fault system that accommodates north-south shortening and westerly tectonic escape of northern Los Angeles. The 28 March 2014 M5.1 La Habra earthquake occurred on a northeast striking, northwest dipping left-lateral oblique thrust fault northeast of Los Angeles. We present crustal deformation observation spanning the earthquake showing that concurrent deformation occurred on several structures in the shallow crust. The seismic moment of the earthquake is 82% of the total geodetic moment released. Slip within the unconsolidated upper sedimentary layer may reflect shallow release of accumulated strain on still-locked deeper structures. A future M6.1-6.3 earthquake would account for the accumulated strain. Such an event could occur on any one or several of these faults, which may not have been identified by geologic surface mapping.

  8. Fluidized bed combustion of a dry sludge-derived fuel at Los Angeles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, F.M.; Huang, R.T.; Sizemore, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    A fluidized-bed/energy recovery system, scheduled for a 1985 startup, is designed to incinerate 265 dry tons of sludge per day and meet extremely stringent Los Angeles air pollution standards. Prior to combustion, the wet sludge cake is dried in a Carver Greenfield system from 20% to 99% solids.

  9. Evolving Groundwater Rights and Management in Metropolitan Los Angeles: Implications for Water Supply and Stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porse, E.; Pincetl, S.; Glickfeld, M.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater supports many aspects of human life. In cities, groundwater can provide a cost-effective source of water for drinking and industrial uses, while groundwater basins provide storage. The role of groundwater in a city's water supply tends to change over time. In the Los Angeles metropolitan area, groundwater is critical. Over decades, users in the region's many basins allocated annual pumping rights to groundwater among users through adjudications. These rights were determined through collective processes over decades, which contributed to the complex array of public and private organizations involved in water management. The rights also continue to evolve. We analyzed changes in the distribution of groundwater rights over time for adjudicated basins in Southern Los Angeles County. Results indicate that groundwater rights are increasingly: 1) controlled or regulated by public institutions and municipalities, and 2) consolidated among larger users. Yet, both the percentage of total supplies provided by groundwater, as well as the distribution of groundwater rights, varies widely among cities and communities throughout Los Angeles. As metropolitan Los Angeles faces reduced water imports and emphasizes local water reliance, access to pumping rights and storage capacity in groundwater basins will become even more vital. We discuss implications of our results for future urban water management.

  10. 76 FR 36148 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Native American. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), a relationship of shared group identity cannot be... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Fowler Museum at UCLA has completed an...

  11. Mid-21st Century Changes to Surface Hydrology Over the Los Angeles Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marla Ann

    This thesis explores projected mid-21st century changes to surface hydrological fluxes and states in the Los Angeles region at 2km resolution. This work quantifies and describes potential impacts of climate change to precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil column moisture content in the Los Angeles region. Little previous research has focused on the impacts of climate change to water resources and surface hydrology in this region. We simulate detailed climatologies of surface hydrology for the late 20th century and mid 21st century. By looking at differences between the future and baseline periods, mid-century changes to surface hydrology relative to the late 20th century can be evaluated in our study region. Using dynamical downscaling techniques and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we develop a detailed high-resolution climatology for the Los Angeles region from coarse-resolution North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data and output from five "business as usual" global climate model (GCMs) simulations in the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) data archive. Output from the dynamical downscaling WRF simulations is then used to force the offline Noah Land Surface Model (Noah-LSM), which simulates near-surface state variables and surface turbulent fluxes. This methodology allows us to assess potential impacts of climate change to surface hydrology in the Los Angeles region at scales relevant to local policy makers or water resources planners.

  12. 76 FR 48176 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Fowler Museum at UCLA has completed an... contact the Fowler Museum at UCLA. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated below may...

  13. Los Angeles School Desegregation: Legal, Administrative, Community and Anthropological Perspectives. A Symposium Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskin, Judith T.; Alexander-Minter, Rae

    This report presents an anthropological perspective on the legal, demographic and community issues involved in school desegregation in Los Angeles. Views on the desegregation process expressed by lawyers, school administrators, community members, educators, and anthropologists who attended a 1978 symposium are summarized. An historical and legal…

  14. Potential for a large earthquake near Los Angeles inferred from the 2014 La Habra earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Ludwig, Lisa; Parker, Jay W.; Rundle, John B.; Wang, Jun; Pierce, Marlon; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Hensley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tectonic motion across the Los Angeles region is distributed across an intricate network of strike‐slip and thrust faults that will be released in destructive earthquakes similar to or larger than the 1933 M6.4 Long Beach and 1994 M6.7 Northridge events. Here we show that Los Angeles regional thrust, strike‐slip, and oblique faults are connected and move concurrently with measurable surface deformation, even in moderate magnitude earthquakes, as part of a fault system that accommodates north‐south shortening and westerly tectonic escape of northern Los Angeles. The 28 March 2014 M5.1 La Habra earthquake occurred on a northeast striking, northwest dipping left‐lateral oblique thrust fault northeast of Los Angeles. We present crustal deformation observation spanning the earthquake showing that concurrent deformation occurred on several structures in the shallow crust. The seismic moment of the earthquake is 82% of the total geodetic moment released. Slip within the unconsolidated upper sedimentary layer may reflect shallow release of accumulated strain on still‐locked deeper structures. A future M6.1–6.3 earthquake would account for the accumulated strain. Such an event could occur on any one or several of these faults, which may not have been identified by geologic surface mapping. PMID:27981074

  15. Climate Change, Pacific Ocean and Land Use Influences on Los Angeles' Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelin, B.; Hsu, F.; LaDochy, S.; Ramirez, P. C.; Ye, H.; Sequera, P.; Gonzalez, J.; McDonald, K.; Patzert, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Los Angeles urban heat island (UHI) is a complex entity that is changing in time, space and intensity. The major influences on its characteristics appear to be population, landuse, and Pacific Ocean variability. Since 1950, the city of Los Angeles has nearly tripled in population from 1,333,300 to 3,792,621 in 2010. The downtown skyline has also changed as more high-rises replace lower density buildings and parking lots. Downtown average temperatures have increased rapidly, rising over 3oC in the last century. Tmin values have increased faster than Tmax similar to other UHI cities. However the Los Angeles UHI is unique among most cities, with its complex terrain and dominant land/sea breeze circulations. Also, the city is part of a regional megalopolis, where the surrounding rural areas are distant and ill-defined, in contrast to most UHIs. Our study looks at the diurnal and seasonal patterns in the urban thermal regime and how they have changed over recent decades. Temporal changes in land use, particularly vegetation, coastal sea surface temperatures, Pacific climatic indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and coastal upwelling all seem to contribute to the changes in city temperatures. The PDO especially correlates well with Los Angeles temperatures. The spatial changes in an UHI are described combining surface met data and aircraft remote sensing, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensors at spatial resolutions of 30 and 50 m, respectively. In our study recent sea breeze enhancement will be investigated in its influence on coastal cooling. Implications of the role of the intensifying UHI in the increases in Los Angeles heat waves will also be discussed.

  16. Evapotranspiration of the urban forest at the municipal scale in Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, E.; Pataki, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The severest drought on record in southern California and predictions of continued water shortages make it essential to understand urban water use. However, urban evapotranspiration (ET), which is an important part of municipal water budgets, remains a major uncertainty. Urban ET is difficult to measure and model, particularly in cities with diverse plant composition. The city of Los Angeles contains more than 6 million trees, most of which are non-natives that originate from multiple geographic regions, which further complicates predictions of urban forest transpiration. Previously, we made extensive in situ measurements of tree transpiration and turfgrass ET in greater Los Angeles area. Here, we utilize these data to systematize transpiration of different tree species based on physiological mechanisms underlying plant water relations. The resulting empirical model estimates Los Angeles urban forest ET from easy-to-collect plant characteristics and freely available environmental parameters. Plant characteristics are tree diameter, wood type (e.g. coniferous), phenological type (e.g. evergreen) and plant composition. Environmental parameters are vapor pressure deficit of the air, incoming solar radiation and reference ET (all available at http://cimis.water.ca.gov). By combining this model with existing surveys of urban trees in Los Angeles, we estimated that citywide ET of irrigated landscapes varies from 1.2 ± 0.5 mm/d in winter to 2.8 ± 1.1 mm/d in summer. On average, trees and turfgrass contributed 27% and 73% to total tree+turfgrass ET, correspondingly. To our knowledge, this model provides the first citywide estimates of Los Angeles ET differentiated by wood types and plant composition. These results will inform decision makers about species-specific water use by urban trees and assist with determining landscape designs that are beneficial for water conservation. This model may also be incorporated into a regional hydrologic model to provide spatially

  17. Evaluating earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles region; an earth-science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziony, Joseph I.

    1985-01-01

    Potentially destructive earthquakes are inevitable in the Los Angeles region of California, but hazards prediction can provide a basis for reducing damage and loss. This volume identifies the principal geologically controlled earthquake hazards of the region (surface faulting, strong shaking, ground failure, and tsunamis), summarizes methods for characterizing their extent and severity, and suggests opportunities for their reduction. Two systems of active faults generate earthquakes in the Los Angeles region: northwest-trending, chiefly horizontal-slip faults, such as the San Andreas, and west-trending, chiefly vertical-slip faults, such as those of the Transverse Ranges. Faults in these two systems have produced more than 40 damaging earthquakes since 1800. Ninety-five faults have slipped in late Quaternary time (approximately the past 750,000 yr) and are judged capable of generating future moderate to large earthquakes and displacing the ground surface. Average rates of late Quaternary slip or separation along these faults provide an index of their relative activity. The San Andreas and San Jacinto faults have slip rates measured in tens of millimeters per year, but most other faults have rates of about 1 mm/yr or less. Intermediate rates of as much as 6 mm/yr characterize a belt of Transverse Ranges faults that extends from near Santa Barbara to near San Bernardino. The dimensions of late Quaternary faults provide a basis for estimating the maximum sizes of likely future earthquakes in the Los Angeles region: moment magnitude .(M) 8 for the San Andreas, M 7 for the other northwest-trending elements of that fault system, and M 7.5 for the Transverse Ranges faults. Geologic and seismologic evidence along these faults, however, suggests that, for planning and designing noncritical facilities, appropriate sizes would be M 8 for the San Andreas, M 7 for the San Jacinto, M 6.5 for other northwest-trending faults, and M 6.5 to 7 for the Transverse Ranges faults. The

  18. Water Quality Assessment of the Los Angeles River Watershed, California, USA in Wet and Dry Weather Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie Boroon, M. H.; Von L Coo, C.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify sources of potential pollutants and characterize urban water quality along the Los Angeles River from its head to the mouth during dry and wet weather periods. Los Angeles (LA) River flows through heavily populated urbanized area in the Los Angeles downtown. The LA River is an effluent-dominated water body during the dry season. The three waste water treatment plants (WWTP) including the Tillman, Burbank, and Glendale discharge the majority of the volume flowing in the LA River during the dry and wet period. The concentration values (ppm) for anions in the dry season ranging 5.5-16,027 (Cl), 0-1.0 (F), 0-21(NO3), 0-1.6 (PO4), and 13.3-2,312 (SO4); whereas the values (ppm) for anions in the wet season ranging 3.4-5,860 (Cl), 0-0.66 (F), 0-17 (NO3), 0-0.67 (PO4), 7.9- 745 (SO4). Dry season concentrations values for trace metals were obtained with values (ppb) ranging 0.9-10 (Ni), 0.8-62 (Zn), 1-4 (As), 0-1 (Pb) and 0-3 (Se). As for wet season trace metals (ppb) ranging 0.001-0.008 (Ni), 0.000001-0.038 (Zn), 0.0016-0.016 (As), 0.00099-0.0058 (Pb), 0.000001-0.0093 (Se). Higher concentrations values during the dry period in the LA River watershed may be attributed to the three WWTPs discharge (75% of the volume of water flowing in the LA River). In water-limited areas such as the Los Angeles basin, urban runoff is a water resource that could enhance restricted water supplies and to enhance localized renewable groundwater resources, thus an assessment of this precious water resource is important for local city and regulatory organizations. In water-limited areas such as the LA basin, urban runoff is a water resource that could enhance restricted water supplies and groundwater resources, thus an assessment of this precious water resource is important for local regulatory organizations.

  19. Cost analysis of measles in refugees arriving at Los Angeles International Airport from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Margaret S; Burke, Heather M; Welstead, Bethany L; Mitchell, Tarissa; Taylor, Eboni M; Shapovalov, Dmitry; Maskery, Brian A; Joo, Heesoo; Weinberg, Michelle

    2017-05-04

    Background On August 24, 2011, 31 US-bound refugees from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL) arrived in Los Angeles. One of them was diagnosed with measles post-arrival. He exposed others during a flight, and persons in the community while disembarking and seeking medical care. As a result, 9 cases of measles were identified. Methods We estimated costs of response to this outbreak and conducted a comparative cost analysis examining what might have happened had all US-bound refugees been vaccinated before leaving Malaysia. Results State-by-state costs differed and variously included vaccination, hospitalization, medical visits, and contact tracing with costs ranging from $621 to $35,115. The total of domestic and IOM Malaysia reported costs for US-bound refugees were $137,505 [range: $134,531 - $142,777 from a sensitivity analysis]. Had all US-bound refugees been vaccinated while in Malaysia, it would have cost approximately $19,646 and could have prevented 8 measles cases. Conclusion A vaccination program for US-bound refugees, supporting a complete vaccination for US-bound refugees, could improve refugees' health, reduce importations of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States, and avert measles response activities and costs.

  20. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 91-395-2244, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.E.; Miller, A.

    1992-08-01

    In response to a request from an employee of the Veterans Administration Medical Center (SIC-8062), Los Angeles, California, an investigation was undertaken of exposures to chemicals in the laboratory department, excessive heat and humidity in the kitchen area of the dietetics department, and carbon-monoxide (630080) exposures inside the building. In three of five personal breathing zone samples taken in the histopathology laboratory, formaldehyde (50000) was detected at concentrations up to 0.17 part per million (ppm) and it was also present in all four of the area air samples at concentrations up to 1.1ppm. The predominant symptoms associated with work in the laboratory included occasional headaches and nose/throat irritation. Mild episodes of dermal irritation and rash were also reported. All carbon-monoxide levels were less than 5ppm. In the kitchens, relative humidity levels were below the recommended range. Temperatures were above the range of temperatures recommended for a medium level of work. The authors conclude that a potential carcinogenic risk existed for workers in laboratories which use formaldehyde. The authors recommend specific measures to lower the risk of formaldehyde exposures in the laboratory.

  1. Loss estimates for a Puente Hills blind-thrust earthquake in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E.H.; Seligson, H.A.; Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Jordan, T.H.; Campbell, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    Based on OpenSHA and HAZUS-MH, we present loss estimates for an earthquake rupture on the recently identified Puente Hills blind-thrust fault beneath Los Angeles. Given a range of possible magnitudes and ground motion models, and presuming a full fault rupture, we estimate the total economic loss to be between $82 and $252 billion. This range is not only considerably higher than a previous estimate of $69 billion, but also implies the event would be the costliest disaster in U.S. history. The analysis has also provided the following predictions: 3,000-18,000 fatalities, 142,000-735,000 displaced households, 42,000-211,000 in need of short-term public shelter, and 30,000-99,000 tons of debris generated. Finally, we show that the choice of ground motion model can be more influential than the earthquake magnitude, and that reducing this epistemic uncertainty (e.g., via model improvement and/or rejection) could reduce the uncertainty of the loss estimates by up to a factor of two. We note that a full Puente Hills fault rupture is a rare event (once every ???3,000 years), and that other seismic sources pose significant risk as well. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  2. C.B.S. Televisión. Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, Willian L

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Con objeto de establecer una cadena de televisión de costa a costa en los Estados Unidos, el Presidente de la Columbia Broadcasting System Network decidió la construcción de un gran Centro dedicado a la TV, ya que no disponía de local propio ninguno, y ello, dada la dispersión de servicios, exigía gastos de importancia y desplazamientos molestos.

  3. Heterosexual anal sex reported by women receiving HIV prevention services in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Napper, Lucy E; Fremming, Brent W; Jansen, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined reported heterosexual receptive anal intercourse (HRAI) in a sample of women recruited from HIV prevention providers in Los Angeles County. The majority of women surveyed were Latina and the modal age was 19 years. Women reporting HRAI were more likely to use both injected and non injected drugs and to have sexual partners who injected drugs. Factors associated with HRAI in a multivariate regression model included use of methamphetamine; use of alcohol before, during, or after sex; and use of dental services at the interview agency. Factors inversely associated with heterosexual anal sex were being African American (compared with Latina) and endorsing the use of condoms for episodes of vaginal sex from start to finish. HIV prevention providers in Los Angeles County should be aware of the need for basic prevention messages concerning condom use and injection behavior in young Latina women. Copyright © 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seeking solace in West Hollywood: sexual orientation-based hate crimes in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotzer, Rebecca L

    2010-01-01

    Many thriving "gay communities" across the United States report high levels of sexual orientation-based hate crimes every year, raising questions about the level of safety in these gay communities and neighborhoods. This study examines hate crime data from 2002-2006 in Los Angeles County and the relationship those hate crimes have to West Hollywood, the best known gay community of Los Angeles County. Results suggest that although West Hollywood does consistently report high numbers of hate crimes, this does not reflect a greatly increased risk to any one lesbian, gay, or bisexual person. Results suggest that we need to consider other variables as predictors (such as poverty, business density, and population density) in determining safe versus unsafe space, rather than just the percentage of lesbians, gay, and bisexuals in a population.

  5. Systemic Reform in a Federated System:Los Angeles at the Turn of the Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Menefee-Libey

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available I synthesize some of the lessons we have learned about systemic school reform in order and derive two explicit hypotheses about when such reforms are likely to be more and less successful. The first hypothesis focuses on program implementation: to achieve success, any systemic reform must overcome challenges at each stage of the policy-making process, from agenda-setting to policy choice to implementation. The second hypothesis focuses on the federated nature of education policymaking in the United States: any successful systemic reform must offer a program that aligns local efforts with state and sometimes federal policy. I derive and test more specific hypotheses related to recent systemic reform efforts in the Los Angeles region—especially the Los Angeles Annenberg Metropolitan Project, or LAAMP—which ran from 1995 through 2001. The case confirms the hypotheses and enables a clearer understanding of systemic school reform.

  6. Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dejian; Sander, Stanley P.; Pongetti, Thomas J.; Cheung, Ross; Stutz, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gasses and pollutants including CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warning Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distribution of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. We participated in the CalNex 2010 campaign to provide greenhouse gas distributions for comparison between top-down and bottom-up emission estimates.

  7. Fault slip rates from three-dimensional models of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Michele L.; Marshall, Scott T.

    2006-11-01

    We present results from the first mechanical model of active tectonics in the Los Angeles region to use non-planar, geologically representative fault surfaces compiled by the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Fault Model. The fault slip rates from our three-dimensional model match well the available geologic slip rates. Discrepancies in reverse slip along the Upper Elysian Park fault and strike-slip along the Raymond fault may reflect imprecise knowledge of local fault geometry. Discrepancy in the average dip slip rate along the Palos Verdes fault reveals variations in dip slip along that surface; model predictions at the location of the geological investigation have good match to geologic data. The validated model is used to estimate dip and strike slip rates for 26 active faults in the Los Angeles metropolitan region, many of which are otherwise unconstrained by geologic evidence.

  8. Public health at the 1984 Summer Olympics: the Los Angeles County experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B P; Mascola, L; Fannin, S L

    1988-06-01

    During the 1984 Summer Olympic Games, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services used its active disease surveillance system to monitor disease occurrence and other health concerns. Reports were collected by telephone three times a week from 198 participating facilities including hospitals, prepaid health plans, private physicians, and Olympic sites. Background data were obtained two months preceding the Olympic events. Less illness was recorded during the Olympics than during the same period for the three preceding years.

  9. Neighborhood Food Environment, Diet, and Obesity Among Los Angeles County Adults, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Nelly; Lightstone, Amy S; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Morales, Douglas M; Sturm, Roland

    2015-09-03

    The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between the number and type of food outlets in a neighborhood and dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) among adults in Los Angeles County. We also assessed whether this association depends on the geographic size of the food environment. We analyzed data from the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. We created buffers (from 0.25 to 3.0 miles in radius) centered in respondents' residential addresses and counted the number of food outlets by type in each buffer. Dependent variables were weekly intake of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast food; BMI; and being overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m(2)). Explanatory variables were the number of outlets classified as fast-food outlets, convenience stores, small food stores, grocery stores, and supermarkets. Regressions were estimated for all sets of explanatory variables and buffer size combinations (150 total effects). Only 2 of 150 effects were significant after being adjusted for multiple comparisons. The number of fast-food restaurants in nonwalkable areas (in a 3.0-mile radius) was positively associated with fast-food consumption, and the number of convenience stores in a walkable distance (in a 0.25-mile radius) was negatively associated with obesity. Little evidence was found for associations between proximity of respondents' homes to food outlets and dietary intake or BMI among adults in Los Angeles County. A possible explanation for the null finding is that shopping patterns are weakly related to neighborhoods in Los Angeles County because of motorized transportation.

  10. Public Opinion on Nutrition-Related Policies to Combat Child Obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Paul A.; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S.; Shih, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurant...

  11. Radicalism in the Ethnic Market- The Jewish Bakers Union of Los Angeles in the 1920s

    OpenAIRE

    Luce, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I will instead show how the Jewish bakers of Los Angeles used their position in the ethnic enclave economy as a source of strength, harnessing the power of their community through consumer-oriented strategies and tactics. Two strategies in particular cultivated connections between the politics of labor and the politics of consumption within the immigrant working-class: union labels and the Cooperative bakery. Both strategies employed food as a medium of social action, “buying u...

  12. Risk Factors for Dog Relinquishment to a Los Angeles Municipal Animal Shelter

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Emily D.; Jamie Scotto; Margaret Slater; Emily Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Low income has been reported to be a risk factor for dog relinquishment to shelters in the U.S. The majority of people with lower incomes, however, do not relinquish. Risk factors for relinquishment in a low socioeconomic region of Los Angeles were examined. Cost was associated with relinquishment, and most people were not aware of available assistance. Those who relinquished reported emotional attachment to the dog and higher perceived stress than a comparison group. The major...

  13. Decreased chronic lymphocytic leukemia incidence in Asians in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, R P; Cozen, W; Goodman, M T; Wang, F F; Bernstein, L

    2000-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is rare in Asians living in Asia and possibly in US Asians. In contrast, CLL is the most common leukemia in whites. The basis for this ethnic and geographic variation is unknown. We compared average annual age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) of CLL diagnosed from 1972 to 1995 among Los Angeles County-resident Asians, non-Spanish-surnamed- and Spanish-surnamed whites (non-Hispanic and Hispanic-whites) and blacks using the University Southern California-Cancer Surveillance Program (USC-CSP), the population-based cancer registry for Los Angeles County. Asian groups studied included Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos and Koreans. Expected numbers of CLL cases were based on the age-adjusted incidence rates in non-Hispanic whites and compared to numbers of cases observed in Chinese, Japanese and Filipinos. Possible association of socioeconomic state (SES) was assessed using AAIRs with SES-specific denominators. In the absence of denominators by birthplace, the association of birthplace and CLL-incidence was evaluated using proportional odds ratios (POR). Los Angeles County Asian males and females had significantly lower AAIRs than non-Hispanic whites (males: AAIR=0.7 per 100000 population, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-1.0 vs. 4.4, 95% CI, 4.3-4.6; and females: AAIR=0.5, 95% CI, 0.3-0.7 vs. 2.3, 95% CI, 2.2-2.4). Fewer Japanese Chinese and Filipinos were diagnosed with CLL than expected (P<0.01). There was no association of birthplace (POR=0.9, 95% CI, 0. 5-1.9) or SES on CLL-risk. CLL-risk was markedly lower in Los Angeles County Asians compared to non-Hispanic whites. Neither birthplace nor socioeconomic state accounted for this difference suggesting a role for genetic or other environmental factors in decreasing CLL-risk.

  14. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I: Records Search. Los Angeles Air Force Station, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    logistic , transportation, aad medical support for all organizations and personnel assigned or attached to the installation. The Space Division is...developed area of Los Angeles dominated by aerospaci industries. A residential housing development is situated immediately south of Area A. Due to...Corp. On April 1, 1961, reorganization of the Air Force resulted in the formation of three new commands--the AFSC, Air Force Logistics Command, and

  15. 77 FR 8804 - Foreign-Trade Zone 202-Los Angeles, CA; Application for Reorganization and Expansion Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Terminal, 2000 E. Sepulveda Boulevard, Carson (119.3 acres), Shell Carson Terminal, 20945 S. Wilmington... would be all of Orange County and portions of Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, California, as...

  16. The Walking Renaissance: A Longitudinal Analysis of Walking Travel in the Greater Los Angeles Area, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Joh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting walking travel is considered important for reducing automobile use and improving public health. Recent U.S. transportation policy has incentivized investments in alternative, more sustainable transportation modes such as walking, bicycling and transit in auto-oriented cities such as Los Angeles. Although many past studies have analyzed changes in walking travel across the U.S., there is little clarity on the drivers of change. We address this gap by conducting a longitudinal analysis of walking travel in the greater Los Angeles area from 2001 to 2009. We use travel diary and household data from regional and national surveys to analyze changes in walking trip shares and rates across our study area. Results show that walking has significantly increased across most of Los Angeles, and that increases in walking trips generally correspond with increases in population, employment, and transit service densities. Estimates from fixed-effects regression analysis generally suggest a positive association between population density and walking, and that higher increases in transit stop density are correlated with increased walking trips to and from transit stops. These findings illustrate how regional planning efforts to pursue a coordinated land use-transit planning strategy can help promote walking in auto-oriented or vehicle adopting cities.

  17. A land use regression model for predicting ambient fine particulate matter across Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D K; Jerrett, M; Mack, W J; Künzli, N

    2007-03-01

    Land use regression (LUR) models have been used successfully for predicting local variation in traffic pollution, but few studies have explored this method for deriving fine particle exposure surfaces. The primary purpose of this method is to develop a LUR model for predicting fine particle or PM(2.5) mass over the five county metropolitan statistical area (MSA) of Los Angeles. PM(2.5) includes all particles with diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microns. In the Los Angeles MSA, 23 monitors of PM(2.5) were available in the year 2000. This study uses GIS to integrate data regarding land use, transportation and physical geography to derive a PM(2.5) dataset covering Los Angeles. Multiple linear regression was used to create the model for predicting the PM(2.5) surface. Our parsimonious model explained 69% of the variance in PM(2.5) with three predictors: (1) traffic density within 300 m, (2) industrial land area within 5000 m, and (3) government land area within 5000 m of the monitoring site. These results suggest the LUR method can refine exposure models for epidemiologic studies in a North American context.

  18. Public Perceptions of Tsunamis and the NOAA TsunamiReady Program in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A.

    2010-12-01

    After the devastating December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, California and other coastal states began installing "Tsunami Warning Zone" and "Evacuation Route" signs at beaches and major access roads. The geography of the Los Angeles area may not be conducive to signage alone for communication of the tsunami risk and safety precautions. Over a year after installation, most people surveyed did not know about or recognize the tsunami signs. More alarming is that many did not believe a tsunami could occur in the area even though earthquake generated waves have reached nearby beaches as recently as September 2009! UPDATE: FEB. 2010. Fifty two percent of the 147 people surveyed did not believe they would survive a natural disaster in Los Angeles. Given the unique geography of Los Angeles, how can the city and county improve the mental health of its citizens before and after a natural disaster? This poster begins to address the issues of community self-efficacy and resiliency in the face of tsunamis. Of note for future research, the data from this survey showed that most people believed climate change would increase the occurrence of tsunamis. Also, the public understanding of water inundation was disturbingly low. As scientists, it is important to understand the big picture of our research - how it is ultimately communicated, understood, and used by the public.

  19. Fault zone regulation, seismic hazard, and social vulnerability in Los Angeles, California: Hazard or urban amenity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toké, Nathan A.; Boone, Christopher G.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón

    2014-09-01

    Public perception and regulation of environmental hazards are important factors in the development and configuration of cities. Throughout California, probabilistic seismic hazard mapping and geologic investigations of active faults have spatially quantified earthquake hazard. In Los Angeles, these analyses have informed earthquake engineering, public awareness, the insurance industry, and the government regulation of developments near faults. Understanding the impact of natural hazards regulation on the social and built geography of cities is vital for informing future science and policy directions. We constructed a relative social vulnerability index classification for Los Angeles to examine the social condition within regions of significant seismic hazard, including areas regulated as Alquist-Priolo (AP) Act earthquake fault zones. Despite hazard disclosures, social vulnerability is lowest within AP regulatory zones and vulnerability increases with distance from them. Because the AP Act requires building setbacks from active faults, newer developments in these zones are bisected by parks. Parcel-level analysis demonstrates that homes adjacent to these fault zone parks are the most valuable in their neighborhoods. At a broad scale, a Landsat-based normalized difference vegetation index shows that greenness near AP zones is greater than the rest of the metropolitan area. In the parks-poor city of Los Angeles, fault zone regulation has contributed to the construction of park space within areas of earthquake hazard, thus transforming zones of natural hazard into amenities, attracting populations of relatively high social status, and demonstrating that the distribution of social vulnerability is sometimes more strongly tied to amenities than hazards.

  20. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents’ addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent’s home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent’s census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  1. Is crime associated with over-the-counter pharmacy syringe sales? Findings from Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopka, Thomas J; Geraghty, Estella M; Azari, Rahman; Gold, Ellen B; DeRiemer, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    More than 50,000 new HIV infections occur annually in the United States. Injection drug users represent twelve percent of incident HIV infections each year. Pharmacy sales of over-the-counter (OTC) syringes have helped prevent HIV transmission among injection drug users in many states throughout the United States. However, concerns exist among some law enforcement officials, policymakers, pharmacists, and community members about potential links between OTC syringe sales and crime. We used a geographic information system and novel spatial and longitudinal analyses to determine whether implementation of pharmacy-based OTC syringe sales were associated with reported crime between January 2006 and December 2008 in Los Angeles Police Department Reporting Districts. We assessed reported crime pre- and post-OTC syringe sales initiation as well as longitudinal associations between crime and OTC syringe-selling pharmacies. By December 2008, 9.3% (94/1010) of Los Angeles Police Department Reporting Districts had at least one OTC syringe-selling pharmacy. Overall reported crime counts and reported crime rates decreased between 2006 and 2008 in all 1010 Reporting Districts. Using generalized estimating equations and adjusting for potential confounders, reported crime rates were negatively associated with OTC syringe sales (adjusted rate ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.81, 0.99). Our findings demonstrate that OTC pharmacy syringe sales were not associated with increases in reported crime in local communities in Los Angeles during 2006-2008. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elderly homeless veterans in Los Angeles: chronicity and precipitants of homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; McGuire, James

    2013-12-01

    We compared the characteristics of chronically homeless and acutely homeless elderly veterans to better understand precipitants of homelessness. We conducted interviews with 33 chronically and 26 acutely homeless veterans aged 65 years and older receiving transitional housing services in Los Angeles, California, between 2003 and 2005. We asked questions regarding their sociodemographic characteristics and other social status measures. Other precipitants of homelessness were acquired via observation and open-ended and structured questions. Both veterans groups were more similar than different, with substantial levels of physical, psychiatric, and social impairment. They differed significantly in homelessness history, with chronically homeless veterans having more homelessness episodes and more total time homeless. They were also less educated and had smaller social networks. In response to open-ended questioning, elderly homeless veterans revealed how health and substance use issues interacted with loss of social support and eviction to exacerbate homelessness. Assessment of a range of factors is needed to address risk factors and events leading to homelessness. Further research with larger samples is needed to confirm the characteristics and needs of the elderly homeless veteran population.

  3. Microbial safety and quality of fresh herbs from Los Angeles, Orange County and Seattle farmers' markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Donna J; Beck, Nicola K; Kossik, Alexandra L; Patti, Taylor; Meschke, J Scott; Calicchia, Melissa; Hellberg, Rosalee S

    2015-10-01

    Farmers' markets have been growing in popularity in the United States, but the microbial quality and safety of the food sold at these markets is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the microbial safety and quality of fresh basil, parsley and cilantro sold at farmers' markets in the Los Angeles, Orange County and greater Seattle areas. A total of 133 samples (52 basil, 41 cilantro and 40 parsley) were collected from 13 different farmers' markets and tested for Salmonella and generic Escherichia coli. One sample (parsley) was confirmed positive for Salmonella and 24.1% of samples were positive for generic E. coli, with a range of 0.70-3.15 log CFU g(-1) . Among the herbs tested, basil showed the highest percentage of samples with generic E. coli (26.9%), followed by cilantro (24.4%) and then parsley (20.0%). For 12% of samples, the levels of generic E. coli exceeded guidelines established by the Public Health Laboratory Service for microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods. Overall, this study indicates the presence of Salmonella and generic E. coli in fresh herbs sold at farmers' markets; however, additional studies are needed to determine the sources and extent of contamination. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Contested Campuses: Politics, race, and the battles over public education in the Greater Los Angeles Area, 1949-1972

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalesky, Brian Robert

    2017-01-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, during the height of protests and actions by civil rights activists against de facto school segregation in the Los Angeles area, the residents of a group of small cities fought to break away from the Los Angeles City Schools and create a new, independent school district. If established, the district would serve white pupils nearly exclusively, preserving and reinforcing racially segregated schools in the area. Proponents of the plan were residents of the maj...

  5. "Strategic Review of FY06 District & School-Level Resources". In Fulfillment of a Memorandum of Understanding between: The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and The Unified Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA). Phase II- Final ERS Report. An Executive Summary and Management Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stephen; Travers, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    In the fall of 2006, Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and the Unified Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA) signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that called for a third-party research firm to analyze resource use across the Los Angeles school system. Education Resource Strategies (ERS) was chosen to conduct this analysis. The study was…

  6. Estimating methane emissions from dairies in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viatte, C.; Lauvaux, T.; Hedelius, J.; Parker, H. A.; Chen, J.; Jones, T.; Franklin, J.; Deng, A.; Gaudet, B.; Duren, R. M.; Verhulst, K. R.; Wunch, D.; Roehl, C. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Wofsy, S.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2015-12-01

    Inventory estimates of methane (CH4) emissions among the individual sources (mainly agriculture, energy production, and waste management) remain highly uncertain at regional and urban scales. Accurate atmospheric measurements can provide independent estimates to evaluate bottom-up inventories, especially in urban region, where many different CH4 sources are often confined in relatively small areas. Among these sources, livestock emissions, which are mainly originating from dairy cows, account for ~55% of the total CH4 emissions in California in 2013. This study aims to rigorously estimate the amount of CH4 emitted by the largest dairies in the Southern California region by combining measurements from four mobile ground-based spectrometers (EM27/SUN), in situ isotopic methane measurements from a CRDS analyzer (Picarro), and a high-resolution atmospheric transport model (the Weather Research and Forecasting model) in Large-Eddy Simulation mode. The remote sensing spectrometers measure the total column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CH4 and CO2 (XCH4 and XCO2) in the near infrared region, providing information about total emissions of the dairies. Gradients measured by the four EM27 ranged from 0.2 to 22 ppb and from 0.7 to 3 ppm for XCH4 and XCO2, respectively. To assess the fluxes of the dairies, measurements of these gradients are used in conjunction with the local atmospheric dynamics simulated at 111 m resolution. Inverse modelling from WRF-LES is employed to resolve the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the domain. A Bayesian inversion and a Monte-Carlo approach were used to provide the CH4 emissions over the dairy with their associated uncertainties. The isotopic δ13C sampled at different locations in the area ranges from -40 ‰ to -55 ‰, indicating a mixture of anthropogenic and biogenic sources.

  7. Methane emissions from dairies in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viatte, Camille; Lauvaux, Thomas; Hedelius, Jacob K.; Parker, Harrison; Chen, Jia; Jones, Taylor; Franklin, Jonathan E.; Deng, Aijun J.; Gaudet, Brian; Verhulst, Kristal; Duren, Riley; Wunch, Debra; Roehl, Coleen; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Wofsy, Steve; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2017-06-01

    We estimate the amount of methane (CH4) emitted by the largest dairies in the southern California region by combining measurements from four mobile solar-viewing ground-based spectrometers (EM27/SUN), in situ isotopic 13/12CH4 measurements from a CRDS analyzer (Picarro), and a high-resolution atmospheric transport simulation with a Weather Research and Forecasting model in large-eddy simulation mode (WRF-LES). The remote sensing spectrometers measure the total column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CH4 and CO2 (XCH4 and XCO2) in the near infrared region, providing information on total emissions of the dairies at Chino. Differences measured between the four EM27/SUN ranged from 0.2 to 22 ppb (part per billion) and from 0.7 to 3 ppm (part per million) for XCH4 and XCO2, respectively. To assess the fluxes of the dairies, these differential measurements are used in conjunction with the local atmospheric dynamics from wind measurements at two local airports and from the WRF-LES simulations at 111 m resolution. Our top-down CH4 emissions derived using the Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) observations of 1.4 to 4.8 ppt s-1 are in the low end of previous top-down estimates, consistent with reductions of the dairy farms and urbanization in the domain. However, the wide range of inferred fluxes points to the challenges posed by the heterogeneity of the sources and meteorology. Inverse modeling from WRF-LES is utilized to resolve the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the domain. Both the model and the measurements indicate heterogeneous emissions, with contributions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources at Chino. A Bayesian inversion and a Monte Carlo approach are used to provide the CH4 emissions of 2.2 to 3.5 ppt s-1 at Chino.

  8. Sob a sombra de Carmen Miranda e do carnaval: brasileiras em Los Angeles Under the shadow of Carmen Miranda and carnival: brazilian women in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Beserra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analiso como brasileiras de classes média e média alta em Los Angeles lidam com o fenômeno da exotização das suas imagens. Observo que, embora originalmente articuladas a partir de Hollywood (Carmen Miranda nos limites da hierarquia entre as nações e do colonialismo, essas imagens são hoje alimentadas e recriadas também pelos próprios brasileiros. Uma das idéias centrais que defendo aqui é que embora tais imagens inicialmente restrinjam a ação das brasileiras, uma vez que sempre impõem o diálogo com os seus conteúdos, elas não o fazem permanentemente, ou seja, no processo de integração há espaço para a negociação de outras imagens e conteúdos e isto depende de fatores que vão além da exotização em si.This article discusses how middle and upper-middle class Brazilian women deal with their exoticized images in Los Angeles. It points out that although originally articulated from Hollywood (Carmen Miranda, within the limits of the hierarchy of nations and colonialism, today these images are also fed and recreated by Brazilians. One of the central ideas presented is that, despite constraining the movements and actions of the women, imposing on them the need to dialogue with their content, these exotic images do not do it permanently. In other words, in the process of integration, there is always room for negotiation of other images and contents that depend on factor other than exoticization itself.

  9. Los Angeles Test and Polished Stone Value of ophite in Cantabria: a petrophysical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Maroto, G.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Crushed aggregate obtained from certain ophite outcrops in Cantabria was tested with the Los Angeles and polished stone value (PSV procedures. Linear regression analysis was used to identify the pétrographie parameters that account for aggregate performance in these two tests. The most abundant and common minerals in the ophite were observed to condition such performance in the Los Angeles method. In PSV behaviour was determined by the existence or otherwise of a rough micro texture -the result of the existence of minerals with different hardness values-, which increases aggregate resistance to polishing action.

    A partir de la caracterización petrográfica de las ofitas de algunos afloramientos de Cantabria, se han identificado los parámetros petrográficos que explican, a través de modelos lineales de regresión, el comportamiento del árido de machaqueo obtenido de estas rocas frente a los ensayos que aumenta la resistencia al pulimento del árido.

  10. Partitioning Native and Imported Source Contributions and their Uncertainties for Urban Runoff in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Hogue, T. S.; Stein, E. D.; Barco, J.

    2011-12-01

    Water conservation efforts strive to reduce dependency on imported water. A critical first step in these efforts is evaluating the range of hydrologic inputs and outputs of highly complex urban watersheds. The Ballona Creek Watershed is an ideal location to demonstrate application of a water budget analysis to quantify native and non-native inputs and outputs as well as associated uncertainties. The Ballona Creek Watershed is located within Los Angeles County, the second most populous metropolitan region in the United States. This extensively developed watershed relies heavily on imported water to meet the demands of its 1.2 million residents. Rapid development has led to an increase in impervious land cover, reducing natural infiltration and directing pollutant-loaded urban runoff to the concrete-lined channels which drain to the Santa Monica Bay. Results of the long-term water budget analysis show that the annual runoff ratio exhibits a distinct rising trend through the study period (1938 to 2010) which is indicative of rapid development; however, trends in the last decade have deviated from this pattern, often yielding annual runoff ratios greater than 1. At the monthly time scale, average dry season runoff exceeds precipitation during the June to August period for all decades between the 1940s to 2000s, with the exception of a few anomalous summer storm events. Most of this additional water is attributed to imported water and irrigation excess resulting in dry season runoff and artificial groundwater recharge. However, contributing native water sources also exist. Perennial natural springs were identified through field investigation in the foothills and along faults in the watershed. Summer season flow rates from sampled springs range from 2 to 200 m3/day. Historical evapotranspiration rates are also being investigated using traditional models and a remote-sensing algorithm. Information obtained from this study is being used to inform managers and decision

  11. Risk Factors for Dog Relinquishment to a Los Angeles Municipal Animal Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Emily D.; Scotto, Jamie; Slater, Margaret; Weiss, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Low income has been reported to be a risk factor for dog relinquishment to shelters in the U.S. The majority of people with lower incomes, however, do not relinquish. Risk factors for relinquishment in a low socioeconomic region of Los Angeles were examined. Cost was associated with relinquishment, and most people were not aware of available assistance. Those who relinquished reported emotional attachment to the dog and higher perceived stress than a comparison group. The majority of reasons for relinquishment were likely solvable with assistance, highlighting an opportunity to provide community-specific alternatives to relinquishment. Abstract Dog relinquishment is a large component of shelter intake in the United States. Research has shown traits of the dog are associated with relinquishment as well as general characteristics of those relinquishing. Low income is often cited as a risk factor for relinquishment. The majority of people with lower incomes, however, do not relinquish. A group of people accessing a shelter in a low socioeconomic region of Los Angeles to relinquish their dogs was surveyed. This study examined risk factors for relinquishment, controlling for household income, compared to a group utilizing low cost spay/neuter services. A total of 76.9% of those relinquishing noted cost as a reason for relinquishment. Of participants in the relinquishment group, 80.7% reported not being aware of any services available to them. Most notable in the findings was that the odds of relinquishment were generally higher as the amount of perceived stress in the home in the past three months increased. The majority of people in both groups reported being emotionally attached to the dog. In this sample from a South Los Angeles community, the majority of reasons for relinquishment were likely solvable with assistance. These findings highlight an opportunity to assess community needs and provide community specific alternatives to relinquishment. PMID

  12. Perceptions of neighborhood safety and asthma among children and adolescents in Los Angeles: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Kawachi, Ichiro; Bennett, Gary G; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    Research examining the impact of neighborhoods on asthma has shown an increased interest in the role of the psychosocial environment. We examined the associations between various measures of neighborhood safety, individual and family characteristics, and asthma outcomes among children in Los Angeles. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze data on 3,114 children across 65 neighborhoods from Wave 1 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (2000 to 2002). Primary caregivers reported asthma outcome and all individual covariates; home environmental characteristics were observed by the interviewer. In fully adjusted models, parents who reported their neighborhood fairly safe or somewhat dangerous had lower odds of reported lifetime asthma compared to those who reported their neighborhood completely safe (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.52-0.96 and OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.42-0.88 respectively). Conversely, parents who reported they could not trust their neighbors to keep their children safe had a nearly 40% increase in lifetime asthma compared to those who reported they could trust their neighbors to keep their children safe (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.07-1.81). The study demonstrates a complex pattern between various measures of neighborhood safety and asthma and suggests that these relationships may operate differently in Los Angeles. As an increasing proportion of children are growing up in newer Western and Southwestern cities, which have different physical layouts and residential segregation patterns compared to Northeast and Midwestern cities, future studies should continue to examine neighborhood psychosocial stressors and asthma in diverse contexts.

  13. Perceptions of neighborhood safety and asthma among children and adolescents in Los Angeles: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Camacho-Rivera

    Full Text Available Research examining the impact of neighborhoods on asthma has shown an increased interest in the role of the psychosocial environment. We examined the associations between various measures of neighborhood safety, individual and family characteristics, and asthma outcomes among children in Los Angeles.Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze data on 3,114 children across 65 neighborhoods from Wave 1 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (2000 to 2002. Primary caregivers reported asthma outcome and all individual covariates; home environmental characteristics were observed by the interviewer.In fully adjusted models, parents who reported their neighborhood fairly safe or somewhat dangerous had lower odds of reported lifetime asthma compared to those who reported their neighborhood completely safe (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.52-0.96 and OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.42-0.88 respectively. Conversely, parents who reported they could not trust their neighbors to keep their children safe had a nearly 40% increase in lifetime asthma compared to those who reported they could trust their neighbors to keep their children safe (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.07-1.81.The study demonstrates a complex pattern between various measures of neighborhood safety and asthma and suggests that these relationships may operate differently in Los Angeles. As an increasing proportion of children are growing up in newer Western and Southwestern cities, which have different physical layouts and residential segregation patterns compared to Northeast and Midwestern cities, future studies should continue to examine neighborhood psychosocial stressors and asthma in diverse contexts.

  14. Community-Based Health and Exposure Study around Urban Oil Developments in South Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Shamasunder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilfield-adjacent communities often report symptoms such as headaches and/or asthma. Yet, little data exists on health experiences and exposures in urban environments with oil and gas development. In partnership with Promotoras de Salud (community health workers, we gathered household surveys nearby two oil production sites in Los Angeles. We tested the capacity of low-cost sensors for localized exposure estimates. Bilingual surveys of 205 randomly sampled residences were collected within two 1500 ft. buffer areas (West Adams and University Park surrounding oil development sites. We used a one-sample proportion test, comparing overall rates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS of Service Planning Area 6 (SPA6 and Los Angeles County for variables of interest such as asthma. Field calibrated low-cost sensors recorded methane emissions. Physician diagnosed asthma rates were reported to be higher within both buffers than in SPA6 or LA County. Asthma prevalence in West Adams but not University Park was significantly higher than in Los Angeles County. Respondents with diagnosed asthma reported rates of emergency room visits in the previous 12 months similar to SPA6. 45% of respondents were unaware of oil development; 63% of residents would not know how to contact local regulatory authorities. Residents often seek information about their health and site-related activities. Low-cost sensors may be useful in highlighting differences between sites or recording larger emission events and can provide localized data alongside resident-reported symptoms. Regulatory officials should help clarify information to the community on methods for reporting health symptoms. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR partnership supports efforts to answer community questions as residents seek a safety buffer between sensitive land uses and active oil development.

  15. In Situ Carbon Dioxide and Methane Measurements from a Tower Network in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Karion, A.; Kim, J.; Sloop, C.; Salameh, P.; Yadav, V.; Mueller, K.; Pongetti, T.; Newman, S.; Wong, C.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rao, P.; Miller, J. B.; Keeling, R. F.; Weiss, R. F.; Miller, C. E.; Duren, R. M.; Andrews, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Urbanization has concentrated a significant fraction of the world's anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into a relatively small fraction of the earth's land surface. Concern about rising GHG levels has motivated many nations to begin regulating and/or mitigating emissions, motivating the need for robust, consistent, traceable GHG observation methods in complex urban domains. The Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project involves continuous and flask sampling of GHGs, trace gases, and isotopes at surface sites situated throughout the greater Los Angeles (LA) area. There are three signals of interest for utilizing urban GHG measurements in local or regional inverse modeling studies: (1) changes in the measured mole fraction at one location within a 24-hour period, (2) gradients in the measured mole fraction between locations within the surface measurement network, (3) local enhancements, or the difference between a measurement at one location and an inferred local "background" mole fraction. We report CO2 and CH4 measurements collected from eleven wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down analyzers (Picarro, Inc.). All sites use an internally consistent sampling protocol and calibration strategy. We show that the LA observation sites exhibit significant GHG enhancements relative to background, with evidence of systematic diurnal, weekly, and monthly variability. In Los Angeles, the "ideal" background sampling location could vary substantially depending on the time of year and local meteorology. Use of a single site for background determination may not be sufficient for reliable determination of GHG enhancements. We estimate the total uncertainty in the enhancement and examine how the choice of background influences the GHG enhancement signal. Uncertainty in GHG enhancements will ultimately translate into uncertainty in the fluxes derived from inverse modeling studies. In future work, the LA surface observations will be incorporated into an inverse-modeling framework to

  16. Natural marine halogen and sulfur emissions influence air quality in the coastal megacity of Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz-Unamunzaga, María; Borge, Rafael; Sarwar, Golam; Gantt, Brett; de la Paz, David; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    Natural halogen and sulfur compounds, emitted from the ocean, influence the oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere; however, their impact on the air quality of coastal cities is currently unknown. In this work, a set of high-resolution simulations were performed using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional model, to assess the impact of ocean emissions and combined chemical processes of halogens (iodine, bromine and chlorine) and DMS on air quality levels of Los Angeles and South Coast Air Basin. Simulations were completed for August and September of 2006, using a horizontal grid resolution of 4 km and 35 vertical levels.

  17. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-06-05

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity.

  18. Race and Place: Hollywood’s Vision of Urban Youth in Los Angeles Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Piday-Warren

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines films about youth of the late 1980s and 1990s in Los Angeles. While focusing on the analytical categories of space and race, the paper underscores the importance of historicizing and contextualizing the genre. Thus, it stresses the significance of successive waves of different ethnic immigration and argues that these created distinct enclaves, many of them internally homogenous in terms of race and class. The distinct enclaves both prepared the ground for the formation of the polynucleated and decentered modern megalopolis and influenced Hollywood’s vision of urban youth.

  19. Defining Moments in MMWR History: The AIDS Epidemic, Pneumocystis Pneumonia --- Los Angeles 1981

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-01

    On June 5, 1981, MMWR published a report of Pneumocystis pneumonia in five previously healthy young gay men in Los Angeles, California. This report was later acknowledged as the first published account of what would become known as human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. It was the first of many MMWR reports that led to a better understanding of this new condition. In this podcast, Dr. Harold Jaffe recalls CDC’s investigation and response to the AIDS Epidemic.  Created: 12/1/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/1/2017.

  20. Transaction Costs: Valuation Disputes, Bi-Lateral Monopoly Bargaining and Third-Party Effects in Water Rights Exchanges. The Owens Valley Transfer to Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Gary D. Libecap

    2004-01-01

    Between 1905 and 1934 over 869 farmers in Owens Valley, California sold their land and associated water rights to Los Angeles, 250 miles to the southwest. This agriculture-to-urban water transfer increased Los Angeles' water supply by over 4 times, making the subsequent dramatic growth of the semi-arid city possible, generating large economic returns. The exchange took water from a marginal agricultural area and transferred it via the Los Angeles Aqueduct. No other sources of water became ava...

  1. Risks for abuse against pregnant Hispanic women: Morelos, Mexico and Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Roberto; Peek-Asa, Corinne; García, Lorena; Ruiz, Agustín; Kraus, Jess F

    2003-11-01

    Although violence against women is gaining international attention as a prevention priority, little is known about how risks differ across countries. A comparative study of violence against pregnant Mexican women in Morelos, Mexico, and Latina women in Los Angeles County, California, United States. In 1998 and 1999, women in prenatal clinics were interviewed about psychological abuse and sexual and physical violence by their partner, during and the 1 year prior to the index pregnancy. The overall response rate for Morelos was 99%, with a sample size of 914; Los Angeles County had a response rate of 96.9%, with a sample size of 219. Women in Morelos reported a higher prevalence of violence compared to women in the California (14.8% v 11.9%, respectively). A partner aged child were more than 25 times more likely to be abused during pregnancy than women not reporting this type of abuse. The identification of factors associated with violence against women, especially as they differ by culture and ethnicity, will help clinicians to better identify victims and to design and implement culturally appropriate prevention programs.

  2. Tobacco Attitudes and Behaviors of Vape Shop Retailers in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Unger, Jennifer B; Garcia, Robert; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve

    2015-11-01

    The growing popularity of e-cigarettes has been accompanied by the proliferation of vape shops in the US. Vape shops are devoted to the sale and use of e-cigarettes, allowing customers to sample flavors and learn about different hardware from retailers. Research on vape shop retailers is lagging behind their popularity. This study documented the attitudes and behaviors regarding e-cigarettes and other tobacco products of retailers located in Los Angeles. Surveys were conducted among retailers at 78 vape shops in 2014. The majority of retailers (76%) believed e-cigarettes are safer than combustible cigarettes, with about one-fourth believing e-cigarettes are completely safe. Retailers believed e-cigarettes are, on average, safer than products (eg, nicotine patch, gum, and inhaler) that have been approved for cessation by the FDA. About 14% of retailers reported dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes in the past month. This is the first study to investigate tobacco-related behaviors and attitudes of vape shop retailers located in Los Angeles. Educating vape shop retailers on the benefits and harms of e-cigarettes is important, especially if retailers are to be informed about a product that is only now being considered to receive regulation from the FDA.

  3. Risk Factors for Dog Relinquishment to a Los Angeles Municipal Animal Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily D. Dolan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dog relinquishment is a large component of shelter intake in the United States. Research has shown traits of the dog are associated with relinquishment as well as general characteristics of those relinquishing. Low income is often cited as a risk factor for relinquishment. The majority of people with lower incomes, however, do not relinquish. A group of people accessing a shelter in a low socioeconomic region of Los Angeles to relinquish their dogs was surveyed. This study examined risk factors for relinquishment, controlling for household income, compared to a group utilizing low cost spay/neuter services. A total of 76.9% of those relinquishing noted cost as a reason for relinquishment. Of participants in the relinquishment group, 80.7% reported not being aware of any services available to them. Most notable in the findings was that the odds of relinquishment were generally higher as the amount of perceived stress in the home in the past three months increased. The majority of people in both groups reported being emotionally attached to the dog. In this sample from a South Los Angeles community, the majority of reasons for relinquishment were likely solvable with assistance. These findings highlight an opportunity to assess community needs and provide community specific alternatives to relinquishment.

  4. Prevalence of Chagas Disease in the Latin American-born Population of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meymandi, Sheba K; Forsyth, Colin J; Soverow, Jonathan; Hernandez, Salvador; Sanchez, Daniel; Montgomery, Susan P; Traina, Mahmoud

    2017-05-01

    According to an estimate from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Chagas disease (CD) may affect 1.31% of Latin American immigrants in the United States, with >300 000 cases. However, there is a lack of real-world data to support this estimate. Little is known about the actual prevalence of this neglected tropical disease in the United States, and the bulk of those infected are undiagnosed. From April 2008 to May 2014, we screened 4,755 Latin American-born residents of Los Angeles County. Blood samples were tested for serologic evidence of CD. We collected demographic data and assessed the impact of established risk factors on CD diagnosis, including sex, country of origin, housing materials, family history of CD, and awareness of CD. There were 59 cases of CD, for an overall prevalence of 1.24%. Prevalence was highest among Salvadorans (3.45%). Of the 3,182 Mexican respondents, those from Oaxaca (4.65%) and Zacatecas (2.2%) had the highest CD prevalence. Salvadoran origin (aOR = 6.2; 95% CI = 2.8-13.5; P 30 000 people infected in Los Angeles County alone, making CD an important public health concern. Efficient, targeted surveillance of CD may accelerate diagnosis and identify candidates for early treatment.

  5. Shear wave splitting observations and implications on stress regimes in the Los Angeles basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Gang

    1996-06-01

    A systematic analysis of three-component seismograms recorded at 15 stations from earthquakes occurring at depths of 5 to 18 km beneath the Los Angeles basin and adjacent areas during the period between 1988 and 1994 shows 20 to 160 ms shear wave splitting. Shallow events exhibit little splitting, while deeper events show progressively greater splitting with depth. The preferred polarization direction of the fast shear wave is nearly N-S, consistent with the direction of the regional maximum horizontal compressive stress but independent of the azimuth between the event and station. We interpret that the shear wave splitting is caused by fluid-filled crustal microcracks and macrofractures aligned in the N-S direction. The shear wave splitting observations of 2.8 to 7.8 ms/km can be explained in terms of an anisotropic crust containing vertical cracks with the apparent crack density of 0.023-0.08. On a regional basis, the crack density may vary from station to station, but we find that the apparent crack density in the strike-slip region of the Newport-Inglewood fault and the Whittier fault is higher than in the reverse-thrusting Santa Monica Mountains and Palos Verdes Hills. No systematic change of shear wave splitting in the Los Angeles basin is found in this study.

  6. Isotopic constraints on sources of methane in Los Angeles, California, USA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend-Small, A.; Tyler, S. C.; Christensen, L.; Xu, X.; Pataki, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and an important contributor to global warming. Recent studies have suggested that methane emissions in large cities are underestimated with several models even indicating that substantial emissions attributed to cities are in part from regional and/or encroaching agricultural sources rather than from urban fossil fuel sources. We have found that stable isotopes (13-C and D) and radiocarbon (C-14) are excellent tracers of various sources of methane in Los Angeles, California. Measurements of the d13C and dD of methane from discrete sources show excellent separation between urban sources, such as vehicle emissions, power plants, oil refineries, landfills, and sewage treatment plants and agricultural sources like cows, biogas, and cattle feedlots. In addition, radiocarbon is an excellent tracer of modern versus fossil fuel contributions to methane emissions in the region. Preliminary measurements of background air in Los Angeles indicate that the major source of excess methane is vehicle emissions with most additional CH4 likely contributed from among other fossil fuel sources such as oil refining or power plants. We are currently confirming these results with broader field campaigns and additional measurements, including continuous measurements of atmospheric methane concentration using tunable laser spectroscopy. The combination of high-resolution tunable laser concentration measurements and precise isotope measurements using mass spectrometry is a very promising and powerful tool for methane source monitoring.

  7. Risk Factors for Dog Relinquishment to a Los Angeles Municipal Animal Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Emily D; Scotto, Jamie; Slater, Margaret; Weiss, Emily

    2015-12-10

    Dog relinquishment is a large component of shelter intake in the United States. Research has shown traits of the dog are associated with relinquishment as well as general characteristics of those relinquishing. Low income is often cited as a risk factor for relinquishment. The majority of people with lower incomes, however, do not relinquish. A group of people accessing a shelter in a low socioeconomic region of Los Angeles to relinquish their dogs was surveyed. This study examined risk factors for relinquishment, controlling for household income, compared to a group utilizing low cost spay/neuter services. A total of 76.9% of those relinquishing noted cost as a reason for relinquishment. Of participants in the relinquishment group, 80.7% reported not being aware of any services available to them. Most notable in the findings was that the odds of relinquishment were generally higher as the amount of perceived stress in the home in the past three months increased. The majority of people in both groups reported being emotionally attached to the dog. In this sample from a South Los Angeles community, the majority of reasons for relinquishment were likely solvable with assistance. These findings highlight an opportunity to assess community needs and provide community specific alternatives to relinquishment.

  8. Stratigraphic controls on saltwater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Ehman, K.D.; Ponti, D.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Tinsley, J.C.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Land, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Los Angeles Basin is a densely populated coastal area that significantly depends on groundwater. A part of this groundwater supply is at risk from saltwater intrusion-the impetus for this study. High-resolution seismic-reflection data collected from the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Complex have been combined with borehole geophysical and descriptive geological data from four nearby ??400-m-deep continuously cored wells and with borehole geophysical data from adjacent water and oil wells to characterize the Pliocene to Holocene stratigraphy of the Dominguez Gap coastal aquifer system. The new data are shown as a north-south, two- dimensional, sequence-stratigraphic model that is compared to existing lithostratigraphic models of the Los Angeles Basin in an attempt to better understand pathways of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Intrusion of saltwater into the coastal aquifer system generally is attributed to over-pumping that caused the hydraulic gradient to reverse during the mid-1920s. Local water managers have used the existing lithostratigraphic model to site closely spaced injection wells of freshwater (barrier projects) attempting to hydraulically control the saltwater intrusion. Improved understanding of the stratigraphic relationships can guide modifications to barrier design that will allow more efficient operation. Allostratigraphic nomenclature is used to define a new sequence-stratigraphic model for the area because the existing lithostratigraphic correlations that have been used to define aquifer systems are shown not to be time-correlative. The youngest sequence, the Holocene Dominguez sequence, contains the Gaspur aquifer at its base. The Gaspur aquifer is intruded with saltwater and consists of essentially flat-lying gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as broad channels that occupied a paleovalley incised into the coastal plain during the last glacio-eustatic highstand. The underlying sequences are deformed into

  9. Ion microprobe measurements of 18O/ 16O ratios of phosphate minerals in the Martian meteorites ALH84001 and Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, James P.; Blake, Ruth E.; Coath, Christopher D.

    2003-06-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of merrillite and chlorapatite in the Martian meteorites ALH84001 and Los Angeles have been measured by ion microprobe in multicollector mode. δ 18O values of phosphate minerals measured in situ range from ˜3 to 6‰, and are similar to Martian meteorite whole-rock values, as well as the δ 18O of igneous phosphate on Earth. These results suggest that the primary, abiotic, igneous phosphate reservoir on Mars is similar in oxygen isotopic composition to the basaltic phosphate reservoir on Earth. This is an important first step in the characterization of Martian phosphate reservoirs for the use of δ 18O of phosphate minerals as a biomarker for life on Mars. Cumulative textural, major-element, and isotopic evidence presented here suggest a primary, igneous origin for the phosphates in Los Angeles and ALH84001; textural and chemical evidence suggests that phosphates in ALH84001 were subsequently shock-melted in a later event.

  10. Use of Statewide Hospital Discharge Data to Evaluate the Economic Burden of Neurocysticercosis in Los Angeles County (1991–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis; Reporter, Roshan; Mascola, Laurene

    2010-01-01

    Statewide hospital discharge data were used to assess the economic burden of neurocysticercosis in Los Angeles County (LAC) from 1991 through 2008. A neurocysticercosis hospitalization was defined as having a discharge diagnosis of cysticercosis in addition to convulsions, seizures, hydrocephalus, cerebral edema or cerebral cysts. This study identified 3,937 neurocysticercosis hospitalizations, with the number of annual hospitalizations remaining relatively unchanged over the study period (R2 = 0.01), averaging 219 per year (range 180–264). The total of all neurocysticercosis hospitalization charges over the study period was $136.2 million, averaging $7.9 million per year. The average charge per patient was $37.6 thousand and the most common payment method was Medicaid (43.9%), followed by private insurance (24.5%). The average length of stay was 7.2 days. The substantial number of hospitalizations and significant economic cost underscore the importance of neurocysticercosis in LAC. PMID:20595487

  11. Los Angeles Free-Net: an experiment in interactive telecommunication between lay members of the Los Angeles community and health care experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluming, A; Mittelman, P S

    1996-04-01

    The Los Angeles Free-Net, an interactive community information resource, was established in part to help community members become more effective consumers of health care services. By providing timely, expert answers to anonymously asked medical questions at no charge, we hope to decrease unnecessary physician-patient encounters, encourage effective preventive-health measures, and improve the overall results of health care in our community. Although it is too early to assess health care benefits from this system, the following observations may help guide the development of similar systems around the nation: (1) A small annual registration fee generates both moral and financial public support. (2) Demographic information from registered users can help direct attempts at enfranchising all members of the community. (3) Toll-free access, free public-instruction sessions, moderated forums, extensive volunteer help, and encryption security are encouraged, while Internet censorship is difficult and counterproductive. (4) Access to Internet resources is important, but the strength of a community system lies primarily in the sharing of expertise and resources among members of the community. (5) A critical mass of available physicians to answer questions must be matched with a critical level of question input for this type of interactive medical information resource to function in a time-sensitive fashion.

  12. Perceived and actual environmental benefits of the Los Angeles urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; McCarthy, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    There has been a widespread movement to plant more trees and increase canopy cover in cities throughout the United States, in order to enhance ecosystem services provided by urban forests. The city of Los Angeles has been engaged in a widespread tree planting program with the goal of increasing tree cover, particularly in low income neighborhoods. However, the Los Angeles urban forest is almost entirely non-native, located predominately in former semi-arid shrublands and grasslands. We used multiple approaches to evaluate environmental costs and benefits of urban trees in Los Angeles, both as they are perceived by local residents, as well as actual physical impacts of urban tree processes on the environment. We conducted an internet survey of attitudes and preferences for specific tree functional types, ecosystem services, and potential costs. We also directly measured urban forest structure and function including species and functional biodiversity, transpiration, basal area increments, hydraulic architecture, and leaf gas exchange. We translated these processes into categories of ecosystem services and costs such as water use, latent heat fluxes, water use efficiency, growth rates, sensitivity to drought stress, and aesthetic traits (flowering, fruiting, etc.). We found that provision of shade by urban trees is highly valued by local residents, and in fact, the urban forest has a significant impact on surface temperatures. Aesthetics benefits are also commonly cited as desirable traits. Although aesthetic and other cultural ecosystem services are difficult to quantify, we found spatial patterns in aesthetic traits influenced by neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Local residents seemed less concerned about the water use of irrigated urban trees, but we found significant rates of transpiration in urban trees and forest plots depending on species that may be important in the local hydrologic budget, which is increasingly constrained by water shortages. There was

  13. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  14. 75 FR 17562 - Port Access Route Study: In the Approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach and in the Santa Barbara...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... clearance of sea bottom and submerged obstacles as indicated on nautical charts. Inshore traffic zone means... the Los Angeles Approach Channel to extend approximately 3.5 nautical miles beyond the Los Angeles... may decrease the potential for collisions, oil spills, and other events that could threaten the marine...

  15. (U-Th)/He Dating of Merrillites and Chlorapatites From Martian Meteorite Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, K. K.; Reiners, P. W.; Nicolescu, S.; Greenwood, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    Los Angeles (LA), one of the basaltic shergottitic Martian meteorites, has an igneous formation age of ˜170 Ma, and is thought to have been ejected from Mars by collision at ˜3.1 Ma. The medium to high temperature thermal history of LA is documented based on Rb/Sr and Sm/Nd chronometers, but essentially no thermochronologic data are available to constrain its low temperature thermal history. To understand the thermal effects of collision-related shock metamorphism and subsequent low-T thermal history of LA, we measured (U-Th)/He ages of single crystal phosphates (igneous merrillite and chlorapatite) from the meteorite. Merrillites and chlorapatites yielded distinctive U and Th concentrations ( ˜2 ppm and ˜13 ppm for merrillites; ˜4 ppm and ˜5 ppm for chlorapatites) with apparently different U/Th ratios. Thirteen merrillite grains have ages between 0.8-3.5 Ma with a weighted mean age of 3.1 Ma. Five other merrillite ages are widely distributed between 5.1-32 Ma. Six chlorapatite grains yielded ages clustering in the range of 1.9-2.9 Ma (alpha-recoil uncorrected) with a weighted mean of 2.2 Ma, and three other grains produced older and scattered ages up to 5.8 Ma. The cumulative probability plots show highest peaks at 2.3 Ma and 3.3 Ma for chlorapatites and merrillites, respectively. The peak age or weighted mean age of merrillite is indistinguishable from the cosmogenic exposure ages (3.1 +/- 0.2 Ma) previously determined from 3He, 10Be, 21Ne, 38Ar and 81Kr systems, suggesting that the timing of the shock metamorphism is represented by the merrillite (U-Th)/He system. The average age difference between the merrillite and chlorapatite ages is probably due to the typically smaller grain size of apatite crystals and therefore greater proportion of alphas lost by recoil ejection. Assuming a peak shock temperature of 450 ° C (consistent with previous studies), the observed complete He degassing for most of the phosphates by shock metamorphism suggests that the

  16. Seasonal and spatial variability in chemical composition and mass closure of ambient ultrafine particles in the megacity of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Nancy; Hasheminassaba, Sina; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2013-01-01

    Emerging toxicological research has shown that ultrafine particles (UFP, dp megacity of Los Angeles, including source, near-freeway, semi-rural receptor and desert-like locations. Average PM0.25 mass concentration ranged from 5.9 to 16.1 μg m−3 across the basin and over different seasons. Wintertime levels were highest at the source site, while lowest at the desert-like site. Conversely, summertime concentrations peaked at the inland receptor locations. Chemical mass reconstruction revealed that quasi-UFP in the basin consisted of 49–64% organic matter, 3–6.4% elemental carbon, 9–15% secondary ions (SI), 0.7–1.3% trace ions, and 5.7–17% crustal material and trace elements, on a yearly average basis. Organic carbon (OC), a major constituent of PM0.25, exhibited greatest concentrations in fall and winter at all sites, with the exception of the inland areas. Atmospheric stability conditions and particle formation favored by condensation of low-volatility organics contributed to these levels. Inland, OC concentrations peaked in summer due to increased PM0.25 advection from upwind sources coupled with secondary organic aerosol formation. Among SI, nitrate peaked at semi-rural Riverside sites, located downwind of strong ammonia sources. Moreover, ionic balance indicated an overall neutral quasi-UFP aerosol, with somewhat lower degree of neutralization at near-freeway sites in winter. Anthropogenic metals peaked at the urban sites in winter while generally increased at the receptor areas in summer. Lastly, coefficients of divergence analysis showed that while PM0.25 mass is relatively spatially homogeneous in the basin, some of its components, mainly EC, nitrate and several toxic metals, are unevenly distributed. These results suggest that population exposure to quasi-UFP can substantially vary by season and over short spatial scales in the megacity of Los Angeles.

  17. Physical education and student activity: evaluating implementation of a new policy in Los Angeles public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Mariah; Strongin, Seth; Cole, Brian L; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Banthia, Rajni; Craypo, Lisa; Sivasubramanian, Ramya; Samuels, Sarah; García, Robert

    2013-02-01

    California law has standards for physical education (PE) instruction in K-12 public schools; audits found that the Los Angeles Unified School District did not enforce the standards. In 2009, the district adopted a PE policy to comply with these standards. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the PE policy in district schools. PE class observations were conducted using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years in an income-stratified random sample of 34 elementary, middle, and high schools to assess changes in PE class size, class duration, and time students spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. PE class duration increased in high-income elementary schools. Mean class size decreased in low-income middle schools. There was limited implementation of the PE policy 2 years after passage. Opportunities exist to continue monitoring and improving PE quantity and quality.

  18. CALGRID Photochemical Modeling of Air Quality Impacts of Alternative Transportation Fuel Use in Los Angeles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G. E.; Londergan, R. J.; Fernau, M. E.

    1998-11-19

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive program to quantify and assess the air quality impacts of the emissions of ozone precursors, air toxins, and greenhouse gases from alternative fuel vehicles. This program includes both an emissions estimation component and a photochemical modeling component to study three fuels: reformulated gasoline, compressed natural gas, and 85% methanol (M85). This report describes the use of the CALGRID model in the Los Angeles modeling domain using the State-Wide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC90) chemical mechanism and an early version of the SAPRC93 mechanism. A variety of conclusions can be drawn from the results of this study, including results from chemical mechanism testing; development of meteorological inputs; model evaluation and comparison; and the analyses of the impacts of the emissions scenarios. The report summarizes the study's major findings in these areas.

  19. Immigration reform and the browning of America: tensions, conflicts and community instability in metropolitan Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J H; Farrell, W C; Guinn, C

    1997-01-01

    "Tensions, conflicts, and community instability associated with heightened immigration--especially of nonwhite immigrant groups--threaten to balkanize America. This article highlights the root causes of the growing opposition to both immigrants and U.S. immigration policy--the nativist backlash, presents a typology of the community-level conflicts that have arisen as a consequence of heightened immigration--legal and illegal--to the United States over the last 30 years, and outlines the conditions under which diversity can be brought to the forefront as one of society's strengths.... The 1992 Los Angeles County Social Survey (LACSS)...provides insights into the nature and magnitude of intergroup stereotyping and prejudice in a community in which large numbers of immigrants have settled." excerpt

  20. Expanding Urban Metabolism: Coupling Methodologies and Integrating Social Factors, a Pilot for Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincetl, S.

    2011-12-01

    Urban metabolism is a powerful method for describing resource flows into cities and the waste streams produced as a result of resource use. To date these flows have rarely been geospatially correlated to reveal who uses what type of energy where and the concomitant waste streams. Thus there is little ability to understand energy use in urban areas. Additionally, the social and ecological footprint of the flows have not been drawn and explained. We are developing an expanded and integrated urban metabolism analysis for Los Angeles County, attempting to integrate socio-demographic and geospatial grounding of resource flows and sinks, as well as life cycle, cradle to grave information. This presentation will focus on the reasons for this approach and methodological innovations and challenges.

  1. The origins of the Olympic Village: Los Angeles 1932 and Berlin 1936.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bortolotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the transformations produced by the housing projects for the Olympic Games, the construction and following reuse of the Olympic Villages is an interesting studying matter. During the hundred-year-old history of the modern Olympics the realization of the Olympic Village, which finds reference in the de Coubertin’s writings, and the town planning transformations, to this correlated, have revealed in different ways. The essay mainly concerns the origins of the Olympic Village and the first settlements which characterized the Games in the thirties: Los Angeles 1932 and Berlin 1936. In these two cities, even though with different motivations, politico-economical stimulus and different images, the prototypes of the modern Olympic sport facilities, which find in the village an in the stadium the symbol of the event, were born.

  2. Prohibited Possessors and the Law: How Inmates in Los Angeles Jails Understand Firearm and Ammunition Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Barragan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using data from 140 interviews with individuals detained in the Los Angeles County Jail system, this article examines what gun offenders know about gun and ammunition regulation in California. Though most respondents had a consistent, albeit general, understanding of the regulations limiting gun acquisition and possession, analysis suggests that their understanding of ammunition restrictions was more limited. Our sample’s awareness of firearms law is especially important to consider given that they are the very population targeted by firearms regulations and prohibitions at the local, state, and federal level. By examining what detained offenders know about firearms laws, we can better theorize about individual gaps in legal knowledge and the realistic expectations for how understanding of the law can affect behavior.

  3. Shallow seismic imaging of folds above the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Shaw, John H.; Dolan, James F.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Williams, Robert A.; Odum, Jack K.; Plesch, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles image discrete folds in the shallow subsurface (Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system, Los Angeles basin, California. The profiles demonstrate late Quaternary activity at the fault tip, precisely locate the axial surfaces of folds within the upper 100 m, and constrain the geometry and kinematics of recent folding. The Santa Fe Springs segment of the Puente Hills fault zone shows an upward-narrowing kink band with an active anticlinal axial surface, consistent with fault-bend folding above an active thrust ramp. The Coyote Hills segment shows an active synclinal axial surface that coincides with the base of a 9-m-high scarp, consistent with tip-line folding or the presence of a backthrust. The seismic profiles pinpoint targets for future geologic work to constrain slip rates and ages of past events on this important fault system.

  4. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL EDUCATION AT CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LOS ANGELES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blekhman, David

    2011-09-30

    California State University, Los Angeles, has partnered with the Department of Energy in addressing the workforce preparation and public education needs of the fuel cell industry and the US economy through a comprehensive set of curriculum development and training activities: * Developing and offering several courses in fuel cell technologies, hydrogen and alternative fuels production, alternative and renewable energy technologies as means of zero emissions hydrogen economy, and sustainable environment. * Establishing a zero emissions PEM fuel cell and hydrogen laboratory supporting curriculum and graduate students teaching and research experiences. * Providing engaging capstone projects for multi-disciplinary teams of senior undergraduate students. * Fostering partnerships with automotive OEMs and energy providers. * Organizing and participating in synergistic projects and activities that grow the program and assure its sustainability.

  5. Emission of Methane and Heavier Alkanes From the La Brea Tar Pits Seepage Area, Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiope, G.; Doezema, L. A.; Pacheco, C.

    2017-11-01

    Natural hydrocarbon (oil and gas) seeps are widespread in Los Angeles, California, due to gas migration, along faults, from numerous subsurface petroleum fields. These seeps may represent important natural contributors of methane (CH4) and heavier alkanes (C2-C4) to the atmosphere, in addition to anthropogenic fossil fuel and biogenic sources. We measured the CH4 flux by closed-chamber method from the La Brea Tar Pits park (0.1 km2), one of the largest seepage sites in Los Angeles. The gas seepage occurs throughout the park, not only from visible oil-asphalt seeps but also diffusely from the soil, affecting grass physiology. About 500 kg CH4 d-1 is emitted from the park, especially along a belt of enhanced degassing that corresponds to the 6th Street Fault. Additional emissions are from bubble plumes in the lake within the park (order of 102-103 kg d-1) and at the intersection of Wilshire Boulevard and Curson Avenue (>130 kg d-1), along the same fault. The investigated area has the highest natural gas flux measured thus far for any onshore seepage zone in the USA. Gas migration, oil biodegradation, and secondary methanogenesis altered the molecular composition of the original gas accumulated in the Salt Lake Oil Field (>300 m deep), leading to high C1/C2+ and i-butane/n-butane ratios. These molecular alterations can be important tracers of natural seepage and should be considered in the atmospheric modeling of the relative contribution of fossil fuel (anthropogenic fugitive emission and natural geologic sources) versus biogenic sources of methane, on local and global scales.

  6. Predicting tree water use and drought tolerance from leaf traits in the Los Angeles urban ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, G. P.; Scoffoni, C.; Sack, L.

    2013-12-01

    Urban green space provides a suite of valuable ecosystem services. In semiarid systems, like Los Angeles, trees rely primarily on irrigation water for transpiration. Managers may need to reduce irrigation associated with urban trees given climate change, urban expansion, and the steady decrease in available freshwater. While leaf and whole plant water relations have been extensively studied, we are only now gaining a detailed understanding of diverse leaf anatomical designs, and their use for predicting physiology and water use at landscape scale. For 50 diverse urban species, we quantified leaf anatomical and physiological traits important to tree drought tolerance and water use efficiency including turgor loss point, vein architecture, cellular anatomy, leaf mass per unit area, and petiole and leaf dimensions. We hypothesized detailed relationships to develop models relating leaf functional traits to tree water relations. These models provide key insights regarding the role of anatomical designs in leaf stress tolerance and water use efficiency. Additionally we predicted how traits measured at the leaf level would scale with existing data for individuals at the whole plant level. We tested our predictions by determining correlations between leaf level anatomical traits and drought tolerance. Additionally, we determined correlations between functional traits, physiology and water use, and the climate of origin for the urban species. Leaf level measurements will be valuable for rapid estimation of more difficult to measure whole plant water relations traits important at the landscape scale. The Los Angeles urban ecosystem can serve as a model for other semiarid system and provide more informed system wide water conservation strategies.

  7. Genetic admixture and risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among Latinas in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Ahva; Wilson, Melissa L; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Goodwin, T Murphy; Stern, Mariana C; Ingles, Sue A

    2013-03-01

    Latinos are a heterogeneous population in terms of demographics, culture, and genetic admixture from three racial groups (white, African, and Native American). This study examines the role of genetic ancestry and environmental risk factors in the risk of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy among Latinas in Los Angeles County. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia, or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome cases (n = 125), plus unaffected controls (n = 161), were recruited from Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Women's and Children's Hospital from 1999 through 2008. Diagnoses were confirmed with extensive chart review. Personal information, demographics, and biospecimens were collected from all participants. Ancestry informative markers were used to estimate genetic ancestry proportions. After adjusting for European ancestry and key risk factors, African ancestry was positively associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy risk for the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of African ancestry (odds ratio = 2.6 [95% confidence interval = 1.1-6.1]). This association was stronger among women born in Mexico with parents born in Mexico (4.3 [1.4-13]). The results from generalized additive models showed a positive association between joint European/African ancestry and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy risk and an inverse association between Native American ancestry and risk. These associations were stronger among women of Mexican origin. Our findings suggest that higher Native American ancestry among Latinas may protect against hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Further studies are needed to determine whether this protective effect is driven by specific alleles present in this population or by other risk factors that correlate with Native American ancestry.

  8. Evapotranspiration of urban landscapes in Los Angeles, California at the municipal scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, E.; Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.; Pataki, D. E.

    2017-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), an essential process in biosphere-atmosphere interactions, is highly uncertain in cities that maintain cultivated and irrigated landscapes. We estimated ET of irrigated landscapes in Los Angeles by combining empirical models of turfgrass ET and tree transpiration derived from in situ measurements with previously developed remotely sensed estimates of vegetation cover and ground-based vegetation surveys. We modeled irrigated landscapes as a two-component system comprised of trees and turfgrass to assess annual and spatial patterns of ET. Annual ET from vegetated landscapes (ETveg) was 1110 ± 53 mm/yr and ET from the whole city (vegetated and nonvegetated areas, ETland) was three times smaller, reflecting the fractional vegetation cover. With the exception of May and June, monthly ETland was significantly higher than predicted by the North American Land Data Assimilation System. ETveg was close to potential ET, indicating abundant irrigation inputs. Monthly averaged ETveg varied from 1.5 ± 0.1 mm/d (December) to 4.3 ± 0.2 mm/d (June). Turfgrass was responsible for ˜70% of ETveg. For trees, angiosperm species (71% of all trees) contributed over 90% to total tree transpiration, while coniferous and palm species made very small contributions. ETland was linearly correlated with median household income across the city, confirming the importance of social factors in determining spatial distribution of urban vegetation. These estimates have important implications for constraining the municipal water budget of Los Angeles and improving regional-scale hydrologic models, as well as for developing water-saving practices. The methodology used in this study is also transferable to other semiarid regions for quantification of urban landscape ET.

  9. Amplification and Attenuation in the Los Angeles and Kanto Sedimentary Basins using the Ambient Seismic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M.; Prieto, G.; Lawrence, J. F.; Beroza, G. C.; Hirata, N.; Nakagawa, S.; Miyake, H.; Kasahara, K.; Sakai, S.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.

    2010-12-01

    Ground motion prediction is traditionally estimated in seismic hazard analysis using parametric scaling relations, which are often referred to as "attenuation relations." Increasingly, seismologists are turning to simulation-based hazard analysis. There are at least two reasons for this. First, it allows seismologists to overcome the scarcity of data from large events in the data. Second, it exploits our growing knowledge of the geological complexity of the Earth's crust and our ability to model wave propagation through it. The accuracy of these simulations is critical to their use for risk reduction, but is limited by our incomplete knowledge of the elastic and anelastic structure of the subsurface. The situation is particularly acute for sedimentary basins that underlie densely populated urban centers such as Los Angeles and Tokyo, both because the exposure is so high, and because it is difficult to obtain new images of Earth structure in urban settings. In this study, we show how ambient seismic field analysis can improve this situation. We take the advantage of the dense seismic networks in those areas and use 9 months of continuous records for about 180 stations from the Southern Californian Seismic Networks for Los Angeles and 6 months of a combination of 190 MeSO-net stations and 110 Hi-net instruments in Tokyo area. We estimate the basin amplification of these comparable urban centers with ambient field transfer function, or impulse response. The ambient seismic field also provides constraints on the attenuation signal in surface waves, and hence on the anelastic structure of the Earth. We exploit this by using the real part of the complex coherence to estimate the attenuation coefficient of Rayleigh waves, and from it variations in the anelastic structure. We acknowledge the support by the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  10. Legal Status, Time in the USA, and the Well-Being of Latinos in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Maria-Elena De Trinidad; Pebley, Anne R

    2017-12-01

    In the USA, undocumented Latino immigrants may have poorer health because of barriers to health care, stressors, and detrimental effects of immigration enforcement. Previous immigrant health research, however, suggests that recently arrived Latino immigrants have better health than US-born Latinos and their health deteriorates over time. Given the current environments that undocumented immigrants face, legal status is a structural factor that likely influences the patterns of immigrant health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the extent to which physical and mental health differed by legal status and duration in the USA for the Latino population in Los Angeles County, California. We conducted analysis of Latino respondents (n = 1396) to the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS) Wave II. We examined self-reported health, depression measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form, and blood pressure collected by trained interviewers. Respondents reported their legal status, time in the USA, and other sociodemographic characteristics. Regression models were used to test associations between each outcome and 1) legal status and 2) legal status by duration (≤ 15 and > 15 years) in the USA. Without taking duration into account, we found no significant differences in outcomes between undocumented, documented, or US-born Latinos. Taking duration into account, shorter duration undocumented immigrants had worse self-reported health than the US born. Undocumented immigrants, regardless of duration, had higher blood pressure than documented immigrants who had been in the USA for less time and the same level of blood pressure as the US born. In contrast, shorter duration documented immigrants had lower blood pressure compared to longer duration documented immigrants and US-born counterparts, and marginally lower blood pressure than shorter duration undocumented immigrants. The findings suggest that the "health

  11. Evaluating the Impact of Conservation Measures on Urban Water Fluxes in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    California is experiencing one of the most severe droughts on record. In response, the State Water Resources Control Board adopted emergency regulations in May, implementing a mandatory 25% statewide reduction in potable urban water use. Prior to this, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power had implemented mandatory restrictions and a pricing increase in 2009 and 2010, respectively to encourage reduced consumption. Understanding where conservation measures are having the greatest impact and how it is affecting water fluxes throughout the basin is critical, especially when considering the push for increased reliance on local water resources. Los Angeles is selected as the study area due to its high degree of urbanization, while the Ballona Creek watershed is used for runoff analysis due to the lack of dams and wastewater treatment plants altering flow in the channel. Utilizing a combination of runoff gages, groundwater monitoring well data, consumption data, and hydrologic models, we aim to evaluate how hydrologic processes have been influenced by water conservation measures. The work focuses on how changes in outdoor water use have influenced discharge patterns and groundwater recharge since most of the water conservation efforts have been focused on decreasing landscape irrigation. Previous work has shown that outdoor irrigation rates have decreased after the implementation of conservation measures, causing a decrease in vegetation greenness across the city. Runoff has also significantly decreased, especially dry season discharge. Further work is also being conducted to evaluate changes to evapotranspiration, using a combination of NLDAS model results and CIMIS reference ET data, as well as groundwater and recharge, utilizing a Bayesian Hierarchical model to fill missing groundwater monitoring well data. Results provide improved understanding of response to, and impacts of, conservation measures which ultimately allow for better water resources management

  12. Service Receipt and Mental Disorders in Child Welfare and Mental Health Systems in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S; Traube, Dorian E; Brimhall, Kim C; Lim, Caroline; Lecklitner, Greg; Olson, Adrienne

    2017-08-01

    Use of administrative data from child welfare (CW) and mental health systems in Los Angeles County provided a unique opportunity to more closely examine mental health needs of children dually served by these systems. This study examined the presence of mental disorders and correlates of receipt of mental health services by diagnostic classification in this population. Data were obtained for 3,191 children receiving services from Los Angeles County's Department of Children and Family Services and Department of Mental Health (DMH) between July 2011 and July 2012. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models examined the relationship between sociodemographic and CW-related characteristics and receipt of outpatient services by clinician-diagnosed mental disorder. Of the 3,191 referred children, 68% met criteria for one of the four diagnostic classifications. Mood disorders were the most common diagnosis (30%), followed by anxiety disorders (20%), behavior disorders (9%), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (9%). Children with prior DMH involvement received more services regardless of diagnosis. Older children (ages ≥15) received more services than younger children, whereas younger children were more likely to receive family therapy. Race-ethnicity did not play a significant role in predicting service receipt. The unique mental health needs of CW-involved children were exemplified by the differences found in the percentages of children with diagnoses of mental disorders between this sample and children in the general population. Because of family and placement disruptions among CW-involved children, it is important that the provision of individual therapy is not overlooked in favor of family therapy.

  13. Prevalence of Substance Use Among Patients of Community Health Centers in East Los Angeles and Tijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Lillian; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Andersen, Ronald M; Arroyo, Miriam; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Rico, Melvin W; Vahidi, Mani; Yacenda-Murphy, Julia; Arangua, Lisa; Serota, Martin

    2017-02-23

    Given the increased use of psychoactive substances on the United States-Mexico border, a binational study (Tijuana, Mexico-Los Angeles, USA) was conducted to identify the prevalence of substance use in primary care settings. To compare the prevalence and characteristics of patients at risk for substance use disorders in Tijuana and East Los Angeles (LA) community clinics with special attention paid to drug use. This was an observational, cross-sectional, analytical study, comparing substance use screening results from patients in Tijuana and LA. The settings were 2 community clinics in LA and 6 in Tijuana. Participants were 2,507 adult patients in LA and 2,890 in Tijuana eligible for WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) screening during March-October 2013. Patients anonymously self-administered the WHO ASSIST on a tablet PC in the clinic waiting rooms. Of eligible patients, 96.4% completed the ASSIST in Tijuana and 88.7% in LA (mean 1.34 minutes and 4.20 minutes, respectively). The prevalence of patients with moderate-to-high substance use was higher in LA than Tijuana for each substance: drugs 19.4% vs. 5.7%, alcohol 15.2% vs. 6.5%, tobacco 20.4% vs. 16.2%. LA patients born in Mexico had 2x the odds and LA patients born in the United States had 6x the odds of being a moderate-to-high drug user compared to Tijuana patients born in Mexico. Moderate-to-high drug use is higher in LA than in Tijuana but rates are sufficiently high in both to suggest that screening for drug use (along with alcohol and tobacco use) should be integrated into routine primary care of community clinics in both cities.

  14. Spatial patterns of diabetes related health problems for vulnerable populations in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Andrew J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates for Diabetes Mellitus continue to rise in most urban areas of the United States, with a disproportionate burden suffered by minorities and low income populations. This paper presents an approach that utilizes address level data to understand the geography of this disease by analyzing patients seeking diabetes care through an emergency department in a Los Angeles County hospital. The most vulnerable frequently use an emergency room as a common care access point, and such care is especially costly. A fine scale GIS analysis reveals hotspots of diabetes related health problems and provides output useful in a clinic setting. Indeed these results were used to support the work of a progressive diabetes clinic to guide management and intervention strategies. Results Hotspots of diabetes related health problems, including neurological and kidney issues were mapped for vulnerable populations in a central section of Los Angeles County. The resulting spatial grid of rates and significance were overlaid with new patient residential addresses attending an area clinic. In this way neighbourhood diabetes health characteristics are added to each patient's individual health record. Of the 29 patients, 4 were within statistically significant hotspots for at least one of the conditions being investigated. Conclusions Although exploratory in nature, this approach demonstrates a novel method to conduct GIS based investigations of urban diabetes while providing support to a progressive diabetes clinic looking for novel means of managing and intervention. In so doing, this analysis adds to a relatively small literature on fine scale GIS facilitated diabetes research. Similar data should be available for most hospitals, and with due consideration for preserving spatial confidentiality, analysis outputs such as those presented here should become more commonly employed in other investigations of chronic diseases.

  15. Spatial patterns of diabetes related health problems for vulnerable populations in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andrew J; Lee, Wei-An Andy

    2010-08-27

    Rates for Diabetes Mellitus continue to rise in most urban areas of the United States, with a disproportionate burden suffered by minorities and low income populations. This paper presents an approach that utilizes address level data to understand the geography of this disease by analyzing patients seeking diabetes care through an emergency department in a Los Angeles County hospital. The most vulnerable frequently use an emergency room as a common care access point, and such care is especially costly. A fine scale GIS analysis reveals hotspots of diabetes related health problems and provides output useful in a clinic setting. Indeed these results were used to support the work of a progressive diabetes clinic to guide management and intervention strategies. Hotspots of diabetes related health problems, including neurological and kidney issues were mapped for vulnerable populations in a central section of Los Angeles County. The resulting spatial grid of rates and significance were overlaid with new patient residential addresses attending an area clinic. In this way neighbourhood diabetes health characteristics are added to each patient's individual health record. Of the 29 patients, 4 were within statistically significant hotspots for at least one of the conditions being investigated. Although exploratory in nature, this approach demonstrates a novel method to conduct GIS based investigations of urban diabetes while providing support to a progressive diabetes clinic looking for novel means of managing and intervention. In so doing, this analysis adds to a relatively small literature on fine scale GIS facilitated diabetes research. Similar data should be available for most hospitals, and with due consideration for preserving spatial confidentiality, analysis outputs such as those presented here should become more commonly employed in other investigations of chronic diseases.

  16. Quaternary Tectonic Evolution of the Coastal Belt Southwest of Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R. G.

    2001-12-01

    Modern geologic hazards in the coastal belt southwest of Los Angeles Basin are intimately tied to its Quaternary tectonic evolution. Models describing tectonism during this period fall into at least three classes depending on what type of feature is showcased. 1.) Fold-and-thrust belt models feature blind thrusts, 2.) convergent-flake-tectonic models emphasize rigid upper-crustal blocks that interact above a mobile middle crust, and 3.) strike-slip models center on the interaction of blocks bounded by vertical faults with lateral offsets. High-resolution, multi-channel, seismic-reflection data, collected in a network of lines offshore, image numerous structures and tectonic features that have geometric characteristics that can be used to support each of the models, depending upon where one looks. Numerous folded uplifts and reverse faults are consistent with fold-and-thrust models. Some of the broad, deep basins might be best explained by convergent-flake tectonics. Complex vertical fault zones separating blocks with different seismic stratigraphy suggest strike-slip. In addition, large normal faults and deep fault-bounded basins are widespread, but are not explained well by any of the models. One aspect of local tectonic history, not considered by any models, is a major reversal of the regional physiography that occurred during the Quaternary. Los Angeles Basin (LAB), which is now sub aerial, was mid-bathyal in the Pliocene whereas Santa Monica and San Pedro (SM/SP) Basins, which are presently mid-bathyal, were shallow to sub aerial. The physiographic reversal resulted from a combination of folding and uplift in the Palos Verdes/Santa Monica areas, which impounded sediment causing LAB to fill, and extensional faulting and rapid subsidence nearby in SM/SP Basins. These seemingly opposed tectonic styles can be easily documented with seismic data, but these styles are thought to be incompatible in most models.

  17. 76 FR 43721 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ..., associated and unassociated funerary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony that were... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA... consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of...

  18. 77 FR 11571 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ..., and objects of cultural patrimony that were collected from Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Basketmaker... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA... consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of...

  19. Body Image of Dancers in Los Angeles: The Cult of Slenderness and Media Influence among Dance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiland, Teresa L.; Murray, Darrin S.; Edley, Paige P.

    2008-01-01

    Body image and self-esteem are examined through personal stories among Los Angeles college dancers who grew up in the Hollywood culture of the cult of slenderness. The study incorporates a body image survey, eating disorder screen, and an interview process capturing dancers' lived experiences with daily pressures. Dancers reveal their experiences…

  20. Factors That Contribute to Academic Success in Higher Education of Latino Males in the Los Angeles Community College District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marcellino J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This dissertation sought to find the most significant personal strategies and institutional support used by Latino males who successfully complete transfer requirements in the Los Angeles Community College District and determined what factors most contribute to Latino academic success. The study begins with a review of literature and…

  1. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  2. 33 CFR 167.500 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. 167.500 Section 167.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.500 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. The Traffic...

  3. Making Cultura Count inside and out of the Classroom: Public Art & Critical Pedagogy in South Central Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Luis-Genaro

    2012-01-01

    In this article, artist, educator, and activist Luis-Genaro Garcia describes the development and impact of the "May Day service learning project" on his advanced painting class in a high school in South Los Angeles. The project emerged from students' interests: their ideas, concerns for their community, socio-political consciousness, and…

  4. Plasma isoflavone levels versus self-reported soy isoflavone levels in Asian-American women in Los Angeles County

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chui-Chen; Twaddle, Nathan C; Doerge, Daniel R

    In a case-control study conducted among Asian-American women in Los Angeles County, we reported that the risk of breast cancer was significantly reduced in association with soy intake [Wu,A.H., Wan,P., Hankin,J. et al. (2002...

  5. Hate Crime in the 1980's: A Decade of Bigotry. A Report to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Bunny Nightwalker

    A report on hate-crimes in the 1980s in Los Angeles County (California) found that these acts had increased in number. Hate crimes are defined as criminal acts directed at an individual, institution, or business expressly because of race, ethnicity, religion, or sexual orientation. Over the period 1980 to 1989, religiously motivated hate crimes…

  6. Framing Peace as Violence: Television News Depictions of the 2007 Police Attack on Immigrant Rights Marchers in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Ana, Otto; Lopez, Layza; Munguia, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    This study examines two successive days of U.S. television news coverage of the May 1, 2007, immigration rights rally in Los Angeles. As thousands of demonstrators appealed peacefully for comprehensive immigration policy reform, they were assailed by 450 police officers firing munitions and using truncheons. We evaluated fifty-one television news…

  7. Repositioned Lives: Language, Ethnicity, and Narrative Identity among Chinese-Vietnamese Community College Students in Los Angeles' San Gabriel Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Russell Alan

    Chinese speakers from Vietnam are a distinctive but hidden ethnolinguistic minority group in the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles. Many variables present barriers to their full participation in society from both the values and norms of dominant American society and non-Chinese co-nationals from Vietnam as well as higher status co-ethnics…

  8. Portfolio District Reform Meets School Turnaround: Early Implementation Findings from the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie A.; Strunk, Katharine O.; Bush, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the popularity of school "turnaround" and "portfolio district" management as solutions to low performance, there has been limited research on these strategies. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the strategic case of Los Angeles Unified School District's Public School Choice…

  9. Source apportionment of ambient particle number concentrations in central Los Angeles using positive matrix factorization (PMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Sowlat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF receptor model (version 5.0 was used to identify and quantify major sources contributing to particulate matter (PM number concentrations, using PM number size distributions in the range of 13 nm to 10 µm combined with several auxiliary variables, including black carbon (BC, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC, PM mass concentrations, gaseous pollutants, meteorological, and traffic counts data, collected for about 9 months between August 2014 and 2015 in central Los Angeles, CA. Several parameters, including particle number and volume size distribution profiles, profiles of auxiliary variables, contributions of different factors in different seasons to the total number concentrations, diurnal variations of each of the resolved factors in the cold and warm phases, weekday/weekend analysis for each of the resolved factors, and correlation between auxiliary variables and the relative contribution of each of the resolved factors, were used to identify PM sources. A six-factor solution was identified as the optimum for the aforementioned input data. The resolved factors comprised nucleation, traffic 1, traffic 2 (with a larger mode diameter than traffic 1 factor, urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust. Traffic sources (1 and 2 were the major contributor to PM number concentrations, collectively making up to above 60 % (60.8–68.4 % of the total number concentrations during the study period. Their contribution was also significantly higher in the cold phase compared to the warm phase. Nucleation was another major factor significantly contributing to the total number concentrations (an overall contribution of 17 %, ranging from 11.7 to 24 %, with a larger contribution during the warm phase than in the cold phase. The other identified factors were urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust, with relative contributions of approximately 12

  10. Emission rates of particle number, mass and black carbon by the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and its impact on air quality in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirmohammadi, Farimah; Sowlat, Mohammad H.; Hasheminassab, Sina; Saffari, Arian; Ban-Weiss, George; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2017-02-01

    This study describes a series of air monitoring measurements of particle number (PN), black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 mass concentrations in the vicinity of the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) (roughly 150 m downwind of the LAX's south runways) as well as on-road measurements of the aforementioned pollutants using a mobile platform on three major freeways (i.e., I-110, I-105, and I-405) during May-July 2016. All measurements were performed in the "impact zone" of LAX with the predominant westerly winds from coast to inland. The overall impact of aircraft emissions from the LAX airport and its facilities in comparison to vehicular emissions from freeways on air quality was evaluated on a local scale (i.e. areas in the vicinity of the airport). PN concentration was, on average, 4.1 ± 1.2 times greater at the LAX site than on the studied freeways. Particle number emission factors for takeoffs and landings were comparable, with average values of 8.69 ×1015 particles/kg fuel and 8.16 ×1015 particles/kg fuel, respectively, and indicated a nearly 4-fold statistically significant reduction in PN emission factors for takeoffs during the past decade. BC emission factors were 0.12 ± 0.02 and 0.11 ± 0.01 g/kg fuel during takeoffs and landings, respectively. Additionally, the mean PM2.5 emission factor values for takeoffs and landings were also comparable, with values of 0.38 ± 0.04 and 0.40 ± 0.05 g/kg fuel, respectively. Within the impact zone of the airport, an area of roughly 100 km2 downwind of the LAX, measurements indicated that the LAX daily contributions to PN, BC, and PM2.5 were approximately 11, 2.5, and 1.4 times greater than those from the three surrounding freeways. These results underscore the significance of the LAX airport as a major source of pollution within its zone of impact comparing to freeway emissions.

  11. Mechanical Analysis of Fault Interaction in the Puente Hills Region, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W. A.; Cooke, M.

    2002-12-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Puente Hills thrust system (PHT) and the Whittier fault has been constructed using published cross sections, surface trace maps [Shaw (1999); Shaw and Suppe (1996); Wright (1991)] and products of the Southern California Earthquake Center. This study utilizes boundary element method models to validate the proposed fault geometry of the Puente Hills region via investigating fault interaction. The interaction between PHT and Whittier faults is evaluated within an elastic half-space under horizontal contraction and evidenced by slip rates on faults, strain energy density (SED), and Navier-Coulomb stress (NC) throughout the host rock. Modeled slip rates are compared to paleoseismic estimates to validate the proposed fault configuration while maps of SED and NC highlight regions of high strain in the host rock and likely faulting. Subsequently, the sensitivity of SED and NC distribution to changes in fault geometry illuminate the nature of fault interaction within this complex system of interacting faults. We explore interaction of faults within the PHT region using two sets of models. The first examines slip rates and SED and NC distribution within a local model of the PHT region while the second set incorporates the PHT faults within the context of the Los Angeles basin. Both sets explore the response of the fault system to systematic addition of faults. Adding faults within regions of high SED and NC does not influence slip on neighboring faults; however the addition of fault surfaces in regions of low/moderate SED and NC reduces slip along adjacent faults. The sensitivity of fault slip rates to direction of remote contraction in the Los Angeles Basin is examined with contraction directions of 036, 017, and 006.5 [Bawden (2001), Argus (1999), and Feigl (1993)]. Furthermore, variations on intersection geometry between the PHT and Whittier fault are explored. Portions of the PHT and Whittier faults show reasonable match to available

  12. Development of urban water consumption models for the City of Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mini, C.; Hogue, T. S.; Pincetl, S.

    2011-12-01

    Population growth and rapid urbanization coupled with uncertain climate change are causing new challenges for meeting urban water needs. In arid and semi-arid regions, increasing drought periods and decreasing precipitation have led to water supply shortages and cities are struggling with trade-offs between the water needs of growing urban populations and the well-being of urban ecosystems. The goal of the current research is to build models that can represent urban water use patterns in semi-arid cities by identifying the determinants that control both total and outdoor residential water use over the Los Angeles urban domain. The initial database contains monthly water use records aggregated to the zip code level collected from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) from 2000 to 2010. Residential water use was normalized per capita and was correlated with socio-demographic, economic, climatic and vegetation characteristics across the City for the 2000-2010 period. Results show that ethnicity, per capita income, and the average number of persons per household are linearly related to total water use per capita. Inter-annual differences in precipitation and implementation of conservation measures affect water use levels across the City. The high variability in water use patterns across the City also appears strongly influenced by income and education levels. The temporal analysis of vegetation indices in the studied neighborhoods shows little correlation between precipitation patterns and vegetation greenness. Urban vegetation appears well-watered, presenting the same greenness activity over the study period despite an overall decrease in water use across the City. We hypothesize that over-watering is occurring and that outdoor water use represents a significant part of the residential water budget in various regions of the City. A multiple regression model has been developed that integrates these fundamental controlling factors to simulate residential

  13. The Impact of Two Los Angeles County Teen Courts on Youth Recidivism: Comparing Two Informal Probation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Lai, Elaine; Stoll, Michael A; Ponce, Ninez

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of two Teen Courts operating in Los Angeles County, a juvenile justice system diversion program in which youth are judged by their peers and given restorative sentences to complete during a period of supervision. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare youth who participated in Teen Court (n=112) to youth who participated in another diversion program administered by the Probation Department (the 654 Contract program) (n=194). Administrative data were abstracted from Probation records for all youth who participated in these programs between January 1, 2012 and June 20, 2014. Logistic and survival models were used to examine differences in recidivism - measured as whether the minor had any subsequent arrest or arrests for which the charge was filed. Comparison group participants had higher rates of recidivism than Teen Court participants, after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and risk level. While the magnitude of the program effects were fairly consistent across model specifications (odd ratios comparing Teen Court [referent] to school-based 654 Contract ranging from 1.95 to 3.07, hazard ratios ranging from 1.62 to 2.27), differences were not statistically significant in all scenarios. While this study provides modest support for the positive impact of Teen Court, additional research is needed to better understand how juvenile diversion programs can improve youth outcomes.

  14. The Impact of Two Los Angeles County Teen Courts on Youth Recidivism: Comparing Two Informal Probation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Lai, Elaine; Stoll, Michael A; Ponce, Ninez

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study sought to examine the impact of two Teen Courts operating in Los Angeles County, a juvenile justice system diversion program in which youth are judged by their peers and given restorative sentences to complete during a period of supervision. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to compare youth who participated in Teen Court (n=112) to youth who participated in another diversion program administered by the Probation Department (the 654 Contract program) (n=194). Administrative data were abstracted from Probation records for all youth who participated in these programs between January 1, 2012 and June 20, 2014. Logistic and survival models were used to examine differences in recidivism - measured as whether the minor had any subsequent arrest or arrests for which the charge was filed. Results Comparison group participants had higher rates of recidivism than Teen Court participants, after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and risk level. While the magnitude of the program effects were fairly consistent across model specifications (odd ratios comparing Teen Court [referent] to school-based 654 Contract ranging from 1.95 to 3.07, hazard ratios ranging from 1.62 to 2.27), differences were not statistically significant in all scenarios. Conclusions While this study provides modest support for the positive impact of Teen Court, additional research is needed to better understand how juvenile diversion programs can improve youth outcomes. PMID:27547171

  15. Geological, hydrological, and biological issues related to the proposed development of a park at the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Trenham, Peter C.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Reichard, Eric G.; Tinsley, John C.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Meyer, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    A new park is being considered for the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco in Los Angeles County, California. Components of the park development may include creation of a temporary lake on the Los Angeles River, removal of channel lining along part of the Arroyo Seco, restoration of native plants, creation of walking paths, and building of facilities such as a boat ramp and a visitor center. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Mountains Recreation and Conservancy Authority, delineates the geological, hydrological, and biological issues that may have an impact on the park development or result from development at the confluence, and identifies a set a tasks to help address these science issues. Geologic issues of concern relate to surface faulting, earthquake ground motions, liquefaction, landsliding, and induced seismicity. Hydrologic issues of concern relate to the hydraulics and water quality of both surface water and ground water. Biological issues of concern include colonization-extinction dynamics, wildlife corridors, wildlife reintroduction, non-native species, ecotoxicology, and restoration of local habitat and ecology. Potential tasks include (1) basic data collection and follow-up monitoring, and (2) statistical and probabilistic analyses and simulation modeling of the seismic, hydraulic, and ecological processes that may have the greatest impact on the park. The science issues and associated tasks delineated for the proposed confluence park will also have transfer value for river restoration in other urban settings.

  16. Effects of air pollution exposure on glucose metabolism in Los Angeles minority children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Corral, C M; Alderete, T L; Habre, R; Berhane, K; Lurmann, F W; Weigensberg, M J; Goran, M I; Gilliland, F D

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO 2 , PM 2.5 and O 3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children. Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes. AAP and TRAP exposure were associated with adverse effects on glucose metabolism independent of body fat percent. PM 2.5 was associated with 25.0% higher fasting insulin (p glucose (p = 0.001) and 1.7% higher fasting glucose (p glucose (p = 0.003) and 0.7% higher fasting glucose (p = 0.047). Elevated air pollution exposure was associated with a metabolic profile that is characteristic of increased risk for type 2 diabetes. These results indicate that increased prior year exposure to air pollution may adversely affect type 2 diabetes-related pathophysiology in overweight and obese minority children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Macroseepage of Methane and Light Alkanes at the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doezema, L. A.; Weber, D.; Schuffels, S.; Marquez, A.; Taylor, C.; Raya, P.; Howard, D.; Contreras, P.; Fusco, K.; Morales, F.; Nwachuku, I.

    2015-12-01

    Natural seepage of methane has been theorized to be an underreported source of global methane. Recent studies have also suggested that light alkane flux that is given off in combination with the methane also is underreported in local and global budgets. This study investigated macroseepage, visible seepage, at the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA. More than 100 samples were collected from individual seeps using stainless steel flux chambers and canisters and were analyzed for methane and C2-C5 alkanes using gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID). Maximum hourly fluxes from individual seeps were over 70 g of methane and over 720 mg, 670 mg, 200 mg, 20 mg, 14 mg, and 0.2 mg for ethane, propane, i-butane, n-butane, i-pentane, and n-pentane respectively. In addition to the active seepage sites, a significant amount of methane and light alkanes was also found to come from outgassing from standing tar deposits. Using gas ratios found in this study along with overall methane emission estimates from another recent study, the La Brea Tar Pits were found to be a significant source of light alkanes in the South Coast Air Basin, contributing approximately 2% towards the overall budget.

  18. SPATIOTEMPORAL PATTERNS AND SOCIOECONOMIC DIMENSIONS OF SHARED ACCOMMODATIONS: THE CASE OF AIRBNB IN LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, disruptive innovation by peer-to-peer platforms in a variety of industries, notably transportation and hospitality have altered the way individuals consume everyday essential services. With growth in sharing economy platforms such as Uber for ridesharing and Airbnb for short-term accommodations, interest in examining spatiotemporal patterns of participation in the sharing economy by suppliers and consumers is increasing. This research is motivated by key questions: who are the sharing economy workers, where are they located, and does their location influence their participation in the sharing economy? This paper is the first systematic effort to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of participation by hosts in the shared accommodation-based economy. Using three different kinds of shared accommodations listed in a 3-year period in the popular short-term accommodation platform, Airbnb, we examine spatiotemporal dimensions of host participation in a major U.S. market, Los Angeles CA. The paper also develops a conceptual model by positing associations of demographic, socioeconomic, occupational, and social capital attributes of hosts, along with their attitudes toward trust and greener consumption with hosts’ participation in a shared accommodation market. Results confirm host participation to be influenced by young dependency ratio, the potential of supplemental income, as well as the sustainability potential of collaborative consumption, along with finance, insurance, and real estate occupation, but not so much by trust for our overall study area. These results add new insights to limited prior knowledge about the sharing economy worker and have policy implications.

  19. Toward a nitrous oxide budget for a global megacity: Los Angeles, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend-Small, A.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrous oxide is a powerful greenhouse gas (nearly 300 times as powerful as carbon dioxide) and one of the major anthropogenic ozone depleting chemicals in the atmosphere. The strong global warming potential makes it a good target for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. But although the major anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide globally is from fertilized agricultural soils, only a very few studies have attempted a regional nitrous oxide budget. Here we present a synthesis of several recent efforts to constrain nitrous oxide emissions from terrestrial soils, wastewater treatment plants, and the coastal ocean in the Los Angeles, California metro area, home to ~13 million residents. Landscaped soils such as lawns and athletic fields emit nitrous oxide at approximately the same rate as agricultural soils in the region, ~ 200 mg N m-2 yr-1. Wastewater recycling to conserve water resources in this arid region emits nitrous oxide at rates about 3 times higher than traditional carbon oxidation of wastewater, making water reclamation the dominant anthropogenic source in the region. However, we also estimated efflux of nitrous oxide from the coastal ocean using surface concentrations and estimates of wind-driven mixing, and we found that marine emissions may be up to 10 times higher than anthropogenic sources. We also measured stable isotopic composition (N-15 and O-18) of nitrous oxide from all of these sources, and we will present the implications of these and our emission rate data for top-down monitoring of regional nitrous oxide sources.

  20. On-demand therapy for Los Angeles grade A and B reflux esophagitis: esomeprazole versus omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ai-Wen; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Chang, Ye-Mei; Huang, Shu-Feng; Chuang, Chiao-Hsiung; Lai, Yung-Ling; Kao, Yeh-Heuy

    2003-09-01

    Reflux esophagitis of Los Angeles grade A or B is more common than grades C and D disease among Taiwanese. This study compared the efficacy of esomeprazole 40 mg and omeprazole 20 mg for starting on-demand therapy for grade A and B reflux esophagitis. 100 patients with grade A and B reflux esophagitis were randomized to receive either esomeprazole 40 mg once daily (n = 50) or omeprazole 20 mg once daily (n = 50) for the first 4 weeks. Sustained symptomatic response (SSR) was defined as freedom from symptoms for the last 7 days of the 4-week treatment duration. On-demand therapy was used for the next 4 weeks in patients with SSR; patients without SSR continued with the same proton pump inhibitor regimen. Patients were asked to record their daily severity of acid regurgitation (AR) and heartburn (HB). Medication usage during on-demand therapy was recorded. Forty six patients in the esomeprazole group and 45 patients in the omeprazole group completed the study protocol. The rate of SSR was higher in the esomeprazole group than in the omeprazole group (per-protocol: 73.9% vs 51.1%, p omeprazole. For patients starting on-demand therapy, the total number of tablets used during 4 weeks was lower in the esomeprazole group than in the omeprazole group (13.5 vs 18.5, p omeprazole 20 mg for the initiation of on-demand therapy.

  1. Protocols for Late Maxillary Protraction in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Stephen L-K

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the protocols used at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) to protract the maxilla during early adolescence. It is a modification of techniques introduced by Eric Liou with his Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (ALT-RAMEC) technique. The main differences between the CHLA protocol and previous maxillary protraction protocols are the age the protraction is attempted, the sutural loosening by alternating weekly expansion with constriction and the use of Class III elastics to support and redirect the protraction by nightly facemask wear. The CHLA protocol entirely depends on patient compliance and must be carefully taught and monitored. In a cooperative patient, the technique can correct a Class III malocclusion that previously would have been treated with LeFort 1 maxillary advancement surgery. Thus, it is not appropriate for patients requiring 2 jaw surgeries to correct mandibular prognathism, occlusal cants or facial asymmetry. The maxillary protraction appears to work by a combination of skeletal advancement, dental compensation and rotation of the occlusal planes. Microscrew/microimplant/temporary anchorage devices have been used with these maxillary protraction protocols to assist in expanding the maxilla, increasing skeletal anchorage during protraction, limiting dental compensations and reducing skeletal relapse. PMID:21765629

  2. HIV Testing Preferences Among MSM Members of an LGBT Community Organization in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medline, Alexandra; Daniels, Joseph; Marlin, Robert; Young, Sean; Wilson, Greg; Huang, Emily; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    Lack of regular HIV testing puts African American, Asian, and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) at high risk for HIV infection. Rapid self-testing may be an effective option for these men. We explored acceptability, preferences, and usability of HIV self-test kits with MSM of color using semi-structured focus groups to discuss HIV testing history, reasons for testing, and self-testing preferences. Participants (n = 21) lived in Los Angeles, identified as MSM of color, and were 18-35 years of age. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Participants expressed needs for (a) accessibility, (b) privacy, (c) local support, and (d) access to testing professionals. Self-testing for HIV infection may be an effective method for high-risk MSM. Effective self-testing programs need to consider accessibility, confidentiality, and support to increase routine testing. Community-based organizations have an opportunity to increase HIV testing for MSM of color. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  4. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  5. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2012, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions were held for the first time in Los Angeles in 2012, with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science in the field presented and heard by physicians, research scientists, students, and paramedical personnel from 100 countries. Japan accounted for the second highest number of submitted abstracts and the Japanese Circulation Society actively contributed to the success of the AHA Scientific Sessions this year. The Late-Breaking Clinical Trial sessions comprised 27 clinical studies presented in the main hall. The FREEDOM study revealed the superiority of using a coronary artery bypass graft for diabetic multivessel coronary artery diseases over percutaneous coronary intervention using a drug-eluting stent. A new peptide hormone, serelaxin, improved dyspnea in heart failure patients and significantly reduced mortality rates according to the RELAX-AHF study. In the basic sciences, primary necrosis in mitochondria was the hot topic, while genetics, including genome-wide association studies, and epigenetics were strong features of the basic and clinical cardiovascular (CV) science. It was also clear that regenerative medicine is now part of mainstream CV research, with several clinical trials underway and many basic research projects ongoing around the world. Induced pluripotent stem cells in particular have the potential to change CV medicine, and will underpin the next era of regenerative medicine and personal therapies for heart diseases.

  6. Hurdles or walls? Nativity, citizenship, legal status and Latino homeownership in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Eileen Díaz

    2015-09-01

    Homeownership is directly and indirectly linked with many positive child, adult, and community-level outcomes. Prior research offers strong evidence that nativity and immigrants' citizenship status shapes U.S. homeownership, but relatively little work has explored how immigrants' legal status is connected with homeownership. This study draws from locational attainment and classic assimilation theories to develop hypotheses about sources of intra-Latino heterogeneity in homeownership. Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data are used to contrast four distinct groups of Latinos: U.S. born natives, naturalized citizens, authorized non-citizens, and unauthorized non-citizens. Logistic regression results indicate baseline and residual variation in Latino homeownership based on immigrant citizenship and legal status. Of these, unauthorized non-citizens are the least likely to own their home. The results provide support for all three theoretical models, particularly the place stratification perspective. The results also point to the need for more housing studies that jointly examine citizenship and legal status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Place over traits? Purchasing edibles from medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepple, Nancy Jo; Freisthler, Bridget

    2017-10-01

    To examine discrete purchasing behaviors of marijuana-infused edibles from medical marijuana dispensaries with the aim to identify potential venue- and individual-level targets for prevention. Two-stage, venue-based sampling approach was used to randomly select patrons exiting 16 medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles, California during Spring 2013. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling was used to examine the likelihood of purchasing edibles among 524 patrons reporting a discrete purchase regressed on characteristics of the sampled dispensaries and their patrons. At a venue level, patrons were more likely to purchase edibles from dispensaries located within Census tracts with higher median incomes or in close proximity to a higher number of dispensaries. At an individual level, patrons who identified as Black or Hispanic were associated with a lower likelihood of purchasing edibles when compared to patrons who identified as other non-White, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. Place-based policies focused on regulating edible sales through dispensaries may be fruitful in influencing access to edibles. Additionally, social marketing campaigns may benefit from targeting both locations where edible purchases are more likely and populations who are more likely to purchase edibles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Multi-Disciplinary Finite Element Method Analysis Courses at California State University, Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, John; Wu, Chivey

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Partnership Awards Grant to California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA) has two primary goals that help to achieve NASA objectives. The overall objectives of the NASA Partnership Awards are to create opportunities for joint University NASA/Government sponsored research and related activities. One of the goals of the grant is to have university faculty researchers participate and contribute to the development of NASA technology that supports NASA goals for research and development (R&D) in Aeronautics and Astronautics. The other goal is technology transfer in the other direction, where NASA developed technology is made available to the general public and more specifically, targeted to industries that can profit from utilization of government developed technology. This years NASA Dryden Partnership Awards grant to CSULA entitled, "Computer Simulation of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering Systems", has two major tasks that satisfy overall NASA objectives. The first task conducts basic and applied research that contributes to technology development at the Dryden Flight Research Center. The second part of the grant provides for dissemination of NASA developed technology, by using the teaching environment created in the CSULA classroom. The second task and how this is accomplished is the topic of this paper. The NASA STARS (Structural Analysis Routines) computer simulation program is used at the Dryden center to support flight testing of high-performance experimental aircraft and to conduct research and development of new and advanced Aerospace technology.

  9. Climatic consequences of adopting drought tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Vahmani, P.

    2016-12-01

    During 2012-2014, drought in California resulted in policies to reduce water consumption. One measure pursued was replacing lawns with landscapes that minimize water consumption, such as drought tolerant vegetation. If implemented at broad scale, this strategy would result in reductions in irrigation, and changes in land surface characteristics. In this study, we employ a modified regional climate model to assess the climatic consequences of adopting drought tolerant vegetation over the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Transforming lawns to drought tolerant vegetation resulted in daytime warming of up to 1.9°C, largely due to decreases in irrigation that shifted surface energy partitioning toward higher sensible and lower latent heat flux. During nighttime, however, adopting drought tolerant vegetation caused mean cooling of about 3°C, due to changes in soil thermodynamic properties and heat exchange dynamics between the surface and ground. Our results show that nocturnal cooling effects, which are larger in magnitude and of great importance for public health during heat events, could counterbalance the daytime warming attributed to the studied water conservation strategy. A more aggressive implementation, assuming all urban vegetation was replaced with drought tolerant vegetation, resulted in an average daytime cooling of 0.2°C, largely due to weakened sea-breeze patterns, highlighting the important role of land surface roughness in this coastal megacity.

  10. Asthma and air pollution in the Los Angeles area. Technical report No. 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittemore, A S; Korn, E L

    1980-03-01

    Daily asthma attack diaries of sixteen panels of asthmatics residing in the Los Angeles area were collected by the Environmental Protection Agency for 34 week periods during the years 1972 to 1975. These data are examined here for the relationship between daily attack occurrence and daily levels of photochemical oxidant, total suspended particulates, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and average wind speed. A separate multiple logistic regression is used for each panelist's attack data. Variables representing the presence or absence of attack on the preceding day, as well as day of week and time since the start of the study, are included in the regressions. The most significant predictor of attacks was the presence of an attack on the preceding day. On the average, the panelists tended to have increased attacks on days with high oxidant and particulate pollution, on cool days, and during the first two months of the study. Panelists' attack propensity also differed by day of week; in particular they had more attacks on Saturdays (the last day of the weekly reporting period) than on Sundays. Each panelist's regression coefficients are classified according to his age, sex, hay fever status and self-assessed attack precursors; this classification is used to examine subgroups among the panelists with high coefficients corresponding to the above factors.

  11. Solar envelope zoning: application to the city planning process. Los Angeles case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Solar envelope zoning represents a promising approach to solar access protection. A solar envelope defines the volume within which a building will not shade adjacent lots or buildings. Other solar access protection techniques, such as privately negotiated easements, continue to be tested and implemented but none offer the degree of comprehensiveness evident in this approach. Here, the City of Los Angeles, through the Mayor's Energy Office, the City Planning Department, and the City Attorney's Office, examine the feasibility of translating the concept of solar envelopes into zoning techniques. They concluded that envelope zoning is a fair and consistent method of guaranteeing solar access, but problems of complexity and uncertainty may limit its usefulness. Envelope zoning may be inappropriate for the development of high density centers and for more restrictive community plans. Aids or tools to administer envelope zoning need to be developed. Finally, some combination of approaches, including publicly recorded easements, subdivision approval and envelope zoning, need to be adopted to encourage solar use in cities. (MHR)

  12. Health status, job stress and work-related injury among Los Angeles taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.

  13. Fuel cell-hybrid switch locomotive for Los Angeles : test results (part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.R.; Hess, K.S.; Erickson, T.L.; Dippo, J.L. [Vehicle Projects LLC, Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described the development of a prototype fuel cell-powered shunt locomotive for urban rail use. The prototype was funded by a public-private partnership involving the BNSF Railway Company and the United States Department of Defense in an effort to reduce air pollution in urban railyards; increase energy security of the rail transport system by using hydrogen as fuel; reduce atmospheric greenhouse-gas emissions; and serve as a mobile backup power source for critical infrastructure on military bases. Railyard demonstrations were performed at the Commerce and Hobart railyards in the Los Angeles metro area. The hybrid locomotive is the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle built today. It weighs 127 tonnes and gets continuous net power of 250 kW from its PEM fuel cell prime mover. Its transient power is well in excess of 1 MW. Its fourteen carbon-fiber composite compressed-hydrogen storage tanks, located at the roofline, have a combined storage of 70 kg at 350 bar. The system provides fuel for a rigorous 8-10 hour shunt-locomotive duty cycle. This paper focused on test results for this locomotive which was scheduled for completion by the end of 2008.

  14. Risk patterns of multiple myeloma in Los Angeles County, 1972-1999 (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Bernstein, Leslie; Wang, Yaping; Cozen, Wendy

    2006-09-01

    To describe the risk patterns of multiple myeloma in Los Angeles County (LAC). Incident multiple myeloma cases diagnosed from 1972 to 1999 were ascertained by the population-based cancer registry for LAC. Average annual age-specific and age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR), standardized to the 2000 US census age distribution, were calculated using age-, race-, sex- and socioeconomic status (SES)-specific denominators estimated for all years from US census data for 1970, 1980 and 1990. Odds ratios (ORs) for risk by birthplace and religion were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, comparing multiple myeloma patients with other cancer patients. All groups experienced increasing incidence with age; African-Americans experienced the steepest increase which began a decade earlier compared to other groups. Overall incidence rates were 50% higher among males (n = 4,692) than females (n = 4,343) (p AAIRs were highest for African-Americans, followed by Spanish-surnamed whites (SSW), non-Spanish-surnamed whites (NSSW), Filipinos and other Asian groups. Among African-Americans, incidence rates increased with increasing SES. US-born SSW had 14% lower risk compared to non-US born SSW (OR = 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74-0.99]. Jews had an 11% higher risk compared to Protestants (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.99-1.24). Risk patterns suggest a role for both environmental and genetic factors.

  15. Spatiotemporal Patterns and Socioeconomic Dimensions of Shared Accommodations: the Case of Airbnb in LOS Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.; Koohikamali, M.; Pick, J. B.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, disruptive innovation by peer-to-peer platforms in a variety of industries, notably transportation and hospitality have altered the way individuals consume everyday essential services. With growth in sharing economy platforms such as Uber for ridesharing and Airbnb for short-term accommodations, interest in examining spatiotemporal patterns of participation in the sharing economy by suppliers and consumers is increasing. This research is motivated by key questions: who are the sharing economy workers, where are they located, and does their location influence their participation in the sharing economy? This paper is the first systematic effort to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of participation by hosts in the shared accommodation-based economy. Using three different kinds of shared accommodations listed in a 3-year period in the popular short-term accommodation platform, Airbnb, we examine spatiotemporal dimensions of host participation in a major U.S. market, Los Angeles CA. The paper also develops a conceptual model by positing associations of demographic, socioeconomic, occupational, and social capital attributes of hosts, along with their attitudes toward trust and greener consumption with hosts' participation in a shared accommodation market. Results confirm host participation to be influenced by young dependency ratio, the potential of supplemental income, as well as the sustainability potential of collaborative consumption, along with finance, insurance, and real estate occupation, but not so much by trust for our overall study area. These results add new insights to limited prior knowledge about the sharing economy worker and have policy implications.

  16. Understanding Transitions Toward Sustainable Urban Water Management: Miami, Las Vegas, Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.; Manago, K. F.; Treuer, G.; Deslatte, A.; Koebele, E.; Ernst, K.

    2016-12-01

    Cities in the United States face numerous threats to their long-term water supplies including preserving ecosystems, competing uses, and climate change. Yet, it is unclear why only some cities have transitioned toward more sustainable water management. These transitions include strategies such as water conservation, water supply portfolio diversification, long-term planning, and integrated resource management. While the circumstances that motivate or moderate transition may vary greatly across cities' physical and institutional contexts, identifying common factors associated with transition can help resource managers capitalize on windows of opportunity for change. To begin the process of identifying such factors, we ask two questions: 1) what combinations of conditions are associated with water management transitions?, and 2) what are the outcomes of these transitions? We examine three cases of utility-level water management in Miami, Las Vegas, and Los Angeles to create data-driven narratives detailing each city's transition. These narratives systematically synthesize multiple data sources to enable cross-case comparison and provide insights into how and why cities transition. Using the foundational concepts from the exposure-based theory of urban change, we focus our analysis on three broad categories of variables that influence urban water management transition: biophysical, political, and regulatory exposures. First, we compare these factors across time and across cities using metrics that standardize diverse data sources. Next, we incorporate qualitative factors that capture a city's unique conditions by integrating these metrics with salient contextual information. Then, through cross-city comparison, we identify factors associated with transition.

  17. The "sugar pack" health marketing campaign in Los Angeles County, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel C; Noller, Ali J; Robles, Brenda; Gase, Lauren N; Leighs, Michael S; Bogert, Suzanne; Simon, Paul A; Kuo, Tony

    2014-03-01

    As part of a comprehensive approach to combating the obesity epidemic, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched the "Sugar Pack" health marketing campaign in fall 2011. Carried out in three stages, the campaign sought to educate and motivate the public to reduce excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. The primary Sugar Pack creative concepts provided consumers with information about the number of sugar packs contained in sugary drinks. Data from formative market research as well as lessons from previous campaigns in other U.S. jurisdictions informed the development of the materials. These materials were disseminated through a multipronged platform that included paid outdoor media on transit and billboards and messaging using social media (i.e., Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and sendable e-cards). Initial findings from a postcampaign assessment indicate that the Sugar Pack campaign reached broadly into targeted communities, resulting in more than 515 million impressions. Lessons learned from the campaign suggest that employing health marketing to engage the public can lead to increased knowledge, favorable recognition of health messages, and self-reported intention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, potentially complementing other obesity prevention strategies in the field.

  18. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    abundant tritium (greater than 8 tritium units) is found in and downgradient from the Montebello Forebay and near the seawater barrier projects, indicating recent recharge. Water with less than measurable tritium is present in, and downgradient from, the Los Angeles Forebay and in most wells in the West Coast Basin. Water from several deep wells was analyzed for carbon-14. Uncorrected estimates of age for these samples range from 600 to more than 20,000 years before present. Chemical and isotopic data are combined to evaluate changes in chemical character along flow paths emanating from the Montebello and Los Angeles Forebays. A four-layer ground-water flow model was developed to simulate steady-state ground-water conditions representative of those in 1971 and transient conditions for the period 1971?2000. Model results indicate increases in ground-water storage in all parts of the study area over the simulated thirty-year period. The model was used to develop a three-dimensional ground-water budget and to assess impacts of two alternative future (2001?25) ground-water development scenarios?one that assumes continued pumping at average current rates and a second that assumes increasing pumping from most wells in the Central Basin. The model simulates stable or slightly increasing water levels for the first scenario and declining water levels (25 to 50 ft in the Central Basin) in the second scenario. Model sensitivity to parameter values and to the assumed Orange County boundary condition was evaluated. Particle tracking was applied to simulate advective transport of water from the spreading ponds, the coastline, and the seawater injection barriers. Particle tracking results indicate that most flow within the Upper San Pedro aquifer system occurs within about 20 percent of the total aquifer system thickness and that virtually all water injected into the seawater barrier projects has flowed inland. The simulation model was linked with optimizatio

  19. Climatic influences on the spatial distribution of ecosystem services and costs in the Los Angeles urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, H. R.; Pataki, D. E.; Weller, L. T.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2010-12-01

    The spatial distribution of urban ecosystem services (e.g. shading, flowering or provision of food) and costs (such as irrigation) is dependent in part on the biogeography of the species and plant communities of interest. In natural ecosystems, the distribution of plant species and functional types is in large part limited by climatic conditions and the ability of plants to disperse. However, in urban ecosystems many species are planted, and their distribution may depend largely on social factors such as income and neighborhood age. The importance of climatic gradients in these settings is unknown. In order to understand the factors that affect the distribution of urban trees with different functional traits and ecosystem services, urban forest inventories were conducted on >350 plots within the city of Los Angeles. Los Angeles is a city with extreme socioeconomic diversity and a complex history of urban development patterns, as well as a sharp climatic gradient largely influenced by proximity to the coast. Thus, the plots covered a range of neighborhood ages, household incomes, and climates. We found that more moderate climate zones (generally closer to the coast) had a higher proportion of evergreen species and flowering species than warmer, more inland areas. In general, we have found that many of these flowering species have relatively low water use efficiency. In contrast, the distribution of fruiting trees seemed largely related to land use history in this area: the proportion of fruiting trees was highest in areas formerly used for citrus production. There was also a slight trend towards a higher proportion of high water using species in inland areas. This pattern could result in significant water costs, as the combination of intrinsically high water use and high atmospheric demand will compound urban forest water loss in inland areas. Although environmental drivers can be difficult to disentangle from social drivers, our results thus far suggest that

  20. Determination of a Holocene Slip Rate on the Puente Hills Blind-Thrust Fault, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, S. A.; Dolan, J. F.; Shaw, J. H.; Pratt, T. L.

    2001-12-01

    Paleoseismologic observations of slip histories and slip rates of faults that break the surface are available at an ever-increasing rate, but the nature of blind-thrust faults has kept paleoearthquake information on these faults out of reach. The complex network of blind thrust faults beneath the Los Angeles metropolitan region includes the Puente Hills thrust fault (PHT), which extends southeastward for >35 km from beneath downtown Los Angeles into northern Orange County. This thrust is active, as demonstrated by the occurrence of the 1987 Mw 6.0 Whittier Narrows earthquake (Shaw and Shearer 1999). Despite our awareness of the hazard posed by this fault, we do not know its current slip rate or its earthquake history prior to the 1987 event. To determine these critical data, we have begun a two-phase project in which we will acquire high-resolution seismic reflection data and excavate paleoseismologic boreholes and trenches across the zone of active folding associated with major earthquakes on the PHT. We have acquired high-resolution seismic reflection profiles along two transects across the zone of active folding. In our eastern most profile, along Trojan Way in La Mirada, the seismic reflection data show that the locus of active folding extends to 1.5- 2-m-thick reddish-brown argillic horizon. This soil indicates that the geomorphic surface atop the scarp is late Pleistocene in age. The 9 m height of the scarp provides a minimum estimate of total structural relief since stabilization of the ground surface. These observations yield an approximate uplift rate on the order of a few tenths of a mm/yr. Assuming simple hangingwall block translation and given the 19° -22° N dip of the PHT beneath the site, we calculate a minimum average late Pleistocene-Recent dip-slip rate of \\sim 0.2 to 1.1 mm/yr. This slip-rate range is based on our crude age estimates of the late Pleistocene soil. 14C dating of detrital charcoal recovered from the borehole will allow us to

  1. Evaluating the Change in Medical Marijuana Dispensary Locations in Los Angeles Following the Passage of Local Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Crystal; Freisthler, Bridget

    2017-06-01

    In May 2013, Los Angeles voters approved Proposition D, a regulatory measure that set zoning restrictions and capped the number of dispensaries at those that opened before 2007. Specifically, Proposition D stated that only 135 dispensaries were allowed to be in operation and set zoning restrictions prohibiting dispensaries from operating in certain areas. We first assessed whether the legislation changed the physical availability of medical marijuana via dispensaries in Los Angeles. We then used two data points 1 year prior to and 1 year following the implementation of Proposition D to determine if the locations of where the dispensaries are located changed after the enactment of Proposition D. Using a cross-sectional, ecological design, we investigated the change in dispensaries from 2012 to 2014 for Census tracts within the city of Los Angeles (N = 1000). We analyzed data using spatial error regression models that included controls for spatial autocorrelation due to the spatial structure of the data. We found that while the total number of dispensaries in Los Angeles remained largely unchanged, the spatial distribution of dispensaries did change in meaningful ways. Census tracts with more dispensaries in 2014 were significantly and positively associated with the proportion of African American residents and negatively associated with the percent of area that was commercially zoned. In other words, dispensaries opened in areas with a higher proportion of Black residents and closed in Census tract areas that had a higher percentage of commercially zoned land. Findings from this study highlight the importance of continuously regulating dispensary locations. Results suggest that likely as a result of changing regulations, dispensaries may be attempting to conceal their presence and locate in areas that will not advocate against their presence.

  2. The Association between Nutrition Facts Label Utilization and Comprehension among Latinos in TwoEast Los Angeles Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, MZ; Rizzo, S.; Prelip, ML; Glik, DC; Belin, TR; Langellier, BA; Kuo, AA; Garza, JR; Ortega, AN

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Background: The Nutrition Facts label can facilitate healthy dietary practices. There is a dearth of research on Latinos' utilization and comprehension of the Nutrition Facts label. Objective: To measure use and comprehension of the Nutrition Facts label and to identify correlates among Latinos in East Los Angeles, CA. Design: Cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey using computer-assisted personal interview software, conducted in either Eng...

  3. Transitioning from a Sanitary City to a Sustainable City: Drivers and Dynamics in the City of Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Pincetl, S.

    2011-12-01

    With more than half of the world's population living in cities the decisions made in urban areas are critical for the sustainability of water resources. In the past, cities have been designed to efficiently use, clean, and dispose of water. This model is being challenged due to its effects on ecosystems and communities and its inability to adapt to changing circumstances. The aim of our research is to describe the mechanisms behind Los Angeles's transition from a monolithic water importing city to a city committed to local water resource development, conservation and regional collaboration. The paper argues this transition is the result of a "double exposure" of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), the major water supplier for the city. The first exposure is the increasing vulnerability and unreliability of its water imports due to environmental regulation and litigation. The second exposure is the increasing political integration and interdependence of LADWP with local government and interest groups due to institutional changes and rising environmental awareness in the city. These exposures and their effects are traced from the late 1970s to the present using interviews, government documents, and media accounts. The transition in Los Angeles is well underway but limited revenue and complex governance arrangements are barriers to greater change. The results from the Los Angeles case may provide insights for these cities and provide testable propositions for research on this topic in other places and sectors. Overall, we conclude that internal and external exposures can drive transitions in urban development, improving our understanding of when and how cities adopt more sustainable forms.

  4. The reporting of crime and violence in the Los Angeles Times: is there a public health perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, S; Thorson, E

    2001-01-01

    The authors examine how crime and violence is reported and framed by the Los Angeles Times. Using a public health perspective, we examine whether health-oriented variables, such as causal factors and societal effects of crimes, are present in crime news stories. The classic stereotyping of crime and violence framing is strongly present in the Times. We discuss what changes would be useful to provide news consumers with a more accurate picture of crime in their community.

  5. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that

  6. Effects of pool-fencing ordinances and other factors on childhood drowning in Los Angeles County, 1990-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, H; Bingham, T; Reza, A

    2000-04-01

    This study estimated the effects of local pool-fencing ordinances and other factors on the rate of childhood drowning in Los Angeles County, California. Stage 1 was a retrospective dynamic cohort study of all drownings among children younger than 10 years that occurred in residential swimming pools in Los Angeles County between 1990 and 1995. Stage 2 was a matched case-control study that compared pools in which childhood drownings occurred (cases) with randomly selected pools in which drownings did not occur (controls). The drowning rate was relatively high among toddlers (aged 1-4 years), boys, and African Americans and in areas with a high density of residential swimming pools. Pool-fencing ordinances were not associated with a reduced overall rate of childhood drowning. Local ordinances enacted in Los Angeles County before 1996 do not appear to have been effective in reducing the rate of childhood drowning in residential pools. Possible reasons for this ineffectiveness are insufficient building codes for isolating pools from homes, inadequate enforcement of the ordinances, and inadequate operation or maintenance of fencing equipment by pool owners.

  7. House Poor in Los Angeles: Examining Patterns of Housing-Induced Poverty by Race, Nativity, and Legal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Eileen Diaz

    2012-09-01

    Housing affordability in the United States is generally operationalized using the ratio approach, with those allocating more than thirty percent of income to shelter costs considered to have housing affordability challenges. Alternative standards have been developed that focus on residual income, whether income remaining after housing expenditures is sufficient to meet non-housing needs. This study employs Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data to consider racial/ethnic, nativity and legal status differences in one residual income standard. Logistic regression analyses of housing-induced poverty focus on whether there are differences among five distinct groups: U.S.born Latinos, Non-Hispanic Whites, and African Americans, authorized Latino immigrants, and unauthorized Latino immigrants. Results suggest that: 1) Latino natives are significantly more likely to be in housing-induced poverty than African Americans and Latino immigrants, and 2) unauthorized Latino immigrants are not more likely to experience the outcome than other groups. The present work extends previous research. First, the results provide additional evidence of the value of operationalizing housing affordability using a residual income standard. Alternatives to the ratio approach deserve more empirical attention from a wider range of scholars and policymakers interested in housing affordability. Second, housing scholarship to date generally differentiates among Latinos by ethnicity, nativity, and citizenship. The present study contributes to emerging research investigating heterogeneity among Latinos by nativity and legal status.

  8. Flies from L.A., The Sequel: A further twelve new species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) from the BioSCAN Project in Los Angeles (California, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, Emily A; Brown, Brian V; Disney, R Henry L

    2016-01-01

    Presented are continued results from the BioSCAN Project, an urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA). Presented are continued results from the BioSCAN Project, an urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA). Twelve new species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) are described: M. baileyae, M. friedrichae, M. gonzalezorum, M. joanneae, M. losangelensis, M. phyllissunae, M. pongsaiae, M. shatesae, M. stoakesi, M. studentorum, M. voluntariorum, M. wongae.

  9. Industria cinematografica e turismo nell’immaginario collettivo: Los Angeles tra mito e creatività / Film industry and tourism in collective imagination: Los Angeles between myth and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Miani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Obiettivo del contributo è quello di proporre alcuni spunti di riflessione sul caso della città di celluloide più nota al mondo: Los Angeles. Più in particolare s’intende analizzare la stretta relazione che intercorre tra l’attrattività turistica della metropoli e l’industria cinematografica.  Come ben noto, Los Angeles continua da quasi un secolo a suggestionare l’immaginario collettivo in quanto mecca del cinema e patria di Hollywood, l’industria che ha creato il sogno americano. Tuttavia LA, oggi, è anche una delle prime dieci città mondiali. Rappresenta l’esempio di come l’industria creativa (e il cinema è creatività per definizione sia riuscita a realizzare un sistema economico e d’innovazione tecnologica che funziona come polo di attrazione sia per tutti coloro che intendono sviluppare nuove attività, non possibili in altre parti del mondo, sia per visitatori e turisti attirati da un insieme di fattori emozionali legati alla notorietà dei luoghi del sistema cinematografico e dello spettacolo. Sulla base dell’analisi della letteratura e facendo seguito a esperienze di studio sul campo, il contributo vuole evidenziare la stretta connessione costruita nel corso di più di un secolo tra Hollywood, il luogo, e Hollywood, l’industria, per dimostrare come il luogo di produzione rappresenti una componente unica del prodotto finale, un’autenticazione di qualità soggettive e simboliche in grado di amplificare il valore economico intrinseco e di provocare un’attrazione crescente di attività e persone verso l’area metropolitana di Los Angeles.   This paper discusses Los Angeles as the best-known celluloid city in the world, and focuses particularly on the close relationship between its attractiveness for tourists and the film industry. For almost a century Los Angeles has exerted influence over the collective imagination as the mecca of cinema and home of Hollywood, the industry that created the American dream

  10. Spectral Ratio Analysis of Microtremor Data Collected from a High Density Temporary Broadband Deployment for the Evaluation of Site Response in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, R.; Polet, J.

    2016-12-01

    Site response in sedimentary basins has been a topic of research interest for many decades due to the increased likelihood of earthquake damage from site amplification and resonance. We will present the results of our investigation of site response within the Los Angeles Basin through the application of the microtremor Horizontal-to-Vertical (H/V) spectral ratio method using the Geopsy software. This method was applied to 3-component broadband waveforms from the Los Angeles Syncline Seismic Interferometry Experiment (LASSIE). LASSIE is a collaborative, temporary, and dense array of 73 broadband seismometers that were active for a two-month period from October until November 2014, transecting the Los Angeles basin from Long Beach to La Puente. The data from this array enabled us to make measurements of small-scale lateral variations in the fundamental frequency, amplitude, and directional dependency of the H/V spectral ratio across this highly populated sedimentary basin. Data analysis and interpretation were conducted in accordance with the Site Effects Assessment Using Ambient Excitations (SESAME) guidelines. Our results show an average fundamental period at the basin center of 6-9.5 s and additional peaks in the spectral ratio curves at much shorter periods for sites at the basin edge. Long period H/V ratio peak amplitudes range from 2 - 5.5, with the highest values measured for the greater Long Beach area. We observe directional dependency in the frequency and amplitude of the long period peaks in the spectral ratio in proximity to the basin edge, which appears to correlate with the strike of the basin structure. We will show profiles of the H/V amplitudes and peak frequencies across the LA Basin and interpret our results in the context of site response results from other studies, as well as models of shallow and deeper basin structure.

  11. Potential Gains in Life Expectancy from Reductions in Leading Causes of Death, Los Angeles County: a Quantitative Approach to Identify Candidate Diseases for Prevention and Burden Disparities Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Alex; Hameed, Heena; Lee, Alice W; Shih, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Despite overall gains in life expectancy at birth among Los Angeles County residents, significant disparities persist across population subgroups. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential sex- and race/ethnicity-specific gains in life expectancy had we been able to fully or partially eliminate the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County. Complete annual life tables for local residents were generated by applying the same method used for the National Center of Health Statistics US life tables published in 1999. Based on 2010 Los Angeles County mortality records, sex- and race/ethnicity-specific potential gains in life expectancy were calculated using scenarios of 10, 20, 50, and 100 % elimination of 12 major causes of death. Coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death, was found to be most impactful on life expectancy. Its hypothetical full elimination would result in life expectancy gains ranging from 2.2 years among white females to 3.7 years among black males. Gains from complete elimination of lung cancer and stroke ranked second, with almost an additional year of life for each gender. However, marked disparities across racial/ethnic groups were noted from the elimination of several other causes of death, such as homicide, from which the gain among black males exceeded 13 times more than their white counterparts. By differentially targeting specific causes of death in disease prevention, not only can findings of this study aid in efficiently narrowing racial/ethnic disparities, they can also provide a quantitative means to identify and rank priorities in local health policymaking.

  12. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Metro Los Angeles, Calif.: Malibu to Mount Baldy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Mount San Antonio (more commonly known as Mount Baldy) crowns the San Gabriel Mountains northeast of Los Angeles in this computer-generated east-northeast perspective viewed from above the Malibu coastline. On the right, the Pacific Ocean and Santa Monica are in the foreground. Further away are downtown Los Angeles (appearing grey) and then the San Gabriel Valley, which lies adjacent to the mountain front. The San Fernando Valley appears in the left foreground, separated from the ocean by the Santa Monica Mountains. At 3,068 meters (10,064 feet) Mount Baldy rises above the tree line, exposing bright white rocks that are not snow capped in this early autumn scene.This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), an enhanced color Landsat 7 satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is exaggerated one and one-half times.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the

  13. Landsat with SRTM Shaded Relief, Los Angeles and Vicinity from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Los Angeles and vicinity seen from space, as viewed by the Landsat 7 satellite from an altitude of 437 miles on May 4, 2001. North is at the top. Topographic shading has been enhanced using an elevation data set acquired by the Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000. Downtown Los Angeles is just south of the image center, with L.A. and Long Beach harbors to the south, Santa Monica Bay to the west, San Fernando Valley to the northwest, San Gabriel Valley to the east, and Orange County to the southeast. The San Andreas fault forms the straight diagonal mountain front bordering the Mojave Desert at the top of the image. At full resolution, features on the ground as small as 15 meters (49 feet) across can be distinguished, including street patterns and large buildings, as well as boats and their wakes on the ocean. More than ten million people live within this scene.This image was generated by first geographically matching the Landsat scene to a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. A measure of topographic slope along a southeast-northwest trend was then calculated, such that southeast facing slopes appear bright and northwest facing slopes appear dark. This slope image was then added to the enhanced Landsat scene in order to intensify the appearance of topography. Topographic shading was subtle in the original Landsat scene due to the fairly high sun angle (63 degrees above the horizon) during the satellite overflight in late morning of a mid-Spring day.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne

  14. Hydrocarbon emissions from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, Air Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchnoy, Stephanie B.; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    The large-scale planting of shade trees in urban areas to counteract heat-island effects and to minimize energy use is currently being discussed. Among the costs to be considered in a cost/benefit analysis of such a program is the potential for additional reactive organic compounds in the atmosphere due to emissions from these trees. In this program, 15 species of potential shade trees for the Los Angeles Air Basin were studied and emission rates were determined for 11 of these trees, with one further tree (Crape myrtle) exhibiting no detectable emissions. The emission rates normalized to dry leaf weight and corrected to 30°C were (in μg g -1 h -1), ranked from lowest to highest emission rate: Crape myrtle, none detected; Camphor, 0.03; Aleppo pine, 0.15; Deodar cedar, 0.29; Italian Stone pine, 0.42; Monterey pine, 0.90; Brazilian pepper, 1.3; Canary Island pine, 1.7; Ginkgo, 3.0; California pepper, 3.7; Liquidambar, 37; Carrotwood, 49. In addition to the emission rates per unit biomass, the biomass per tree must be factored into any assessment of the relative merits of the various trees, since some trees have higher biomass constants than others. The present data shows that there are large differences in emission rates among different tree species and this should be factored into decision-making as to which shade trees to plant. Based solely on the presently determined emission rates, the Crape myrtle and Camphor tree are good choices for large-scale planting, while the Carrotwood tree and Liquidambar are poor choices due to their high isoprene emission rates.

  15. Baltimore in The Wire and Los Angeles in The Shield: Urban Landscapes in American Drama Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto N. García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Shield (FX 2002-08 and The Wire (HBO 2002-08 are two of the most ever critically acclaimed TV-shows and they both can be seen as the finest developed film noir proposals produced in television. The Wire transcends the cop-show genre by offering a multilayered portrait of the whole city of Baltimore: from police work to drug dealing, getting through stevedores’ union corruption, tricks of local politics, problems of the school system and some unethical journalism practices. On the other, The Shield offers a breathtaking cop-show that features in the foreground the moral ambiguity that characterizes the noir genre. Both series display complementary realist strategies (a neorealist aesthetic in The Wire; a cinéma vérité pastiche in The Shield that highlight the importance of city landscape in their narrative. Baltimore and Los Angeles are portrayed not only as a dangerous and ruined physical places, but are also intertwined with moral and political issues in contemporary cities, such as race, class, political corruption, social disintegration, economical disparities, the limitations of the system of justice, the failure of the American dream and so on. The complex and expanded narrative of The Wire and The Shield, as Dimemberg has written for film noir genre, “remains well attuned to the violently fragmented spaces and times of the late-modern world”. Therefore, this article will focus on how The Wire and The Shield (and some of their TV heirs, such as Southland and Justified reflect and renew several topics related to the city in the film noir tradition: the sociopolitical effects of showing the ruins of the centripetal industrial metropolis, the inferences of filming in actual places, the dramatic presence of what Augé coined as “no-places”, the bachelardian opposition between home and city, or the streets as an urban jungle where danger lurks in every corner.

  16. Using DNA barcoding to track seafood mislabeling in Los Angeles restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Demian A; Simmonds, Sara E; Cheng, Samantha H; Esteves, Sofia; Kane, Tonya L; Nuetzel, Hayley; Pilaud, Nicholas; Rachmawati, Rita; Barber, Paul H

    2017-10-01

    Seafood mislabeling is common in both domestic and international markets. Studies on seafood fraud often report high rates of mislabeling (e.g., >70%), but these studies have been limited to a single sampling year, which means it is difficult to assess the impact of stricter governmental truth-in-labeling regulations. We used DNA barcoding to assess seafood labeling in 26 sushi restaurants in Los Angeles over 4 years. Seafood from 3 high-end grocery stores were also sampled (n = 16) in 2014. We ordered 9 common sushi fish from menus, preserved tissue samples in 95% ethanol, extracted the genomic DNA, amplified and sequenced a portion of the mtDNA COI gene, and identified the resulting sequence to known fish sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information nucleotide database. We compared DNA results with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) list of acceptable market names and retail names. We considered sushi-sample labels that were inconsistent with FDA names mislabeled. Sushi restaurants had a consistently high percentage of mislabeling (47%; 151 of 323) from 2012 to 2015, yet mislabeling was not homogenous across species. Halibut, red snapper, yellowfin tuna, and yellowtail had consistently high (15%). All sampled sushi restaurants had at least one case of mislabeling. Mislabeling of sushi-grade fish from high-end grocery stores was also identified in red snapper, yellowfin tuna, and yellowtail, but at a slightly lower frequency (42%) than sushi restaurants. Despite increased regulatory measures and media attention, we found seafood mislabeling continues to be prevalent. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Variation in genetic admixture and population structure among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study (LALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Marchand Loic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population structure and admixture have strong confounding effects on genetic association studies. Discordant frequencies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD risk alleles and for AMD incidence and prevalence rates are reported across different ethnic groups. We examined the genomic ancestry characterizing 538 Latinos drawn from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES] as part of an ongoing AMD-association study. To help assess the degree of Native American ancestry inherited by Latino populations we sampled 25 Mayans and 5 Mexican Indians collected through Coriell's Institute. Levels of European, Asian, and African descent in Latinos were inferred through the USC Multiethnic Panel (USC MEP, formed from a sample from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC study, the Yoruba African samples from HapMap II, the Singapore Chinese Health Study, and a prospective cohort from Shanghai, China. A total of 233 ancestry informative markers were genotyped for 538 LALES Latinos, 30 Native Americans, and 355 USC MEP individuals (African Americans, Japanese, Chinese, European Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. Sensitivity of ancestry estimates to relative sample size was considered. Results We detected strong evidence for recent population admixture in LALES Latinos. Gradients of increasing Native American background and of correspondingly decreasing European ancestry were observed as a function of birth origin from North to South. The strongest excess of homozygosity, a reflection of recent population admixture, was observed in non-US born Latinos that recently populated the US. A set of 42 SNPs especially informative for distinguishing between Native Americans and Europeans were identified. Conclusion These findings reflect the historic migration patterns of Native Americans and suggest that while the 'Latino' label is used to categorize the entire population, there exists a strong degree of heterogeneity within that population, and that

  18. Elder abuse and neglect among veterans in Greater Los Angeles: prevalence, types, and intervention outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ailee; Lawson, Kerianne; Carpiac, Maria; Spaziano, Eleanor

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, types, and intervention outcomes of elder abuse/neglect among a veteran population. A review of medical records of 575 veterans who had received services from the Veteran's Affairs Geriatric Outpatient Clinic in Los Angeles during a three-year period found 31 veterans (5.4%) who had an elder abuse report filed on their behalf. Prevalence of elder abuse/neglect was higher among older (80+) and Caucasian and African American veterans. Eight of 31 victims suffered from more than one type of elder abuse including self-neglect. Financial abuse and self-neglect were the most commonly reported types. Family members were perpetrators in the majority of the cases, excluding self-neglect. However, three-quarters of financial abuse cases were committed by non-family members. Almost one-half of the victims had dementia and eight were clinically depressed. The most common intervention was to move victims from their unsafe home into a nursing home or board and care facility, followed by conservatorship arrangement. These interventions were most frequently used for victims with dementia, and conservatorship was often arranged with another type of intervention, such as a move to a nursing home. Victims who remained at home received conservatorship or outside supportive services or a combination of both. This study calls for more comprehensive and systematic research on elder abuse/neglect at multi-settings in order to generate useful information for prevention and detection of, and effective intervention in elder abuse and neglect in the veteran population.

  19. Predicting traffic-related air pollution in Los Angeles using a distance decay regression selection strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernardo; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Ritz, Beate

    2009-08-01

    Land use regression (LUR) has emerged as an effective means of estimating exposure to air pollution in epidemiological studies. We created the first LUR models of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) for the complex megalopolis of Los Angeles (LA), California. Two-hundred and one sampling sites (the largest sampling design to date for LUR estimation) for two seasons were selected using a location-allocation algorithm that maximized the potential variability in measured pollutant concentrations and represented populations in the health study. Traffic volumes, truck routes and road networks, land use data, satellite-derived vegetation greenness and soil brightness, and truck route slope gradients were used for predicting NOX concentrations. A novel model selection strategy known as "ADDRESS" (A Distance Decay REgression Selection Strategy) was used to select optimized buffer distances for potential predictor variables and maximize model performance. Final regression models explained 81%, 86% and 85% of the variance in measured NO, NO2 and NOX concentrations, respectively. Cross-validation analyses suggested a prediction accuracy of 87-91%. Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with NOX concentrations, suggesting these data are useful surrogates for modeling traffic-related pollution when certain land use data are unavailable. Our study also demonstrated that reactive pollutants such as NO and NO2 could have high spatial extents of influence (e.g., > 5000 m from expressway) and high background concentrations in certain geographic areas. This paper represents the first attempt to model traffic-related air pollutants at a fine scale within such a complex and large urban region.

  20. Methamphetamine use among women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Stirland, Ali; Guerry, Sarah; Gorbach, Pamina M

    2013-08-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) use is a continuing problem in the United States and is associated with increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, few studies have examined the meth use/STI risk association among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women attending public sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County, California, from 2009 to 2010. Routinely collected clinic intake data were used to compare the prevalence of meth use among women with different demographics/sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of meth use. There were 1.4% (n = 277) women who reported meth use, with a mean age of 29 years. Prevalence was highest among Whites and those reporting both male and female partners. Most women who reported meth use also reported polysubstance use. In a multivariable model controlling for age, race/ethnicity, condom use, having a new sex partner, and other illicit substance use, women who reported sex with an injection drug user were nearly 10 times more likely to report meth use as compared with those who did not (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.86-16.75). Other factors associated with meth use included sex with a recently incarcerated partner (AOR, 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16-4.86), anonymous partner (AOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.54-4.04), and transactional sex (AOR, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.69-6.32). Women who tested positive for chlamydia/gonorrhea were 1.48 times more likely to use meth as compared with those who did not. Female meth users have high-risk behaviors that could increase their risk for STIs/HIV.

  1. Application of three fault growth criteria to the Puente Hills thrust system, Los Angeles, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Erik L.; Cooke, Michele L.

    2005-10-01

    Three-dimensional mechanical models are used to evaluate the performance of different fault growth criteria in predicting successive growth of three échelon thrust faults similar to the segments of the Puente Hills thrust system of the Los Angeles basin, California. Four sequential Boundary Element Method models explore the growth of successive échelon faults within the system by simulating snapshots of deformation at different stages of development. These models use three criteria, (1) energy release rate, (2) strain energy density, and (3) Navier-Coulomb stress, to characterize the lateral growth of the fault system. We simulate the growth of an échelon thrust fault system to evaluate the suitability of each of these criteria for assessing fault growth. Each of these three factors predicts a portion of the incipient fault geometry (i.e. location or orientation); however, each provides different information. In each model, energy release rate along the westernmost (leading) tip of the Puente Hills thrust drops with growth of the next neighboring fault; this result supports the overall lateral development of successive échelon segments. Within each model, regions of high strain energy density and Navier-Coulomb stress envelope at least a portion of the next fault to develop, although the strain energy density has stronger correlation than Navier-Coulomb stress to the location of incipient faulting. In each model, one of the two predicted planes of maximum Navier-Coulomb stress ahead of the leading fault tip matches the strike but not the dip of the incipient fault plane recreating part of the fault orientation. The incipient fault dip is best predicted by the orientation of the strain energy density envelopes around the leading fault tip. Furthermore, the energy release rate and pattern of strain energy density can be used to characterize potential soft linkage (overlap) or hard linkage (connection) of échelon faults within the system.

  2. Mapping ground surface deformation using temporarily coherent point SAR interferometry: Application to Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Lu, Zhong; Ding, X.; Jung, H.-S.; Feng, G.; Lee, C.-W.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is an effective tool to detect long-term seismotectonic motions by reducing the atmospheric artifacts, thereby providing more precise deformation signal. The commonly used approaches such as persistent scatterer InSAR (PSInSAR) and small baseline subset (SBAS) algorithms need to resolve the phase ambiguities in interferogram stacks either by searching a predefined solution space or by sparse phase unwrapping methods; however the efficiency and the success of phase unwrapping cannot be guaranteed. We present here an alternative approach – temporarily coherent point (TCP) InSAR (TCPInSAR) – to estimate the long term deformation rate without the need of phase unwrapping. The proposed approach has a series of innovations including TCP identification, TCP network and TCP least squares estimator. We apply the proposed method to the Los Angeles Basin in southern California where structurally active faults are believed capable of generating damaging earthquakes. The analysis is based on 55 interferograms from 32 ERS-1/2 images acquired during Oct. 1995 and Dec. 2000. To evaluate the performance of TCPInSAR on a small set of observations, a test with half of interferometric pairs is also performed. The retrieved TCPInSAR measurements have been validated by a comparison with GPS observations from Southern California Integrated GPS Network. Our result presents a similar deformation pattern as shown in past InSAR studies but with a smaller average standard deviation (4.6 mm) compared with GPS observations, indicating that TCPInSAR is a promising alternative for efficiently mapping ground deformation even from a relatively smaller set of interferograms.

  3. Geologic map database of the El Mirage Lake area, San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.

    2000-01-01

    This geologic map database for the El Mirage Lake area describes geologic materials for the dry lake, parts of the adjacent Shadow Mountains and Adobe Mountain, and much of the piedmont extending south from the lake upward toward the San Gabriel Mountains. This area lies within the western Mojave Desert of San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, southeastern California. The area is traversed by a few paved highways that service the community of El Mirage, and by numerous dirt roads that lead to outlying properties. An off-highway vehicle area established by the Bureau of Land Management encompasses the dry lake and much of the land north and east of the lake. The physiography of the area consists of the dry lake, flanking mud and sand flats and alluvial piedmonts, and a few sharp craggy mountains. This digital geologic map database, intended for use at 1:24,000-scale, describes and portrays the rock units and surficial deposits of the El Mirage Lake area. The map database was prepared to aid in a water-resource assessment of the area by providing surface geologic information with which deepergroundwater-bearing units may be understood. The area mapped covers the Shadow Mountains SE and parts of the Shadow Mountains, Adobe Mountain, and El Mirage 7.5-minute quadrangles. The map includes detailed geology of surface and bedrock deposits, which represent a significant update from previous bedrock geologic maps by Dibblee (1960) and Troxel and Gunderson (1970), and the surficial geologic map of Ponti and Burke (1980); it incorporates a fringe of the detailed bedrock mapping in the Shadow Mountains by Martin (1992). The map data were assembled as a digital database using ARC/INFO to enable wider applications than traditional paper-product geologic maps and to provide for efficient meshing with other digital data bases prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project.

  4. Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation among homeless youth in los angeles county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 70% of homeless youth smoke cigarettes, but their use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) is unknown. This paper reports on ATP use among past-month smokers in Los Angeles County, including whether it differs by demographic characteristics, homelessness severity, past-year quit attempts, and readiness to quit smoking. Given the growing popularity of e-cigarettes, we also report on perceptions of harm and reasons for using this product. We surveyed 292 unaccompanied homeless youth who were randomly sampled from street sites. Participants had smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and 1 cigarette during the past month. Seventy-two percent of youth reported past-month ATP use (e-cigarettes = 51%; little cigars/cigarillos = 46%; hookah = 31%; other smokeless tobacco product = 24%; chewing tobacco/moist snuff = 19%). Current ATP use was unrelated to most demographic characteristics or having a past-year quit attempt. However, youth who planned to quit smoking in the next 30 days were significantly less likely to report current use of hookahs, other smokeless tobacco products, or e-cigarettes. Among lifetime e-cigarette users, the most common reasons for use included not having to go outside to smoke (38%) and being able to deal with situations or places where they cannot smoke (36%); it was less common to report using e-cigarettes to quit smoking (17%-18%). Dual use of ATPs among homeless youth smokers is common and is more likely among those who have no immediate plans to quit smoking. Effective and easily disseminable strategies for reducing all forms of tobacco use among homeless youth are urgently needed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Check Yourself: a social marketing campaign to increase syphilis screening in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Aaron; Javanbakht, Marjan; Montoya, Jorge A; Rotblatt, Harlan; O'Leary, Christopher; Kerndt, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched Check Yourself, a new social marketing campaign, as part of ongoing efforts to address the persistent syphilis epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the county. The goals of the campaign were to increase syphilis testing and knowledge among MSM. Check Yourself was planned with careful attention to the principles of social marketing, including formative research, market segmentation, and an emphasis on building a strong brand. A cross-sectional survey using a time-location sample was conducted in 2009 for the evaluation. The survey assessed demographics, syphilis knowledge, and recent syphilis testing as well as unaided awareness, aided awareness, and confirmed awareness, meaning that a person had both awareness of the campaign and could correctly identify that the campaign was about syphilis. The total sample size was 306. Unaided awareness for Check Yourself was 20.7%, and aided awareness was 67.5%, bringing total campaign awareness to 88.2%; confirmed awareness was 30.4%. Unaided campaign awareness was associated with syphilis knowledge and important risk behaviors for syphilis, indicating that the campaign reached an appropriate audience. Total awareness was not associated with recent syphilis testing in a multivariate model. However, MSM with confirmed awareness were more than 6 times more likely to have been recently tested. The evaluation of Check Yourself found that the campaign had a very strong brand among MSM. Although total awareness was not associated with syphilis testing, confirmed awareness, a more robust measure, was strongly associated.

  6. Aerosol lidar observations of atmospheric mixing in Los Angeles: Climatology and implications for greenhouse gas observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, John; Kort, Eric A.; DeCola, Phil; Duren, Riley

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric observations of greenhouse gases provide essential information on sources and sinks of these key atmospheric constituents. To quantify fluxes from atmospheric observations, representation of transport—especially vertical mixing—is a necessity and often a source of error. We report on remotely sensed profiles of vertical aerosol distribution taken over a 2 year period in Pasadena, California. Using an automated analysis system, we estimate daytime mixing layer depth, achieving high confidence in the afternoon maximum on 51% of days with profiles from a Sigma Space Mini Micropulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) and on 36% of days with a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. We note that considering ceilometer data on a logarithmic scale, a standard method, introduces, an offset in mixing height retrievals. The mean afternoon maximum mixing height is 770 m Above Ground Level in summer and 670 m in winter, with significant day-to-day variance (within season σ = 220m≈30%). Taking advantage of the MiniMPL's portability, we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the detailed horizontal structure of the mixing layer by automobile. We compare our observations to planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from sonde launches, North American regional reanalysis (NARR), and a custom Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model developed for greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring in Los Angeles. NARR and WRF PBL heights at Pasadena are both systematically higher than measured, NARR by 2.5 times; these biases will cause proportional errors in GHG flux estimates using modeled transport. We discuss how sustained lidar observations can be used to reduce flux inversion error by selecting suitable analysis periods, calibrating models, or characterizing bias for correction in post processing.

  7. Aerosol lidar observations of atmospheric mixing in Los Angeles: Climatology and implications for greenhouse gas observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, John; Kort, Eric A; DeCola, Phil; Duren, Riley

    2016-08-27

    Atmospheric observations of greenhouse gases provide essential information on sources and sinks of these key atmospheric constituents. To quantify fluxes from atmospheric observations, representation of transport-especially vertical mixing-is a necessity and often a source of error. We report on remotely sensed profiles of vertical aerosol distribution taken over a 2 year period in Pasadena, California. Using an automated analysis system, we estimate daytime mixing layer depth, achieving high confidence in the afternoon maximum on 51% of days with profiles from a Sigma Space Mini Micropulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) and on 36% of days with a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. We note that considering ceilometer data on a logarithmic scale, a standard method, introduces, an offset in mixing height retrievals. The mean afternoon maximum mixing height is 770 m Above Ground Level in summer and 670 m in winter, with significant day-to-day variance (within season σ = 220m≈30%). Taking advantage of the MiniMPL's portability, we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the detailed horizontal structure of the mixing layer by automobile. We compare our observations to planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from sonde launches, North American regional reanalysis (NARR), and a custom Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model developed for greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring in Los Angeles. NARR and WRF PBL heights at Pasadena are both systematically higher than measured, NARR by 2.5 times; these biases will cause proportional errors in GHG flux estimates using modeled transport. We discuss how sustained lidar observations can be used to reduce flux inversion error by selecting suitable analysis periods, calibrating models, or characterizing bias for correction in post processing.

  8. The industrial division of labor among immigrants and internal migrants to the Los Angeles economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, M; Wright, R

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the industrial division of labor among immigrants and in-migrants in the Los Angeles, California, metropolitan area. It addresses debates about channeling of new arrivals into jobs among similar ethnic groups and human capital views. Data were obtained from the 1990 Census on resident native-born, resident foreign-born, in-migrants, and recent immigrants who arrived during 1985-90. Light and Rosenstein's (1995) concepts of groups and their resources were used to organize ideas about ethnic networks and their effectiveness in channeling migrant workers into 15 industrial sectors. Sectoral differences were revealed with the familiarity index of dissimilarity. Findings reveal that social networks were the strongest for Koreans, who supplied work for recent arrivals in the same sectors as Korean-born residents, regardless of education. Mexican new arrivals were less likely to work in the same sectors as their resident Mexican counterparts. Mexican networks placed new arrivals in durable manufacturing in the 1960s and 1970s when it was a key source of employment. By the 1980s and 1990s, the economy shifted and employment went down in durable manufacturing. Mexicans thus found employment elsewhere. Native White and Black in-migrants had the strongest channeling into same sector jobs. This is attributed to the small streams, the ability of the labor market to absorb these workers, and the availability of job vacancies among native out-migrants. Filipino migrants had similar patterns as Whites and Blacks. Mexican and Central American residents had more inter-ethnic competition over jobs than Whites or Blacks.

  9. Third-World Hodgkin's disease at Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, E; Hufford, S; Lukes, R; Bernstein-Singer, M; Sobel, G; Gill, P; Pinter-Brown, L; Rarick, M; Rosen, P; Brynes, R

    1988-08-01

    The reported experience with Hodgkin's disease (HD) in the United States has come primarily from large referral centers that attract a predominantly white population of high socioeconomic status (SES). The majority of these patients had the nodular sclerosis (NS) histologic subtype and asymptomatic stage I/II disease. We have reviewed the records of 178 patients with HD seen within the past 17 years at Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center (LAC/USC), which is a nonreferral, government-operated facility. Our patient population was found to be heterogeneous, with 38% white, 22% black, and 36% Hispanic. Systemic "B" symptoms were noted in 62% of patients at diagnosis, and 63% had advanced disease (stage III or IV). NS pathologic subtype was present in only 52% of the group. Comparison between the races revealed: (1) Hispanics had a higher incidence of lymphocyte depleted subtype and less NS than whites (P less than .06); (2) whites had equal distribution between stages I/II and III/IV; (3) blacks and Hispanics presented more frequently with stage III/IV (P = .10); and (4) extranodal involvement occurred most often in bone in whites, and was equally distributed between liver, lung, and bone in blacks and Hispanics. We conclude that the lower SES, mixed racial population seen at our institution more closely resembles the reports of HD in Third-World countries and is characterized by advanced symptomatic disease. Further, the clinical pathologic characteristics of HD in the United States may vary significantly, depending upon the precise ethnic and socioeconomic status of the patients being served.

  10. Field Validation of the Los Angeles Motor Scale as a Tool for Paramedic Assessment of Stroke Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Tae; Chung, Pil-Wook; Starkman, Sidney; Sanossian, Nerses; Stratton, Samuel J; Eckstein, Marc; Pratt, Frank D; Conwit, Robin; Liebeskind, David S; Sharma, Latisha; Restrepo, Lucas; Tenser, May-Kim; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Hamilton, Scott; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2017-02-01

    The Los Angeles Motor Scale (LAMS) is a 3-item, 0- to 10-point motor stroke-deficit scale developed for prehospital use. We assessed the convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of the LAMS when performed by paramedics in the field at multiple sites in a large and diverse geographic region. We analyzed early assessment and outcome data prospectively gathered in the FAST-MAG trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy-Magnesium phase 3) among patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (cerebral ischemia and intracranial hemorrhage) within 2 hours of onset, transported by 315 ambulances to 60 receiving hospitals. Among 1632 acute cerebrovascular disease patients (age 70±13 years, male 57.5%), time from onset to prehospital LAMS was median 30 minutes (interquartile range 20-50), onset to early postarrival (EPA) LAMS was 145 minutes (interquartile range 119-180), and onset to EPA National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 150 minutes (interquartile range 120-180). Between the prehospital and EPA assessments, LAMS scores were stable in 40.5%, improved in 37.6%, and worsened in 21.9%. In tests of convergent validity, against the EPA National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, correlations were r=0.49 for the prehospital LAMS and r=0.89 for the EPA LAMS. Prehospital LAMS scores did diverge from the prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale, r=-0.22. Predictive accuracy (adjusted C statistics) for nondisabled 3-month outcome was as follows: prehospital LAMS, 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.74-0.78); EPA LAMS, 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.83-0.87); and EPA National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.88). In this multicenter, prospective, prehospital study, the LAMS showed good to excellent convergent, divergent, and predictive validity, further establishing it as a validated instrument to characterize stroke severity in the field. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Status of metal contamination in surface waters of the coastal ocean off Los Angeles, California since the implementation of the Clean Water Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smail, Emily A; Webb, Eric A; Franks, Robert P; Bruland, Kenneth W; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

    2012-04-17

    In order to establish the status of metal contamination in surface waters in the coastal ocean off Los Angeles, California, we determined their dissolved and particulate pools and compared them with levels reported in the 1970s prior the implementation of the Clean Water Act. These measurements revealed a significant reduction in particulate toxic metal concentrations in the last 33 years with decreases of ∼100-fold for Pb and ∼400-fold for Cu and Cd. Despite these reductions, the source of particulate metals appears to be primarily anthropogenic as enrichment factors were orders of magnitude above what is considered background crustal levels. Overall, dissolved trace metal concentrations in the Los Angeles coastal waters were remarkably low with values in the same range as those measured in a pristine coastal environment off Mexico's Baja California peninsula. In order to estimate the impact of metal contamination on regional phytoplankton, the internalization rate of trace metals in a locally isolated phytoplankton model organism (Synechococcus sp. CC9311) was also determined showing a rapid internalization (in the order of a few hours) for many trace metals (e.g., Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb) suggesting that those metals could potentially be incorporated into the local food webs.

  12. Miocene rifting in the Los Angeles basin: Evidence from the Puente Hills half-graben, volcanic rocks, and P-wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Tom; Burke, Kevin; Zhou, Hua-Wei; Yeats, Robert S.

    2002-05-01

    Formation of the Puente Hills half-graben in the northeastern Los Angeles basin and eruption of the Glendora and El Modeno Volcanics (16 14 Ma) help to define the timing of extension in the basin. Normal faulting on the proto-Whittier fault ca. 14 Ma established the Puente Hills half-graben, in which sedimentary strata accumulated between ca. 14 and 10 Ma and into which diabase sills intruded. North-South contraction began to invert the Puente Hills half-graben ca. 7 Ma, leading to formation of the Puente Hills anticline and the Whittier fault. Our high-resolution three-dimensional P-wave velocity model shows two anomalous higher velocity (6.63 km/s) bodies at depths between 9 and 18 km, which we attribute to dioritic plutons named here for Whittier Narrows and El Modeno. The stocklike Whittier Narrows pluton could have been a source for the Glendora Volcanics and the diabase sills in the Puente Hills half-graben. The sill-shaped El Modeno pluton was a likely source for the El Modeno Volcanics. The northwesterly alignment of the plutons may mark the location of the northeastern Los Angeles basin rift boundary, which is associated with the clockwise rotation of the western Transverse Ranges. Three active faults, the Elysian Park blind thrust, the Puente Hills blind thrust, and the Whittier fault, converge on the Whittier Narrows pluton, which may have played a role in their location and segmentation.

  13. Aerosol Composition in the Los Angeles Basin Studied by High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Ortega, A. M.; Cubison, M.; Hu, W.; Toohey, D. W.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B. L.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Allan, J. D.; Taylor, J.; Holloway, J. S.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Massoli, P.; Zhang, X.; Weber, R.; Zhao, Y.; Cliff, S. S.; Wexler, A. S.; Isaacman, G. A.; Worton, D. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impact climate and health, but their sources and composition are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation were deployed during the 2010 CalNex campaign to characterize aerosol composition in the Los Angeles (LA) area. Total mass concentrations as well as the species concentrations measured by the AMS compare well with most other instruments. Nitrate dominates in the mornings, but its concentration is reduced in the afternoon when organic aerosols (OA) increase and dominate. The diurnal variations in concentrations are strongly influenced by emission transport from the source-rich western basin. The average OA to enhanced CO ratio increases with photochemical age from 25 to 80 μg m-3 ppm-1, which indicates significant secondary OA (SOA) production and that a large majority of OA is secondary in aged air. The ratio values are similar to those from Mexico City as well as New England and the Mid-Atlantic States. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) is used to assess the concentrations of different OA components. The major OA classes are oxygenated OA (OOA, a surrogate for total SOA), and hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, a surrogate for primary combustion OA). Several subclasses of OA are identified as well including diesel-influenced HOA (DI-HOA) and non-diesel HOA. DI-HOA exhibits low concentrations on Sundays consistent with the well-known weekday/weekend effect in LA. PMF analysis finds that OOA is 67% of the total OA concentration. A strong correlation between OOA and Ox (O3 + NO2) concentrations is observed with a slope of 0.15 that suggests the production of fresh SOA in Pasadena. Plotting the OA elemental ratios in a Van Krevelen diagram (H:C vs. O:C) yields a slope of -0.6, which is less steep than that observed in Riverside during the SOAR-2005 campaign. The difference in slopes may be attributed to the highly oxidized HOA present in Pasadena that is

  14. Deep Water Compositions From the Los Angeles Basin and the Origin of Formation Water Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, J.; Giles, G.; Lockman, D.

    2005-12-01

    Deep basin formation waters represent original depositional waters that have been modified by diagenetic processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. In addition, they may be diluted by meteoric incursion from elevated structural blocks along basin flanks. It has long been thought that deep basin formation waters have salinities greater than sea water due to various processes like clay membrane filtration or other types of water-rock interaction. However, our work and similar studies in the San Joaquin basin show that formation waters in deep basins are more likely to become diluted rather than concentrated in the absence of soluble evaporite deposits that might underlie the basin. The idea of increased salinity with depth arose from studies in which the underpinning of the basin consisted of soluble evaporate deposits such as the Texas Gulf Coast, Illinois, Michigan, and some North Sea areas. There are very few deep formation water analyses from the Los Angeles Basin. Furthermore, very few of the current produced waters from any depth can be considered pristine because of the widespread formation water injection programs and commingling of fluids from different levels. Here, we describe the first analyses from a deep, previously untouched part of the basin that is currently being developed in the Inglewood Oil Field. We have analyzed a suite of formation waters from the mid-Miocene marine Sentous sandstone from sub-sea level depths of 2250 m to 2625 m at temperatures of about 110 to 126°C and pressures of about 27 MPa. The original depositional waters in the Sentous Formation were sea water whereas the sampled waters are diluted by about 20% from sea water and some show as much as 50% dilution. Based on comparison of oxygen and deuterium isotopes between the meteoric water trend and these waters, we conclude that the smectite to illite dehydration reaction is the major cause of dilution to the original formation water. Other notable differences include

  15. Modelling Nitrogen Oxides in Los Angeles Using a Hybrid Dispersion/Land Use Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, Darren C.

    The goal of this dissertation is to develop models capable of predicting long term annual average NOx concentrations in urban areas. Predictions from simple meteorological dispersion models and seasonal proxies for NO2 oxidation were included as covariates in a land use regression (LUR) model for NOx in Los Angeles, CA. The NO x measurements were obtained from a comprehensive measurement campaign that is part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution Study (MESA Air). Simple land use regression models were initially developed using a suite of GIS-derived land use variables developed from various buffer sizes (R²=0.15). Caline3, a simple steady-state Gaussian line source model, was initially incorporated into the land-use regression framework. The addition of this spatio-temporally varying Caline3 covariate improved the simple LUR model predictions. The extent of improvement was much more pronounced for models based solely on the summer measurements (simple LUR: R²=0.45; Caline3/LUR: R²=0.70), than it was for models based on all seasons (R²=0.20). We then used a Lagrangian dispersion model to convert static land use covariates for population density, commercial/industrial area into spatially and temporally varying covariates. The inclusion of these covariates resulted in significant improvement in model prediction (R²=0.57). In addition to the dispersion model covariates described above, a two-week average value of daily peak-hour ozone was included as a surrogate of the oxidation of NO2 during the different sampling periods. This additional covariate further improved overall model performance for all models. The best model by 10-fold cross validation (R²=0.73) contained the Caline3 prediction, a static covariate for length of A3 roads within 50 meters, the Calpuff-adjusted covariates derived from both population density and industrial/commercial land area, and the ozone covariate. This model was tested against annual average NOx

  16. Misuse of prescription and illicit drugs among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Lankenau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA and New York (NY, which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. Design and Methods. Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs; homeless persons; and polydrug users. Results. In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. Conclusion. Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs.

  17. Stormwater Infrastructure in the Los Angeles Region: Are Regulatory Drivers and Opportunism the Best Approach to Clean Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, K.; Gold, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Los Angeles region has invested nearly a billion dollars in stormwater infrastructure projects over the last 15 years. The primary drivers for these projects have been regulatory requirements under the Los Angeles County MS4 permit and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for over 150 impaired water bodies in the region. In addition, voters in the state of California have approved five separate water bonds over the last 15 years totaling nearly 21 billion. The City of Los Angeles approved a 500 million stormwater bond in 2004 to construct best management practices (BMPs) to help the city comply with water quality standards. There have also been numerous comprehensive Low Impact Development (LID) ordinances approved in the region that are designed to ensure that new and redevelopment capture for reuse or infiltrate 100% of the runoff generated from the 85th percentile storm. This presentation will overview an assessment of decision-making related to the funding of stormwater BMPs in the region. Specific examples of constructed BMPs, including their performance for meeting water quality standards, will be provided. Among the shortcomings of relying on a bond funding approach to new stormwater infrastructure is a California statutory prohibition on using bond funds for BMP operations and maintenance. The advantages of a systematic structural BMP sizing, designing and siting approach based on optimizing multiple beneficial uses (water quality, flood control, water supply, habitat and recreation) across watersheds or subwatersheds will also be discussed. Integration of stormwater infrastructure construction with transportation improvement projects, as well as building retrofit upon sale requirements, will greatly expedite regional transformation to green stormwater infrastructure.

  18. Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use. PMID:20222782

  19. Aseptic meningitis outbreak associated with echovirus 30 among high school football players--Los Angeles County, California, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis; Civen, Rachel; Keough, Kathleen; Ngo, Van; Marutani, Amy; Schwartz, Benjamin

    2015-01-02

    On August 4, 2014, the Acute Communicable Disease Control Program of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health received a report of three aseptic meningitis cases among football players at a county high school. An investigation was conducted to determine the extent of the outbreak, identify potential exposures, and recommend control measures. An outbreak-associated aseptic meningitis case was defined as an illness of any team or family member with onset during July 28-August 11 with 1) cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and negative bacterial culture or 2) an emergency department visit with headache, fever, and stiff neck. Ten cases were identified; nine in males, and one in a female; patient ages ranged from 13 to 17 years. All the patients sought care at an emergency department, and five were hospitalized, resulting in 12 total hospital days. All 10 patients have recovered. Eight patients were football players, and two were siblings of football players. The most affected subgroup was the junior varsity football team, with seven cases out of 57 players (attack rate = 12.3%); the relative risk for aseptic meningitis was higher among players who were linemen than among those who were not linemen (relative risk = 5.4 [p = 0.03]). Of the 10 patients, eight tested positive by polymerase chain reaction for enterovirus, and two were not tested. Echovirus testing was performed at the California Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Of the eight specimens testing positive for enterovirus, seven tested positive for echovirus 30, and one specimen could not be typed because of insufficient quantity.

  20. Years off Your Life? The Effects of Homicide on Life Expectancy by Neighborhood and Race/Ethnicity in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Loren; Sorvillo, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County and is known to be elevated in low-income urban neighborhoods and in black males. However, because homicide occurs primarily among young adults, mortality rate statistics may underrepresent its importance. We estimated the impact of homicide on life expectancy by demographic group and geographic area in Los Angeles County, 2001–2006. Life expectancy estimates were calculated using mortality records and population estimates for Los Angeles County. Cause elimination techniques were used to estimate the impact of homicide on life expectancy. Homicide was estimated to reduce life expectancy by 0.4 years for Los Angeles County residents and by 2.1 years for black males. The impact of homicide on life expectancy was higher in low-income neighborhoods. In some low-income urban neighborhoods, homicide was estimated to decrease life expectancy in black males by nearly 5 years. Homicide causes substantial reductions in life expectancy in Los Angeles County. Its impact is magnified among black males and in low-income urban areas, underscoring the need for homicide reduction in urban centers. PMID:20556528

  1. Three-dimensional structure of the greater Los Angeles basin: Insights from transects and models that integrate industry seismic reflection profiles, well logs, surface geology, and relocated earthquake catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Suess, M. P.; Rivero, C. A.

    2001-12-01

    We describe the geometry and activity of major, seismogenic fault systems in the Los Angeles basin and adjacent offshore areas using regional seismic reflection transects and three-dimensional structural and velocity models. The seismic transects, which integrates relocated earthquakes, focal mechanisms, and well control, image several active fault systems (Palos Verdes, Newport-Inglewood, Compton, Las Cienegas, Elysian Park, Puente Hills, Whittier, Oceanside, etc.) that threaten the Los Angeles metropolitan region. The models describe the three dimensional geometry and kinematic interaction of these faults systems, and incorporate 35,000 km of industry seismic reflection data, more than 1,000 well logs, surface geology, and re-located earthquake catalogs. The Los Angeles basin lies at the juncture of the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges, and thus contains fault systems that belong to both of these tectonic provinces. The southern basin and Inner California Borderlands are dominated by northwest-southeast trending strike-slip and blind-thrust systems, parallel to the grain of the Peninsular Ranges, that partition oblique convergence. Many of these structures are reactivated normal faults that formed during Neogene rifting of the southern California margin. In contrast, the northern Los Angeles basin is dominated by east-west trending thrust and strike-slip systems that accommodate north-south shortening. These faults are part of the Transverse Ranges province, and locally dissect older Peninsular Range trends that are carried northward by motion along the San Andreas and related strike-slip fault systems. We consider the implications of these tectonic models for regional earthquake hazards assessment.

  2. Integrated connection to neighborhood storytelling network, education, and chronic disease knowledge among African Americans and Latinos in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Moran, Meghan B; Wilkin, Holley A; Ball-Rokeach, Sandra J

    2011-04-01

    Combining key ideas from the knowledge-gap hypothesis and communication infrastructure theory, the present study aimed to explain the relations among individuals' education, access to community-based communication resources, and knowledge of chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, breast cancer, and prostate cancer) among African Americans and Latinos in Los Angeles. Rather than explore the effect of isolated communication resources, this study explored the effect of an integrated connection to community-based storytellers on chronic disease knowledge. The authors hypothesized that individuals' access to a community-based communication infrastructure for obtaining and sharing information functions as an intervening step in the process where social inequality factors such as education lead to chronic disease knowledge gaps in a local community context. With random samples of African Americans and Latinos in Los Angeles, the authors found that access to community-based communication resources plays a mediating role in the case of breast cancer and diabetes knowledge, but not in hypertension and prostate cancer knowledge. The authors discussed these findings on the basis of communication infrastructure theory and knowledge-gap hypothesis.

  3. One Hundred Intentional Acts of Kindness Toward a Pregnant Woman: Building Reproductive Social Capital in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Lu, Michael C.; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Dillon-Brown, Neysa; Broussard, Marsha; Wright, Kynna; Maidenberg, Molly; Norris, Keith; Ferré, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of an innovative community-based program, One Hundred Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman© (100 Acts), which seeks to increase reproductive social capital for pregnant women in south and central Los Angeles communities. Reproductive social capital includes features such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate optimal reproductive health within a community. 100 Acts was designed and developed by the Healthy African American Families project, using community participatory methods, to increase local community and social network support for pregnant women. Dialog groups with pregnant women identified specific actions that families, friends, and strangers might do to support pregnancies. Participants primarily wanted emotional and instrumental support from family and friends. From strangers, they wanted respect for personal space and common courtesy. Based on these results, the 100 Acts was created for use in the Los Angeles community. 100 Acts encourages and engages active participation from community members in promoting healthy pregnancies. By seeking to increase community-level reproductive social capital, 100 Acts shifts the provision of social support during pregnancy from a high-risk approach to a population approach. 100 Acts also establishes new social norms about how pregnant women are valued, treated and respected. PMID:20629245

  4. Advocacy Coalition for Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry: The Case of Los Angeles County's Measure B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam Carl; Tavrow, Paula; McGrath, Mark Roy

    2017-06-01

    Performers in the adult film industry are routinely exposed to bloodborne pathogens. In 2012, public health advocates in Los Angeles County convinced voters to pass a ballot initiative-Measure B-to mandate condom use on adult film sets. This article presents a case study of the advocacy coalition's strategies used to achieve greater workplace safety using the advocacy coalition framework. The authors were given access to all memoranda, market research, and campaign tools used to promote Measure B. To reconstruct adult film industry counterefforts, the authors reviewed trade publications, social media, and blog posts. When legislative efforts failed, advocates engaged in a step-by-step strategy built around voters to achieve passage of a ballot initiative mandating condom use for all adult films produced in Los Angeles County. Although the industry immediately filed a lawsuit after passage of Measure B, its constitutionality has been upheld. Measure B passed because public health advocates were able to assemble scientific evidence, build public support, counter false claims, and maintain consistent messages throughout the campaign. The adult film industry lacked social capital, cohesion, and nimbleness. To bolster regulatory efforts, appealing to voters to favor safe workplaces may be an effective advocacy strategy for other industries.

  5. How Do Communities Use a Participatory Public Health Approach to Build Resilience? The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bromley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience is a key concept in the National Health Security Strategy that emphasizes development of multi-sector partnerships and equity through community engagement. Here, we describe the advancement of CR principles through community participatory methods in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR initiative. LACCDR, an initiative led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health with academic partners, randomized 16 community coalitions to implement either an Enhanced Standard Preparedness or Community Resilience approach over 24 months. Facilitated by a public health nurse or community educator, coalitions comprised government agencies, community-focused organizations and community members. We used thematic analysis of data from focus groups (n = 5 and interviews (n = 6 coalition members; n = 16 facilitators to compare coalitions’ strategies for operationalizing community resilience levers of change (engagement, partnership, self-sufficiency, education. We find that strategies that included bidirectional learning helped coalitions understand and adopt resilience principles. Strategies that operationalized community resilience levers in mutually reinforcing ways (e.g., disseminating information while strengthening partnerships also secured commitment to resilience principles. We review additional challenges and successes in achieving cross-sector collaboration and engaging at-risk groups in the resilience versus preparedness coalitions. The LACCDR example can inform strategies for uptake and implementation of community resilience and uptake of the resilience concept and methods.

  6. Estimating spatially and temporally varying recharge and runoff from precipitation and urban irrigation in the Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2016-10-17

    A daily precipitation-runoff model, referred to as the Los Angeles Basin watershed model (LABWM), was used to estimate recharge and runoff for a 5,047 square kilometer study area that included the greater Los Angeles area and all surface-water drainages potentially contributing recharge to a 1,450 square kilometer groundwater-study area underlying the greater Los Angeles area, referred to as the Los Angeles groundwater-study area. The recharge estimates for the Los Angeles groundwater-study area included spatially distributed recharge in response to the infiltration of precipitation, runoff, and urban irrigation, as well as mountain-front recharge from surface-water drainages bordering the groundwater-study area. The recharge and runoff estimates incorporated a new method for estimating urban irrigation, consisting of residential and commercial landscape watering, based on land use and the percentage of pervious land area.The LABWM used a 201.17-meter gridded discretization of the study area to represent spatially distributed climate and watershed characteristics affecting the surface and shallow sub-surface hydrology for the Los Angeles groundwater study area. Climate data from a local network of 201 monitoring sites and published maps of 30-year-average monthly precipitation and maximum and minimum air temperature were used to develop the climate inputs for the LABWM. Published maps of land use, land cover, soils, vegetation, and surficial geology were used to represent the physical characteristics of the LABWM area. The LABWM was calibrated to available streamflow records at six streamflow-gaging stations.Model results for a 100-year target-simulation period, from water years 1915 through 2014, were used to quantify and evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of water-budget components, including evapotranspiration (ET), recharge, and runoff. The largest outflow of water from the LABWM was ET; the 100-year average ET rate of 362 millimeters per year (mm

  7. La invención del lugar. Estrategias proyectuales de tres proyectos de Frank Gehry en los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Begiristain Mitxelena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    One of the characteristics of Modern space is the frequent lack of references that could be considered to build the place. Some of its consequences are the inflation of the value of architectural heritage and thematic architecture. The city of Los Angeles can be considered a paradigm of the latter.
    Rather than constructing a fiction around a theme, some projects by Frank Gehry employ an alternative strategy aimed at creating a place with contemporary elements. The projects for the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium, Edgemar and Loyola Law School, built around 30 years ago in Los Angeles County, with varying sizes and programs, used common strategies in order to create a place. The layout of an enclosure, the construction of its limits, the differentiated treatment of materials between outside and inside, its ability to be read at different levels, or the integration of pre-existing buildings, are common instruments that repeat themselves in the three projects analyzed, and the result is public spaces with a scale fitting to the ordinary citizen.
    One of the clearest references in these projects by Frank Gehry is the work of Alvar Aalto; works such as Seinäjoki that proves the capacity to build new conditions for a place with personal and formal language .

  8. How Do Communities Use a Participatory Public Health Approach to Build Resilience? The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Eisenman, David P; Magana, Aizita; Williams, Malcolm; Kim, Biblia; McCreary, Michael; Chandra, Anita; Wells, Kenneth B

    2017-10-21

    Community resilience is a key concept in the National Health Security Strategy that emphasizes development of multi-sector partnerships and equity through community engagement. Here, we describe the advancement of CR principles through community participatory methods in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) initiative. LACCDR, an initiative led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health with academic partners, randomized 16 community coalitions to implement either an Enhanced Standard Preparedness or Community Resilience approach over 24 months. Facilitated by a public health nurse or community educator, coalitions comprised government agencies, community-focused organizations and community members. We used thematic analysis of data from focus groups ( n = 5) and interviews ( n = 6 coalition members; n = 16 facilitators) to compare coalitions' strategies for operationalizing community resilience levers of change (engagement, partnership, self-sufficiency, education). We find that strategies that included bidirectional learning helped coalitions understand and adopt resilience principles. Strategies that operationalized community resilience levers in mutually reinforcing ways (e.g., disseminating information while strengthening partnerships) also secured commitment to resilience principles. We review additional challenges and successes in achieving cross-sector collaboration and engaging at-risk groups in the resilience versus preparedness coalitions. The LACCDR example can inform strategies for uptake and implementation of community resilience and uptake of the resilience concept and methods.

  9. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project - a community-level, public health initiative to build community disaster resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David; Chandra, Anita; Fogleman, Stella; Magana, Aizita; Hendricks, Astrid; Wells, Ken; Williams, Malcolm; Tang, Jennifer; Plough, Alonzo

    2014-08-19

    Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR), a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest-posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  10. Restaurant owners' perspectives on a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions, Los Angeles County, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren; Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2014-03-20

    Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic.

  11. Restaurant Owners’ Perspectives on a Voluntary Program to Recognize Restaurants for Offering Reduced-Size Portions, Los Angeles County, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. Methods In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Results Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. Conclusion A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic. PMID:24650622

  12. Drinking-water quality and issues associated with water vending machines in the city of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, John; Du Vall Knorr, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    The study reported in this paper sampled 40 water vending machines distributed throughout the city of Los Angeles, California, in the water servicing area of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. The authors examined water samples for temperature, turbidity, chlorine content, fungal growth, coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and heterotrophic plate counts using plate count agar and R2A agar. Roughly 48 percent of the original 40 samples were sampled in a second or third round, and these subsequent samples were examined for coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and both heterotrophic plate counts. Observations were made of vending-machine external conditions, identifying information, and permits. Statistically significant associations were found between operator accessibility and poor machine conditions, operator accessibility and permits, and operator accessibility and the servicing interval. Statistically significant associations also were found between operator accessibility and presence of fungi, Pseudomonas spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and between presence of fungi and the servicing interval. In addition, statistically significant associations indicate that the quality of machine maintenance is a factor in microbial levels. The microbial content of the water suggested a need for further research into potential health effects in susceptible populations.

  13. Integrating Sodium Reduction Strategies in the Procurement Process and Contracting of Food Venues in the County of Los Angeles Government, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L.; Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N.; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Since sodium is ubiquitous in the food supply, recent approaches to sodium reduction have focused on increasing the availability of lower-sodium products through system-level and environmental changes. This article reviews integrated efforts by the Los Angeles County Sodium Reduction Initiative to implement these strategies at food venues in the County of Los Angeles government. The review used mixed methods, including a scan of the literature, key informant interviews, and lessons learned during 2010–2012 to assess program progress. Leveraging technical expertise and shared resources, the initiative strategically incorporated sodium reduction strategies into the overall work plan of a multipartnership food procurement program in Los Angeles County. To date, 3 County departments have incorporated new or updated nutrition requirements that included sodium limits and other strategies. The strategic coupling of sodium reduction to food procurement and general health promotion allowed for simultaneous advancement and acceleration of the County’s sodium reduction agenda. PMID:24322811

  14. Blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia and Domoic Acid in the San Pedro Channel and Los Angeles Harbor Areas of the Southern California Bight, 2003–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Schnetzer, Astrid; Miller, Peter E.; Schaffner, Rebecca; Stauffer, Beth; Jones, Burton H.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; DiGiacomo, Paul M.; Berelson, William M.; David A. Caron

    2007-01-01

    Abundances of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and concentrations of particulate domoic acid (DA) were determined in the Southern California Bight (SCB) along the coasts of Los Angeles and Orange Counties during spring and summer of 2003 and 2004. At least 1500 km2 were affected by a toxic event in May/June of 2003 when some of the highest particulate DA concentrations reported for US coastal waters were measured inside the Los Angeles harbor (12.7 μg DA L−1). Particulate DA levels were an order of magn...

  15. The impact of visual impairment on self-reported visual functioning in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globe, Denise R; Wu, Joanne; Azen, Stanley P; Varma, Rohit

    2004-06-01

    To assess the association between presenting binocular visual acuity (VA) and self-reported visual function as measured by the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). A population-based, prevalence study of eye disease in Latinos 40 years and older residing in La Puente, California (Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES]). Six thousand three hundred fifty-seven Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in La Puente. All participants completed a standardized interview, including the NEI-VFQ-25 to measure visual functioning, and a detailed eye examination. Two definitions of visual impairment were used: (1) presenting binocular distance VA of 20/40 or worse and (2) presenting binocular distance VA worse than 20/40. Analysis of variance was used to determine any systematic differences in mean NEI-VFQ-25 scores by visual impairment. Regression analyses were completed (1) to determine the association of age, gender, number of systemic comorbidities, depression, and VA with self-reported visual function and (2) to estimate a visual impairment-related difference for each subscale based on differences in VA. The NEI-VFQ-25 scores in persons with visual impairment. Of the 5287 LALES participants with complete NEI-VFQ-25 data, 6.3% (including 20/40) and 4.2% (excluding 20/40) were visually impaired. In the visually impaired participants, the NEI-VFQ-25 subscale scores ranged from 46.2 (General Health) to 93.8 (Color Vision). In the regression model, only VA, depression, and number of comorbidities were significantly associated with all subscale scores (R(2) ranged from 0.09 for Ocular Pain to 0.33 for the composite score). For 9 of 11 subscales, a 5-point change was equivalent to a 1- or 2-line difference in VA. Relationships were similar regardless of the definition of visual impairment. In this population-based study of Latinos, the NEI-VFQ-25 was sensitive to differences in VA. A 5-point difference on the NEI-VFQ-25 seems to be a

  16. Spatio-temporal Estimates of CO2 Emissions in the Los Angeles Basin from On-road and Airport Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P.; Song, Y.; Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.; Eldering, A.; O'Keeffe, D.; Miller, C. E.; Duren, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing the spatio-temporal distribution of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions in urban landscapes is challenging. We use Hestia, an innovative "bottom up" approach for estimating FFCO2 emissions in the Los Angeles (LA) megacity and Southern California Air Basin (SCAB) which account for ~53% of the FFCO2 emissions in California. Hestia-LA, in coordination with "top down" atmospheric CO2 measurements, will provide baseline FFCO2 emissions, help monitor changes in emissions, and develop emissions mitigation policies. Hestia-LA characterizes FFCO2 emissions at the building/street spatial scale (10-100 m) and at hourly time steps in the basin by combining data on residential and commercial building emissions, industrial processes, electricity production, and different transportation sectors. We report here on the construction of the spatial and temporal structure in two key transportation sectors within the SCAB: on-road vehicle (46%) and aircraft (2%) emissions. We quantified on-road traffic emissions by merging traffic data from Southern California Association of Governments, California Freeway Performance Measurement System and modeled motor vehicle emissions from EPA's NMIM model. Preliminary analysis shows that (1) LA and Orange counties dominate the annual FFCO2 emissions from urban freeways and arterials, and (2) LA county has a wider peak traffic period during weekdays (2-6pm) than the other four counties (4-5pm). We characterized airport emissions by integrating information from Federal Aviation Administration, Los Angeles World Airports, and Airnav LLC for the temporal structure of aircraft arrivals and departures, and the National Emissions Inventory for total annual aircraft emissions. We categorized the 47 airports in LA basin based on the volume and type (commercial, general aviation and military) of aircraft traffic, and then assigned appropriate hour-of-day and day-of-week traffic volume-specific CO2 emission patterns to each airport. We found

  17. Continuity of slip rates over various time scales on the Puente Hills Blind-thrust Fault, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Kristian J.; Shaw, John H.; Leon, Lorraine A.; Dolan, James F.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Barrera, Wendy; Rhodes, Edward J.; Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2014-05-01

    Our study seeks to assess the history of slip on the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system (PHT) from its inception through the Holocene by integrating a suite of geological and geophysical datasets. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. It is also well suited to slip rate studies, as fold scarps formed by slip on the PHT at depth have been continually buried by flood deposits from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers, preserving a record of uplift in the form of growth stratigraphy. We determined uplift from the growth stratigraphy by measuring the difference in sediment thickness across the folded layers. At our study site above the western segment of the PHT, the fold structure was imaged by industry seismic reflection data and a pair of high-resolution (100 to 700 m depth) seismic reflection profiles acquired by the authors for this study using weight drop and small vibrator sources. The industry and high-resolution profiles were stacked, migrated and depth converted using a velocity model based on the stacking velocities and the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Velocity Model. The shallowest layers of growth stratigraphy were geometrically constrained by lithological correlations across a series of cone penetration tests and continuously cored boreholes. Age control was provided by radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating, and sequence-stratigraphic boundaries. Radiocarbon dating was used to constrain individual earthquake event ages in the borehole transect. Using a novel coring procedure, light-protected samples for quartz OSL and feldspar IRSL dating were acquired from a 171-m-deep borehole that we drilled within the growth fold. These samples provided age constraints on growth strata that were tied to prominent seismic reflections and were combined with

  18. MAX-DOAS measurements of aerosol, HCHO, and NO2 over Los Angeles from an elevated mountaintop site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ross

    MAX-DOAS measurements of aerosol, HCHO, and NO2 over Los Angeles from an elevated mountaintop site. By. Ross Cheung. Doctor of Philosophy in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. University of California, Los Angeles, 2016. Professor Jochen Stutz, Chair. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) has become a popular technique for measuring atmospheric trace gases using UV/Vis narrow-band absorption features along a light path through the atmosphere. The UCLA Multi-Axis DOAS instrument (MAX-DOAS) is a ground-based spectrometer currently located at Mt. Wilson, California (1700 meters above sea level) that measures solar scattered light at various viewing elevation angles. Since May of 2010, it has been taking regular measurements of atmospheric pollutants in the boundary layer of the atmosphere in and above the Los Angeles Basin. This thesis presents the experimental setup and spectral retrievals, as well as results of our observations of measurements of NO2 and HCHO from Mt. Wilson. Radiative transfer modeling efforts of the deployment at Mt. Wilson will be presented, as well as our efforts to model and account for the effects of clouds and aerosols on MAX-DOAS measurements. Because of the unique challenges presented by aerosols in the ultraviolet and visible light region in a polluted urban boundary layer, new techniques were developed to account for and quantify these effects. Observations of path-integrated NO2 and HCHO, some of the primary precursors to ozone formation in the lower troposphere, as well as aerosol extinctions using the UCLA MAX-DOAS will be presented, and the advantages of a mountaintop measurement strategy will be discussed in light of the amount of vertical information that can be retrieved from this approach. The techniques developed to improve the optimal estimation of vertical aerosol extinction profiles and trace gas concentration profiles will be discussed. Finally, an application of these observations uses the ratio of HCHO/NO2 to

  19. High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data

  20. Efficient determination of vehicle emission factors by fuel use category using on-road measurements: downward trends on Los Angeles freight corridor I-710

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hudda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the success of vehicle emissions regulations, trends in both fleet-wide average emissions as well as high-emitter emissions are needed, but it is challenging to capture the full spread of vehicle emission factors (EFs with chassis dynamometer or tunnel studies, and remote sensing studies cannot evaluate particulate compounds. We developed an alternative method that links real-time on-road pollutant measurements from a mobile platform with real-time traffic data, and allows efficient calculation of both the average and the spread of EFs for light-duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDG and heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles (HDD. This is the first study in California to report EFs under a full range of real-world driving conditions on multiple freeways. Fleet average LDG EFs were in agreement with most recent studies and an order of magnitude lower than observed HDD EFs. HDD EFs reflected the relatively rapid decreases in diesel emissions that have recently occurred in Los Angeles/California, and on I-710, a primary route used for goods movement and a focus of additional truck fleet turnover incentives, HDD EFs were often lower than on other freeways. When freeway emission rates (ER were quantified as the product of EF and vehicle miles traveled (VMT per time per mile of freeway, despite a two- to three-fold difference in HDD fractions between freeways, ERs were found to be generally similar in magnitude. Higher LDG VMT on low HDD fraction freeways largely offset the difference. Therefore, the conventional assumption that freeways with the highest HDD fractions are significantly worse sources of total emissions in Los Angeles may no longer be~true.

  1. Light-absorbing soluble organic aerosol in Los Angeles and Atlanta: A contrast in secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Surratt, Jason D.; Zotter, Peter; Prévôt, Andre S. H.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2011-11-01

    Light absorption spectra and carbon mass of fine particle water-soluble components were measured during the summer of 2010 in the Los Angeles (LA) basin, California, and Atlanta, Georgia. Fresh LA secondary organic carbon had a consistent brown color and a bulk absorption per soluble carbon mass at 365 nm that was 4 to 6 times higher than freshly-formed Atlanta soluble organic carbon. Radiocarbon measurements of filter samples show that LA secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was mainly from fossil carbon and chemical analysis of aqueous filter extracts identified nitro-aromatics as one component of LA brown SOA. Interpreting soluble brown carbon as a property of freshly-formed anthropogenic SOA, the difference in absorption per carbon mass between these two cities suggests most fresh secondary water-soluble organic carbon formed within Atlanta is not from an anthropogenic process similar to LA. Contrasting emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds may account for these differences.

  2. Menu labeling perception and health behaviors among immigrant and US born minority populations: assessment in two Los Angeles public markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    To analyze menu labeling perception and food choices/health behaviors in two Los Angeles public markets. Labels with food caloric content were displayed in the food court of one of these markets. Bivarate means analyses compared the surveyed population by market and by nativity status. The main predictors of menu-labeling influence were identified in the sample from the market that displayed labels. A separate analysis investigated food choices/health behaviors among immigrant cohorts by time of US residence. Reading labels when shopping was one of the main predictors associated with menu labeling influence. Longer-stayed immigrants were more likely to afford "balanced meals", but they were also more likely to eat in fast food restaurants and less likely to engage into moderate/intense physical activity. While nativity was not a significant predictor of menu labeling influence on food choices, our findings suggest food choices/behaviors convergence among immigrant and US-born populations.

  3. Integrated approaches to improve birth outcomes: perinatal periods of risk, infant mortality review, and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shin Margaret; Donatoni, Giannina; Bemis, Cathleen; Donovan, Kevin; Harding, Cynthia; Davenport, Deborah; Gilbert, Carol; Kasehagen, Laurin; Peck, Magda G

    2010-11-01

    LAMB case-control study (279 controls, 87 cases) identified additional factors associated with LBW births: high blood pressure before and during pregnancy, pregnancy weight gain falling outside of the recommended range, smoking during pregnancy, and feeling unhappy during pregnancy. PT birth was significantly associated with having a previous LBW/PT birth, not taking multivitamins before pregnancy, and feeling unhappy during pregnancy. In response to these findings, community stakeholders gathered to develop strategic actions for targeted prevention to address infant mortality. Subsequently, key funders infused resources into the community, resulting in expanded case management of high-risk women, increased family planning services and local resources, better training for nurses, and public health initiatives to increase awareness of infant safety. Community readiness, mobilization, and alignment in addressing a public health concern in Los Angeles County enabled the integration of PPOR analytic methods into the established IMR structure and [the design and implementation of a population-based l study (LAMB)] to monitor the factors associated with adverse birth outcomes. PPOR proved an effective approach for identifying risk and social factors of greatest concern, the magnitude of the problem, and mobilizing community action to improve infant mortality in the Antelope Valley.

  4. Not an 'iron pipeline', but many capillaries: regulating passive transactions in Los Angeles' secondary, illegal gun market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnut, Kelsie Y; Barragan, Melissa; Gravel, Jason; Pifer, Natalie A; Reiter, Keramet; Sherman, Nicole; Tita, George E

    2017-08-01

    California has strict firearm-related laws and is exceptional in its regulation of firearms retailers. Though evidence suggests that these laws can reduce illegal access to guns, high levels of gun violence persist in Los Angeles (LA), California. This research seeks to describe the sources of guns accessed by active offenders in LA, California and reports offenders' motivations for obtaining guns. Los Angeles County Jail (LACJ) system (four facilities). Random sampling from a screened pool of eligible participants was used to conduct qualitative semistructured interviews with 140 incarcerated gun offenders in one of four (LACJ) facilities. Researchers collected data on firearm acquisition, experiences related to gun violence, and other topics, using a validated survey instrument. Grounded theory guided the collection and analysis of data. Respondents reported possession of 77 specific guns (79.2% handguns) collectively. Social networks facilitate access to illegal guns; the majority of interviewees acquired their illegal guns through a social connection (85.7%) versus an outside broker/unregulated retailer (8.5%). Most guns were obtained through illegal purchase (n=51) or gift (n=15). A quarter of gun purchasers report engaging in a passive transaction, or one initiated by another party. Passive gun buyers were motivated by concerns for personal safety and/or economic opportunity. In LA's illegal gun market, where existing social relationships facilitate access to guns across a diffuse network, individuals, influenced by both fear and economic opportunity, have frequent opportunities to illegally possess firearms through passive transactions. Gun policies should better target and minimise these transactions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Drug resistant HIV: Behaviors and characteristics among Los Angeles men who have sex with men with new HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Pamina M; Javanbakht, Marjan; Bornfleth, Lorelei; Bolan, Robert K; Lewis Blum, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed); specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses. In this community clinic we found prevalence of resistance among MSM with new HIV-diagnosis was 19.5% (n = 30/154) with no difference by recency of HIV infection. Sexual partnership characteristics were associated with resistance; those who reported transgendered sex partners had a higher prevalence of resistance as compared to those who did not report transgendered sex partners (40% vs. 17%; p value = 0.04), while those who reported having a main partner had a lower prevalence of drug resistance (12% vs. 24%; p value = 0.07). In multivariable analyses adjusting for HIV recency and antiviral use, reporting a main partner decreased odds [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.87], reporting a transgendered partnered increased odds (AOR = 3.37; 95% CI 0.95-12.43); and being African American increased odds of drug resistance (AOR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.41-22.38). This suggests African American MSM and TG individuals in Los Angeles represent pockets of exceptional risk that will require special approaches to prevention and care to enhance their own health and reduce their likelihood to support transmission of drug resistance in the US.

  6. Uptake and repeat use of postexposure prophylaxis in a community-based clinic in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beymer, Matthew R; Bolan, Robert K; Flynn, Risa P; Kerrone, Dustin R; Pieribone, David L; Kulkarni, Sonali P; Stitt, Jackelyn C; Mejia, Everardo; Landovitz, Raphael J

    2014-09-01

    Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) has become an important tool for HIV prevention in the men who have sex with men (MSM) communities within Los Angeles County. However, it is unclear as to whether the most sexually at-risk MSM populations are accessing PEP services. Furthermore, it is unclear what behavioral risk factors differentiate individuals who utilize PEP once (single PEP) versus those who utilize it multiple times (re-PEP). Data were collected between May 2011 and December 2012 on all clients enrolled in the Los Angeles LGBT Center's (the Center) PEP-LA program as well as on all sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening clients visiting the Center. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze results. PEP clients had greater odds of having a history of gonorrhea in the past year when compared to high-risk, non-PEP clients (OR: 1.71; CI: 1.25-2.35). Furthermore, they had greater odds of using methamphetamines (OR: 1.71; CI: 1.30-2.24) and inhaled nitrates (OR: 1.62; CI: 1.30-2.01) in the past 12 months when compared to high-risk, non-PEP clients. Re-PEP clients had greater odds of methamphetamine use than single PEP clients (OR: 2.80; CI: 1.65-4.75). There were no significant differences by race/ethnicity between high-risk, non-PEP clients and PEP clients in either the entire cohort or MSM only sample. However, African Americans made up 8.5% of persons accessing PEP services but 16.7% of persons who tested HIV positive. Similar proportions of PEP use by race/ethnicity are problematic considering the disproportionate burden of HIV infections in the African American community. Although uptake among the highest risk populations has been brisk (n=649), inequities based upon race/ethnicity suggest the need for increased outreach.

  7. Turning the Curve on Obesity Prevalence Among Fifth Graders in the Los Angeles Unified School District, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Amanda; Hameed, Heena; Shih, Margaret; Simon, Paul

    2017-02-16

    After multiple decades of increasing childhood obesity prevalence in the United States, findings from recent studies suggest that prevalence has leveled or is decreasing in some populations. However, demographic and socioeconomic disparities in prevalence remain and may be increasing. To assess recent trends and disparities in childhood obesity prevalence in Los Angeles County, we analyzed data from 2001 through 2013 in fifth graders in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). Obesity was defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex as compared with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, on the basis of measured height and weight. Trends were examined by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). SES was determined by using school-level data on the percentage of students participating in a free and reduced-price meal program. Obesity prevalence increased from 27.5% in 2001 to 31.6% in 2005, was stable from 2005 through 2010, and decreased from 31.6% in 2010 to 28.5% in 2013. Similar trajectories in prevalence were observed for all demographic and SES subgroups, although the decline in prevalence began earlier among whites and students attending schools in the highest SES group. Disparities in prevalence by race/ethnicity and SES were observed during the entire study period but narrowed slightly from 2010 through 2013. Although obesity prevalence among fifth graders in LAUSD declined from 2010 through 2013, prevalence remains higher than in 2001, and demographic and socioeconomic disparities in prevalence persist. Future interventions in the county should prioritize Latinos and students attending low SES schools.

  8. Stratigraphic Controls on Seawater Intrusion, and Implications for Ground-Water Management, Dominguez Gap Area of Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, A. J.; Nishikawa, T.; Reichard, E. G.

    2007-12-01

    Development of ground water in coastal Los Angeles in the 20th century led to extensive water-level declines and associated seawater intrusion. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a solute-transport model to quantitatively test the hydraulic implications of a sequence-stratigraphic model and to assess the possible effects of alternative management strategies. The transport modeling was conducted using SUTRA, a finite-element, density-dependent, ground-water flow and solute-transport model. The SUTRA configuration for this case is two dimensional and considers flow and transport along an approximate flow line extending from the Pacific Ocean through the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles. The lithologic representation is based on a stratigraphic cross section developed by Ponti and others (2007) http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1013/. The transient-state simulation period is from 1850 to 2004. Trial-and-error model calibration was conducted using the measured water levels and chloride (Cl) concentrations at nine wells along the cross section. The results from the calibrated model indicate that faulting can provide the main pathway for downward transport of seawater by juxtaposing low permeability layers with high permeability layers; prior stratigraphic models for the region did not recognize this fault system. Three 20- year management scenarios were considered: (1) status quo, that is, no change in water-management strategies; (2) installation of a slurry wall; and (3) raising inland water levels through increased injection or decreased pumpage. Scenario 1 resulted in increasing Cl concentrations. Scenario 2 slowed Cl migration; however, this did not reverse seawater intrusion. Scenario 3 reversed seawater intrusion, but there remained Cl in the deeper regions that will be removed only by dilution over time.

  9. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Choose Less, Weigh Less Portion Size Health Marketing Campaign in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.

  10. Using Comprehensive Science-based Disaster Scenarios to Support Seismic Safety Policy: A Case Study in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, the USGS entered a technical assistance agreement with the City of Los Angeles to apply the results of the 2008 ShakeOut Scenario of a M7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault to develop a comprehensive plan to increase the seismic resilience of the City. The results of this project are to be submitted to the Mayor of Los Angeles at the Great ShakeOut on October 16, 2014. The ShakeOut scenario detailed how the expected cascade of failures in a big earthquake could lead to significant delays in disaster recovery that could create financial losses that greatly exceed the direct losses in the event. The goal of the seismic resilience plan is to: protect the lives of residents during earthquakes improve the capacity of the City to respond to the earthquake prepare the City to recover quickly after the earthquake so as to protect the economy of the City and all of southern California To accomplish these goals, the project addresses three areas of seismic vulnerability that were identified in the original ShakeOut Scenario: Pre-1980 buildings that present an unacceptable risk to the lives of residents, including "non-ductile reinforced concrete," and "soft-first-story" buildings Water system infrastructure (including impact on firefighting capability) Communications infrastructure The critical science needed to support policy decisions is to understand the probable consequences to the regional long-term economy caused by decisions to undertake (or not) different levels of mitigation. The arguments against mitigation are the immediate financial costs, so a better understanding of the eventual benefit is required. However, the direct savings rarely justify the mitigation costs, so the arguments in favor of mitigation are driven by the potential for cascading failures and the potential to trigger the type of long term reduction in population and economic activity that has occurred in New Orleans since Hurricane Katrina.

  11. Drug resistant HIV: Behaviors and characteristics among Los Angeles men who have sex with men with new HIV diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamina M Gorbach

    Full Text Available Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed; specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses. In this community clinic we found prevalence of resistance among MSM with new HIV-diagnosis was 19.5% (n = 30/154 with no difference by recency of HIV infection. Sexual partnership characteristics were associated with resistance; those who reported transgendered sex partners had a higher prevalence of resistance as compared to those who did not report transgendered sex partners (40% vs. 17%; p value = 0.04, while those who reported having a main partner had a lower prevalence of drug resistance (12% vs. 24%; p value = 0.07. In multivariable analyses adjusting for HIV recency and antiviral use, reporting a main partner decreased odds [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13-0.87], reporting a transgendered partnered increased odds (AOR = 3.37; 95% CI 0.95-12.43; and being African American increased odds of drug resistance (AOR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.41-22.38. This suggests African American MSM and TG individuals in Los Angeles represent pockets of exceptional risk that will require special approaches to prevention and care to enhance their own health and reduce their likelihood to support transmission of drug resistance in the US.

  12. Reconciling Long-Term Trends in Air Quality with Bottom-up Emission Inventories for Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Kim, S. W.; Frost, G. J.; Harley, R.; Trainer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Significant long-term changes in air quality have been observed in the United States over several decades. However, reconciling ambient observations with bottom-up emission inventories has proved challenging. In this study, we perform WRF-Chem modeling in the Los Angeles basin for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ozone (O3) over a long time period (1987-2010). To improve reconciliation of emission inventories with atmospheric observations, we incorporate new high-resolution emissions maps of a major to dominant source of urban air pollution, motor vehicles. A fuel-based approach is used to estimate motor vehicle emissions utilizing annual fuel sales reports, traffic count data that capture spatial and temporal patterns of vehicle activity, and pollutant emission factors measured from roadway studies performed over the last twenty years. We also update emissions from stationary sources using Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) data when available, and use emission inventories developed by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and California Air Resources Board (ARB) for other important emission source categories. WRF-Chem modeling is performed in three years where field-intensive measurements were made: 1987 (SCAQS: Southern California Air Quality Study), 2002 (ITCT: Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation Study), and 2010 (CALNEX). We assess the ability of the improved bottom-up emissions inventory to predict long-term changes in ambient levels of CO, NOx, and O3, which are known to have occurred over this time period. We also assess changing spatial and temporal patterns of primary (CO and NOx) and secondary (O3) pollutant concentrations across the Los Angeles basin, which has important implications on human health.

  13. Media Outlet and Consumer Reactions to Promotional Activities of the Choose Health LA Restaurants Program in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Montes, Christine; Robles, Brenda; Tyree, Rachel; Kuo, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to assess promotional activities undertaken to raise public awareness of the Choose Health LA Restaurants program in Los Angeles County, an environmental change strategy that recognizes restaurants for offering reduced-size and healthier menu options. We used multiple methods to assess public awareness of and reactions to the promotional activities, including an assessment of the reach of core promotional activities, a content analysis of earned media, and an Internet panel survey. The study was conducted in Los Angeles County, home to more than 10 million residents. An online survey firm recruited participants for an Internet panel survey; to facilitate generalization of results to the county's population, statistical weights were applied to analyses of the survey data. Promotional activities to raise awareness of the program included community engagement, in-store promotion, and a media campaign. Outcomes included media impressions, the number of people who reported seeing the Choose Health LA Restaurants logo, and a description of the themes present in earned media. Collectively, paid media outlets reported 335 587 229 total impressions. The Internet panel survey showed that 12% of people reported seeing the program logo. Common themes in earned media included the Choose Health LA Restaurants program aims to provide restaurant patrons with more choices, represents a new opportunity for restaurants and public health to work together, will benefit participating restaurants, and will positively impact health. Promotional activities for the Choose Health LA Restaurants program achieved modest reach and positive reactions from media outlets and consumers. The program strategy and lessons learned can help inform present and future efforts to combine environmental and individually focused strategies that target key influences of consumer food selection.

  14. Strange little flies in the big city: exotic flower-breeding drosophilidae (Diptera in urban Los Angeles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grimaldi

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes are commonly considered too mundane and corrupted to be biotically interesting. Recent insect surveys employing 29 Malaise traps throughout Los Angeles, California, however, have uncovered breeding populations of two unexpected species of one of the most studied and familiar groups of organisms, Drosophila "fruit" flies. Unlike most introduced species of drosophilids, which breed in fresh or decaying fruits, these are specialized flower-breeders. A common species in the survey was Drosophila (Drosophila gentica Wheeler and Takada, previously collected only once, in El Salvador. It belongs to the flavopilosa species group, all species of which have been known until now from central Chile, Argentina and Uruguay, to Veracruz, Mexico and the Caribbean, breeding in flowers of Cestrum ("jessamine" and Sessea (Solanaceae. The Los Angeles populations are probably breeding in a native and/or introduced Cestrum; in addition, populations in San Luis Obispo County were visiting ornamental Cestrum. Drosophila gentica occurs as far north as San Francisco, where it was found breeding in Cestrum aurantiacum. D. gentica is redescribed and figured in detail for diagnostic and identification purposes. Specimens from Jamaica previously identified as D. gentica are a distinct species but are not formally described in lieu of complete male specimens. Rare in the Malaise traps was Drosophila (Sophophora flavohirta Malloch, a common species in Australia on the blossoms of native Myrtaceae, found on introduced Eucalyptus in South Africa and both Eucalyptus and Syzygium in Madagascar; adults feed on myrtaceous pollen and nectar, larvae breed in the flowers. It is also redescribed in detail, including its unusual egg. This is the first New World report of this species; DNA sequences confirm it is a morphologically highly aberrant member of the D. melanogaster species group. This study reveals how intensive field sampling can uncover remarkable

  15. PERSONAL, INDOOR, AND OUTDOOR CONCENTRATIONS OF PM2.5, PARTICULATE NITRATE, AND ELEMENTAL CARBON FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH COPD IN LOS ANGELES, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterizes the personal, indoor, and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 and the major components of PM2.5, including nitrate (NO3-), elemental carbon (EC), and the elements for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) living in Los Angeles, CA. ...

  16. Diet and Obesity in Los Angeles County 2007–2012: Is there a measurable effect of the 2008 “Fast-Food Ban”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Hattori, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of “Los Angeles Fast-Food Ban”, a zoning regulation that restricts opening/remodeling of standalone fast-food restaurants in South Los Angeles since 2008. Food retail permits issued after the ban are more often for small food/convenience stores and less often for larger restaurants not part of a chain in South Los Angeles compared to other areas; there are no significant differences in the share of new fast-food chain outlets, other chain restaurants, or large food markets. About 10% of food outlets are new since the regulation, but there is little evidence that the composition has changed differentially across areas. Data from the California Health Interview Survey show that fast-food consumption and overweight/obesity rates have increased from 2007 to 2011/2012 in all areas. The increase in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity since the ban has been significantly larger in South Los Angeles than elsewhere. A positive development has been a drop in soft drink consumption since 2007, but that drop is of similar magnitude in all areas. PMID:25779774

  17. New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles--Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment. Policy Brief 12-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, William; Coghlan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to relieve overcrowded schools operating on multiple tracks, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) has invested more than $19 billion to build 130 new facilities over the past decade. District leaders asked researchers at Berkeley to estimate the achievement effects of this massive initiative--benefits that may stem from entering…

  18. Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years - Los Angeles County, 1999-2006 and 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Craig M; Carroll, Margaret D; Simon, Paul A; Kuo, Tony; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2017-08-18

    Hypertension is an important and common risk factor for heart disease and stroke, two of the leading causes of death in adults in the United States. Despite considerable improvement in increasing the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, undiagnosed and uncontrolled hypertension remain public health challenges (1). Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate the prevalence of hypertension, as well as awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults aged ≥18 years in Los Angeles County compared with adults aged ≥18 years in the United States during 1999-2006 and 2007-2014. During 2007-2014, the prevalence of hypertension was 23.1% among adults in Los Angeles County, lower than the prevalence of 29.6% among all U.S. adults. Among adults with hypertension in Los Angeles County, substantial improvements from 1999-2006 to 2007-2014 were found in hypertension awareness (increase from 73.8% to 84.6%), treatment (61.3% to 77.2%), and control (28.5% to 48.3%). Similar improvements were also seen among all U.S. adults. Although the prevalence of hypertension among adults in Los Angeles County meets the Healthy People 2020 (https://www.healthypeople.gov/) goal of ≤26.9%, continued progress is needed to meet the Healthy People 2020 goal of ≥61.2% for control of hypertension.

  19. Where Are the Young Men in HIV Prevention Efforts? Comments on HIV Prevention Programs and Research from Young Men Who Sex with Men in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M[subscript age] = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to…

  20. Summary of the Script and Program Review of Sesame Street by the Chicano Study Center, University of California in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    The Sesame Street research staff summarizes comments on the fourth season of the program by the Chicano Study Center of the University of California at Los Angeles. Included are reviews of Sesame Street scripts and programs containing Spanish content; sex role observations; examples of modeling behavior; and comments on segments which challenge…

  1. Diet and obesity in Los Angeles County 2007-2012: Is there a measurable effect of the 2008 "Fast-Food Ban"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Hattori, Aiko

    2015-05-01

    We evaluate the impact of the "Los Angeles Fast-Food Ban", a zoning regulation that has restricted opening/remodeling of standalone fast-food restaurants in South Los Angeles since 2008. Food retail permits issued after the ban are more often for small food/convenience stores and less often for larger restaurants not part of a chain in South Los Angeles compared to other areas; there are no significant differences in the share of new fast-food chain outlets, other chain restaurants, or large food markets. About 10% of food outlets are new since the regulation, but there is little evidence that the composition has changed differentially across areas. Data from the California Health Interview Survey show that fast-food consumption and overweight/obesity rates have increased from 2007 to 2011/2012 in all areas. The increase in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity since the ban has been significantly larger in South Los Angeles than elsewhere. A positive development has been a drop in soft drink consumption since 2007, but that drop is of similar magnitude in all areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Making a Living in the Streets of Los Angeles: An Ethnographic Study of Day Laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Melero Malpica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la organización social de migrantes latinos que abiertamente venden su fuerza laboral en los mercados de trabajo de las esquinas del área metropolitana de Los Ángeles. En contraste con la caracterización de los sitios de trabajo de los jornaleros urbanos como competitivos o desestructurados, este estudio demuestra que estos mercados tienen una variedad de formas estructurales que proveen la base organizativa para reunir a empleadores potenciales y a quienes buscan trabajo, los esquineros. Como todos los demás, este mercado de trabajo tiene costumbres y reglas que se aplican cuando los participantes buscan eficiencia en su trato entre ellos y con sus clientes. Estas reglas no están escritas y se basan en gran medida en la práctica y el precedente, pero gobiernan muchos aspectos de las relaciones de trabajo, incluyendo la relación de salario. Este estudio encontró que el mercado de trabajo de los jornaleros urbanos responde menos a la competencia y más a las reglas de trabajo informal y al papel de las relaciones de costumbre.

  3. A cross section of the Los Angeles Area: Seismically active fold and thrust belt, The 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake, and earthquake hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas L.; Namson, Jay; Yerkes, Robert F.

    1989-07-01

    presence of two intersecting compressional belts in the Los Angeles area: the Transverse Ranges and the northern Peninsular Ranges. The belts may be due to one or more regional detachments and the northern Peninsular Ranges may be northeast or southwest vergent. The deformed top of the crystalline basement along the regional cross section requires a minimum of 15.0 km of north-south convergence between the Palos Verdes Hills and the San Andreas fault regardless of the structural solution. Restoration of our cross section solution requires 21.4 km of north-south convergence on top of the crystalline basement (including 6.4 km of slip continuing offshore to make structures of the continental borderland) and 29.7 km of convergence on the basal detachment. Geologic relationships suggest major shortening started between early and late Pliocene time (2.2-4.0 Ma) which yields a minimum convergence rate of 3.8-6.8 mm/yr between the Palos Verdes Hills and the San Andreas fault. Convergence rates for our solution range from 5.4 to 13.5 mm/yr between the edge of the continental borderland and the San Andreas fault. Slip rate estimates for the Elysian Park thrust along the eastern portion of the Santa Monica Mountains anticlinorium are 2.5-5.2 mm/yr. If the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake is the characteristic earthquake along the 170-km-long anticlinorium, then recurrence intervals are estimated to be 5.6-12.1 years. This recurrence is higher than the historic seismic record along the Santa Monica Mountains anticlinorium and suggests that (1) our slip rates are too high, (2) some crustal shortening is taken up aseismically, and/or (3) earthquakes larger than the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake will occur along the anticlinorium, but less frequently.

  4. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO: chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Hersey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1–2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Regardless of regime, organic aerosol (OA is the most significant constituent of nonrefractory submicron Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55 % of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively. The overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively, with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA in Los Angeles. Online analysis of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC indicates that water soluble organic mass (WSOM reaches maxima near 14:00–15:00 local time (LT, but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly

  5. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO) represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1-2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Regardless of regime, organic aerosol (OA) is the most significant constituent of nonrefractory submicron Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55 % of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively). The overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively), with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) in Los Angeles. Online analysis of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) indicates that water soluble organic mass (WSOM) reaches maxima near 14:00-15:00 local time (LT), but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation

  6. Working on the Margins in Metropolitan Los Angeles: Immigrants in Day-Labor Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Valenzuela Jr

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora la teoría de la desventaja para entender la participación de inmigrantes latinos como jornaleros urbanos. Entrevistas con 481 jornaleros urbanos, seleccionados aleatoriamente en 87 lugares de empleo en el área metropolitana de Los Ángeles, hacen posible un análisis de las características demográficas y del mercado de trabajo de este tipo de auto empleados. Aunque la gran mayoría de los jornaleros urbanos son inmigrantes recién llegados sin autorización para trabajar, no todos están desesperados, como la teoría de la desventaja podría hacernos creer. Los jornaleros urbanos son diversos en términos de su estructura familiar, el tiempo de su llegada, su experiencia en este trabajo y su capital humano. A pesar de esto, la falta de capital humano y otras características, generalmente los obstaculizan para buscar ocupaciones estables y mejor pagadas en el mercado laboral regular. Los ingresos entre los jornaleros urbanos son diversos, la paga por hora es mayor que los topes del salario mínimo federal o estatal, el regateo de salarios es común y ven-tajoso para el trabajador y los salarios son pagados en efectivo y libres de impuestos. Sin embargo, estas ventajas son neutralizadas por la inestabilidad del trabajo. Para una minoría de jornaleros urbanos este mercado ofrece una alternativa a otros empleos irregulares y de baja calificación.

  7. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wayne A; Kuang, Shan N; Hernandez, Rina; Chong, Melissa C; Ewing, Peter J; Fleischer, Jen; Meng, Jia; Chu, Sheena; Terashita, Dawn; English, L'Tanya; Chen, Wangxue; Xu, H Howard

    2016-05-04

    Antibiotic resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii have been responsible for an increasing number of nosocomial infections including bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. In this study, we analyzed 38 isolates of A. baumannii obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County for the molecular epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance determinants. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, tri-locus multiplex PCR and multi-locus sequence typing (Pasteur scheme) were used to examine clonal relationships of the outbreak isolates. Broth microdilution method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates. PCR and subsequent DNA sequencing were employed to characterize antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Trilocus multiplex PCR showed these isolates belong to Global Clones I and II, which were confirmed to ST1 and ST2, respectively, by multi-locus sequence typing. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis identified two clonal clusters, one with 20 isolates (Global Clone I) and the other with nine (Global Clone II), which dominated the two outbreaks. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using 14 antibiotics indicated that all isolates were resistant to antibiotics belonging to four or more categories of antimicrobial agents. In particular, over three fourth of 38 isolates were found to be resistant to both imipenem and meropenem. Additionally, all isolates were found to be resistant to piperacillin, four cephalosporin antibiotics, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Resistance phenotypes of these strains to fluoroquinolones were correlated with point mutations in gyrA and parC genes that render reduced affinity to target proteins. ISAba1 was detected immediately upstream of the bla OXA-23 gene present in those isolates that were found to be resistant to both carbapenems. Class 1 integron-associated resistance gene cassettes appear to contribute to resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. The two outbreaks were

  8. Carbon dioxide and methane measurements from the Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project - Part 1: calibration, urban enhancements, and uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Kristal R.; Karion, Anna; Kim, Jooil; Salameh, Peter K.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Newman, Sally; Miller, John; Sloop, Christopher; Pongetti, Thomas; Rao, Preeti; Wong, Clare; Hopkins, Francesca M.; Yadav, Vineet; Weiss, Ray F.; Duren, Riley M.; Miller, Charles E.

    2017-07-01

    We report continuous surface observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from the Los Angeles (LA) Megacity Carbon Project during 2015. We devised a calibration strategy, methods for selection of background air masses, calculation of urban enhancements, and a detailed algorithm for estimating uncertainties in urban-scale CO2 and CH4 measurements. These methods are essential for understanding carbon fluxes from the LA megacity and other complex urban environments globally. We estimate background mole fractions entering LA using observations from four extra-urban sites including two marine sites located south of LA in La Jolla (LJO) and offshore on San Clemente Island (SCI), one continental site located in Victorville (VIC), in the high desert northeast of LA, and one continental/mid-troposphere site located on Mount Wilson (MWO) in the San Gabriel Mountains. We find that a local marine background can be established to within ˜ 1 ppm CO2 and ˜ 10 ppb CH4 using these local measurement sites. Overall, atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels are highly variable across Los Angeles. Urban and suburban sites show moderate to large CO2 and CH4 enhancements relative to a marine background estimate. The USC (University of Southern California) site near downtown LA exhibits median hourly enhancements of ˜ 20 ppm CO2 and ˜ 150 ppb CH4 during 2015 as well as ˜ 15 ppm CO2 and ˜ 80 ppb CH4 during mid-afternoon hours (12:00-16:00 LT, local time), which is the typical period of focus for flux inversions. The estimated measurement uncertainty is typically better than 0.1 ppm CO2 and 1 ppb CH4 based on the repeated standard gas measurements from the LA sites during the last 2 years, similar to Andrews et al. (2014). The largest component of the measurement uncertainty is due to the single-point calibration method; however, the uncertainty in the background mole fraction is much larger than the measurement uncertainty. The background uncertainty for the marine

  9. Observation of elevated air pollutant concentrations in a residential neighborhood of Los Angeles California using a mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shishan; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Fruin, Scott; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steve; Winer, Arthur M.

    2012-05-01

    We observed elevated air pollutant concentrations, especially of ultrafine particles (UFP), black carbon (BC) and NO, across the residential neighborhood of the Boyle Heights Community (BH) of Los Angeles, California. Using an electric vehicle mobile platform equipped with fast response instruments, real-time air pollutant concentrations were measured in BH in spring and summer of 2008. Pollutant concentrations varied significantly in the two seasons, on different days, and by time of day, with an overall average UFP concentration in the residential areas of ∼33 000 cm-3. The averaged UFP, BC, and NO concentrations measured on Soto St, a major surface street in BH, were 57 000 cm-3, 5.1 μg m-3, and 67 ppb, respectively. Concentrations of UFP across the residential areas in BH were nearly uniform spatially, in contrast to other areas in the greater metropolitan area of Los Angeles where UFP concentrations exhibit strong gradients downwind of roadways. We attribute this “UFP cloud” to high traffic volumes, including heavy duty diesel trucks on the freeways which surround and traverse BH, and substantial numbers of high-emitting vehicles (HEVs) on the surface streets traversing BH. Additionally, the high density of stop signs and lights and short block lengths, requiring frequent accelerations of vehicles, may contribute. The data also support a role for photochemical production of UFP in the afternoon. UFP concentration peaks (5 s average) of up to 9 million particles cm-3 were also observed immediately behind HEVs when they accelerated from stop lights in the BH neighborhood and areas immediately adjacent. Although encounters with HEV during mornings accounted for only about 6% and 17% of time spent monitoring residential areas and major surface streets, HEV contributed to about 28% and 53% of total ultrafine particles measured on the route, respectively. The observation of elevated pollutant concentrations across the Boyle Heights community highlights

  10. Holocene to Pliocene tectonic evolution of the region offshore of the Los Angeles urban corridor, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Gardner, James V.; Sliter, Ray W.

    2004-02-01

    Quaternary tectonism in the coastal belt of the Los Angeles urban corridor is diverse. In this paper we report the results of studies of multibeam bathymetry and a network of seismic reflection profiles that have been aimed at deciphering the diverse tectonism and at evaluating the relevance of published explanations of the region's tectonic history. Rapid uplift, subsidence in basins, folds and thrusts, extensional faulting, and strike-slip faulting have all been active at one place or another throughout the Quaternary Period. The tectonic strain is reflected in the modern physiography at all scales. Los Angeles (LA) Basin has filled from a deep submarine basin to its present condition with sediment impounded behind a large sill formed behind uplifts near the present shoreline. Newport trough to the south-southeast of LA Basin also accumulated a large volume of sediment, but remained at midbathyal depths throughout the Period. There is little or no evidence of Quaternary extensional tectonism in either basin although as much as 6 km of subsidence, which mainly occurred by sagging, has been recorded in places since the middle Miocene. The uplifts include folded and thrust faulted terranes in the Palos Verdes Hills and the shelves of Santa Monica and San Pedro Bays. The uplifted areas have been shortened in a southwest-northeast direction by 10% or slightly more, and some folds are reflected in the bathymetry. Two large adjacent midbathyal basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, show strong evidence of subsidence and slight west-northwest extension (10%) during the same time folding was taking place in the uplifts. The tectonic boundaries between uplifts and basins are folded, normal faulted, reverse-faulted, and strike-slip faulted depending on location. The rapid Quaternary uplift and subsidence, along with the filling of LA Basin, have produced a reversal in the regional physiography. In the early Pliocene, LA Basin was a submarine deep, Palos Verdes and the shelves

  11. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.

  12. An Innovative Project Breaks Down Barriers to Oral Health Care for Vulnerable Young Children in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, James J; Illum, Jackie; Martinez, Ana; Pourat, Nadereh

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high rate of untreated tooth decay, many young children in California under six years of age have never been to a dentist. Numerous and complex barriers to access to oral health care for young children exist, and a multifaceted approach is required to improve receipt of preventive and treatment services that could improve the oral health of this population. This policy brief describes the UCLA-First 5 LA 21st Century Dental Homes Project, which was designed to improve oral health care for young children in 12 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinic sites with co-located dental and primary care services and its accessibility in their service areas throughout Los Angeles County. The project funded infrastructure and staffing, provided technical assistance to improve operations, trained clinical personnel to provide oral health care to young children, implemented a quality improvement learning collaborative, trained parents and child care providers in oral hygiene and healthy habits, and disseminated information to promote effective policies. Early data on the project indicated twofold increases in delivery of both diagnostics and treatment visits for young children, and a threefold increase in preventive services for young children during the program.

  13. Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005-2007

    KAUST Repository

    Schnetzer, Astrid

    2013-06-10

    Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemistry of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Los Angeles basin: Nighttime Removal of Alkenes and Determination of Emission Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Gilman, J. B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lerner, B. M.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G.; McDonald, B. C.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Lefer, B. L.; Griffith, S. M.; Dusanter, S.; Stevens, P. S.; Stutz, J.

    2017-11-01

    We reanalyze a data set of hydrocarbons in ambient air obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at a surface site in Pasadena in the Los Angeles basin during the NOAA California Nexus study in 2010. The number of hydrocarbon compounds quantified from the chromatograms is expanded through the use of new peak-fitting data analysis software. We also reexamine hydrocarbon removal processes. For alkanes, small alkenes, and aromatics, the removal is determined by the reaction with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. For several highly reactive alkenes, the nighttime removal by ozone and nitrate (NO3) radicals is also significant. We discuss how this nighttime removal affects the determination of emission ratios versus carbon monoxide (CO) and show that previous estimates based on nighttime correlations with CO were too low. We analyze model output from the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry model for hydrocarbons and radicals at the Pasadena location to evaluate our methods for determining emission ratios from the measurements. We find that our methods agree with the modeled emission ratios for the domain centered on Pasadena and that the modeled emission ratios vary by 23% across the wider South Coast basin. We compare the alkene emission ratios with published results from ambient measurements and from tunnel and dynamometer studies of motor vehicle emissions. We find that with few exceptions the composition of alkene emissions determined from the measurements in Pasadena closely resembles that of motor vehicle emissions.

  15. Who has housing affordability problems? Disparities in Housing Cost burden by Race, Nativity and Legal Status in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Eileen Diaz

    2013-09-01

    Housing costs are a substantial component of U.S. household expenditures. Those who allocate a large proportion of their income to housing often have to make difficult financial decisions with significant short-term and long-term implications for adults and children. This study employs cross-sectional data from the first wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS) collected between 2000 and 2002 to examine the most common U.S. standard of housing affordability, the likelihood of spending thirty percent or more of income on shelter costs. Multivariate analyses of a low-income sample of U.S. born Latinos, Whites, African Americans, authorized Latino immigrants and unauthorized Latino immigrants focus on baseline and persistent differences in the likelihood of being cost burdened by race, nativity and legal status. Nearly half or more of each group of low-income respondents experience housing affordability problems. The results suggest that immigrants' legal status is the primary source of disparities among those examined, with the multivariate analyses revealing large and persistent disparities for unauthorized Latino immigrants relative to most other groups. Moreover, the higher odds of housing cost burden observed for unauthorized immigrants compared with their authorized immigrant counterparts remains substantial, accounting for traditional indicators of immigrant assimilation. These results are consistent with emerging scholarship regarding the role of legal status in shaping immigrant outcomes in the United States.

  16. The Geography of Clusters: The Case of the Video Games Clusters in Montreal and in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvianne Pilon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to examine how clusters appear and develop in the video game sector. We thus did a comparative study of the video games cluster in Montreal and Los Angeles. This paper shows that concentration of human creativity in arts and in technology is a significant economic localization factor, but cross-fertilization of sectors and public policy also contributes to the understanding of the emergence of clusters in certain urban regions. Thus, political and industrial factors offer an explanation as to why clusters emerge and how they evolve, going beyond the purely geographic or economic factors. In LA as in Montreal, the cross-fertilization with film is important. However, in Montreal, it is the public policy contributing to financing jobs in the Multimedia City and the French language that brought Ubisoft to the city; this contributed to make the city well known in the field, creating a “brand” for the city and thus fuelling the cluster development.

  17. 24-hour care: Work and sleep conditions of migrant Filipino live-in caregivers in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Kevin; Nazareno, Jennifer; Malish, Sterling

    2016-12-01

    Live-in formal caregivers spend consecutive days in patients' homes, raising questions about their ability to secure adequate sleep while on duty. Few studies have examined sleeping conditions and outcomes for this growing workforce. We collected weeklong sleep logs and interview data from 32 Filipino caregivers in Los Angeles who provide live-in services at least 3 consecutive days per week. Respondents recorded a total average of 6.4 sleep hours during workdays divided over 2.4 sleep periods. Caregivers rated sleep quality as lower while at work; over 40% indicated excessive daytime sleepiness. Female caregivers reported worse sleep outcomes than their male counterparts. Some variations in sleep outcomes were found by employment arrangements. Live-in caregivers experience frequent sleep interruptions at all hours of the day and night to attend to patients' needs. The resulting impacts on sleep quality pose risks for both work-related injury and errors in patient care. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:1120-1129, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering in Mexico City: Comparison With Las Vegas, NV, and Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Campbell, D.; Fujita, E.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosol light scattering and absorption measurements were deployed in and near Mexico City in March 2006 as part of the Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments (MIRAGE). The primary site in Mexico City was an urban site at Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexican Oil Institute, denoted by IMP). Similar campaigns were held in Las Vegas, NV in January-February, 2003; and Los Angeles, CA at numerous sites during all seasons from 2003 through 2007. The IMP site gave in-situ characterization of the Mexico City plume under favorable wind conditions. The photoacoustic instrument (PAS) used at IMP operates at 532 nm, and conveniently allowed for characterization of gaseous absorption at this wavelength as well. Light scattering measurements are accomplished within the PAS by the reciprocal nephelometery method. In Mexico City the aerosol absorption coefficient typically varies between 20 and 180 Mm-1 during the course of the day and significant diurnal variation of the aerosol single scattering albedo was observed probably as a consequence of secondary aerosol formation. We will present the diurnal variation of the scattering and absorption as well as the single scattering albedo and fraction of absorption due to gases at the IMP site and compare with Las Vegas diurnal variation. Mexico City 'breaths' more during the course of the day than Las Vegas, Nevada in part because the latitude of Mexico City resulted in more direct solar radiation. Further insight on the meteorological connections and population dynamics will be discussed.

  19. Drinking Patterns and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex Within Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Thomas A; Patel, Shivan N; Meyer-Adams, Nancy

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol, the most widely used substance among men who have sex with men (85%), remains an important factor in HIV research among this high-risk population. However, research on alcohol use among Black and Latino men who have sex with men (BLMSM), a population disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, is limited and inconclusive. This study explored sociodemographic and HIV risk with daily heavy and low-risk drinking patterns among BLMSM. BLMSM ( N = 188) aged 18 to 40 years were recruited through social media, local colleges, heteronormative clubs, private men's groups, gay establishments, and organized events in Los Angeles County. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires. Fisher's exact tests revealed significant relationships between drinking patterns and condomless insertive anal intercourse ( p = .001), race ( p perception of alcohol-related HIV risk ( p = .007). The Fisher's exact tests findings for age held true in the multiple regression model ( p = .014). Findings suggest that BLMSM who engage in higher risk drinking also engage in alcohol-related HIV risk. Culturally competent interventions should consider including a combined focus to explore the synergy between risky drinking patterns and HIV risk among BLMSM.

  20. Climatic consequences of adopting drought-tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Ban-Weiss, G.

    2016-08-01

    During 2012-2014, drought in California resulted in policies to reduce water consumption. One measure pursued was replacing lawns with landscapes that minimize water consumption, such as drought-tolerant vegetation. If implemented at broad scale, this strategy would result in reductions in irrigation and changes in land surface characteristics. In this study, we employ a modified regional climate model to assess the climatic consequences of adopting drought-tolerant vegetation over the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Transforming lawns to drought-tolerant vegetation resulted in daytime warming of up to 1.9°C, largely due to decreases in irrigation that shifted surface energy partitioning toward higher sensible and lower latent heat flux. During nighttime, however, adopting drought-tolerant vegetation caused mean cooling of 3.2°C, due to changes in soil thermodynamic properties and heat exchange dynamics between the surface and subsurface. Our results show that nocturnal cooling effects, which are larger in magnitude and of great importance for public health during heat events, could counterbalance the daytime warming attributed to the studied water conservation strategy. A more aggressive implementation, assuming all urban vegetation was replaced with drought-tolerant vegetation, resulted in an average daytime cooling of 0.2°C, largely due to strengthened sea breeze patterns, highlighting the important role of land surface roughness in this coastal megacity.

  1. Filling potholes on the implementation highway: Evaluating the implementation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony J; Boys, Deanna K; Forte, Lindsay A; Quick-Abdullah, Daphne; Chan, Sam; Gould, William

    2016-03-01

    In October 2012, first 5 LA funded a unique collaboration between Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health (DMH) and UC Davis PCIT Training Center (UCD PCIT) to train county-contracted agencies to provide Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). This $20 million dollar, 5-year grant represented the largest implementation effort of an empirically based treatment to date. The purpose of this paper was to describe the first 2 years of the implementation process of this project, beginning with project start up and pre-implementation phases, and to present agency training and client performance outcomes from our first year of training. Results presented in this evaluation suggest that it is possible to train LA County providers in PCIT, and that PCIT is an effective intervention for DMH-contracted providers in LA County. This evaluation also discusses challenges to successful implementation. Barriers to progress included unanticipated delays building county infrastructure, trainee attrition, and insufficient client referrals. We discuss the results of the current implementation with respect to theory, research, and others' training models, with the aim of evaluating and prioritizing different implementation drivers, noting the ongoing competition between knowing what to do and the need for action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acceptable Interventions to Reduce Syphilis Transmission Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex With Men in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Aaron; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cross, John; Montoya, Jorge A.; Bolan, Robert; Kerndt, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined perceptions of and attitudes toward existing and potential syphilis interventions, including case management and Web-based programs, to increase syphilis testing among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. Between October 2010 and June 2011, we conducted in-depth interviews with 19 MSM in Los Angeles, California, with repeat early syphilis infections (primary, secondary, and early latent syphilis) within the previous 5 years. We analyzed the interviews inductively to determine the most acceptable potential interventions. Results. Experiences with health department and community-based standard of care case management were generally positive. The most popular interventions among respondents included a Web site providing information on syphilis and syphilis testing, automated Web reminders to test, being paid to test, free online home testing kits, and preexposure prophylactic medication. Respondents’ beliefs that they would continue to practice high-risk sexual behaviors reinforced their reasons for wanting increased accessibility and convenient testing strategies. Conclusions. Public health officials should consider participant responses to potential interventions for syphilis, which suggest that high-risk MSM would consider testing more often or using other interventions. PMID:25602881

  3. How the 2008 stock market crash and seasons affect total and cardiac deaths in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Bryan Glen; Pezzullo, John Christopher; McDonald, Scott Andrew; Poole, William Kenneth; Kloner, Robert Alan

    2012-05-15

    Various stressors trigger cardiac death. The objective was to investigate a possible relation between a stock market crash and cardiac death in a large population within the United States. We obtained daily stock market data (Dow Jones Industrial Average Index), death certificate data for daily deaths in Los Angeles County (LA), and annual LA population estimates for 2005 through 2008. The 4 years death rate curves (2005 through 2008) were averaged into a single curve to illustrate annual trends. Data were "deseasonalized" by subtracting from the daily observed value the average value for that day of year. There was marked seasonal variation in total and cardiac death rates. Even in the mild LA climate, death rates were higher in winter versus summer including total death (+17%), circulatory death (+24%), coronary heart disease death (+28%), and myocardial infarction death (+38%) rates (p stock market crash in October 2008 did not affect death rates in LA. Death rates remained at or below seasonal averages during the stock market crash. In conclusion, after correcting for seasonal variation, the stock market crash in October 2008 was not associated with an increase in total or cardiac death in LA. Annual coronary heart disease death rates continue to decrease. However, seasonal variation (specifically winter) remains a trigger for death and coronary heart disease death even in LA where winters are mild. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Take-off engine particle emission indices for in-service aircraft at Los Angeles International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H.; Shook, Michael A.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Digangi, Joshua P.; Winstead, Edward L.; Rauch, Bastian; Jurkat, Tina; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Crosbie, Ewan C.; Robinson, Claire; Shingler, Taylor J.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2017-12-01

    We present ground-based, advected aircraft engine emissions from flights taking off at Los Angeles International Airport. 275 discrete engine take-off plumes were observed on 18 and 25 May 2014 at a distance of 400 m downwind of the runway. CO2 measurements are used to convert the aerosol data into plume-average emissions indices that are suitable for modelling aircraft emissions. Total and non-volatile particle number EIs are of order 1016-1017 kg‑1 and 1014-1016 kg‑1, respectively. Black-carbon-equivalent particle mass EIs vary between 175-941 mg kg‑1 (except for the GE GEnx engines at 46 mg kg‑1). Aircraft tail numbers recorded for each take-off event are used to incorporate aircraft- and engine-specific parameters into the data set. Data acquisition and processing follow standard methods for quality assurance. A unique aspect of the data set is the mapping of aerosol concentration time series to integrated plume EIs, aircraft and engine specifications, and manufacturer-reported engine emissions certifications. The integrated data enable future studies seeking to understand and model aircraft emissions and their impact on air quality.

  5. The association between nutrition facts label utilization and comprehension among Latinos in two east Los Angeles neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mienah Z; Rizzo, Shemra; Prelip, Michael L; Glik, Deborah C; Belin, Thomas R; Langellier, Brent A; Kuo, Alice A; Garza, Jeremiah R; Ortega, Alexander N

    2014-12-01

    The Nutrition Facts label can facilitate healthy dietary practices. There is a dearth of research on Latinos' utilization and comprehension of the Nutrition Facts label. To measure use and comprehension of the Nutrition Facts label and to identify correlates among Latinos in East Los Angeles, CA. Cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey using computer-assisted personal interview software, conducted in either English or Spanish in the participant's home. Eligibility criteria were: living in a household within the block clusters identified, being age 18 years or older, speaking English or Spanish, identifying as Latino and as the household's main food purchaser and preparer. Analyses were based on 269 eligible respondents. χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression analysis assessed the associations among the main outcomes and demographics. Multiple imputations addressed missing data. Sixty percent reported using the label; only 13% showed adequate comprehension of the label. Utilization was associated with being female, speaking Spanish, and being below the poverty line. Comprehension was associated with younger age, not being married, and higher education. Utilization was not associated with comprehension. Latinos who are using the Nutrition Facts label are not correctly interpreting the available information. Targeted education is needed to improve use and comprehension of the Nutrition Facts label to directly improve diet, particularly among males, older Latinos, and those with less than a high school education. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age and temperature of shock metamorphism of Martian meteorite Los Angeles from (U-Th)/He thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoungwon; Reiners, Peter W.; Nicolescu, Stefan; Greenwood, James P.

    2004-08-01

    Mineralogic features attributed to impact-induced shock metamorphism are commonly observed in meteorites and terrestrial impact craters. Partly because the duration of shock metamorphism is very short, constraining the timing and temperature of shock events has been problematic. We measured (U-Th)/He ages of single grains of merrillite and chlorapatite from the Martian meteorite Los Angeles (LA). Merrillite and chlorapatite ages cluster at 3.28 ± 0.15 Ma (2σ) and 2.18 ± 0.19 (2σ) Ma, respectively. The mean age of the merrillites, which are larger than chlorapatites, is indistinguishable from cosmic-ray exposure ages (3.1 ± 0.2 Ma), suggesting that impact-induced shock metamorphism was coeval with ejection of the LA precursor from Mars. To constrain the initial temperature of shock metamorphism in the LA precursor body, we modeled diffusive loss of He from merrillite as a function of diffusion domain size, LA precursor body size, and ablation depth. From these calculations, we suggest that the metamorphic temperature of the shock event was higher than 450 °C. These results support the idea that shock pressures of the Martian meteorite Shergotty were higher than 45 GPa, as inferred from the presence of post-stishovite SiO2 polymorphs. Single-grain (U-Th)/He dating of phosphates may provide unique constraints on the timing and pressure-temperature dynamics of shock metamorphism in a wide variety of extraterrestrial materials.

  7. Parenting and proximity to social services: Lessons from Los Angeles County in the community context of child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Klein, Sacha

    2015-07-01

    Using a sample of 438 parents in Los Angeles County, CA, this study examines the role of proximity to social services in child neglect. In an extension of social disorganization theory, it seeks to understand the potential sources of support in neighborhoods for families. It uses ordinary least squares regression to examine driving distance from parents' residences to four types of services (child care, domestic violence, mental health/substance abuse, and poverty). The results show an association between proximity to mental health and substance abuse services and parents' self-reported neglectful behaviors. Additionally, higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage (poverty, unemployment, and low education), having older children, respondents being male, and respondents being older parents are associated with higher levels of child neglect, while being white is associated with lower levels. Overall, the findings suggest a potentially protective role of geographic access to mental health and substance abuse services in child maltreatment. Additional research on the pathways through which proximity to services influences child neglect is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Take-off engine particle emission indices for in-service aircraft at Los Angeles International Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H; Shook, Michael A; Ziemba, Luke D; DiGangi, Joshua P; Winstead, Edward L; Rauch, Bastian; Jurkat, Tina; Thornhill, Kenneth L; Crosbie, Ewan C; Robinson, Claire; Shingler, Taylor J; Anderson, Bruce E

    2017-12-19

    We present ground-based, advected aircraft engine emissions from flights taking off at Los Angeles International Airport. 275 discrete engine take-off plumes were observed on 18 and 25 May 2014 at a distance of 400 m downwind of the runway. CO2 measurements are used to convert the aerosol data into plume-average emissions indices that are suitable for modelling aircraft emissions. Total and non-volatile particle number EIs are of order 1016-1017 kg-1 and 1014-1016 kg-1, respectively. Black-carbon-equivalent particle mass EIs vary between 175-941 mg kg-1 (except for the GE GEnx engines at 46 mg kg-1). Aircraft tail numbers recorded for each take-off event are used to incorporate aircraft- and engine-specific parameters into the data set. Data acquisition and processing follow standard methods for quality assurance. A unique aspect of the data set is the mapping of aerosol concentration time series to integrated plume EIs, aircraft and engine specifications, and manufacturer-reported engine emissions certifications. The integrated data enable future studies seeking to understand and model aircraft emissions and their impact on air quality.

  9. The Road to Resilience: Insights on Training Community Coalitions in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Biblia S; Lawrence, Rachel I; Bliss, Jesse C; Wells, Kenneth B; Chandra, Anita; Eisenman, David P

    2016-12-01

    Local health departments (LHDs) have little guidance for operationalizing community resilience (CR). We explored how community coalitions responded to 4 CR levers (education, engagement, partnerships, and community self-sufficiency) during the first planning year of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) Project. Sixteen communities were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental CR group or the control preparedness group. Eight CR coalitions met monthly to plan CR-building activities or to receive CR training from a public health nurse. Trained observers documented the coalitions' understanding and application of CR at each meeting. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze structured observation reports around the 4 levers. Analysis of 41 reports suggested that coalitions underwent a process of learning about and applying CR concepts in the planning year. Groups resonated with ideas of education, community self-sufficiency, and engagement, but increasing partnerships was challenging. LHDs can support coalitions by anticipating the time necessary to understand CR and by facilitating engagement. Understanding the issues that emerge in the early phases of planning and implementing CR-building activities is critical. LHDs can use the experience of the LACCDR Project's planning year as a guide to navigate challenges and issues that emerge as they operationalize the CR model. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:812-821).

  10. An exploration of the gateway math and science course relationships in the Los Angeles Community College District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Donald G.

    This study evaluated selected demographic, pre-enrollment, and economic status variables in comparison to college-level performance factors of GPA and course completion ratios for gateway math and science courses. The Transfer and Retention of Urban Community College Students (TRUCCS) project team collected survey and enrollment data for this study in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD). The TRUCCS team surveyed over 5,000 students within the nine campus district beginning in the fall of 2000 and spring of 2001 with follow-up data for next several years. This study focused on the math and science courses; established background demographics; evaluated pre-enrollment high school self-reported grades; reviewed high school and college level math courses taken; investigated specific gateway courses of biology, chemistry and physics; and compared them to the overall GPAs and course completion ratios for 4,698 students. This involved the SPSS development of numerous statistical products including the data from frequency distributions, means, cross-tabulations, group statistics t-tests, independent samples t-tests, and one-way ANOVA. Findings revealed demographic and economic relationships of significance for students' performance factors of GPA and course completion ratios. Furthermore, findings revealed significant differences between the gender, age, ethnicity and economic employment relationships. Conclusions and implications for institutions of higher education were documented. Recommendations for dissemination, intervention programs, and future research were also discussed.

  11. The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in waters of the Lower Ballona Creek Watershed, Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawecki, Stephanie; Kuleck, Gary; Dorsey, John H; Leary, Christopher; Lum, Michelle

    2017-06-01

    Screening for the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) was done at the Ballona Creek and Wetlands, an urban-impacted wetland system in Los Angeles, California. The goals were (1) to assess the overall prevalence of ARB, and (2) compare differences in ARB abundance and the types of antibiotic resistance (AR) among the following sample types: lagoon water from Del Rey Lagoon, urban runoff from Ballona Creek, and water from the Ballona Wetlands (tidal water flooding in from the adjacent estuary, and ebbing out from the salt marsh). Antibiotic resistance distributions were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to develop the cumulative frequency of bacteria having resistance of up to eight antibiotics. Distributions from the environmental water samples were compared to unchlorinated secondary effluent from the Hyperion Water Reclamation Plant that was used as comparator samples likely to have an abundance of ARB. As expected, densities of total and ARB were highest in secondary effluent, followed by urban runoff. Samples of water flooding into the wetlands showed similar results to urban runoff; however, a reduction in densities of total and ARB occurred in water ebbing out of the wetlands. During preliminary work to identify ARB species, several bacterial species of relevance to human illness (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas veronii, Enterobacter cancerogenus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Staphylococcus intermedius) were isolated from sampled waters. If wetlands are a sink for ARB, construction and restoration of wetlands can help in the mediation of this human and environmental health concern.

  12. Asian American mothers' perception of their children's weight: a comparison with other racial/ethnic groups in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, Tabashir Z; Wang, May-Choo; Whaley, Shannon E

    2015-01-01

    While mother's perception of child's weight is important for the success of early childhood obesity prevention programs, few studies have examined that of Asian Americans. Our study examined their perception and compared it to that of mothers of other racial/ethnic groups. Cross-sectional study of 2,051 randomly selected mothers of children aged 2-5 years living in Los Angeles County who were enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children (WIC). The primary outcome was mother's perception of child's weight. We found that Asian American mothers were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.27-3.54) times as likely as Hispanic mothers to accurately perceive their children's weight, adjusting for child's age, sex and birthweight, and mother's age and education. However, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for mother's BMI. We did not find differences in perception of child's weight among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic mothers. It appears that Asian American mothers' increased accurate perception of child's weight status can be partially explained by their lower prevalence of obesity. Our findings suggest that early childhood obesity prevention programs should consider the weight status of mothers.

  13. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Los Angeles District Contractor Performance and Reporting Controls Were Generally Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    treatment plant. o They awarded a second prime contract for the construction of an effluent pump station at the wastewater treatment plant that can...provide up to 460 million gallons a day of effluent from the treatment plant to the constructed wetlands. o They awarded a third contract for the...to the senior official in charge of internal controls at USACE Los Angeles. 4 Effluent is sewage that has been treated in a septic tank or sewage

  14. Screening the L.A.P.D.: cinematic representations of policing and discourses of law enforcement in Los Angeles, 1948-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Bevan, R.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines cinematic representations of the L.A.P.D. within the context of discourses of law enforcement in Los Angeles and contends that these feature films constitute a significant strand within such discourse. This contention, which is based upon the various identifiable ways in which the films engage with contemporary issues, acknowledges that the nature of such engagement is constrained by the need to produce a commercially viable fictional entertainment. In four main chronolog...

  15. Diabetes mellitus caused by mutations in human insulin: analysis of impaired receptor binding of insulins Wakayama, Los Angeles and Chicago using pharmacoinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Ataul; Bhayye, Sagar; Adeniyi, Adebayo A; Soliman, Mahmoud E S; Pillay, Tahir S

    2017-03-01

    Several naturally occuring mutations in the human insulin gene are associated with diabetes mellitus. The three known mutant molecules, Wakayama, Los Angeles and Chicago were evaluated using molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) to analyse mechanisms of deprived binding affinity for insulin receptor (IR). Insulin Wakayama, is a variant in which valine at position A3 is substituted by leucine, while in insulin Los Angeles and Chicago, phenylalanine at positions B24 and B25 is replaced by serine and leucine, respectively. These mutations show radical changes in binding affinity for IR. The ZDOCK server was used for molecular docking, while AMBER 14 was used for the MD study. The published crystal structure of IR bound to natural insulin was also used for MD. The binding interactions and MD trajectories clearly explained the critical factors for deprived binding to the IR. The surface area around position A3 was increased when valine was substituted by leucine, while at positions B24 and B25 aromatic amino acid phenylalanine replaced by non-aromatic serine and leucine might be responsible for fewer binding interactions at the binding site of IR that leads to instability of the complex. In the MD simulation, the normal mode analysis, rmsd trajectories and prediction of fluctuation indicated instability of complexes with mutant insulin in order of insulin native insulin insulin Chicago insulin Los Angeles insulin Wakayama molecules which corresponds to the biological evidence of the differing affinities of the mutant insulins for the IR.

  16. Nuevo edificio de la Lincoln Savings, en Los Angeles, California, (U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deasy & Boiling, Arquitectos

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available The building has eight floor levels devoted to the main functions of the bank, a ninth storey houses various services, and a car park is located in the basement. The ground floor is highly diaphanous and is occupied by those departments that are more intimately related with the outside public. The second floor is devoted to banking and credit operations. There is a museum on the seventh floor, and a dining hall on the eighth, as well as a cafeteria and a social zone for the staff. The remaining floor space has been let for offices to a number of commercial firms. The structure and external aspect are outstanding because of their originality.El edificio consta de ocho plantas en servicio; una novena, que alberga los equipos mecánicos; y un sótano, destinado a aparcamiento. La planta baja, que goza de una gran diafanidad, aloja los servicios que exigen un contacto más frecuente con el público; en la segunda, las secciones en las que se desarrollan las operaciones de crédito y bancarias; en la planta séptima, el museo; y en la octava, el comedor, la cafetería y zona social para empleados. Las restantes plantas han sido alquiladas para oficinas de diversas firmas y empresas comerciales. Son de destacar, la estructura y el tratamiento de fachadas, de indudable gracia y originalidad.

  17. Proyecto MercadoFRESCO: a multi-level, community-engaged corner store intervention in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Albert, Stephanie L; Sharif, Mienah Z; Langellier, Brent A; Garcia, Rosa Elena; Glik, Deborah C; Brookmeyer, Ron; Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Prelip, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Urban food swamps are typically situated in low-income, minority communities and contribute to overweight and obesity. Changing the food landscape in low income and underserved communities is one strategy to combat the negative health consequences associated with the lack of access to healthy food resources and an abundance of unhealthy food venues. In this paper, we describe Proyecto MercadoFRESCO (Fresh Market Project), a corner store intervention project in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights in California that used a multi-level approach with a broad range of community, business, and academic partners. These are two neighboring, predominantly Latino communities that have high rates of overweight and obesity. Located in these two communities are approximately 150 corner stores. The project used a community-engaged approach to select, recruit, and convert four corner stores, so that they could become healthy community assets in order to improve residents' access to and awareness of fresh and affordable fruits and vegetables in their immediate neighborhoods. We describe the study framework for the multi-level intervention, which includes having multiple stakeholders, expertise in corner store operations, community and youth engagement strategies, and social marketing campaigns. We also describe the evaluation and survey methodology to determine community and patron impact of the intervention. This paper provides a framework useful to a variety of public health stakeholders for implementing a community-engaged corner store conversion, particularly in an urban food swamp.

  18. Climate Change Impacts on the Los Angeles Aqueducts Water Sources: 21st Century Hydrologic Projections for Owens Valley and Mono Lake Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Cabral, M. C.; Roy, S. B.; Maurer, E. P.; Mills, W. B.; Chen, L.

    2011-12-01

    Precipitation from the Eastern Sierra Nevada watersheds of Owens Lake and Mono Lake is one of the main water sources, and the one of highest quality, for Los Angeles' more than 4 million people. Winter snow is stored in the large snowpack reservoir, and meltwater (~0.2-0.5 million acre-feet) is delivered annually to the city in the dry season by the 340-mile long Los Angeles Aqueduct system, operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. We identify plausible scenarios of future climate conditions in the Owens-Mono watersheds over the 21st century based on CMIP3 results for 16 global climate models (GCMs) statistically downscaled to 1/8° and greenhouse gas emission scenarios A2 and B1; and we evaluate the consequent hydrologic impacts using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. Such climate scenarios have large and unquantifiable associated uncertainty and do not represent predictions, but are considered to be plausible under the current state of knowledge. We applied VIC to the Owens-Mono watersheds and calibrated the model using monthly streamflow records provided by LADWP. Of most interest to Los Angeles' water supply are the projections for the snowpack and the dry-season hydrograph that relies on snowmelt. Our results indicate future increases in the fraction of precipitation falling as rain rather than snow, from a historical value of about 20% to 20-30% by mid-century and 28-52% by end of century (depending on the GCM) for scenario A2. As a result, the snowpack's peak snow water equivalent (SWE) is projected to decline by most GCMs. The SWE peak is also projected to shift toward earlier dates (by a few days by mid-century and by a GCM-average of 2 weeks by end of century under emissions scenario A2). The diminished SWE, earlier SWE peak and earlier melt associated with rising temperatures result in earlier hydrograph peaks, a shift in the date marking the passage of half of the year's hydrograph volume (by more than one

  19. Strain accumulation on faults beneath Los Angeles: a geodesy-based picture accounting for the effects of sedimentary basins and anthropogenic surface deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, C.; Argus, D. F.; Landry, W.; Barbot, S.; Avouac, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Los Angeles region is contracting at 8 mm/yr in the N 5° E direction due to the misalignment of the Mojave section of the San Andreas Fault with the direction of relative Pacific-North American plate motion. This contraction is accommodated by the accumulation of strain on thrust faults such as the Sierra Madre, Puente Hills and other systems and the release of that strain in damaging earthquakes such as the 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows and 1994 Northridge shocks. A larger earthquake on one of these systems could constitute a worst-case-scenario event for Los Angeles, and so it is essential to use geodetic data to constrain where, and how quickly, tectonic strain is accumulating on these faults. This estimation problem is affected by 1) anthropogenic surface deformation that overprints tectonic contraction in geodetic data, 2) the complex 3D geometries of the relevant faults, and 3) the soft sedimentary basin underlying Los Angeles, which affects the elastostatic Green's functions that map slip rates on faults to velocities at the surface. Using 1) a GPS velocity field corrected for anthropogenic motions [Argus et al, 2005, and in prep.], 2) a detailed quadrilateral mesh of fault geometry based on an updated version of that in Marshall et al [2009] and on the SCEC CFM5.0 [Shaw et al, 2015], and 3) elastostatic Green's functions that incorporate the lateral and vertical heterogeneities in elastic properties represented by the SCEC CVM-H15.1, we obtain the most accurate geodesy-based picture of strain accumulation beneath Los Angeles to date. Among other results, we find that strain accumulation on strike-slip faults such as the Palos Verdes, Whittier-Elsinore and Raymond-Hollywood systems may cause an apparent N-S contractional gradient of 2 mm/yr across Los Angeles that is unrelated to thrust faulting, and that inferred strain accumulation rates on thrust faults are more readily reconciled with geologic slip rates when this strike-slip motion is

  20. 76 FR 28453 - Cesar Chavez Special Resource Study-Alameda, Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Monterey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... develop a range of management alternatives, and conduct an environmental review of the alternatives and... concerning sites associated with Cesar Chavez and the farm labor movement throughout California and Arizona... Ventura Counties of California, and Yuma and Maricopa Counties of Arizona. The purpose of the scoping...

  1. Is More Necessarily Better? Leadership and Organizational Development of Migrant Hometown Associations in Los Angeles, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Escala Rabadán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las asociaciones de paisanos en Estados Unidos son grupos de migrantes voluntarios basados en un sentimiento compartido de pertenencia a una región en un país de origen distinto. Sus actividades han llamado cada vez más la atención de instancias gubernamentales y de actores sociales y políticos. Estos actores han favorecido la formación de más de estos grupos, junto con una creciente demanda sobre ellos para que expandan sus compromisos cívicos. Sin embargo, esta estrategia no conduce necesariamente a ello, e incluso podría disminuir la capacidad organizativa de las asociaciones. A partir de un programa piloto basado en la formación de capacidades con asociaciones de migrantes latinos en Los Ángeles, aquí argumentamos que se requiere una estrategia distinta para que las HTAS amplíen su capacidad organizativa.

  2. Uncertainty of earthquake losses due to model uncertainty of input ground motions in the Los Angeles area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, T.; Petersen, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    In a recent study we used the Monte Carlo simulation method to evaluate the ground-motion uncertainty of the 2002 update of the California probabilistic seismic hazard model. The resulting ground-motion distribution is used in this article to evaluate the contribution of the hazard model to the uncertainty in earthquake loss ratio, the ratio of the expected loss to the total value of a structure. We use the Hazards U.S. (HAZUS) methodology for loss estimation because it is a widely used and publicly available risk model and intended for regional studies by public agencies and for use by governmental decision makers. We found that the loss ratio uncertainty depends not only on the ground-motion uncertainty but also on the mean ground-motion level. The ground-motion uncertainty, as measured by the coefficient of variation (COV), is amplified when converting to the loss ratio uncertainty because loss increases concavely with ground motion. By comparing the ground-motion uncertainty with the corresponding loss ratio uncertainty for the structural damage of light wood-frame buildings in Los Angeles area, we show that the COV of loss ratio is almost twice the COV of ground motion with a return period of 475 years around the San Andreas fault and other major faults in the area. The loss ratio for the 2475-year ground-motion maps is about a factor of three higher than for the 475-year maps. However, the uncertainties in ground motion and loss ratio for the longer return periods are lower than for the shorter return periods because the uncertainty parameters in the hazard logic tree are independent of the return period, but the mean ground motion increases with return period.

  3. Urban Heat Island Variation across a Dramatic Coastal to Desert Climate Zone: An Application to Los Angeles, CA Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyebi, A.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented rate across the globe. The resulting urban heat island (UHI), which is a well-known phenomenon in urban areas due to the increasing number and density of buildings, leads to higher temperature in urban areas than surrounding sub-urban or rural areas. Understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the sustainability of cities and reducing heat vulnerability. Although a variety of studies have quantified UHI, there are a lack of studies to 1) understand UHI variation at the micro-scale (e.g., neighborhood effect) for large urban areas and 2) identify variation in the sensitivity of the UHI to environmental drivers across a megacity with a pronounced climate zone (i.e. coastal to desert climates) using advanced analytical tools. In this study, we identified the interacting relationship among various environmental and socio-economic factors to better identify UHI over the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among land surface temperature (LST), land cover (NDVI), distance to ocean, elevation, and socio-economic status (neighborhood income). LST-NDVI slopes were negative across the climate zones and became progressively stronger with increasing distance from the coast. Results also showed that slopes between NDVI and neighborhood income were positive throughout the climate zone with a maximum in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of these income-NDVI and NDVI-LST relationships we also found that slopes between LST and neighborhood income were negative throughout the climate zones and peaked at about 30km from the coast. These findings suggest assessments of urban heat vulnerability need to consider not only variation in the indicators but also variation in how the indicators influence vulnerability.

  4. Physicochemical and toxicological profiles of particulate matter in Los Angeles during the October 2007 southern California wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vishal; Polidori, Andrea; Schauer, James J; Shafer, Martin M; Cassee, Flemming R; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-02-01

    To characterize the impact of the October 2007 wildfires on the air quality of Los Angeles, integrated ambient particulate matter (PM) samples were collected near the University of Southern California between October 24 and November 14, 2007. Samples were analyzed for different chemical species (i.e.,water-soluble organic carbon, water-soluble elements, and several organic compounds), and the redox activity of PM was evaluated using two different assays: the dithiothreitol (DTT) and macrophage reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Tracers of biomass burning such as potassium and levoglucosan were elevated by 2-fold during the fire period (October 24-28), compared to the postfire period (November 1-14). Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations were also higher during the fire event (170 and 78 microg/mg of PM, during fire and postfire, respectively). While the DTT activity (on a per PM mass basis) increased for samples collected during the fire event (0.024 nmol DTT/min x microg on October 24) compared to the postfire samples (0.005 nmol DTT/min x microg on November 14), the ROS activity appears to be unaffected by the wildfires, probably because these two assays are driven by different PM species. While the DTT assay reflected the redox potential of polar organic compounds, which are abundant in wood-smoke, the ROS assay was mainly influenced by transition metals (e.g., Fe, Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, and V), emitted mostly by vehicular traffic and other combustion sources, but not by the wildfires.

  5. Abrasion Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Silica Fume Concrete According to Los Angeles and Water Abrasion Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Ching CHENG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study mainly investigated the influence of different tests on the abrasion resistance of concrete mixed with steel fibers and silica fume. The abrasion resistance was assessed at 28, 56 and 91 days on concretes with water-binder ratios of 0.35 and 0.55 where in some mixes silica fume was substituted by 5 % of cement by weight. Steel fibers of 0.5 % and 1.0 % of concrete volume were also added into the test concrete by replacement of coarse and fine aggregates. The results showed that concrete with higher compressive strength in Los Angeles abrasion tests also had better abrasion resistance. The inclusion of steel fibers into test concrete with a water-binder ratio of 0.35 resulted in a significant increase in compressive strength. This concrete also displayed better abrasion resistance and splitting tensile strength than reference concrete; in the test sample with a water-binder ratio of 0.55, the added steel fibers was unable to effectively produce cementation with the concrete. The inclusion of silica fume improved the abrasion resistance of concretes. In water abrasion testing, the abrasion resistance of concrete containing steel fiber was worse than that of concrete without steel fibers. In the water abrasion testing, the surface of steel fiber reinforced concrete was eroded by water and steel balls, and the impact caused the steel fibers to separate from the concrete and led to higher wear loss. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6460

  6. Prevalence and risk indicators of visual impairment and blindness in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Rohit; Ying-Lai, Mei; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley P

    2004-06-01

    To determine the age- and gender-specific prevalence and risk indicators of visual impairment and blindness in urban Latinos 40 years and older. Population-based cross-sectional study. Six thousand three hundred fifty-seven Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in Los Angeles, California. Of the 6357 study participants, 6122 underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination at the clinical center, including measurement of best-corrected distance visual acuity (VA) using a standard Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol. Age- and gender-specific prevalence of visual impairment and blindness were contrasted using Mantel-Haenszel procedures. Sociodemographic and clinical risk indicators of visual impairment were explored using stepwise logistic regression. Prevalence and odds ratios for risk indicators of visual impairment and blindness. The overall prevalence for visual impairment (best-corrected VA of /=80 years]). The overall prevalence for blindness (best-corrected VA of /=80 years]). Visual impairment increased with age (P/=80 years (8.7 [3.9-19.6]), history of ocular disease (3.2 [2.1-4.8]), being unemployed (3.3 [1.7-6.3]), diabetes (2.2 [1.5-3.2]), and being separated/divorced (1.8 [1.0-3.1]) or widowed (2.8 [1.8-4.4]). Participants with >/=12 years of education (0.5 [0.3-0.8]) were less likely to be visually impaired. Rates of visual impairment and blindness in Latinos are high, especially in older individuals. Better education and employment are likely to decrease the burden of visual impairment in Latinos.

  7. Changes in CO2 Composition in the Air of the Los Angeles Megacity Coinciding with the Prolonged Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S.; Xu, X.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.

    2016-12-01

    California has been in a severe drought for five years affecting weather, vegetation, and policy. Unfortunately, the last year's strong El Nino conditions did not bring the expected extra rainfall relief to southern California, and we are just finishing a year of water rationing, concentrating on limiting irrigation of outdoor landscape. What changes in the atmospheric CO2 composition in the Los Angeles, CA (LA) megacity have occurred during this period? We investigate changes reflected in the radiocarbon (Δ14C) and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of the CO2 in LA. We use the long-term records at our Pasadena (18 years, 11 with Δ14C) and Palos Verdes (7 years) sites to put the last five years in context. Pasadena is inland and a good receptor site for emissions in the LA basin for much of the year when the prevailing winds are from the ocean passing over LA. Palos Verdes is on the coast and usually receives winds from the ocean except during Santa Ana conditions, when dry, warm winds come from the north to northeast from the desert over the mountains and across the basin. Radiocarbon measurements give information on the fossil fuel and biosphere components of the local emissions. The amplitude of the observed seasonal cycle of CO2 derived from fossil fuel emissions (CO2ff) has decreased in Pasadena, while the amplitude of the biosphere's seasonal cycle has increased since the beginning of the drought, at both the Pasadena and Palos Verdes sites. There is evidence that the δ13C signature of the biosphere in Pasadena may have changed in the last year or so, which is consistent with an increase in the proportion of C4 vegetation surviving the drought and being planted to replace less drought-resistant C3 plants.

  8. The Break Up: Evaluation of an Anti-Smoking Educational Campaign for Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge A; Tyree, Rachel; Aragon, Linda; Weber, Mark; Le Veque, Matthew; Anderson, Christopher M; Soler, Robin E; Kent, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults in the United States have a higher prevalence of smoking than their heterosexual counterparts. In 2013, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched a social marketing and outreach campaign called Break Up to reduce the prevalence of smoking in LGB communities. Break Up was evaluated using cross-sectional, street-intercept surveys before and near the end of campaign. Surveys measured demographics, campaign awareness, and self-reported smoking-related outcomes. Bivariate statistics and logistic regression models were used to identify whether campaign awareness was associated with smoking-related outcomes. Calls by LGB persons to a smokers' helpline were also measured. Among those interviewed at endline, 32.7% reported Break Up awareness. Awareness was associated with thinking of quitting smoking and ever taking steps to quit but not with smoking cessation (defined as not smoking in the past 30 days among those who had smoked in the past 6 months). There was a 0.7% increase in the percentage of weekly calls by LGB persons to the helpline in the year after the campaign. Break Up reached about a third of its intended audience. The campaign was associated with smoking cessation precursors and may have led to an increase in helpline utilization, but there is no evidence it affected quit attempts. This study adds to the limited literature on tobacco programs for LGB persons and, as far as we know, is one of the first to evaluate tobacco-free social marketing in this important yet understudied population.

  9. Catalyzing Implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions in Safety Net Settings: A Clinical-Community Partnership in South Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Denise D; Sloane, David C; Illum, Jacqueline; Vargas, Roberto B; Lee, Donzella; Galloway-Gilliam, Lark; Lewis, LaVonna B

    2017-07-01

    This study is a process evaluation of a clinical-community partnership that implemented evidence-based interventions in clinical safety net settings. Adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions in these settings can help reduce health disparities by improving the quality of clinical preventive services in health care settings with underserved populations. A clinical-community partnership model is a possible avenue to catalyze adoption and implementation of interventions amid organizational barriers to change. Three Federally Qualified Health Centers in South Los Angeles participated in a partnership led by a local community-based organization (CBO) to implement hypertension interventions. Qualitative research methods were used to evaluate intervention selection and implementation processes between January 2014 and June 2015. Data collection tools included a key participant interview guide, health care provider interview guide, and protocol for taking meeting minutes. This case study demonstrates how a CBO acted as an external facilitator and employed a collaborative partnership model to catalyze implementation of evidence-based interventions in safety net settings. The study phases observed included initiation, planning, and implementation. Three emergent categories of organizational facilitators and barriers were identified (personnel capacity, professional development capacity, and technological capacity). Key participants and health care providers expressed a high level of satisfaction with the collaborative and the interventions, respectively. The CBO's role as a facilitator and catalyst is a replicable model to promote intervention adoption and implementation in safety net settings. Key lessons learned are provided for researchers and practitioners interested in partnering with Federally Qualified Health Centers to implement health promotion interventions.

  10. Prevalence and Impact of Chagas Disease Among Latin American Immigrants With Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, Mahmoud I; Sanchez, Daniel R; Hernandez, Salvador; Bradfield, Jason S; Labedi, Mohamed R; Ngab, Tarik A; Steurer, Frank; Montgomery, Susan P; Meymandi, Sheba K

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease is a well-known cause of cardiomyopathy in Latin America; however, 300 000 individuals are estimated to have Chagas disease in the United States. This study examined the prevalence and impact of Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCM) in a US population. We hypothesized that patients with CCM would have increased morbidity and mortality when compared with patients with non-CCM. This is a single-center, prospective cohort study. Enrollment criteria were new diagnosis of nonischemic cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%) and previous residence in Latin America for at least 12 months. Serological testing for Trypanosoma cruzi was performed at enrollment. The primary end point was all-cause mortality or heart transplantation. The secondary end point was heart failure-related hospitalization. A total of 135 patients were enrolled, with a median of 43 months of follow-up. Chagas disease was diagnosed in 25 (19%) patients. The primary end point occurred in 9 patients (36%) in the CCM group and in 11 patients (10%) in the non-CCM group (hazard ratio [HR], 4.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-10.8; P=0.001). The secondary end point occurred in 13 patients (52%) in the CCM group and in 35 patients (32%) in the non-CCM group (HR, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.2; P=0.01). There is a high prevalence of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants diagnosed with nonischemic cardiomyopathy in Los Angeles. Advanced CCM portends a poor prognosis and is associated with increased all-cause mortality/heart transplantation and heart failure-related hospitalization. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Low-Level Volatile Organic Compounds in Active Public Supply Wells as Ground-Water Tracers in the Los Angeles Physiographic Basin, California, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Burow, Karen R.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Land, Michael; Gronberg, JoAnn

    2001-01-01

    Data were collected to evaluate the use of low-level volatile organic compounds (VOC) to assess the vulnerability of public supply wells in the Los Angeles physiographic basin. Samples of untreated ground water from 178 active public supply wells in the Los Angeles physiographic basin show that VOCs were detected in 61 percent of the ground-water samples; most of these detections were low, with only 29 percent above 1 mg/L (microgram per liter). Thirty-nine of the 86 VOCs analyzed were detected in at least one sample, and 11 VOCs were detected in 7 percent or more of the samples. The six most frequently detected VOCs were trichloromethane (chloroform) (46 percent); trichloroethene (TCE) (28 percent); tetrachloro-ethene (PCE) (19 percent); methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (14 percent); 1,1-dichloroethane (11 percent); and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) (11 percent). These VOCs were also the most frequently detected VOCs in ground water representative of a wide range of hydrologically conditions in urban areas nationwide. Only two VOCs (TCE and PCE) exceeded state and federal primary maximum contaminant levels (MCL) for drinking water in a total of seven samples. Because samples were collected prior to water treatment, sample concentrations do not represent the concentrations entering the drinking-water system.Ground water containing VOCs may be considered to be a tracer of postindustrial-aged water-water that was recharged after the onset of intense urban development. The overall distribution of VOC detections is related to the hydrological and the engineered recharge facilities in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin and the Coastal Santa Ana Basin that comprise the Los Angeles physiographic basin. Most of the ground-water recharge occurs at engineered recharge facilities in the generally coarse-grained northeastern parts of the study area (forebay areas). Ground-water recharge from the land surface is minimal in the southwestern part of the basins, distal from the recharge

  12. Investigating the Methane Footprint of Compressed Natural Gas Stations in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, V.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Bush, S.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Miu, J.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, natural gas has taken on a larger role in the United States' discourse on energy policy because it is seen as a fuel that can alleviate the country's dependence on foreign energy while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, the State of California promotes the use of vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG). However, the implications of increased CNG vehicles for greenhouse gas emission reduction are not fully understood. Specifically, methane (CH4) leakages from natural gas infrastructure could make the switch from conventional to CNG vehicles a source of CH4 to the atmosphere, and negate the greenhouse-gas reduction benefit of this policy. The goal of our research is to provide an analysis of potential CH4 leakages from thirteen CNG filling stations in Orange County, California. To improve our understanding of CH4 leakages, we used a mobile laboratory, which is a Ford Transit van equipped with cavity-ring down Picarro spectrometers, to measure CH4 mixing ratios in these CNG stations. MATLAB and ArcGIS were used to conduct statistical analysis and to construct spatial and temporal maps for each transect. We observed mean levels of excess CH4 (relative to background CH4 mixing ratios) ranging from 60 to 1700 ppb at the CNG stations we sampled. Repeated sampling of CNG stations revealed higher levels of excess CH4 during the daytime compared to the nighttime. From our observations, CNG storage tanks and pumps have approximately the same CH4 leakage levels. By improving our understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 emissions from CNG stations, our research can provide valuable information to reduce the climate footprint of the natural gas industry.

  13. Framing the Local Context and Estimating the Health Impact of CPPW Obesity Prevention Strategies in Los Angeles County, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tony; Robles, Brenda; Trogdon, Justin G; Ferencik, Rachel; Simon, Paul A; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have described the range and health impacts of obesity prevention strategies in local communities supported by the Communities Putting Prevention to Work program. To address this gap, we reviewed implemented strategies in Los Angeles County (LAC) for 3 program focus areas: physical activity-promotion, health marketing, and creation of healthy food environments. Local context and results from an impact simulation are presented. Information on population reach and program milestones was synthesized to describe historical and programmatic progress of the obesity prevention efforts during 2010-2012. To forecast health impacts, the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) was used to simulate population health outcomes, including projected changes in obesity burden and health behaviors 30 years into the future. LAC with more than 9.8 million residents. Low-income adults and youth who were the intended audiences of the Communities Putting Prevention to Work program in LAC. Implemented strategies for the 3 focus areas. Documentation of program reach and PRISM forecasting of obesity rates and health impacts. Implemented strategies in LAC ranged from best practices in healthy food procurement (estimated reach: 600 000 students, 300 000 meals per day) to completed shared-use agreements (10+ agreements across 5 school districts) to a series of strategically designed health marketing campaigns on healthy eating (>515 million impressions). On the basis of PRISM simulations, these highlighted program activities have the potential to reduce by 2040 the number of youth (-29 870) and adults (-94 136) with obesity, youth (-112 453) and adults (-855 855) below recommended levels of physical activity, and youth (-14 544) and adults (-28 835) who consumed excess junk food, as compared with baseline (2010-2011). Program context and PRISM-simulated health impacts showed modest but promising results in LAC, which may lead to further population health improvements in the

  14. Los Angeles megacity: a high-resolution land–atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Feng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Megacities are major sources of anthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2 emissions. The spatial extents of these large urban systems cover areas of 10 000 km2 or more with complex topography and changing landscapes. We present a high-resolution land–atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions over the Los Angeles (LA megacity area. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model was coupled to a very high-resolution FFCO2 emission product, Hestia-LA, to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations across the LA megacity at spatial resolutions as fine as  ∼  1 km. We evaluated multiple WRF configurations, selecting one that minimized errors in wind speed, wind direction, and boundary layer height as evaluated by its performance against meteorological data collected during the CalNex-LA campaign (May–June 2010. Our results show no significant difference between moderate-resolution (4 km and high-resolution (1.3 km simulations when evaluated against surface meteorological data, but the high-resolution configurations better resolved planetary boundary layer heights and vertical gradients in the horizontal mean winds. We coupled our WRF configuration with the Vulcan 2.2 (10 km resolution and Hestia-LA (1.3 km resolution fossil fuel CO2 emission products to evaluate the impact of the spatial resolution of the CO2 emission products and the meteorological transport model on the representation of spatiotemporal variability in simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that high spatial resolution in the fossil fuel CO2 emissions is more important than in the atmospheric model to capture CO2 concentration variability across the LA megacity. Finally, we present a novel approach that employs simultaneous correlations of the simulated atmospheric CO2 fields to qualitatively evaluate the greenhouse gas measurement network over the LA megacity. Spatial correlations in the atmospheric CO2 fields reflect the coverage of

  15. Meeting children's needs: a mixed-methods approach to a regionalized pediatric surge plan-the Los Angeles County experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Bridget M; Muller, Valerie M; Wilson, Millicent; Amara, Roel; Fruhwirth, Kay; Stevenson, Kathleen; Burke, Rita V; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Children are one of the most vulnerable populations during mass casualty incidents because of their unique physiological, developmental, and psychological attributes. The objective of this project was to enhance Los Angeles County's (LAC) pediatric surge capabilities. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) determine gaps in pediatric surge capacity and capabilities; (2) double pediatric inpatient capacity; and (3) document a plan to address gaps and meet pediatric inpatient surge. We hypothesized that LAC would be able to meet the identified pediatric surge target by leveraging resources of hospitals within the region. Deliverables included a pediatric surge plan for LAC, pediatric surge training resources, and pediatric supplies for hospitals participating in LAC's Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP). After Institutional Review Board approval, the authors used a mixed-methods approach to explore gaps in hospital capacity and capabilities in a large urban county. Hospitals were surveyed via Qualtrics® on 38 questions regarding capacity, staffing, availability of pediatric supplies, and existing pediatric surge plans. Publicly available inpatient bed data were collected from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development for the year ending June 2010 and supplemented by hospital survey responses. Population data was used from US Census 2010. This combined dataset was analyzed for capacity, pediatric designations, and capabilities. To supplement this data, three focus groups were conducted between April 2011 and May 2012. Focus group topics included: supplies and training needed for pediatric surge, surge targets, and plan development and functionality. Hospitals varied in pediatric capacity and capability. Forty-six percent of facilities provide inpatient pediatric services. Forty-one hospitals are designated as an Emergency Department Approved for Pediatrics. Identified gaps included: limited pediatric bed capacity, geographic variability, limited

  16. Understanding the socio-demographic and climate impacts on total and landscape water use in the City of Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mini, C.; Hogue, T. S.; Pincetl, S.

    2010-12-01

    Urbanization has environmental impacts that modify ecosystem services associated with vegetation. Semi-arid urban forests also have costs related to irrigation that are difficult to evaluate. In the face of climate change and population growth, quantifying and predicting ecosystems costs and benefits are important and challenging. In urban areas, residential water consumption includes both domestic needs and landscaping irrigation, yet accurate partitioning of each of these uses is rare in most environments. The goal of the current research is to quantify outdoor landscape water use in order to have a better understanding of urban water footprints and the dynamics of water consumption patterns within semi-arid cities. Data is being collected from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) to evaluate household water use by ZIP code and by census tract. Neighborhoods were selected to represent city characteristics based on socio-demographic factors such as density, ethnicity, income level, education level and housing types. Initial studies are focusing on the correlation between residential water use and socio-demographic factors at the ZIP code level inside each neighborhood over the 2000-2010 period. Other variables predicting water use include climate variability and vegetation type. As expected, monthly water use patterns follow seasonal temperature and precipitation variability across the study neighborhoods. Results also show that education, ethnicity, per capita income, and the number of persons per household are linearly related to water use per capita and per area. A positive correlation is also observed between landscape area, vegetation indices and outdoor water use. A multiple regression model is developed that integrates these fundamental factors controlling indoor and outdoor water use across the region. Estimates of urban landscape water use will ultimately be compared to a remotely-sensed evapotranspiration model with high spatial (250 m

  17. Study of CO/sub 2/ recovery and tertiary oil production enhancement in the Los Angeles Basin. Final report, September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, R.P.; Wittmeyer, E.E.; Sharp, S.D.; Griep, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of stuides conducted to evaluate carbon dioxide sources in the Los Angeles Basin, determine the requirements for upgrading and transmitting the gas, write the necessary material specifications, and determine where carbon dioxde may be effectively utilized as an enhanced recovery agent in oil fields, estimate recovery performance, and evaluate potential economic benefits. Study results show that there are two major sources of CO/sub 2/ in the Los Angeles Basin. Six oil refineries and one ammonia plant (all near Los Angeles Basin oil fields), have hydrogen plants with by-product streams of concentrated CO/sub 2/. The total available (uncommitted) CO/sub 2/ from these streams is about 3,000 tons per day. Six major electric power plants, all near L.A. Basin oil fields, discharge a combined total of 70,000 tons per day of CO/sub 2/ from 27 large boilers. Average CO/sub 2/ concentration in the flue gas is about 14 percent on a dry basis. CO/sub 2/ processing recommendations include modification of the existing hydrogen-CO/sub 2/ separation system, so that nitrogen is not used for stripping and therefore does not need to be removed, use propylene carbonate absorption, and use low-temperature separation. For CO/sub 2/ extraction from flue gas, monoethanolamine (MEA) absorption is recommended. Several reservoirs have been identified and are listed as prime candidates for CO/sub 2/ injection, using the major criteria of high oil saturation in the reservoir, suitable depth of the reservoir, and a good potential for zone control. (JRD)

  18. Combined Mobile In Situ and Remote Sensing Investigation of the Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Leak in the Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. L.; Leifer, I.; Tratt, D. M.; Melton, C.; Frash, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Aliso Canyon natural gas leak in the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles, California was a major disruptive event whose societal impacts have continued well after the event itself ended, yet fortunately did not involve highly toxic gases. Chemical releases can have serious consequences for ecosystems, societies, and human health. Mitigating their destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in the accuracy of such transport modeling capabilities can significantly improve the effectiveness of disaster response activities. Simultaneous plume characterization data were collected by the Mobile Infrared Sensor for Tactical Incident Response (MISTIR) and AutoMObile trace Gas (AMOG) Surveyor, two instrumented vehicles traveling in convoy. Surface vehicles have advantages over airplanes in terms of simpler logistics, such as not being limited by controlled airspace which is a major issue in Los Angeles, and ability to deploy rapidly. Moreover, it is the surface concentration that impacts human health and determines ecological damage. Fusion of the resulting correlative surface in situ observations and thermal-infrared spectroscopic column observations allowed both lateral and temporal plume characterization to derive emissions and to characterize the confining effect of topography on plume dispersion. Although a straightforward Gaussian plume inversion approach based on surface data yields an emission estimate with reasonable fidelity, it required assumptions of vertical profile and topographic influence that were validated by the column spectroscopic observations. Topographic factors within the Los Angeles Basin, including the Aliso Canyon locale, strongly influence transport processes. This situation challenges the predictive skill of numerical transport models that are used to assist the evacuation of at-risk communities, for example in the case of a refinery fire. This study demonstrated the utility

  19. Facilitators and barriers to implementing a local policy to reduce sodium consumption in the County of Los Angeles government, California, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Dunet, Diane O; Simon, Paul A

    2011-03-01

    This qualitative study explores facilitators and barriers to a proposed food procurement policy that would require food purchasers, distributors, and vendors of food service in the County of Los Angeles government to meet specified nutrition standards, including limits on sodium content. We conducted 30 key informant interviews. Interviewees represented 18 organizations from the County of Los Angeles government departments that purchased, distributed, or sold food; public and private non-County entities that had previously implemented food procurement policies in their organizations; and large organizations that catered food to the County. Study participants reported 3 key facilitators: their organization's authority to impose nutrition standards, their organization's desire to provide nutritious food, and the opportunity to build on existing nutrition policies. Eight key barriers were identified: 1) unique features among food service settings, 2) costs and unavailability of low-sodium foods, 3) complexity of food service arrangements, 4) lack of consumer demand for low-sodium foods, 5) undesirable taste of low-sodium foods, 6) preference for prepackaged products, 7) lack of knowledge and experience in operationalizing sodium standards, and 8) existing multiyear contracts that are difficult to change. Despite perceived barriers, several participants indicated that their organizations have successfully implemented nutritional standards that include limits on sodium. Developing or changing policies for procuring food represents a potentially feasible strategy for reducing sodium consumption in food service venues controlled by the County of Los Angeles. The facilitators and barriers identified here can inform the formulation, adoption, implementation, and evaluation of sodium reduction policies in other jurisdictions.

  20. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Indoor and Outdoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Retirement Communities of the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminassab, Sina; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Delfino, Ralph J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent indoor and outdoor measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted at three retirement homes in the Los Angeles Basin during two separate phases (cold and warm) between 2005 and 2006. Indoor-to-outdoor relationships of PM2.5 chemical constituents were determined and sources of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were evaluated using a molecular marker-based chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) model. Indoor levels of elemental carbon (EC) along with metals and trace elements were found to be significantly affected by outdoor sources. EC, in particular, displayed very high indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) mass ratios accompanied by strong I/O correlations, illustrating the significant impact of outdoor sources on indoor levels of EC. Similarly, indoor levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and steranes were strongly correlated with their outdoor components and displayed I/O ratios close to unity. On the other hand, concentrations of n-alkanes and organic acids inside the retirement communities were dominated by indoor sources (e.g. food cooking and consumer products), as indicated by their I/O ratios, which exceeded unity. Source apportionment results revealed that vehicular emissions were the major contributor to both indoor and outdoor PM2.5, accounting for 39 and 46% of total mass, respectively. Moreover, the contribution of vehicular sources to indoor levels was generally comparable to its corresponding outdoor estimate. Other water-insoluble organic matter (other WIOM), which accounts for emissions from uncharacterized primary biogenic sources, displayed a wider range of contributions, varying from 2 to 73% of PM2.5, across all sites and phases of the study. Lastly, higher indoor than outdoor contribution of other water-soluble organic matter (other WSOM) was evident at some of the sites, suggesting the production of secondary aerosols as well as direct emissions from primary sources (including cleaning or other consumer products) at the

  1. Fostering K-12 Inquiry-based Lesson Development on Regional Water Resource Issues in Los Angeles Urban Schools through the NSF UCLA SEE-LA GK-12 program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, T. S.; Burke, M. P.; Thulsirag, V.; Daniel, J.; Moldwin, M.; Nonacs, P.

    2010-12-01

    A National Science Foundation Graduate Teaching Fellows in K- 12 Education program at UCLA (SEE-LA; http://measure.igpp.ucla.edu/GK12-SEE-LA/ ) partners UCLA faculty and graduate students (fellows) with urban middle and high school science teachers and their students to foster programs of science and engineering exploration that bring the environment of Los Angeles into the classroom. UCLA graduate fellows serve as scientists-in-residence at four partner schools to integrate inquiry-based science lessons, facilitate advancements in science content teaching, and ultimately, to improve their own science communication skills. As part of their fellowship, graduate students are required to develop inquiry-based lessons in their partner classroom. During the first two years of the project, the SEE-LA fellows have developed a range of inquiry-based activities, from invertebrate observations in an urban stream system, to water and home energy consumption surveys, to a school biodiversity investigation, to a school-wide alternative energy fair, to engineering the cleanup of environmental disasters, such as the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Several of the current fellows have dissertation research in water resource related fields and are specifically integrating lessons specific to their research into their partner classrooms, including urban stream water quality, post-fire watershed behavior, beach water quality assessment and E. coli source tracking. This presentation will provide an overview of goals of the SEE-LA GK-12 program, development of inquiry-based water resource lessons and resulting engagement in the partner classrooms. University and local pre-college school partnerships provide an excellent opportunity to support the development of graduate student communication and teaching skills while also contributing significantly to the integration of science education into K-12 curriculum.

  2. Ground-water modeling and the installation of deep multiple-well monitoring sites in the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, E. G.; Johnson, T. A.; Land, M.; Everett, R. R.; Ponti, D. J.; Edwards, B. D.; Crawford, S. M.; Kulshan, T.

    2002-12-01

    An ongoing regional study of the geohydrology and geochemistry of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California has iteratively combined the drilling of deep multiple-well monitoring sites with groundwater modeling. The monitoring sites are generally between 1,000 and 1,500 ft in depth and consist of 4-6 piezometers installed within a single borehole that provide depth-dependent geohydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRDSC) drilled four monitoring sites at the beginning of the cooperative study. The data from these sites, along with data compiled from existing wells, formed the basis for developing a preliminary multi-aquifer ground-water simulation model. Initial model simulations were then used to help prioritize new drilling locations where additional geohydrologic data were needed to more accurately simulate the complex system. Additional drilling, updating the regional simulation model, and new modeling-including development of particle tracking, simulation-optimization, and solute transport models-have proceeded iteratively. As of September, 2002, 34 multiple-well monitoring sites (162 piezometers) have been constructed. The new modeling, which focuses on seawater intrusion, has identified the need for more detailed data on sequence stratigraphy, geometries of confining beds and high permeability zones, and pore-water chemistry. In response to this need, continuous coring has been conducted cooperatively by the USGS, WRDSC, and Los Angeles County Department of Public Works at six of the monitoring sites completed thus far.

  3. Space/time explicit Hestia version 2.0 fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the Los Angeles Basin: comparison to atmospheric monitoring, emission drivers, and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Liang, J.; Patarasuk, R.; O'Keeffe, D.; Newman, S.; Rao, P.; Hutchins, M.; Huang, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Los Angeles Basin represents one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States and is home to the Megacity Carbon Project, a multi-institutional effort led by NASA JPL to understand the total carbon budget of the Los Angeles Basin. A key component of that effort is the Hestia bottom-up fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product, which quantifies FFCO2 every hour to the spatial scale of individual buildings and road segments. This data product has undergone considerable revision in the last year and the version 2.0 data product is now complete covering the 2011-2014 time period. In this presentation, we highlight the advances in the Hestia version 2.0 including the improvements to onroad, building and industrial emissions. We make comparisons to the independently reported GHG reporting program of the EPA and to in-situ atmospheric measurement of CO2 at two monotiring locations in Pasadena and Palos Verdes. We provide an analysis of the socioeconomic drivers of emissions in the building and onroad transportation sectors across the domain highlighting hotspots of emissions and spatially-specific opportunities for reductions.

  4. The unhealthy food environment does not modify the association between obesity and participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Harrison, Gail G; Wang, May C; Seto, Edmund Y W; Pebley, Anne R

    2017-01-14

    Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has been linked to an increased risk of obesity, but not much is known about the mechanisms behind this association. The objective of this study was to determine if the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets modifies the association between obesity and participation in SNAP. Data comes from the first wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey; included are a subsample of adults (18+ years) who were SNAP participants or eligible non-participants (N = 1,176). We carried out multilevel analyses with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m 2 ), SNAP participation, and the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets as dependent, independent and modifying variables, respectively, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, working status, mental health, and neighborhood poverty. SNAP participants had double the odds of obesity compared to eligible non-participants (OR = 2.02; 95%CI = 1.44-2.83). However, the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets did not modify this association. SNAP participation was associated with higher odds of obesity in our primarily Hispanic sample in Los Angeles County, with no effect modification found for the unhealthy portion of the food environment. More research is needed with additional food environment measures to confirm our null findings. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking SNAP participation and obesity as they remain unclear.

  5. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations in underground and ground-level rail systems of the Los Angeles Metro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Winnie; Cheung, Kalam; Daher, Nancy; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2011-03-01

    Elevated concentrations of particulate matter (PM) have been found in a number of worldwide underground transit systems, with major implications regarding exposure of commuters to PM and its associated health effects. An extensive sampling campaign was conducted in May-August 2010 to measure PM concentrations in two lines of the Los Angeles Metro system - an underground subway line (Metro red line) and a ground-level light-rail line (Metro gold line). The campaign goals were to: 1) determine personal PM exposure of commuters of both lines, and 2) measure and compare PM concentrations at station platforms and inside the train. Considering that a commuter typically spent 75% of time inside the train and 25% of time waiting at a station, subway commuters were exposed on average to PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations that were 1.9 and 1.8 times greater than the light-rail commuters. The average PM 10 concentrations for the subway line at station platforms and inside the train were 78.0 μg m -3 and 31.5 μg m -3, respectively; for the light-rail line, corresponding PM 10 concentrations were 38.2 μg m -3 and 16.2 μg m -3. Regression analysis demonstrated that personal exposure concentrations for the light-rail line are strongly associated with ambient PM levels ( R2 = 0.61), while PM concentrations for the subway line are less influenced by ambient conditions ( R2 = 0.38) and have a relatively stable background level of about 21 μg m -3. Our findings suggest that local emissions (i.e., vehicular traffic, road dust) are the main source of airborne PM for the light-rail line. The subway line, on the other hand, has an additional source of PM, most likely generated from the daily operation of trains. Strong inter-correlation of PM 10 between the train and station microenvironments shows that airborne PM at stations are the main source of PM inside the trains for both lines ( R2 = 0.91 and 0.81 for subway and light-rail line, respectively). In addition, PM 2.5 and coarse PM

  6. Guidebook of the Western United States: Part F - The Southern Pacific lines, New Orleans to Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Nelson Horatio

    1933-01-01

    The Southern Pacific Railroad from New Orleans to Los Angeles, a distance of about 2,000 miles, passes through a region exhibiting a great variety of geographic and industrial conditions. The climate, especially the amount of precipitation, is the most influential factor in causing this variety. The low Coastal Plain of southern Louisiana and eastern Texas, with ample rainfall and thick rich soils, is a province distinct in configuration, human occupations, and products. There are extensive swamps, prairies, and wooded areas, but a large part of the land is under cultivation, with sugarcane, cotton, and rice as the principal crops. The streams are wide and slow, the winter climate is mild, and the summer heat is tempered by breezes from the Gulf of Mexico. Flourishing towns occur at short intervals, and some of them are growing rapidly. The entire region is underlain by a great thickness of sand and clay of alluvial origin. In central-eastern Texas the Coastal Plain is higher, the soil conditions are materially different, the streams run more swiftly, swamps become rare, and although much land is under cultivation, many areas are either in pasture or not cleared. The vegetation changes with change of soil and increase of altitude, and the crops are more diversified than in the lower parts of the Coastal Plain. The region is underlain by sandstone, shale, and other formations, which rise toward the west, cropping out in regular succession as they are crossed from east to west. Some of these formations are hard enough to make ridges and knobs, and there is general terracing at various levels. Parts of the highest lands are remnants of an old plain of former wide extent. Beyond San Antonio the traveler observes several changes in the general aspect of the country, for although the Coastal Plain extends west to Del Rio, there is both a gradual increase in elevation to about 1,000 feet and a marked diminution of rainfall to the west, which greatly affect landscape and

  7. Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols in Los Angeles during CalNex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Carlton, A. G.; Baker, K. R.; Ahmadov, R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Alvarez, S.; Rappengluck, B.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Szidat, S.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Offenberg, J. H.; Ma, P. K.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    Four different literature parameterizations for the formation and evolution of urban secondary organic aerosol (SOA) frequently used in 3-D models are evaluated using a 0-D box model representing the Los Angeles metropolitan region during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 campaign. We constrain the model predictions with measurements from several platforms and compare predictions with particle- and gas-phase observations from the CalNex Pasadena ground site. That site provides a unique opportunity to study aerosol formation close to anthropogenic emission sources with limited recirculation. The model SOA that formed only from the oxidation of VOCs (V-SOA) is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations, even when using SOA parameterizations with multi-generation oxidation that produce much higher yields than have been observed in chamber experiments, or when increasing yields to their upper limit estimates accounting for recently reported losses of vapors to chamber walls. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model (version 5.0.1) provides excellent predictions of secondary inorganic particle species but underestimates the observed SOA mass by a factor of 25 when an older VOC-only parameterization is used, which is consistent with many previous model-measurement comparisons for pre-2007 anthropogenic SOA modules in urban areas. Including SOA from primary semi-volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (P-S/IVOCs) following the parameterizations of Robinson et al. (2007), Grieshop et al. (2009), or Pye and Seinfeld (2010) improves model-measurement agreement for mass concentration. The results from the three parameterizations show large differences (e.g., a factor of 3 in SOA mass) and are not well constrained, underscoring the current uncertainties in this area. Our results strongly suggest that other precursors besides VOCs, such as P-S/IVOCs, are needed to explain the observed

  8. Self-reported use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits to purchase soda in a public health center population: Los Angeles County, California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel; Gase, Lauren; Butler, Rebecca; Smith, Lisa; Simon, Paul; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To better inform local program planning for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health used self-reported data from a public health center population to examine the prevalence of benefits used to purchase soda. We performed statistical analyses, including multivariable regression modeling, using data from a local health and nutrition examination survey. The survey response rate was 69% (n=1,503). More than one-third of survey participants reported receiving, or living in a household where someone receives, nutrition assistance benefits. When asked, 33% (n=170) reported using these benefits to purchase soda "sometimes" and 18% (n=91) reported "often" or "always," suggesting that the use of program benefits to purchase soda was not uncommon in this subpopulation. These findings have meaningful policy and planning implications, as they contribute to ongoing dialogue about strategies for optimizing nutrition among SNAP recipients.

  9. Opportunity in our Ignorance: Urban Biodiversity Study Reveals 30 New Species and One New Nearctic Record for Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) in Los Angeles (California, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, Emily A; Brown, Brian V; Disney, R Henry L

    2015-04-02

    An urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA), reveals the presence of fifty-six species of Megaselia within the first few months of sampling. Thirty of these are described as new to science: M. armstrongorum, M. bradyi, M. brejchaorum, M. carthayensis, M. ciancii, M. creasoni, M. defibaughorum, M. donahuei, M. francoae, M. fujiokai, M. hardingorum, M. heini, M. hentschkeae, M. hoffmanorum, M. hoggorum, M. hoguei, M. isaacmajorum, M. kelleri, M. lombardorum, M. marquezi, M. mikejohnsoni, M. oxboroughae, M. pisanoi, M. renwickorum, M. rodriguezorum, M. sacatelensis, M. seaverorum, M. sidneyae, M. steptoeae, and M. wiegmanae. M. largifrontalis is newly reported from the Nearctic Region. The implications these findings have for future taxonomic work in Megaselia, particularly in urban areas, are discussed.

  10. The Los Angeles Healthy Community Neighborhood Initiative: A Ten Year Experience in Building and Sustaining a Successful Community-Academic Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keyonna M; Morris, D'Ann; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Jones, Felica; Del Pino, Homero E; Porter, Courtney; Vargas, Roberto; Kahn, Katherine; Brown, Arleen F; Norris, Keith C

    2015-01-01

    Developing effective Community-Academic Partnerships (CAPs) is challenging, and the steps to build and sustain them have not been well documented. This paper describes efforts to form and sustain the Healthy Community Neighborhood Initiative (HCNI), a CAP to improve health in a low-income community in South Los Angeles. Moderated, semi-structured discussions with HCNI community and academic partners were used to develop a framework for CAP formation. We identified two key features, shared values and respect, as critical to the decision to form the HCNI. Five elements were identified as necessary for building and sustaining the HCNI: trust, transparency, equity and fairness, adequate resources and developing protocols to provide structure. We also identified several challenges and barriers and the strategies used in the HCNI to mitigate these challenges. We developed a framework to incorporate and reinforce the key elements identified as crucial in building and sustaining a CAP in a low-income community.

  11. Historical trends in the mass and chemical species concentrations of coarse particulate matter in the Los Angeles Basin and relation to sources and air quality regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kalam; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2012-05-01

    To assess the impact of past, current and proposed air quality regulations on coarse particulate matter (CPM), the concentrations of CPM mass and its chemical constituents were examined in the Los Angeles Basin from 1986 to 2009 using PM data acquired from peer-reviewed journals and regulatory agency database. PM10 mass levels decreased by approximately half from 1988 to 2009 at the three sampling sites examined- located in downtown Los Angeles, Long Beach and Riverside. Annual CPM mass concentrations were calculated from the difference between daily PM10 and PM2.5 from 1999 to 2009. High CPM episodes driven by high wind speed/stagnant condition caused year-to-year fluctuations in the 99th/98th percentile CPM levels. The reductions of average CPM levels were lower than those of PM10 in the same period, therefore the decrease of PM10 level was mainly driven by reductions in the emission levels of PM2.5 (or fine) particles, as demonstrated by the higher annual reduction of average PM2.5 (0.92 microg/m3) compared with CPM (0.39 microg/m3) from 1999 to 2009 in downtown Los Angeles despite their comparable concentrations. This is further confirmed by the significant decrease of Ni, Cr, V and EC in the coarse fraction after 1995. On the other hand, the levels of several inorganic ions (sulfate, chloride and to a lesser extent nitrate) remained comparable. From 1995 to 2008, levels of Cu, a tracer of brake wear, either remained similar or decreased at a smaller rate compared with elements of combustion origins. This differential reduction of CPM components suggests that past and current regulations may have been more effective in reducing fugitive dust (Al, Fe and Si) and combustion emissions (Ni, Cr, V, and EC) rather than CPM from vehicular abrasion (Cu) and inorganic ions (NO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl(-)) in urban areas. Limited information is currently available to provide the scientific basis for understanding the sources and physical and chemical variations of CPM, and

  12. VA health service utilization for homeless and low-income Veterans: a spotlight on the VA Supportive Housing (VASH) program in greater Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielian, Sonya; Yuan, Anita H; Andersen, Ronald M; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Gelberg, Lillian

    2014-05-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)-VA Supportive Housing (VASH) program-the VA's Housing First effort-is central to efforts to end Veteran homelessness. Yet, little is known about health care utilization patterns associated with achieving HUD-VASH housing. We compare health service utilization at the VA Greater Los Angeles among: (1) formerly homeless Veterans housed through HUD-VASH (HUD-VASH Veterans); (2) currently homeless Veterans; (3) housed, low-income Veterans not in HUD-VASH; and (4) housed, not low-income Veterans. We performed a secondary database analysis of Veterans (n=62,459) who received VA Greater Los Angeles care between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2011. We described medical/surgical and mental health utilization [inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department (ED)]. We controlled for demographics, need, and primary care use in regression analyses of utilization data by housing and income status. HUD-VASH Veterans had more inpatient, outpatient, and ED use than currently homeless Veterans. Adjusting for demographics and need, HUD-VASH Veterans and the low-income housed Veterans had similar likelihoods of medical/surgical inpatient and outpatient utilization, compared with the housed, not low-income group. Adjusting first for demographics and need (model 1), then also for primary care use (model 2), HUD-VASH Veterans had the greatest decrease in incident rates of specialty medical/surgical, mental health, and ED care from models 1 to 2, becoming similar to the currently homeless, compared with the housed, not low-income group. Our findings suggest that currently homeless Veterans underuse health care relative to housed Veterans. HUD-VASH may address this disparity by providing housing and linkages to primary care.

  13. Adaptation of the HIV Care Continuum as a Method for Evaluating Syphilis and Gonorrhea Disease Control Activities in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ryan Daniel; Wohl, Amy Rock; Ma, Yingbo; Kobeissi, Loulou; Oduyemi, Odutoyosi; Pérez, Mario J

    2015-12-01

    Treatment verification and contact elicitation are core approaches used to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Methodology adapted from the HIV care continuum is presented as an evaluation and communication tool for STD control activities. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance and program data for Los Angeles County in 2013 were used to construct a 2-part continuum to examine syphilis (all stages) and gonorrhea outcomes among index patients and elicited contacts. The Index Case Continuum (Part 1) assesses the proportion of patients who were treated, assigned for interview, interviewed, and provided name and locating information for at least 1 contact. The Elicited Contact Continuum (Part 2) assesses the proportion of contacts who were located, interviewed, and treated. Among 3668 patients with syphilis, 97% (n = 3556) were treated, 72% (n = 2633) were interviewed, and 25% (n = 920) provided name and locating information for at least 1 contact. The corresponding numbers for 12,541 gonorrhea cases were 95% (n = 11,936), 45% (n = 5633), and 16% (1944), respectively. Among the 1392 contacts elicited from syphilis cases, 53% (n = 735) were either interviewed or determined to not need an interview and 43% (n = 595) were treated. The corresponding numbers for the 2323 contacts elicited from gonorrhea cases were 53% (n = 1221) and 46% (n = 1075), respectively. Adaptation of the HIV continuum is a useful tool for evaluating treatment verification and contact elicitation activities. In Los Angeles County, this approach revealed significant drop-offs in the proportion of index cases naming contacts and in the proportion of contacts who are interviewed and treated.

  14. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eisenman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR, a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  15. Characterization of potential transport pathways and implications for groundwater management near an anticline in the Central Basin area, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Daniel J.; Wagner, Brian J.; Land, Michael; Landon, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Groundwater Basin (Central Basin) of southern Los Angeles County includes ~280 mi2 of the Los Angeles Coastal Plain and serves as the primary source of water for more than two million residents. In the Santa Fe Springs–Whittier–Norwalk area, located in the northeastern part of the basin, several sources of volatile organic compounds have been identified. The volatile organic compunds are thought to have contributed to a large, commingled contaminant plume in groundwater that extends south-southwest downgradient from the Omega Chemical Corporation Superfund Site across folded geologic strata, known as the Santa Fe Springs Anticline. A multifaceted study—that incorporated a three-dimensional sequence-stratigraphic geologic model, two-dimensional groundwater particle-tracking simulations, and new groundwater chemistry data—was conducted to gain insight into the geologic and hydrologic controls on contaminant migration in the study area and to assess the potential for this shallow groundwater contamination to migrate into producing aquifer zones. Conceptual flow models were developed along a flow-parallel cross section based on the modeled stratigraphic architecture, observed geochemistry, and numerical model simulations that generally agree with observed water levels and contaminant distributions. These models predict that contaminants introduced into groundwater at shallow depths near the Omega Chemical Corporation Superfund Site and along the study cross section will likely migrate downgradient to depths intercepted by public supply wells. These conclusions, however, are subject to limitations and simplifications inherent in the modeling approaches used, as well as a significant scarcity of available geologic and hydrogeochemical information at depth and in the downgradient parts of the study area.

  16. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. II. Etiologic factors in an area with low prevalence at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of neural tube defect (NTD) births occurring in Los Angeles County, California, residents during the period 1966-1972 are presented. The prevalence at birth was 0.52/1000 births for anencephalus, 0.51/1000 for spina bifida, and 0.08/1000 for encephalocele, rates considered to be low for a predominantly white population. We hypothesized that environmental (nongenetic) factors are of less etiologic importance in a low-prevalence population than in areas or time periods with high prevalence. We tested that hypothesis by examining epidemiologic characteristics of NTDs in Los Angeles County and comparing them with high-prevalence populations. The data did not support a major etiologic role for environmental factors: (1) no significant differences between rates by month of birth or conception; (2) no significant association with maternal age or parity for anencephalus; for spina bifida a significant maternal age effect (P < 0.01) and for encephalocele a parity effect (P < 0.02); and (3) no significant relationship with father's occupational class for either anencephalus or encephalocele but a marginally significant (P < 0.05) inverse association for spina bifida when a statistic based on ordinal relationships was used. Findings supporting the importance of genetic factors in etiology included: (1) a high percentage of males; (2) a higher twin concordance rate than in high-prevalence populations; and (3) an anencephalus rate among blacks comparable with rates for blacks in other United States populations. Our findings in conjunction with those from other areas and times of low prevalence suggest environmental factors play a relatively insignificant role in the etiology of NTDs in such populations.

  17. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David; Chandra, Anita; Fogleman, Stella; Magana, Aizita; Hendricks, Astrid; Wells, Ken; Williams, Malcolm; Tang, Jennifer; Plough, Alonzo

    2014-01-01

    Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR), a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports. PMID:25153472

  18. Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.

  19. A Two-Generation Study of Body Mass Index, Energy Balance and Specific Physical Activity of College Students and Their Respective Parents Living in the Same Household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Lee, Judy; Tam, Chick F.; Bridges, Elizabeth; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the differences in body mass index (BMI), energy balance (EB) and specific physical activity (SPA) between 30 CSULA college students (Y) and their respective parents (O) living in the same household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Each student completed a 24-hour dietary record with SPA journal, and the same for…

  20. Hate Behavior and Hate Crimes: What Motivates People To Hate? How Can We Prevent Hate Crimes in Our Schools and Communities? A Town Hall Meeting, Simon Wiesenthal Center, Los Angeles, December 7, 1999 & California State Capitol, February 1, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento.

    The LegiSchool Project of California State University, Sacramento, and the California State Legislature planned two town hall meetings focusing on hate crime for the winter of 1999-2000, one in Los Angeles and one in Sacramento to provide forums in which California's high school students, educators, and legislators can engage in face-to-face…

  1. Perspectives of Central Office Staff, Principals, Teachers, and School Site Councils on Resource Allocation and "Budgeting for Student Achievement" Implementation in 2010-11. A Report Prepared for the Los Angeles Unified School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxton, Clarisse L.; Chambers, Jay G.; Manship, Karen; Cruz, Lisa; O'Neil, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    As part of the evaluation of the Strategic School Funding for Results (SSFR) project (called Budgeting for Student Success, or BSA, in Los Angeles Unified School District), the American Institutes for Research (AIR) conducted surveys of principals, teachers, and members of School Site Councils (SSCs) to gather information on their attitudes and…

  2. From Civic Association to Political Participation: Mexican Hometown Associations and Mexican Immigrant Political Empowerment in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Zabin; Luis Escala

    2002-01-01

    De la asociación cívica a la participación política: Asociaciones de migrantes y fortalecimiento político de los inmigrantes mexicanos en Los Ángeles En este artículo analizamos la participación de los inmigrantes mexicanos en Estados Unidos, dentro de las asociaciones de migrantes, activismo que representa el caso más importante de trabajo voluntario entre la primera generación de inmigrantes mexicanos. El estudio se concentró en el área de Los Ángeles, California, región que cuenta con ...

  3. Radiocarbon-insights into temporal variations in the sources and concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Los Angeles and Salt Lake City Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Mouteva, Gergana; Simon, Fahrni; Guaciara, Santos; James, Randerson

    2014-05-01

    Increased fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning are contributing to significantly larger emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the atmosphere. Together with organic carbon (OC), BC is a major constituent of fine particulate matter in urban air, contributes to haze and has been linked to a broad array of adverse health effects. Black carbon's high light absorption capacity and role in key (in-)direct climate feedbacks also lead to a range of impacts in the Earth system (e.g. warming, accelerated snow melt, changes in cloud formation). Recent work suggests that regulating BC emissions can play an important role in improving regional air quality and reducing future climate warming. However, BC's atmospheric transport pathways, lifetime and magnitudes of emissions by sector and region, particularly emissions from large urban centers, remain poorly constrained by measurements. Contributions of fossil and modern sources to the carbonaceous aerosol pool (corresponding mainly to traffic/industrial and biomass-burning/biogenic sources, respectively) can be quantified unambiguously by measuring the aerosol radiocarbon (14C) content. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires the physical isolation of BC and OC, and minimal sample contamination with extraneous carbon or from OC charring. Compound class-specific 14C analysis of BC remains challenging due to very small sample sizes (5-15 ug C). Therefore, most studies to date have only analyzed the 14C content of the total organic carbonaceous aerosol fraction. Here, we present time-series 14C data of BC and OC from the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California - one of two megacities in the United States - and from Salt Lake City (SLC), UT. In the LA area, we analyzed 48h-PM10 samples near the LA port throughout 2007 and 2008 (with the exception of summer). We also collected monthly-PM2.5 samples at the University of California - Irvine, with shorter sampling periods during regional wildfire

  4. From Civic Association to Political Participation: Mexican Hometown Associations and Mexican Immigrant Political Empowerment in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Zabin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available De la asociación cívica a la participación política: Asociaciones de migrantes y fortalecimiento político de los inmigrantes mexicanos en Los Ángeles En este artículo analizamos la participación de los inmigrantes mexicanos en Estados Unidos, dentro de las asociaciones de migrantes, activismo que representa el caso más importante de trabajo voluntario entre la primera generación de inmigrantes mexicanos. El estudio se concentró en el área de Los Ángeles, California, región que cuenta con la mayor cantidad de inmigrantes mexicanos y de asociaciones de migrantes en Estados Unidos, para evaluar su participación en la política y movimientos sociales de este país. Nuestra investigación mostró que si bien estas asociaciones constituyen una sólida fuente de apoyo social en Estados Unidos, así como de una notable su labor filantrópica en México, su participación es más bien limitada dentro de la política. A pesar de su reducida participación en este ámbito, estas asociaciones están descubriendo su potencial, lo que eventualmente puede convertirlas en fuentes importantes para el fortalecimiento político de los inmigrantes mexicanos en Estados Unidos.

  5. Earthquake-by-earthquake fold growth above the Puente Hills blind thrust fault, Los Angeles, California: Implications for fold kinematics and seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Lorraine A.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Dolan, James F.; Shaw, John H.; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2007-03-01

    Boreholes and high-resolution seismic reflection data collected across the forelimb growth triangle above the central segment of the Puente Hills thrust fault (PHT) beneath Los Angeles, California, provide a detailed record of incremental fold growth during large earthquakes on this major blind thrust fault. These data document fold growth within a discrete kink band that narrows upward from ˜460 m at the base of the Quaternary section (200-250 m depth) to 82% at 250 m depth) folding and uplift occur within discrete kink bands, thereby enabling us to develop a paleoseismic history of the underlying blind thrust fault. The borehole data reveal that the youngest part of the growth triangle in the uppermost 20 m comprises three stratigraphically discrete growth intervals marked by southward thickening sedimentary strata that are separated by intervals in which sediments do not change thickness across the site. We interpret the intervals of growth as occurring after the formation of now-buried paleofold scarps during three large PHT earthquakes in the past 8 kyr. The intervening intervals of no growth record periods of structural quiescence and deposition at the regional, near-horizontal stream gradient at the study site. Minimum uplift in each of the scarp-forming events, which occurred at 0.2-2.2 ka (event Y), 3.0-6.3 ka (event X), and 6.6-8.1 ka (event W), ranged from ˜1.1 to ˜1.6 m, indicating minimum thrust displacements of ≥2.5 to 4.5 m. Such large displacements are consistent with the occurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes (Mw > 7). Cumulative, minimum uplift in the past three events was 3.3 to 4.7 m, suggesting cumulative thrust displacement of ≥7 to 10.5 m. These values yield a minimum Holocene slip rate for the PHT of ≥0.9 to 1.6 mm/yr. The borehole and seismic reflection data demonstrate that dip within the kink band is acquired incrementally, such that older strata that have been deformed by more earthquakes dip more steeply than younger strata

  6. Projected 21st Century Impacts of Climate Change on the Performance of the Los Angeles Aqueduct and Adaptation Measures to Mitigate Adverse Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, B.; Sayenko, K.; Roy, S. B.; Lew, C.

    2011-12-01

    One of the largest sources of drinking water to the City of Los Angeles (the City) comes from snow melt from the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains that drain into Owens Valley and Mono Basin. Much of this water is then transported to the City via the Los Angeles Aqueduct (LAA) originally built in 1913. During the 1980s and earlier, up to 500,000 acre-feet (af) of water was conveyed annually, but more recently less water has been transported due to increasing usage in Owens Valley, and due to a series of dry years.The City is concerned about potential impacts of climate change on this water supply, and commissioned the authors to perform a study to evaluate these potential impacts on both the infrastructure of the LAA and water supply to the City. This presentation focuses on the water supply issue, which has the potential to impact millions of customers. The study results presented here are part of a larger study where 16 global climate models were downscaled and applied to the Owens Valley and Mono Basin watersheds. This presentation begins by assuming base-of-mountain runoff is known from the 16 GCMs, and does not focus on the GCMs or downscaling.The results of the study described in this presentation are those of the authors and not of the LADWP. One of the most consequential findings of the study is the projected decrease in runoff from the watershed over the 21st century. While wet years are still dispersed between dry years, over the 21st century the loss in runoff is equivalent to approximately five years of historical average runoff. In addition to climate change impacts, water usage in the Owens valley is projected to increase over the 21st century and that increasing usage is projected to be comparable to climate change impacts. Eight adaptation options were identified to mitigate potential impacts. These included increasing storage volume of reservoirs in Owens Valley, changing operational rules for releasing water, construction of surface storage or

  7. Piloting an HIV self-test kit voucher program to raise serostatus awareness of high-risk African Americans, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Robert W; Young, Sean D; Bristow, Claire C; Wilson, Greg; Rodriguez, Jeffrey; Ortiz, Jose; Mathew, Rhea; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-11-26

    Up to half of all new HIV cases in Los Angeles may be caused by the 20-30% of men who have sex with men (MSM) with unrecognized HIV infection. Racial/ethnic minority MSM are at particularly high risk for being sero-unaware and due to stigma and poor healthcare access might benefit from novel private, self-testing methods, such as the recently FDA-approved OraQuick® In-Home HIV Test. From July-November 2013, we undertook a pilot study to examine the feasibility of a voucher program for free OraQuick® tests targeting African American MSM in Los Angeles. We determined feasibility based on: (1) the establishment of a voucher redemption and third-party payment system, (2) the willingness of community-based organizations (CBOs) to disseminate vouchers, and (3) the collection of user demographics, test and linkage-to-care results with an anonymous telephone survey. We partnered with Walgreens® to create a voucher and third-party reimbursement system for free OraQuick® tests. Voucher distribution was divided into two periods. In total, 641 vouchers were supplied to CBOs: 274 (42.7%) went to clients and of those 53 (19.3%) were redeemed. Fifty (18.2%) of the 274 clients were surveyed: 44 (88%) were African American, 39 (78%) reported being likely to repeat voucher use, 44 (88%) reported reviewing pre-test information, and 37 (74%) the post-test information. Three (6%) of 50 survey respondents reported newly testing HIV-positive of whom all (100%) reported seeking medical care. Two withheld their results, both of whom also sought medical care. Developing and partnering with a commercial pharmacy to institute a voucher system to facilitate HIV self-testing with linkage-to-care was feasible. Our findings suggest the voucher program was associated with increasing the identification of new cases of HIV infection with high rates of linkage to care. Expanded research and evaluation of voucher programs for HIV self-test kits among high-risk groups is warranted.

  8. The Mexico City--Los Angeles Cultural Mosh Pits: Maldita Vecindad, a Chilanga-Chicana Rock Banda de Pueblo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Hector

    2006-01-01

    This essay chronicles the career of pioneering Mexican rock band Maldita Vecindad y los Hijos del 5 [degree] Patio. I argue that in a post-Chicano movement period, Maldita has become a borderless cultural institution influencing a generation of Mexicans on both sides of the border. Maldita has sought linkages with Mexicans from north and south…

  9. Imagining the Mexican Immigrant Worker: (Inter)Nationalism, Identity, and Insurgency in the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Ernesto

    2000-01-01

    Traces the history of two organizations of the 1970s Chicano Movement: the Committee to Free Los Tres and the Centro de Accion Social Autonomo (CASA). Discusses their Marxist ideology, notion of Chicano cultural nationalism, involvement of college students and other youth, campaigns supporting immigrant workers' rights and affirmative action at…

  10. The Balance Between Stress and Personal Capital during Pregnancy and the Relationship with Adverse Obstetric Outcomes: Findings from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeel, Fathima; Wisk, Lauren E.; Gee, Rebekah; Chao, Shin M.; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Stress during pregnancy is a salient risk factor for adverse obstetric outcomes. Personal capital during pregnancy, defined as internal and social resources that help women cope with or decrease their exposure to stress, may reduce the risk of poor obstetric outcomes. Methods Using data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) survey (N=3,353), we examined the relationships between the balance of stress and personal capital during pregnancy, or the Stress-to-Capital Ratio (SCR), and adverse obstetric outcomes ((i.e., pregnancy complications, preterm birth (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA)). Results Women with a higher SCR (i.e. greater stress relative to personal capital during pregnancy) were significantly more likely to experience at least one pregnancy complication, PTB, and lower gestational age, but not LBW or SGA. Accounting for pregnancy complications completely mediated the association between the SCR and PTB. Conclusions Our findings indicate that experiencing greater stress relative to personal capital during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications, PTB, and lower gestational age and that pregnancy complications may be a mechanism by which the SCR is related to adverse obstetric outcomes. PMID:23812738

  11. Self-Efficacy as a Mediator of the Relationship Between the Perceived Food Environment and Healthy Eating in a Low Income Population in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Glenn, Beth; Kuo, Tony

    2016-04-01

    While previous studies have described psychosocial and environmental factors that contribute to healthy eating, much remains unknown about the interactions between them. We assessed the relationship between the perceived food environment, self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable consumption, using data from a sample of racially diverse, low-income adult clientele of five public health centers in Los Angeles County (n = 1503). We constructed a negative binomial regression model to examine the association between perceived food environment and the number of fruits and vegetables consumed. For every one point increase on the perceived food environment scale, individuals ate about 5% more fruits and vegetables (95% CI 1.007, 1.089), controlling for other covariates. Self-efficacy was shown to be a significant mediator (mediated effect = 0.010; 95% CI 0.002, 0.020), accounting for 22.9% of the effect. Efforts to increase access to healthy options may not only improve eating behaviors, but also influence individuals' beliefs that they can eat healthfully.

  12. Do Sexually Oriented Massage Parlors Cluster in Specific Neighborhoods? A Spatial Analysis of Indoor Sex Work in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anna J.; Takahashi, Lois; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social determinants of health may be substantially affected by spatial factors, which together may explain the persistence of health inequities. Clustering of possible sources of negative health and social outcomes points to a spatial focus for future interventions. We analyzed the spatial clustering of sex work businesses in Southern California to examine where and why they cluster. We explored economic and legal factors as possible explanations of clustering. Methods We manually coded data from a website used by paying members to post reviews of female massage parlor workers. We identified clusters of sexually oriented massage parlor businesses using spatial autocorrelation tests. We conducted spatial regression using census tract data to identify predictors of clustering. Results A total of 889 venues were identified. Clusters of tracts having higher-than-expected numbers of sexually oriented massage parlors (“hot spots”) were located outside downtowns. These hot spots were characterized by a higher proportion of adult males, a higher proportion of households below the federal poverty level, and a smaller average household size. Conclusion Sexually oriented massage parlors in Los Angeles and Orange counties cluster in particular neighborhoods. More research is needed to ascertain the causal factors of such clusters and how interventions can be designed to leverage these spatial factors. PMID:26327731

  13. Chieh Mei Ching Yi: A randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored HIV prevention intervention for Chinese massage parlor women in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lois M; Tobin, Karin E; To, Stacy; Ou, Samuel; Ma, Chui Hing Helen; Ao, Fiona Ka Wa; Candelario, Jury

    2013-12-01

    Asian heterosexual women in the U.S. have experienced relative rising HIV case rates, but there remain few studies and no evidence-based interventions that focus on this population. This study was a randomized controlled trial of a gender and ethnically tailored HIV prevention intervention for monolingual Chinese-speaking women who work as masseuses in Los Angeles. The intervention was two group-based sessions focused on HIV risk and prevention knowledge and condom skills. The control condition was a single-session HIV review. Participants were recruited using newspaper advertisements and referrals from agencies and massage schools. Two hundred women were randomly assigned to one of each condition. Retention in both conditions exceeded 90% at 3-month follow-up. Participants in both conditions demonstrated increases in knowledge on how to use male and female condoms. These effects were sustained at 3-month follow-up. The results highlight the possible efficacy of a one-workshop intervention in increasing HIV knowledge, but that more intensive participant interaction may be needed for improved condom use knowledge.

  14. Implementation of a hepatitis A/B vaccination program using an accelerated schedule among high-risk inmates, Los Angeles County Jail, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumbrado, John; Stirland, Ali; Cox, Garrett; El-Amin, Alvin Nelson; Miranda, Armidia; Carter, Ann; Malek, Mark

    2012-11-06

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend vaccination for men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users against hepatitis A and B. This study is the first report of a hepatitis vaccination program in a United States jail with a combined vaccine using an accelerated schedule. Los Angeles County has the largest jail system in the nation and Men's Central Jail (MCJ) is the largest facility within that system. MCJ includes a unit for self-identified MSM, where approximately 2700 inmates are housed per year. Starting in August 2007, a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine was offered to all inmates housed in this special unit. Using an accelerated schedule (0-, 7-, 21-30 days, 12-month booster), a total of 3931 doses were administered to 1633 inmates as of June 2010. Of those, 77% received 2 doses, 58% received 3 doses, and 11% received the booster dose. Inmates who screened positive for a sexually transmitted infection in this unit were 1.3 times more likely to be vaccinated (95% CI 1.2-1.4) compared to others in the same housing unit who screened negative. Hepatitis vaccination initiatives can be successfully implemented in an urban jail among an extremely high-risk population using the accelerated, combined hepatitis A/B vaccine. Ours may be a useful model for other programs to vaccinate incarcerated populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food and drink consumption among 1-5-year-old Los Angeles County children from households receiving dual SNAP and WIC v. only WIC benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane; Kuo, Tony; Jiang, Lu; Robles, Brenda; Whaley, Shannon E

    2017-10-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are two of the more well-known food assistance programmes in the USA. The current study describes food consumption patterns of children aged 1-5 years living in households dually enrolled in these two programmes v. households enrolled only in WIC. Food consumption and SNAP participation were assessed using data from the 2014 Survey of Los Angeles County (LAC) WIC Participants and the Follow-Up Survey of the same households that were also SNAP beneficiaries. Telephone interviews were conducted with WIC parents regarding each child's (i.e. beneficiary's) food consumption patterns. Follow-up interviews were conducted with those who reported receiving SNAP. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between food and beverage consumption and dual v. single food assistance programme participation. LAC, California. Children of WIC-enrolled households in LAC during 2014 (n 3248). This included a sub-sample of dual WIC- and SNAP-enrolled households (n 1295). Survey participants were the beneficiaries' parents. Children from dually enrolled households consumed 1·03 (PSNAP+WIC enrolment is associated with increased consumption of both healthy foods and foods containing minimal nutritional value. Complementary nutrition education efforts across the two programmes may help beneficiaries maximize healthful food purchases with SNAP dollars.

  16. Movement patterns, habitat use and site fidelity of the white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) in the Palos Verdes Superfund Site, Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Barrett W; Lowe, Christopher G

    2015-08-01

    White croaker (Genyonemus lineatus family: Sciaenidae) are a schooling, benthic foraging fish historically associated with soft sediment and wastewater outfalls in southern California. While they are often used as an indicator species due to their high organochlorine contaminant loads, little is known of their movements in relation to contaminated habitats. A Vemco Positioning System acoustic telemetry array was used to collect fine-scale movement data and characterize the site fidelity, area use, and dispersal of 83 white croaker on the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site, California over 27 months. White croaker generally demonstrated low residency and recurrence to the Palos Verdes Shelf, and were observed to be largely nomadic. However, individual behavior was highly variable. Although the entire monitored shelf was visited by tagged white croaker, habitats in 0-200 m proximity to wastewater outfalls and between 25 and 35 m depth were used most frequently. Approximately half of white croaker migrated into Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors; areas where they may be targeted by subsistence fishers. A model framework for incorporating fish movement data into contaminant exposure estimates was developed to better understanding organochlorine contaminant exposure for planning future remediation and monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Los Angeles Healthy Community Neighborhood Initiative: A Ten Year Experience in Building and Sustaining a Successful Community-Academic Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keyonna M; Morris, D’Ann; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Jones, Felica; del Pino, Homero E; Porter, Courtney; Vargas, Roberto; Kahn, Katherine; Brown, Arleen F; Norris, Keith C

    2016-01-01

    Background Developing effective Community-Academic Partnerships (CAPs) is challenging, and the steps to build and sustain them have not been well documented. This paper describes efforts to form and sustain the Healthy Community Neighborhood Initiative (HCNI), a CAP to improve health in a low-income community in South Los Angeles. Methods Moderated, semi-structured discussions with HCNI community and academic partners were used to develop a framework for CAP formation. Results We identified two key features, shared values and respect, as critical to the decision to form the HCNI. Five elements were identified as necessary for building and sustaining the HCNI: trust, transparency, equity and fairness, adequate resources and developing protocols to provide structure. We also identified several challenges and barriers and the strategies used in the HCNI to mitigate these challenges. Conclusion We developed a framework to incorporate and reinforce the key elements identified as crucial in building and sustaining a CAP in a low-income community. PMID:27747314

  18. Estimating the Costs and Benefits of Providing Free Public Transit Passes to Students in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Applying a Health Lens to Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Gase

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of increased focus by public health to engage and work with non-health sector partners to improve the health of the general as well as special populations, only a paucity of studies have described and disseminated emerging lessons and promising practices that can be used to undertake this work. This article describes the process used to conduct a Health Impact Assessment of a proposal to provide free public transportation passes to students in Los Angeles County. This illustrative case example describes opportunities and challenges encountered in working with an array of cross-sector partners and highlights four important lessons learned: (1 the benefits and challenges associated with broad conceptualization of public issues; (2 the need for more comprehensive, longitudinal data systems and dynamic simulation models to inform decision-making; (3 the importance of having a comprehensive policy assessment strategy that considers health impacts as well as costs and feasibility; and (4 the need for additional efforts to delineate the interconnectivity between health and other agency priorities. As public health advances cross-sector work in the community, further development of these priorities will help advance meaningful collaboration among all partners.

  19. Association Between Life Event Stressors and Low Birth Weight in African American and White Populations: Findings from the 2007 and 2010 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Kershaw, Trace; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Higgins, Chandra; Lu, Michael C; Chao, Shin M

    2015-10-01

    We examined the association between life events stressors during pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) among African Americans and Whites, while systematically controlling for potential confounders including individual characteristics and city-level variations and clustering. We analyzed data from 4970 women with singleton births who participated in the 2007 and 2010 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Surveys. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between emotional, financial, spousal and traumatic stressors and LBW among African Americans and Whites. Potential confounders included were: the city-level Economic Hardship Index, maternal demographics, pre-pregnancy conditions, insurance, behavioral risk factors and social support. African Americans were significantly more likely to experience any domain of stressors during their pregnancy, compared to Whites (p stressors and LBW was significantly different between African Americans and Whites (p for interaction = 0.015). Experience of financial stressors during pregnancy was significantly associated with LBW among African Americans (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49; 95 % confidence interval = 1.01-2.22) but not Whites. Differential impact of financial stressors during pregnancy may contribute to racial disparities in LBW between African Americans and Whites. We showed that financial life event stressors, but not other domains of stressors, were more likely to impact LBW among African Americans than Whites. Initiatives aimed at mitigating the negative impacts of financial stress during pregnancy may contribute to reducing disparities in birth outcomes between African Americans and Whites.

  20. Early Impacts of a Healthy Food Distribution Program on the Availability and Price of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Small Retail Venues in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFosset, Amelia R; Gase, Lauren N; Webber, Eliza; Kuo, Tony

    2017-10-01

    Healthy food distribution programs that allow small retailers to purchase fresh fruits and vegetables at wholesale prices may increase the profitability of selling produce. While promising, little is known about how these programs affect the availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in underserved communities. This study examined the impacts of a healthy food distribution program in Los Angeles County over its first year of operation (August 2015-2016). Assessment methods included: (1) a brief survey examining the characteristics, purchasing habits, and attitudes of stores entering the program; (2) longitudinal tracking of sales data examining changes in the volume and variety of fruits and vegetables distributed through the program; and (3) the collection of comparison price data from wholesale market databases and local grocery stores. Seventeen stores participated in the program over the study period. One-fourth of survey respondents reported no recent experience selling produce. Analysis of sales data showed that, on average, the total volume of produce distributed through the program increased by six pounds per week over the study period (95% confidence limit: 4.50, 7.50); trends varied by store and produce type. Produce prices offered through the program approximated those at wholesale markets, and were lower than prices at full-service grocers. Results suggest that healthy food distribution programs may reduce certain supply-side barriers to offering fresh produce in small retail venues. While promising, more work is needed to understand the impacts of such programs on in-store environments and consumer behaviors.

  1. Investigating warming trends and spatial patterns of Land Surface Temperatures over the Greater Los Angeles Area using new MODIS and VIIRS LST products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, N. K.; Hulley, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing urban centers in the United States, and home to roughly 18 million people. Understanding the trends and impacts of warming temperatures in urban environments is an increasingly important issue in our changing climate. We used thermal infrared data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensors to retrieve Land Surface Temperature using a new Temperature Emissivity Separation algorithm adapted for these sensors. We analyzed day and night LST retrievals to study the warming trends of LST for the greater LA region from 2002-2015. The average warming trend over LA for summer days and nights over this period for MODIS Aqua data was 1.1 °C per decade, while a more rapid warming is observed for the years 2012-2016 for both MODIS and VIIRS observations. We have also found that inland LA regions are warming more rapidly than the other regions. We further investigate the underlying cause of the warming by looking into the physical factors such as changes in net radiation, cloud cover, and evapotranspiration. The results will help to understand how indicators of climate change are evolving in the beginning of the 21st century, and how they compare with global climate model projections. Identification of potential impacts, and underlying causes of warming trends in various LA regions will help decision makers to develop policies to help mitigate the effects of rising temperatures.

  2. A Qualitative Analysis of the Use of Financial Services and Saving Behavior Among Older African Americans and Latinos in the Los Angeles Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa R. Blanco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For this study, we conducted seven focus groups in the Los Angeles area with a total of 70 participants (42 Latinos and 28 African Americans recruited from three senior centers and a church. There was a wide variety of responses in relation to the usage of financial services among participants. We found that although some participants seem to participate more in the formal financial sector and show a higher level of sophistication when managing their finances, other participants’ use of formal financial institutions is minimal. Among African American participants, we found several instances in which individuals feel very comfortable using banks. Lower levels of participation in the formal financial sector were found among the lower income Latino participants. In relation to barriers to participate in the financial sector, supply was not an issue, but demand and behavioral factors seem more important. Overall, no participants saved very much on a regular basis. We also find that participants in general do not want to ask their children for money, and also do not want to save and accumulate wealth to leave to their children.

  3. Student receptivity to new school meal offerings: assessing fruit and vegetable waste among middle school students in the Los Angeles Unified School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; McCarthy, William J; Robles, Brenda; Kuo, Tony

    2014-10-01

    We sought to characterize student receptivity to new menu offerings in the Los Angeles Unified School District by measuring the levels of fruit and vegetable waste after implementation of changes to the school lunch menu in fall 2011. We measured waste at four randomly selected middle schools in the school district, using two sources: a) food prepared and left over after service (production waste); and b) food that was selected but not eaten by students (plate waste). 10.2% of fruit and 28.7% of vegetable items prepared at the four schools were left over after service. Plate waste data, collected from 2228 students, suggest that many of them did not select fruit (31.5%) or vegetable (39.6%) items. Among students who did, many threw fruit and vegetable items away without eating a single bite. Our findings suggest that fruit and vegetable waste was substantial and that additional work may be needed to increase student selection and consumption of fruit and vegetable offerings. Complementary interventions to increase the appeal of fruit and vegetable options may be needed to encourage student receptivity to these healthier items in the school meal program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and local area pollution of highspeed rail and air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Damien

    Global warming is one of the most discussed global environmental issues in the world today. Global warming is driven by fossil fuel combustion emissions known as Green-house Gases (GHG). One of the major contributors to GHG emissions is the transport sector, emitting approximately 30% of total U.S. CO 2 emissions in 2010. Air travel contributed approximately 3.5% of total U.S. CO2 in 2008. High-speed Rail (HSR) is often touted as cleaner, more sustainable mode of transport than air travel. HSR is one of few modes of transport capable of competing with air travel for short to medium-haul distances. There has been considerable study of GHG emissions of each independently. Research has also been carried out into the economics and competition of these transport modes. However, there has been very limited study of the comparative emissions of each, apart from one study in Europe (Givoni, 2007). The current study was undertaken with the goal of quantifying potential emission savings due to mode substitution from air travel to HSR in the Los Angeles to Las Vegas corridor. This study only considered the emissions which occurred from the combustion of the relevant fuels, either in power plants or the engines of an aircraft. Emissions from fuel production/refining or transport of fuels were not considered. Another issue compared was Local Area Pollution (LAP), which is a measure of the severity of emissions effect on the environment. This was examined because all emissions from HSR occur close to the surface of the earth, and hence effect the local environment, while only a portion of aircraft emissions do. This study was carried out using internationally recognized emission inventory methodologies. For the air travel emission estimate methodologies and data published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) were used. The HSR energy use was estimated from energy use data from currently running HSR

  5. Carbon dioxide and methane measurements from the Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project – Part 1: calibration, urban enhancements, and uncertainty estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Verhulst

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report continuous surface observations of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 from the Los Angeles (LA Megacity Carbon Project during 2015. We devised a calibration strategy, methods for selection of background air masses, calculation of urban enhancements, and a detailed algorithm for estimating uncertainties in urban-scale CO2 and CH4 measurements. These methods are essential for understanding carbon fluxes from the LA megacity and other complex urban environments globally. We estimate background mole fractions entering LA using observations from four extra-urban sites including two marine sites located south of LA in La Jolla (LJO and offshore on San Clemente Island (SCI, one continental site located in Victorville (VIC, in the high desert northeast of LA, and one continental/mid-troposphere site located on Mount Wilson (MWO in the San Gabriel Mountains. We find that a local marine background can be established to within  ∼  1 ppm CO2 and  ∼  10 ppb CH4 using these local measurement sites. Overall, atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels are highly variable across Los Angeles. Urban and suburban sites show moderate to large CO2 and CH4 enhancements relative to a marine background estimate. The USC (University of Southern California site near downtown LA exhibits median hourly enhancements of  ∼  20 ppm CO2 and  ∼  150 ppb CH4 during 2015 as well as  ∼  15 ppm CO2 and  ∼  80 ppb CH4 during mid-afternoon hours (12:00–16:00 LT, local time, which is the typical period of focus for flux inversions. The estimated measurement uncertainty is typically better than 0.1 ppm CO2 and 1 ppb CH4 based on the repeated standard gas measurements from the LA sites during the last 2 years, similar to Andrews et al. (2014. The largest component of the measurement uncertainty is due to the single-point calibration method; however, the uncertainty in the background mole fraction is much

  6. Influences of the neighbourhood food environment on adiposity of low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Whaley, Shannon E; Crespi, Catherine M; Koleilat, Maria; Nobari, Tabashir Z; Seto, Edmund; Wang, May C

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have examined the association between the food environment and adiposity in early childhood, a critical time for obesity prevention. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between neighbourhood food environment and adiposity among low-income preschool-aged children in a major metropolitan region in the USA. The study sample was 32 172 low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County who had repeated weight and height measurements collected between ages 2 and 5 years through a federal nutrition assistance programme. We conducted multilevel longitudinal analyses to examine how spatial densities of healthy and unhealthy retail food outlets in the children's neighbourhoods were related to adiposity, as measured by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), while controlling for neighbourhood-level income and education, family income, maternal education, and child's gender and race/ethnicity. Density of healthy food outlets was associated with mean WHZ at age 3 in a non-linear fashion, with mean WHZ being lowest for those exposed to approximately 0.7 healthy food outlets per square mile and higher for lesser and greater densities. Density of unhealthy food outlets was not associated with child WHZ. We found a non-linear relationship between WHZ and density of healthy food outlets. Research aiming to understand the sociobehavioural mechanisms by which the retail food environment influences early childhood obesity development is complex and must consider contextual settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. A field studies and modeling approach to develop organochlorine pesticide and PCB total maximum daily load calculations: Case study for Echo Park Lake, Los Angeles, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, V.R., E-mail: vrvasquez@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Curren, J., E-mail: janecurren@yahoo.com [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Lau, S.-L., E-mail: simlin@ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Stenstrom, M.K., E-mail: stenstro@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Suffet, I.H., E-mail: msuffet@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Echo Park Lake is a small lake in Los Angeles, CA listed on the USA Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue. A lake water and sediment sampling program was completed to support the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to address the lake impairment. The field data indicated quantifiable levels of OCPs and PCBs in the sediments, but lake water data were all below detection levels. The field sediment data obtained may explain the contaminant levels in fish tissue using appropriate sediment-water partitioning coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. A partition-equilibrium fugacity model of the whole lake system was used to interpret the field data and indicated that half of the total mass of the pollutants in the system are in the sediments and the other half is in soil; therefore, soil erosion could be a significant pollutant transport mode into the lake. Modeling also indicated that developing and quantifying the TMDL depends significantly on the analytical detection level for the pollutants in field samples and on the choice of octanol-water partitioning coefficient and bioaccumulation factors for the model. - Research highlights: {yields} Fugacity model using new OCP and PCB field data supports lake TMDL calculations. {yields} OCP and PCB levels in lake sediment were found above levels for impairment. {yields} Relationship between sediment data and available fish tissue data evaluated. {yields} Model provides approximation of contaminant sources and sinks for a lake system. {yields} Model results were sensitive to analytical detection and quantification levels.

  8. Methods and Results from Measurements of the Emissions of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants from Individual Ships in the Port Areas of Los Angeles and Long Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecken, J.; Mellqvist, J.; Ekholm, J.; Samuelsson, J.; Marianne, E.; Tisopulos, L.; Polidori, A.; Pikelnaya, O.

    2016-12-01

    Emissions from marine vessels can negatively impact air quality in communities located near major harbor areas. For this reason Chalmers University of Technology in cooperation with FluxSense Inc. has carried out a comprehensive field study in the harbor areas of both, the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach from October 3 until November 10, 2015. This work was conducted on behalf of the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The actual emission factors (g/kgfuel) of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and emission rates (g/s) of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured from individual ships while operating in different maneuvering modes. Both, in-situ and remote sensing techniques were used. These included real-time carbon dioxide (CO2), SO2, NOx, PM, and black carbon (BC) analyzers as well as a spectrometer for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). About 670 individual ship plumes were measured remotely from the research vessel Yellow Fin, which was used as a mobile platform, and three different stationary land-based sites. From the mobile platform some ships could be measured repeatedly while changing through different modes of operation, i.e. being moored or anchored, traveling slowly through the harbor areas and during acceleration and deceleration phases. In addition, an airborne campaign was conducted, in which the overall large-scale NO2emission from the port areas and an adjacent industrial area was obtained from DOAS measurements. The instruments and methodologies have been developed by Chalmers University of Technology and the technique is also used at several sites in Europe to monitor whether ships comply with environmental regulations regarding the emission of sulfur. The measurement techniques which are developed to characterize individual ship emissions will be discussed along with the results obtained from the field campaign.

  9. Increasing physical activity in under-resourced communities through school-based, joint-use agreements, Los Angeles County, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Mariah; Gonzalez, Eloisa; Schwarte, Liz; Banthia, Rajni; Kuo, Tony; Verderber, Joanie; Simon, Paul

    2013-05-30

    Few studies have examined how joint-use agreements between schools and communities affect use of school facilities after hours for physical activity in under-resourced communities. The objective of this study was to assess whether these agreements can increase community member use of these opened spaces outside of school hours. Trained observers conducted school site observations after joint-use agreements were implemented in 7 Los Angeles County school districts. All 7 districts had disproportionately high adult and child obesity rates, and all had executed a joint-use agreement between schools and community or government entities from January 2010 through December 2012. To assess use, we adapted the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) instrument to record the number, demographic characteristics, and physical activity levels of community members who used the joint-use school sites. To supplement observations, we collected contextual information for each location, including the existence of physical activity programs at the site and the condition of exercise equipment. We completed 172 SOPARC observations and related environmental assessments for 12 school sites. Observations made on 1,669 site users showed that most of them were Hispanic and nearly half were adults; three-quarters engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Community member use of school sites was 16 times higher in joint-use schools that had physical activity programs than in schools without such programs. Joint-use agreements are a promising strategy for increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity among adults and children in under-resourced communities. Providing physical activity programs may substantially increase after-hours use of school facilities by community members.

  10. Reduction of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in the Ballona Wetlands saltwater marsh (Los Angeles County, California, USA) with implications for restoration actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John H; Carter, Patrick M; Bergquist, Sean; Sagarin, Rafe

    2010-08-01

    A benefit of wetland preservation and restoration is the ecosystem service of improving water quality, typically assessed based on bacterial loading. The Ballona Wetlands, a degraded salt marsh of approximately 100 ac located on the southern border of Marina Del Rey (Los Angeles County, California, USA) are currently the focus of publicly funded restoration planning. The wetlands receive tidal water, usually contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB: total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) from the adjacent Ballona Creek and Estuary. During the summer of 2007, two 24-h studies were conducted to determine FIB tidal dynamics within the wetland. Measurements of water flow and mean FIB concentrations (n = 3) were measured every 1.5 h to determine total FIB load estimates. FIB loading rates (MPN/s) were greatest during flood tides as water entered the wetlands, and then again during spring tide conditions when sediments were resuspended during swifter spring ebb flows. During daylight hours, the wetland acted as a sink for these bacteria as loads diminished, presumably by sunlight and other processes. Conversely, during late afternoon and night, the wetlands shifted to being a source as excess FIB departed on ebb flows. Therefore, the wetlands act as both a source and sink for FIB depending on tidal conditions and exposure to sunlight. Future restoration actions would result in a tradeoff - increased tidal channels offer a greater surface area for FIB inactivation, but also would result in a greater volume of FIB-contaminated resuspended sediments carried out of the wetlands on stronger ebb flows. As levels of FIB in Ballona Creek and Estuary diminish through recently established regulatory actions, the wetlands could shift into a greater sink for FIB. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in "Incredible Years," an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M; Javier, Joyce R

    2015-10-22

    Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos' barriers and facilitators to participating in "Incredible Years" (IY), a parenting program. We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Parents' perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents' most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians' offices, and churches. Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population.

  12. Science and Engineering of the Environment of Los Angeles: A GK-12 Experiment at Developing Science Communications Skills in UCLA's Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldwin, M. B.; Hogue, T. S.; Nonacs, P.; Shope, R. E.; Daniel, J.

    2008-12-01

    Many science and research skills are taught by osmosis in graduate programs with the expectation that students will develop good communication skills (speaking, writing, and networking) by observing others, attending meetings, and self reflection. A new National Science Foundation Graduate Teaching Fellows in K- 12 Education (GK-12; http://ehrweb.aaas.org/gk12new/) program at UCLA (SEE-LA; http://measure.igpp.ucla.edu/GK12-SEE-LA/overview.html ) attempts to make the development of good communication skills an explicit part of the graduate program of science and engineering students. SEE-LA places the graduate fellows in two pairs of middle and high schools within Los Angeles to act as scientists-in- residence. They are partnered with two master science teachers and spend two-days per week in the classroom. They are not student teachers, or teacher aides, but scientists who contribute their content expertise, excitement and experience with research, and new ideas for classroom activities and lessons that incorporate inquiry science. During the one-year fellowship, the graduate students also attend a year-long Preparing Future Faculty seminar that discusses many skills needed as they begin their academic or research careers. Students are also required to include a brief (two-page) summary of their research that their middle or high school students would be able to understand as part of their published thesis. Having students actively thinking about and communicating their science to a pre-college audience provides important science communication training and helps contribute to science education. University and local pre- college school partnerships provide an excellent opportunity to support the development of graduate student communication skills while also contributing significantly to the dissemination of sound science to K-12 teachers and students.

  13. Minority Stress Experiences and Psychological Well-Being: The Impact of Support from and Connection to Social Networks within the Los Angeles House and Ball Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carolyn F.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Holloway, Ian W.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2013-01-01

    African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM) from the House and Ball communities are at high risk for HIV infection. Because these communities are not only sources of risk, but also support for AAYMSM, researchers must also consider the resources these communities possess. This knowledge will assist in the formulation of more effective prevention strategies and intervention approaches. Using Minority Stress Theory as a framework, the current study illustrates the impact minority stress has on the psychological well-being of a sample of MSM from the Los Angeles House and Ball communities and investigates how these factors affect the relationship between minority stress and psychological well-being. Surveys were administered to participants over the course of a year. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate a model of the associations between minority stressors, support, connection to social network, and psychological well-being/distress (N=233). Results indicated significant associations between different sources of minority stress, including distal minority stress (e.g., racism, homophobia), gay identification, and internalized homophobia. Minority stressors were in turn significantly associated with greater distress. However, greater instrumental support significantly reduced the effects of distal minority stress on distress. Greater connection to social network also significantly reduced stress associated with gay identification on distress. Findings captured the diverse sources of minority stress faced by this population and how these stressors are interrelated to impact mental health. Results also illustrate how support from and connection to social networks can reduce the negative impact of minority stress experiences. PMID:23412944

  14. Correlates of Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chukwuemeka N; Gorbach, Pamina M; Ragsdale, Amy; Quinn, Brendan; Shoptaw, Steve

    2017-06-09

    We assessed socio-structural and behavioral correlates of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection among a sample of high-risk HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles, California. Participants from an ongoing 5-year prospective cohort study investigating the direct impacts of substance use on HIV transmission dynamics were enrolled between February 2015 and January 2017. All men completed a computer-assisted self-interview every 6 months that assessed recent (past 6 months) PrEP use and socio-structural and behavioral factors. Of the total 185 MSM (mean age = 29 years) included in the study, majority were African American (40%) or Hispanic (41%) and reported current health insurance coverage (80%). In multivariable analysis using log-binomial regression, having health insurance coverage [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 4.01, p = 0.04] was associated with recent PrEP use. Unstable housing (aPR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.90, p = 0.02) was associated with lower PrEP use. Behavioral factors associated with recent PrEP use include sex with a HIV-positive partner (aPR = 3.63, 95% CI 1.45 to 9.10, p = 0.01), having six or more sex partners (aPR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.82, p = PrEP use. These findings provide considerations for intervention development to promote PrEP use among key groups of MSM.

  15. An assessment of fecal indicator and other bacteria from an urbanized coastal lagoon in the City of Los Angeles, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John H; Carmona-Galindo, Víctor D; Leary, Christopher; Huh, Julie; Valdez, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    A study was performed in Del Rey Lagoon, City of Los Angeles, to determine if the lagoon was as a source or sink for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB: total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and to screen for the presence of other potentially pathogenic bacteria. The lagoon receives tidal flows from the adjacent Ballona Estuary whose water usually is contaminated with FIB originating from the highly urbanized Ballona Creek Watershed. During 16 sampling events from February 2008 through March 2009, replicate water samples (n = 3) were collected 1 h prior to the high tide and 1 h prior to the following low tide. FIB concentrations were measured by the defined substrate method (IDEXX, Westbrook, Me) followed by culturing of bacterial isolates sampled from positive IDEXX Quanti-Tray wells and were identified using the Vitek 2 Compact (bioMérieux, Durham, NC). Mean concentrations of FIB often differed by an order of magnitude from flood to ebb flow conditions. The lagoon tended to act as a sink for total coliforms based on the ratio of mean flood to ebb densities (R (F/E)) >1.0 during 56 % of the sampling events and during ebb flows, as a source for E. coli and enterococci (R (F/E) <1.69 % of events). Approximately 54 species were identified from 277 isolates cultured from the IDEXX Quanti-Trays. Of these, 54 % were species known to include pathogenic strains that can be naturally occurring, introduced in runoff, or originated from other sources. Diversity and cluster analyses indicated a dynamic assemblage that changes in species composition with day-to-day fluctuations as well as tidal action. The concept of monitoring the lagoon and estuary as a sentinel habitat for pathogenic assemblages is discussed.

  16. Minority stress experiences and psychological well-being: the impact of support from and connection to social networks within the Los Angeles House and Ball communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carolyn F; Schrager, Sheree M; Holloway, Ian W; Meyer, Ilan H; Kipke, Michele D

    2014-02-01

    African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM) from the House and Ball communities are at high risk for HIV infection. Because these communities are not only sources of risk but also support for AAYMSM, researchers must also consider the resources these communities possess. This knowledge will assist in the formulation of more effective prevention strategies and intervention approaches. Using minority stress theory as a framework, the current study illustrates the impact minority stress has on the psychological well-being of a sample of MSM from the Los Angeles House and Ball communities and investigates how these factors affect the relationship between minority stress and psychological well-being. Surveys were administered to participants over the course of a year. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate a model of the associations between minority stressors, support, connection to social network, and psychological well-being/distress (N = 233). The results indicated significant associations between different sources of minority stress, including distal minority stress (e.g., racism, homophobia), gay identification, and internalized homophobia. Minority stressors were in turn significantly associated with greater distress. However, greater instrumental support significantly reduced the effects of distal minority stress on distress. Greater connection to social network also significantly reduced stress associated with gay identification on distress. The findings captured the diverse sources of minority stress faced by this population and how these stressors are interrelated to impact mental health. The results also illustrate how support from and connection to social networks can reduce the negative impact of minority stress experiences.

  17. Implementation of HPV vaccination guidelines in a diverse population in Los Angeles: Results from an environmental scan of local HPV resources and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lienemann, Brianna A; Robles, Marisela; Johnson, Ethel; Sanchez, Kathleen; Singhal, Rita; Steinberg, Jane; Jaque, Jenny M; Pentz, Mary Ann; Gruber, Stephen

    2017-09-05

    Research shows that vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most effective methods for reducing risk for cervical cancer; it also protects against other HPV-related cancers. Controversies exist regarding HPV vaccination in several communities; which may in part explain why although rates of HPV vaccination are increasing nationwide, Los Angeles County (LAC) data show that many adolescents are still not vaccinated. These adolescents remain at high-risk for infection. Using community-based participatory principles, we conducted an environmental scan that included a literature review, the development of a community advisory board, community feedback from HPV community meetings, and interviews with stakeholders to understand attitudes toward HPV vaccination and their impact in follow through with HPV vaccines. Twenty-eight key stakeholders participated in our coalition comprised of community organizations and clinics with strong ties to the local community. This is the only coalition dedicated exclusively to improving HPV vaccine uptake in LAC. Of these, twenty-one participated in an environmental scan via qualitative interviews about HPV vaccination programs, service delivery priorities, and proposed steps to increase HPV vaccination uptake in LAC. The environmental scan revealed targets for future efforts, barriers to HPV uptake, and next steps for improving local HPV vaccination uptake rates. The environmental scan also identified local HPV vaccination interventions and resources. Although LAC has developed important efforts for vaccination, some interventions are no longer being implemented due to lack of funds; others have not been evaluated with sufficient outcome data. The risk for cervical and other HPV-related cancers could be greatly reduced in LAC if a multilevel, multicultural, and multilingual approach is taken to better understand rates of HPV vaccination uptake, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities and LGBTQ youth

  18. Conceptualisations of masculinity and self-reported medication adherence among HIV-positive Latino men in Los Angeles, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Frank H; Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Klein, David J; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2014-06-01

    HIV-positive Latino men have been found to have poorer medication adherence compared to Whites. This study sought to identify how cultural conceptualisations of masculinity are associated with self-reported medication adherence among Latino men. A total of 208 HIV-positive men reported the number of doses of antiretroviral medication missed in the previous seven days (dichotomised at 100% adherence versus less). Conceptualisations of masculinity consisted of traditional machismo (e.g., power and aggressive attitudes, which are normally associated with negative stereotypes of machismo) and caballerismo (e.g., fairness, respect for elders and the importance of family). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with adherence. The mean adherence was 97% (SD = 6.5%; range = 57-100%). In all, 77% of the participants reported 100% adherence in the previous seven days. Caballerismo was associated with a greater likelihood (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.08-2.92; p = 0.03) and machismo with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38-0.95; p = 0.03) of medication adherence. In addition, higher medication side-effects were found to be associated with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43-0.81; p = 0.001) of medication adherence. These findings reinforce the importance of identifying cultural factors that may affect medication adherence among HIV-positive Latino men resident in the USA.

  19. Miguel Angel

    OpenAIRE

    Otero Álvarez, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Consiste todo en aislar la actividad pictórica y escultórica a partir de la obra de un artista capaz de darle al arte el más decisivo lugar, luego de los aportes de la pintura rupestre y del desbordante despliegue de la escultura griega antigua donde lo pétreo y lo pictórico se enlazaban sin atenuantes.

  20. SURVEY, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. Concordance between self-reported STI history and biomedical results among men who have sex with men in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Nicole J; Beymer, Matthew R; Javanbakht, Marjan; Shover, Chelsea L; Bolan, Robert K

    2017-11-01

    HIV studies and risk assessments among men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently use self-reported STI history as a proxy for true STI history. The objective of our study was to assess the validity of self-reported STI history through comparison with laboratory-confirmed biomedical results. Data were analysed for MSM attending the Los Angeles LGBT Center (the Center) from August 2011 to July 2015. We identified 10 529 unique MSM who received testing for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and/or syphilis and had a later visit in which they self-reported their STI history to a clinic counsellor during a risk assessment. MSM who had an STI in the past year self-reported their STI history with 51%-56% accuracy, and MSM who had an STI more than a year ago self-reported their STI history with 65%-72% accuracy. Among MSM with any positive STIs at the Center, black/African-American and Hispanic MSM were more likely to inaccurately self-report their positive results for gonorrhoea (adjusted OR (aOR): 1.48, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.01; aOR: 1.39, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.70). Additionally, HIV-positive MSM were more likely to inaccurately self-report their positive results for gonorrhoea (aOR: 1.63, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.18) and/or syphilis (aOR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.47). This is the first study that attempts to evaluate the validity of self-reported STI history among MSM. We found that self-reported STI history may not be an appropriate proxy for true STI history in certain settings and minority populations. Clinical guidelines and research studies that rely on self-reported STI history will need to modify their recommendations in light of the limited validity of these data. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Toward consistency between trends in bottom-up CO2 emissions and top-down atmospheric measurements in the Los Angeles megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Newman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large urban emissions of greenhouse gases result in large atmospheric enhancements relative to background that are easily measured. Using CO2 mole fractions and Δ14C and δ13C values of CO2 in the Los Angeles megacity observed in inland Pasadena (2006–2013 and coastal Palos Verdes peninsula (autumn 2009–2013, we have determined time series for CO2 contributions from fossil fuel combustion (Cff for both sites and broken those down into contributions from petroleum and/or gasoline and natural gas burning for Pasadena. We find a 10 % reduction in Pasadena Cff during the Great Recession of 2008–2010, which is consistent with the bottom-up inventory determined by the California Air Resources Board. The isotopic variations and total atmospheric CO2 from our observations are used to infer seasonality of natural gas and petroleum combustion. The trend of CO2 contributions to the atmosphere from natural gas combustion is out of phase with the seasonal cycle of total natural gas combustion seasonal patterns in bottom-up inventories but is consistent with the seasonality of natural gas usage by the area's electricity generating power plants. For petroleum, the inferred seasonality of CO2 contributions from burning petroleum is delayed by several months relative to usage indicated by statewide gasoline taxes. Using the high-resolution Hestia-LA data product to compare Cff from parts of the basin sampled by winds at different times of year, we find that variations in observed fossil fuel CO2 reflect seasonal variations in wind direction. The seasonality of the local CO2 excess from fossil fuel combustion along the coast, on Palos Verdes peninsula, is higher in autumn and winter than spring and summer, almost completely out of phase with that from Pasadena, also because of the annual variations of winds in the region. Variations in fossil fuel CO2 signals are consistent with sampling the bottom-up Hestia-LA fossil CO2 emissions product for sub

  3. Toward consistency between bottom-up CO2 emissions trends and top-down atmospheric measurements in the Los Angeles megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S.; Xu, X.; Gurney, K. R.; Hsu, Y.-K.; Li, K.-F.; Jiang, X.; Keeling, R.; Feng, S.; O'Keefe, D.; Patarasuk, R.; Wong, K. W.; Rao, P.; Fischer, M. L.; Yung, Y. L.

    2015-10-01

    Large urban emissions of greenhouse gases result in large atmospheric enhancements relative to background that are easily measured. Using CO2 mole fractions and Δ14C and δ13C values of CO2 in the Los Angeles megacity observed in inland Pasadena (2006-2013) and coastal Palos Verdes peninsula (autumn 2009-2013), we have determined time series for CO2 contributions from fossil fuel combustion for both sites and broken those down into contributions from petroleum/gasoline and natural gas burning for Pasadena. We find a 10 % reduction in Pasadena CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion during the Great Recession of 2008-2010, which is consistent with the bottom-up inventory determined by the California Air Resources Board. The isotopic variations and total atmospheric CO2 from our observations are used to infer seasonality of natural gas and petroleum combustion. For natural gas, inferred emissions are out of phase with the seasonal cycle of total natural gas combustion seasonal patterns in bottom-up inventories but are consistent with the seasonality of natural gas usage by the area's electricity generating power plants. For petroleum, the inferred seasonality of CO2 emissions from burning petroleum is delayed by several months relative to usage indicated by statewide gasoline taxes. Using the high-resolution Hestia-LA data product to compare emissions from parts of the basin sampled by winds at different times of year, we find that variations in observed fossil fuel CO2 reflect seasonal variations in wind direction. The seasonality of the local CO2 excess from fossil fuel combustion along the coast, on Palos Verdes peninsula, is higher in fall and winter than spring and summer, almost completely out of phase with that from Pasadena, also because of the annual variations of winds in the region. Variations in fossil fuel CO2 signals are consistent with sampling the bottom-up Hestia-LA fossil CO2 emissions product for sub-city source regions in the LA megacity domain

  4. Toward consistency between trends in bottom-up CO2 emissions and top-down atmospheric measurements in the Los Angeles megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sally; Xu, Xiaomei; Gurney, Kevin R.; Kuang Hsu, Ying; Li, King Fai; Jiang, Xun; Keeling, Ralph; Feng, Sha; O'Keefe, Darragh; Patarasuk, Risa; Weng Wong, Kam; Rao, Preeti; Fischer, Marc L.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-03-01

    Large urban emissions of greenhouse gases result in large atmospheric enhancements relative to background that are easily measured. Using CO2 mole fractions and Δ14C and δ13C values of CO2 in the Los Angeles megacity observed in inland Pasadena (2006-2013) and coastal Palos Verdes peninsula (autumn 2009-2013), we have determined time series for CO2 contributions from fossil fuel combustion (Cff) for both sites and broken those down into contributions from petroleum and/or gasoline and natural gas burning for Pasadena. We find a 10 % reduction in Pasadena Cff during the Great Recession of 2008-2010, which is consistent with the bottom-up inventory determined by the California Air Resources Board. The isotopic variations and total atmospheric CO2 from our observations are used to infer seasonality of natural gas and petroleum combustion. The trend of CO2 contributions to the atmosphere from natural gas combustion is out of phase with the seasonal cycle of total natural gas combustion seasonal patterns in bottom-up inventories but is consistent with the seasonality of natural gas usage by the area's electricity generating power plants. For petroleum, the inferred seasonality of CO2 contributions from burning petroleum is delayed by several months relative to usage indicated by statewide gasoline taxes. Using the high-resolution Hestia-LA data product to compare Cff from parts of the basin sampled by winds at different times of year, we find that variations in observed fossil fuel CO2 reflect seasonal variations in wind direction. The seasonality of the local CO2 excess from fossil fuel combustion along the coast, on Palos Verdes peninsula, is higher in autumn and winter than spring and summer, almost completely out of phase with that from Pasadena, also because of the annual variations of winds in the region. Variations in fossil fuel CO2 signals are consistent with sampling the bottom-up Hestia-LA fossil CO2 emissions product for sub-city source regions in the LA

  5. Identifying Communities of Vulnerability: Using NASA's Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer to Enhance Public Health Tracking of Particle Exposure in Los Angeles - An Empirical Approach to Examining L1 MISR Radiance Measurements and PM2.5 Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laygo, K.; Kontgis, C.; Hollins, A.

    2011-12-01

    Los Angeles is consistently ranked as one of the most polluted cities in the United States, exhibiting high levels of both ozone and particulate matter. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns or less, or PM2.5, is of special concern for health professionals, since it is fine enough to be inhaled into the lungs. Additionally, studies show that it is associated with respiratory disease risks such as asthma. Remote sensing technologies have the potential to be useful in air pollution health studies, but have so far been sparsely implemented. Satellite-derived measurements would be especially useful in air pollution studies, since the concentrations of interest can change by orders of magnitude over small distances. However, with current remote sensing technologies, it is difficult to predict pollution levels within small areas. This study utilizes remote sensing information in combination with a ground-based network of data to create a more comprehensive approach to tracking public health concerns. According to the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey, there is a continued need for research that establishes the relationship between remotely sensed data and predicting public health risks related to environmental factors. For this study, we conducted linear regression models using Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) L1 radiance data and ground-based PM2.5 measurements from 13 EPA stations within the Los Angeles Metropolitan Statistical Area. MISR senses in 4 bands (visible blue, green, red and near infrared) and 9 separate angles, producing a total of 36 bands. Using all 36 bands, we generated models for each station individually and for all stations combined. Two time periods were assessed: June, July and August from 2000 - 2009, and all months from 2009. Summer months were looked at specifically, since pollution levels tend to be higher than other parts of the year due to strong inversion layers and low rainfall levels. Generally, the models

  6. Evaluating the impact of new observational constraints on P-S/IVOC emissions, multi-generation oxidation, and chamber wall losses on SOA modeling for Los Angeles, CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Ma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA is an important contributor to fine particulate matter (PM mass in polluted regions, and its modeling remains poorly constrained. A box model is developed that uses recently published literature parameterizations and data sets to better constrain and evaluate the formation pathways and precursors of urban SOA during the CalNex 2010 campaign in Los Angeles. When using the measurements of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs reported in Zhao et al. (2014 and of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs reported in Worton et al. (2014 the model is biased high at longer photochemical ages, whereas at shorter photochemical ages it is biased low, if the yields for VOC oxidation are not updated. The parameterizations using an updated version of the yields, which takes into account the effect of gas-phase wall losses in environmental chambers, show model–measurement agreement at longer photochemical ages, even though some low bias at short photochemical ages still remains. Furthermore, the fossil and non-fossil carbon split of urban SOA simulated by the model is consistent with measurements at the Pasadena ground site. Multi-generation oxidation mechanisms are often employed in SOA models to increase the SOA yields derived from environmental chamber experiments in order to obtain better model–measurement agreement. However, there are many uncertainties associated with these aging mechanisms. Thus, SOA formation in the model is compared to data from an oxidation flow reactor (OFR in order to constrain SOA formation at longer photochemical ages than observed in urban air. The model predicts similar SOA mass at short to moderate photochemical ages when the aging mechanisms or the updated version of the yields for VOC oxidation are implemented. The latter case has SOA formation rates that are more consistent with observations from the OFR though. Aging mechanisms may still play an important role in SOA

  7. Evaluating the impact of new observational constraints on P-S/IVOC emissions, multi-generation oxidation, and chamber wall losses on SOA modeling for Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Prettiny K.; Zhao, Yunliang; Robinson, Allen L.; Worton, David R.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Ortega, Amber M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Zotter, Peter; Prévôt, André S. H.; Szidat, Sönke; Hayes, Patrick L.

    2017-08-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important contributor to fine particulate matter (PM) mass in polluted regions, and its modeling remains poorly constrained. A box model is developed that uses recently published literature parameterizations and data sets to better constrain and evaluate the formation pathways and precursors of urban SOA during the CalNex 2010 campaign in Los Angeles. When using the measurements of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) reported in Zhao et al. (2014) and of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) reported in Worton et al. (2014) the model is biased high at longer photochemical ages, whereas at shorter photochemical ages it is biased low, if the yields for VOC oxidation are not updated. The parameterizations using an updated version of the yields, which takes into account the effect of gas-phase wall losses in environmental chambers, show model-measurement agreement at longer photochemical ages, even though some low bias at short photochemical ages still remains. Furthermore, the fossil and non-fossil carbon split of urban SOA simulated by the model is consistent with measurements at the Pasadena ground site. Multi-generation oxidation mechanisms are often employed in SOA models to increase the SOA yields derived from environmental chamber experiments in order to obtain better model-measurement agreement. However, there are many uncertainties associated with these aging mechanisms. Thus, SOA formation in the model is compared to data from an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) in order to constrain SOA formation at longer photochemical ages than observed in urban air. The model predicts similar SOA mass at short to moderate photochemical ages when the aging mechanisms or the updated version of the yields for VOC oxidation are implemented. The latter case has SOA formation rates that are more consistent with observations from the OFR though. Aging mechanisms may still play an important role in SOA chemistry, but the

  8. Real-time measurements of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging from ambient air in an oxidation flow reactor in the Los Angeles area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Amber M.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Peng, Zhe; Palm, Brett B.; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A.; Li, Rui; Cubison, Michael J.; Brune, William H.; Graus, Martin; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Kuster, William C.; de Gouw, Joost; Gutiérrez-Montes, Cándido; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-06-01

    Field studies in polluted areas over the last decade have observed large formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that is often poorly captured by models. The study of SOA formation using ambient data is often confounded by the effects of advection, vertical mixing, emissions, and variable degrees of photochemical aging. An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was deployed to study SOA formation in real-time during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. A high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) alternated sampling ambient and reactor-aged air. The reactor produced OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air. OH radical concentration was continuously stepped, achieving equivalent atmospheric aging of 0.8 days-6.4 weeks in 3 min of processing every 2 h. Enhancement of organic aerosol (OA) from aging showed a maximum net SOA production between 0.8-6 days of aging with net OA mass loss beyond 2 weeks. Reactor SOA mass peaked at night, in the absence of ambient photochemistry and correlated with trimethylbenzene concentrations. Reactor SOA formation was inversely correlated with ambient SOA and Ox, which along with the short-lived volatile organic compound correlation, indicates the importance of very reactive (τOH ˜ 0.3 day) SOA precursors (most likely semivolatile and intermediate volatility species, S/IVOCs) in the Greater Los Angeles Area. Evolution of the elemental composition in the reactor was similar to trends observed in the atmosphere (O : C vs. H : C slope ˜ -0.65). Oxidation state of carbon (OSc) in reactor SOA increased steeply with age and remained elevated (OSC ˜ 2) at the highest photochemical ages probed. The ratio of OA in the reactor output to excess CO (ΔCO, ambient CO above regional background) vs. photochemical age is similar to previous studies at low to moderate ages and also extends to

  9. Tradução e adaptação cultural do Modified-University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale para a língua portuguesa Translation and cultural adaptation of the Modified-University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale to portuguese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Oku

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: os objetivos deste estudo foram traduzir a versão original da avaliação funcional de ombro Modified-University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale da língua inglesa para a portuguesa e adaptar culturalmente à população brasileira. MÉTODOS: a escala foi traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para a população brasileira de acordo com a metodologia internacionalmente aceita descrita por Guillemin et al(28. A versão traduzida e revisada pelo comitê foi aplicada em dois grupos (indivíduos leigos com idade entre 45 e 75 anos e profissionais da saúde para avaliação do nível de compreensão das alternativas. Encontrando 15% ou mais de alternativas "não-compreendidas", os termos foram substituídos por palavras equivalentes de modo que não fossem alterados conceito, estrutura e propriedade de base do instrumento, e reaplicadas até que valores menores que 15% fossem alcançados. RESULTADOS: foram necessárias três aplicações. Cada grupo continha 20 indivíduos selecionados consecutivamente, totalizando 120 pessoas. Para obtenção da versão final, foram modificadas cinco alternativas do domínio dor e quatro alternativas do domínio função. Além dessas alterações, foram identificados problemas, por ambos os grupos, quanto à estrutura da escala, sugerindo a continuação do estudo de sua validade e possíveis modificações desta.OBJECTIVES: the aims of this study were to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese the Modified - University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale and to cross-culturally adapt it to the Brazilian environment. METHODS: the scale was translated to Portuguese and back translated into English according to internationally recommended process described by Guillemin et al(28. The translated and revised version was administered to two groups (patients between 45 and 75 years old and health professionals to evaluate the comprehension level of the items. If 15% or more of health

  10. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb isotopic systematics of zircon from the Angel Lake orthogneiss, East Humboldt Range, Nevada: is this really Archean crust? REPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Wayne R.

    2010-01-01

    The comments from McGrew and Snoke are well received and their concerns for the interpretations in our paper (Premo et al., 2008), which questions the original contention that the Angel Lake orthogneiss is an Archean rock, are many and varied—all of which we will attempt to address. As they point out, this issue is an important one as this particular crustal exposure may delimit the southwestern extent of the Archean Wyoming province (Foster et al., 2006; Mueller and Frost, 2006), which has implications for the true crustal evolution of this region of the Great Basin and perhaps more importantly its relationship (if any) to the location of the world-class gold deposits of north-central Nevada (e.g., Howard, 2003).

  11. Data from exploratory sampling of groundwater in selected oil and gas areas of coastal Los Angeles County and Kern and Kings Counties in southern San Joaquin Valley, 2014–15: California oil, gas, and groundwater project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, David B.; Davis, Tracy A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Land, Michael T.; Wright, Michael T.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-12-09

    Exploratory sampling of groundwater in coastal Los Angeles County and Kern and Kings Counties of the southern San Joaquin Valley was done by the U.S. Geological Survey from September 2014 through January 2015 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Water Quality in Areas of Oil and Gas Production Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program. The Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program was established in response to the California Senate Bill 4 of 2013 mandating that the California State Water Resources Control Board design and implement a groundwater-monitoring program to assess potential effects of well-stimulation treatments on groundwater resources in California. The U.S. Geological Survey is in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to collaboratively implement the Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program through the California Oil, Gas, and Groundwater Project. Many researchers have documented the utility of different suites of chemical tracers for evaluating the effects of oil and gas development on groundwater quality. The purpose of this exploratory sampling effort was to determine whether tracers reported in the literature could be used effectively in California. This reconnaissance effort was not designed to assess the effects of oil and gas on groundwater quality in the sampled areas. A suite of water-quality indicators and geochemical tracers were sampled at groundwater sites in selected areas that have extensive oil and gas development. Groundwater samples were collected from a total of 51 wells, including 37 monitoring wells at 17 multiple-well monitoring sites in coastal Los Angeles County and 5 monitoring wells and 9 water-production wells in southern San Joaquin Valley, primarily in Kern and Kings Counties. Groundwater samples were analyzed for field waterquality indicators; organic constituents, including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and dissolved organic carbon indicators; naturally

  12. Chapter G: Tentative Correlation Between CIPW Normin pl (Total Plagioclase) and Los Angeles Wear in Precambrian Midcontinental Granites-Examples from Missouri and Oklahoma, with Applications and Limitations for Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George H.

    2004-01-01

    way of simple regression, the Los Angeles wear for granite samples collected in Missouri. The results of this abrasion testing were extended to another granite in Oklahoma where normin pl predicted Los Angeles wear to within 0.6 percent. This relation may also exist for granitic rocks outside the Oklahoma-Missouri region, as well as for other igneous-rock types.

  13. Data from exploratory sampling of groundwater in selected oil and gas areas of coastal Los Angeles County and Kern and Kings Counties in southern San Joaquin Valley, 2014–15: California oil, gas, and groundwater project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, David B.; Davis, Tracy A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Land, Michael T.; Wright, Michael T.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-12-09

    Exploratory sampling of groundwater in coastal Los Angeles County and Kern and Kings Counties of the southern San Joaquin Valley was done by the U.S. Geological Survey from September 2014 through January 2015 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Water Quality in Areas of Oil and Gas Production Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program. The Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program was established in response to the California Senate Bill 4 of 2013 mandating that the California State Water Resources Control Board design and implement a groundwater-monitoring program to assess potential effects of well-stimulation treatments on groundwater resources in California. The U.S. Geological Survey is in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to collaboratively implement the Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program through the California Oil, Gas, and Groundwater Project.Many researchers have documented the utility of different suites of chemical tracers for evaluating the effects of oil and gas development on groundwater quality. The purpose of this exploratory sampling effort was to determine whether tracers reported in the literature could be used effectively in California. This reconnaissance effort was not designed to assess the effects of oil and gas on groundwater quality in the sampled areas. A suite of water-quality indicators and geochemical tracers were sampled at groundwater sites in selected areas that have extensive oil and gas development. Groundwater samples were collected from a total of 51 wells, including 37 monitoring wells at 17 multiple-well monitoring sites in coastal Los Angeles County and 5 monitoring wells and 9 water-production wells in southern San Joaquin Valley, primarily in Kern and Kings Counties.Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality indicators; organic constituents, including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and dissolved organic carbon indicators; naturally

  14. Environmental Assessment for the Demolition Associated with and the Construction of the Logistics Operations Resource Center, Los Angeles Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-13

    houses the base Commissary, Medical & Dental Clinic, Fitness Center, Child Care Center and various other personnel, office and administration-related...consists of unconsolidated and indurated sediments ranging in age from the Jurassic to Recent epochs. The youngest deposits are a veneer of late

  15. Exploring potential use of internet, E-mail, and instant text messaging to promote breast health and mammogram use among immigrant Hispanic women in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Catherine M; Estrada, Sylvia; Bresee, Catherine; Phillips, Edward H

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is now the leading cause of death in Hispanic women (HW). Internet, e-mail, and instant text messaging may be cost-effective in educating HW about breast health and in reducing breast cancer mortality. We surveyed 905 HW women attending a free health fair about their technology use, acculturation, insurance status, mammography use, and breast cancer knowledge. Data were analyzed by t test or χ(2) tests. Mean age was 51.9 ± 14.2 years (range, 18 to 88 years). Ninety-two per cent were foreign-born. Most had completed some high school (39%) or elementary (38%) education. Most (62%) were uninsured. The majority spoke (67%) and read (66%) only Spanish. Only 60 per cent of HW older than 40 years had a recent mammogram. HW older than 40 years who had not had a recent mammogram were younger (mean 54.9 ± 10.8 vs 58 ± 10.4 years) and less likely to have health insurance (25 vs 44%; P e-mail (64%). However, 70 per cent have mobile phones (66% older than 40 years), and 65 per cent use text messaging daily (58% older than 40 years, P = 0.001). In fact, 45 per cent wish to receive a mammogram reminder by text. Text messaging may be an inexpensive way to promote breast health and screening mammography use among uninsured HW.

  16. University of California, Los Angeles Campus School of Medicine Atomic Energy Project quarterly progress report for period ending March 31, 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, S.L.

    1952-04-10

    The fifteenth quarterly report being submitted for Contract No. AT04-1-GEN-12 is issued in accordance with Service Request Number 1 except for the report of the Alamogordo Section, Code 91810, which is submitted in accordance with the provisions of Service Request Number 2. Work is in progress on continuing existing projects. In addition, new projects have been initiated including the Kinetics and Mechanism of Protein Denaturation (10018); The Effect of Irradiation on the Constituents of Embryonic Serum (30033); and The Use of Controlled Atmospheres for Spectrographic Excitation Sources (40053). Many of the Project units are either wholly or partially completed and the following initial reports are available: Identification of Ferritin in Blood of Dogs Subjected to Radiation from an Atomic Detonation (UCLA-180); The Nutritional Value of Intravenous Tapioca Dextrin in Normal and Irradiated Rabbits (UCLA-181); The-Decarboxylation and Reconstitution of Linoleic Acid (UCLA-183); Preparation and Properties of Thymus Nucleic Acid (UCLA-184); The Radiation Chemistry of Cysteine Solutions Part II. (a) The Action of Sulfite on the Irradiated Solutions; (b) The Effect on Cystine (UCLA-185); A Revolving Specimen Stage for the Electron Microscope (UCLA-178); An Automatic Geiger-Mueller Tube Tester (UCLA-186); The Value of Gamma Radiation Dosimetry in Atomic Warfare Including a Discussion of Practical Dosage Ranges (UCLA-187); and A New Plastic Tape Film Badge Holder (UCLA-189). Two additional reports were issued; one by Dr. Wilbur Selle entitled Attempts to Alter the Response to Ionizing Radiations from the School of Medicine, UCLA (UCLA-176), and two, a restricted distribution report from the Alamogordo Section entitled Field Observations and Preliminary Field Data Obtained by the UCLA Survey Group on Operation Jangle, November 1951 (UCLA-182).

  17. Temporal Controls on Uplift and Slip Rates for the Puente Hills and Santa Ana Mountains, Southern Los Angeles Basin, Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gath, E. M.; Grant, L. B.; Owen, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Puente Hills (PH) are seismically active and tectonically uplifted by the Puente Hills Blind Thrust fault (PHBTF). The rate of uplift, and consequently, the late Quaternary slip rate of the eastern part of the PHBTF, herein named the Santa Ana segment, can be constrained by mapping and dating Quaternary stream terraces and strath surfaces in the Santa Ana River Canyon. The PH are cut by the 2-3 mm/yr right-lateral Whittier fault, itself capable of M6.7-7.2 earthquakes. The 7 mapped terraces and strath surfaces of the PH are cut by the Whittier fault with minimal vertical separation. OSL dating, soil age estimates, and correlation with sea level highstands constrains the PH uplift rate to 0.6-1.4 mm/yr based on OSL dates, and 0.2-0.8 mm/yr from other methods. The rates overlap in the range 0.6-0.8 mm/yr, and we propose that this is the most reliable estimate of uplift rate because it is based on several methods. An uplift rate of 0.6-0.8 mm/yr for the PH is also consistent with a 500 700 ka emergent age based on our geomorphic analysis of PH drainage basin development. Using a 30° dip angle produces a slip rate on the Santa Ana segment of the PHBTF of 1.2-1.6 mm/yr. Preliminary tectonic geomorphic analysis of the Santa Ana Mountains (SAM) suggests that they too are being uplifted and are probably seismically active. Shorelines preserved on the lower foothills of Peralta and Loma Ridges were correlated to eustatic sea levels for age estimations. Mapping and dating of terraces in the Santiago Creek drainage, and the older marine terraces indicates that the SAM are uplifting at 0.2-0.7 mm/yr, probably due to a blind thrust associated with partial termination of the Elsinore fault.

  18. BASE MAP DATASET, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  19. Chikungunya fever in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Katherine R; Bhatt, Sanjay; Kim, Hyung T; Mallon, William K

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old woman returning from Haiti, presenting to our emergency department (ED) with fever, rash and arthralgia. Following a broad workup that included laboratory testing for dengue and malaria, our patient was diagnosed with Chikungunya virus, which was then reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for initiation of infection control. This case demonstrates the importance of the ED for infectious disease case identification and initiation of public health measures. This case also addresses public health implications of Chikungunya virus within the United States, and issues related to the potential for local spread and autochthonous cases.

  20. Associations between self-perception of weight, food choice intentions, and consumer response to calorie information: a retrospective investigation of public health center clients in Los Angeles County before the implementation of menu-labeling regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianogo, Roch A; Kuo, Tony; Smith, Lisa V; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2016-01-22

    Although obesity continues to rise and remains a great public health concern in the U.S., a number of important levers such as self-perception of weight and calorie postings at point-of-purchase in restaurants are still not well-characterized in the literature, especially for low-income and minority groups in Los Angeles County (LAC). To study this gap, we examined the associations of self-perception of weight (as measured by body weight discrepancy) with food choice intentions and consumer response to calorie information among low-income adults residing in LAC during the pre-menu labeling regulation era. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the aforementioned associations utilizing data from the 2007-2008 Calorie and Nutrition Information Survey (CNIS). The CNIS was a local health department study of 639 low-income adults recruited from five large, multi-purpose public health centers in LAC. Survey participants who reported that their desired weight was less than their current weight (versus desired weight the same as current weight) had (i) higher odds of intending to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase (aOR = 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.0-3.9); and (ii) had higher odds of reporting that it is "very important" to have these calorie postings on food items in grocery stores (aOR = 3.1; 95 % CI: 0.90-10.7) and in fast-food restaurants (aOR = 3.4; 95 % CI: 1.0-11.4). Self-perception of weight was found to be associated with the intention to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase. Future public health efforts to support menu labeling implementation should consider these and other findings to inform consumer education and communications strategies that can be tailored to assist restaurant patrons with this forthcoming federal law.

  1. The Role and Place of Governing Angels in Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed hesam aldin Hosseini

    2014-08-01

    comparison to God who is Absolute. And the last point is that because of the metaphorical expressions used in Old Testament and Quran in several cases, they share the same statements of angels. Angels are in communication with "the souls of elements" (the concept which has entered into Judaism under the influence of polytheistic religions. For example, the angel of fire soul, the angel of wind soul, clouds, darkness, snow, thunder, rain and lighting. (Job 2:2 The New Testament has applied the same expressions which were used by Jews following the scriptures and thus it proceeds to introduce the head angels (First Thessalonians  4: 16 and Judas, 9 and Cherubim (Hebrews 9:5 and inhabitants of the empyrean and the owners of the lordship and the chairmanship and the kingdom (Colossians 16: 1 and in the next part it has added the owners of virtue and perfection (Ephesians 1:21, but this hierarchical ranking which is accompanied with different interpretations and degrees does not follow the specific idea but New Testament keeps its pace with Old Testament in a desultory fashion save the followers of the New Testament has arranged them according to Christian revelation. Nowadays the Catholic Church believes that angels are incorporeal creatures and their creation precedes the creation of man. They have hierarchies and are the savior of man. In Christian Church, angels are praised or even worshiped according to traditions like the praise of Michael, the warrior angel. (Mosaheb, 1345, vol 2, p. 1878 In Jewish scriptures, Gabriel who is believed to be made of fire, along with the Michael, Ariel and Raphael is one of the four archangels who hover around the Throne. Moreover, he is known as one of the angels who visited Abraham and also the destroyer of the Sadom. (The village folk of Lot[1] The idea of Judaism and Christianity about angels as it can be seen is very contradictory and ambiguous. The nature of angels miscellaneously varies through a range of realities from the material

  2. The Role and Place of Governing Angels in Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed hesam aldin Hosseini

    2014-09-01

    comparison to God who is Absolute. And the last point is that because of the metaphorical expressions used in Old Testament and Quran in several cases, they share the same statements of angels. Angels are in communication with "the souls of elements" (the concept which has entered into Judaism under the influence of polytheistic religions. For example, the angel of fire soul, the angel of wind soul, clouds, darkness, snow, thunder, rain and lighting. (Job 2:2 The New Testament has applied the same expressions which were used by Jews following the scriptures and thus it proceeds to introduce the head angels (First Thessalonians  4: 16 and Judas, 9 and Cherubim (Hebrews 9:5 and inhabitants of the empyrean and the owners of the lordship and the chairmanship and the kingdom (Colossians 16: 1 and in the next part it has added the owners of virtue and perfection (Ephesians 1:21, but this hierarchical ranking which is accompanied with different interpretations and degrees does not follow the specific idea but New Testament keeps its pace with Old Testament in a desultory fashion save the followers of the New Testament has arranged them according to Christian revelation. Nowadays the Catholic Church believes that angels are incorporeal creatures and their creation precedes the creation of man. They have hierarchies and are the savior of man. In Christian Church, angels are praised or even worshiped according to traditions like the praise of Michael, the warrior angel. (Mosaheb, 1345, vol 2, p. 1878 In Jewish scriptures, Gabriel who is believed to be made of fire, along with the Michael, Ariel and Raphael is one of the four archangels who hover around the Throne. Moreover, he is known as one of the angels who visited Abraham and also the destroyer of the Sadom. (The village folk of Lot[1] The idea of Judaism and Christianity about angels as it can be seen is very contradictory and ambiguous. The nature of angels miscellaneously varies through a range of realities from the material

  3. Floodplain Assessment for the Proposed Outdoor Fire Range Upgrades at TA-72 in Lower Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, Charles D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-27

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is preparing to implement actions in Sandia Canyon at Technical Area (TA) 72. Los Alamos National Security (LANS) biologists conducted a floodplain determination and this project is partially located within a 100-year floodplain. The proposed project is to upgrade the existing outdoor shooting range facilities at TA-72. These upgrades will result in increased safety and efficiencies in the training for Protective Force personnel. In order to remain current on training requirements, the firing ranges at TA-72 will be upgraded which will result in increased safety and efficiencies in the training for Protective Force personnel (Figure 1). These upgrades will allow for an increase in class size and more people to be qualified at the ranges. Some of these upgrades will be built within the 100-year floodplain. The upgrades include: concrete pads for turning target systems and shooting positions, new lighting to illuminate the firing range for night fire, a new speaker system for range operations, canopies at two locations, an impact berm at the far end of the 300-yard mark, and a block wall for road protection.

  4. Angels or demons? You decide!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The new film Angels & Demons starring Tom Hanks and directed by Ron Howard is being premiered worldwide on 15 May, but you could see it 10 days earlier at a special preview screening as the CERN Press Office has a limited number of tickets to give away. Preview of the new CERN website to be published on 5 May. Opinion is split among CERNois when talking about Dan Brown’s book Angels & Demons. Should he be praised for bringing particle physics into the spotlight or should he be demonised for the ‘creative liberties’ he took - for example, although it would be useful for the international collaborations, CERN doesn’t actually have its own private airport and supersonic jet. But love it or hate it, with the upcoming release of the multi-million dollar Hollywood film adaptation, Angels & Demons will introduce a huge new audience to CERN. "Guess what? – CERN really exists!" said...

  5. The LACDA (Los Angeles County Drainage Area) System Recreation Study, Los Angeles County Drainage Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    fFence or Wall Adjcent Use _JAppeal JPhotographa A. San Pascual Ave. f1vert. W IDirt. 10’ min. NO No OS 4 36, 440 to Sides C j 3)Ichannel in1ST holl...Valley Bikeway Committee: Ray Diaz , Patrick Murphy, Joanne Chapin, Craig Jenninqs 7. CITIZENS’ GROUPS, PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, AND INDIVIDUALS Audubon

  6. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vanta, E.B. [Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  7. LAS DEDUCCIONES AUTONÓMICAS EN EL IRPF PARA INCENTIVAR LA ADQUISICIÓN DE ACCIONES O PARTICIPACIONES EN SOCIEDADES, LOS BUSINESS ANGELS Y EL MERCADO ALTERNATIVO BURSÁTIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilo Piña Garrido

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous communities common system includes in its system of personalincome tax (IRPF regulatory powers to govern deductions in the contributionfor carrying out “non-company investments”. Catalonia, Madridand Andalusia have made use of this possibility – and Galicia has announcedits intention to do so in the near future. The three autonomous communitiesmentioned above have approved a very similar measure to promote theactivities of business angels in their respective regions, and Catalonia andMadrid have added another to support investments in companies that arefl oated on the Alternative Investment Market. The two incentives consist inreduction in the contribution – 20% of the amount invested – which is recognisedfor physical persons who buy shares or social interests in the capital ofcertain types of organisation, with the aim of encouraging a certain classof investments and companies in the regions of the respective autonomouscommunity. The indirect and ultimate benefi ciaries are therefore the companies.This enables us to question whether this has gone beyond what ispermitted under the laws of tax cession of the State and the autonomouscommunities and if the important rules of Community Law such as thoseregulating freedom of establishment and circulation of capital (art. 49 y 63of the TFUE and the prohibition of State assistance (art. 107 and ss. TFUEhave been respected.

  8. Historial preliminar de expediciones ornitológicas-en Nicaragua; un análisis de la base de datos del museo de la Universidad de California en Los Angeles, EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Lezama López

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se comenta la base de datos sobre aves de Nicaragua alojada en UCLA-Dickey Bird and Mammal Collections, Los Ángeles, California, haciendo antes una relación histórica de las expediciones zoológicas a Nicaragua. La antigüedad de las mismas se fija en 1830 en la región del Pacífico en El Realejo, Chinandega. Los datos característicos de la colección sobre Nicaragua en UCLA se presentan por región natural del país, colector y antigüedad. De los 2,450 registros en UCLA, 1,277 son de la región del Caribe, 626 del Pacífico y 547 de la región Central o escudo central montañoso. En la colección son escasos los registros de grandes rapaces como águila arpía, no así de paserinos y demás grupos

  9. Los campesinos "fabriqueños" de Los Ángeles, Sonora, y su lucha por el agua en un contexto de aridez, 1938-1955 "Fabriqueño" Peasants in Los Angeles, Sonora, and their Fight for Water in an Arid Context, 1938-1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Padilla Calderón

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Los campesinos que habitaban el pueblo de Los Ángeles, Sonora, junto a una antigua fábrica textil, en las inmediaciones del río San Miguel, se apropiaron de pequeños espacios del árido territorio material colindante con la manufactura. En 1935 estas fracciones de tierra cultivable quedaron adscritas al ejido de Horcasitas en calidad de "anexo"; a partir de entonces y hasta la primera mitad del siglo XX los "campesinos fabriqueños" se confrontaron con otros actores sociales por el derecho a usar las aguas del río. Este trabajo explora las relaciones de poder y los procesos de confrontación que se producen al apropiarse o defender una territorialidad social. Asimismo y de manera central aborda el tema sobre los factores sociales que constituyen situaciones de escasez de agua.The peasants that lived in the town of Los Ángeles, Sonora, next to an old textile factory near the San Miguel river appropriated small parts of the arid territory related to manufacturing. In 1935, these portions of arable land were attached to the Horcasitas ejido as an "appendix." Since then and until the first half of the 20th century, "fabriqueño" peasants were confronted by other social actors over the right to use the river water. This paper explores power relations and the processes of confrontation that occur when one appropriates or defends social territory. It also deals with the social factors that lead to water shortages.

  10. Tongues of Men and Angels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGraw, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The accelerating popularity of Charismatic Christianity has brought with it a host of new sensibilities and ritual practices. Glossolalia, or ‘speaking in tongues,’ stands out among these as a particularly dramatic innovation. Typically staid churchgoers, once touched by the Holy Spirit, begin...... to utter strings of syllables that some claim to be the ‘language of angels.’ Recent neuroimaging studies have highlighted differences in the brains of subjects performing glossolalia in comparison to those same subjects singing a Church hymn. An investigation of the neural correlates of glossolalia...... highlights the importance of studying the bodily dimensions of ritual practice. But an informed analysis does not reduce social and behavioral complexities to physiological changes; rather, juxtaposing the correlates of human action from a variety of perspectives, in this case—the social, the bodily...

  11. Italian cross-cultural adaptation and validation of three different scales for the evaluation of shoulder pain and dysfunction after neck dissection: University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Scale, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, C; Cristalli, G; Pichi, B; Manciocco, V; Mercante, G; Pellini, R; Marchesi, P; Sperduti, I; Ruscito, P; Spriano, G

    2012-02-01

    Shoulder syndrome after neck dissection is a well known entity, but its incidence and prognostic factors influencing recovery have not been clearly assessed due to the heterogeneity of possible evaluations. The University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Scale, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) are three English-language questionnaires commonly used to test shoulder impairment. An Italian version of these scales is not available. The aim of the present study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate an Italian version of UCLA Shoulder Scale, SPADI and SST. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SPADI, the UCLA shoulder scale and the SST was performed according to the international guidelines. Sixty-six patients treated with neck dissection for head and neck cancer were called to draw up these scales. Forty patients completed the same questionnaires a second time one week after the first to test the reproducibility of the Italian versions. All the English-speaking Italian patients (n = 11) were asked to complete both the English and the Italian versions of the three questionnaires to validate the scales. No major problems regarding the content or the language were found during the translation of the 3 questionnaires. For all three scales, Cronbach's α was > 0.89. The Pearson correlation coefficient was r > 0.91. With respect to validity, there was a significant correlation between the Italian and the English versions of all three scales. This study shows that the Italian versions of UCLA Shoulder Scale, SPADI and SST are valid instruments for the evaluation of shoulder dysfunction after neck dissection in Italian patients.

  12. DOMINGUEZ CHANNEL AND COMPTON CREEK PAL, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. Auckland--New Zealand's Los Angeles or San Francisco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunovich, Dushko

    1995-01-01

    Compares Auckland (New Zealand) with San Francisco (California) in terms of topographical structure, geographic location, and urban development. Both cities contain striking similarities. Maintains that Auckland can become a world-class city renowned for its beauty if developers and government work in tandem. (MJP)

  14. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution d...... during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures....

  15. Predicting Los Angeles abrasion loss of rock aggregates from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    increasing strength is much more rapid at strength values below 100 MPa than at higher strength values. Shakoor and. Brown (1996) performed multivariate regression between. UCS and LA loss, dry density, and absorption for carbonate rocks. They obtained a statistically significant correlation that can be used to predict ...

  16. DCS Terrain Submission for Los Angeles County, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. Predicting Los Angeles abrasion loss of rock aggregates from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was concluded that the simple regression equation is practical and reliable enough for estimation purposes. However, the two multiple regression equations can be used for a more accurate estimation. Author Affiliations. S Kahraman1 O Y Toraman1. Mining Engineering Department, Nigde University, Nigde, Turkey ...

  18. Collaborative Network Evolution: The Los Angeles Terrorism Early Warning Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    overly dependent on the ad hoc ‘ sneaker net’ of personal relations among known colleagues.12 An effective network linking federal, state and local...personal affinities, or ascribed status of members who participate regularly in collective activities. At the same time, the particular patterning of

  19. Comparative study of oxidants and ozone in Los Angeles atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renzetti, N.A.; Romanovsky, J.C.

    1956-01-01

    The smog in the Pasadena atmosphere was analyzed from July 15 - Nov. 15, 1955. Pasadena is an area of high incidence of smog during this particular time of year. The instruments used were a phenolphthalin oxidant apparatus, a potassium iodide continuous oxidant recorder, a rubber cracking apparatus, and an ozone ultraviolet spectrometer. The instrumentation and measuring methods are described in detail, as well as the laboratory calibrations. The results of the sampling are summarized in graphical form with comments on interferences.

  20. Maximizing Intelligence Sharing Within the Los Angeles Police Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    was, was being waged by an army of music sharing teens , college students and IPod carrying businessmen” (Brackman & Beckstrom, 2006, pp. 5–7). On...man. He ordered her not to call the police and allowed her to listen to a recording of her husband’s voice in which he stated, “Tell the kids I am ok

  1. Making Health Easier: Active Living in Los Angeles, CA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-05

    Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. This podcast highlights one preschool teacher who teaches kids about active living and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroom—like teaching fun dances and yoga classes.  Created: 3/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/5/2013.

  2. Making Health Easier: Healthy Eating in Los Angeles, CA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-05

    Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. This podcast highlights one preschool teacher who teaches kids about healthy eating and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroom—like planting a classroom garden and eating healthy snacks.  Created: 3/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/5/2013.

  3. Chikungunya Fever: Case Report in Los Angeles, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R. Harter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 33-year-old woman returning from Haiti, presenting to our emergency department (ED with fever, rash and arthralgia. Following a broad workup that included laboratory testing for dengue and malaria, our patient was diagnosed with Chikungunya virus, which was then reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for initiation of infection control. This case demonstrates the importance of the ED for infectious disease case identification and initiation of public health measures. This case also addresses public health implications of Chikungunya virus within the United States, and issues related to the potential for local spread and autochthonous cases. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.

  4. Environmental Investigations and Analyses for Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbors, Los Angeles, California, 1973-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    Ealanus amphitrite Balanus amphitrite Boccardia proboscida** S Capitella capita ta* Cirrifarmia luxuriosa** *Elasmo pus rapax* Eumida sanguinea ** Halos...May 1 through May 18, 1973. PARULIDAE (Wood Warblers) vermivora celata ( Orange -crowned Warbler). Two seen on one day along the breakwater in early May... orange -crowned Warbler) Vireo gilvus (Warbling Vireo) hilsonia pusilla (Wilsons Warbler) 354. 0"~~ owe4 At"S 2% ’.e ’.e * -- ’... Chapter 9

  5. AnGel System for the diagnosis of generators in operation; Sistema AnGeL para el diagnostico de generadores en operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre V, H. Octavio; Ramirez N, J. Tomas; Pascacio de los S, Alberth; Reyes M, Oscar A; Carrillo C, Jaime; Iturbe F, Marlene [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ponce de Leon V, Eugenio [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The continuous monitoring of the electrical variables of a generator allows the knowing of the operating status of the main components of the equipment, which is helpful at the time of emitting a diagnosis of the same one. System of diagnosis for generators of operation, denominated AnGel System (acronym of Analysis of Generators in Line). The system was developed by the Management of Electrical equipment of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and implemented in the six units of generation of the Manzanillo Thermoelectric Unit. The present article includes a description of the main components and functions. The world-wide tendency in monitoring systems of the fault statistics, were key elements in defining the variable to be monitored: Partial discharges (PD), Shaft current (SC), Neutral current (NC), Tangential Magnetic (TM) flux, Voltages and currents of line (as reference to the operation point). The main processes of deterioration that are intended to be observed with each one of these variables are described with greater thoroughness in the article Sistema AnGel: Aspectos teorico-practicos para el diagnostico de generadores en operacion (AnGel System: Theoretical-practical aspects for the diagnosis of generators in operation), contained in the section of Research Activities in this same issue of the IIE bulletin. [Spanish] La monitorizacion continua de las variables electricas de un generador permite conocer el estado operativo de los principales componentes del equipo, lo que es de ayuda a la hora de emitir un diagnostico del mismo. Sistema de diagnostico para generadores de operacion, denominado Sistema AnGeL (acronimo de Analisis de Generadores en Linea). El sistema fue desarrollado por la Gerencia de Equipos Electricos del IIE e implementado en las seis unidades de generacion del Complejo Termoelectrico Manzanillo. El presente articulo incluye una descripcion de los principales componentes y funciones. La tendencia mundial en sistemas de

  6. Dante o anjeloch (Dante on Angels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Žilinek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dante’s eternal Love was Bice Portinari who died in 1290. Dante saw her in Florence in 1274. She was his muse and her death was the reason to write Divine Comedy. We meet her in part of Divine Comedy calledParadise as a guide into Celestial Empire. I have ever been interested in structure of Celestial Empire and mesmerised by Dante. That was the reason to write this paper. I try to re-construct and complete Dante’s interpretation of the hierarchy of Celestial Empire with focusing on angels. Angels are also called Intellects or forms of the Heaven or substances between the Earth and Heaven or blissful Beings. I also try to find out the answer what happened to souls of people who died, especially to souls of innocent children. In memory of Michalka Režnáková (1984-1995.

  7. Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project: Science Angels (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, Kotoe; Watanabe, Mayuko

    2009-04-01

    Tohoku University was the first National University to admit three women students in Japan in 1913. To support the university's traditional ``open-door'' policy, various projects have been promoted throughout the university since its foundation. A government plan, the Third-Stage Basic Plan for Science and Technology, aims to increase the women scientist ratio up to 25% nationwide. In order to achieve this goal, the Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project, funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), was adopted in 2006. This project is threefold: support for child/family, improvement of facilities, and support for the next generation, which includes our Science Angels program. ``Science Angels'' are women PhD students appointed by the university president, with the mission to form a strong support system among each other and to become role-models to inspire younger students who want to become researchers. Currently, 50 women graduate students of the natural sciences are Science Angels and are encouraged to design and deliver lectures in their areas of specialty at their alma maters. Up to now, 12 lectures have been delivered and science events for children in our community have been held-all with great success.

  8. Corals and coral reefs of the Puerto Angel region, west coast of México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Reyes- Bonilla

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan datos sobre la riqueza de especies y las características de tres arrecifes de coral de la región de Puerto Angel, México (15° N, visitados en 1994 y revisados en seis censos visuales de una hora, conducidos hasta 6 m de profundidad. Se encontró un total de siete especies en el área (pertenecientes a cuatro géneros, siendo la más abundante Pocillopora damicornis (L., 1758. Las especies de este género fueron las principales constructoras de la estructura arrecifal en los sitios visitados. Los corales masivos fueron poco comunes, y habitaban principalmente en la base de los arrecifes. Por la presencia de una estructura arrecifal bien cementada y una zonación clara, los arrecifes de franja de Puerto Angel deben ser considerados entre los mejor desarrollados de la costa del Pacífico de México. Un evento de mortalidad coralina y posterior recolonización fue observado en esta visita. Sin embargo, no se determinó cuál fue su causa.

  9. Business Angels - A Subspecies of the homo oeconomicus ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsler, Laurenz; Platzer, Erich M

    2014-12-01

    Business Angels invest in start-up companies in their early stage. This type of investor usually has a good knowledge of the start-up's industry sector, and in addition to the funds he invests, his management experience and his network can be useful for start-ups. Business Angel involvement has shown to improve the success rate and the profitability of start-ups. The article depicts the relationship between entrepreneurs and Business Angels in four case examples.

  10. "Angels & Demons" - Distinguishing truth from fiction

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Dan Brown's best-selling novel "Angels & Demons" was published in French on 2 March. A web page on CERN's public site is dedicated to separating truth from fiction in this novel. After the extraordinary success of Dan Brown's "Da Vinci Code", one of his earlier novels "Angels & Demons", published in 2000, has now become a best seller and has generated a flood of questions about CERN. This detective story is about a secret society, the Illuminati, who wish to destroy the Vatican with an antimatter bomb stolen from - wait for it - CERN! Inevitably, CERN has been bombarded with calls about the technologies described in the novel that are supposed to be under development in the Laboratory. The Press Office has always explained that, even if the novel appears to be very informative, it is in fact a mixture of fact and fiction. For instance, according to the novel CERN is supposed to own a plane that can cover the distance between Massachusetts in the United States and Switzerland in just over an hour! ...

  11. The touch of the efficiency: the case of the tower of the angel; El toque de la eficiencia: el caso de la torre del angel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trillo, Jose Luis [Ingenieria en Aire y Control (Mexico); Frias, Jose Luis [DHIMEX (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of reducing the heat in the interior of the Tower of the Angel, building of offices located in avenida Paseo de la Reforma of Mexico City, a renovation was carried out that included the installation of an insulating crystal cover in all the building. Also, it was opted for an environmental system of air-cooling to fulfill the functions of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning), systems. It is possible to indicate that, in addition to the energy saving, the applied technology allowed to transform an old and uncomfortable construction into a construction of worldwide class, able to compete with new works of the city and harmonize with present environmental and aesthetic requirements. [Spanish] Con objeto de reducir el calor al interior de la Torre del Angel, edificio de oficinas ubicado en la avenida Paseo de la Reforma de la Ciudad de Mexico, se llevo a cabo una renovacion que incluyo la instalacion de una cubierta de cristal aislante en todo el inmueble. Asimismo, se opto por un sistema ambiental de enfriamiento de aire para cumplir con las funciones de los sistemas HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, por sus siglas en ingles). Cabe senalar que, ademas del ahorro energetico, la tecnologia aplicada permitio transformar una construccion vieja e incomoda en una edificacion de clase mundial, capaz de competir con las nuevas obras de la ciudad y armonizar con los requerimientos ambientales y esteticos actuales.

  12. Should government support business angel networks? The tale of Danish business angels network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard

    2011-01-01

    . This article discusses the possible rationale for governments to support BANs and what criteria to apply when evaluating such networks. The article is based on an in-depth observation study of the whole life cycle of a national BAN – the Danish Business Angel Network (DBAN) – and a comparison with a similar......Policies promoting informal venture capital generally and business angel networks (BANs) in particular have gained increased attention in recent years. As a consequence, BANs are now widespread across Europe. However, there continues to be a debate whether BANs should be supported with public money...... whether to provide continuing support to BANs they should evaluate not only their immediate effectiveness but also whether BANs should be considered a part of the general small business support infrastructure....

  13. Estructura de los encinares de la sierra de Santa Rosa, Guanajuato, México Oak forest structure in the Sierra de Santa Rosa range, Guanajuato, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martínez-Cruz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la estructura de 4 asociaciones de encinares en el oriente de la sierra de Santa Rosa, Guanajuato, con el método de cuadrantes al punto central (21 transectos, donde se contabilizaron 2 320 individuos arbóreos y arbustivos, que incluyen 36 especies, 22 géneros y 15 familias. La asociación Quercus potosina-Q. castanea (QPC registró la mayor riqueza (29 especies y el menor número de individuos por ha-1 (650. Por el contrario, la asociación de Q. laurina-Q. rugosa (QLR presentó sólo 12 especies, pero la mayor densidad de arbustos por ha-1 (5 593. El índice α de Fisher y el análisis de rarefacción ratificaron que la asociación de QPC es la más diversa. La asociación Q. potosina-Q. eduardii (QPE fue la de mayor equidad. Los índices de Simpson (cualitativo y de Sørensen (cuantitativo coincidieron en que las asociaciones Q. coccolobifolia-QLR y QLR-QPE presentan la mayor diversidad beta. Debido al marcado deterioro que se observa en estos bosques, la heterogeneidad de las asociaciones de encinares respecto a su composición, atributos de estructura y diversidad, deben considerarse en acciones futuras encaminadas a lograr un manejo más sustentable de los recursos naturales que albergan estos bosques, así como acciones particulares de conservación y restauración.The structure of 4 oak associations in the western part of the Sierra de Santa Rosa range in Guanajuato state is described. Oak associations were sampled using the point centered quarter method (21 sites. We censused 2 320 individuals of trees and shrubs belonging to 36 species, in 22 genera and 15 families. Observed species richness (29 was highest in the Quercus potosina-Q. castanea association (QPC but tree density was the lowest (650 individuals/ha. Meanwhile, the Q. laurina-Q. rugosa association (QLR had the least number of observed species (12, but the maximum shrub density (5 593 individual/ ha. The Fisher index for alpha diversity and the rarefaction

  14. Five-year clinical and echocardiographic evaluation of the Das AngelWings atrial septal occluder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Joseph D; O'Laughlin, Martin P; Ito, Kristin; Wang, Andrew; Bashore, Thomas M; Harrison, J Kevin

    2004-02-01

    The late outcome of patients treated with atrial septal occluder devices remains incompletely defined. The purpose of this study was to assess the late outcome (range 4-7 years postprocedure) of patients in whom the Das AngelWings septal occluder device was implanted in the atrial septum. We report the clinical and echocardiographic outcome, at an average of 5 years following the procedure, of patients treated with the Das AngelWings device used to close either a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) or a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Thirty-two patients underwent successful percutaneous closure of an atrial septal closure, patent foramen ovale, or fenestration in the lateral tunnel of their Fontan with the Das AngelWings device between June 1995 and March 1998 at Duke University Medical Center. Two of the 32 patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 30 patients were divided into 3 groups based on indication for device implantation. Group 1 consisted of 14 patients with a secundum ASD and predominantly left-to-right atrial shunting. Group 2 consisted of 8 patients who had a PFO and who suffered a thromboembolic event. Group 3 (compassionate use) consisted of 10 patients with multiple comorbid medical problems with predominantly right-to-left shunting at the atrial level causing hypoxemia. Eight of the patients in group 3 were severely ill at the time of device implantation. The 2 remaining patients in group 3 underwent AngelWings implantation for closure of right-to-left shunting through a Fontan fenestration. Mean follow-up was 59 months. There was no device embolization. No patient in the ASD or PFO/stroke group had a clinical complication. By radiographic examination, 2 of 27 patients had evidence of fracture of the nitinol framework at 2-year follow-up. Residual shunting was present in 44% at 24 hours, 20% at 1 year, and 18.8% at 2 years by use of Doppler color flow imaging and/or microcavitation echocardiographic studies. Mild mitral regurgitation caused by

  15. Port Angeles, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Port Angeles, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  16. 75 FR 3981 - National Angel Island Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... inscriptions into the walls in their native language--from Chinese, Japanese, and Korean to Russian, German... call upon the people of the United States to learn more about the history of Angel Island and to...

  17. Conceptions of warlike angels in literature of the late Second Temple period

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak, Aleksander Roman

    2011-01-01

    The work begins with a chapter that presents the various traditions concerning "angelic" warriors in the Hebrew Bible. In this context, we have investigated the two main biblical traditions: the council of gods and the Angel of Yahweh. It can be demonstrated that both these traditions were connected with martiality, which might have influenced later speculations about warlike angels. The second chapter deals with the various Second Temple beliefs concerning the principal angels, angelic hiera...

  18. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  19. The informal investment context: specific issues concerned with business angels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hoyos Iruarrizaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Informal investors play a key role to meet the financing needs of business projects in early stages. However, this is a group in which there are different kinds and ways of dealing with investment. One of these profiles is associated with the figure known as business angel, whose main distinguishing feature is its ability to add smart capital in the form of knowledge, experience and contacts. The aim of this paper is to determine to what extent the specific profile of business angels differ from the rest of informal investors. With a sample of over 800 informal investors in Spain, the empirical results of this study show that the higher income, skills and entrepreneurial training and the less family ties to the entrepreneur, the greater the probability of belonging to business angel investment group.

  20. Telephone helpline services for women and the elderly people. Different range in the Autonomous Regions / Los servicios telefónicos de atención a mujeres y mayores. Desigual cobertura de las CC.AA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Ángeles Fernández Martínez, angeles.fernandez@urjc.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, Spanish Public Administration has been implementing different telephone helpline services aimed at groups which, according to certain circumstances, are identified as especially vulnerable. This paper describes and compares the public telephone services aimed at women and elderly people in the Autonomous regions. The results of this descriptive study, which refers to 2007, show that the Public Administration doesn’t provide an equal range as regards the attention offered to the specific requests made by each social group. These social groups have been analysed according to the public visibility of the problems which affect them. Furthermore, the research has revealed the resistance offered by certain institutions when it comes to providing public information. The research also shows the lack of homogeneity as regards the collection of data which provides information about user profiles and how these services are used.En los últimos veinte años las Administraciones Públicas españolas han ido implementando diferentes servicios telefónicos dirigidos a colectivos que, por distintas circunstancias, son identificados como de especial vulnerabilidad. En este trabajo se describen y comparan los servicios telefónicos de iniciativa pública que en el ámbito autonómico se dirigen a mujeres y mayores. Los resultados de este estudio descriptivo, que se circunscribe al año 2007, constatan la disparidad de criterios en la cobertura dispuesta por las Administraciones Públicas para la atención a las demandas específicas de cada grupo social analizado. Igualmente, el estudio ha puesto de manifiesto las resistencias de algunas instituciones a la hora de facilitar datos que tienen un carácter público y la falta de homogeneidad en la recopilación de datos que proporcionan información acerca del perfil de los usuarios y los usos que se hacen de estos servicios.