WorldWideScience

Sample records for ranges called bins

  1. Subinteger Range-Bin Alignment Method for ISAR Imaging of Noncooperative Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pérez-Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR is a coherent radar technique capable of generating images of noncooperative targets. ISAR may have better performance in adverse meteorological conditions than traditional imaging sensors. Unfortunately, ISAR images are usually blurred because of the relative motion between radar and target. To improve the quality of ISAR products, motion compensation is necessary. In this context, range-bin alignment is the first step for translational motion compensation. In this paper, we propose a subinteger range-bin alignment method based on envelope correlation and reference profiles. The technique, which makes use of a carefully designed optimization stage, is robust against noise, clutter, target scintillation, and error accumulation. It provides us with very fine translational motion compensation. Comparisons with state-of-the-art range-bin alignment methods are included and advantages of the proposal are highlighted. Simulated and live data from a high-resolution linear-frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar are included to perform the pertinent comparisons.

  2. Effects of range bin shape and Doppler filter response in a digital SAR data processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    In calibrating the backscatter coefficient obtained with an imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system to determine absolute values of radar cross-section and reflectivity it is common practice to use a target of known radar cross-section placed within the scene. A corner reflector acts as a point target, but the return from it may not be centered in the resolution cell. It is important, for accurate calibration, to perform straddling corrections based on the range bin and Doppler filter response curves.

  3. Soft calls and broadcast calls in the corncrake as adaptations to short and long range communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ręk, Paweł

    2013-10-01

    Because birds' acoustic signals function in antagonistic interactions between males and in female attraction, a majority of vocalisations are loud. In contrast, some birds, additionally produce soft vocalisations in escalated agonistic and sexual contexts. Nevertheless, the relationship between the acoustic parameters of such signals and their function is not clear. Here I investigate the sound transmission degradation properties of soft and broadcast (loud) calls in the corncrake using calls with natural and changed amplitude. I show that, if played at the same amplitude, the maximum limit for communication distance with soft calls was significantly shorter than that of broadcast calls, indicating that frequency structure is important in determining the range of both signals independently of their amplitude. At the same time, the values of excess attenuation were lower for soft calls than for broadcast calls at most distances, which suggests that the short transmission of soft calls is achieved mostly due to their low and narrow frequency ranges, promoting their masking by ambient noise. Finally, contrary to soft calls, changes in the energy of tails of echoes in broadcast calls were associated with the distance of propagation, which might be useful in assessing the distance to senders. I suggest that the acoustic structure of soft vocalisations can be used to limit the range of the signal, which might be helpful in eavesdropping avoidance, whereas broadcast calls are designed for long-range transmission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Blue and fin whale call source levels and propagation range in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; Wiggins, Sean M

    2007-08-01

    Blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin whales (B. physalus) produce high-intensity, low-frequency calls, which probably function for communication during mating and feeding. The source levels of blue and fin whale calls off the Western Antarctic Peninsula were calculated using recordings made with calibrated, bottom-moored hydrophones. Blue whales were located up to a range of 200 km using hyperbolic localization and time difference of arrival. The distance to fin whales, estimated using multipath arrivals of their calls, was up to 56 km. The error in range measurements was 3.8 km using hyperbolic localization, and 3.4 km using multipath arrivals. Both species produced high-intensity calls; the average blue whale call source level was 189+/-3 dB re:1 microPa-1 m over 25-29 Hz, and the average fin whale call source level was 189+/-4 dB re:1 microPa-1 m over 15-28 Hz. Blue and fin whale populations in the Southern Ocean have remained at low numbers for decades since they became protected; using source level and detection range from passive acoustic recordings can help in calculating the relative density of calling whales.

  5. Binning_refiner: improving genome bins through the combination of different binning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei-Zhi; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-06-15

    Microbial genomes have recently been reconstructed from metagenomic datasets using binning approaches. Inconsistent binning results are however often observed between different binning programs, likely due to the different algorithms or statistical models used. We present Binning_refiner, a pipeline that merges the results of different binning programs. Our results demonstrated that Binning_refiner can significantly reduce the contamination level of genome bins and increase the total size of contamination-free and 'good-quality' genome bins. Binning_refiner is thus an useful tool to improve the quality of genome bins derived from metagenomic data. Binning_refiner is implemented in Python3 and is freely available at: https://github.com/songweizhi/Binning_refiner . songwz03@gmail.com or t.thomas@unsw.edu.au. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  6. Listening for bats: the hearing range of the bushcricket Phaneroptera falcata for bat echolocation calls measured in the field.

    OpenAIRE

    Schul, J.; Matt, F; von Helversen, O

    2000-01-01

    The hearing range of the tettigoniid Phaneropterafalcata for the echolocation calls of freely flying mouseeared bats (Myotis myotis) was determined in the field. The hearing of the insect was monitored using hook electrode recordings from an auditory interneuron, which is as sensitive as the hearing organ for frequencies above 16 kHz. The flight path of the bat relative to the insect's position was tracked by recording the echolocation calls with two microphone arrays, and calculating the bat...

  7. Probing ultra-fast processes with high dynamic range at 4th-generation light sources: Arrival time and intensity binning at unprecedented repetition rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kovalev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding dynamics on ultrafast timescales enables unique and new insights into important processes in the materials and life sciences. In this respect, the fundamental pump-probe approach based on ultra-short photon pulses aims at the creation of stroboscopic movies. Performing such experiments at one of the many recently established accelerator-based 4th-generation light sources such as free-electron lasers or superradiant THz sources allows an enormous widening of the accessible parameter space for the excitation and/or probing light pulses. Compared to table-top devices, critical issues of this type of experiment are fluctuations of the timing between the accelerator and external laser systems and intensity instabilities of the accelerator-based photon sources. Existing solutions have so far been only demonstrated at low repetition rates and/or achieved a limited dynamic range in comparison to table-top experiments, while the 4th generation of accelerator-based light sources is based on superconducting radio-frequency technology, which enables operation at MHz or even GHz repetition rates. In this article, we present the successful demonstration of ultra-fast accelerator-laser pump-probe experiments performed at an unprecedentedly high repetition rate in the few-hundred-kHz regime and with a currently achievable optimal time resolution of 13 fs (rms. Our scheme, based on the pulse-resolved detection of multiple beam parameters relevant for the experiment, allows us to achieve an excellent sensitivity in real-world ultra-fast experiments, as demonstrated for the example of THz-field-driven coherent spin precession.

  8. Caller sex and orientation influence spectral characteristics of "two-voice" stereotyped calls produced by free-ranging killer whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patrick J O; Samarra, Filipa I P; Perthuison, Aurélie D

    2007-06-01

    This study investigates how particular received spectral characteristics of stereotyped calls of sexually dimorphic adult killer whales may be influenced by caller sex, orientation, and range. Calls were ascribed to individuals during natural behavior using a towed beamforming array. The fundamental frequency of both high-frequency and low-frequency components did not differ consistently by sex. The ratio of peak energy within the fundamental of the high-frequency component relative to summed peak energy in the first two low-frequency component harmonics, and the number of modulation bands off the high-frequency component, were significantly greater when whales were oriented towards the array, while range and adult sex had little effect. In contrast, the ratio of peak energy in the first versus second harmonics of the low-frequency component was greater in calls produced by adult females than adult males, while orientation and range had little effect. The dispersion of energy across harmonics has been shown to relate to body size or sex in terrestrial species, but pressure effects during diving are thought to make such a signal unreliable in diving animals. The observed spectral differences by signaler sex and orientation suggest that these types of information may be transmitted acoustically by freely diving killer whales.

  9. Chains-into-Bins Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batu, Tuğkan; Berenbrink, Petra; Cooper, Colin

    The study of balls-into-bins processes or occupancy problems has a long history. These processes can be used to translate realistic problems into mathematical ones in a natural way. In general, the goal of a balls-into-bins process is to allocate a set of independent objects (tasks, jobs, balls) to a set of resources (servers, bins, urns) and, thereby, to minimize the maximum load. In this paper, we analyze the maximum load for the chains-into-bins problem, which is defined as follows. There are n bins, and m objects to be allocated. Each object consists of balls connected into a chain of length ℓ, so that there are m ℓ balls in total. We assume the chains cannot be broken, and that the balls in one chain have to be allocated to ℓ consecutive bins. We allow each chain d independent and uniformly random bin choices for its starting position. The chain is allocated using the rule that the maximum load of any bin receiving a ball of that chain is minimized. We show that, for d ≥ 2 and m·ℓ= O(n), the maximum load is ((ln ln m)/ln d) + O(1) with probability 1-tilde O(1/m^{d-1}).

  10. On the fractal beauty of bin packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Epstein (Lea); S. Seiden; R. van Stee (Rob)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn the variable-sized online bin packing problem, one has to assign items to bins one by one. The bins are drawn from some fixed set of sizes, and the goal is to minimize the sum of the sizes of the bins used. We present the first unbounded space algorithms for this problem. We also show

  11. Bin Ladeni impeerium / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 19. sept., lk. 5. Osama bin Laden on pärit Saudi Araabia miljardäride perest, mille äritegevus on araabia maailmas pidevalt paisunud, ka oma terroriorganisatsiooni Al Qaeda juhib ta samuti nagu äriettevõtet

  12. Random Bin for Analyzing Neuron Spike Trains

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    Shinichi Tamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When analyzing neuron spike trains, it is always the problem of how to set the time bin. Bin width affects much to analyzed results of such as periodicity of the spike trains. Many approaches have been proposed to determine the bin setting. However, these bins are fixed through the analysis. In this paper, we propose a randomizing method of bin width and location instead of conventional fixed bin setting. This technique is applied to analyzing periodicity of interspike interval train. Also the sensitivity of the method is presented.

  13. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... or minimize the number or total size of accepted items. We consider off-line and on-line variants of the problems. For the off-line variant, we require that there be an ordering of the bins, so that no item in a later bin fits in an earlier bin. We find the approximation ratios of two natural approximation...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  14. The volatile compound BinBase mass spectral database

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    Barupal Dinesh K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volatile compounds comprise diverse chemical groups with wide-ranging sources and functions. These compounds originate from major pathways of secondary metabolism in many organisms and play essential roles in chemical ecology in both plant and animal kingdoms. In past decades, sampling methods and instrumentation for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures have improved; however, design and implementation of database tools to process and store the complex datasets have lagged behind. Description The volatile compound BinBase (vocBinBase is an automated peak annotation and database system developed for the analysis of GC-TOF-MS data derived from complex volatile mixtures. The vocBinBase DB is an extension of the previously reported metabolite BinBase software developed to track and identify derivatized metabolites. The BinBase algorithm uses deconvoluted spectra and peak metadata (retention index, unique ion, spectral similarity, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and peak purity from the Leco ChromaTOF software, and annotates peaks using a multi-tiered filtering system with stringent thresholds. The vocBinBase algorithm assigns the identity of compounds existing in the database. Volatile compound assignments are supported by the Adams mass spectral-retention index library, which contains over 2,000 plant-derived volatile compounds. Novel molecules that are not found within vocBinBase are automatically added using strict mass spectral and experimental criteria. Users obtain fully annotated data sheets with quantitative information for all volatile compounds for studies that may consist of thousands of chromatograms. The vocBinBase database may also be queried across different studies, comprising currently 1,537 unique mass spectra generated from 1.7 million deconvoluted mass spectra of 3,435 samples (18 species. Mass spectra with retention indices and volatile profiles are available as free download under the CC-BY agreement (http

  15. Resolution of ambiguous radar measurements using a floating bin correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, E. R.; Frost, E. L.

    It is pointed out that the Chinese Remainder Theorem (Mooney and Skillman, 1970) can be used to yield unambiguous measurements by comparing outputs allocated to fixed integer number bins using integer arithmetic to modulo to the correct bin number. In general, targets straddling two or more bins or the assignment of an incorrect bin number will yield incorrect parameter values. An ambiguity resolution technique using multiple pulse repetition frequency (PRF) data and a sliding floating point window or 'floating bin' to correlate ambiguous centroided Doppler measurements is proposed. An advantage of the technique is that false targets are much less prevalent than in classical techniques. What is more, the same technique may be employed to resolve ambiguous range wherein centroided range measurements are moduloed with the pulse repetition interval associated with each PRF. Results demonstrate that this method is better than conventional approaches in that the number of false targets produced is significantly lower while simultaneoulsy providing a high probability of correlation. In addition, the correlation can be effected in real time.

  16. SNR improvement for hyperspectral application using frame and pixel binning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sami Ur; Kumar, Ankush; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging spectrometer systems are increasingly being used in the field of remote sensing for variety of civilian and military applications. The ability of such instruments in discriminating finer spectral features along with improved spatial and radiometric performance have made such instruments a powerful tool in the field of remote sensing. Design and development of spaceborne hyper spectral imaging spectrometers poses lot of technological challenges in terms of optics, dispersion element, detectors, electronics and mechanical systems. The main factors that define the type of detectors are the spectral region, SNR, dynamic range, pixel size, number of pixels, frame rate, operating temperature etc. Detectors with higher quantum efficiency and higher well depth are the preferred choice for such applications. CCD based Si detectors serves the requirement of high well depth for VNIR band spectrometers but suffers from smear. Smear can be controlled by using CMOS detectors. Si CMOS detectors with large format arrays are available. These detectors generally have smaller pitch and low well depth. Binning technique can be used with available CMOS detectors to meet the large swath, higher resolution and high SNR requirements. Availability of larger dwell time of satellite can be used to bin multiple frames to increase the signal collection even with lesser well depth detectors and ultimately increase the SNR. Lab measurements reveal that SNR improvement by frame binning is more in comparison to pixel binning. Effect of pixel binning as compared to the frame binning will be discussed and degradation of SNR as compared to theoretical value for pixel binning will be analyzed.

  17. Automated acoustic localization and call association for vocalizing humpback whales on the Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helble, Tyler A; Ierley, Glenn R; D'Spain, Gerald L; Martin, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Time difference of arrival (TDOA) methods for acoustically localizing multiple marine mammals have been applied to recorded data from the Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility in order to localize and track humpback whales. Modifications to established methods were necessary in order to simultaneously track multiple animals on the range faster than real-time and in a fully automated way, while minimizing the number of incorrect localizations. The resulting algorithms were run with no human intervention at computational speeds faster than the data recording speed on over forty days of acoustic recordings from the range, spanning multiple years. Spatial localizations based on correlating sequences of units originating from within the range produce estimates having a standard deviation typically 10 m or less (due primarily to TDOA measurement errors), and a bias of 20 m or less (due primarily to sound speed mismatch). An automated method for associating units to individual whales is presented, enabling automated humpback song analyses to be performed.

  18. Binning sequences using very sparse labels within a metagenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halgamuge Saman K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In metagenomic studies, a process called binning is necessary to assign contigs that belong to multiple species to their respective phylogenetic groups. Most of the current methods of binning, such as BLAST, k-mer and PhyloPythia, involve assigning sequence fragments by comparing sequence similarity or sequence composition with already-sequenced genomes that are still far from comprehensive. We propose a semi-supervised seeding method for binning that does not depend on knowledge of completed genomes. Instead, it extracts the flanking sequences of highly conserved 16S rRNA from the metagenome and uses them as seeds (labels to assign other reads based on their compositional similarity. Results The proposed seeding method is implemented on an unsupervised Growing Self-Organising Map (GSOM, and called Seeded GSOM (S-GSOM. We compared it with four well-known semi-supervised learning methods in a preliminary test, separating random-length prokaryotic sequence fragments sampled from the NCBI genome database. We identified the flanking sequences of the highly conserved 16S rRNA as suitable seeds that could be used to group the sequence fragments according to their species. S-GSOM showed superior performance compared to the semi-supervised methods tested. Additionally, S-GSOM may also be used to visually identify some species that do not have seeds. The proposed method was then applied to simulated metagenomic datasets using two different confidence threshold settings and compared with PhyloPythia, k-mer and BLAST. At the reference taxonomic level Order, S-GSOM outperformed all k-mer and BLAST results and showed comparable results with PhyloPythia for each of the corresponding confidence settings, where S-GSOM performed better than PhyloPythia in the ≥ 10 reads datasets and comparable in the ≥ 8 kb benchmark tests. Conclusion In the task of binning using semi-supervised learning methods, results indicate S-GSOM to be the best of

  19. Bioinformatics and Astrophysics Cluster (BinAc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jens; Lutz, Volker; Bartusch, Felix; Dilling, Werner; Gorska, Anna; Schäfer, Christoph; Walter, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    BinAC provides central high performance computing capacities for bioinformaticians and astrophysicists from the state of Baden-Württemberg. The bwForCluster BinAC is part of the implementation concept for scientific computing for the universities in Baden-Württemberg. Community specific support is offered through the bwHPC-C5 project.

  20. Time-bin state transfer to electron spin coherence in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Hideo; Inagaki, Takahiro; Hitomi, Ryuta; Izawa, Fumishige; Rikitake, Yoshiaki; Imamura, Hiroshi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Edamatsu, Keiichi

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate that a coherent superposition state of two temporally separated optical pulses, called a time-bin state, can be transferred to that of up/down electron spins in a semiconductor by synchronizing the time separation to the precession period of either electrons or holes. The time-bin transfer scheme does not require polarization mode degeneracy and can map the time-bin state to the electron spin state that is not accessible directly using only polarization. The scheme offers a new approach for quantum interfaces between photons and electron spins.

  1. Time-bin state transfer to electron spin coherence in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaka, Hideo; Inagaki, Takahiro; Hitomi, Ryuta; Izawa, Fumishige; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Edamatsu, Keiichi [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Rikitake, Yoshiaki [Sendai National College of Technology, Sendai 989-3128 (Japan); Imamura, Hiroshi [Nanosystem Research Institute, AIST, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that a coherent superposition state of two temporally separated optical pulses, called a time-bin state, can be transferred to that of up/down electron spins in a semiconductor by synchronizing the time separation to the precession period of either electrons or holes. The time-bin transfer scheme does not require polarization mode degeneracy and can map the time-bin state to the electron spin state that is not accessible directly using only polarization. The scheme offers a new approach for quantum interfaces between photons and electron spins.

  2. CARIAA Call - Call Document

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CARIAA

    2013-02-19

    Feb 19, 2013 ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is pleased to announce a call for concept notes as part of the Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA) program. Funded by IDRC and the United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID), ...

  3. Improving contig binning of metagenomic data using [Formula: see text] oligonucleotide frequency dissimilarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Kun; Lu, Yang Young; Sun, Fengzhu

    2017-09-20

    Metagenomics sequencing provides deep insights into microbial communities. To investigate their taxonomic structure, binning assembled contigs into discrete clusters is critical. Many binning algorithms have been developed, but their performance is not always satisfactory, especially for complex microbial communities, calling for further development. According to previous studies, relative sequence compositions are similar across different regions of the same genome, but they differ between distinct genomes. Generally, current tools have used the normalized frequency of k-tuples directly, but this represents an absolute, not relative, sequence composition. Therefore, we attempted to model contigs using relative k-tuple composition, followed by measuring dissimilarity between contigs using [Formula: see text]. The [Formula: see text] was designed to measure the dissimilarity between two long sequences or Next-Generation Sequencing data with the Markov models of the background genomes. This method was effective in revealing group and gradient relationships between genomes, metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. With many binning tools available, we do not try to bin contigs from scratch. Instead, we developed [Formula: see text] to adjust contigs among bins based on the output of existing binning tools for a single metagenomic sample. The tool is taxonomy-free and depends only on k-tuples. To evaluate the performance of [Formula: see text], five widely used binning tools with different strategies of sequence composition or the hybrid of sequence composition and abundance were selected to bin six synthetic and real datasets, after which [Formula: see text] was applied to adjust the binning results. Our experiments showed that [Formula: see text] consistently achieves the best performance with tuple length k = 6 under the independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) background model. Using the metrics of recall, precision and ARI (Adjusted Rand Index), [Formula: see

  4. The C-terminal domain of BinA is responsible for Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin BinA-BinB interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpanawat, Suweeraya; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Boonserm, Panadda

    2009-11-01

    The binary toxin (Bin) from Bacillus sphaericus consists of two polypeptides, BinA (42 kDa) and BinB (51 kDa) that work together to kill susceptible mosquito larvae. To investigate the functional regions of BinA involved in the interaction with BinB, four BinA truncated fragments, from both N- and C- termini, were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. Neither individual nor a mixture of fragments of BinA showed larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae even using a high dose of toxins. Far-Western dot blot analysis showed strong binding of both C-terminal fragments (17 and 28 kDa) to BinB protein. This is the first report to demonstrate that the C-terminal part of BinA plays an important role for the interaction with BinB.

  5. Segmentation and Location Computation of Bin Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Hema

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a stereo vision based system for segmentation and location computation of partially occluded objects in bin picking environments. Algorithms to segment partially occluded objects and to find the object location [midpoint,x, y and z coordinates] with respect to the bin area are proposed. The z co ordinate is computed using stereo images and neural networks. The proposed algorithms is tested using two neural network architectures namely the Radial Basis Function nets and Simple Feedforward nets. The training results fo feedforward nets are found to be more suitable for the current application.The proposed stereo vision system is interfaced with an Adept SCARA Robot to perform bin picking operations. The vision system is found to be effective for partially occluded objects, in the absence of albedo effects. The results are validated through real time bin picking experiments on the Adept Robot.

  6. MetaBAT: Metagenome Binning based on Abundance and Tetranucleotide frequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dongwan; Froula, Jeff; Egan, Rob; Wang, Zhong

    2014-03-21

    Grouping large fragments assembled from shotgun metagenomic sequences to deconvolute complex microbial communities, or metagenome binning, enables the study of individual organisms and their interactions. Here we developed automated metagenome binning software, called MetaBAT, which integrates empirical probabilistic distances of genome abundance and tetranucleotide frequency. On synthetic datasets MetaBAT on average achieves 98percent precision and 90percent recall at the strain level with 281 near complete unique genomes. Applying MetaBAT to a human gut microbiome data set we recovered 176 genome bins with 92percent precision and 80percent recall. Further analyses suggest MetaBAT is able to recover genome fragments missed in reference genomes up to 19percent, while 53 genome bins are novel. In summary, we believe MetaBAT is a powerful tool to facilitate comprehensive understanding of complex microbial communities.

  7. Data-driven optimal binning for respiratory motion management in PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Adam L; Meier, Joseph G; Burckhardt, Darrell D; Schwartz, Jazmin; Lynch, David A

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory gating has been used in PET imaging to reduce the amount of image blurring caused by patient motion. Optimal binning is an approach for using the motion-characterized data by binning it into a single, easy to understand/use, optimal bin. To date, optimal binning protocols have utilized externally driven motion characterization strategies that have been tuned with population-derived assumptions and parameters. In this work, we are proposing a new strategy with which to characterize motion directly from a patient's gated scan, and use that signal to create a patient/instance-specific optimal bin image. Two hundred and nineteen phase-gated FDG PET scans, acquired using data-driven gating as described previously, were used as the input for this study. For each scan, a phase-amplitude motion characterization was generated and normalized using principle component analysis. A patient-specific "optimal bin" window was derived using this characterization, via methods that mirror traditional optimal window binning strategies. The resulting optimal bin images were validated by correlating quantitative and qualitative measurements in the population of PET scans. In 53% (n = 115) of the image population, the optimal bin was determined to include 100% of the image statistics. In the remaining images, the optimal binning windows averaged 60% of the statistics and ranged between 20% and 90%. Tuning the algorithm, through a single acceptance window parameter, allowed for adjustments of the algorithm's performance in the population toward conservation of motion or reduced noise-enabling users to incorporate their definition of optimal. In the population of images that were deemed appropriate for segregation, average lesion SUV max were 7.9, 8.5, and 9.0 for nongated images, optimal bin, and gated images, respectively. The Pearson correlation of FWHM measurements between optimal bin images and gated images were better than with nongated images, 0.89 and 0

  8. Targeted mutagenesis at charged residues in Bacillus sphaericus BinA toxin affects mosquito-larvicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitt, Poohrawind; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Boonserm, Panadda

    2008-09-01

    The mosquito-larvicidal binary toxin from Bacillus sphaericus is composed of two polypeptides called BinA and BinB with molecular masses of approximately 42 and 51 kDa. Both components are required for full activity, with BinB acting as a specificity determinant and BinA being responsible for toxic action. To investigate the role of the selected charged residues in BinA, four mutants were generated by replacing charged amino acids with alanine (R97A, E98A, R101A, and E114A). All mutant proteins were produced at high levels and formed inclusion bodies similar to that of the wild type. Mosquito-larvicidal assays against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae revealed that the mutant R97A completely lost its activity and mutants E98A, R101A, and E114A showed significantly reduced toxicity. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy analysis indicated that alanine substitutions at these positions did not alter the overall structure of the toxin. Binding of the mutants to BinB was not different from that of the wild type, suggesting that these mutations did not affect BinA-BinB interaction. Results demonstrated that R97, E98, R101, and E114 neither play a direct role in maintenance of BinA structure nor are involved in BinA-BinB interaction. Since these residues are required for full activity, they may play an important role during toxin internalization and/or toxic action of BinA inside the target cells.

  9. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  10. Optical Extinction Measurements of Dust Density in the GMRO Regolith Test Bin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.; Mantovani, J.; Mueller, R.; Nugent, M.; Nick, A.; Schuler, J.; Townsend, I.

    2016-01-01

    A regolith simulant test bin was constructed and completed in the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab in 2013. This Planetary Regolith Test Bed (PRTB) is a 64 sq m x 1 m deep test bin, is housed in a climate-controlled facility, and contains 120 MT of lunar-regolith simulant, called Black Point-1 or BP-1, from Black Point, AZ. One of the current uses of the test bin is to study the effects of difficult lighting and dust conditions on Telerobotic Perception Systems to better assess and refine regolith operations for asteroid, Mars and polar lunar missions. Low illumination and low angle of incidence lighting pose significant problems to computer vision and human perception. Levitated dust on Asteroids interferes with imaging and degrades depth perception. Dust Storms on Mars pose a significant problem. Due to these factors, the likely performance of telerobotics is poorly understood for future missions. Current space telerobotic systems are only operated in bright lighting and dust-free conditions. This technology development testing will identify: (1) the impact of degraded lighting and environmental dust on computer vision and operator perception, (2) potential methods and procedures for mitigating these impacts, (3) requirements for telerobotic perception systems for asteroid capture, Mars dust storms and lunar regolith ISRU missions. In order to solve some of the Telerobotic Perception system problems, a plume erosion sensor (PES) was developed in the Lunar Regolith Simulant Bin (LRSB), containing 2 MT of JSC-1a lunar simulant. PES is simply a laser and digital camera with a white target. Two modes of operation have been investigated: (1) single laser spot - the brightness of the spot is dependent on the optical extinction due to dust and is thus an indirect measure of particle number density, and (2) side-scatter - the camera images the laser from the side, showing beam entrance into the dust cloud and the boundary between dust and void. Both

  11. ICoVeR - an interactive visualization tool for verification and refinement of metagenomic bins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeksema, Bertjan; Calusinska, Magdalena; McGee, Fintan; Winter, Klaas; Bongiovanni, Francesco; Goux, Xavier; Wilmes, Paul; Delfosse, Philippe; Ghoniem, Mohammad

    2017-05-02

    Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing allow for much deeper exploitation of natural and engineered microbial communities, and to unravel so-called "microbial dark matter" (microbes that until now have evaded cultivation). Metagenomic analyses result in a large number of genomic fragments (contigs) that need to be grouped (binned) in order to reconstruct draft microbial genomes. While several contig binning algorithms have been developed in the past 2 years, they often lack consensus. Furthermore, these software tools typically lack a provision for the visualization of data and bin characteristics. We present ICoVeR, the Interactive Contig-bin Verification and Refinement tool, which allows the visualization of genome bins. More specifically, ICoVeR allows curation of bin assignments based on multiple binning algorithms. Its visualization window is composed of two connected and interactive main views, including a parallel coordinates view and a dimensionality reduction plot. To demonstrate ICoVeR's utility, we used it to refine disparate genome bins automatically generated using MetaBAT, CONCOCT and MyCC for an anaerobic digestion metagenomic (AD microbiome) dataset. Out of 31 refined genome bins, 23 were characterized with higher completeness and lower contamination in comparison to their respective, automatically generated, genome bins. Additionally, to benchmark ICoVeR against a previously validated dataset, we used Sharon's dataset representing an infant gut metagenome. ICoVeR is an open source software package that allows curation of disparate genome bins generated with automatic binning algorithms. It is freely available under the GPLv3 license at https://git.list.lu/eScience/ICoVeR . The data management and analytical functions of ICoVeR are implemented in R, therefore the software can be easily installed on any system for which R is available. Installation and usage guide together with the example files ready to be visualized are also provided via

  12. Two-Dimensional Bin Packing Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Andrea; Martello, Silvano; Monaci, Michele; Vigo, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    An important variant of two-dimensional bin packing problem (2BP), which is also used in some approximation algorithms for its solution, is the strip packing problem (2SP), in which the items have to be packed in a strip of width W and infinite height, so as to minimize the height at which the strip

  13. Osama bin Ladeni uus imidzh / Urmas Kiil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiil, Urmas

    2007-01-01

    Pärast kolm aastat kestnud pausi ilmus terroriorganisatsiooni al-Qaeda liider Osama bin Laden kahel korral taas maailma avalikkuse ette. Enamik asjatundjad on seisukohal, et maailma esiterroristi videopöördumised olid autentsed ja tõenäoliselt olid need salvestatud juulis või augustis

  14. Binning metagenomic contigs by coverage and composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alneberg, J.; Bjarnason, B.S.; Bruijn, de I.; Schirmer, M.; Quick, J.; Ijaz, U.Z.; Lahti, L.M.; Loman, N.J.; Andersson, A.F.; Quince, C.

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun sequencing enables the reconstruction of genomes from complex microbial communities, but because assembly does not reconstruct entire genomes, it is necessary to bin genome fragments. Here we present CONCOCT, a new algorithm that combines sequence composition and coverage across multiple

  15. Pakistan andis Osama bin Ladeni jahtimisel alla / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Pakistani president Pervez Musharrafi sõnul on Osama bin Ladeni otsingud Lõuna-Waziristanis tulemusteta. Edaspidi keskendutakse otsingutel Põhja-Waziristani, oletatakse, et bin Laden võib olla ka Tora Bora koobastikus. Lisa: USA hambutu luureteenistus

  16. Letters from Abbottabad: Bin Ladin Sidelined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    Arabian Peninsula” ( QAP ).23 In 2004, Abu Mus`ab al-Zarqawi’s Jama`at al-Tawhid wa-al-Jihad group pledged allegiance to al-Qa`ida, and Usama bin Ladin...campaign in Saudi Arabia by QAP — the group that merged with the Yemeni group in 2009 to form AQAP — weighed on his mind.128 It would be naïve to

  17. MaxBin 2.0: an automated binning algorithm to recover genomes from multiple metagenomic datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yu-Wei [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Simmons, Blake A. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Steven W. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The recovery of genomes from metagenomic datasets is a critical step to defining the functional roles of the underlying uncultivated populations. We previously developed MaxBin, an automated binning approach for high-throughput recovery of microbial genomes from metagenomes. Here, we present an expanded binning algorithm, MaxBin 2.0, which recovers genomes from co-assembly of a collection of metagenomic datasets. Tests on simulated datasets revealed that MaxBin 2.0 is highly accurate in recovering individual genomes, and the application of MaxBin 2.0 to several metagenomes from environmental samples demonstrated that it could achieve two complementary goals: recovering more bacterial genomes compared to binning a single sample as well as comparing the microbial community composition between different sampling environments. Availability and implementation: MaxBin 2.0 is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/maxbin/ under BSD license. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  18. Online Variable-Sized Bin Packing with Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, Leah; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Levin, Asaf

    2011-01-01

    We study a new kind of on-line bin packing with conflicts, motivated by a problem arising when scheduling jobs on the Grid. In this bin packing problem, the set of items is given at the beginning, together with a set of conflicts on pairs of items. A conflict on a pair of items implies...... that they cannot be assigned to a common bin. The online scenario is realized as follows. Variable-sized bins arrive one by one, and items need to be assigned to each bin before the next bin arrives. We analyze the online problem as well as semi-online versions of it, which are the variant where the sizes...... of the arriving bins are monotonically non-increasing as well as the variant where they are monotonically non-decreasing....

  19. Fast visual part inspection for bin picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rofalis, Nikolaos; Olesen, Anders Sig; Jakobsen, Michael Linde

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel 3D sensing approach for industrial bin-picking applications that is low-cost, fast and precise. The system uses a simple laser-line emitter. While a robot arm moves the object through the laser light, a synchronized camera captures the laser line image on the object....... A full point cloud as well as an edge point cloud suitable for subsequent pose estimation is generated by the developed system. The aim of this work is to deliver an accurate point cloud based on which an object pose can be generated to support a manufacturing robot to deliver an object with high...

  20. Comparison of an alternative and existing binning methods to reduce the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didierlaurent, David, E-mail: dadidierlaurent@gmail.com; Ribes, Sophie; Caselles, Olivier [SIMAD, LU 50, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Toulouse 31062 (France); Jaudet, Cyril; Dierickx, Lawrence O.; Zerdoud, Slimane; Brillouet, Severine; Weits, Kathleen [Institut Claudius Regaud, 20-24 Rue du Pont Saint-Pierre, Toulouse 31052 (France); Batatia, Hadj [IRIT-INPT, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Toulouse 31071 (France); Courbon, Frédéric [GCS CHU-CLCC, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Toulouse 31052 (France)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion is a source of artifacts that reduce image quality in PET. Four dimensional (4D) PET/CT is one approach to overcome this problem. Existing techniques to limiting the effects of respiratory motions are based on prospective phase binning which requires a long acquisition duration (15–25 min). This time is uncomfortable for the patients and limits the clinical exploitation of 4D PET/CT. In this work, the authors evaluated an existing method and an alternative retrospective binning method to reduce the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT. Methods: The authors studied an existing mixed-amplitude binning (MAB) method and an alternative binning method by mixed-phases (MPhB). Before implementing MPhB, they analyzed the regularity of the breathing patterns in patients. They studied the breathing signal drift and missing CT slices that could be challenging for implementing MAB. They compared the performance of MAB and MPhB with current binning methods to measure the maximum uptake, internal volume, and maximal range of tumor motion. Results: MPhB can be implemented depending on an optimal phase (in average, the exhalation peak phase −4.1% of the entire breathing cycle duration). Signal drift of patients was in average 35% relative to the breathing amplitude. Even after correcting this drift, MAB was feasible in 4D CT for only 64% of patients. No significant differences appeared between the different binning methods to measure the maximum uptake, internal volume, and maximal range of tumor motion. The authors also determined the inaccuracies of MAB and MPhB to measure the maximum amplitude of tumor motion with three bins (less than 3 mm for movement inferior to 12 mm, up to 6.4 mm for a 21 mm movement). Conclusions: The authors proposed an alternative binning method by mixed-phase binning that halves the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT. Mixed-amplitude binning was challenging because of signal drift and missing CT slices. They showed that more

  1. Efficient visibility-driven medical image visualisation via adaptive binned visibility histogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younhyun; Kim, Jinman; Kumar, Ashnil; Feng, David Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2016-07-01

    'Visibility' is a fundamental optical property that represents the observable, by users, proportion of the voxels in a volume during interactive volume rendering. The manipulation of this 'visibility' improves the volume rendering processes; for instance by ensuring the visibility of regions of interest (ROIs) or by guiding the identification of an optimal rendering view-point. The construction of visibility histograms (VHs), which represent the distribution of all the visibility of all voxels in the rendered volume, enables users to explore the volume with real-time feedback about occlusion patterns among spatially related structures during volume rendering manipulations. Volume rendered medical images have been a primary beneficiary of VH given the need to ensure that specific ROIs are visible relative to the surrounding structures, e.g. the visualisation of tumours that may otherwise be occluded by neighbouring structures. VH construction and its subsequent manipulations, however, are computationally expensive due to the histogram binning of the visibilities. This limits the real-time application of VH to medical images that have large intensity ranges and volume dimensions and require a large number of histogram bins. In this study, we introduce an efficient adaptive binned visibility histogram (AB-VH) in which a smaller number of histogram bins are used to represent the visibility distribution of the full VH. We adaptively bin medical images by using a cluster analysis algorithm that groups the voxels according to their intensity similarities into a smaller subset of bins while preserving the distribution of the intensity range of the original images. We increase efficiency by exploiting the parallel computation and multiple render targets (MRT) extension of the modern graphical processing units (GPUs) and this enables efficient computation of the histogram. We show the application of our method to single-modality computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance

  2. SPHINX--an algorithm for taxonomic binning of metagenomic sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Monzoorul Haque; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Mande, Sharmila S

    2011-01-01

    Compared with composition-based binning algorithms, the binning accuracy and specificity of alignment-based binning algorithms is significantly higher. However, being alignment-based, the latter class of algorithms require enormous amount of time and computing resources for binning huge metagenomic datasets. The motivation was to develop a binning approach that can analyze metagenomic datasets as rapidly as composition-based approaches, but nevertheless has the accuracy and specificity of alignment-based algorithms. This article describes a hybrid binning approach (SPHINX) that achieves high binning efficiency by utilizing the principles of both 'composition'- and 'alignment'-based binning algorithms. Validation results with simulated sequence datasets indicate that SPHINX is able to analyze metagenomic sequences as rapidly as composition-based algorithms. Furthermore, the binning efficiency (in terms of accuracy and specificity of assignments) of SPHINX is observed to be comparable with results obtained using alignment-based algorithms. A web server for the SPHINX algorithm is available at http://metagenomics.atc.tcs.com/SPHINX/.

  3. Miks Osama bin Ladenit pole siiani tabatud? / Peeter Ernits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ernits, Peeter, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Afganistanis viibinud ajakirjaniku eesmärgiks oli teada saada, miks vaatamata kõigile püüdlustele vägivald Afganistanis siiski ei vähene ning kus varjab ennast Al Qaeda liider Osama bin Laden. Lisad: Osama bin Laden; 11. september 2001

  4. Compact and reconfigurable silicon nitride time-bin entanglement circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, C.; Zhang, X.; Mahendra, A.; He, J.; Choi, D.Y.; Chae, C.J.; Marpaung, D.; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, Rene; Hoekman, M.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Oldenbeuving, Ruud; van Dijk, P.W.L.; Taddei, Caterina; Leong, P.H.W.; Eggleton, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Photonic-chip-based time-bin entanglement has attracted significant attention because of its potential for quantum communication and computation. Useful time-bin entanglement systems must be able to generate, manipulate, and analyze entangled photons on a photonic chip for stable, scalable, and

  5. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  6. Weighted Statistical Binning: Enabling Statistically Consistent Genome-Scale Phylogenetic Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shamsuzzoha Bayzid

    Full Text Available Because biological processes can result in different loci having different evolutionary histories, species tree estimation requires multiple loci from across multiple genomes. While many processes can result in discord between gene trees and species trees, incomplete lineage sorting (ILS, modeled by the multi-species coalescent, is considered to be a dominant cause for gene tree heterogeneity. Coalescent-based methods have been developed to estimate species trees, many of which operate by combining estimated gene trees, and so are called "summary methods". Because summary methods are generally fast (and much faster than more complicated coalescent-based methods that co-estimate gene trees and species trees, they have become very popular techniques for estimating species trees from multiple loci. However, recent studies have established that summary methods can have reduced accuracy in the presence of gene tree estimation error, and also that many biological datasets have substantial gene tree estimation error, so that summary methods may not be highly accurate in biologically realistic conditions. Mirarab et al. (Science 2014 presented the "statistical binning" technique to improve gene tree estimation in multi-locus analyses, and showed that it improved the accuracy of MP-EST, one of the most popular coalescent-based summary methods. Statistical binning, which uses a simple heuristic to evaluate "combinability" and then uses the larger sets of genes to re-calculate gene trees, has good empirical performance, but using statistical binning within a phylogenomic pipeline does not have the desirable property of being statistically consistent. We show that weighting the re-calculated gene trees by the bin sizes makes statistical binning statistically consistent under the multispecies coalescent, and maintains the good empirical performance. Thus, "weighted statistical binning" enables highly accurate genome-scale species tree estimation, and is also

  7. A New Unsupervised Binning Approach for Metagenomic Sequences Based on N-grams and Automatic Feature Weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ruiqi; Zhang, Ruichang; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of high-throughput technologies enables researchers to sequence the whole metagenome of a microbial community sampled directly from the environment. The assignment of these sequence reads into different species or taxonomical classes is a crucial step for metagenomic analysis, which is referred to as binning of metagenomic data. Most traditional binning methods rely on known reference genomes for accurate assignment of the sequence reads, therefore cannot classify reads from unknown species without the help of close references. To overcome this drawback, unsupervised learning based approaches have been proposed, which need not any known species' reference genome for help. In this paper, we introduce a novel unsupervised method called MCluster for binning metagenomic sequences. This method uses N-grams to extract sequence features and utilizes automatic feature weighting to improve the performance of the basic K-means clustering algorithm. We evaluate MCluster on a variety of simulated data sets and a real data set, and compare it with three latest binning methods: AbundanceBin, MetaCluster 3.0, and MetaCluster 5.0. Experimental results show that MCluster achieves obviously better overall performance (F-measure) than AbundanceBin and MetaCluster 3.0 on long metagenomic reads (≥800 bp); while compared with MetaCluster 5.0, MCluster obtains a larger sensitivity, and a comparable yet more stable F-measure on short metagenomic reads (<300 bp). This suggests that MCluster can serve as a promising tool for effectively binning metagenomic sequences.

  8. Design and Development of a Smart Waste Bin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For years waste bin has been part of our lives this has necessitated many inventions and innovations to make it automated. In this light much research was channeled towards the opening and closing of the bin when the presence of human is sensed. However this may be considered less smart since the bin will operate when the presence of human is sensed even though there is no intention to use it. To avert this ill this paper presents the design and development of a smart waste bin. The objective of this paper is to develop a smart waste bin that detects the presence of man at a particular distance 1 meter for usage so as not to spill the dirt and obeys voice command to open or close the lid. This is achieved by the use of PIR ultrasonic module voice recognition module Arduino and servo motor. Results gotten after testing the developed system shows that the performance of the waste bin attains a better level of smartness compared to existing waste bin.

  9. Using Growing Self-Organising Maps to Improve the Binning Process in Environmental Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Hsu, Arthur L.; Tang, Sen-Lin; Halgamuge, Saman K.

    2008-01-01

    Metagenomic projects using whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing produces many unassembled DNA sequences and small contigs. The step of clustering these sequences, based on biological and molecular features, is called binning. A reported strategy for binning that combines oligonucleotide frequency and self-organising maps (SOM) shows high potential. We improve this strategy by identifying suitable training features, implementing a better clustering algorithm, and defining quantitative measures for assessing results. We investigated the suitability of each of di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanucleotide frequencies. The results show that dinucleotide frequency is not a sufficiently strong signature for binning 10 kb long DNA sequences, compared to the other three. Furthermore, we observed that increased order of oligonucleotide frequency may deteriorate the assignment result in some cases, which indicates the possible existence of optimal species-specific oligonucleotide frequency. We replaced SOM with growing self-organising map (GSOM) where comparable results are obtained while gaining 7%–15% speed improvement. PMID:18288261

  10. Multi-dimensional Bin Packing Problems with Guillotine Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    The problem addressed in this paper is the decision problem of determining if a set of multi-dimensional rectangular boxes can be orthogonally packed into a rectangular bin while satisfying the requirement that the packing should be guillotine cuttable. That is, there should exist a series of face...... parallel straight cuts that can recursively cut the bin into pieces so that each piece contains a box and no box has been intersected by a cut. The unrestricted problem is known to be NP-hard. In this paper we present a generalization of a constructive algorithm for the multi-dimensional bin packing...

  11. VizBin - an application for reference-independent visualization and human-augmented binning of metagenomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczny, Cedric C; Sternal, Tomasz; Plugaru, Valentin; Gawron, Piotr; Atashpendar, Arash; Margossian, Houry Hera; Coronado, Sergio; der Maaten, Laurens van; Vlassis, Nikos; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics is limited in its ability to link distinct microbial populations to genetic potential due to a current lack of representative isolate genome sequences. Reference-independent approaches, which exploit for example inherent genomic signatures for the clustering of metagenomic fragments (binning), offer the prospect to resolve and reconstruct population-level genomic complements without the need for prior knowledge. We present VizBin, a Java™-based application which offers efficient and intuitive reference-independent visualization of metagenomic datasets from single samples for subsequent human-in-the-loop inspection and binning. The method is based on nonlinear dimension reduction of genomic signatures and exploits the superior pattern recognition capabilities of the human eye-brain system for cluster identification and delineation. We demonstrate the general applicability of VizBin for the analysis of metagenomic sequence data by presenting results from two cellulolytic microbial communities and one human-borne microbial consortium. The superior performance of our application compared to other analogous metagenomic visualization and binning methods is also presented. VizBin can be applied de novo for the visualization and subsequent binning of metagenomic datasets from single samples, and it can be used for the post hoc inspection and refinement of automatically generated bins. Due to its computational efficiency, it can be run on common desktop machines and enables the analysis of complex metagenomic datasets in a matter of minutes. The software implementation is available at https://claczny.github.io/VizBin under the BSD License (four-clause) and runs under Microsoft Windows™, Apple Mac OS X™ (10.7 to 10.10), and Linux.

  12. Effects of empty bins on image upscaling in capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the effect of empty bins on image upscaling in capsule endoscopy. The presented study was conducted based on results of existing contrast enhancement and interpolation methods. A low contrast enhancement method based on pixels consecutiveness and modified bilinear weighting scheme has been developed to distinguish between necessary empty bins and unnecessary empty bins in the effort to minimize the number of empty bins in the input image, before further processing. Linear interpolation methods have been used for upscaling input images with stretched histograms. Upscaling error differences and similarity indices between pairs of interpolation methods have been quantified using the mean squared error and feature similarity index techniques. Simulation results demonstrated more promising effects using the developed method than other contrast enhancement methods mentioned.

  13. Grasp Densities for Grasp Refinement in Industrial Bin Picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hupfauf, Benedikt; Hahn, Heiko; Bodenhagen, Leon

    Automatic picking of randomly distributed objects from a bin has been denoted the "Holy Grail" in the world of robot automation. A particular property of the bin-picking scenario (in contrast to most other industrial robot applications) is that grasp errors are allowed to occur: Usually bin......-pickers fill feeding stations such that occasional errors do not disturb the main process, since the feeding station has a buffer of a number of objects which it provides to the assembly process. Grasping errors are usually detected by haptic feedback. We intend to utilize the huge amount of grasp data...... in terms of object-relative gripper pose, can be learned from empirical experience, and allow the automatic choice of optimal grasps in a given scene context (object pose, workspace constraints, etc.). We will show grasp densities extracted from empirical data in a real industrial bin picking context...

  14. Automatic Grasp Generation and Improvement for Industrial Bin-Picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Rytz, Jimmy Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents work on automatic grasp generation and grasp learning for reducing the manual setup time and increase grasp success rates within bin-picking applications. We propose an approach that is able to generate good grasps automatically using a dynamic grasp simulator, a newly developed...... and achieve comparable results and that our learning approach can improve system performance significantly. Automatic bin-picking is an important industrial process that can lead to significant savings and potentially keep production in countries with high labour cost rather than outsourcing it. The presented...... work allows to minimize cycle time as well as setup cost, which are essential factors in automatic bin-picking. It therefore leads to a wider applicability of bin-picking in industry....

  15. Benefits of a Hospital Two-Bin Kanban System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    system MTF military treatment facility PACU post-anesthesia care unit PAR periodic automatic replenishment RFID radio-frequency identification ...system, the aspects of the radio frequency identification ( RFID ) capabilities of the two-bin kanban system were not addressed in this thesis. The...of a Radio-Frequency Identification ( RFID ) two-bin kanban system. This was recommended due to the relative simplicity of the replenishment process

  16. On the mathematical consequences of binning spike trains

    CERN Document Server

    Cessac, B; Loecherbach, E

    2016-01-01

    We initiate a mathematical analysis of hidden effects induced by binning spike trains of neurons. Assuming that the original spike train has been generated by a discrete Markov process, we show that binning generates a stochastic process which is not Markov any more, but is instead a Variable Length Markov Chain (VLMC) with unbounded memory. We also show that the law of the binned raster is a Gibbs measure in the DLR (Dobrushin-Lanford-Ruelle) sense coined in mathematical statistical mechanics. This allows the derivation of several important consequences on statistical properties of binned spike trains. In particular, we introduce the DLR framework as a natural setting to mathematically formalize anticipation, i.e. to tell "how good" our nervous system is at making predictions. In a probabilistic sense, this corresponds to condition a process by its future and we discuss how binning may affect our conclusions on this ability. We finally comment what could be the consequences of binning in the detection of spu...

  17. Bin-picking new approaches for a classical problem

    CERN Document Server

    Buchholz, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to one of the most famous examples of automation handling tasks – the “bin-picking” problem. To pick up objects, scrambled in a box is an easy task for humans, but its automation is very complex. In this book three different approaches to solve the bin-picking problem are described, showing how modern sensors can be used for efficient bin-picking as well as how classic sensor concepts can be applied for novel bin-picking techniques. 3D point clouds are firstly used as basis, employing the known Random Sample Matching algorithm paired with a very efficient depth map based collision avoidance mechanism resulting in a very robust bin-picking approach. Reducing the complexity of the sensor data, all computations are then done on depth maps. This allows the use of 2D image analysis techniques to fulfill the tasks and results in real time data analysis. Combined with force/torque and acceleration sensors, a near time optimal bin-picking system emerges. Lastly, surface normal maps are empl...

  18. Mean shift trackers with cross-bin metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichter, Ido

    2012-04-01

    Cross-bin metrics have been shown to be more suitable than bin-by-bin metrics for measuring the distance between histograms in various applications. In particular, a visual tracker that minimizes the earth mover's distance (EMD) between the candidate and reference feature histograms has recently been proposed. This tracker was shown to be more robust than the Mean Shift tracker, which employs a bin-by-bin metric. In each frame, the former tracker iteratively shifts the candidate location by one pixel in the direction opposite to the EMD's gradient until no improvement is made. This optimization process involves the clustering of the candidate feature density in feature space, as well as the computation of the EMD between the candidate and reference feature histograms after each shift of the candidate location. In this paper, alternative trackers that employ cross-bin metrics as well, but that are based on Mean Shift (MS) iterations, are derived. The proposed trackers are simpler and faster due to 1) the use of MS-based optimization, which is not restricted to single pixel shifts, 2) abstention from any clustering of feature densities, and 3) abstention from EMD computations in multidimensional spaces.

  19. Efficient use of design-based binning methodology in a DRAM fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsenti, Laurent; Wehner, Arno; Fischer, Andreas; Seifert, Uwe; Goeckeritz, Jens; Geshel, Mark; Gscheidlen, Dieter; Bartov, Avishai

    2009-03-01

    It is a well established fact that as design rules and printed features shrink, sophisticated techniques are required to ensure the design intent is indeed printed on the wafer. Techniques of this kind are Optical Proximity Correction (OPC), Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RET) and DFM Design for Manufacturing (DFM). As these methods are applied to the overall chip and rely on complex modeling and simulations, they increase the risk of creating local areas or layouts with a limiting process window. Hence, it is necessary to verify the manufacturability (sufficient depth of focus) of the overall die and not only of a pre-defined set of metrology structures. The verification process is commonly based on full chip defect density inspection of a Focus Exposure Matrix (FEM) wafer, combined with appropriate post processing of the inspection data. This is necessary to avoid time consuming search for the Defects of Interest (DOI's) as defect counts are usually too high to be handled by manual SEM review. One way to post process defect density data is the so called design based binning (DBB). The Litho Qualification Monitor (LQM) system allows to classify and also to bin defects based on design information. In this paper we will present an efficient way to combine classification and binning in order to check design rules and to determine the marginal features (layout with low depth of focus). The Design Based Binning has been connected to the Yield Management System (YMS) to allow new process monitoring approaches towards Design Based SPC. This could dramatically cut the time to detect systematic defects inline.

  20. George Orwell’in ‘Bin Dokuz Yüz Seksen Dört’ Adlı Romanı İle Cengiz Aytmatov’un ‘Gün Olur Asra Bedel’ Adlı Romanının ‘Düşüncesuçu’ Bağlamında Karşılaştırılması Comparison Of The Novel Of George Orwell Called ‘Bın Dokuz Yuz Seksen Dort’ And Novel Of Cengiz Aytmatov Called ‘Gun Olur Asra Bedel’ Within The Context Of ‘Thoughtcrime’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza İSLAMOĞLU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gün Olur Asra Bedel, in which Cengiz Aytmatov told about past,present and future of life that are three separated period of timenarrated ironically vision of world in which unrighteously and monotonylife have been imposed on, dealing with mind evanescence that iscommon result for all mentioned period, different time and conditions.And Bin Dokuz Yüz Seksen Dört, novel of George Orwell who is one ofthe important writers of English literature, mentioned about struggle ofdemanding justice and rustiness of consciousness that is the result ofbeing subjected to sovereign and criticised that the pressure of themanagement on people and its regime tried to carry out. Oppressiveregime and injustice that are the common subject in both of the novels,impossed physical or mental rustiness of people as solution. In thenovels, the system defending that the people must struggle just to keepthe state alive and banning any autonomous thought and behaviourhas been criticized. Mentioned system abolished free thought andprivacy completely, put machine system that has been directed bysovereign to the centre of life and imposed standart mentality. BinDokuz Yüz Seksen Dört that is a dystopia stray from Gün Olur AsraBedel by virtue of its this structure.Both of the novels that attract attention in parallelism of historicalprocess, dealed with thoughtcrime and presented similar results indifferent conditions. In this study it has been tried to researchsimilarities and differentnesses in Bin Dokuz Yüz Seksen Dört that is adystopia and Gün Olur Asra Bedel that includes utopia in it within theframe of causation. Cengiz Aytmatov’un, hayatın dünü, bugünü ve yarını şeklindeki üç ayrı zaman dilimini kaleme aldığı eseri Gün Olur Asra Bedel, söz konusu her dönem için, değişik zaman ve şartlarda tezahür eden zihin buharlaşmasını ele alarak, adaletsizce ve tekdüze yaşam sürdürmenin empoze edildiği dünya görüşünü ironik bir dille anlatm

  1. Application of the BINS superheated drop detector spectrometer to the {sup 9}Be(p,xn) neutron energy spectrum determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Fulvio, A.; Ciolini, R.; Mirzajani, N.; Romei, C.; D' Errico, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bedogni, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Esposito, J.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Colautti, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy)

    2013-07-18

    In the framework of TRASCO-BNCT project, a Bubble Interactive Neutron Spectrometer (BINS) device was applied to the characterization of the angle-and energy-differential neutron spectra generated by the {sup 9}Be(p,xn)reaction. The BINS spectrometer uses two superheated emulsion detectors, sequentially operated at different temperatures and thus provides a series of six sharp threshold responses, covering the 0.1-10 MeV neutron energy range. Spectrum unfolding of the data was performed by means of MAXED code. The obtained angle, energy-differential spectra were compared with those measured with a Bonner sphere spectrometer, a silicon telescope spectrometer and literature data.

  2. Bin-packing problems with load balancing and stability constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivella, Alessio; Pisinger, David

    realistic constraints related to e.g. load balancing, cargo stability and weight limits, in the multi-dimensional BPP. The BPP poses additional challenges compared to the CLP due to the supplementary objective of minimizing the number of bins. In particular, in section 2 we discuss how to integrate bin......-packing and load balancing of items. The problem has only been considered in the literature in simplified versions, e.g. balancing a single bin or introducing a feasible region for the barycenter. In section 3 we generalize the problem to handle cargo stability and weight constraints....... is the Container Loading Problem (CLP), which addresses the optimization of a spacial arrangement of cargo inside a container or transportation vehicle, with the objective to maximize the value of the cargo loaded or the volume utilization. The CLP focuses on a single container, and has been extended...

  3. Time-bin-to-polarization conversion of ultrafast photonic qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchak, Connor; Bustard, Philip J.; Heshami, Khabat; Erskine, Jennifer; Spanner, Michael; England, Duncan G.; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2017-11-01

    The encoding of quantum information in photonic time-bin qubits is apt for long-distance quantum communication schemes. In practice, due to technical constraints such as detector response time, or the speed with which copolarized time-bins can be switched, other encodings, e.g., polarization, are often preferred for operations like state detection. Here, we present the conversion of qubits between polarization and time-bin encodings by using a method that is based on an ultrafast optical Kerr shutter and attain efficiencies of 97% and an average fidelity of 0.827 ±0.003 with shutter speeds near 1 ps. Our demonstration delineates an essential requirement for the development of hybrid and high-rate optical quantum networks.

  4. Benchmarking motion planning algorithms for bin-picking applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Thomas Fridolin; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose For robot motion planning there exists a large number of different algorithms, each appropriate for a certain domain, and the right choice of planner depends on the specific use case. The purpose of this paper is to consider the application of bin picking and benchmark a set of motion...... planning algorithms to identify which are most suited in the given context. Design/methodology/approach The paper presents a selection of motion planning algorithms and defines benchmarks based on three different bin-picking scenarios. The evaluation is done based on a fixed set of tasks, which are planned...... in the selected set of planners and the specific choice of application. Most new planners are only compared to existing methods for specific applications chosen to demonstrate the advantages. However, with the specifics of another application, such as bin picking, it is not obvious which planner to choose....

  5. Cardiac BIN1 (cBIN1) is a regulator of cardiac contractile function and an emerging biomarker of heart muscle health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kang; Hong, Tingting

    2017-03-01

    In recent decades, a cardiomyocyte membrane scaffolding protein bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) has emerged as a critical multifunctional regulator of transverse-tubule (t-tubule) function and calcium signaling in cardiomyocytes. Encoded by a single gene with 20 exons that are alternatively spliced, more than ten BIN1 protein isoforms are expressed with tissue and disease specificity. The recently discovered cardiac alternatively spliced isoform BIN1 (cBIN1 or BIN1+13+17)plays a crucial role in organizing membrane microfolds within cardiac t-tubules. These cBIN1-induced microfolds form functional dyad microdomains by trafficking L-type calcium channels (LTCC) to t-tubule membrane and recruiting ryanodine receptors (RyR) to junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. When cBIN1 is transcriptionally reduced as occurs in heart failure, cBIN1-microfolds are disrupted and fail to form LTCC and RyR couplons. As a result, impaired dyad formation limits excitation-contraction coupling thus cardiac contractility, and accumulation of orphaned leaky RyRs outside of dyads increases ventricular arrhythmias. Reduced myocardial BIN1 in heart failure is also detectable at the blood level, and plasma BIN1 level predicts heart failure progression and future arrhythmias in cardiomyopathy patients. Here we will review the recent progress in BIN1-related cardiomyocyte biology studies and discuss the diagnostic and predictive values of cBIN1 in future clinical use.

  6. Implementation of bin scheme into sulfate aerosol module in aerosol climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Takemura, T.; Suzuki, K.; Goto, D.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are known for inducing climate change, but uncertainty still remains about the assessment of aerosol climate impact. More accurate evaluation of their effects on climate system requires to reduce uncertainty of estimation of the entire climate change. Thus we are implementing a bin scheme into an aerosol transport-climate model, SPRINTARS, which is coupled with an AORI/NIES/JAMSTEC climate model, MIROC [Takemura et al., 2000, 2002, 2005, 2009] to refine the representation of interactions between aerosol particles and cloud droplets as well as the aerosol-radiation interaction. The scheme can represent the aerosol size distribution explicitly by segregating to a finite number of bins incorporating aerosol nucleation, condensation, and coagulation processes in detail. Nucleation of sulfuric acid is parameterized using Gong et al. [2003]. Based on a single column model [Suzuki et al., 2006, 2010], the condensation of sulfuric acid on pre-existing aerosol particles and the coagulation of sulfate aerosol particles are parameterized by the methods proposed by Bott [1989] and Bott [1997], respectively. The radii of sulfate aerosols range from 0.01μm to 1.0μm and are split into 20 bins. Implementation of the bin scheme into the aerosol model resulted in characteristic aerosol size distribution and indicated possibilities of representation of microphysical and optical properties in more detail. We will report the results of comparison between the original and the improved SPRINTARS. This work is supported by the Funding Program for Next Generation World-Leading Researchers (GR079).

  7. Rumsfeld: Osama bin Ladenil polnud sidemeid Saddamiga / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Valeks on osutunud väide, et Saddam Husseini ja bin Ladeni vahel oli tihe koostöö. Autori sõnul uurisid Richard Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld ja USA praegune asekaitseminister Paul Wolfowitz juba 1990-ndate keskel võimalusi uueks sõjaks Iraagi vastu. Lisa: Bremer süüdistab Valget Maja

  8. Bin Laden sekkus USA valimisvõitlusesse / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    Terroripealik Osama bin Laden pöördus 29. oktoobril meedia vahendusel ameeriklaste poole ning märkis, et kui USA soovib vältida uusi 11. septembri laadseid rünnakuid, peab ta lõpetama moslemite julgeoleku ohustamise

  9. Vicarious revenge and the death of Osama bin Laden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gollwitzer, M.; Skitka, L.J.; Wisneski, D.; Sjöström, D.; Liberman, P.; Nazir, S.J.; Bushman, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Three hypotheses were derived from research on vicarious revenge and tested in the context of the assassination of Osama bin Laden in 2011. In line with the notion that revenge aims at delivering a message (the "message hypothesis"), Study 1 shows that Americans' vengeful desires in the aftermath of

  10. Exploiting topic modeling to boost metagenomic reads binning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruichang; Cheng, Zhanzhan; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of high-throughput technologies, researchers can sequence the whole metagenome of a microbial community sampled directly from the environment. The assignment of these metagenomic reads into different species or taxonomical classes is a vital step for metagenomic analysis, which is referred to as binning of metagenomic data. In this paper, we propose a new method TM-MCluster for binning metagenomic reads. First, we represent each metagenomic read as a set of "k-mers" with their frequencies occurring in the read. Then, we employ a probabilistic topic model -- the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model to the reads, which generates a number of hidden "topics" such that each read can be represented by a distribution vector of the generated topics. Finally, as in the MCluster method, we apply SKWIC -- a variant of the classical K-means algorithm with automatic feature weighting mechanism to cluster these reads represented by topic distributions. Experiments show that the new method TM-MCluster outperforms major existing methods, including AbundanceBin, MetaCluster 3.0/5.0 and MCluster. This result indicates that the exploitation of topic modeling can effectively improve the binning performance of metagenomic reads.

  11. Analyzing bin-width effect on the computed entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwani, Sri; Nahar, Julita; Twining, Carole

    2017-08-01

    The Shannon entropy is a mathematical expression for quantifying the amount of randomness which can be used to measure information content. It is used in objective function. Mutual Information (MI) uses Shannon entropy in order to determine shared information content of two images. The Shannon entropy, which was originally derived by Shannon in the context of lossless encoding of messages, is also used to define an optimum message length used in the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle for groupwise registration. Majority of papers used histogram for computing MI, and hence the entropy. We therefore, aim to analyze the effect of bin-width on the computed entropy. We first derived the Shannon entropy from the integral of probability density function (pdf), and found that Gaussian has maximum entropy over all possible distribution. We also show that the entropy of the flat distribution is less than the entropy of the Gaussian distribution with the same variance. We then investigated the bin-width effect on the computed entropy, and analyzed the relationship between the computed entropy and the integral entropy when we vary bin-width, but fix variance and the number of samples. We then found that the value of the computed entropy lies within the theoretical predictions at small and large bin-widths. We also show two types of bias in entropy estimator.

  12. Call Forecasting for Inbound Call Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vinje

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a scenario of inbound call center customer service, the ability to forecast calls is a key element and advantage. By forecasting the correct number of calls a company can predict staffing needs, meet service level requirements, improve customer satisfaction, and benefit from many other optimizations. This project will show how elementary statistics can be used to predict calls for a specific company, forecast the rate at which calls are increasing/decreasing, and determine if the calls may stop at some point.

  13. A DNA-based registry for all animal species: the barcode index number (BIN system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeevan Ratnasingham

    Full Text Available Because many animal species are undescribed, and because the identification of known species is often difficult, interim taxonomic nomenclature has often been used in biodiversity analysis. By assigning individuals to presumptive species, called operational taxonomic units (OTUs, these systems speed investigations into the patterning of biodiversity and enable studies that would otherwise be impossible. Although OTUs have conventionally been separated through their morphological divergence, DNA-based delineations are not only feasible, but have important advantages. OTU designation can be automated, data can be readily archived, and results can be easily compared among investigations. This study exploits these attributes to develop a persistent, species-level taxonomic registry for the animal kingdom based on the analysis of patterns of nucleotide variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. It begins by examining the correspondence between groups of specimens identified to a species through prior taxonomic work and those inferred from the analysis of COI sequence variation using one new (RESL and four established (ABGD, CROP, GMYC, jMOTU algorithms. It subsequently describes the implementation, and structural attributes of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system. Aside from a pragmatic role in biodiversity assessments, BINs will aid revisionary taxonomy by flagging possible cases of synonymy, and by collating geographical information, descriptive metadata, and images for specimens that are likely to belong to the same species, even if it is undescribed. More than 274,000 BIN web pages are now available, creating a biodiversity resource that is positioned for rapid growth.

  14. Osama bin Laden võib olla uues piiramisrõngas / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Briti ajakirjanduse andmeil on suudetud tuvastada bin Ladeni asukoht. 1993. aastal CIA peakorteri ees kaks USA luureagenti tapnud pakistanlase Mir Aimal Kasi ja bin Ladeni tagaotsimisest. Vt. samas: Taliban kogub uut jõudu

  15. Independence of VNTR alleles defined as floating bins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, B.S. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Data bases of VNTR fragments determined for Caucasians and blacks by Cellmark Diagnostics and Lifecodes Corporation are analyzed for independence of variants within and between loci. Floating bins are constructed around specific fragment lengths and are used to define discrete genotypes. Simple [chi][sup 2] test statistics for independence of bins within and between loci are described and applied to large sets of randomly generated four-locus profiles. The proportions of significant test statistics were about as expected under the hypothesis of independence, suggesting the absence of both Hardy-Weinberg and linkage disequilibrium. In any particular forensic application, however, these need to be performed on the fragments in question. 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Control of the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta, Using Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Laboratory and Fruit Bin Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, E; Lacey, L A; Guerra, N; Headrick, H L

    2006-03-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta (Busck), which is among the most important insect pests of peaches and nectarines, has developed resistance to a wide range of insecticides. We investigated the ability of the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser), S. feltiae (Filipjev), S. riobrave (Cabanillas et al.), and Heterorhabditis marelatus (Liu and Berry) to control OFM under laboratory and fruit bin conditions. At a dosage of 10 infective juveniles (IJ)/cm(2) in the laboratory, S. carpocapsae caused 63%, S. feltiae 87.8%, S. riobrave 75.6%, and H. marelatus 67.1% OFM mortality. All four nematode species caused significant OFM larval mortality in comparison to the nontreated controls. Steinernema feltiae was used for the bin assays due to the higher OFM mortality it caused than the other tested EPN species and to its ability to find OFM under cryptic environments. Diapausing cocooned OFM larvae in miniature fruit bins were susceptible to IJ of S. feltiae in infested corner supports and cardboard strips. Treatment of bins with suspensions of 10 or 25 S. feltiae IJ/ml water with wetting agent (Silwet L77) resulted in 33.3 to 59% and 77.7 to 81.6% OFM mortality in corner supports and cardboard strips, respectively. This paper presents new information on the use of EPN, specifically S. feltiae, as nonchemical means of OFM control.

  17. Influence of Doppler Bin Width on GNSS Detection Probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Bernhard C

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition stage in GNSS receivers determines Doppler shifts and code phases of visible satellites. Acquisition is thus a search in two continuous dimensions, where the digital algorithms require a partitioning of the search space into cells. We present analytic expressions for the acquisition performance depending on the partitioning of the Doppler frequency domain. In particular, the impact of the number and width of Doppler bins is analyzed. The presented results are verified by simulations.

  18. Vision guided robot bin picking of cylindrical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg; Dyhr-Nielsen, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    In order to achieve increased flexibility on robotic production lines an investigation of the rovbot bin-picking problem is presented. In the paper, the limitations related to previous attempts to solve the problem are pointed uot and a set of innovative methods are presented. The main elements......-pixel precision methods to make a working system. Actual tests are presented using an ASEA 2000 robot....

  19. Time-bin entangled photons from a quantum dot

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar, Harishankar; Predojević, Ana; Kauten, Thomas; Huber, Tobias; Solomon, Glenn S.; Weihs, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Long distance quantum communication is one of the prime goals in the field of quantum information science. With information encoded in the quantum state of photons, existing telecommunication fiber networks can be effectively used as a transport medium. To achieve this goal, a source of robust entangled single photon pairs is required. While time-bin entanglement offers the required robustness, currently used parametric down-conversion sources have limited performance due to multi-pair contri...

  20. Osama bin Ladeni tapmine toonuks tuumapõrgu / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2011-01-01

    Wikileaksi kaudu on avalikustatud märkmeid Guantánamo vangide ülekuulamistest. Ühe al-Qaida komandöri väitel on terroristidel kuhugi Euroopasse peidetud tuumapomm, mis oleks pandud plahvatama, kui Osama bin Laden oleks vangistatud või tapetud. Selgub, et Guantanamos oli umbes 150 kinnipeetut täiesti süütud

  1. Optimization of heterogeneous Bin packing using adaptive genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Sriramya, C.; Page, Tom

    2017-03-01

    This research is concentrates on a very interesting work, the bin packing using hybrid genetic approach. The optimal and feasible packing of goods for transportation and distribution to various locations by satisfying the practical constraints are the key points in this project work. As the number of boxes for packing can not be predicted in advance and the boxes may not be of same category always. It also involves many practical constraints that are why the optimal packing makes much importance to the industries. This work presents a combinational of heuristic Genetic Algorithm (HGA) for solving Three Dimensional (3D) Single container arbitrary sized rectangular prismatic bin packing optimization problem by considering most of the practical constraints facing in logistic industries. This goal was achieved in this research by optimizing the empty volume inside the container using genetic approach. Feasible packing pattern was achieved by satisfying various practical constraints like box orientation, stack priority, container stability, weight constraint, overlapping constraint, shipment placement constraint. 3D bin packing problem consists of ‘n’ number of boxes being to be packed in to a container of standard dimension in such a way to maximize the volume utilization and in-turn profit. Furthermore, Boxes to be packed may be of arbitrary sizes. The user input data are the number of bins, its size, shape, weight, and constraints if any along with standard container dimension. This user input were stored in the database and encoded to string (chromosomes) format which were normally acceptable by GA. GA operators were allowed to act over these encoded strings for finding the best solution.

  2. Integrated technologies for solid waste bin monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arebey, Maher; Hannan, M A; Basri, Hassan; Begum, R A; Abdullah, Huda

    2011-06-01

    The integration of communication technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID), global positioning system (GPS), general packet radio system (GPRS), and geographic information system (GIS) with a camera are constructed for solid waste monitoring system. The aim is to improve the way of responding to customer's inquiry and emergency cases and estimate the solid waste amount without any involvement of the truck driver. The proposed system consists of RFID tag mounted on the bin, RFID reader as in truck, GPRS/GSM as web server, and GIS as map server, database server, and control server. The tracking devices mounted in the trucks collect location information in real time via the GPS. This information is transferred continuously through GPRS to a central database. The users are able to view the current location of each truck in the collection stage via a web-based application and thereby manage the fleet. The trucks positions and trash bin information are displayed on a digital map, which is made available by a map server. Thus, the solid waste of the bin and the truck are being monitored using the developed system.

  3. A 1.1-kilobase region downstream of the bin operon in Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362 decreases bin yield and crystal size in strain 2297.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Tang, Mujin; Sakano, Yuko; Federici, Brian A

    2009-02-01

    The 2297 strain of Bacillus sphaericus produces a crystal of the Bin (binary) toxin that is approximately fourfold larger than that of strain 2362, the strain currently used in VectoLex, a commercial mosquito larvicide. Comparison of the regions downstream from the bin operon in these two strains showed that strain 2362 contained a 1.6-kb region with four orf genes not found in strain 2297. Insertion of a 1.1-kb portion of this region from strain 2362 by homologous recombination downstream from the bin operon in strain 2297 reduced Bin toxin production by 50 to 70% and toxicity to fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by 68%. These results suggest that the 1.6-kb region downstream from the bin operon in B. sphaericus 2362 is responsible for the lower Bin yield and smaller crystal size characteristic of this strain.

  4. LD bin list (Phase III) - D-HaploDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bin (nucleotide position in each chromosome, according to NCBI Build 36) Position End End position of LD bi...n (nucleotide position in each chromosome, according to NCBI Build 36) SNPs Count Number of SNPs in LD bin t

  5. 30 CFR 57.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... NONMETAL MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled...

  6. 30 CFR 56.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled or...

  7. Limited-angle effect compensation for respiratory binned cardiac SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Wenyuan; Yang, Yongyi, E-mail: yy@ece.iit.edu; Wernick, Miles N. [Medical Imaging Research Center and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Pretorius, P. Hendrik; King, Michael A. [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: In cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), respiratory-binned study is used to combat the motion blur associated with respiratory motion. However, owing to the variability in respiratory patterns during data acquisition, the acquired data counts can vary significantly both among respiratory bins and among projection angles within individual bins. If not properly accounted for, such variation could lead to artifacts similar to limited-angle effect in image reconstruction. In this work, the authors aim to investigate several reconstruction strategies for compensating the limited-angle effect in respiratory binned data for the purpose of reducing the image artifacts. Methods: The authors first consider a model based correction approach, in which the variation in acquisition time is directly incorporated into the imaging model, such that the data statistics are accurately described among both the projection angles and respiratory bins. Afterward, the authors consider an approximation approach, in which the acquired data are rescaled to accommodate the variation in acquisition time among different projection angles while the imaging model is kept unchanged. In addition, the authors also consider the use of a smoothing prior in reconstruction for suppressing the artifacts associated with limited-angle effect. In our evaluation study, the authors first used Monte Carlo simulated imaging with 4D NCAT phantom wherein the ground truth is known for quantitative comparison. The authors evaluated the accuracy of the reconstructed myocardium using a number of metrics, including regional and overall accuracy of the myocardium, uniformity and spatial resolution of the left ventricle (LV) wall, and detectability of perfusion defect using a channelized Hotelling observer. As a preliminary demonstration, the authors also tested the different approaches on five sets of clinical acquisitions. Results: The quantitative evaluation results show that the three

  8. Kritik Sayid Utsman Bin Yahya terhadap Ideologi Jihad dalam Gerakan Sosial Islam Pada Abad 19 dan 20

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Athoillah

    2013-01-01

    This writing describes the using of jihād ideology in the movement of social fighting in Jawa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries during the people change within the colonial era. Such social struggle, which is called as holy war, was criticized by Sayid Utsman bin Yahya as an advisor of honorair of the Dutch government. Sayid Utsman then attempted to formulate the meaning of jihād as the religious activities.DOI: 10.15408/ref.v13i5.914

  9. Kritik Sayid Utsman Bin Yahya terhadap Ideologi Jihad dalam Gerakan Sosial Islam Pada Abad 19 dan 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Athoillah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This writing describes the using of jihād ideology in the movement of social fighting in Jawa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries during the people change within the colonial era. Such social struggle, which is called as holy war, was criticized by Sayid Utsman bin Yahya as an advisor of honorair of the Dutch government. Sayid Utsman then attempted to formulate the meaning of jihād as the religious activities.DOI: 10.15408/ref.v13i5.914

  10. Smart Bin: Internet-of-Things Garbage Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M.R

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces the design and development of smart green environment of garbage monitoring system by measuring the garbage level in real time and to alert the municipality where never the bin is full based on the types of garbage. The proposed system consisted the ultrasonic sensors which measure the garbage level, an ARM microcontroller which controls system operation whereas everything will be connected to ThingSpeak. This work demonstrates a system that allows the waste management to monitor based on the level of the garbage depth inside the dustbin. The system shows the status of different four types of garbage; domestic waste, paper, glass and plastic through LCD and ThingSpeak in a real time to store the data for future use and analysis, such as prediction of peak level of garbage bin fullness. It is expected that this system can create greener environment by monitoring and controlling the collection of garbage smartly through Internet-of-Things.

  11. Bin recycling strategy for improving the histogram precision on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Montes, Miguel; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Juan José; Vega-Rodríguez, Miguel A.

    2016-07-01

    Histogram is an easily comprehensible way to present data and analyses. In the current scientific context with access to large volumes of data, the processing time for building histogram has dramatically increased. For this reason, parallel construction is necessary to alleviate the impact of the processing time in the analysis activities. In this scenario, GPU computing is becoming widely used for reducing until affordable levels the processing time of histogram construction. Associated to the increment of the processing time, the implementations are stressed on the bin-count accuracy. Accuracy aspects due to the particularities of the implementations are not usually taken into consideration when building histogram with very large data sets. In this work, a bin recycling strategy to create an accuracy-aware implementation for building histogram on GPU is presented. In order to evaluate the approach, this strategy was applied to the computation of the three-point angular correlation function, which is a relevant function in Cosmology for the study of the Large Scale Structure of Universe. As a consequence of the study a high-accuracy implementation for histogram construction on GPU is proposed.

  12. Constant-complexity stochastic simulation algorithm with optimal binning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Kevin R.; Othmer, Hans G.

    2015-08-01

    At the molecular level, biochemical processes are governed by random interactions between reactant molecules, and the dynamics of such systems are inherently stochastic. When the copy numbers of reactants are large, a deterministic description is adequate, but when they are small, such systems are often modeled as continuous-time Markov jump processes that can be described by the chemical master equation. Gillespie's Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) generates exact trajectories of these systems, but the amount of computational work required for each step of the original SSA is proportional to the number of reaction channels, leading to computational complexity that scales linearly with the problem size. The original SSA is therefore inefficient for large problems, which has prompted the development of several alternative formulations with improved scaling properties. We describe an exact SSA that uses a table data structure with event time binning to achieve constant computational complexity with respect to the number of reaction channels for weakly coupled reaction networks. We present a novel adaptive binning strategy and discuss optimal algorithm parameters. We compare the computational efficiency of the algorithm to existing methods and demonstrate excellent scaling for large problems. This method is well suited for generating exact trajectories of large weakly coupled models, including those that can be described by the reaction-diffusion master equation that arises from spatially discretized reaction-diffusion processes.

  13. Test Plan: WIPP bin-scale CH TRU waste tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    This WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program described herein will provide relevant composition and kinetic rate data on gas generation and consumption resulting from TRU waste degradation, as impacted by synergistic interactions due to multiple degradation modes, waste form preparation, long-term repository environmental effects, engineered barrier materials, and, possibly, engineered modifications to be developed. Similar data on waste-brine leachate compositions and potentially hazardous volatile organic compounds released by the wastes will also be provided. The quantitative data output from these tests and associated technical expertise are required by the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) program studies, and for the scientific benefit of the overall WIPP project. This Test Plan describes the necessary scientific and technical aspects, justifications, and rational for successfully initiating and conducting the WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program. This Test Plan is the controlling scientific design definition and overall requirements document for this WIPP in situ test, as defined by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), scientific advisor to the US Department of Energy, WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO). 55 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Constant-complexity stochastic simulation algorithm with optimal binning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Kevin R; Othmer, Hans G

    2015-08-21

    At the molecular level, biochemical processes are governed by random interactions between reactant molecules, and the dynamics of such systems are inherently stochastic. When the copy numbers of reactants are large, a deterministic description is adequate, but when they are small, such systems are often modeled as continuous-time Markov jump processes that can be described by the chemical master equation. Gillespie's Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) generates exact trajectories of these systems, but the amount of computational work required for each step of the original SSA is proportional to the number of reaction channels, leading to computational complexity that scales linearly with the problem size. The original SSA is therefore inefficient for large problems, which has prompted the development of several alternative formulations with improved scaling properties. We describe an exact SSA that uses a table data structure with event time binning to achieve constant computational complexity with respect to the number of reaction channels for weakly coupled reaction networks. We present a novel adaptive binning strategy and discuss optimal algorithm parameters. We compare the computational efficiency of the algorithm to existing methods and demonstrate excellent scaling for large problems. This method is well suited for generating exact trajectories of large weakly coupled models, including those that can be described by the reaction-diffusion master equation that arises from spatially discretized reaction-diffusion processes.

  15. Resolução de problemas de Bin Packing utilizando rede neural aumentada e Minimum Bin Slack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo do presente trabalho é comparar a utilização da meta-heurística Rede Neural Artificial Aumentada (RNAA com a heurística Minimum Bin Slack (MBS para resolução de Problemas de Otimização Combinatória, mais especificamente, em problemas de Bin Packing, uma classe de Problemas de Corte e Empacotamento (PCE. PCEs são vastamente encontrados em diversos ramos da indústria e o tratamento adequado deste tipo de problema pode gerar impactos diretos na economia de matérias-primas e/ou espaço físico das empresas. Para a otimização dos parâmetros da RNAA, fez-se uso de um projeto de Delineamento de Experimento (DOE do tipo Fatorial Completo. Os testes, realizados em diversos problemas benchmark da literatura, mostraram que, de uma forma geral, a heurística MBS foi superior tanto em relação à qualidade das respostas (cerca de 70% melhor, quanto em relação ao tempo computacional (aproximadamente 90% menor.

  16. The load-balanced multi-dimensional bin-packing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivella, Alessio; Pisinger, David

    2016-01-01

    The bin-packing problem is one of the most investigated and applicable combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper we consider its multi-dimensional version with the practical extension of load balancing, i.e. to find the packing requiring the minimum number of bins while ensuring...... that the average center of mass of the loaded bins falls as close as possible to an ideal point, for instance, the center of the bin. We formally describe the problem using mixed-integer linear programming models, from the simple case where we want to optimally balance a set of items already assigned to a single...... bin, to the general balanced bin-packing problem. Given the difficulty for standard solvers to deal even with small size instances, a multi-level local search heuristic is presented. The algorithm takes advantage of the Fekete-Schepers representation of feasible packings in terms of particular classes...

  17. Low-Light Image Enhancement Using Adaptive Digital Pixel Binning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonjong Yoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image enhancement algorithm for low-light scenes in an environment with insufficient illumination. Simple amplification of intensity exhibits various undesired artifacts: noise amplification, intensity saturation, and loss of resolution. In order to enhance low-light images without undesired artifacts, a novel digital binning algorithm is proposed that considers brightness, context, noise level, and anti-saturation of a local region in the image. The proposed algorithm does not require any modification of the image sensor or additional frame-memory; it needs only two line-memories in the image signal processor (ISP. Since the proposed algorithm does not use an iterative computation, it can be easily embedded in an existing digital camera ISP pipeline containing a high-resolution image sensor.

  18. Position of Imam Malik bin Anas on Deviant Sects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaa Eddin Muhammad Esmail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to highlight the position of Imam Malik bin Anas on deviant sects which emerged and developed during his time. It discusses the views of Imam Malik on other Muslim sects like Shi’its and its school of thoughts, Qadarites, where he authored a specific book and a chapter in his “Muwatta” in response to their central teachings, Khariji, Murji”it and Mu’tazilites. This paper also discusses the views of Imam Malik and his response to important issues related to those sects such as “al-mutasyabihat” and the creation of Al-Quran. Imam Malik’s ways and methods in dealing with those sects are also highlighted.

  19. BinSanity: unsupervised clustering of environmental microbial assemblies using coverage and affinity propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elaina D; Heidelberg, John F; Tully, Benjamin J

    2017-01-01

    Metagenomics has become an integral part of defining microbial diversity in various environments. Many ecosystems have characteristically low biomass and few cultured representatives. Linking potential metabolisms to phylogeny in environmental microorganisms is important for interpreting microbial community functions and the impacts these communities have on geochemical cycles. However, with metagenomic studies there is the computational hurdle of 'binning' contigs into phylogenetically related units or putative genomes. Binning methods have been implemented with varying approaches such as k-means clustering, Gaussian mixture models, hierarchical clustering, neural networks, and two-way clustering; however, many of these suffer from biases against low coverage/abundance organisms and closely related taxa/strains. We are introducing a new binning method, BinSanity, that utilizes the clustering algorithm affinity propagation (AP), to cluster assemblies using coverage with compositional based refinement (tetranucleotide frequency and percent GC content) to optimize bins containing multiple source organisms. This separation of composition and coverage based clustering reduces bias for closely related taxa. BinSanity was developed and tested on artificial metagenomes varying in size and complexity. Results indicate that BinSanity has a higher precision, recall, and Adjusted Rand Index compared to five commonly implemented methods. When tested on a previously published environmental metagenome, BinSanity generated high completion and low redundancy bins corresponding with the published metagenome-assembled genomes.

  20. Comparison of compostable bags and aerated bins with conventional storage systems to collect the organic fraction of municipal solid waste from homes. a Catalonia case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyuelo, Belén; Colón, Joan; Martín, Patrícia; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-06-01

    The separation of biowaste at home is key to improving, facilitating and reducing the operational costs of the treatment of organic municipal waste. The conventional method of collecting such waste and separating it at home is usually done by using a sealed bin with a plastic bag. The use of modern compostable bags is starting to be implemented in some European countries. These compostable bags are made of biodegradable polymers, often from renewable sources. In addition to compostable bags, a new model of bin is also promoted that has a perforated surface that, together with the compostable bag, makes the so-called "aerated system". In this study, different combinations of home collection systems have been systematically studied in the laboratory and at home. The results obtained quantitatively demonstrate that the aerated bin and compostable bag system combination is effective at improving the collection of biowaste without significant gaseous emissions and preparing the organic waste for further composting as concluded from the respiration indices. In terms of weight loss, temperature, gas emissions, respiration index and organic matter reduction, the best results were achieved with the aerated system. At the same time, a qualitative study of bin and bag combinations was carried in 100 homes in which more than 80% of the families participating preferred the aerated system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PDE-Foam - a probability-density estimation method using self-adapting phase-space binning

    CERN Document Server

    Dannheim, Dominik; Voigt, Alexander; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Speckmayer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Probability-Density Estimation (PDE) is a multivariate discrimination technique based on sampling signal and background densities defined by event samples from data or Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations in a multi-dimensional phase space. To efficiently use large event samples to estimate the probability density, a binary search tree (range searching) is used in the PDE-RS implementation. It is a generalisation of standard likelihood methods and a powerful classification tool for problems with highly non-linearly correlated observables. In this paper, we present an innovative improvement of the PDE method that uses a self-adapting binning method to divide the multi-dimensional phase space in a finite number of hyper-rectangles (cells). The binning algorithm adjusts the size and position of a predefined number of cells inside the multidimensional phase space, minimizing the variance of the signal and background densities inside the cells. The binned density information is stored in binary trees, allowing for a very ...

  2. Call Center Capacity Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Bang

    The main topics of the thesis are theoretical and applied queueing theory within a call center setting. Call centers have in recent years become the main means of communication between customers and companies, and between citizens and public institutions. The extensively computerized infrastructu...

  3. Call 1 FAQ (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    What is your definition of “improvement” in this Call for proposals? “Improvement” as used in this call implies all innovations that may be applied by research teams to ... perform their expected roles and to participate in the overall coordination of partnership activities (including monitoring, reporting, communication, etc.).

  4. Callings and Organizational Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

  5. Dimensioning large call centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Borst (Sem); A. Mandelbaum; M.I. Reiman

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a framework for asymptotic optimization of a queueing system. The motivation is the staffing problem of call centers with 100's of agents (or more). Such a call center is modeled as an M/M/N queue, where the number of agents~$N$ is large. Within our framework, we determine the

  6. CALL FOR PROPOSALS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Charles

    CALL FOR PROPOSALS. Research Project on: Gender and Enterprise Development in Africa: A Cross-Country Comparative Study. The Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research ... calling for research proposals from researchers based in Kenya, Uganda, Mozambique or ... For example, many more women work.

  7. Call 1 FAQ (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    What is your definition of “improvement” in this Call for proposals? “Improvement” as used in this call implies all innovations that may be applied by research teams to develop a vaccine that is superior to a current one. Examples of improvement are better adjuvant, vaccine delivery systems or formulations that present ...

  8. Hybrid next-fit algorithm for the two-dimensional rectangle bin-packing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); G. Galambos

    1987-01-01

    textabstractWe present a new approximation algorithm for the two-dimensional bin-packing problem. The algorithm is based on two one-dimensional bin-packing algorithms. Since the algorithm is of next-fit type it can also be used for those cases where the output is required to be on-line (e. g. if we

  9. LD bin list (Phase II) - D-HaploDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tion of LD bin (nucleotide position in each chromosome, according to NCBI Build 35) Position End End positio...n of LD bin (nucleotide position in each chromosome, according to NCBI Build 35) SNPs Count Number of SNPs i

  10. Fisher Matrix-based Predictions for Measuring the z= 3.35 Binned ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fisher Matrix-based Predictions for Measuring the z = 3.35 Binned 21-cm Power Spectrum using the Ooty Wide Field Array (OWFA) ... We use the Fisher matrix formalism to predict the prospects of measuring the redshifted 21-cm power spectrum in different k -bins using observations with the upcoming Ooty Wide Field Array ...

  11. Kuus aastat hiljem : kas peidetud ähvardus või bin Ladeni pehmus / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Autor käsitleb Osama bin Ladeni viimast läkitust ning leiab, et nii selget lepituse otsimist kristlaste ja juutidega pole bin Ladeni retoorikas varem kõlanud. Autori väitel on Iraagi al-Qaida ilma peata, olles vaheldumisi tülis keskuse ja Iraagi usukaaslastega. Lisa: Suuremad rünnakud

  12. 29 CFR 1917.49 - Spouts, chutes, hoppers, bins, and associated equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.49... gear used as a permanent part of spouts, chutes or similar devices shall be inspected before each use... until the employee has left the bin. (j) Bin top openings that present a hazard to employees shall be...

  13. A compost bin for handling privy wastes: its fabrication and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.E. Leonard; S.C. Fay

    1978-01-01

    A 24-ft3 (6.8-m3) fiberglass bin was constructed and tested for its effectiveness in composting privy wastes. A mixture of ground hardwood bark and raw sewage was used for composting. Temperatures in excess of 60°C for 36 hours were produced in the bin by aerobic, thermophilic composting. This temperature is...

  14. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Samantha J.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin. (Contains 1…

  15. Entwicklung von energieautarken, intelligenten Ladehilfsmitteln am Beispiel des inBin

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerich, Jan; Roidl, Moritz; ten Hompel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The autonomous and intelligent load carrier embodies the idea of the Internet of things in intralogistics. Using the example of the inBin, the energy harvesting is examined in the intra-logistics and it is shown that photovoltaic cells can power a small container (bin) with complex logistical functions under realistic lighting conditions.

  16. BinSanity: unsupervised clustering of environmental microbial assemblies using coverage and affinity propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaina D. Graham

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomics has become an integral part of defining microbial diversity in various environments. Many ecosystems have characteristically low biomass and few cultured representatives. Linking potential metabolisms to phylogeny in environmental microorganisms is important for interpreting microbial community functions and the impacts these communities have on geochemical cycles. However, with metagenomic studies there is the computational hurdle of ‘binning’ contigs into phylogenetically related units or putative genomes. Binning methods have been implemented with varying approaches such as k-means clustering, Gaussian mixture models, hierarchical clustering, neural networks, and two-way clustering; however, many of these suffer from biases against low coverage/abundance organisms and closely related taxa/strains. We are introducing a new binning method, BinSanity, that utilizes the clustering algorithm affinity propagation (AP, to cluster assemblies using coverage with compositional based refinement (tetranucleotide frequency and percent GC content to optimize bins containing multiple source organisms. This separation of composition and coverage based clustering reduces bias for closely related taxa. BinSanity was developed and tested on artificial metagenomes varying in size and complexity. Results indicate that BinSanity has a higher precision, recall, and Adjusted Rand Index compared to five commonly implemented methods. When tested on a previously published environmental metagenome, BinSanity generated high completion and low redundancy bins corresponding with the published metagenome-assembled genomes.

  17. An adaptive bin framework search method for a beta-sheet protein homopolymer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoos Holger H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of protein structure prediction consists of predicting the functional or native structure of a protein given its linear sequence of amino acids. This problem has played a prominent role in the fields of biomolecular physics and algorithm design for over 50 years. Additionally, its importance increases continually as a result of an exponential growth over time in the number of known protein sequences in contrast to a linear increase in the number of determined structures. Our work focuses on the problem of searching an exponentially large space of possible conformations as efficiently as possible, with the goal of finding a global optimum with respect to a given energy function. This problem plays an important role in the analysis of systems with complex search landscapes, and particularly in the context of ab initio protein structure prediction. Results In this work, we introduce a novel approach for solving this conformation search problem based on the use of a bin framework for adaptively storing and retrieving promising locally optimal solutions. Our approach provides a rich and general framework within which a broad range of adaptive or reactive search strategies can be realized. Here, we introduce adaptive mechanisms for choosing which conformations should be stored, based on the set of conformations already stored in memory, and for biasing choices when retrieving conformations from memory in order to overcome search stagnation. Conclusion We show that our bin framework combined with a widely used optimization method, Monte Carlo search, achieves significantly better performance than state-of-the-art generalized ensemble methods for a well-known protein-like homopolymer model on the face-centered cubic lattice.

  18. Efficient BinDCT hardware architecture exploration and implementation on FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdelali, Abdessalem; Chatti, Ichraf; Hannachi, Marwa; Mtibaa, Abdellatif

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a hardware module design for the forward Binary Discrete Cosine Transform (BinDCT) and its implementation on a field programmable gate array device. Different architectures of the BinDCT module were explored to ensure the maximum efficiency. The elaboration of these architectures included architectural design, timing and pipeline analysis, hardware description language modeling, design synthesis, and implementation. The developed BinDCT hardware module presents a high efficiency in terms of operating frequency and hardware resources, which has made it suitable for the most recent video standards with high image resolution and refresh frequency. Additionally, the high hardware efficiency of the BinDCT would make it a very good candidate for time and resource-constrained applications. By comparison with several recent implementations of discrete cosine transform approximations, it has been shown that the proposed hardware BinDCT module presents the best performances.

  19. MetaBinG: using GPUs to accelerate metagenomic sequence classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jia

    Full Text Available Metagenomic sequence classification is a procedure to assign sequences to their source genomes. It is one of the important steps for metagenomic sequence data analysis. Although many methods exist, classification of high-throughput metagenomic sequence data in a limited time is still a challenge. We present here an ultra-fast metagenomic sequence classification system (MetaBinG using graphic processing units (GPUs. The accuracy of MetaBinG is comparable to the best existing systems and it can classify a million of 454 reads within five minutes, which is more than 2 orders of magnitude faster than existing systems. MetaBinG is publicly available at http://cbb.sjtu.edu.cn/~ccwei/pub/software/MetaBinG/MetaBinG.php.

  20. Solid waste bin detection and classification using Dynamic Time Warping and MLP classifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul, E-mail: shafique@eng.ukm.my [Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangore (Malaysia); Hannan, M.A., E-mail: hannan@eng.ukm.my [Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangore (Malaysia); Basri, Hassan [Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangore (Malaysia); Hussain, Aini; Arebey, Maher [Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangore (Malaysia)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Solid waste bin level detection using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW). • Gabor wavelet filter is used to extract the solid waste image features. • Multi-Layer Perceptron classifier network is used for bin image classification. • The classification performance evaluated by ROC curve analysis. - Abstract: The increasing requirement for Solid Waste Management (SWM) has become a significant challenge for municipal authorities. A number of integrated systems and methods have introduced to overcome this challenge. Many researchers have aimed to develop an ideal SWM system, including approaches involving software-based routing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Radio-frequency Identification (RFID), or sensor intelligent bins. Image processing solutions for the Solid Waste (SW) collection have also been developed; however, during capturing the bin image, it is challenging to position the camera for getting a bin area centralized image. As yet, there is no ideal system which can correctly estimate the amount of SW. This paper briefly discusses an efficient image processing solution to overcome these problems. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) was used for detecting and cropping the bin area and Gabor wavelet (GW) was introduced for feature extraction of the waste bin image. Image features were used to train the classifier. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier was used to classify the waste bin level and estimate the amount of waste inside the bin. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves was used to statistically evaluate classifier performance. The results of this developed system are comparable to previous image processing based system. The system demonstration using DTW with GW for feature extraction and an MLP classifier led to promising results with respect to the accuracy of waste level estimation (98.50%). The application can be used to optimize the routing of waste collection based on the estimated bin level.

  1. Surface contamination of hazardous drug pharmacy storage bins and pharmacy distributor shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redic, Kimberly A; Fang, Kayleen; Christen, Catherine; Chaffee, Bruce W

    2018-03-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine whether there is contamination on exterior drug packaging using shipping totes from the distributor and carousel storage bins as surrogate markers of external packaging contamination. Methods A two-part study was conducted to measure the presence of 5-fluorouracil, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel and paclitaxel using surrogate markers for external drug packaging. In Part I, 10 drug distributor shipping totes designated for transport of hazardous drugs provided a snapshot view of contamination from regular use and transit in and out of the pharmacy. An additional two totes designated for transport of non-hazardous drugs served as controls. In Part II, old carousel storage bins (i.e. those in use pre-study) were wiped for snapshot view of hazardous drug contamination on storage bins. New carousel storage bins were then put into use for storage of the five tested drugs and used for routine storage and inventory maintenance activities. Carousel bins were wiped at time intervals 0, 8, 16 and 52 weeks to measure surface contamination. Results Two of the 10 hazardous shipping totes were contaminated. Three of the five-old carousel bins were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. One of the old carousel bins was also contaminated with ifosfamide. There were no detectable levels of hazardous drugs on any of the new storage bins at time 0, 8 or 16 weeks. However, at the Week 52, there was a detectable level of 5-FU present in the 5-FU carousel bin. Conclusions Contamination of the surrogate markers suggests that external packaging for hazardous drugs is contaminated, either during the manufacturing process or during routine chain of custody activities. These results demonstrate that occupational exposure may occur due to contamination from shipping totes and storage bins, and that handling practices including use of personal protective equipment is warranted.

  2. Looking at large data sets using binned data plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.B.

    1990-04-01

    This report addresses the monumental challenge of developing exploratory analysis methods for large data sets. The goals of the report are to increase awareness of large data sets problems and to contribute simple graphical methods that address some of the problems. The graphical methods focus on two- and three-dimensional data and common task such as finding outliers and tail structure, assessing central structure and comparing central structures. The methods handle large sample size problems through binning, incorporate information from statistical models and adapt image processing algorithms. Examples demonstrate the application of methods to a variety of publicly available large data sets. The most novel application addresses the too many plots to examine'' problem by using cognostics, computer guiding diagnostics, to prioritize plots. The particular application prioritizes views of computational fluid dynamics solution sets on the fly. That is, as each time step of a solution set is generated on a parallel processor the cognostics algorithms assess virtual plots based on the previous time step. Work in such areas is in its infancy and the examples suggest numerous challenges that remain. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  3. Fontes binárias supermoles de raios X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A. M.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Estuda-se as características físicas das fontes supermoles (de raios X (SSS), utilizando dados ópticos e em altas energias, no âmbito de um trabalho de IC. Trata-se de binárias que apresentam espectro X muito mole, baixas temperaturas e altas luminosidades bolométricas. Esse sistemas são compostos por uma anã branca realizando fusão em sua superfície, a partir de matéria perdida pela estrela companheira. Os resíduos de fusão se acumulam na superfície da anã branca, e essa pode ultrapassar o limite de Chadrasekhar, produzir um colapso gravitacional, sendo esse um dos cenários propostos para as explosões de SN Ia. Apresentamos nesta comunicação o estado da arte das características físicas das fontes SSS, situando-as no âmbito das VCs. Procuramos também situar esses objetos em relação às variáveis galácticas V Sge, na medida em que os dois grupos apresentam certas caracerísticas bastante semelhantes.A metodologia adotada é aquela pedagógico-cognitiva clássica de um trabalho de IC na área de ciências exatas.

  4. Design based binning for litho qualification and process window qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Seifert, Uwe; Wehner, Arno; Karsenti, Laurent; Geshel, Mark; Conley, Amiad; Gscheidlen, Dieter; Bartov, Avishai

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that as design rule shrink advanced techniques are required in-order to precisely and controllably print the design intent on a wafer. The commonly used techniques to overcome the resolution limit are OPC and RET. The goal of these techniques is to compensate for an expected local interaction between the light, mask pattern and photoresist, which will otherwise result in a mismatch between the printed pattern and design intent and lead to fatal yield failures. It is this interaction which dominates the extensive time-consuming mask qualification fabs are required to perform before a new mask on a new product can be inserted into a production line. In this paper, a new approach and Litho Qualification Monitor (LQM) system, implemented in Qimonda Dresden fab, for ultra fast pattern failure classification based on design information (Design Based Binning), coupled with an automatic interface to SEM metrology tool will be presented. The system centralizes all the operations required for the identification and analysis of marginally-printed systematic structures.

  5. Structural, electronic, vibrational and optical properties of Bin clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Shen, Wanting; Zhang, Chunfang; Lu, Pengfei; Wang, Shumin

    2017-10-01

    The neutral, anionic and cationic bismuth clusters with the size n up to 14 are investigated by using B3LYP functional within the regime of density functional theory and the LAN2DZ basis set. By analysis of the geometries of the Bin (n = 2-14) clusters, where cationic and anionic bismuth clusters are largely similar to those of neutral ones, a periodic effect by adding units with one to four atoms into smaller cluster to form larger cluster is drawn for the stable structures of bismuth clusters. An even-odd alteration is shown for the properties of the clusters, such as the calculated binding energies and dissociation energies, as well as frontier orbital energies, electron affinities, ionization energies. All the properties indicate that the Bi4 cluster is the most possible existence in bismuth-containing materials, which supports the most recent experiment. The orbital compositions, infrared and Raman activities and the ultraviolet absorption of the most possible tetramer bismuth cluster are given in detail to reveal the periodic tendency of adding bismuth atoms and the stability of tetramer bismuth cluster.

  6. Exosomes: From Garbage Bins to Promising Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H Rashed, Mohammed; Bayraktar, Emine; K Helal, Gouda; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F; Amero, Paola; Chavez-Reyes, Arturo; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian

    2017-03-02

    Intercellular communication via cell-released vesicles is a very important process for both normal and tumor cells. Cell communication may involve exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin that are released by all types of cells and are found in abundance in body fluids, including blood, saliva, urine, and breast milk. Exosomes have been shown to carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and even DNA out of cells. They are more than simply molecular garbage bins, however, in that the molecules they carry can be taken up by other cells. Thus, exosomes transfer biological information to neighboring cells and through this cell-to-cell communication are involved not only in physiological functions such as cell-to-cell communication, but also in the pathogenesis of some diseases, including tumors and neurodegenerative conditions. Our increasing understanding of why cells release exosomes and their role in intercellular communication has revealed the very complex and sophisticated contribution of exosomes to health and disease. The aim of this review is to reveal the emerging roles of exosomes in normal and pathological conditions and describe the controversial biological role of exosomes, as it is now understood, in carcinogenesis. We also summarize what is known about exosome biogenesis, composition, functions, and pathways and discuss the potential clinical applications of exosomes, especially as biomarkers and novel therapeutic agents.

  7. Source levels of foraging humpback whale calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, Michelle E H; Matthews, Leanna P; Gabriele, Christine M; Mellinger, David K; Klinck, Holger

    2018-02-01

    Humpback whales produce a wide range of low- to mid-frequency vocalizations throughout their migratory range. Non-song "calls" dominate this species' vocal repertoire while on high-latitude foraging grounds. The source levels of 426 humpback whale calls in four vocal classes were estimated using a four-element planar array deployed in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Southeast Alaska. There was no significant difference in source levels between humpback whale vocal classes. The mean call source level was 137 dB RMS re 1 μPa @ 1 m in the bandwidth of the call (range 113-157 dB RMS re 1 μPa @ 1 m), where bandwidth is defined as the frequency range from the lowest to the highest frequency component of the call. These values represent a robust estimate of humpback whale source levels on foraging grounds and should append earlier estimates.

  8. BIN1 reverses PD-L1-mediated immune escape by inactivating the c-MYC and EGFR/MAPK signaling pathways in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Jia, Y; Zhao, S; Zhang, X; Wang, X; Han, X; Wang, Y; Ma, M; Shi, J; Liu, L

    2017-11-09

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common and malignant carcinoma worldwide, and the incidence and mortality are increasing rapidly. Immunotherapy targeting programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling has shown prominent clinical effects in treating NSCLC; however, a poor understanding of the associated regulating molecular mechanisms of PD-L1 has become one of the biggest obstacles for further improving efficacy. Bridging integrator-1 (BIN1) can regulate numerous cancer-related molecules to exert multiple tumor-suppressing effects by either interacting or not interacting with c-MYC. In the present study, we observed that there exists a negative correlation between the expression of PD-L1 and BIN1 in NSCLC tissues. The expression levels of BIN1 and PD-L1 were significantly related to the tumor, lymph node and metastasis grade (TNM) stage, invasion range and lymph node metastasis. Simultaneously, for NSCLC patients, the expression statuses of BIN1 and PD-L1 might be independent prognostic factors. Furthermore, the expression of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was positively associated with BIN1 expression and negatively related to PD-L1 expression in NSCLC tissues. Importantly, we showed that PD-L1 was under the control of BIN1. In addition, the overexpression of BIN1 could inhibit the c-MYC and epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent PD-L1 expression and reverse the suppressive immuno-microenvironment in vivo. Taken together, our findings indicated that BIN1 restoration in NSCLC could reverse PD-L1-mediated immune escape by inactivating the c-MYC and EGFR/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

  9. Analysis of binning of normals for spherical harmonic cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Robert L.; Cree, Michael J.; Dorrington, Adrian A.

    2012-03-01

    Spherical harmonic cross-correlation is a robust registration technique that uses the normals of two overlapping point clouds to bring them into coarse rotational alignment. This registration technique however has a high computational cost as spherical harmonics need to be calculated for every normal. By binning the normals, the computational efficiency is improved as the spherical harmonics can be pre-computed and cached at each bin location. In this paper we evaluate the efficiency and accuracy of the equiangle grid, icosahedron subdivision and the Fibonacci spiral, an approach we propose. It is found that the equiangle grid has the best efficiency as it can perform direct binning, followed by the Fibonacci spiral and then the icosahedron, all of which decrease the computational cost compared to no binning. The Fibonacci spiral produces the highest achieved accuracy of the three approaches while maintaining a low number of bins. The number of bins allowed by the equiangle grid and icosahedron are much more restrictive than the Fibonacci spiral. The performed analysis shows that the Fibonacci spiral can perform as well as the original cross-correlation algorithm without binning, while also providing a significant improvement in computational efficiency.

  10. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and communication technologies for solid waste bin and truck monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Arebey, Maher; Begum, R A; Basri, Hassan

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with a system of integration of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and communication technologies for solid waste bin and truck monitoring system. RFID, GPS, GPRS and GIS along with camera technologies have been integrated and developed the bin and truck intelligent monitoring system. A new kind of integrated theoretical framework, hardware architecture and interface algorithm has been introduced between the technologies for the successful implementation of the proposed system. In this system, bin and truck database have been developed such a way that the information of bin and truck ID, date and time of waste collection, bin status, amount of waste and bin and truck GPS coordinates etc. are complied and stored for monitoring and management activities. The results showed that the real-time image processing, histogram analysis, waste estimation and other bin information have been displayed in the GUI of the monitoring system. The real-time test and experimental results showed that the performance of the developed system was stable and satisfied the monitoring system with high practicability and validity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing call centers’ success:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham A. Baraka

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a model to evaluate the performance of call centers based on the Delone and McLean Information Systems success model. A number of indicators are identified to track the call center’s performance. Mapping of the proposed indicators to the six dimensions of the D&M model is presented. A Weighted Call Center Performance Index is proposed to assess the call center performance; the index is used to analyze the effect of the identified indicators. Policy-Weighted approach was used to assume the weights with an analysis of different weights for each dimension. The analysis of the different weights cases gave priority to the User satisfaction and net Benefits dimension as the two outcomes from the system. For the input dimensions, higher priority was given to the system quality and the service quality dimension. Call centers decision makers can use the tool to tune the different weights in order to reach the objectives set by the organization. Multiple linear regression analysis was used in order to provide a linear formula for the User Satisfaction dimension and the Net Benefits dimension in order to be able to forecast the values for these two dimensions as function of the other dimensions

  12. Enhanced nurse call systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    This Evaluation focuses on high-end computerized nurse call systems--what we call enhanced systems. These are highly flexible systems that incorporate microprocessor and communications technologies to expand the capabilities of the nurse call function. Enhanced systems, which vary in configuration from one installation to the next, typically consist of a basic system that provides standard nurse call functionality and a combination of additional enhancements that provide the added functionality the facility desires. In this study, we examine the features that distinguish enhanced nurse call systems from nonenhanced systems, focusing on their application and benefit to healthcare facilities. We evaluated seven systems to determine how well they help (1) improve patient care, as well as increase satisfaction with the care provided, and (2) improve caregiver efficiency, as well as increase satisfaction with the work environment. We found that all systems meet these objectives, but not all systems perform equally well for all implementations. Our ratings will help facilities identify those systems that offer the most effective features for their intended use. The study also includes a Technology Management Guide to help readers (1) determine whether they'll benefit from the capabilities offered by enhanced systems and (2) target a system for purchase and equip the system for optimum performance and cost-effective operation.

  13. BBCA: Improving the scalability of *BEAST using random binning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Théo; Mirarab, Siavash; Warnow, Tandy

    2014-01-01

    Species tree estimation can be challenging in the presence of gene tree conflict due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), which can occur when the time between speciation events is short relative to the population size. Of the many methods that have been developed to estimate species trees in the presence of ILS, *BEAST, a Bayesian method that co-estimates the species tree and gene trees given sequence alignments on multiple loci, has generally been shown to have the best accuracy. However, *BEAST is extremely computationally intensive so that it cannot be used with large numbers of loci; hence, *BEAST is not suitable for genome-scale analyses. We present BBCA (boosted binned coalescent-based analysis), a method that can be used with *BEAST (and other such co-estimation methods) to improve scalability. BBCA partitions the loci randomly into subsets, uses *BEAST on each subset to co-estimate the gene trees and species tree for the subset, and then combines the newly estimated gene trees together using MP-EST, a popular coalescent-based summary method. We compare time-restricted versions of BBCA and *BEAST on simulated datasets, and show that BBCA is at least as accurate as *BEAST, and achieves better convergence rates for large numbers of loci. Phylogenomic analysis using *BEAST is currently limited to datasets with a small number of loci, and analyses with even just 100 loci can be computationally challenging. BBCA uses a very simple divide-and-conquer approach that makes it possible to use *BEAST on datasets containing hundreds of loci. This study shows that BBCA provides excellent accuracy and is highly scalable.

  14. Bin1 is linked to metastatic potential and chemosensitivity in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaoling; Hoelz, Derek J; Kumar, Hari R; Sandoval, John A; Rescorla, Frederick J; Hickey, Robert J; Malkas, Linda H

    2009-09-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. At the time of diagnosis, the tumor has metastasized in as many as 7 of 10 cases, and survival in high-risk patients remains poor. Accurate classification of high-risk patients is very important since this determines treatment plan, and although a consensus risk classification system has been established for NB, it contains few specific molecular markers that account for aggressive nature and metastatic potential of the tumor. Bin1 expression is reduced in breast, NB, and other cancer types and the reduction correlates with high-risk clinical features. Here we hypothesize that Bin1 has an inhibitory role in metastasis, and therefore decrease in its expression may be a marker of high-risk NB. Initially, breast cancer and NB cell lines derived from metastasis were examined for Bin1 expression. Then, a stable Bin1-overexpressing NB cell line was created and evaluated for in vitro metastatic behaviors using anoikis, invasion, and migration assays, and chemoresponsiveness using MTT assay. Reduced Bin1 was detected in all cancer cell lines examined, and forced Bin1 overexpression increased NB cell anoikis and enhanced the cell killing by doxorubicin. However, Bin1 overexpression did not significantly affect cell invasion, motility, or proliferation. Bin1 appears to function as a metastasis suppressor and chemosensitizer in NB, and resistance to anoikis may be an important metastatic mechanism. Thus, Bin1 expression status could serve as a marker for metastatic potential and chemosensitivity thereby allowing for more accurate classifications of high-risk NB patients. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Regulation of the interaction between the neuronal BIN1 isoform 1 and Tau proteins - role of the SH3 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Idir; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Sottejeau, Yoann; Lippens, Guy; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Landrieu, Isabelle

    2017-10-01

    Bridging integrator 1 (bin1) gene is a genetic determinant of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been reported to modulate Alzheimer's pathogenesis through pathway(s) involving Tau. The functional impact of Tau/BIN1 interaction as well as the molecular details of this interaction are still not fully resolved. As a consequence, how BIN1 through its interaction with Tau affects AD risk is also still not determined. To progress in this understanding, interaction of Tau with two BIN1 isoforms was investigated using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. 1 H, 15 N spectra showed that the C-terminal SH3 domain of BIN1 isoform 1 (BIN1Iso1) is not mobile in solution but locked with the core of the protein. In contrast, the SH3 domain of BIN1 isoform 9 (BIN1Iso9) behaves as an independent mobile domain. This reveals an equilibrium between close and open conformations for the SH3 domain. Interestingly, a 334-376 peptide from the clathrin and AP-2-binding domain (CLAP) domain of BIN1Iso1, which contains a SH3-binding site, is able to compete with BIN1-SH3 intramolecular interaction. For both BIN1 isoforms, the SH3 domain can interact with Tau(210-240) sequence. Tau(210-240) peptide can indeed displace the intramolecular interaction of the BIN1-SH3 of BIN1Iso1 and form a complex with the released domain. The measured Kd were in agreement with a stronger affinity of Tau peptide. Both CLAP and Tau peptides occupied the same surface on the BIN1-SH3 domain, showing that their interaction is mutually exclusive. These results emphasize an additional level of complexity in the regulation of the interaction between BIN1 and Tau dependent of the BIN1 isoforms. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. GeneBins: a database for classifying gene expression data, with application to plant genome arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiller Georg

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To interpret microarray experiments, several ontological analysis tools have been developed. However, current tools are limited to specific organisms. Results We developed a bioinformatics system to assign the probe set sequences of any organism to a hierarchical functional classification modelled on KEGG ontology. The GeneBins database currently supports the functional classification of expression data from four Affymetrix arrays; Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Glycine max and Medicago truncatula. An online analysis tool to identify relevant functions is also provided. Conclusion GeneBins provides resources to interpret gene expression results from microarray experiments. It is available at http://bioinfoserver.rsbs.anu.edu.au/utils/GeneBins/

  17. BIN1 is reduced and Cav1.2 trafficking is impaired in human failing cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ting-Ting; Smyth, James W; Chu, Kevin Y; Vogan, Jacob M; Fong, Tina S; Jensen, Brian C; Fang, Kun; Halushka, Marc K; Russell, Stuart D; Colecraft, Henry; Hoopes, Charles W; Ocorr, Karen; Chi, Neil C; Shaw, Robin M

    2012-05-01

    Heart failure is a growing epidemic, and a typical aspect of heart failure pathophysiology is altered calcium transients. Normal cardiac calcium transients are initiated by Cav1.2 channels at cardiac T tubules. Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) is a membrane scaffolding protein that causes Cav1.2 to traffic to T tubules in healthy hearts. The mechanisms of Cav1.2 trafficking in heart failure are not known. To study BIN1 expression and its effect on Cav1.2 trafficking in failing hearts. Intact myocardium and freshly isolated cardiomyocytes from nonfailing and end-stage failing human hearts were used to study BIN1 expression and Cav1.2 localization. To confirm Cav1.2 surface expression dependence on BIN1, patch-clamp recordings were performed of Cav1.2 current in cell lines with and without trafficking-competent BIN1. Also, in adult mouse cardiomyocytes, surface Cav1.2 and calcium transients were studied after small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of BIN1. For a functional readout in intact heart, calcium transients and cardiac contractility were analyzed in a zebrafish model with morpholino-mediated knockdown of BIN1. BIN1 expression is significantly decreased in failing cardiomyocytes at both mRNA (30% down) and protein (36% down) levels. Peripheral Cav1.2 is reduced to 42% by imaging, and a biochemical T-tubule fraction of Cav1.2 is reduced to 68%. The total calcium current is reduced to 41% in a cell line expressing a nontrafficking BIN1 mutant. In mouse cardiomyocytes, BIN1 knockdown decreases surface Cav1.2 and impairs calcium transients. In zebrafish hearts, BIN1 knockdown causes a 75% reduction in calcium transients and severe ventricular contractile dysfunction. The data indicate that BIN1 is significantly reduced in human heart failure, and this reduction impairs Cav1.2 trafficking, calcium transients, and contractility. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using a combination of binning strategies and taxonomic approaches to unravel the anaerobic digestion microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campanaro, Stefano; Treu, Laura; Kougias, Panagiotis

    of scaffolds comprehensive of thousands genome sequences, but the binning of these scaffolds into OTUs representative of microbial genomes is still challenging. In the attempt to obtain a deep characterization of the anaerobic digestion microbiome, different metagenomic binning approaches were integrated...... into a new tool. To facilitate the binning process, this tool integrates two strategies; the taxonomic assignment of scaffolds and the clustering based on coverage values. By applying this procedure, 373 high quality genomes involved in the anaerobic digestion process have been extracted and annotated using...

  19. Role of cysteine at positions 67, 161 and 241 of a Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin BinB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyos, Patcharaporn; Soonsanga, Sumarin; Boonserm, Panadda; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang

    2010-01-01

    Binary toxin consisting of BinA and BinB from Bacillus sphaericus is toxic to mosquito larvae. BinB is responsible for specific binding to the larval gut cell membrane while BinA is crucial for toxicity. To investigate functional role of cysteine in BinB, three cysteine residues at positions 67, 161, and 241 were replaced by alanine or serine. Mutations at these positions did not affect protein production and overall structure of BinB. These cysteine residues are not involved in disulfide bond formation between BinB molecules. Mosquito-larvicidal assays revealed that C67 and C161 are essential for toxicity, whereas C241 is not. Mutations at C67 and C161 resulted in weaker BinA-BinB interaction. The loss of toxicity may be due to the reduction of interactions between BinA and BinB or BinB and its receptor. C67 and C161 could also play a part during conformational changes or internalization of the binary toxin into the target cell. [BMB reports 2010; 43(1): 23-28].

  20. Call Me Sisyphus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Gordon MacKenzie (au- thor of Orbiting the Giant Hairball: A Corporate Fool’s Guide to Surviving with Grace) calls a “plum tree structure” and looked at...ghting.” Editor’s note: In Greek mythology , Sisyphus was condemned to an eternity of punishment in Hades that consisted of rolling a huge boulder to

  1. CALLING AQUARIUM LOVERS...

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN's anemones will soon be orphans. We are looking for someone willing to look after the aquarium in the main building, for one year. If you are interested, or if you would like more information, please call 73830. (The anemones living in the aquarium thank you in anticipation.)

  2. Post-call delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Raphael

    2016-12-01

    Although frequently diagnosed in hospital in-patients, delirium is often recognised but under-reported in the housestaff population. It is estimated that more than 90% of housestaff will experience regular episodes of post-call delirium. This paper identifies diagnostic criteria and discusses approaches to treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  3. A call for surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Jensen, Christian S.; Tan, Kian-Lee

    2012-01-01

    The database field is experiencing an increasing need for survey papers. We call on more researchers to set aside time for this important writing activity. The database field is growing in population, scope of topics covered, and the number of papers published. Each year, thousands of new papers ...

  4. CIFSRF 2015 Call Document

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    wmanchur

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... Cross-cutting priorities. All proposals seeking funds from this call shall clearly speak to the three CIFSRF cross-cutting priorities: a. Gender equality. Proposals need to demonstrate how the project will include women as important players in the scaling up of innovations, as well as key clients and end users.

  5. Robust 3D object localization and pose estimation for random bin picking with the 3DMaMa algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Øystein; Thielemann, Jens T.; Berge, Asbjørn; Sommerfelt, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Enabling robots to automatically locate and pick up randomly placed and oriented objects from a bin is an important challenge in factory automation, replacing tedious and heavy manual labor. A system should be able to recognize and locate objects with a predefined shape and estimate the position with the precision necessary for a gripping robot to pick it up. We describe a system that consists of a structured light instrument for capturing 3D data and a robust approach for object location and pose estimation. The method does not depend on segmentation of range images, but instead searches through pairs of 2D manifolds to localize candidates for object match. This leads to an algorithm that is not very sensitive to scene complexity or the number of objects in the scene. Furthermore, the strategy for candidate search is easily reconfigurable to arbitrary objects. Experiments reported in this paper show the utility of the method on a general random bin picking problem, in this paper exemplified by localization of car parts with random position and orientation. Full pose estimation is done in less than 380 ms per image. We believe that the method is applicable for a wide range of industrial automation problems where precise localization of 3D objects in a scene is needed.

  6. Osama bin Laden - elus või siiski ammu surnud? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2009-01-01

    USA on terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda juhti Osama bin Ladenit jahitud juba kaheksa aastat, kuid tulemusteta. Vandenõuteoreetikute arvates on ta ammu surnud, kuid USA Luure Keskagentuuri juhi arvates varjab ta end Pakistanis

  7. An Efficient Method of HOG Feature Extraction Using Selective Histogram Bin and PCA Feature Reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LAI, C. Q; TEOH, S. S

    2016-01-01

    .... In this paper, a time-efficient HOG-based feature extraction method is proposed. The method uses selective number of histogram bins to perform feature extraction on different regions in the image...

  8. VO1/VO2 MARS IRTM BINNED DATA AND DERIVED CLOUDS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, derived from the Viking Orbiter Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data set, has been binned in both space and time. It consists of two complementary...

  9. Meeting the EU recycling targets by introducing a 2-compartment bin to households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Scheutz, Charlotte; Møller, Jacob

    A Danish municipality has introduced a 2-compartment bin in the waste collection scheme, this bin should increase recycling of dry household recyclables. An excessive waste sorting campaign was conducted and the efficiency of the bin assessed. The waste sorting campaign yielded a full waste...... composition with focus on the dry recyclables, and it was used to determine wheter the 2-compartment bin could fulfill the EU recycling targets for 2020. Only 2 of 4 calculation methods for meeting the EU targets were applicable and only one of these fulfilled the EU target. Eventhough the EU recycling...... targets can be fulfilled, there is still room for improvement (increase source separation), especially for hard plastic and metals....

  10. Evaluation of methods for selecting the midventilation bin in 4DCT scans of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ditte Eklund; Persson, Gitte Fredberg; Brink, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background. In lung cancer radiotherapy, planning on the midventilation (MidV) bin of a four-dimensional (4D) CT scan can reduce the systematic errors introduced by respiratory tumour motion compared to conventional CT. In this study four different methods for MidV bin selection...... are evaluated. Material and methods. The study is based on 4DCT scans of 19 patients with a total of 23 peripheral lung tumours having peak-to-peak displacement ≥ 5 mm in at least one of the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP) or cranio-caudal (CC) directions. For each tumour, the MidV bin was selected...... based on: 1) visual evaluation of tumour displacement; 2) rigid registration of tumour position; 3) diaphragm displacement in the CC direction; and 4) carina displacement in the CC direction. Determination of the MidV bin based on the displacement of the manually delineated gross tumour volume (GTV...

  11. SU-F-T-253: Volumetric Comparison Between 4D CT Amplitude and Phase Binning Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, G; Ma, R; Reyngold, M [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Commack, NY (United States); Li, X; Xiong, W; Gewanter, R [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Rockville Center, NY (United States); Yorke, E; Mageras, G; Wu, A; Deasy, J; Hunt, M [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Tang, X [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, West Harrison, NY (United States); Chan, M [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Motion artifact in 4DCT images can affect radiation treatment quality. To identify the most robust and accurate binning method, we compare the volume difference between targets delineated on amplitude and phase binned 4DCT scans. Methods: Varian RPM system and CT scanner were used to acquire 4DCTs of a Quasar phantom with embedded cubic and spherical objects having superior-inferior motion. Eight patients’ respiration waveforms were used to drive the phantom. The 4DCT scan was reconstructed into 10 phase and 10 amplitude bins (2 mm slices). A scan of the static phantom was also acquired. For each waveform, sphere and cube volumes were generated automatically on each phase using HU thresholding. Phase (amplitude) ITVs were the union of object volumes over all phase (amplitude) binned images. The sphere and cube volumes measured in the static phantom scan were V{sub sphere}=4.19cc and V{sub cube}=27.0cc. Volume difference (VD) and dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of the ITVs, and mean volume error (MVE) defined as the average target volume percentage difference between each phase image and the static image, were used to evaluate the performance of amplitude and phase binning. Results: Averaged over the eight breathing traces, the VD and DSC of the internal target volume (ITV) between amplitude and phase binning were 3.4%±3.2% (mean ± std) and 95.9%±2.1% for sphere; 2.1%±3.3% and 98.0% ±1.5% for cube, respectively.For all waveforms, the average sphere MVE of amplitude and phase binning was 6.5% ± 5.0% and 8.2%±6.3%, respectively; and the average cube MVE of amplitude and phase binning was 5.7%±3.5%and 12.9%±8.9%, respectively. Conclusion: ITV volume and spatial overlap as assessed by VD and DSC are similar between amplitude and phase binning. Compared to phase binning, amplitude binning results in lower MVE suggesting it is less susceptible to motion artifact.

  12. Afghanistan, the Taliban, and Osama bin Laden: The Background to September 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On May 1, 2011, a group of U.S. soldiers boarded helicopters at a base in Afghanistan, hoping to find a man named Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden, the leader of the al Qaeda terrorist network, was responsible for a number of terrorist attacks around the world, including those of September 11, 2001, that killed nearly 3,000 people in the United States.…

  13. Genetic patterns in European geometrid moths revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Hausmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems, a method that supports automated, rapid species delineation and identification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study provides a DNA barcode library for 219 of the 249 European geometrid moth species (88% in five selected subfamilies. The data set includes COI sequences for 2130 specimens. Most species (93% were found to possess diagnostic barcode sequences at the European level while only three species pairs (3% were genetically indistinguishable in areas of sympatry. As a consequence, 97% of the European species we examined were unequivocally discriminated by barcodes within their natural areas of distribution. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BINs and traditionally recognized species for 67% of these species. Another 17% of the species (15 pairs, three triads shared BINs, while specimens from the remaining species (18% were divided among two or more BINs. Five of these species are mixtures, both sharing and splitting BINs. For 82% of the species with two or more BINs, the genetic splits involved allopatric populations, many of which have previously been hypothesized to represent distinct species or subspecies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and illustrates the potential of the BIN system to characterize formal genetic units independently of an existing classification. This suggests the system can be used to efficiently assess the biodiversity of large, poorly known assemblages of organisms. For the moths examined in this study, cases of discordance between traditionally recognized species and BINs arose from several causes including overlooked species, synonymy, and cases where DNA barcodes revealed

  14. Entwicklung von energieautarken, intelligenten Ladehilfsmitteln am Beispiel des inBin

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerich, Jan; Roidl, Moritz; Bich, Tobias; ten Hompel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Das autonome, intelligente Ladehilfsmittel verkörpert die Idee des Internets der Dinge in der Intralogistik in Reinform. Am Beispiel des inBin wird das Energy-Harvesting in der Intralogistik betrachtet und gezeigt, dass ein Behälter mit komplexen logistischen Funktionen unter realistischer Umgebungsbeleuchtung durch Solarzellen betrieben werden kann. The autonomous and intelligent load carrier embodies the idea of the Internet of things in intra-logistics. Using the example of the inBin, t...

  15. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep.......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...

  16. A Call for Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmachari, Debahuti

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new development can be identified within the civil society in Malaysia. A development that has resulted in a general call for justice, voiced through coalition groups that cut across categories of affiliation. This development is triggered by an increasing inculcation of Islamic values into the political system, which has interfered with the understanding of Malaysia as a country that can provide a framework for coexistence within a multicultural society. This thesis seeks ...

  17. Multimodality and CALL

    OpenAIRE

    Guichon, Nicolas; Cohen, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This chapter explores the issues pertaining to multimodality, which has always been considered as a defining characteristic of CALL (Chapelle 2009). The chapter begins by critically examining the various definitions of multimodality, especially in the field of second language acquisition and cognitive psychology and explores the distinction between mode, modality and channel. With reference to specific studies conducted in the field, we then investigate the potential o...

  18. Potential genetic biomarkers in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease: APOE and BIN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Gülhan; Gündüz, Esra; Acar, Muradiye; Hatipoğlu, Ömer Faruk; Acar, Burcu; Ilhan, Atilla; Gündüz, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is triggered by interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. The APOE gene E4 allele is the best-known risk factor for AD, yet it represents a small ratio of genetic factors. According to genome-wide association studies, the BIN1 gene is the second important risk factor for AD, following the APOE gene. We aimed to identify a novel biomarker indicating susceptibility to AD by investigating APOE alleles and BIN1 gene polymorphisms in a Turkish population. Fifty-three AD patients and 56 controls were included to examine polymorphism and allele frequency of the APOE and BIN1 genes. Genomic DNAs were isolated from whole blood by SDS/proteinase K treatment, phenol-chloroform extraction, and ethanol precipitation. RFLP was done for identification of polymorphisms in the APOE gene and allele-specific PCR was used for the BIN1 gene. Frequency of the APOE E4 allele was higher in the AD patient group, while the frequency of the E2 allele was higher in controls. The E4/E4 genotype was detected in the AD patient group, while this genotype was not observed in the controls. The frequencies of BIN1 alleles were similar in both groups. There was a strong association between AD and the APOE E4 allele, while no such relation was observed with BIN1 gene polymorphism.

  19. Ultrasound call detection in capybara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene S.C. Nogueira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The vocal repertoire of some animal species has been considered a non-invasive tool to predict distress reactivity. In rats ultrasound emissions were reported as distress indicator. Capybaras[ vocal repertoire was reported recently and seems to have ultrasound calls, but this has not yet been confirmed. Thus, in order to check if a poor state of welfare was linked to ultrasound calls in the capybara vocal repertoire, the aim of this study was to track the presence of ultrasound emissions in 11 animals under three conditions: 1 unrestrained; 2 intermediately restrained, and 3 highly restrained. The ultrasound track identified frequencies in the range of 31.8±3.5 kHz in adults and 33.2±8.5 kHz in juveniles. These ultrasound frequencies occurred only when animals were highly restrained, physically restrained or injured during handling. We concluded that these calls with ultrasound components are related to pain and restraint because they did not occur when animals were free of restraint. Thus we suggest that this vocalization may be used as an additional tool to assess capybaras[ welfare.

  20. An evaluation of fall speed characteristics in bin and bulk microphysical schemes and use of bin fall speeds to improve forecasts of warm-season rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligo, Eric A.

    2011-12-01

    As computer power increases and model grid spacing decreases, more emphasis will be put on model microphysics to produce accurate forecasts of rainfall including that from warm-season mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Some believe bin microphysical schemes are far superior to the commonly used bulk microphysical schemes because of their ability to more accurately depict certain processes like sedimentation. However, bin schemes are computationally inefficient and there are no plans in the near future to implement such schemes operationally. Instead, this study proposes to use a technique in Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Advanced Research WRF (ARW) simulations that attempts to improve bulk microphysical forecasts of warm-season MCSs by harnessing the intrinsic characteristics of bin fall speed distributions that are important for the sedimentation process provided the fall speed characteristics in bin schemes differ from those in commonly used bulk schemes. Fall speed distributions of rain, snow, graupel and cloud ice were compared between a bin scheme and three bulk schemes, and were found to be different between the different schemes. The microphysical processes that contributed the largest to the microphysical budget in the bin scheme often occurred with the slower fall speeds, but the opposite was true for the bulk schemes. There was evidence of size-sorting in the bin and Thompson bulk schemes, a naturally occurring phenomenon. This feature was not simulated in the WSM6 and Lin schemes and can be attributed to those schemes being single moment and the Thompson scheme being double moment in ice and rain. Since the characteristics of the bin fall speeds were different from those in the bulk schemes, bin fall speeds were used to modify bulk scheme fall speeds using a probability matching technique that was developed to improve the prediction of warm-season MCSs. The sensitivity of different convective morphologies to the fall speed modifications was also

  1. To be called upon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    2015-01-01

    of the responses to the Arab spring among Danish Muslims, this paper will offer some preliminary reflections on how we can understand ‘the mass’ and an ‘intimacy of the mass’ when the mass is no longer a crowd. According to Marx the mass grows quantitatively from the local to the global, but what happens......When Danish Muslims explain what made them decide to travel to the Middle East and take up arms in the wake of the Arab Spring, they say that they were called upon. Displayed on videos on social media, women and sometimes children begged them to come to their rescue. In light of some...

  2. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  3. CALL FOR PARTICIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jimenez M.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available TRIPLE HELIX VII 7TH BIENNIAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON UNIVERSITY, INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT LINKAGES “THE ROLE OF TRIPLE HELIX IN THE GLOBAL AGENDA FOR INNOVATION, COMPETITIVENESS AND SUSTAINABILITY” UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE, GLASGOW, SCOTLAND 17-19 JUNE 2009 CALL FOR PARTICIPATION CLOSING DATE FOR ABSTRACT SUBMISSION – 14 NOVEMBER 2008 Triple Helix VII is an important occasion offering a major platform for the exchange of ideas and experiences - academics will share their insights into the dynamics of collaboration; business and industry will review their plans and indicate future directions; and for government decision makers, will explore new avenues for supporting developments, analysing innovation frameworks and their impact on national and regional economies. A Call for Papers is attached, and further details can be obtained from the Triple Helix VII website: http://www.triple-helix-7.org. We hope the Conference will be of interest to you and look forward to seeing you in Glasgow next year taking part in the Triple Helix VII proceedings. Sheila Forbes Conference Administrator Triple Helix VII

  4. MEDICAL SERVICE - URGENT CALLS

    CERN Document Server

    Service Médical

    2000-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA: EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME: Open 24h/24h 748-49-50 AMG- Association Of Geneva Doctors: Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin 719-61-11 EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 CHILDREN'S EMERGENCIES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112   FRANCE: EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ...

  5. Call for volunteers

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory for organizing the two exceptional Open days.CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory’s personnel to help with the organisation of these two exceptional Open Days, for the visits of CERN personnel and their families on the Saturday and above all for the major public Open Day on the Sunday. As for the 50th anniversary in 2004, the success of the Open Days will depend on a large number of volunteers. All those working for CERN as well as retired members of the personnel can contribute to making this event a success. Many guides will be needed at the LHC points, for the activities at the surface and to man the reception and information points. The aim of these major Open Days is to give the local populations the opportunity to discover the fruits of almost 20 years of work carried out at CERN. We are hoping for some 2000 volunteers for the two Open Days, on the Saturday from 9 a.m. to ...

  6. Shapes on a plane: Evaluating the impact of projection distortion on spatial binning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Sarah E.; Strebe, Daniel “daan”; Finn, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    One method for working with large, dense sets of spatial point data is to aggregate the measure of the data into polygonal containers, such as political boundaries, or into regular spatial bins such as triangles, squares, or hexagons. When mapping these aggregations, the map projection must inevitably distort relationships. This distortion can impact the reader’s ability to compare count and density measures across the map. Spatial binning, particularly via hexagons, is becoming a popular technique for displaying aggregate measures of point data sets. Increasingly, we see questionable use of the technique without attendant discussion of its hazards. In this work, we discuss when and why spatial binning works and how mapmakers can better understand the limitations caused by distortion from projecting to the plane. We introduce equations for evaluating distortion’s impact on one common projection (Web Mercator) and discuss how the methods used generalize to other projections. While we focus on hexagonal binning, these same considerations affect spatial bins of any shape, and more generally, any analysis of geographic data performed in planar space.

  7. Bin mapping of genomic and EST-derived SSRs in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Silva, I; Eduardo, I; Blanca, J; Esteras, C; Picó, B; Nuez, F; Arús, P; Garcia-Mas, J; Monforte, Antonio José

    2008-12-01

    We report the development of 158 primer pairs flanking SSR motifs in genomic (gSSR) and EST (EST-SSR) melon sequences, all yielding polymorphic bands in melon germplasm, except one that was polymorphic only in Cucurbita species. A similar polymorphism level was found among EST-SSRs and gSSRs, between dimeric and trimeric EST-SSRs, and between EST-SSRs placed in the open reading frame or any of the 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions. Correlation between SSR length and polymorphism was only found for dinucleotide EST-SSRs located within the untranslated regions, but not for trinucleotide EST-SSRs. Transferability of EST-SSRs to Cucurbita species was assayed and 12.7% of the primer pairs amplified at least in one species, although only 5.4% were polymorphic. A set of 14 double haploid lines from the cross between the cultivar "Piel de Sapo" and the accession PI161375 were selected for the bin mapping approach in melon. One hundred and twenty-one SSR markers were newly mapped. The position of 46 SSR loci was also verified by genotyping the complete population. A final bin-map was constructed including 80 RFLPs, 212 SSRs, 3 SNPs and the Nsv locus, distributed in 122 bins with an average bin length of 10.2 cM and a maximum bin length of 33 cM. Map density was 4.2 cM/marker or 5.9 cM/SSR.

  8. Robotic vision system for random bin picking with dual-arm robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sangseung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Random bin picking is one of the most challenging industrial robotics applications available. It constitutes a complicated interaction between the vision system, robot, and control system. For a packaging operation requiring a pick-and-place task, the robot system utilized should be able to perform certain functions for recognizing the applicable target object from randomized objects in a bin. In this paper, we introduce a robotic vision system for bin picking using industrial dual-arm robots. The proposed system recognizes the best object from randomized target candidates based on stereo vision, and estimates the position and orientation of the object. It then sends the result to the robot control system. The system was developed for use in the packaging process of cell phone accessories using dual-arm robots.

  9. Microbiological Assessment of Waste Bins Regarding Medical Waste Management in Health Care Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Örgev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of medical waste is of great importance due to its potential environmental hazards and public health risks because improper disposal of medical waste may pose a significant threat to human and environmental health. In this study, it was aimed to carry out bacteriologic analyses of disinfected medical waste bins used in health institutions. 571 samples taken from disinfected medical waste bins were grown in sheep blood agar, EMB agar and Chrome orientation medium and reproduction results were evaluated. Reproduction was observed in 502 samples out of 571 and the reproducing bacteria were E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, Proteus and S. Saprophyticus. Considering reproduction results of samples taken from medical waste bins, it becomes necessary to pay more attention to disinfection procedures and conform to standard infection prevention measures.

  10. Discovering bin-Laden’s Replacement in al-Qaeda, using Social Network Analysis: A Methodological Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Wu; Rebecca Carleton; Garth Davies

    2014-01-01

    The removal of Osama bin-Laden created a leadership void within al-Qaeda. Despite the group’s autonomous cell structure, an authorative figure remains essential for promoting and disseminating al-Qaeda’s ideology. An appropriate replacement should exhibit traits comparable to bin-Laden and have similar positioning within the structure of the group. Using a media-based sample and social network analysis, this study attempts to uncover the most probable successor for bin-Laden by ex...

  11. LD_bin Data (Phase II) - D-HaploDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne: SNPs in LD bin. tagSNPs and best tagSNPs (*) are marked. - LD_BIN_BOUNDARIES:...ng: flag that indicates tagSNP - besttag: flag that indicates Best tagSNP - SNPID: unique ID given by Affyme...trix (e.g. ld_bin 2R80M5Z_10_1 ; RSID rs16930466 ; tagging 1 ; besttag 0 ; SNPID

  12. LD_bin Data (Phase III) - D-HaploDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available line: SNPs in LD bin. tagSNPs and best tagSNPs (*) are marked. - LD_BIN_BOUNDARI...g: flag that indicates tagSNP - besttag: flag that indicates Best tagSNP - SNPID: unique ID given by Affymet...rix (e.g. ld_bin 3R80M5Z_10_2 ; RSID rs16930466 ; tagging 1 ; besttag 0 ; SNPID S

  13. Propagation and survival of frequency-bin entangled photons in metallic nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olislager Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the design of two plasmonic nanostructures and the propagation of frequency-bin entangled photons through them. The experimental findings clearly show the robustness of frequency-bin entanglement, which survives after interactions with both a hybrid plasmo-photonic structure, and a nano-pillar array. These results confirm that quantum states can be encoded into the collective motion of a many-body electronic system without demolishing their quantum nature, and pave the way towards applications of plasmonic structures in quantum information.

  14. Solar-Powered Compaction Garbage Bins in Public Areas: A Preliminary Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Duc Nghiem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An excel-based model was developed to evaluate economic and environmental benefits of the solar-powered compaction garbage bins in public areas in Australia. Input data were collected from Brisbane and Wollongong City councils, and Sydney Olympic Park. The results demonstrate that solar-powered compaction garbage bins would provide environmental benefits in all scenarios. However, results of the economic analysis of the three studied areas varied significantly. The unique situation of Sydney Olympic Park made implementation in that facility particularly appealing. A lower monthly rental cost is needed for the implementation of this novel waste management practice.

  15. The Opening of the Hamad Bin Khalifa Civilisation Center in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian Arly

    2014-01-01

    In Nørrebro – a large white building with a cupola and a 20-meter high minaret topped with a small crescent marks the site of the newly built mosque, the Hamad Bin Khalifa Civilisation Center in Copenhagen, which is now the largest Scandinavian mosque. This is the story about the opening of the f......In Nørrebro – a large white building with a cupola and a 20-meter high minaret topped with a small crescent marks the site of the newly built mosque, the Hamad Bin Khalifa Civilisation Center in Copenhagen, which is now the largest Scandinavian mosque. This is the story about the opening...

  16. Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) protein expression increases in the Alzheimer's disease brain and correlates with neurofibrillary tangle pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Christopher J; Davis, Paulina R; Beckett, Tina L; Platt, Thomas L; Webb, Robin L; Head, Elizabeth; Murphy, M Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome wide association studies have implicated bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) as a late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility gene. There are at least 15 different known isoforms of BIN1, with many being expressed in the brain including the longest isoform (iso1), which is brain-specific and localizes to axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier. It is currently unknown what role BIN1 plays in AD. We analyzed BIN1 protein expression from a large number (n = 71) of AD cases and controls from five different brain regions (hippocampus, inferior parietal cortex, inferior temporal cortex, frontal cortex (BA9), and superior and middle temporal gyri). We found that the amount of the largest isoform of BIN1 was significantly reduced in the AD brain compared to age-matched controls, and smaller BIN1 isoforms were significantly increased. Further, BIN1 was significantly correlated with the amount of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology but not with either diffuse or neuritic plaques, or with the amount of amyloid-β peptide. BIN1 is known to be abnormally expressed in another human disease, myotonic dystrophy, which also features prominent NFT pathology. These data suggest that BIN1 is likely involved in AD as a modulator of NFT pathology, and that this role may extend to other human diseases that feature tau pathology.

  17. أمارة أحمد بن مكي في طرابلس (755_772هـ/1354_1370م Amarat Ahmed bin Makki in Tripoli\t(755-772 AH / 1354-1370 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. firas Saleem Hayawi أ.د.فراس سليم حياوي

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bani Mackie Pedigree return to their gandfather Mackie son of Faraj Bin Ziadahaa Allah ibnAbi-Al -Hassan bin Mohammed bin Ziadahaa Allah bin Al-Hussein who they plug the rulers of the Berbers. Ahmed bin Makki governs the city of Gabes, when occupied Genoa Tripoli, Vetost they have to edit, Fshartoa fifty thousand weight of gold process, before, and was sent to the Sultan Almareni dad Annan in Tunisia asked to pay the amount, but the Sultan tarry a bit, here emerged the role of Ahmed Ben McKay, who managed with the help of residents from paying the amount of Jnobin and entered the city of Tripoli after months of control, but the Sultan Marini Send money requested by Ahmed bin Makki Laird money taken from parents who apologized in turn for the recovery of their money by gallantry and chivalry, and therefore benefited from this money Emaar in Tripoli. Gabes was affiliated to Tunisia and this is over the Sultan Abu Annan to Tripoli Ahmed bin Makki, who continued to rule Tripoli until the year 766 AH, where he took his son Abdel-Rahman ruled the city. Ahmed bin Makki was loved by the people of Tripoli as a result of work carried out in the city after the evacuation of southerners. This research for the emirate of Ahmed bin Makki in the city of Tripoli and the work carried out in the city, adopted a research on a range of sources and references that dealt with the subject and by which we have tried to discuss Alrwabat to get to the historical truth in the simplest form.

  18. An Efficient Implementation of a Local Binning Algorithm for Digital Elevation Model Generation of LiDAR/ALSM Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Arrowsmith, J.; Crosby, C. J.; Jaeger-Frank, E.; Nandigam, V.; Memon, A.; Conner, J.; Baden, S. B.; Baru, C.

    2006-12-01

    The GEON LiDAR Workflow (GLW) project (http://www.geongrid.org/science/lidar.html) has enabled geoscientific communities to process and download large LiDAR (Light Distance And Ranging), or ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) datasets. The products, digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential representations of the landscape that are imported in various off-the-shelf geoscientific tools. So far, the GLW has utilized the regularized spline with tension interpolation algorithm for the DEM generation from GRASS GIS successfully for small (search area with user specified radius. For each node in a grid, five values are computed: the minimum, maximum, mean, and inverse distance weighted mean of the local points, and the number of points in the search area. The noble implementation technique can produce a grid containing those five values within O(N) time, where N denotes the size of the point cloud used. This implementation runs over 5 million points in 30 seconds in a single machine, which is about 100 times speedup relative to the O(N2) spline or related methods. Along with the original implementation, an out-of-core (memory) version of the local binning algorithm has also been developed. This implementation exploits secondary storage for saving intermediate results when the size of a grid exceeds that of memory. The large grid is split into several small pieces. During the computation, each piece is fetched from secondary storage to main memory one at a time when needed. This version can compute a DEM from 150 million points (in about 20 minutes), which is impossible in the spline interpolation and also in the original local binning algorithm implementation. In addition, the local binning algorithm computes useful products. The maximum values track the highest elevation points, which are usually recorded at the top of vegetation areas. On the other hand, the minimum values represent the information bounced from the ground, which is useful for meter-scale shrubbery

  19. Behavior based adaptive call predictor

    OpenAIRE

    Phithakkitnukoon, Santi; Dantu, Ram; Claxton, Rob; Eagle, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Predicting future calls can be the next advanced feature of the next-generation telecommunication networks as the service providers are looking to offer new services to their customers. Call prediction can be useful to many applications such as planning daily schedules, avoiding unwanted communications (e.g. voice spam), and resource planning in call centers. Predicting calls is a very challenging task. We believe that this is an emerging area of research in ambient intelligence where the ele...

  20. The Peril of Hasty Triumphalism and Osama bin Laden’s Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Lilli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On May 1, 2011 the headlines of a large number of newspapers and TV channels around the world were saying “justice has been done”. Those were the words used by the US President Barack Obama to announce to the world the killing of Osama bin Laden, the number one terrorist on the US most-wanted list.

  1. Effects of Outside Air Temperature on Movement of Phosphine Gas in Concrete Elevator Bins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies that measured the movement and concentration of phosphine gas in upright concrete bins over time indicated that fumigant movement was dictated by air currents, which in turn, were a function of the difference between the average grain temperature and the average outside air temperature durin...

  2. Performance evaluation of an ox-drawn ridging plough in a soil-bin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ox-drawn ridging plough was developed using the Godwin-Spoor narrow tine soil force prediction model. The plough was evaluated in a sandy loam soil in the soil-bin at Cranfield University, Silsoe. The objectives were to compare predicted with measured draught and vertical forces, and cross-sectional area of soil ...

  3. Sampling versus Random Binning for Multiple Descriptions of a Bandlimited Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashiach, Adam; Østergaard, Jan; Zamir, Ram

    2013-01-01

    Random binning is an efficient, yet complex, coding technique for the symmetric L-description source coding problem. We propose an alternative approach, that uses the quantized samples of a bandlimited source as "descriptions". By the Nyquist condition, the source can be reconstructed if enough s...

  4. 25 miljoni dollari küsimus : kus on bin Laden? / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2006-01-01

    Üks põhjusi, miks bin Ladenit pole suudetud tabada, on Pakistani ja Afganistani raskelt kulgev koostöö. Ühendriikide, Afganistani kui ka Pakistani ametnikud on enamasti ühel meelel, et al-Qaida juhi tabamisele jõuti kõige lähemale Tora Boras

  5. ANALISIS TINGKAT OPTIMASI ALGORITMA GENETIKA DALAM HUKUM KETETAPAN HARDY-WEINBERG PADA BIN PACKING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Noviar Panggabean

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak—Karna representasi abstrak dari beberapa sistem pengambilan keputusan yang nyata dalam kehidupan sehari hari membuat masalah optimasi kombinatorial umumnya sangat sulit untuk dipecahkan. Bin packing problem ialah solusi terbaik dalam mengatasi masalah optimasi kombinatorial, yang digunakan untuk mencari sebuah objek secara optimal dari sekelompok himpunan objek yang berhingga. Serangkaian pendekatan hybrid telah dikembangkan dalam hal ini untuk memecahkan masalah Bin Packing. Metaheuristik adalah salah satu pendekatan tingkat tinggi dalam memandu dalam memodifikasi beberapa metode heuristik lainnya untuk mencari tingkat optimasi yang lebih baik. Genetic Algorithm atau Algoritma Genetika juga merupakan metode metaheuristik yang digunakan untuk menyelesaikan berbagai masalah dalam hal peningkatan optimasi. Dalam algoritma genetika terdapat bermacam-macam varian. Dalam penelitian dipaparkan mengenai taksonomi dari algoritma genetika parallel (Parallel Genetic Algorithm yang memiliki kemampuan yang lebih baik dari algoritma genetika konvensional dalam hal kinerja dan skalabilitasnya. Tetapi algoritma genetika paralel ini hanya cocok untuk permasalahan jaringan komputer heterogen dan sistem terdistribusi. Berdasarkan penelitian yang sudah pernah dilakukan sebelumnya dan dari uraian diatas maka penulis tertarik untuk melakukan penelitian bagaimana menerapkan hukum ketetapan Hardy-Weinberg dari bidang biologi kedalam algoritma genetika melakukan analisis tingkat optimasi terhadap Bin Packing Problem..   Keywords— Genetic Algortihm, Hardy-Weinberg, Bin Packing Problem.

  6. The effect of stocking density and bin feeder space on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The effect of stocking density and bin feeder space on performance in pigs. G.A. Lavers# and N.S. Ferguson. School of Agricultural Sciences & Agribusiness, University of Natal, P Bag X01, Scottsville 3209. #Email: lavers@agric.unp.ac.za. Introduction. Pigs housed individually have been shown to have higher feed intakes ...

  7. Fisher matrix based predictions for measuring the ζ = 3.35 binned 21 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12

    HI bias bHI(k, z) in both k and z across 0.01 ≤ k ≤ 10 Mpc−1 and 0 ≤ z ≤ 6. .... In this paper, We have also made detailed foreground predictions for OWFA. ..... expect the cosmic variance to be maximum at the smallest k-bin and decrease.

  8. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  9. Effects of Number and Location of Bins on Plastic Recycling at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ryan T.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Hodde, Henry B.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of plastic bottles that consumers placed in appropriate recycling receptacles rather than trash bins was examined across 3 buildings on a university campus. We extended previous research on interventions to increase recycling by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location…

  10. Bin-Picking based on Harmonic Shape Contexts and Graph-Based Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Thomas B.; Kirkegaard, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    In this work we address the general bin-picking problem where 3D data is available. We apply Harmonic Shape Contexts (HSC) features since these are invariant to translation, scale, and 3D rotation. Each object is divided into a number of sub-models each represented by a number of HSC features...

  11. The effect of stocking density and bin feeder space on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of stocking density and bin feeder space on performance in pigs. G.A. Lavers, N.S. Ferguson. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science, 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 70-71). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the functional form of BinB binary toxin from Bacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisucharitpanit, Kanokporn; Yao, Min; Chimnaronk, Sarin; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Tanaka, Isao; Boonserm, Panadda

    2013-02-01

    The binary toxin from Bacillus sphaericus consists of two proteins, BinA and BinB, which work together to exert toxicity against mosquito larvae. BinB is proposed to be a receptor-binding domain and internalizes BinA into the midgut cells, resulting in toxicity via an unknown mechanism. The functional form of BinB has been successfully crystallized. The crystals of BinB diffracted to a resolution of 1.75 Å and belong to space group P6(2)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.2, c = 154.9 Å. Selenomethionine-substituted BinB (SeMetBinB) was prepared and crystallized for experimental phasing. The SeMetBinB crystal data were collected at a wavelength of 0.979 Å and diffracted to a resolution of 1.85 Å.

  13. Call Centre- Computer Telephone Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Call centre largely came into being as a result of consumerneeds converging with enabling technology- and by the companiesrecognising the revenue opportunities generated by meetingthose needs thereby increasing customer satisfaction. Regardlessof the specific application or activity of a Call centre, customersatisfaction with the interaction is critical to the revenuegenerated or protected by the Call centre. Physical(v, Call centreset up is a place that includes computer, telephone and supervisorstation. Call centre can be available 24 hours a day - whenthe customer wants to make a purchase, needs information, orsimply wishes to register a complaint.

  14. The binning of metagenomic contigs for microbial physiology of mixed cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eStrous

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available So far, microbial physiology has dedicated itself mainly to pure cultures. In nature, cross feeding and competition are important aspects of microbial physiology and these can only be addressed by studying complete communities such as enrichment cultures. Metagenomic sequencing is a powerful tool to characterize such mixed cultures. In the analysis of metagenomic data, well established algorithms exist for the assembly of short reads into contigs and for the annotation of predicted genes. However, the binning of the assembled contigs or unassembled reads is still a major bottleneck and required to understand how the overall metabolism is partitioned over different community members. Binning consists of the clustering of contigs or reads that apparently originate from the same source population.In the present study eight metagenomic samples originating from the same habitat, a laboratory enrichment culture, were sequenced. Each sample contained 13-23 Mb of assembled contigs and up to eight abundant populations. Binning was attempted with existing methods but they were found to produce poor results, were slow, dependent on non-standard platforms or produced errors. A new binning procedure was developed based on multivariate statistics of tetranucleotide frequencies combined with the use of interpolated Markov models. Its performance was evaluated by comparison of the results between samples with BLAST and in comparison to exisiting algorithms for four publicly available metagenomes and one previously published artificial metagenome. The accuracy of the new approach was comparable or higher than existing methods. Further, it was up to a hunderd times faster. It was implemented in Java Swing as a complete open source graphical binning application available for download and further development (http://sourceforge.net/projects/metawatt.

  15. Models and Algorithms for the Integrated Planning of Bin Allocation and Vehicle Routing in Solid Waste Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmelmayr, V.C.; Doerner, K.F.; Hartl, R.F.; Vigo, D.

    2014-01-01

    The efficient organization of waste collection systems based on bins located along the streets involves the solution of several tactical optimization problems. In particular, the bin configuration and sizing at each collection site as well as the service frequency over a given planning horizon have

  16. Solving the non-oriented three-dimensional bin packing problem with stability and load bearing constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The three-dimensional bin packing problem is concerned with packing a given set of rectangular items into rectangular bins. We are interested in solving real-life problems where rotations of items are allowed and the packings must be packable and stable. Load bearing of items is taken into account...

  17. Calling in imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Balcerzan

    2014-01-01

    source text, but this happens only when the text is ambiguous and rich in images. Be it as it may, the quality and range of translator’s activity are determined by someone else’s imagination, accumulated in the translated work, and present in its rhetorics.

  18. Calling behaviour under climate change: geographical and seasonal variation of calling temperatures in ectotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llusia, Diego; Márquez, Rafael; Beltrán, Juan F; Benítez, Maribel; do Amaral, José P

    2013-09-01

    Calling behaviour is strongly temperature-dependent and critical for sexual selection and reproduction in a variety of ectothermic taxa, including anuran amphibians, which are the most globally threatened vertebrates. However, few studies have explored how species respond to distinct thermal environments at time of displaying calling behaviour, and thus it is still unknown whether ongoing climate change might compromise the performance of calling activity in ectotherms. Here, we used new audio-trapping techniques (automated sound recording and detection systems) between 2006 and 2009 to examine annual calling temperatures of five temperate anurans and their patterns of geographical and seasonal variation at the thermal extremes of species ranges, providing insights into the thermal breadths of calling activity of species, and the mechanisms that enable ectotherms to adjust to changing thermal environments. All species showed wide thermal breadths during calling behaviour (above 15 °C) and increases in calling temperatures in extremely warm populations and seasons. Thereby, calling temperatures differed both geographically and seasonally, both in terrestrial and aquatic species, and were 8-22 °C below the specific upper critical thermal limits (CTmax ) and strongly associated with the potential temperatures of each thermal environment (operative temperatures during the potential period of breeding). This suggests that calling behaviour in ectotherms may take place at population-specific thermal ranges, diverging when species are subjected to distinct thermal environments, and might imply plasticity of thermal adjustment mechanisms (seasonal and developmental acclimation) that supply species with means of coping with climate change. Furthermore, the thermal thresholds of calling at the onset of the breeding season were dissimilar between conspecific populations, suggesting that other factors besides temperature are needed to trigger the onset of reproduction. Our

  19. Data Parallel Bin-Based Indexing for Answering Queries on Multi-Core Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosink, Luke; Wu, Kesheng; Bethel, E. Wes; Owens, John D.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2009-06-02

    The multi-core trend in CPUs and general purpose graphics processing units (GPUs) offers new opportunities for the database community. The increase of cores at exponential rates is likely to affect virtually every server and client in the coming decade, and presents database management systems with a huge, compelling disruption that will radically change how processing is done. This paper presents a new parallel indexing data structure for answering queries that takes full advantage of the increasing thread-level parallelism emerging in multi-core architectures. In our approach, our Data Parallel Bin-based Index Strategy (DP-BIS) first bins the base data, and then partitions and stores the values in each bin as a separate, bin-based data cluster. In answering a query, the procedures for examining the bin numbers and the bin-based data clusters offer the maximum possible level of concurrency; each record is evaluated by a single thread and all threads are processed simultaneously in parallel. We implement and demonstrate the effectiveness of DP-BIS on two multi-core architectures: a multi-core CPU and a GPU. The concurrency afforded by DP-BIS allows us to fully utilize the thread-level parallelism provided by each architecture--for example, our GPU-based DP-BIS implementation simultaneously evaluates over 12,000 records with an equivalent number of concurrently executing threads. In comparing DP-BIS's performance across these architectures, we show that the GPU-based DP-BIS implementation requires significantly less computation time to answer a query than the CPU-based implementation. We also demonstrate in our analysis that DP-BIS provides better overall performance than the commonly utilized CPU and GPU-based projection index. Finally, due to data encoding, we show that DP-BIS accesses significantly smaller amounts of data than index strategies that operate solely on a column's base data; this smaller data footprint is critical for parallel processors

  20. Genome sequences of rare, uncultured bacteria obtained by differential coverage binning of multiple metagenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Hugenholtz, Philip; Skarshewski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Reference genomes are required to understand the diverse roles of microorganisms in ecology, evolution, human and animal health, but most species remain uncultured. Here we present a sequence composition–independent approach to recover high-quality microbial genomes from deeply sequenced...... metagenomes. Multiple metagenomes of the same community, which differ in relative population abundances, were used to assemble 31 bacterial genomes, including rare (genomes were assembled into complete or near-complete chromosomes....... Four belong to the candidate bacterial phylum TM7 and represent the most complete genomes for this phylum to date (relative abundances, 0.06–1.58%). Reanalysis of published metagenomes reveals that differential coverage binning facilitates recovery of more complete and higher fidelity genome bins than...

  1. Taxonomy and functional roles of biogas microbiota binned from multiple metagenomes of anaerobic digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano

    throughput Illumina sequencing was performed on samples collected from 22 biogas reactors (laboratory and full scale) operating under different conditions. Using a binning strategy, 575 high quality microbial genome bins were extracted and abundance-weighted community composition was determined. Average...... digesters and constitute the community core group. Interestingly, 42% of them were classified as belonging to the Syntrophomonadaceae family. A correlation between the community composition resilience and the microbial functional specialization was also established. The core functional properties were found...... for a properly functioning microbiome since they operate in peculiar conditions, determined by lipids and polysaccharides overload or in the presence of ammonia inhibition. Remarkably, by combining community composition and functional properties we provided a clear understanding of the anaerobic digestion...

  2. Time-Bin-Encoded Boson Sampling with a Single-Photon Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Ding, X.; Su, Z.-E.; Huang, H.-L.; Qin, J.; Wang, C.; Unsleber, S.; Chen, C.; Wang, H.; He, Y.-M.; Wang, X.-L.; Zhang, W.-J.; Chen, S.-J.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; You, L.-X.; Wang, Z.; Höfling, S.; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-05-01

    Boson sampling is a problem strongly believed to be intractable for classical computers, but can be naturally solved on a specialized photonic quantum simulator. Here, we implement the first time-bin-encoded boson sampling using a highly indistinguishable (˜94 %) single-photon source based on a single quantum-dot-micropillar device. The protocol requires only one single-photon source, two detectors, and a loop-based interferometer for an arbitrary number of photons. The single-photon pulse train is time-bin encoded and deterministically injected into an electrically programmable multimode network. The observed three- and four-photon boson sampling rates are 18.8 and 0.2 Hz, respectively, which are more than 100 times faster than previous experiments based on parametric down-conversion.

  3. Relative calibration of energy thresholds on multi-bin spectral x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjölin, M., E-mail: martin.sjolin@mi.physics.kth.se; Danielsson, M.

    2016-12-21

    Accurate and reliable energy calibration of spectral x-ray detectors used in medical imaging is essential for avoiding ring artifacts in the reconstructed images (computed tomography) and for performing accurate material basis decomposition. A simple and accurate method for relative calibration of the energy thresholds on a multi-bin spectral x-ray detector is presented. The method obtains the linear relations between all energy thresholds in a channel by scanning the thresholds with respect to each other during x-ray illumination. The method does not rely on a model of the detector's response function and does not require any identifiable features in the x-ray spectrum. Applying the same method, the offset between the thresholds can be determined also without external stimuli by utilizing the electronic noise as a source. The simplicity and accuracy of the method makes it suitable for implementation in clinical multi-bin spectral x-ray imaging systems.

  4. Enhancing User Identification with the Independent Learning Centre at Sung Bin Home for Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton LaClare

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Independent Learning Centre at Sung Bin Home for Girls is a language and life skills learning environment for girls between the ages of 8 and 18 who reside at Sung Bin Orphanage in Gwangju, South Korea. Although initially learners exhibited a great deal of enthusiasm for the centre, over time interest faded to the extent that many ceased to be regular users. This article describes the efforts of volunteers and orphanage staff to revive interest through a community art project intended to enhance learner identification with the centre. In addition to highlighting the importance of collaboration among stakeholders, the article asserts that undertakings of the type described here should be seen as part of an on-going process of maintaining engagement.

  5. CARIAA Call - Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    2013-03-28

    Mar 28, 2013 ... The call states that CARIAA will also collaborate with the consortia on programmatic functions that support the program as a whole, including communication, outreach and engagement, knowledge management, and monitoring and evaluation. What kind of activities are envisaged? 48). The call states that ...

  6. The difficult medical emergency call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Viereck, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories and the ...

  7. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Kai Wang; Juin-Fu Chai; Yu-Wen Chang; Ti-Ying Huang; Yu-Shu Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is carried out, and the first un...

  8. The Alzheimer disease BIN1 locus as a modifier of GBA-associated Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan-Or, Z; Amshalom, I; Bar-Shira, A; Gana-Weisz, M; Mirelman, A; Marder, K; Bressman, S; Giladi, N; Orr-Urtreger, A

    2015-11-01

    GBA mutations are among the most common genetic risk factors for Parkinson disease (PD) worldwide. We aimed to identify genetic modifiers of the age at onset (AAO) in GBA-associated PD. The study included a genome-wide discovery phase, including a cohort of 79 patients with the GBA p.N370S mutation, and candidate validation and replication analyses of 8 SNPs in patients with mild (n = 113) and severe (n = 41) GBA mutations. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix human SNP 6.0 array and TaqMan assays. In the genome-wide phase, none of the SNPs passed the genome-wide significance threshold. Eight SNPs were selected for further analysis from the top hits. In all GBA-associated PD patients (n = 153), the BIN1 rs13403026 minor allele was associated with an older AAO (12.4 ± 5.9 years later, p = 0.0001), compared to patients homozygous for the major allele. Furthermore, the AAO was 10.7 ± 6.8 years later in patients with mild GBA mutations, (p = 0.005, validation group), and 17.1 ± 2.5 years later in patients with severe GBA mutations (p = 0.01, replication). Our results suggest that alterations in the BIN1 locus, previously associated with Alzheimer disease, may modify the AAO of GBA-associated PD. More studies in other populations are required to examine the role of BIN1-related variants in GBA-associated PD.

  9. Hail formation and growth in a 3D cloud model with hail-bin microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueliang; Huang, Meiyuan

    The hailstorm of 22 July 1976 in Colorado was studied using a three-dimensional compressible nonhydrostatic cloud model with hail-bin microphysics and parameterized bulk hail microphysics. Results show that observed storm features, such as long-lasting, transient weak-echo vaults and a pronounced forward overhang structure can be better simulated in the model with hail-bin microphysics. The role of a feeder updraft in forming and transferring graupel into a main updraft is analyzed using three-dimensional information on hail and graupel locations and corresponding wind field data from the simulations with hail-bin microphysics. It is found that the formation of a feeder cell with weaker updraft along the side of a main cell has two important roles in forming of hail in the simulated multicellular hailstorm. One is to efficiently transfer graupel descended along the edge of the main updraft or from a massive forward overhang region into the main updraft by preventing the rapid fall of graupel to the surface, and by lifting the low-level inflow by which graupel can be advected into the main updraft. Second, to evolve as a daughter cell in which hail from the decaying old cell can continue their growth. Based on the study, the primary role of a feeder cell is to transfer hail embryos originally formed in a main cell to reenter the main cell rather than to generate initial hail embryos as proposed by previous studies.

  10. An Efficient Method of HOG Feature Extraction Using Selective Histogram Bin and PCA Feature Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAI, C. Q.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG is a popular image feature for human detection. It presents high detection accuracy and therefore has been widely used in vision-based surveillance and pedestrian detection systems. However, the main drawback of this feature is that it has a large feature size. The extraction algorithm is also computationally intensive and requires long processing time. In this paper, a time-efficient HOG-based feature extraction method is proposed. The method uses selective number of histogram bins to perform feature extraction on different regions in the image. Higher number of histogram bin which can capture more detailed information is performed on the regions of the image which may belong to part of a human figure, while lower number of histogram bin is used on the rest of the image. To further reduce the feature size, Principal Component Analysis (PCA is used to rank the features and remove some unimportant features. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using INRIA human dataset on a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier. The results showed the processing speed of the proposed method is 2.6 times faster than the original HOG and 7 times faster than the LBP method while providing comparable detection performance.

  11. Bin weather data for the provinces of the Eastern Anatolia in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezyurt, Oemer; Bakirci, Kadir; Yilmaz, Mehmet [Ataturk University Engineering Faculty Department of Mechanical Engineering 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Erdogan, Sadik [Erzurum Vocation School of Higher Education, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents information about bin weather data that have been generated from weather histories and recorded over a period of many years for 14 cities located in the Eastern Anatolia region in Turkey. The analysis covers 14 provinces: Agri, Ardahan, Bingoel, Bitlis, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Hakkari, Igdir, Kars, Malatya, Mus, Tunceli, and Van. The bin data for dry-bulb temperature from -36 C to 45 C with 3 C increments are calculated in six daily 4-h shifts (1-4, 5-8, 9-12, 13-16, 17-20 and 21-24 h). In the calculations, the hourly dry-bulb temperatures recorded by the Turkish State Meteorological Affairs between the years 1990 and 2005 (16 years) are used. Monthly and yearly bin data are presented in tables and on graphs. The information and data presented in this paper hope to fill a gap in information needed by building designers and engineers for simplified energy calculations of buildings in the Eastern Anatolia region. (author)

  12. Power-law scaling of calling dynamics in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shouwen; Maat, Andries Ter; Gahr, Manfred

    2017-08-21

    Social mammals and birds have a rich repertoire of communication calls. Some call types are uttered rarely but in specific contexts while others are produced in large numbers but are not linked to a specific context. An example for the latter is the "stack" call that zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) utter thousands of times per day in a seemingly erratic manner. We quantified this calling activity of captive zebra finches by using on-bird telemetric microphones that permitted a precise temporal resolution. We separated the calling interactions into the reactive and the self-contained calls. Despite a large dynamic range in the succession of calling events, the temporal distribution of the reactive and the self-contained callings was characterized by a power-law with exponents ranging between 2 and 3, which implies that all calls in that scale have similar dynamic patterns. As birds underwent physiological (water availability) and social (separation from the reproductive partner) changes, their calling dynamics changed. Power-law scaling provided an accurate description of these changes, such that the calling dynamics may inform about an individual's physiological and/or social situations state, even though a single "stack" call has no predetermined meaning.

  13. The difficult medical emergency call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Viereck, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories...... and the effect of categorization on mortality. METHODS: Register-based study in a 2-year period based on emergency call data from the emergency medical dispatch center in Copenhagen combined with nationwide register data. Logistic regression analysis (N = 78,040 individuals) was used for identification...

  14. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  15. Moleculo Long-Read Sequencing Facilitates Assembly and Genomic Binning from Complex Soil Metagenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard Allen; Bottos, Eric M.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Zucker, Jeremy D.; Brislawn, Colin J.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Glass, Kevin; Jansson, Janet K.; Langille, Morgan

    2016-06-28

    ABSTRACT

    Soil metagenomics has been touted as the “grand challenge” for metagenomics, as the high microbial diversity and spatial heterogeneity of soils make them unamenable to current assembly platforms. Here, we aimed to improve soil metagenomic sequence assembly by applying the Moleculo synthetic long-read sequencing technology. In total, we obtained 267 Gbp of raw sequence data from a native prairie soil; these data included 109.7 Gbp of short-read data (~100 bp) from the Joint Genome Institute (JGI), an additional 87.7 Gbp of rapid-mode read data (~250 bp), plus 69.6 Gbp (>1.5 kbp) from Moleculo sequencing. The Moleculo data alone yielded over 5,600 reads of >10 kbp in length, and over 95% of the unassembled reads mapped to contigs of >1.5 kbp. Hybrid assembly of all data resulted in more than 10,000 contigs over 10 kbp in length. We mapped three replicate metatranscriptomes derived from the same parent soil to the Moleculo subassembly and found that 95% of the predicted genes, based on their assignments to Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers, were expressed. The Moleculo subassembly also enabled binning of >100 microbial genome bins. We obtained via direct binning the first complete genome, that of “CandidatusPseudomonas sp. strain JKJ-1” from a native soil metagenome. By mapping metatranscriptome sequence reads back to the bins, we found that several bins corresponding to low-relative-abundanceAcidobacteriawere highly transcriptionally active, whereas bins corresponding to high-relative-abundanceVerrucomicrobiawere not. These results demonstrate that Moleculo sequencing provides a significant advance for resolving complex soil microbial communities.

    IMPORTANCESoil microorganisms carry out key processes for life on our planet, including cycling of carbon and other nutrients and supporting growth of plants. However, there is poor molecular-level understanding of their

  16. The benefits of staying active in old age: physical activity counteracts the negative influence of PICALM, BIN1, and CLU risk alleles on episodic memory functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, Beata; Laukka, Erika J; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Angleman, Sara; Keller, Lina; Graff, Caroline; Lövdén, Martin; Bäckman, Lars

    2014-06-01

    PICALM, BIN1, CLU, and APOE are top candidate genes for Alzheimer's disease, and they influence episodic memory performance in old age. Physical activity, however, has been shown to protect against age-related decline and counteract genetic influences on cognition. The aims of this study were to assess whether (a) a genetic risk constellation of PICALM, BIN1, and CLU polymorphisms influences cognitive performance in old age; and (b) if physical activity moderates this effect. Data from the SNAC-K population-based study were used, including 2,480 individuals (age range = 60 to 100 years) free of dementia at baseline and at 3- to 6-year follow-ups. Tasks assessing episodic memory, perceptual speed, knowledge, and verbal fluency were administered. Physical activity was measured using self-reports. Individuals who had engaged in frequent health- or fitness-enhancing activities within the past year were compared with those who were inactive. Genetic risk scores were computed based on an integration of risk alleles for PICALM (rs3851179 G allele, rs541458 T allele), BIN1 (rs744373 G allele), and CLU (rs11136000 T allele). High genetic risk was associated with reduced episodic memory performance, controlling for age, education, vascular risk factors, chronic diseases, activities of daily living, and APOE gene status. Critically, physical activity attenuated the effects of genetic risk on episodic memory. Our findings suggest that participants with high genetic risk who maintain a physically active lifestyle show selective benefits in episodic memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Massachusetts Bay - Internal Wave Packets Extracted from SAR Imagery Binned in 1x1 minute grid cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets extracted from SAR imagery that were binned in 1x1 minute latitude/longitude polygon grid cells. Statistics were...

  18. Longitudinal Acceleration Test of Overhead Luggage Bins and Auxiliary Fuel Tank in a Transport Airplane Airframe Section, Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, Robert

    2000-01-01

    ...). The purpose of the tests was to measure the structural responses and interaction between the fuselage, overhead stowage bins, and auxiliary fuel tank under simulated, potentially survivable, crash conditions...

  19. Longitudinal Acceleration Tests of Overhead Luggage Bins and Auxiliary Fuel Tank in a Transport Airplane Airframe Section

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ...). The purpose of the tests was to measure the structural responses and interaction between the fuselage, overhead stowage bins, and auxiliary fuel tank under simulated, potentially survivable, crash conditions...

  20. The 20-kDa protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis enhances Bacillus sphaericus 2362 bin toxin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A

    2007-08-01

    Improving the amount of protein endotoxins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus per unit of culture medium is important because higher yields typically correlate with higher insecticidal activity per unit weight of spore/toxin mixtures. Higher levels of synthesis can also result in larger crystals that could persist for longer periods in the environment. Improving endotoxin production in B. thuringiensis can be achieved by manipulating genetic elements that regulate protein synthesis at the transcriptional, translational, and even posttranslational levels. In the present study, we used a combination of genetic elements to improve yields of B. sphaericus 2362 binary toxin (Bin) in B. thuringiensis. Our results show that a 20-kDa chaperone-like protein, which occurs as the third open-reading frame in the cry11Aa operon, improves Bin yields when expression of the genes encoding this binary toxin is driven by the native bin promoter, cyt1A promoters, or a novel cyt1A-p/STAB-SD expression system, the latter of which yields maximal levels of Bin synthesis. The 20-kDa helper protein increased Bin toxin levels in B. thuringiensis by as much as 53% and concomitant toxicity by at least 90% when Bin was produced using the cyt1A promoters.

  1. Quantifying uncertainty in genotype calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Benilton S; Louis, Thomas A; Irizarry, Rafael A

    2010-01-15

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are used to discover genes underlying complex, heritable disorders for which less powerful study designs have failed in the past. The number of GWAS has skyrocketed recently with findings reported in top journals and the mainstream media. Microarrays are the genotype calling technology of choice in GWAS as they permit exploration of more than a million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) simultaneously. The starting point for the statistical analyses used by GWAS to determine association between loci and disease is making genotype calls (AA, AB or BB). However, the raw data, microarray probe intensities, are heavily processed before arriving at these calls. Various sophisticated statistical procedures have been proposed for transforming raw data into genotype calls. We find that variability in microarray output quality across different SNPs, different arrays and different sample batches have substantial influence on the accuracy of genotype calls made by existing algorithms. Failure to account for these sources of variability can adversely affect the quality of findings reported by the GWAS. We developed a method based on an enhanced version of the multi-level model used by CRLMM version 1. Two key differences are that we now account for variability across batches and improve the call-specific assessment of each call. The new model permits the development of quality metrics for SNPs, samples and batches of samples. Using three independent datasets, we demonstrate that the CRLMM version 2 outperforms CRLMM version 1 and the algorithm provided by Affymetrix, Birdseed. The main advantage of the new approach is that it enables the identification of low-quality SNPs, samples and batches. Software implementing of the method described in this article is available as free and open source code in the crlmm R/BioConductor package. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-25

    TERMS (Continue on reverse it necessarv and identify WIock numberl FIELD GROUP’ SUB- GIR Air to Air RangingRange Estimationt Min..a simtr Passive...by uarget rnge sad direction or by observer motion in the statistical behavior of the 4.2 &Awo 0*l LA Sqvwnr. Rmng IoiamIin. Since it hu alredy bin...lengths, sad while they indicate irreularty in the estimation processt, they do nix explain its source. Figure 22, whMc as typical of whet can arise

  3. Middle infrared (wavelength range: 8 μm-14 μm) 2-dimensional spectroscopy (total weight with electrical controller: 1.7 kg, total cost: less than 10,000 USD) so-called hyperspectral camera for unmanned air vehicles like drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Saito, Tsubasa; Ogawa, Satoru; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We developed the palm size (optical unit: 73[mm]×102[mm]×66[mm]) and light weight (total weight with electrical controller: 1.7[kg]) middle infrared (wavelength range: 8[μm]-14[μm]) 2-dimensional spectroscopy for UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicle) like drone. And we successfully demonstrated the flights with the developed hyperspectral camera mounted on the multi-copter so-called drone in 15/Sep./2015 at Kagawa prefecture in Japan. We had proposed 2 dimensional imaging type Fourier spectroscopy that was the near-common path temporal phase-shift interferometer. We install the variable phase shifter onto optical Fourier transform plane of infinity corrected imaging optical systems. The variable phase shifter was configured with a movable mirror and a fixed mirror. The movable mirror was actuated by the impact drive piezo-electric device (stroke: 4.5[mm], resolution: 0.01[μm], maker: Technohands Co.,Ltd., type:XDT50-45, price: around 1,000USD). We realized the wavefront division type and near common path interferometry that has strong robustness against mechanical vibrations. Without anti-mechanical vibration systems, the palm-size Fourier spectroscopy was realized. And we were able to utilize the small and low-cost middle infrared camera that was the micro borometer array (un-cooled VOxMicroborometer, pixel array: 336×256, pixel pitch: 17[μm], frame rate 60[Hz], maker: FLIR, type: Quark 336, price: around 5,000USD). And this apparatus was able to be operated by single board computer (Raspberry Pi.). Thus, total cost was less than 10,000 USD. We joined with KAMOME-PJ (Kanagawa Advanced MOdule for Material Evaluation Project) with DRONE FACTORY Corp., KUUSATSU Corp., Fuji Imvac Inc. And we successfully obtained the middle infrared spectroscopic imaging with multi-copter drone.

  4. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor.

  5. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Hirashima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilinooxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilinothiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor.

  6. Make a 21st century phone call

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Want to avoid roaming charges? Click to call anyone at CERN? How about merging your CERN landline with your existing smartphone? That's all easily done with Lync, CERN's new opt-in service that can take your calls to the next level.   The Lync application on Windows (left) and iPhone (right). Lync unites CERN's traditional telephone service with the digital sphere. "Lync gives you the gift of mobility, by letting you access your CERN landline on the go," explains Pawel Grzywaczewski, service manager of the Lync system. "Once you've registered your CERN telephone with the service, you can run the Lync application and make calls from a range of supported devices. No matter where you are in the world - be it simply out to lunch or off at an international conference - you can make a CERN call as though you were in the office. All you need is an Internet connection!" Following a recent upgrade, CERN's Lync service now has...

  7. Diviner lunar radiometer gridded brightness temperatures from geodesic binning of modeled fields of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton-Nash, E.; Williams, J.-P.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Aye, K.-M.; Paige, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    An approach is presented to efficiently produce high quality gridded data records from the large, global point-based dataset returned by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The need to minimize data volume and processing time in production of science-ready map products is increasingly important with the growth in data volume of planetary datasets. Diviner makes on average >1400 observations per second of radiance that is reflected and emitted from the lunar surface, using 189 detectors divided into 9 spectral channels. Data management and processing bottlenecks are amplified by modeling every observation as a probability distribution function over the field of view, which can increase the required processing time by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Geometric corrections, such as projection of data points onto a digital elevation model, are numerically intensive and therefore it is desirable to perform them only once. Our approach reduces bottlenecks through parallel binning and efficient storage of a pre-processed database of observations. Database construction is via subdivision of a geodesic icosahedral grid, with a spatial resolution that can be tailored to suit the field of view of the observing instrument. Global geodesic grids with high spatial resolution are normally impractically memory intensive. We therefore demonstrate a minimum storage and highly parallel method to bin very large numbers of data points onto such a grid. A database of the pre-processed and binned points is then used for production of mapped data products that is significantly faster than if unprocessed points were used. We explore quality controls in the production of gridded data records by conditional interpolation, allowed only where data density is sufficient. The resultant effects on the spatial continuity and uncertainty in maps of lunar brightness temperatures is illustrated. We identify four binning regimes based on trades between the

  8. REDESAIN KAWASAN MASJID AMIR SAUD BIN FAHD KAMPUS II UNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGERI ALAUDDINSAMATA GOWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwati Marwati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak__Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin atau UIN Alauddin adalah Perguruan Tinggi Islam Negeri yang berada di Makassar.Sebagai universitas yang berinisialkan Islam, tentunya universitas ini memiliki fasilitas-fasilitas seperti fasilitas untuk peribadatan yakni masjid. Masjid Amir Saud Bin Fahd Kampus II Uinversitas Islam Negeri Alauddin ini juga biasanya digunakan sebagai tempat bersosialisasi antar mahasiswa yang ada. Namun, kawasan Masjid di Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin kurang tertata dengan baik. Lansekap kawasan masjid seperti, lahan parkir yang tidak jelas membuat kendaraan yang terparkir tidak sesuai pada tempatnya, akses menuju masjid yang tidak terarah menjadikan mahasiswa atau jema’ah tidak mengetahui arah menuju masjid, street furniture yang kurang seperti lampu jalan, tempat sampah dan furniture, serta elemen-elemen lansekap lainnya yang dapat menunjang aktivitas mahasiswa. Untuk itu, perlunya melakukan redesain kawasan Masjid Amir Saud Bin Fahd Kampus II Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin Samata Gowa sebagai sarana dan prasarana yang tidak hanya diperuntukkan sebagai tempat beribadah, melainkan juga dapat berfungsi sebagai tempat bersosialisasi serta tempat menempah ilmu bagi mahasiswa. Keywords: Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin atau UIN Alauddin, Mesjid, Lansekap, Redesain Abstract- Alauddin State Islamic University or UIN Alauddin State Islamic University is located in the university Makassar.Sebagai berinisialkan Islam, of course, this university has facilities such as a facility to worship the mosque. Amir Saud Bin Fahd Mosque Campus II Alauddin State Islamic Uinversitas is also commonly used as a place to socialize among students there. However, the area of the mosque at the State Islamic University Alauddin less well ordered. Landscaping areas such as mosques, parking lots that are not clearly make that parked vehicles do not fit in place, access to the mosque that is not directed to make the students or Juma'ah not

  9. Investigating the effect of tractive parameters on imposed vertical stresses under driving wheel using a soil bin test rig facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Taghavifar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tire tractive parameters of the driving wheel are of the most substantial factors for the evaluation of the performance of agricultural tractors. Great tractive efficiency has called the attention of vehicle designers to attain economic efficiency owing to the minimization of fuel consumption. At terrain-tire interface, some soil physical-mechanical changes occur that lead to unwanted soil compaction. Of the influential parameters for the creation of soil compaction is the soil stresses formed owing to the wheeled vehicle trafficking. While the increase of tractive efficiency is desired, minimization of soil stresses should also be considered with the same importance to make a trade-off between the aforementioned parameters. There are numerous studies documented in the literature that deal with the measurement of soil stress/strain data due to the wheeled vehicle trafficking and also those works that address the correlation between the soil stress and soil compaction. It is recognized that in order to reduce soil compaction both at topsoil and subsoil levels, the soil stress at the soil-tire interface should be reduced. There are various parameters that affect the tractive efficiency and the soil stress creation such as wheel load, slip, tire inflation pressure, velocity, etc. On the other hand, the wheel is subjected to the torques and forces exerted to the vehicle and the vehicle dynamics are significantly affected by the soil-wheel interactions. Survey of the literature shows that numerous studies have focused on the evaluation of tractive efficiency both in field test and controlled conditions in laboratories with the intention of increasing tractive efficiency. The studies dedicated to the soil mechanical strength are more engaged with the approaches to minimize the soil stress propagation. The present study considers both factors and considers the most influential tire parameters such as wheel, velocity and slip to assess the

  10. The Wireless Nursing Call System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight into the cha......This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight...

  11. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  12. Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

    2011-11-01

    Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals.

  13. CALL and the Speaking Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Using common technologies listed in the conversation class, the article suggests a computer-aided language learning (CALL) speaking methodology that is interaction rather than machine centered and outlines ways to ensure the success of speaking activities at the computer. (31 references) (Author/CK)

  14. Calling to Nursing: Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Christie

    The aims of this article are (a) to analyze the concept of a calling as it relates nursing and (b) to develop a definition of calling to nursing with the detail and clarity needed to guide reliable and valid research. The classic steps described by Walker and Avant are used for the analysis. Literature from several disciplines is reviewed including vocational psychology, Christian career counseling, sociology, organizational management, and nursing. The analysis provides an operational definition of a calling to nursing and establishes 3 defining attributes of the concept: (a) a passionate intrinsic motivation or desire (perhaps with a religious component), (b) an aspiration to engage in nursing practice, as a means of fulfilling one's purpose in life, and (c) the desire to help others as one's purpose in life. Antecedents to the concept are personal introspection and cognitive awareness. Positive consequences to the concept are improved work meaningfulness, work engagement, career commitment, personal well-being, and satisfaction. Negative consequences of having a calling might include willingness to sacrifice well-being for work and problems with work-life balance. Following the concept analysis, philosophical assumptions, contextual factors, interdisciplinary work, research opportunities, and practice implications are discussed.

  15. An Evaluation Framework for CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Williams, David Dwayne; Rich, Peter J.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2016-01-01

    Searching prestigious Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) journals for references to key publications and authors in the field of evaluation yields a short list. The "American Journal of Evaluation"--the flagship journal of the American Evaluation Association--is only cited once in both the "CALICO Journal and Language…

  16. Altered splicing of the BIN1 muscle-specific exon in humans and dogs with highly progressive centronuclear myopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Böhm

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphysin 2, encoded by BIN1, is a key factor for membrane sensing and remodelling in different cell types. Homozygous BIN1 mutations in ubiquitously expressed exons are associated with autosomal recessive centronuclear myopathy (CNM, a mildly progressive muscle disorder typically showing abnormal nuclear centralization on biopsies. In addition, misregulation of BIN1 splicing partially accounts for the muscle defects in myotonic dystrophy (DM. However, the muscle-specific function of amphiphysin 2 and its pathogenicity in both muscle disorders are not well understood. In this study we identified and characterized the first mutation affecting the splicing of the muscle-specific BIN1 exon 11 in a consanguineous family with rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal centronuclear myopathy. In parallel, we discovered a mutation in the same BIN1 exon 11 acceptor splice site as the genetic cause of the canine Inherited Myopathy of Great Danes (IMGD. Analysis of RNA from patient muscle demonstrated complete skipping of exon 11 and BIN1 constructs without exon 11 were unable to promote membrane tubulation in differentiated myotubes. Comparative immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analyses of patient and canine biopsies revealed common structural defects, emphasizing the importance of amphiphysin 2 in membrane remodelling and maintenance of the skeletal muscle triad. Our data demonstrate that the alteration of the muscle-specific function of amphiphysin 2 is a common pathomechanism for centronuclear myopathy, myotonic dystrophy, and IMGD. The IMGD dog is the first faithful model for human BIN1-related CNM and represents a mammalian model available for preclinical trials of potential therapies.

  17. Designing a power supply for Nim-bin formatted equipment; Diseno de una fuente de alimentacion para equipos con formato Nim-bin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuelos G, L. E.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: lebluis2012@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    From an old Nuclear Chicago power supply that was practically in the trash, was able to recover the 19 inches casing, rear connectors and the housing where the circuits were. From here all mechanical parts were cleaned and the electronic design was started to replace the original voltage and current functions of this equipment. The cards for the ±6, ±12 and ±24 voltages were designed, simulated and tested with circuitry that does not rely on specialized components or that is sold only by the equipment manufacturer. In the handling of the current by each voltage to operate, was possible to tie with the specifications of the manufacturers like Ortec or Canberra where a model of power supply gives a power of 160 Watts. Basic tests were performed to show that the behavior is very similar to commercial equipment; such as the full load regulation index and the noise level in the supply voltages. So our Nim-bin voltage source is viable for use in our institution laboratories. (Author)

  18. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA is carried out, and the first uniform hazard response spectrum for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm is achieved. Compared with existing design response spectrum in the local regulation, this site-specific seismic hazard analysis has influence on the seismic force considered in the design of supporting structures and therefore affects the cost of the supporting structures. The results show that a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is required for high seismic area. The paper highlights the importance of seismic hazard analysis to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces. The follow-up recommendations and research directions are given for Taiwan’s offshore wind turbine supporting structures under seismic force considerations.

  19. Model and algorithm for container ship stowage planning based on bin-packing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Ying; Lin, Yan; Ji, Zhuo-Shang

    2005-09-01

    In a general case, container ship serves many different ports on each voyage. A stowage planning for container ship made at one port must take account of the influence on subsequent ports. So the complexity of stowage planning problem increases due to its multi-ports nature. This problem is NP-hard problem. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the problem is decomposed into two sub-problems in this paper. First, container ship stowage problem (CSSP) is regarded as “packing problem”, ship-bays on the board of vessel are regarded as bins, the number of slots at each bay are taken as capacities of bins, and containers with different characteristics (homogeneous containers group) are treated as items packed. At this stage, there are two objective functions, one is to minimize the number of bays packed by containers and the other is to minimize the number of overstows. Secondly, containers assigned to each bays at first stage are allocate to special slot, the objective functions are to minimize the metacentric height, heel and overstows. The taboo search heuristics algorithm are used to solve the subproblem. The main focus of this paper is on the first subproblem. A case certifies the feasibility of the model and algorithm.

  20. Efficient Entanglement Concentration of Nonlocal Two-Photon Polarization-Time-Bin Hyperentangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Hang; Yu, Wen-Xuan; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Gao, Cheng-Yan; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2017-11-01

    We present two different hyperentanglement concentration protocols (hyper-ECPs) for two-photon systems in nonlocal polarization-time-bin hyperentangled states with known parameters, including Bell-like and cluster-like states, resorting to the parameter splitting method. They require only one of two parties in quantum communication to operate her photon in the process of entanglement concentration, not two, and they have the maximal success probability. They work with linear optical elements and have good feasibility in experiment, especially in the case that there are a big number of quantum data exchanged as the parties can obtain the information about the parameters of the nonlocal hyperentangled states by sampling a subset of nonlocal hyperentangled two-photon systems and measuring them. As the quantum state of photons in the time-bin degree of freedom suffers from less noise in an optical-fiber channel, these hyper-ECPs may have good applications in practical long-distance quantum communication in the future.

  1. Frequency-bin entanglement of ultra-narrow band non-degenerate photon pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieländer, Daniel; Lenhard, Andreas; Jime`nez Farìas, Osvaldo; Máttar, Alejandro; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Mazzera, Margherita; Acín, Antonio; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate frequency-bin entanglement between ultra-narrowband photons generated by cavity enhanced spontaneous parametric down conversion. Our source generates photon pairs in widely non-degenerate discrete frequency modes, with one photon resonant with a quantum memory material based on praseodymium doped crystals and the other photon at telecom wavelengths. Correlations between the frequency modes are analyzed using phase modulators and narrowband filters before detection. We show high-visibility two photon interference between the frequency modes, allowing us to infer a coherent superposition of the modes. We develop a model describing the state that we create and use it to estimate optimal measurements to achieve a violation of the Clauser–Horne (CH) Bell inequality under realistic assumptions. With these settings we perform a Bell test and show a significant violation of the CH inequality, thus proving the entanglement of the photons. Finally we demonstrate the compatibility with a quantum memory material by using a spectral hole in the praseodymium (Pr) doped crystal as spectral filter for measuring high-visibility two-photon interference. This demonstrates the feasibility of combining frequency-bin entangled photon pairs with Pr-based solid state quantum memories.

  2. Feature extraction from spike trains with Bayesian binning: 'latency is where the signal starts'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Dominik; Oram, Mike

    2010-08-01

    The peristimulus time histogram (PSTH) and its more continuous cousin, the spike density function (SDF) are staples in the analytic toolkit of neurophysiologists. The former is usually obtained by binning spike trains, whereas the standard method for the latter is smoothing with a Gaussian kernel. Selection of a bin width or a kernel size is often done in an relatively arbitrary fashion, even though there have been recent attempts to remedy this situation (DiMatteo et al., Biometrika 88(4):1055-1071, 2001; Shimazaki and Shinomoto 2007a, Neural Comput 19(6):1503-1527, 2007b, c; Cunningham et al. 2008). We develop an exact Bayesian, generative model approach to estimating PSTHs. Advantages of our scheme include automatic complexity control and error bars on its predictions. We show how to perform feature extraction on spike trains in a principled way, exemplified through latency and firing rate posterior distribution evaluations on repeated and single trial data. We also demonstrate using both simulated and real neuronal data that our approach provides a more accurate estimates of the PSTH and the latency than current competing methods. We employ the posterior distributions for an information theoretic analysis of the neural code comprised of latency and firing rate of neurons in high-level visual area STSa. A software implementation of our method is available at the machine learning open source software repository ( www.mloss.org , project 'binsdfc').

  3. impact of queuing on call c queuing on call c queuing on call ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    work resource reduces the probability that a call arriving at the base sta formance evaluation plays an important role in modelling and network resource. network resource. This objective is achieved by an accurate traffic characte. This objective is achieved by an accurate traffic characte rformance metrics in terms of traffic ...

  4. Calle y Saberes en Movimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Aguirre Aguilar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available En México el rezago, el ausentismo, la deserción escolar, el trabajo a temprana edad y el inicio de una vida en la calle, en repetidas ocasiones son consecuencia de un núcleo familiar desarticulado o de una débil relación intrafamiliar, así como de una condición socioeconómica en desventaja. Ante esta problemática, la Secretaría de Educación Pública, instancia gubernamental encargada de garantizar una educación de calidad para la población, trabaja coordinadamente con organizaciones de la sociedad civil e instancias públicas, para la reintegración a los espacios educativos de los niños, niñas y jóvenes en situación de calle.

  5. Calle y Saberes en Movimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Aguirre Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En México el rezago, el ausentismo, la deserción escolar, el trabajo a temprana edad y el inicio de una vida en la calle, en repetidas ocasiones son consecuencia de un núcleo familiar desarticulado o de una débil relación intrafamiliar, así como de una condición socioeconómica en desventaja. Ante esta problemática, la Secretaría de Educación Pública, instancia gubernamental encargada de garantizar una educación de calidad para la población, trabaja coordinadamente con organizaciones de la sociedad civil e instancias públicas, para la reintegración a los espacios educativos de los niños, niñas y jóvenes en situación de calle.

  6. Fast methodology to design the optimal collection point locations and number of waste bins: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskovic, Goran; Jovicic, Nebojsa

    2015-12-01

    This paper concerns the development of a methodology aimed at determining the optimal number of waste bins as well optimizing the location of collection points. The methodology was based on a geographic information system, which handled different sets of information, such as street directions, spatial location of objects and number of inhabitants, location of waste bins, and radius of their coverage. The study was conducted in a district in the central area of the city of Kragujevac. Due to a lack of information about the existing situation, all necessary data was collected by fieldwork and by using GPS equipment. By using the developed methodology, the results indicated a reduction of 24% in the number of collection points and 33.5% in the number of waste bins, without reducing the quality of the provided services. It has led to cost and time savings for waste collection and environmental benefits. All users of the services were covered within a 75-m radius, and the usage of bins is more efficient. According to the reduction in the number of waste bins, a total amount of €26,000 may be achieved. In addition, the time for waste collection was reduced, resulting in a €1700 saving per year in fuel costs, as well as 4.5 tons of emitted CO2 into the atmosphere. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Armed calling for sur plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Limberto Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most recent work by researcher José Luiz Aidar Prado, Convocações biopolíticas dos dispositivos comunicacionais (freely translated as Biopolitic convoking of communicational dispositives puts the reader straight in the face of the calling to enter circulating discourses. They are directed to all subjects and also accomodate the discourses with urgence for consumption. 

  8. Peer support telephone calls for improving health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy; Caramlau, Isabela O; Lindenmeyer, Antje; Williams, Susan M

    2008-10-08

    Peer support telephone calls have been used for a wide range of health-related concerns. However, little is known about their effects. To assess the effects of peer support telephone calls in terms of physical (e.g. blood pressure), psychological (e.g. depressive symptoms), and behavioural health outcomes (e.g. uptake of mammography) and other outcomes. We searched: The Cochrane Library databases (CENTRAL, DARE, CDSR) (issue 4 2007); MEDLINE (OVID) (January 1966 to December 2007); EMBASE (OVID) (January 1985 to December 2007); CINAHL (Athens) (January 1966 to December 2007), trials registers and reference lists of articles, with no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials of peer support interventions delivered by telephone call. Two review authors independently extracted data. We present results narratively and in tabular format. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity between studies. We included seven studies involving 2492 participants.Peer support telephone calls were associated with an increase in mammography screening, with 49% of women in the intervention group and 34% of women in the control group receiving a mammogram since the start of the intervention (P peer telephone support calls were found to maintain mammography screening uptake for baseline adherent women (P = 0.029).Peer support telephone calls for post myocardial infarction patients were associated at six months with a change in diet in the intervention and usual care groups of 54% and 44% respectively (P = 0.03). In another study for post myocardial infarction patients there were no significant differences between groups for self-efficacy, health status and mental health outcomes.Peer support telephone calls were associated with greater continuation of breastfeeding in mothers at 3 months post partum (P = 0.01).Peer support telephone calls were associated with reduced depressive symptoms in mothers with postnatal depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS

  9. Discovering bin-Laden’s Replacement in al-Qaeda, using Social Network Analysis: A Methodological Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The removal of Osama bin-Laden created a leadership void within al-Qaeda. Despite the group’s autonomous cell structure, an authorative figure remains essential for promoting and disseminating al-Qaeda’s ideology. An appropriate replacement should exhibit traits comparable to bin-Laden and have similar positioning within the structure of the group. Using a media-based sample and social network analysis, this study attempts to uncover the most probable successor for bin-Laden by examining the dynamics within al-Qaeda. The results indicate how the differential embeddedness of al-Qaeda members affects social capital, which in turn provides insights for leadership potiential.

  10. 78 FR 76257 - Rural Call Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... such service offers the capability to place calls to or receive calls from the PSTN. 6. In addition... traffic in response to continued complaints about rural call completion issues from rural associations... Project offering providers the opportunity to test call completion issues identified on calls destined to...

  11. Estimating bulk density of compacted grains in storage bins and modifications of Janssen's load equations as affected by bulk density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ekramul

    2013-03-01

    Janssen created a classical theory based on calculus to estimate static vertical and horizontal pressures within beds of bulk corn. Even today, his equations are widely used to calculate static loadings imposed by granular materials stored in bins. Many standards such as American Concrete Institute (ACI) 313, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers EP 433, German DIN 1055, Canadian Farm Building Code (CFBC), European Code (ENV 1991-4), and Australian Code AS 3774 incorporated Janssen's equations as the standards for static load calculations on bins. One of the main drawbacks of Janssen's equations is the assumption that the bulk density of the stored product remains constant throughout the entire bin. While for all practical purposes, this is true for small bins; in modern commercial-size bins, bulk density of grains substantially increases due to compressive and hoop stresses. Over pressure factors are applied to Janssen loadings to satisfy practical situations such as dynamic loads due to bin filling and emptying, but there are limited theoretical methods available that include the effects of increased bulk density on the loadings of grain transmitted to the storage structures. This article develops a mathematical equation relating the specific weight as a function of location and other variables of materials and storage. It was found that the bulk density of stored granular materials increased with the depth according to a mathematical equation relating the two variables, and applying this bulk-density function, Janssen's equations for vertical and horizontal pressures were modified as presented in this article. The validity of this specific weight function was tested by using the principles of mathematics. As expected, calculations of loads based on the modified equations were consistently higher than the Janssen loadings based on noncompacted bulk densities for all grain depths and types accounting for the effects of increased bulk densities

  12. Structure and dynamics in liquid bismuth and Bi(n) clusters: a density functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akola, J; Atodiresei, N; Kalikka, J; Larrucea, J; Jones, R O

    2014-11-21

    Density functional/molecular dynamics simulations with more than 500 atoms have been performed on liquid bismuth at 573, 773, 923, and 1023 K and on neutral Bi clusters with up to 14 atoms. There are similar structural patterns (coordination numbers, bond angles, and ring patterns) in the liquid and the clusters, with significant differences from the rhombohedral crystalline form. We study the details of the structure (structure factor, pair, and cavity distribution functions) and dynamical properties (vibration frequencies, diffusion constants, power spectra), and compare with experimental results where available. While the three short covalent bonds typical to pnictogens are characteristic in both liquid and clusters, the number of large voids and the total cavity volume is much larger in the liquid at 1023 K, with larger local concentration variations. The inclusion of spin-orbit coupling results in a lowering of the cohesive energies in Bin clusters of 0.3-0.5 eV/atom.

  13. Face Image Retrieval of Efficient Sparse Code words and Multiple Attribute in Binning Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In photography, face recognition and face retrieval play an important role in many applications such as security, criminology and image forensics. Advancements in face recognition make easier for identity matching of an individual with attributes. Latest development in computer vision technologies enables us to extract facial attributes from the input image and provide similar image results. In this paper, we propose a novel LOP and sparse codewords method to provide similar matching results with respect to input query image. To improve accuracy in image results with input image and dynamic facial attributes, Local octal pattern algorithm [LOP] and Sparse codeword applied in offline and online. The offline and online procedures in face image binning techniques apply with sparse code. Experimental results with Pubfig dataset shows that the proposed LOP along with sparse codewords able to provide matching results with increased accuracy of 90%.

  14. Modified strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized bin packing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two packing problems are considered in this paper, namely the well-known strip packing problem (SPP and the variable-sized bin packing problem (VSBPP. A total of 252 strip packing heuristics (and variations thereof from the literature, as well as novel heuristics proposed by the authors, are compared statistically by means of 1170 SPP benchmark instances in order to identify the best heuristics in various classes. A combination of new heuristics with a new sorting method yields the best results. These heuristics are combined with a previous heuristic for the VSBPP by the authors to find good feasible solutions to 1357 VSBPP benchmark instances. This is the largest statistical comparison of algorithms for the SPP and the VSBPP to the best knowledge of the authors.

  15. Hyperentanglement concentration for polarization-spatial-time-bin hyperentangled photon systems with linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Ren, Bao-Cang; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2017-10-01

    Hyperentanglement has significant applications in quantum information processing. Here we present an efficient hyperentanglement concentration protocol (hyper-ECP) for partially hyperentangled Bell states simultaneously entangled in polarization, spatial-mode and time-bin degrees of freedom (DOFs) with the parameter-splitting method, where the parameters of the partially hyperentangled Bell states are known to the remote parties. In this hyper-ECP, only one remote party is required to perform some local operations on the three DOFs of a photon, only the linear optical elements are considered, and the success probability can achieve the maximal value. Our hyper-ECP can be easily generalized to concentrate the N-photon partially hyperentangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with known parameters, where the multiple DOFs have largely improved the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication. All of these make our hyper-ECP more practical and useful in high-capacity long-distance quantum communication.

  16. TAREKAT NAQSHABANDIYYAH KHALIDIYYAH IN MALAYSIA: A Study on the Leadership of Haji Ishaq bin Muhammad Arif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manam Bin Mohamad al-Merbawi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tarekat Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah lead by Haji Ishaq has many followers and is also known especially among other tarekat followers in Malaysia. This article is navigating through the leadership of Haji Ishaq Bin Muhammad Arif, the emergence of tarekat Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah he lead and its evolution in Malaysia. Beside the data collected through the manuscript written by Haji Ishaq, his murids works were also studied. Field observations were also performed at several sites that are identified to be the centers of the movement. Also, some senior students of Haji Ishaq were interviewed to strengthen the arguments of the manuscript data. This study had discovered that tarekat Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah lead by Haji Ishaq was large group with many followers, made up of diverse backgrounds, including academicians and professionals. The power of this group is reflected in the extensive network of centers that are located in several states in Malaysia.

  17. Drop by drop scattering properties of a radar bin : a numerical experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the development and initial results of a numerical simulation of pseudo-radar observations computed as the sum of the electric field backscattered by each drop. Simulations are carried out for three successive radar bins with a gate length of 30 m and beam width of 1°. The first step is the simulation of a 100 m x 100 m x 100 m volume with all its drops. The 3D raindrop generator relies on the findings on the rainfall field very small scales (mm to few tens of m) spatio-temporal structure, of the HYDROP experiment and a recent analysis of 2D video disdrometer data in a Multifractal framework. More precisely: (i) The Liquid Water Content (LWC) distribution is represented with the help a multiplicative cascade down to 0.5 m, below which it is considered as homogeneous. (ii) Within each 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m3 patch, liquid water is distributed into drops according to a pre-defined Drop Size Distribution (DSD) and located randomly uniformly. (iii) Such configuration is compared with the one consisting of the same drops uniformly distributed over the 50 x 50 x 50 m3 volume. Then the backscattered field by the drops located within a radar bin are computed as the sum a individual contribution. Antenna beam weighing is taken into account Due to the fact that the radar wave length is much smaller than the "patches" size for rainfall, it appears that as theoretically expected we retrieved an exponential distribution for potential measure horizontal reflectivity. A much lower dispersion is noticed for differential reflectivity. We show that a simple ballistic assumption for drop velocities does not enable to reproduce radar observations, and turbulence must be taken into account. Finally the sensitivity of these outputs to the various model parameters is quantified.

  18. Monitoring trends in recreational drug use from the analysis of the contents of amnesty bins in gay dance clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Kawsar, A; Ramsey, J; Dargan, P I; Wood, D M

    2013-12-01

    In 2011/12, 8.9% of the UK population reported use of recreational drugs. Problems related to drug use is a major financial burden to society and a common reason for attendance to hospital. The aim of this study was to establish current trends in recreational drug use amongst individuals attending gay-friendly nightclubs in South London. Contents of drug amnesty bins located at two night clubs were documented and categorized into powders, herbal products, liquids, tablets and capsules. These were then sent to a Home Office licensed laboratory for identification through a pre-existing database of almost 25 000 substances. If required, further qualitative analysis was performed. A total of 544 samples were obtained. Of them, 240 (44.1%) were liquids, 220 (40.4%) powders, 42 (7.7%) herbal and 41 (7.5%) tablets or capsules. Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) was the most common liquid drug (n = 160, 66.7%) followed by poppers (n = 72, 30.0%). Powders provided the widest range of drugs with mephedrone being the most common (n = 105, 47.7%) followed by ketamine (n = 28, 12.7%), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) (n = 26, 11.8%), and cocaine (n = 21, 9.5%). Tablets and capsules included medicinal drugs, recreational drugs and plaster of Paris tablets that mimicked the appearance of 'ecstasy' tablets. This study has provided a snapshot of the pattern of drug use in the gay community which compliments findings of the self-reported surveys and other studies from the same population. The information obtained will be helpful in guiding in designing harm reduction interventions in this community and for monitoring the impact of changes in legislation.

  19. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  20. Mida teie oma tervise heaks teete? / Ly Jagor, Ülle Mihhailova, Ene Pill, Katrin Käbin...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Pärnu Õppenõustamiskeskuse psühholoog Ly Jagor, Maasika lasteaia juhataja asetäitja Ülle Mihhailova, Tallinna Perekeskuse ja Tähetorni lastekeskuse psühholoog Ene Pill, Tallinna Nõmme Noortemaja väikelaste ringijuht Katrin Käbin, Tääksi Põhikooli õpetaja Silva Kolk

  1. Test Anxiety & Its Relation to Perceived Academic Self-Efficacy among Al Hussein Bin Talal University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    sa'ad alzboon, Habis

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the degree of perceived academic self-efficacy and the relationship nature between test anxiety and perceived academic self-efficacy among students of Al Hussein Bin Talal University (AHU). Moreover, to identify the degree of available statistical significance differences that are attributed to gender, college and…

  2. The emerging role of biosensor-based epitope binning and mapping in antibody-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Noah T; Brooks, Ben D

    2016-10-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for affinity/kinetics measurements of drug candidates has been a mainstay application for characterizing drug candidates for many years. Recently, with the growth of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as a drug class and the availability of higher-throughput biosensors, the role of label-free biosensors has evolved to include epitope characterization in the early drug discovery process through epitope binning and mapping of mAbs. This manuscript outlines the importance of using epitope characterization early in the drug discovery process and describes a strategy for success in discovering drug leads. Updated practices for integrating epitope characterization with other biochemical/biophysical data, cell-based functional data, and computational prediction tools are also discussed. The authors propose using epitope characterization during early drug discovery by: (1) using epitope binning of mAbs following the pre-screening of clones to assure selection of mAb candidates with epitope diversity, (2) binning the maximum number of mAbs in order to fully define epitope engagement profiles, and (3) integrating epitope binning/mapping data with binding affinity, kinetics, cell-based functional assays, etc. to better describe functional epitope. This approach, together with structural and binding prediction data, will improve the quality of leads and improve the selection speed for clinical candidates.

  3. Internet Addiction and Its Relationship with Self-Efficacy Level among Al-Hussein Bin Talal University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrekebat, Amjad Farhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the Internet addiction and its relationship to self-efficacy level among Al-Hussein Bin Talal University students. The study sample consisted of 300 female and male students, who were selected randomly. The participants completed a questionnaire that consisted of two scales: Internet addiction which was…

  4. EHBP1L1 coordinates Rab8 and Bin1 to regulate apical-directed transport in polarized epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Atsuhiro; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Togawa, Hiroko; Kunii, Masataka; Iwano, Tomohiko; Izumi, Ayaka; Noguchi, Yuria; Watanabe, Ayako; Goto, Ayako; Sato, Toshiro; Harada, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    The highly conserved Rab guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab8 plays a role in exocytosis toward the polarized plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells. In murine Rab8-deficient small intestine cells, apical proteins are missorted into lysosomes. In this study, we identified a novel Rab8-interacting protein complex containing an EH domain-binding protein 1-like 1 (EHBP1L1), Bin1/amphiphysin II, and dynamin. Biochemical analyses showed that EHBP1L1 directly bound to GTP-loaded Rab8 and Bin1. The spatial dependency of these complexes at the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) was demonstrated through overexpression and knockdown experiments. EHBP1L1- or Bin1-depleted or dynamin-inhibited small intestine organoids significantly accumulated apical membrane proteins but not basolateral membrane proteins in lysosomes. Furthermore, in EHBP1L1-deficient mice, small intestine cells displayed truncated and sparse microvilli, suggesting that EHBP1L1 maintains the apical plasma membrane by regulating apical transport. In summary, our data demonstrate that EHBP1L1 links Rab8 and the Bin1-dynamin complex, which generates membrane curvature and excises the vesicle at the ERC for apical transport. © 2016 Nakajo et al.

  5. 78 FR 76218 - Rural Call Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ..., to the extent such service offers the capability to place calls to or receive calls from the PSTN. 6... restricting telephone traffic in response to continued complaints about rural call completion issues from.... In August 2013, ATIS and NECA announced a voluntary Joint National Call Testing Project offering...

  6. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Call signs. 2.302 Section 2.302... RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call signs. The table which follows indicates the composition and blocks of international call signs available for...

  7. Call for Papers: Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inevitably, learning and teaching facilities are under the impact of such changes. As indicated by O'Reilly (2005), web ... Inquiry into the education implications of technological developments promises interesting knowledge contributions for a range ... English Language Teaching, 6:19-25. Completed manuscripts should be ...

  8. The Effectiveness of the Curriculum Biography of the Prophet in the Development of Social Intelligence Skills of Al-Hussein Bin Talal University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Omar; Alrub, Mohammad Abo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find out how the effectiveness of the curriculum biography of the Prophet in the development of social intelligence skills of Al-Hussein Bin Talal University students and the study sample consisted of 365 students from Al-Hussein Bin Talal University for the first semester 2014-2015 students were selected in accessible manner.…

  9. A 222 energy bins response matrix for a {sup 6}Lil scintillator Bss system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, M. A. S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Calibracao de Dosimetros, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mendez V, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Laboratorio de Patrones Neutronicos, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lorente F, A.; Ibanez F, S.; Gallego D, E., E-mail: masl@cdtn.br [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    A new response matrix was calculated for a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (Bss) with a {sup 6}Lil(Eu) scintillator. We utilized the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport code MCNPX, version 2.7.0, with Endf/B-VII.0 nuclear data library to calculate the responses for 6 spheres and the bare detector, for energies varying from 9.441 E(-10) MeV to 105.9 MeV, with 20 equal-log(E)-width bins per energy decade, totalizing 222 energy groups. A Bss, like the modeled in this work, was utilized to measure the neutron spectrum generated by the {sup 241}AmBe source of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. From the count rates obtained with this Bss system we unfolded neutron spectrum utilizing the BUNKIUT code for 31 energy bins (UTA-4 response matrix) and the MAXED code with the new calculated response functions. We compared spectra obtained with these Bss system / unfold codes with that obtained from measurements performed with a Bss system constituted of 12 spheres with a spherical {sup 3}He Sp-9 counter (Centronic Ltd., UK) and MAXED code with the system-specific response functions (Bss-CIEMAT). A relatively good agreement was observed between our response matrix and that calculated by other authors. In general, we observed an improvement in the agreement as the energy increases. However, higher discrepancies were observed for energies close to 1-E(-8) MeV and, mainly, for energies above 20 MeV. These discrepancies were mainly attributed to the differences in cross-section libraries employed. The ambient dose equivalent (H (10)) calculated with the {sup 6}Lil-MAXED showed a good agreement with values measured with the neutron area monitor Bert hold Lb 6411 and within 12% the value obtained with another Bss system (Bss-CIEMAT). The response matrix calculated in this work can be utilized together with the MAXED code to generate neutron spectra with a good energy resolution up to 20 MeV. Some additional tests are being done to validate this response matrix and improve the

  10. Melhoramentos no código Wilson-Devinney para binárias eclipsantes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    A análise de curvas de luz e velocidades radiais de sistemas binários eclipsantes pode ser feita por meio de vários modelos. Um desses é o Modelo Wilson-Devinney (WD). Ao longo dos anos, esse modelo sofreu várias alterações em seus códigos principais, com a finalidade de torná-lo mais consistente tanto fíisica como numericamente. O Modelo WD tem sido melhorado de várias maneiras em seus dois códigos: um para a predição das curvas de luz teórica e de velocidade radiais e outra para as soluções destas curvas. Teoricamente, na física do modelo, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de levar em conta os efeitos do movimento apsidal. Numericamente, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de usar o Método SIMPLEX no procedimento da solução, como uma alternativa para o já implementado Método de Mínimos Quadrados (Least Squares Method). Estas modificações, juntamente com outras já introduzidas pelo nosso grupo anteriormente, tornam o código mais eficiente na solução das curvas de luz e de velocidade radiais de binárias eclipsantes. Como o modelo tem sido usado para analisar sistemas com componentes pré-sequência principal (TY CrA, Casey et al. 1998, Vaz et al. 1998), SM 790, Stassun et al. 2003), este melhoramento beneficiará estes casos também. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos com a modificação do código WD por meio do uso de dados da estrela GL Carinae, comprovando, (1) que os parâmetros orbitais calculados por nós são coerentes com os obtidos anteriormente na literatura (Giménez & Clausen, 1986) e com os obtidos por Faria (1987), e (2) que a implementação do Método SIMPLEX torna o código mais lento mas completamente consistente internamente e evita os problemas gerados pelo uso do Método de Mínimos Quadrados, tais como imprecisão no cálculo das derivadas parciais e convergência para mínimos locais.

  11. Acoustic classification of alarm calls by vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) and humans (Homo sapiens): I. Natural calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owren, M J

    1990-03-01

    A 2-choice, operant-conditioning-based classification procedure was developed in which vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) categorized species-typical snake and eagle alarm calls recorded from individually identified free-ranging animals. After preliminary training with a pair of calls from a single animal, 2 vervets were tested with novel exemplars produced by a variety of callers. Experiment 1 combined testing with continued training in routine classification of 14 new calls. In Experiment 2, the subjects were tested with 48 novel calls in rapid succession. Human (Homo sapiens) control subjects participated in the first study without extended preliminary training. Monkey and human subjects both showed immediate transfer to classification of unfamiliar alarm calls, despite variations both in voice characteristics and reproduction quality.

  12. Distribution of hybrid entanglement and hyperentanglement with time-bin for secure quantum channel under noise via weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jino; Kang, Min-Sung; Hong, Chang-Ho; Yang, Hyung-Jin; Choi, Seong-Gon; Hong, Jong-Phil

    2017-08-31

    We design schemes to generate and distribute hybrid entanglement and hyperentanglement correlated with degrees of freedom (polarization and time-bin) via weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs) and linear optical devices (including time-bin encoders). In our scheme, the multi-photon gates (which consist of XKNLs, quantum bus [qubus] beams, and photon-number-resolving [PNR] measurement) with time-bin encoders can generate hyperentanglement or hybrid entanglement. And we can also purify the entangled state (polarization) of two photons using only linear optical devices and time-bin encoders under a noisy (bit-flip) channel. Subsequently, through local operations (using a multi-photon gate via XKNLs) and classical communications, it is possible to generate a four-qubit hybrid entangled state (polarization and time-bin). Finally, we discuss how the multi-photon gate using XKNLs, qubus beams, and PNR measurement can be reliably performed under the decoherence effect.

  13. Decomposed multi-objective bin-packing for virtual machine consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli M. Dow

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a novel solution to the problem of virtual machine (VM consolidation, otherwise known as VM-Packing, as applicable to Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud data centers. Our solution relies on the observation that virtual machines are not infinitely variable in resource consumption. Generally, cloud compute providers offer them in fixed resource allocations. Effectively this makes all VMs of that allocation type (or instance type generally interchangeable for the purposes of consolidation from a cloud compute provider viewpoint. The main contribution of this work is to demonstrate the advantages to our approach of deconstructing the VM consolidation problem into a two-step process of multidimensional bin packing. The first step is to determine the optimal, but abstract, solution composed of finite groups of equivalent VMs that should reside on each host. The second step selects concrete VMs from the managed compute pool to satisfy the optimal abstract solution while enforcing anti-colocation and preferential colocation of the virtual machines through VM contracts. We demonstrate our high-performance, deterministic packing solution generation, with over 7,500 VMs packed in under 2 min. We demonstrating comparable runtimes to other VM management solutions published in the literature allowing for favorable extrapolations of the prior work in the field in order to deal with larger VM management problem sizes our solution scales to.

  14. [Transformation of sainfoin by Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA9402 Bin19 and regeneration of transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z Q; Ma, H J; Hao, J G; Jia, J F

    2000-03-01

    Hypocotyl segments of Onobrychis viciaefolia were transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA9402 which harboured pBin19 and pRi1855. Seedling age and preculture time of hypocotyl segments influenced the transformation frequency. Paper electrophoresis revealed that 70% of single hairy root cultures could synthesize agropine. Calli were induced from hairy root segments on MS medium containing 0-9.05 mumol/L 2,4-D and 0-2.22 mumol/L 6-BA at first, then they were transferred onto MS0 medium without kanamycin for regeneration. Constitution and concentration of phytohormones in callus induction media affected subsequent regeneration of calluses on MS0 medium remarkably. Regeneration frequency and shoot number per callus declined when 2,4-D concentration in callus induction media increased from 4.52 to 9.05 mumol/L, while they ascended when 6-BA in callus induction media increased from 0 to 2.22 mumol/L. On MS medium supplemented with 4.52 mumol/L 2,4-D and 2.22 mumol/L 6-BA, only 14.2% hairy root segments could produce calluses, but the regeneration frequency reached 58.1% and the shoot number per callus was 37.2. In 32 analysed plants regenerated from 8 kanamycin resistant hairy root lines, 25 were nptII positive and showed different copy numbers.

  15. Quantitative treatment of coarsely binned low-resolution recordings in molecular absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spietz, Peter; Martín, Juan Carlos Gómez; Burrows, John P

    2006-06-01

    Optical multichannel detectors like photodiode arrays or CCD cameras combined with grating spectrometers are commonly used as detection systems in quantitative absorption spectroscopy. As a trade-off to broad spectral coverage, banded spectral features are sometimes recorded with insufficient spectral resolution and/or insufficiently fine detector binning. This renders the true physical spectrum of recorded intensities changed by instrumental and spectrum specific artefacts thus impeding comparability between results from different set-ups. In this work, it is demonstrated that in the case of a "well-behaved"--i.e. free of ro-vibronic structure--absorption band like the iodine monoxide IO(4Lambert's law) between absorber concentration and apparent, i.e. pixelwise optical density occur. This can be critical in studies of chemical kinetics. It is shown that the observed non-linearity can cause errors of up to 50% in the determination of a second order rate coefficient for the IO self reaction. To overcome the problem, a consistent and rigorous integral approach for the treatment of intensity recordings is developed. Linearity between optical density and absorber concentration thereby is re-established. The method is validated using artificial test data as well as experimental data of the IO(4<--0) absorption transition, obtained in the context of I2/O3 photochemistry studies. The agreement is accurate to within +/-2% (test data) and +/-3% (experimental data) supporting the validity of the approach. Possible consequences for other spectroscopic work are indicated.

  16. DIGITAL WORKFLOW FOR THE CONSERVATION OF BAHRAIN BUILT HERITAGE: THE SHEIK ISA BIN ALI HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Barazzetti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the commercial market offers several tools for digital documentation of historic sites and buildings. Photogrammetry and laser scanning play a fundamental role in the acquisition of metric information, which is then processed to generate reliable records particularly useful also in the built heritage conservation field. Although potentially very fast and accurate, such techniques require expert operators to produce reliable results, especially in the case of complex and large sites. The aim of this paper is to present the digital workflow developed for data acquisition and processing of the Shaikh Isa Bin Ali house in Muharraq, Bahrain. This historic structure is an outstanding example of Bahrain architecture as well as tangible memory of the country history, with strong connotations in the Bahrain cultural identity. The building has been documented employing several digital techniques, including: aerial (drone and terrestrial photogrammetry, rectifying photography, total station and laser scanning. The documentation project has been developed for the Bahrain Authority for Culture and Antiquities (BACA by a multidisciplinary team of experts from Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS, Carleton University, Canada and Gicarus Lab (Politecnico di Milano, Italy.

  17. Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nurul T; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J

    2017-11-01

    The security of conventional cryptography systems is threatened in the forthcoming era of quantum computers. Quantum key distribution (QKD) features fundamentally proven security and offers a promising option for quantum-proof cryptography solution. Although prototype QKD systems over optical fiber have been demonstrated over the years, the key generation rates remain several orders of magnitude lower than current classical communication systems. In an effort toward a commercially viable QKD system with improved key generation rates, we developed a discrete-variable QKD system based on time-bin quantum photonic states that can generate provably secure cryptographic keys at megabit-per-second rates over metropolitan distances. We use high-dimensional quantum states that transmit more than one secret bit per received photon, alleviating detector saturation effects in the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors used in our system that feature very high detection efficiency (of more than 70%) and low timing jitter (of less than 40 ps). Our system is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components, and the adopted protocol can be readily extended to free-space quantum channels. The security analysis adopted to distill the keys ensures that the demonstrated protocol is robust against coherent attacks, finite-size effects, and a broad class of experimental imperfections identified in our system.

  18. Health Informatics Master Program at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwaijiri, M; Aldosari, B

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Health Informatics Master Program at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We have reviewed health informatics master programs worldwide with more emphasis on the recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association on education in health informatics, research, and faculty/trainee participation at KSAU-HS. An applied health informatics master program has been designed where graduates will be able to deploy information and communication technology in support of health systems' processes. This is due to the fact that most of health organizations are driven by information and communication technology. The program embodies the features of effective applied health informatics master programs recommended by the International Medical Informatics Association on education in health informatics and delineated as curricula integrating three areas of knowledge and skills: 1) Methodology and technology for the processing of data, information and knowledge in medicine and healthcare, 2) Medicine, health and biosciences, and 3) Informatics/computer science, mathematics and biometry. The health informatics master program (MHI) immerses students in the multidisciplinary field of health informatics education. Graduates of the MHI program will be well-prepared informaticians for leadership positions, able to meet the increasing demands in the field of health informatics to manage, plan, develop, and provide expert consultations to the healthcare sectors.

  19. Analyzing the Mixing Dynamics of an Industrial Batch Bin Blender via Discrete Element Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitraye Sen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A discrete element model (DEM has been developed for an industrial batch bin blender in which three different types of materials are mixed. The mixing dynamics have been evaluated from a model-based study with respect to the blend critical quality attributes (CQAs which are relative standard deviation (RSD and segregation intensity. In the actual industrial setup, a sensor mounted on the blender lid is used to determine the blend composition in this region. A model-based analysis has been used to understand the mixing efficiency in the other zones inside the blender and to determine if the data obtained near the blender-lid region are able to provide a good representation of the overall blend quality. Sub-optimal mixing zones have been identified and other potential sampling locations have been investigated in order to obtain a good approximation of the blend variability. The model has been used to study how the mixing efficiency can be improved by varying the key processing parameters, i.e., blender RPM/speed, fill level/volume and loading order. Both segregation intensity and RSD reduce at a lower fill level and higher blender RPM and are a function of the mixing time. This work demonstrates the use of a model-based approach to improve process knowledge regarding a pharmaceutical mixing process. The model can be used to acquire qualitative information about the influence of different critical process parameters and equipment geometry on the mixing dynamics.

  20. Spectral binning for energy production calculations and multijunction solar cell design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Iván [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Instituto de Energía Solar, Univ. Politécnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n Madrid 28040 Spain; McMahon, William E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Habte, Aron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Geisz, John F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Steiner, Myles A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Friedman, Daniel J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA

    2017-09-14

    Currently, most solar cells are designed for and evaluated under standard spectra intended to represent typical spectral conditions. However, no single spectrum can capture the spectral variability needed for annual energy production (AEP) calculations, and this shortcoming becomes more significant for series-connected multijunction cells as the number of junctions increases. For this reason, AEP calculations are often performed on very detailed yearlong sets of data, but these pose 2 inherent challenges: (1) These data sets comprise thousands of data points, which appear as a scattered cloud of data when plotted against typical parameters and are hence cumbersome to classify and compare, and (2) large sets of spectra bring with them a corresponding increase in computation or measurement time. Here, we show how a large spectral set can be reduced to just a few 'proxy' spectra, which still retain the spectral variability information needed for AEP design and evaluation. The basic 'spectral binning' methods should be extensible to a variety of multijunction device architectures. In this study, as a demonstration, the AEP of a 4-junction device is computed for both a full set of spectra and a reduced proxy set, and the results show excellent agreement for as few as 3 proxy spectra. This enables much faster (and thereby more detailed) calculations and indoor measurements and provides a manageable way to parameterize a spectral set, essentially creating a 'spectral fingerprint,' which should facilitate the understanding and comparison of different sites.

  1. VIOLATIONS OF THE GENDER EQUALITY PRINCIPLES REVEALED IN CARMEN BIN LADIN’S INSIDE THE KIGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinawati Rinawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the theme of violations of the gender equality principles in Carmen‘s Bin Ladin‘s Inside the Kingdom. The best seller novel was based on the true story of the author‘s life in Saudi Arabia under the gender prohibitions of Wahhabi custom. The analytical perspective adopted in this study is shaped by the idea of Islamic feminism. The analysis resulted in the finding that gender problem revealed in the novel was due to the violations of the gender equality principles. The violations of the gender equality principles included the practice of honor killing, women‘s face covering, the construction of women‘s inferiority, the prohibition of entering mosque for women, segregation of sexes, divorced women‘s getting no child custody rights, no obligationof educating women, forced marriage, temporary marriage, female genital mutilation and improper polygamy practice. In conclusion, the women depicted in the novel are not truly treated according to the gender equality principles.

  2. Digital Workflow for the Conservation of Bahrain Built Heritage: the Sheik Isa Bin ALI House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, L.; Mezzino, D.; Santana Quintero, M.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, the commercial market offers several tools for digital documentation of historic sites and buildings. Photogrammetry and laser scanning play a fundamental role in the acquisition of metric information, which is then processed to generate reliable records particularly useful also in the built heritage conservation field. Although potentially very fast and accurate, such techniques require expert operators to produce reliable results, especially in the case of complex and large sites. The aim of this paper is to present the digital workflow developed for data acquisition and processing of the Shaikh Isa Bin Ali house in Muharraq, Bahrain. This historic structure is an outstanding example of Bahrain architecture as well as tangible memory of the country history, with strong connotations in the Bahrain cultural identity. The building has been documented employing several digital techniques, including: aerial (drone) and terrestrial photogrammetry, rectifying photography, total station and laser scanning. The documentation project has been developed for the Bahrain Authority for Culture and Antiquities (BACA) by a multidisciplinary team of experts from Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS, Carleton University, Canada) and Gicarus Lab (Politecnico di Milano, Italy).

  3. Case study: Is the 'catch-all-plastics bin' useful in unlocking the hidden resource potential in the residual waste collection system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzinger, Lukas; Schopf, Kerstin; Pomberger, Roland; Punesch, Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    Austria's performance in the collection of separated waste is adequate. However, the residual waste still contains substantial amounts of recyclable materials - for example, plastics, paper and board, glass and composite packaging. Plastics (lightweight packaging and similar non-packaging materials) are detected at an average mass content of 13% in residual waste. Despite this huge potential, only 3% of the total amount of residual waste (1,687,000 t y -1 ) is recycled. This implies that most of the recyclable materials contained in the residual waste are destined for thermal recovery and are lost for recycling. This pilot project, commissioned by the Land of Lower Austria, applied a holistic approach, unique in Europe, to the Lower Austrian waste management system. It aims to transfer excess quantities of plastic packaging and non-packaging recyclables from the residual waste system to the separately collected waste system by introducing a so-called 'catch-all-plastics bin'. A quantity flow model was constructed and the results showed a realistic increase in the amount of plastics collected of 33.9 wt%. This equals a calculated excess quantity of 19,638 t y -1 . The increased plastics collection resulted in a positive impact on the climate footprint (CO 2 equivalent) in line with the targets of EU Directive 94/62/EG (Circular Economy Package) and its Amendments. The new collection system involves only moderate additional costs.

  4. CLEO-c $D\\to K_{S/L}^0 \\pi^+\\pi^-$ Binned Dalitz-Plot Analyses Optimised for the CKM Angle $\\gamma$ Measurement and the Commissioning of the LHCb RICH Front-End Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brisbane, Sean; Harnew, N

    2010-01-01

    The best single direct measurement of the CKM angle γ is currently derived from an unbinned maximum likelihood Dalitz analysis of the $B^{\\pm}\\to D^{(-)0} K^{\\pm}$ channel where the neutral $D^{(-)0}$ decays to $K^{0}_{S}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ . This technique is limited to a 3 − 9◦ precision on γ arising from uncertainties introduced when modelling the three-body decay of the $D^{(-)}0$. These model uncertainties will dominate the precision on γ at the next generation of B-physics experiments such as LHCb. An alternative binned approach to the analysis of $B^{\\pm} \\to (K^{0}_{S}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-})_{D}K^{\\pm}$ data has been proposed that is free of the model-dependent uncertainties. This alternative approach requires external constraints from a set of parameters, so-called ci and si, that depend on both the strong phase difference between $D^{0} \\to K^{0}_{S}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ and $\\overline{D}^{0} \\to K^{0}_{s}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ and the choice of Dalitzplot binning. A previous analysis of quantum correlated $\\overline...

  5. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Call for Abstracts

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial, you will learn how to define and open a call for abstracts. When defining a call for abstracts, you will be able to define settings related to the type of questions asked during a review of an abstract, select the users who will review the abstracts, decide when to open the call for abstracts, and more.

  6. HOW TO CALL THE CERN FIRE BRIGADE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  7. How to call the Fire Brigade

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The telephone numbers for the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from "wired" telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  8. HOW TO CALL THE CERN FIRE BRIGADE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.  

  9. Do market participants learn from conference calls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, E.; Verbeeten, F.; Mertens, G.

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether market participants learn from the information that is disseminated during the Q-and-A section of conference calls. Specifically, we investigate whether stock prices react to information on intangible assets provided during conference calls, and whether conference calls

  10. HOW TO CALL THE CERN FIRE BRIGADE

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note: the number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  11. HOW TO CALL THE CERN FIRE BRIGADE

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  12. ICALL's Relevance to CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The term Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) covers many different aspects of CALL that add something extra to a CALL resource. This could be with the use of computational linguistics or Artificial Intelligence (AI). ICALL tends to be not very well understood within the CALL community. There may also be the slight fear factor…

  13. Noncanonical role ofArabidopsisCOP1/SPA complex in repressing BIN2-mediated PIF3 phosphorylation and degradation in darkness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jun-Jie; Li, Jian; Zhu, Danmeng; Deng, Xing Wang

    2017-03-28

    The E3 ligase CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) has been known to mediate key signaling factors for degradation via the ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway in both plants and animals. Here, we report a noncanonical function of Arabidopsis COP1, the central repressor of photomorphogenesis, in the form of a COP1/ SUPPRESSOR of phyA-105 (SPA) complex. We show that the COP1/SPA complex associates with and stabilizes PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3) to repress photomorphogenesis in the dark. We identify the GSK3-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) as a kinase of PIF3, which induces PIF3 degradation via 26S proteasome during skotomorphogenesis. Mutations on two typical BIN2 phosphorylation motifs of PIF3 lead to a strong stabilization of the protein in the dark. We further show that the COP1/SPA complex promotes PIF3 stability by repressing BIN2 activity. Intriguingly, without affecting BIN2 expression, the COP1/SPA complex modulates BIN2 activity through interfering with BIN2-PIF3 interaction, thereby inhibiting BIN2-mediated PIF3 phosphorylation and degradation. Taken together, our results suggest another paradigm for COP1/SPA complex action in the precise control of skotomorphogenesis.

  14. Multiscale molecular dynamics simulations of membrane remodeling by Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs family proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan; Haohua, Wen; Lanyuan, Lu; Jun, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Membrane curvature is no longer thought of as a passive property of the membrane; rather, it is considered as an active, regulated state that serves various purposes in the cell such as between cells and organelle definition. While transport is usually mediated by tiny membrane bubbles known as vesicles or membrane tubules, such communication requires complex interplay between the lipid bilayers and cytosolic proteins such as members of the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) superfamily of proteins. With rapid developments in novel experimental techniques, membrane remodeling has become a rapidly emerging new field in recent years. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are important tools for obtaining atomistic information regarding the structural and dynamic aspects of biological systems and for understanding the physics-related aspects. The availability of more sophisticated experimental data poses challenges to the theoretical community for developing novel theoretical and computational techniques that can be used to better interpret the experimental results to obtain further functional insights. In this review, we summarize the general mechanisms underlying membrane remodeling controlled or mediated by proteins. While studies combining experiments and molecular dynamics simulations recall existing mechanistic models, concurrently, they extend the role of different BAR domain proteins during membrane remodeling processes. We review these recent findings, focusing on how multiscale molecular dynamics simulations aid in understanding the physical basis of BAR domain proteins, as a representative of membrane-remodeling proteins. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21403182) and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, China (Grant No. CityU 21300014).

  15. The Effects of Shielded Tote Bins on the Safe Separation of 168 Pounds of Composition A-7 Explosive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    shielding. Each tote bin con- tained 168 pounds of Comi . A-7 traveling an a s~imulated conveyor system with- in a tunnel or rarap. Full-scale tests were...propagation of acceptors. The results of this study are briefly summarized as follows: (1) Tbe thickness of Kevlar tested was ineffective in preventing...the appendix Mr. J. W. Gehring - Editing and preparation of the film Messrs. A. C. Garcia, Robert Marin, and John F. Weschler for implementing the field

  16. Allocation of solid waste collection bins and route optimisation using geographical information system: A case study of Dhanbad City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Samadder, S R

    2016-07-01

    Collection of municipal solid waste is one of the most important elements of municipal waste management and requires maximum fund allocated for waste management. The cost of collection and transportation can be reduced in comparison with the present scenario if the solid waste collection bins are located at suitable places so that the collection routes become minimum. This study presents a suitable solid waste collection bin allocation method at appropriate places with uniform distance and easily accessible location so that the collection vehicle routes become minimum for the city Dhanbad, India. The network analyst tool set available in ArcGIS was used to find the optimised route for solid waste collection considering all the required parameters for solid waste collection efficiently. These parameters include the positions of solid waste collection bins, the road network, the population density, waste collection schedules, truck capacities and their characteristics. The present study also demonstrates the significant cost reductions that can be obtained compared with the current practices in the study area. The vehicle routing problem solver tool of ArcGIS was used to identify the cost-effective scenario for waste collection, to estimate its running costs and to simulate its application considering both travel time and travel distance simultaneously. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Crash Simulation of a Vertical Drop Test of a B737 Fuselage Section with Overhead Bins and Luggage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe a crash simulation of a 30-ft/s vertical drop test of a Boeing 737 (B737) fuselage section. The drop test of the 10-ft. long fuselage section of a B737 aircraft was conducted in November of 2000 at the FAA Technical Center in Atlantic City, NJ. The fuselage section was outfitted with two different commercial overhead stowage bins. In addition, 3,229-lbs. of luggage were packed in the cargo hold to represent a maximum take-off weight condition. The main objective of the test was to evaluate the response and failure modes of the overhead stowage bins in a narrow-body transport fuselage section when subjected to a severe, but survivable, impact. A secondary objective of the test was to generate experimental data for correlation with the crash simulation. A full-scale 3-dimensional finite element model of the fuselage section was developed and a crash simulation was conducted using the explicit, nonlinear transient dynamic code, MSC.Dytran. Pre-test predictions of the fuselage and overhead bin responses were generated for correlation with the drop test data. A description of the finite element model and an assessment of the analytical/experimental correlation are presented. In addition, suggestions for modifications to the model to improve correlation are proposed.

  18. Exact Bayesian bin classification: a fast alternative to Bayesian classification and its application to neural response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, D; Földiák, P

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the general problem of signal classification and, in particular, that of assigning stimulus labels to neural spike trains recorded from single cortical neurons. Finding efficient ways of classifying neural responses is especially important in experiments involving rapid presentation of stimuli. We introduce a fast, exact alternative to Bayesian classification. Instead of estimating the class-conditional densities p(x|y) (where x is a scalar function of the feature[s], y the class label) and converting them to P(y|x) via Bayes' theorem, this probability is evaluated directly and without the need for approximations. This is achieved by integrating over all possible binnings of x with an upper limit on the number of bins. Computational time is quadratic in both the number of observed data points and the number of bins. The algorithm also allows for the computation of feedback signals, which can be used as input to subsequent stages of inference, e.g. neural network training. Responses of single neurons from high-level visual cortex (area STSa) to rapid sequences of complex visual stimuli are analysed. Information latency and response duration increase nonlinearly with presentation duration, suggesting that neural processing speeds adapt to presentation speeds.

  19. Bonobos extract meaning from call sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Clay

    Full Text Available Studies on language-trained bonobos have revealed their remarkable abilities in representational and communication tasks. Surprisingly, however, corresponding research into their natural communication has largely been neglected. We address this issue with a first playback study on the natural vocal behaviour of bonobos. Bonobos produce five acoustically distinct call types when finding food, which they regularly mix together into longer call sequences. We found that individual call types were relatively poor indicators of food quality, while context specificity was much greater at the call sequence level. We therefore investigated whether receivers could extract meaning about the quality of food encountered by the caller by integrating across different call sequences. We first trained four captive individuals to find two types of foods, kiwi (preferred and apples (less preferred at two different locations. We then conducted naturalistic playback experiments during which we broadcasted sequences of four calls, originally produced by a familiar individual responding to either kiwi or apples. All sequences contained the same number of calls but varied in the composition of call types. Following playbacks, we found that subjects devoted significantly more search effort to the field indicated by the call sequence. Rather than attending to individual calls, bonobos attended to the entire sequences to make inferences about the food encountered by a caller. These results provide the first empirical evidence that bonobos are able to extract information about external events by attending to vocal sequences of other individuals and highlight the importance of call combinations in their natural communication system.

  20. Degradation characteristics of golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia two-phrase long calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatini, Vera; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    of long calls of the Golden Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia and its implications for "reading" and ranging long calls of calling tamarins. The experiments were made in lowland, evergreen forest in Brazil. Synthesized copies of natural sounds were broadcast and re-recorded using different combinations...

  1. Numerical experiment of lake-effect snowstorm in C3VP campaign using the WRF model coupled with spectral bin microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, T.; Matsui, T.; Li, X.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W.

    2010-12-01

    The next-generation Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will offer a global view of precipitation systems including over middle and high latitudes and enable accurate measurement of frozen precipitation and light rainfall. The project of a synthetic GPM simulator was proposed to offer a vitual cloud libraty (VCL) to support development of the retrieval algorithm. The VCL is composed of ground validation (GV)-constrained 3D database of cloud resolving model (CRM) output and simulated GPM L1 product. The satellite retrieval algorithm can be cross-checked with a physical-based approach by using the VCL as a priori database. The first experiment for making VCL is planned for a snowfall event during the Canadian CloudSAT/CALIPSO Validation Project (C3VP) field campaign. This campaign was took place at the site located between the Lakes Huron and Ontario in south central Ontario, Canada. A cold wind passing over the lakes causes a snowstorm specific to areas over the lee side during winter season. Shi et al. [2010] showed a numerical simulation of the lake-effect snowstorm on Jan. 20, 2007 using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model with newly implemented the Goddard microphysics scheme (1-moment bulk for 2-water, 3-ice classes). The simulation reasonably represented the locally intensive frozen precipitation in agreement with King-city C-band radar observation. The structures of ice clouds were generally consistent with those in CloudSat and AMSU-B observations also. This study is aimed at a follow-up study of their research using the WRF in conjunction with the spectral bin microphysics for clouds (WRF-SBM), especially targeted to cloud microphysics of the snowfall event. This SBM (1-moment 33 bins for 1-water, 6-ice classes) is based on the Hebrew University Cloud Model (HUCM) [e.g., Khain et al., 2000; Iguchi et al., 2008, Appendix A]. We will offer a discussion of ice cloud microphysics on a lake-effect snowstorm with sensitivity tests to

  2. Massachusetts Bay - Internal Wave Packets Extracted from SAR Imagery Binned in 30x30 second latitude/longitude polygon grid cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets extracted from SAR imagery that were binned in 30x30 second latitude/longitude polygon grid cells. Statistics were...

  3. Passive acoustic monitoring, development of disturbance calls and differentiation of disturbance and advertisement calls in the Argentine croaker Umbrina canosai (Sciaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, J S; Fine, M L; Norbis, W

    2017-04-01

    Disturbance and advertisement calls of the Argentine croaker Umbrina canosai were recorded from coastal Uruguayan waters. Dissections indicate typical sciaenid extrinsic swimbladder muscles present exclusively in males. Disturbance calls were produced when captive U. canosai were startled, chased with a net or grabbed by the tail. Calls were unusual for sciaenids because each pulse consisted of multiple cycles. The number of cycles per pulse and dominant frequency did not change with U. canosai size, but pulse duration and interpulse interval increased. Advertisement calls were recorded from unseen choruses in the field and confirmed with captive individuals in a large tank. Advertisement calls were recorded throughout the known range of the species in Uruguay indicating a continuous belt of spawning populations. Tank recordings of the same individuals permitted explicit comparisons between the two calls. Advertisement call pulses averaged 2·4 more cycles (11·0-8·6) although pulses of both calls were basically similar as were durations and dominant frequencies. Pulse number, however, differed markedly, averaging 13·6 and 3·4 pulses for disturbance and advertisement calls respectively. Furthermore, disturbance calls were produced as a rapid series with an interpulse interval of 26-31 ms whereas advertisement call patterns were less stereotyped and ranged from <100 to 450 ms. Multicycle pulses distinguished U. canosai from other sympatric sciaenids. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Educación de calle

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado Alonso, Carmen María

    2014-01-01

    Los cambios que está sufriendo nuestra sociedad generan nuevas realidades sociales y nuevos métodos de socialización modificando nuestro entorno. Uno de los principales lugares donde ocurre esto es en la calle. La Calle tiene un potencial educativo muy valioso. En ocasiones puede ser utilizado para “des - educar”, olvidado por instituciones sociales, políticas y educativas. Es importante que la Calle se convierta en un espacio de socialización educativa. La Calle tiene un pa...

  5. Call Duration Characteristics based on Customers Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvinys Karolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of different researches are performed based on call duration distributions (CDD analysis. However, the majority of studies are linked with social relationships between the people. Therefore the scarcity of information, how the call duration is associated with a user's location, is appreciable. The goal of this paper is to reveal the ties between user's voice call duration and the location of call. For this reason we analyzed more than 5 million calls from real mobile network, which were made over the base stations located in rural areas, roads, small towns, business and entertainment centers, residential districts. According to these site types CDD’s and characteristic features for call durations are given and discussed. Submitted analysis presents the users habits and behavior as a group (not an individual. The research showed that CDD’s of customers being them in different locations are not equal. It has been found that users at entertainment, business centers are tend to talk much shortly, than people being at home. Even more CDD can be distorted strongly, when machinery calls are evaluated. Hence to apply a common CDD for a whole network it is not recommended. The study also deals with specific parameters of call duration for distinguished user groups, the influence of network technology for call duration is considered.

  6. Time series modeling of daily abandoned calls in a call centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Models for evaluating and predicting the short periodic time series in daily abandoned calls in a call center are developed. Abandonment of calls due to impatient is an identified problem among most call centers. The two competing models were derived using Fourier series and the Box and Jenkins modeling approaches.

  7. On-call emergency workload of a general surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawaid Masood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine the on-call emergency workload of a general surgical team at a tertiary care teaching hospital to guide planning and provision of better surgical services. Patients and Methods: During six months period from August to January 2007; all emergency calls attended by general surgical team of Surgical Unit II in Accident and Emergency department (A and E and in other units of Civil, Hospital Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recorded. Data recorded includes timing of call, diagnosis, operation performed and outcome apart from demography. Results: Total 456 patients (326 males and 130 females were attended by on-call general surgery team during 30 emergency days. Most of the calls, 191 (41.9% were received from 8 am to 5 pm. 224 (49.1% calls were of abdominal pain, with acute appendicitis being the most common specific pathology in 41 (9.0% patients. Total 73 (16.0% calls were received for trauma. Total 131 (28.7% patients were admitted in the surgical unit for urgent operation or observation while 212 (46.5% patients were discharged from A and E. 92 (20.1% patients were referred to other units with medical referral accounts for 45 (9.8% patients. Total 104 (22.8% emergency surgeries were done and the most common procedure performed was appendicectomy in 34 (32.7% patients. Conclusion: Major workload of on-call surgical emergency team is dealing with the acute conditions of abdomen. However, significant proportion of patients are suffering from other conditions including trauma that require a holistic approach to care and a wide range of skills and experience. These results have important implications in future healthcare planning and for the better training of general surgical residents.

  8. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... infrastructure and key resources (CIKR). At DHS, this responsibility is managed by IP within NPPD. Beginning in...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public: Federal... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...

  9. Answering the "Call of the Mountain"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Villegas, Martha

    2016-01-01

    In response to the age of the ‘anthropocene,’ as some authors are calling this epoch in which one single species is disrupting major natural systems (Steffen et al 2011), there are calls for more radical, learning-based sustainability that generates deep transformations in individuals

  10. Kindness Curbs Kids' Name-Calling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Rebekah

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the impact of name-calling towards the student's academic performance and emotions and cites some measures on how should teachers address this problem in order to facilitate effective learning among students. Psychologists recognize that name-calling and other forms of verbal bullying and harassment are more…

  11. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Margin calls. 31.18 Section 31....18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of a margin deficiency without effecting personal contact with the leverage customer. If a leverage...

  12. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  13. Monitoring method call sequences using annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nobakht (Behrooz); F.S. de Boer (Frank); M.M. Bonsangue (Marcello); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M.M. Jaghouri (MohammadMahdi)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we introduce JMSeq, a Java-based tool for monitoring sequences of method calls. JMSeq provides a simple but expressive language to specify the observables of a Java program in terms of sequences of possibly nested method calls. Similar to many monitoring-oriented

  14. 78 FR 21891 - Rural Call Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... one of two proposed safe harbor provisions. We also propose to prohibit both originating and... these proposed rules, particularly for originating providers whose call-routing practices do not appear... in presentations at the Commission's October 18, 2011 workshop on rural call routing and termination...

  15. Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sanchita

    2013-01-01

    Call Admission Control (CAC) and Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) are important decision-making problems in mobile cellular communication systems. Current research in mobile communication considers them as two independent problems, although the former greatly depends on the resulting free channels obtained as the outcome of the latter. This book provides a solution to the CAC problem, considering DCA as an integral part of decision-making for call admission. Further, current technical resources ignore movement issues of mobile stations and fluctuation in network load (incoming calls) in the control strategy used for call admission. In addition, the present techniques on call admission offers solution globally for the entire network, instead of considering the cells independently.      CAC here has been formulated by two alternative approaches. The first approach aimed at handling the uncertainty in the CAC problem by employing fuzzy comparators.  The second approach is concerned with formulation of CAC ...

  16. Com obtenir un Model de Regressió Logística Binària amb SPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Berlanga-Silvente

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Els models de regressió logística són models estadístics en què es desitja conèixer la relació entre: una variable dependent qualitativa dicotòmica (regressió logística binària o binomial i una o més variables explicatives independents, o covariables, ja siguin qualitatives o quantitatives. També és possible una variable dependent qualitativa amb més de dos valors (regressió logística multinomial, encara que en aquesta fitxa ens centrarem en la regressió logística binària. En qualsevol cas, l'equació inicial del model és de tipus exponencial, si bé la seva transformació logarítmica (logit permet el seu ús com una funció lineal. L'objectiu primordial que resol aquesta tècnica és el de modelar com influeixen la probabilitat d'aparició d'un succés, habitualment dicotòmic, la presència o no de diversos factors, i el valor o nivell dels mateixos. Aquesta fitxa sobre la Regressió Logística Binària explica les opcions que té el programa estadístic SPSS (mètodes automàtics "per passos" i la interpretació dels principals resultats.

  17. Call Cultures in Orang-Utans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A.; Nater, Alexander; Arora, Natasha; Bastian, Meredith L.; Meulman, Ellen; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C.; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; Pamungkas, Joko; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Hardus, Madeleine E.; van Noordwijk, Maria; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents) has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects). Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval), individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. Conclusion/Significance These results are consistent with the potential presence of ‘call cultures’ and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might assist in bridging

  18. Call cultures in orang-utans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects. Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval, individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the potential presence of 'call cultures' and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might

  19. A multi-channel 24.4 ps bin size Time-to-Digital Converter for HEP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mester, C; Morira, P

    2008-01-01

    A multi-channel time-tagging Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) ASIC with a resolution of 24.4 ps (bin size) has been implemented and fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. An on-chip PLL is used to generate an internal timing reference from an external 40 MHz clock source. The circuit is based on a 32 element Delay Locked Loop (DLL) which performs the time interpolation. The 32 channel architecture of the TDC is suitable for both triggered and non-triggered applications. The prototype contains test structures such as a substrate noise generator. The paper describes the circuit architecture and its principles of operation.

  20. The spin structure of the proton at low $x$ and low $Q^2$ in two-dimensional bins from COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The longitudinal double spin asymmetries $A_1^p$ and the spin dependent structure function of the proton $g_1^p$ were extracted from COMPASS data in the region of low Bjorken scaling variable $x$ and low photon virtuality $Q^2$. The data were taken in 2007 and 2011 from scattering of polarised muons off polarised protons, resulting in a sample that is 150 times larger than the one from the previous experiment SMC that pioneered studies in this kinematic region. For the first time, $A_1^p$ and $g_1^p$ were evaluated in this region in two-dimensional bins of kinematic variables: $(x,Q^2)$, $(\

  1. Metagenomic analysis and functional characterization of the biogas microbiome using high throughput shotgun sequencing and a novel binning strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campanaro, Stefano; Treu, Laura; Kougias, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is an economically attractive technology that has gained momentum worldwide over the past years. Biogas is produced by a biologically mediated process, widely known as "anaerobic digestion." This process is performed by a specialized and complex microbial community, in which...... dissect the bioma involved in anaerobic digestion by means of high throughput Illumina sequencing (~51 gigabases of sequence data), disclosing nearly one million genes and extracting 106 microbial genomes by a novel strategy combining two binning processes. Microbial phylogeny and putative taxonomy...

  2. Referential alarm calling behaviour in New World primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane CÄSAR, Klaus ZUBERBÜHLER

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is relatively good evidence that non-human primates can communicate about objects and events in their environment in ways that allow recipients to draw inferences about the nature of the event experienced by the signaller. In some species, there is also evidence that the basic semantic units are not individual calls, but call sequences and the combinations generated by them. These two findings are relevant to theories pertaining to the origins of human language because of the resemblances of these phenomena with linguistic reference and syntactic organisation. Until recently, however, most research efforts on the primate origins of human language have involved Old World species with comparatively few systematic studies on New World monkeys, which has prevented insights into the deeper phylogenetic roots and evolutionary origins of language-relevant capacities. To address this, we review the older primate literature and very recent evidence for functionally referential communication and call combinations in New World primates. Within the existing literature there is ample evidence in both Callitrichids and Cebids for acoustically distinct call variants given to external disturbances that are accompanied by distinct behavioural responses. A general pattern is that one call type is typically produced in response to a wide range of general disturbances, often on the ground but also including inter-group encounters, while another call type is produced in response to a much narrower range of aerial threats. This pattern is already described for Old World monkeys and Prosimians, suggesting an early evolutionary origin. Second, recent work with black-fronted titi monkeys has produced evidence for different alarm call sequences consisting of acoustically distinct call types. These sequences appear to encode several aspects of the predation event simultaneously, notably predator type and location. Since meaningful call sequences have already been

  3. External GSM phone calls now made simpler

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    On 2 July, the IT/CS Telecom Service introduced a new service making external calls from CERN GSM phones easier. A specific prefix is no longer needed for calls outside CERN. External calls from CERN GSM phones are to be simplified. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix to call an external number from the CERN GSM network.The Telecom Section of the IT/CS Group is introducing a new system that will make life easier for GSM users. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix (333) to call an external number from the CERN GSM network. Simply dial the number directly like any other Swiss GSM customer. CERN currently has its own private GSM network with the Swiss mobile operator, Sunrise, covering the whole of Switzerland. This network was initially intended exclusively for calls between CERN numbers (replacing the old beeper system). A special system was later introduced for external calls, allowing them to pass thr...

  4. Attitude of Farmers towards Kisan Call Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shely Mary Koshy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to measure the attitude of farmers in Kerala, India towards Kisan Call Centre (KCC. Kisan Call Centre provides free agricultural advisory services to every citizen involved in agriculture through a toll free number. One hundred and fifty farmers who have utilized the Kisan Call Centre service were selected from the database of KCC. The results showed that the respondents had moderately favourable attitude towards KCC followed by highly favourable attitude. The variables digital divide, temporal awareness on KCC, satisfaction towards KCC and utilization of KCC were found to have a positive correlation with the attitude of respondents towards KCC.

  5. Analytical utility of mass spectral binning in proteomic experiments by SPectral Immonium Ion Detection (SPIID)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Christian D; Freese, Christian; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-01-01

    , increasing the demand for advanced data interpretation. Several PTMs are known to generate unique fragment ions during tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), the so-called diagnostic ions, which unequivocally identifies that a given mass spectrum relates to a specific PTM. Although such ions hold tremendous...... analytical advantages, algorithms to decipher MS/MS spectra for the presence of diagnostic ions in an unbiased manner are currently lacking. Here, we present a systematic spectral pattern-based approach for the discovery of diagnostic ions, and new fragmentation mechanisms in shotgun proteomics datasets...

  6. COCACOLA: binning metagenomic contigs using sequence COmposition, read CoverAge, CO-alignment and paired-end read LinkAge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang Young; Chen, Ting; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu

    2017-03-15

    The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies enables researchers to sequence complex microbial communities directly from the environment. Because assembly typically produces only genome fragments, also known as contigs, instead of an entire genome, it is crucial to group them into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for further taxonomic profiling and down-streaming functional analysis. OTU clustering is also referred to as binning. We present COCACOLA, a general framework automatically bin contigs into OTUs based on sequence composition and coverage across multiple samples. The effectiveness of COCACOLA is demonstrated in both simulated and real datasets in comparison with state-of-art binning approaches such as CONCOCT, GroopM, MaxBin and MetaBAT. The superior performance of COCACOLA relies on two aspects. One is using L 1 distance instead of Euclidean distance for better taxonomic identification during initialization. More importantly, COCACOLA takes advantage of both hard clustering and soft clustering by sparsity regularization. In addition, the COCACOLA framework seamlessly embraces customized knowledge to facilitate binning accuracy. In our study, we have investigated two types of additional knowledge, the co-alignment to reference genomes and linkage of contigs provided by paired-end reads, as well as the ensemble of both. We find that both co-alignment and linkage information further improve binning in the majority of cases. COCACOLA is scalable and faster than CONCOCT, GroopM, MaxBin and MetaBAT. The software is available at https://github.com/younglululu/COCACOLA . fsun@usc.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. BinCat: a Catalog of Nearby Binary Stars with Tools for Calculating Light-Leakage for Direct Imaging Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holte, Elias Peter; Sirbu, Dan; Belikov, Ruslan

    2018-01-01

    Binary stars have been largely left out of direct imaging surveys for exoplanets, specifically for earth-sized planets in their star's habitable zone. Utilizing new direct imaging techniques brings us closer to being able to detect earth-like exoplanets around binary stars. In preparation for the upcoming WFIRST mission and other direct imaging-capable missions (HabEx, LUVIOR) it is important to understand the expected science yield resulting from the implementation of these imaging techniques. BinCat is a catalog of binary systems within 30 parsecs to be used as a target list for future direct imaging missions. There is a non-static component along with BinCat that allows researchers to predict the expected light-leakage between a binary component and its off-axis companion (a value critical to the aforementioned techniques) at any epoch. This is accomplished by using orbital elements from the Sixth Orbital Catalog to model the orbits of the binaries. The software was validated against the historical data used to generate the orbital parameters. When orbital information is unknown or the binaries are purely optical the proper motion of the pair taken from the Washington Double Star catalog is integrated in time to estimate expected light-leakage.

  8. Mourning Dove Call-count Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) Call-Count Survey was developed to provide an index to population size and to detect annual changes in mourning dove breeding...

  9. Evaluating erroneous offside calls in soccer

    OpenAIRE

    H?ttermann, Stefanie; No?l, Benjamin; Memmert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously attend to multiple objects declines with increases in the visual angle separating distant objects. We explored whether these laboratory-measured limits on visual attentional spread generalize to a real life context: offside calls by soccer assistant referees. We coded all offside calls from a full year of first division German soccer matches. By determining the x-y coordinates of the relevant players and assistant referee on the soccer field we were able to calcu...

  10. Partition Decomposition for Roll Call Data

    CERN Document Server

    Leibon, Greg; Rockmore, Daniel N; Savell, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we bring to bear some new tools from statistical learning on the analysis of roll call data. We present a new data-driven model for roll call voting that is geometric in nature. We construct the model by adapting the "Partition Decoupling Method," an unsupervised learning technique originally developed for the analysis of families of time series, to produce a multiscale geometric description of a weighted network associated to a set of roll call votes. Central to this approach is the quantitative notion of a "motivation," a cluster-based and learned basis element that serves as a building block in the representation of roll call data. Motivations enable the formulation of a quantitative description of ideology and their data-dependent nature makes possible a quantitative analysis of the evolution of ideological factors. This approach is generally applicable to roll call data and we apply it in particular to the historical roll call voting of the U.S. House and Senate. This methodology provides a...

  11. Staff Scheduling for Inbound Call and Customer Contact Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Fukunaga, Alex; Hamilton, Ed; Fama, Jason; Andre, David; Matan, Ofer; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2002-01-01

    The staff scheduling problem is a critical problem in the call center (or, more generally, customer contact center) industry. This article describes DIRECTOR, a staff scheduling system for contact centers. DIRECTOR is a constraint-based system that uses AI search techniques to generate schedules that satisfy and optimize a wide range of constraints and service-quality metrics. DIRECTOR has successfully been deployed at more than 800 contact centers, with significant measurable benefits, some ...

  12. Hourly associations between heat and ambulance calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    The response speed of ambulance calls is very crucial to rescue patients suffering immediately life threatening conditions. The serious health outcomes might be caused by exposing to extreme heat only several hours before. However, limited evidence is available on this topic. This study aims to examine the hourly association between heat and ambulance calls, to improve the ambulance services and to better protect health. Hourly data on ambulance calls for non-accidental causes, temperature and air pollutants (PM10, NO2, and O3) were collected from Brisbane, Australia, during 2001 and 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the associations between hourly ambulance calls and temperature during warm season (Nov, Dec, Jan, Feb, and Mar), while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were performed for sex and age groups. Ambulance calls peaked at 10am for all groups, except those aged 27 °C) increase the demands of ambulance. This information is helpful to increase the efficiency of ambulance service then save lives, for example, preparing more ambulance before appearance of extremely hot temperature in combination with weather forecast. Also, people should better arrange their time for outdoor activities to avoid exposing to extreme hot temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate.

  14. Conservative Bin-to-Bin Fractional Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Collisionless Tiny Early e− or Radical Populations Critical to Induction Delay Many types of Inelastic Collisions with Unknown Effects on Distribution...Transitions from Collisional to Collisionless Tiny Early e− or Radical Populations Critical to Induction Delay Many types of Inelastic Collisions with... Structures , Sort->Sums, v-Bounds, Morton curve) TURF: Np/Cell - Standard DSMC TURF: (Np/Cell) SWPM+Octree TURF: Np/Cell - Standard DSMC ROBERT MARTIN (AFRL

  15. Impact of the chorus environment on temporal processing of advertisement calls by gray treefrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joshua; Huth, Kenneth; Lasker, Jeffrey

    2004-05-01

    Male gray treefrogs advertise for mates using calls that consist of a series of pulses. Pulse duration, interpulse interval, and pulse shape determine whether a call is recognized as a conspecific signal by females. Females use call rate and call pulse number to assess relative calling performance by males, and prefer males that display high calling efforts. However, within choruses call overlap among males and background noise can compromise the ability of females to detect and correctly interpret temporal information in calls. Phonotaxis tests using calls suffering from different patterns of overlap or with internal gaps were used to investigate specific consequences of interference and masking as well as mechanisms that might alleviate such problems. Our data indicate that females do not employ a process analogous to phonemic restoration to ``fill in'' missing call segments; however, if a sufficient percent of call elements fall within species-specific ranges, females may ignore call anomalies. Additional findings are generally consistent with those from a recent study on anuran auditory midbrain neurons that count and indicate that inappropriate pulse intervals can reset the pulse counting process. [Work supported by NSF and a Pace University Eugene M. Lang Research Fellowship.

  16. Echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially in the brainstem of the bat Phyllostomus discolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuller Gerd

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echolocating bats emit vocalizations that can be classified either as echolocation calls or communication calls. Neural control of both types of calls must govern the same pool of motoneurons responsible for vocalizations. Electrical microstimulation in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG elicits both communication and echolocation calls, whereas stimulation of the paralemniscal area (PLA induces only echolocation calls. In both the PAG and the PLA, the current thresholds for triggering natural vocalizations do not habituate to stimuli and remain low even for long stimulation periods, indicating that these structures have relative direct access to the final common pathway for vocalization. This study intended to clarify whether echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially below the level of the PAG via separate vocal pathways before converging on the motoneurons used in vocalization. Results Both structures were probed simultaneously in a single experimental approach. Two stimulation electrodes were chronically implanted within the PAG in order to elicit either echolocation or communication calls. Blockade of the ipsilateral PLA site with iontophoretically application of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid did not impede either echolocation or communication calls elicited from the PAG. However, blockade of the contralateral PLA suppresses PAG-elicited echolocation calls but not communication calls. In both cases the blockade was reversible. Conclusion The neural control of echolocation and communication calls seems to be differentially organized below the level of the PAG. The PLA is an essential functional unit for echolocation call control before the descending pathways share again the final common pathway for vocalization.

  17. Where do out-of-hours calls to a consultant microbiologist come from?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2009-08-01

    There is little in the literature about out-of-hours calls to medical microbiologists. The calls taken by a consultant medical microbiologist over a five-year period in an Irish tertiary referral hospital were reviewed. Excluding calls on weekend mornings and significant evening positive blood cultures, the mean annual number of calls on a one-in-four rota was 89 (range 70-111). Over 90% of calls were received before midnight and 51% were from specialist registrars. Medical specialties, neurosurgery and intensive care were the most common departments seeking advice. Two-thirds of calls related to the management of an individual patient, but advice on infection prevention and control is increasingly requested. Calls out-of-hours are not insignificant but little is known about how these vary between hospitals and what contribution they make to patient care.

  18. An off-line dual maximum resource bin packing model for solving the maintenance problem in the aviation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cristian Gruia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aviation industry, propeller motor engines have a lifecycle of several thousand hours of flight and the maintenance is an important part of their lifecycle. The present article considers a multi-resource, priority-based case scheduling problem, which is applied in a Romanian manufacturing company, that repairs and maintains helicopter and airplane engines at a certain quality level imposed by the aviation standards. Given a reduced budget constraint, the management’s goal is to maximize the utilization of their resources (financial, material, space, workers, by maintaining a prior known priority rule. An Off-Line Dual Maximum Resource Bin Packing model, based on a Mixed Integer Programming model is thus presented. The obtained results show an increase with approx. 25% of the Just in Time shipping of the engines to the customers and approx. 12,5% increase in the utilization of the working area.

  19. Role vůdcovství v mezinárodních vztazích: Usáma bin Ládin

    OpenAIRE

    Kurzweil, Matěj

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the thesis was to find out how important is the role of leaders and leadership in international relations and to use it on the example of Osama bin Laden. The first half of the thesis is describing ways of leadership and the role of a leader in international relations in the course of history. The second half focuses on Georg W. Bush but mainly Osama bin Laden and his way of becoming a leader and the circumstances of his death.

  20. Call for Implementation Research Proposals: Health Information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chaitali Sinha

    2017-04-10

    Apr 10, 2017 ... Introduction. Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is pleased to announce a call for implementation research proposals to contribute to national and regional efforts to improve health systems responsiveness in West Africa (WA). Two separate but complementary thematic areas of ...

  1. Optimization of Overflow Policies in Call Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koole, G.M.; Nielsen, B.F.; Nielsen, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    We examine how overflow policies in a multi-skill call center should be designed to accommodate performance measures that depend on waiting time percentiles such as service level. This is done using a discrete Markovian approximation of the waiting time of the first customers waiting in line...... and customers are treated in a FCFS order....

  2. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Software: Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the nature and extent of the influence of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on the quality of language learning is highly problematic. This is owing to the number and complexity of interacting variables involved in setting the items for teaching and learning languages. This paper identified and ...

  3. Reflections … they called it 'restructuring'[1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HMPG, and indeed publishing globally) was financial,[4] reflecting tough economic times and declining revenues from advertising. JA found herself accepting so-called 'native' advertising (the practice ... online, a change that has been welcomed by CPD participants) and with CME. Merged with SAMJ, the print CME carries ...

  4. Calling, is there anything special about it?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-15

    Jul 15, 2016 ... Christian frequently meant a break from family and a previous way of life. The decision to follow. Christ made the Christians outsiders to many facets of society, ..... reflected on these 'quantum changes in Christian ministry' and leadership. In a sense, this implies that the calling of a pastor has to be.

  5. Educational Use of Databases in CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the idea that databases are very useful tools for teaching languages over the Internet. Databases in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) are commonly used in three ways: for reference sources such as dictionaries, in the management of large websites, and for data processing such as language tests and learners'…

  6. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policymakers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. Secretary of…

  7. Don't Call it Poetry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    The IPJP is a joint project of Rhodes University in South Africa and Edith Cowan University in Australia. This document is subject to copyright and may not be reproduced in whole or in part via any medium (print, electronic or otherwise) without the express permission of the publishers. Invited Paper. Don't Call it Poetry.

  8. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...... allowed to settle and express migratory restlessness for at least 30 minutes. Secondly, the flight simulation axis (e.g. E-W or N-S) with the largest angle relative to the bird's migration course was chosen and "flights" of simulated calling conspecifics or the "ding" sound along this axis continued...

  9. A History of Commitment in CALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Joan

    The evolution of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is examined, focusing on what has changed and what has not changed much during that time. A variety of changes are noted: the development of multimedia capabilities, color, animation, and technical improvement of audio and video quality; availability of databases, better fit between…

  10. Web-Based CALL to Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Mei; Zhang, Ruiming

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated effectiveness of Web-based CALL on listening comprehension. Both students' academic performance and attitudes were examined. T-tests were used to analyze the results of students' academic performance. Descriptive statistics interpreted students' attitudes toward this learning. Students' participation was also recorded.…

  11. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  12. The TATL Framework for CALL Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Chiaráin, Neasa; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2015-01-01

    The Theory Actions Technology Learner context (TATL) framework provides an initial analysis tool to guide Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) development. It entails joint consideration of four key factors that need to be considered prior and during development activities: (1) the underlying pedagogical theory; (2) the learning tasks…

  13. Calling on Students without Fear and Loathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Terry

    1989-01-01

    One teacher adopted a language teacher's method of calling on students without causing embarrassment by moving quickly from one student to the next, not penalizing students who were unable to respond, praising freely, and using humor. The technique encourages participation and self-confidence. (MSE)

  14. Long-distance calls in Neotropical primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar A.G. Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance calls are widespread among primates. Several studies concentrate on such calls in just one or in few species, while few studies have treated more general trends within the order. The common features that usually characterize these vocalizations are related to long-distance propagation of sounds. The proposed functions of primate long-distance calls can be divided into extragroup and intragroup ones. Extragroup functions relate to mate defense, mate attraction or resource defense, while intragroup functions involve group coordination or alarm. Among Neotropical primates, several species perform long-distance calls that seem more related to intragroup coordination, markedly in atelines. Callitrichids present long-distance calls that are employed both in intragroup coordination and intergroup contests or spacing. Examples of extragroup directed long-distance calls are the duets of titi monkeys and the roars and barks of howler monkeys. Considerable complexity and gradation exist in the long-distance call repertoires of some Neotropical primates, and female long-distance calls are probably more important in non-duetting species than usually thought. Future research must focus on larger trends in the evolution of primate long-distance calls, including the phylogeny of calling repertoires and the relationships between form and function in these signals.Chamados de longo alcance são comuns em primatas. Muitas pesquisas enfocaram tais vocalizações em uma única ou em poucas espécies, enquanto poucos estudos lidaram com padrões mais gerais dentro da ordem. As características comuns que geralmente distinguem estas vocalizações são relacionadas com a transmissão de sons a longa distância. As funções propostas para estas vocalizações podem ser divididas entre intragrupais e extragrupais. Funções extragrupais se relacionam com a defesa e atração de parceiros sexuais ou com a defesa de recursos, enquanto as fun

  15. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of operating in the analog mode described in the standard document ANSI TIA/EIA-553-A-1999 Mobile Station—Base...

  16. BUSINESS MODELS FOR EXTENDING OF 112 EMERGENCY CALL CENTER CAPABILITIES WITH E-CALL FUNCTION INSERTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Dragos Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article concerns present status of implementation in Romania and Europe of eCall service and the proposed business models regarding eCall function implementation in Romania. eCall system is used for reliable transmission in case of crush between In Vehicle System and Public Service Answering Point, via the voice channel of cellular and Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN. eCall service could be initiated automatically or manual the driver. All data presented in this article are part of researches made by authors in the Sectorial Contract Implementation study regarding eCall system, having as partners ITS Romania and Electronic Solution, with the Romanian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology as beneficiary.

  17. What is that Thing Called Computer Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Nadya Schokosva; Irina Buskova

    2013-01-01

    XXI century society, called Knowledge Society, has a direct dependency of the software products, considered by many as the most important development of modern technology. This dependence generates the need of scientists and professionals who research and develop products that meet social demands. This article describes the computer science area as one of the most demanded professions in this reality, and in order to make it known to more people.

  18. What is that Thing Called Computer Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Schokosva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available XXI century society, called Knowledge Society, has a direct dependency of the software products, considered by many as the most important development of modern technology. This dependence generates the need of scientists and professionals who research and develop products that meet social demands. This article describes the computer science area as one of the most demanded professions in this reality, and in order to make it known to more people.

  19. Sleep Inertia and On-Call Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    effects of polyphasic & M.J. Colligan (Eds.), New York, and ultrashort sleep schedules. In: Why Spectrum, pp. 553-580. we nap, Evolution, Chronobiology...and Naitoh, P., Kelly, T., & Babkoff, H. (1993) Functions of Polyphasic and Ultrashort Sleep inertia, best time not to wake up? Sleep , C. Stampi Editor...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010467 TITLE: Sleep Inertia and On-Call Readiness DISTRIBUTION: Approved

  20. Sophie Calle: entre imagens e palavras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annateresa Fabris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A relação de Sophie Calle com dois textos ficcionais, de autoria de Hervé Guibert e Paul Auster, permite discutir um ponto central de sua poética: a atuação como performer, colocada por alguns críticos sob o signo do situacionismo. Como suas performances envolvem uma narrativa, foram analisados seus aspectos fotográficos e verbais, tendo como epicentro Suíte veneziana (1980. Qual o papel da fotografia nas narrativas de Calle, nas quais ela é personagem de si mesma? A fotografia é vestígio de acontecimentos reais e seu aspecto documental corrobora a neutralidade dos relatos escritos. É, ao mesmo tempo, fruto de um gesto performático, o qual, ao designar determinados fatos, converte a realidade em imagem.Sophie Calle's relation to two fictional texts, by Hervé Guibert and Paul Auster, allows us to discuss a central issue in her poetics: the acting as a performer, set by some critics under the sign of Situationism. As her performances comprise a narrative, both their verbal and photographic aspects were analyzed, taking as an epicenter the Venetian suite (1980. What role does photography play in Calle's narratives, in which she is a character of herself? Photography is a trace of real happenings and its documental aspect supports the neutrality of written reports. It is, at the same time, the result of a performative gesture, which, while designating certain facts, converts reality into image.

  1. Managing Capacity at Sparsh Call Centre

    OpenAIRE

    T. T. Niranjan; Samir K. Srivastava

    2008-01-01

    Bangalore based Sparsh Call Centre was set up as a subsidiary of the major telecom software company IP-Trinity, with ambitious plans of becoming a significant player in the booming BPO (business process outsourcing) space. Its strategy, in line with that of its parent group, was to focus on telecom related services. Sparsh began its operations in 2002 with its first client Alfa, a US based VOIP telephone service provider and had three other accounts and employed over 400 people. Financial per...

  2. [Work-family conflict in call center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Ricotta, Simona; Colombo, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The working environment of call centers, which have seen a significant growth in recent years, has been the subject of several studies aiming at understanding its specific dynamics, with particular attention to the possible causes of stress and discomfort. Despite the fact that the work-family conflict is considered a source of stress responsible for undermining workers' well-being, and as such has been explored in many work environments, there is still very little research specific to call centers. This study had the following aims: to explore work-family conflict perceived by call-center operators taking account of any differences related to respondents'professional and personal characteristics; to understand which demands and resources can have an impact on work-family conflict in this context. The study was carried out on a sample of 898 call center operators in a telecommunications company through the administration of a self-reporting questionnaire. Data analysis included: t-test, one-way analysis of variance, linear correlations and multiple regressions. A higher perception of work-family conflict among workers having a full-time contract was observed compared to those having part-time contracts. Multiple regression analysis identified as sources of influence on work-family conflict: emotional dissonance, uneasiness due customer dissatisfaction, workload, avoidance coping and working hours. Work-family conflict in the context studied is not particularly critical: it is in part influenced by professional and personal characteristics of respondents and primarily caused by work demands. Managerial implications are discussed, especially referred to training activities.

  3. Evaluating erroneous offside calls in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hüttermann

    Full Text Available The ability to simultaneously attend to multiple objects declines with increases in the visual angle separating distant objects. We explored whether these laboratory-measured limits on visual attentional spread generalize to a real life context: offside calls by soccer assistant referees. We coded all offside calls from a full year of first division German soccer matches. By determining the x-y coordinates of the relevant players and assistant referee on the soccer field we were able to calculate how far assistant referees had to spread their visual attention to perform well. Counterintuitively, assistant referees made fewer errors when they were farther away from the action due to an advantageous (smaller visual angle on the game action. The pattern held even when we accounted for individual differences in a laboratory-based attentional spread measure of ten of the assistant referees. Our finding that errors are linked to smaller visual angles may explain the complaints of fans in some situations: Those seated directly behind the assistant referee, further from the players, might actually have it easier to make the right call because the relevant players would form a smaller visual angle.

  4. “Computer Assisted Language Learning” (CALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlı Gündüz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will provide an overview of computers; an overview of the history of CALL, itspros and cons, the internet, World Wide Web, Multimedia, and research related to the uses of computers in the language classroom. Also, it also aims to provide some background for the beginnerson using the Internet in language classes today. It discusses some of the common types of Internetactivities that are being used today, what the minimum requirements are for using the Internet forlanguage learning, and some easy activities you can adapt for your classes. Some special terminology related to computers will also be used in this paper. For example, computer assisted language learning(CALL refers to the sets of instructions which need to be loaded into the computer for it to be able to work in the language classroom. It should be borne in mind that CALL does not refer to the use of acomputer by a teacher to type out a worksheet or a class list or preparing his/her own teaching alone.Hardware refers to any computer equipment used, including the computer itself, the keyboard, screen (or the monitor, the disc-drive, and the printer. Software (computer programs refers to the sets of instructions which need to be loaded into the computer for it to be able to work.

  5. Evaluating erroneous offside calls in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttermann, Stefanie; Noël, Benjamin; Memmert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously attend to multiple objects declines with increases in the visual angle separating distant objects. We explored whether these laboratory-measured limits on visual attentional spread generalize to a real life context: offside calls by soccer assistant referees. We coded all offside calls from a full year of first division German soccer matches. By determining the x-y coordinates of the relevant players and assistant referee on the soccer field we were able to calculate how far assistant referees had to spread their visual attention to perform well. Counterintuitively, assistant referees made fewer errors when they were farther away from the action due to an advantageous (smaller) visual angle on the game action. The pattern held even when we accounted for individual differences in a laboratory-based attentional spread measure of ten of the assistant referees. Our finding that errors are linked to smaller visual angles may explain the complaints of fans in some situations: Those seated directly behind the assistant referee, further from the players, might actually have it easier to make the right call because the relevant players would form a smaller visual angle.

  6. CTC Sentinel. Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2010. The Facade of Allegiance: Bin Ladin’s Dubious Pledge to Mullah Omar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Norton & Co., 2004), relates that Khalid Shaykh Muhammad said under interrogation that “Bin Ladin had sworn bayat to Omar upon first moving to...NWFP Khalid Aziz and former Inspector General of the Frontier Corps Major-General Mohammad Alam Khattak, have expressed a significant need for

  7. Fine mapping of genetic variants in BIN1, CLU, CR1 and PICALM for association with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauwe, John S. K.; Cruchaga, Carlos; Karch, Celeste M.; Sadler, Brooke; Lee, Mo; Mayo, Kevin; Latu, Wayne; Su'a, Manti; Fagan, Anne M.; Holtzman, David M.; Morris, John C.; Goate, Alison M.; Saradha, A.; Abdi, Hervé; Abeliovich, Asa; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Abner, Erin; Acharya, Deepa; Adams, Nicholas; Adler, Daniel; Agrusti, Antonella; Agyemang, Alex; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahn, Jae Eun; Aisen, Paul; Aksu, Yaman; Al-Akhras, Mousa; Alarcon, Marcelo; Alberca, Roman; Alexander, Gene; Alexander, Daniel; Almeida, Fabio; Amlien, Inge; Anand, Shyam; Andrew, Marilee; Angersbach, Steve; Anjum, Ayesha; Aoyama, Eiji; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Armor, Tom; Arnold, Steven; Asatryan, Albert; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Ashiga, Hirokazu; Assareh, Arezoo; Le Page, Aurelie; Avants, Brian; Avinash, Gopal; Awasthi, Sukrati; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Babic, Tomislav; Baek, Young; Bagci, Ulas; Bai, Shuyang; Baird, Geoffrey; Baker, John; Banks, Sarah; Bard, Jonathan; Barnes, Josephine; Barret, Olivier; Bartlett, Jonathan; Bartzokis, George; Barua, Neil; Bauer, Corinna; Becker, James; Becker, J. Alex; Beckett, Laurel; Bednar, Martin; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Bek, Stephan; Belmokhtar, Nabil; Bernard, Charlotte; Bertram, Lars; Bhaskar, Uday; Biffi, Alessandro; Bigler, Erin; Bilgic, Basar; Bishop, Courtney; Bittner, Daniel; Black, Ronald; Blennow, Kaj; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Bokde, Arun; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Boppana, Madhu; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Bowes, Mike; Bowman, Gene; Braskie, Meredith; Braunewell, Karl; Breitner, Joihn; Brewer, James; Brickman, Adam; Britschgi, Markus; Broadbent, Steve; Brogren, Jacob; Brooks, David; Browndyke, Jeffrey; Brunton, Simon; Buchert, Ralph; Buchsbaum, Monte; Buckley, Chris; Buerger, Katharina; Burger, Cyrill; Burnham, Samantha; Burns, Jeffrey; Burton, David; Butman, John; Cabeza, Rafael; Cairns, Nigel; Callhoff, Johanna; Calvini, Piero; Cantillon, Marc; Capella, Heraldo; Cardona-Sanclemente, Luis Eduardo; Carle, Adam; Carmasin, Jeremy; Carranza-Ath, Fredy; Casabianca, Jodi; Casanova, Ramon; Cash, David; Cedarbaum, Jesse; Cella, Massimo; Celsis, Pierre; Chaney, Megan; Chanu, Pascal; Chao, Linda; Charil, Arnaud; Chemali, Zeina; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Minhua; Chen, Rong; Chen, Baojiang; Chen, Jake; Chen, Gennan; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Wei-Chen; Chertkow, Howard; Cheung, Charlton; Cheung, Vinci; Chiang, Gloria; Chiba, Koji; Chin, Simon; Chisholm, Jane; Cho, Youngsang; Choe, John; Choubey, Suresh; Christensen, Anette Luther; Clark, Chris; Clark, David; Clarkson, Matt; Clayton, David; Clunie, David; Coimbra, Alexandre; Compton, David; Coppola, Giovanni; Cover, Keith S.; Crane, Paul; Crans, Gerald; Croop, Robert; Crowther, Daniel; Crum, William; Cui, Yue; Curry, Charles; Curtis, Steven; Cutter, Gary; Daiello, Lori; Dake, Michael; Dale, Anders; Daliri, Mohammad Reza; Damato, Vito Domenico; Darby, Eveleen; Darkner, Sune; Davatzikos, Christos; Dave, Jay; David, Renaud; Davidson, Julie; de Bruijne, Marleen; de Meyer, Geert; de Nunzio, Giorgio; Decarli, Charles; Dechairo, Bryan; DeDuck, Kristina; Dehghan, Hossein; Dejkam, Arsalan; Delfino, Manuel; Dellavedova, Luca; Delpassand, Ebrahim; Delrieu, Julien; Deniz, Oscar; Denney, Douglas; DeOrchis, Vincent; Dépy Carron, Delphine; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Devanand, Davangere; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Dickerson, Bradford; Ding, Xiaobo; Dinov, Ivo; Dobson, Howard; Dodge, Hiroko; Donohue, Michael; Dore, Vincent; Dorflinger, Ernest; Dowling, Maritza; Duan, Xujun; Dubal, Dena; Duchesne, Simon; Duff, Kevin; Dukart, Jürgen; Durazzo, Timothy; Dykstra, Kevin; Earl, Nancy; Edula, Goutham; Ekin, Ahmet; Elcoroaristizabal, Xabier; Emahazion, Tesfai; Engelman, Corinne; Epstein, Noam; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Eskildsen, Simon; Falcone, Guido; Fan, Yong; Fan, Lingzhong; Farb, Norman; Farnum, Michael; Farrer, Lindsay; Farzan, Ali; Faux, Noel; Feldman, Howard; Feldman, Susan; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Fernandes, Michel; Fernandez, Elsa; Ferrarini, Luca; Ferreira, Manuel Joao; Ferrer, Eugene; Figurski, Michal; Filipovych, Roman; Fillit, Howard; Finch, Stephen; Finlay, Daniel; Fiot, Jean-Baptiste; Flenniken, Derek; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Fletcher, Evan; Flynn Longmire, Crystal; Focke, Niels; Forman, Mark; Forsythe, Alan; Fox, Steven; Fox-Bosetti, Sabrina; Francis, Alexander L.; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Franko, Edit; Freeman, Stefanie; Friedrich, Christoph M.; Friesenhahn, Michel; Frings, Lars; Frisoni, Giovanni; Fritzsche, Klaus; Fujimoto, Yoko; Fujiwara, Ken; Fullerton, Terence; Furney, Simon; Gallins, Paul; Gamst, Anthony; Gan, Ke; Garcia, Maria Teresa; Garg, Gaurav; Gaser, Christian; Gastineau, Edward; Gauthier, Serge; Gavett, Brandon; Gavidia, Giovana; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Ge, Qi; Gemme, Gianluca; Geraci, Joseph; German, Dwight; Ghassabi, Zeinab; Gieschke, Ronald; Gil, Juan E.; Gill, Ryan; Gitelman, Darren; Gleason, Carey; Godbey, Michael; Goghari, Vina; Gold, Michael; Goldberg, Terry; Gomeni, Roberto; Gong, Shangwenyan; Gonzales, Celedon; Goodro, Robert; Gordon, Brian; Gorriz, Juan Manuel; Grachev, Igor; Grandey, Emily; Grasela, Thaddeus; Gratt, Jeremy; Gray, Katherine; Greenberg, Barry; Gregg, Keith; Gregory, Erik; Greicius, Michael; Greve, Douglas; Grill, Joshua; Gross, Alden; Gross, Alan; Guignot, Isabelle; Guo, Qimiao; Guo, Hongbin; Guo, Lianghao; Guo, Jeffrey; Habeck, Christian; Hai, Yizhen; Haight, Thaddeus; Hammarstrom, Per; Hampel, Harald; Han, Jian; Han, Tony; Hanif, Muhammad; Hanna, Yousef; Hardy, Peter; Harvey, Danielle; Hasan, Md Kamrul; Hayashi, Toshihiro; Hazart, Aurelien; He, Huiguang; He, Yong; Head, Denise; Heckemann, Rolf; Heidebrink, Judith; Henderson, David; Henrard, Sébastien; Herholz, Karl; Hernandez, Monica; Herskovits, A. Zara; Hess, Christopher; Hildenbrand, Maike; Hobart, Jeremy; Hoffman, John; Holder, Daniel; Honigberg, Lee; Hoppin, Jack; Horsfield, Mark; Hou, Yangyang; Hsu, Ailing; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Hu, Zhiwei; Hu, Xiaolan; Hu, Zhenghui; Hu, William; Huang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Chingwen; Huang, Shuai; Huang, Yifan; Huang, Juebin; Huang, Chun-Jung; Huang, Shu-Pang; Huang, Fude; Hubbard, Rebecca; Huentelman, Matthew; Hui, Shen; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Hurko, Orest; Hurt, Stephen; Huyck, Susan; Hwang, Scott; Hyun, JungMoon; Ifeachor, Emmanuel; Iglesias, Martina; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki; Immermann, Fred; Inoue, Lurdes; Insel, Philip; Irizarry, Michael; Irungu, Benson mwangi; Ishibashi, Taro; Ishii, Kenji; Ismail, Sara; Ismail, Shahina; Ito, Kaori; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Iyer, Madhumitha; Jacobson, Mark; Jafari, Aria; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Jaffe, Carl; Jagust, William; Jara, Hernan; Jasperse, Bas; Jedynak, Bruno; Jefferson, Angela; Jennings, J. Richard; Jessen, Walter; Jia, Fucang; Jiang, Tianzi; Jing, Huang; Johnson, David K.; Jones, Richard; Juengling, Freimut; Juh, Rahyeong; Julin, Per; Uday Bhaskar, K.; Kadish, Bill; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Kallam, Hanimi Reddy; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Kaneko, Tomoki; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Karageorgiou, Elissaios; Karantzoulis, Stella; Karlawish, Jason; Katz, Elyse; Kaushik, Sandeep S.; Kauwe, John; Kawakami, Hirofumi; Kazimipoor, Borhan; Kelleher, Thomas; Kennedy, Richard; Kerr, Douglas; Kerrouche, Nacer; Khalil, Iya; Khalil, Andre; Killeen, Neil; Killiany, Ron; Kim, Ana; Kim, Yeonhee; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Hyoungkyu; Kim, Seongkyun; Kim, Hyewon; Kimberg, Daniel; Kimura, Tokunori; King, Richard; Kirby, Justin; Kirsch, Wolff; Klimas, Michael; Kline, Richard; Kling, Mitchel; Klopfenstein, Erin; Kobayashi, Dione; Koikkalainen, Juha; Kokomoor, Anders; Kolasny, Anthony; Koppel, Jeremy; Korolev, Igor; Kotran, Nickolas; Kouassi, Alex; Kowalczyk, Adam; Kozma, Lynn; Kratzer, Martina; Kuceyeski, Amy; Kuhn, Félix Pierre; Kulkarni, Mauktik; Kumar, Sreedhar; Kuo, Hsun Ting; Kuo, Julie; Kurosawa, Ken; Kwon, Oh Hun; Laforet, Genevieve; Lai, Song; Lakatos, Anita; Lam, On Ki; Lampron, Antoine; Landau, Susan; Landen, Jaren; Lane, Richard; Langbaum, Jessica; Langford, Dianne; Lanius, Vivian; Lavault, Romain; Laxamana, Joel; Le, Trung; Leahy, Richard; Lee, Noah; Lee, Dongsoo; Lee, Vita; Lee, Joseph H.; Lee, Jong-Min; Lefkimmiatis, Stamatis; Lemaitre, Herve; Lenz, Robert; Lester, Gayle; Levey, Allan; Li, Wenjun; Li, Shanshan; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Gang; Li, Ming; Li, Chin-Shang; Li, Lexin; Li, Jinhe; Li, Quanzheng; Li, Yi; Li, Rui; Li, Shi-jiang; Liang, Peipeng; Liang, Lichen; Liang, Kuchang; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Lin, Ling-chih; Lin, Mingkuan; Lin, Ai-Ling; Lin, Lan; Liu, Tianming; Liu, Meijie; Liu, Tao; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiuwen; Liu, Sophia; Liu, Dazhong; Liu, Songling; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Pu; Lo, Raymond; Lobanov, Victor; Loewenstein, David; Logovinsky, Veronika; Long, Xiaojing; Long, Ziyi; Looi, Jeffrey; Lu, Po-Haong; Lukic, Ana; Lull, Juan J.; Luo, Xiongjian; Lynch, John; Ma, Lei; Mackin, Scott; Magda, Sebastian; Maglio, Silvio; Mak, Henry Ka-Fung; Malave, Vicente; Maldjian, Joseph; Mandal, Pravat; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Manjon, Jose; Manohar, Deepak; Mansouri, Chemseddine; Mantri, Ninad; Manzour, Amir; Marambaud, Philippe; Marchewka, Artur; Marek, Kenneth; Markind, Samuel; Marshall, Gad; Martinez Torteya, Antonio; Mather, Mara; Mathis, Chester; Matoug, Sofia; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Matthews, Dawn; McArdle, John; McEvoy, Linda; McGeown, William; McIntyre, John; McQuail, Joseph; Meadowcroft, Mark; Meda, Shashwath; Mehta, Nirav; Mendonca, Brian; Menendez, Manuel; Meredith, Jere; Merrill, David; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Metti, Andrea; Meyer, Carsten; Mez, Jesse; Mickael, Guedj; Miftahof, Roustem; Mikhno, Arthur; Miller, David; Millikin, Colleen; Min, Ye; Mirza, Mubeena; Mitsis, Effie; Mohan, Ananth; Montana, Giovanni; Moore, Dana; Moradi Birgani, Parmida; Moratal, David; Morimoto, Bruce; Mortamet, Bénédicte; Moscato, Pablo; Motyl, Rafal; Mueller, Kathyrne; Mueller, Susanne; Mueller, Notger; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Mulder, Emma; Murayama, Shigeo; Murphy, Michael; Murray, Brian; Musiek, Erik; Myers, Amanda; Najafi, Shahla; Nazarparvar, Babak; Nazeri, Arash; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Neu, Scott; Neves, Simone; Ng, Yen-Bee; Nguyen, Nghi; Nguyen Xuan, Tuong; Nicodemus, Kristin; Niecko, Timothy; Nielsen, Casper; Notomi, Keiji; Nuneez Benjumea, Francisco; O'Bryant, Sid; O'Neil, Alison; Obisesan, Thomas; Oh, Dong Hoon; Oh, Joonmi; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Olmos, Salvador; Ortner, Marion; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Oswald, Annahita; Ott, Brian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Paiva, Renata; Pan, Zhifang; Pande, Yogesh; Pardo, Jose; Pardoe, Heath; Park, Hyunjin; Park, Moon Ho; Park, Sang hyun; Park, Kee Hyung; Park, Sujin; Parsey, Ramin; Parveen, Riswana; Paskavitz, James; Patel, Yogen; Patil, Manasi; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Payoux, Pierre; Pearson, Jim; Peavy, Guerry; Pell, Gaby; Peng, Yahong; Pennec, Xavier; Pepin, Jean louis; Perea, Rodrigo; Perneczky, Robert; Petitti, Diana; Petrella, Jeffrey; Peyrat, Jean-Marc; Pezoa, Jorge; Pham, Chi-Tuan; Phillips, Nicole; Pierson, Ronald; Piovezan, Mauro; Podhorski, Adam; Pollari, Mika; Pontecorvo, Michael; Poppenk, Jordan; Posner, Holly; Potkin, Steven; Potter, Elizabeth; Poulin, Stephane; Prasad, Gautam; Prenger, Kurt; Prince, Jerry; Priya, Anandh; Puchakayala, Shashidhar Reddy; Qiu, Anqi; Qiu, Ruolun; Qiu, Wendy; Qualls, Constance Dean; Rabie, Huwaida; Rajeesh, Rajeesh; Rallabandi, V. P. Subramanyam; Ramage, Amy; Randolph, Christopher; Rao, Anil; Rao, Divya; Raubertas, Richard; Ray, Debashis; Razak, Hana; Redolfi, Alberto; Reed, Bruce; Reid, Andrew; Reilhac, Anthonin; Reinsberger, Claus; Restrepo, Lucas; Retico, Alessandra; Rezaeitabar, Yousef; Richards, John; Richter, Mirco; Riddle, William; Ries, Michele; Rincón, Mariano; Rischall, Matt; Robieson, Weining; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa; Rogalski, Emily; Rogers, Elizabeth; Rojas, Ignacio; Rojas Balderrama, Javier; Romero, Klaus; Rorden, Chris; Rosand, Jonathan; Rosen, Allyson; Rosen, Ori; Rosenberg, Paul; Ross, David; Ross, Joel; Roubini, Eli; Rousseau, François; Rowe, Christopher; Rubin, Daniel; Rubright, Jonathan; Ruiz, Agustin; Rusinek, Henry; Ryan, Laurie; Saad, Ahmed; Sabbagh, Marway; Sabuncu, Mert; Sachs, Michael; Sacuiu, Simona; Sadeghi, Ali; Said, Yasmine; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Sakata, Muneyuki; Salat, David; Salmon, David; Salomi, Sharmila; Salter, Hugh; Samwald, Matthias; Sanchez, Luciano; Sanders, Elizabeth; Sanjo, Nobuo; Sarnel, Haldun; Sato, Shinji; Sato, Hajime; Saumier, Daniel; Savio, Alexandre; Sawada, Ikuhisa; Saykin, Andrew; Schaffer, J. David; Scharre, Douglas; Schegerin, Marc; Schlosser, Gretchen; Schmand, Ben; Schmansky, Nick; Schmidt, Mark; Schneider, Lon; Schramm, Hauke; Schuerch, Markus; Schwartz, Craig; Schwartz, Eben; Schwarz, Adam; Seethamraju, Ravi; Seixas, Flavio; Selnes, Per; Senjem, Matthew; Senlin, Wang; Seo, Sang Won; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sevigny, Jeffrey; Sfikas, Giorgos; Sghedoni, Roberto; Shah, Said Khalid; Shahbaba, Babak; Shams, Soheil; Shattuck, David; Shaw, Leslie; Sheela, Jaba; Shen, Weijia; Shen, Qian; Shera, David; Sherman, John; Sherva, Richard; Shi, Feng; Shukla, Vinay; Shuler, Catherine; Shulman, Joshua; Siegel, Rene; Siemers, Eric; Silveira, Margarida; Silver, Michael; Silverman, Daniel; Sim, Ida; Simmons, Andy; Simoes, Rita; Simon, Melvin; Simpson, Ivor; Singh, Simer Preet; Singh, Nikhil; Siuciak, Judy; Sjögren, Niclas; Skup, Martha; Small, Gary; Smith, Michael; Smith, Charles; Smith, Benjamin; Smyth, Timothy; Snow, Sarah; Soares, Holly; Soldea, Octavian; Solomon, Alan; Solomon, Paul; Som, Subhojit; Song, Changhong; Song, Mingli; Sorensen, Greg; Soudah, Eduardo; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Spenger, Christian; Sperling, Reisa; Spiegel, René; Spies, Lothar; Squarcia, Sandro; Squire, Larry; Staff, Roger; Stern, Yaakov; Straw, Jack; Strittmatter, Stephen; Stühler, Elisabeth; Styren, Scot; Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi; Sugishita, Morihiro; Sukkar, Rafid; Sun, Ying; Sun, Yu; Sun, Jia; Sundell, Karen; Suri, Muhammad; Suzuki, Akiyuki; Svetnik, Vladimir; Swan, Melanie; Takahasi, Tetsuhiko; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Tanaka, Shoji; Tancredi, Daniel; Tang, Songyuan; Tao, Dacheng; Tao, Wenwen; Tariot, Pierre; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Teng, Edmond; Terlizzi, Rita; Thiele, Frank; Thomas, Ronald; Thomas, Benjamin; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Wesley; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Thurfjell, Lennart; Titeux, Laurence; Tokuda, Takahiko; Toledo, Juan B.; Tolli, Tuomas; Toma, Ahmed; Tomita, Naoki; Toro, Roberto; Tosun, Duygu; Tousian, Mona; Toussaint, Paule; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Trittschuh, Emily; Trojanowski, John; Truran, Diana; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil; Tucker-Drob, Elliot; Tufail, Ahsan; Tung, Joyce; Ueda, Yoji; Ullrich, Lauren; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Umar, Nisser; Uzunbas, Gokhan; van de Nes, Joseph; van der Brug, Marcel; van Horn, John; van Leemput, Koen; van Train, Kenneth; van Zeeland, Ashley; Vasanawala, Minal; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Verwaerde, Philippe; Videbaek, Charlotte; Vidoni, Eric; Vigneron, Vincent; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Vitolo, Ottavio; Vounou, Maria; Wade, Sara; Walhovd, Kristine B.; Wan, Hong; Wang, Lubin; Wang, Xu; Wang, Ze; Wang, Angela; Wang, Tiger; Wang, Yongmei Michelle; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Wei; Wang, Huali; Wang, Yue; Wang, Li-San; Wang, Huanli; Wang, Alex; Wang, Yalin; Wang, Lei; Ward, Michael; Warfield, Simon; Waring, Stephen; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Webb, David; Wei, Lili; Weiner, Michael; Wen, Shu-Hui; Wenjing, Li; Wenzel, Fabian; Westlye, Lars T.; Whitcher, Brandon; Whitlow, Christopher; Whitwell, Jennifer; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Williams, David; Wilmot, Beth; Wingo, Thomas; Winkler, Andreas; Wiste, Heather; Wolfson, Tanya; Wolke, Ira; Wolz, Robin; Woo, Jongwook; Woo, Ellen; Woods, Lynn; Worth, Andrew; Worth, Eric; Wouters, Hans; Wu, Teresa; Wu, Ellen; Wu, Yi-Gen; Wu, Liang; Wu, Xiaoling; Wyman, Bradley; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Xiao, Liu; Xiao, Guanghua; Xie, Sharon; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ye; Xu, Yi-Zheng; Xu, Guofan; Yamane, Tomohiko; Yamashita, Fumio; Yan, Yunyi; Yan, Pingkun; Yang, Jinzhong; Yang, Qing X.; Yang, Zijiang; Yang, Guang; Yang, Wenlu; Yang, Eric; Yang, Zhitong; Ye, Jieping; Ye, Jong; Ye, Liang; Ye, Byoung Seok; Yee, Laura; Yesavage, Jerome; Ying, Song; Yoo, Bongin; Young, Jonathan; Yu, Dongchuan; Yu, Shiwei; Yuan, Kai; Yuan, Guihong; Yushkevich, Paul; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Zagorodnov, Vitali; Zagorski, Michael; Zawadzki, Rezi; Zeitzer, Jamie; Zhang, Huixiong; Zhang, Tianhao; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Linda; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Kurt; Zhao, Jim; Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Qinying; Zhen, Xiantong; Zheng, Yuanjie; Zhijun, Yao; Zhou, Sheng; Zhou, Bin; Zhu, Wanlin; Zhu, Hongtu; Zhu, Wen; Zito, Giancarlo; Zou, Heng

    2011-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have identified variants in BIN1, CLU, CR1 and PICALM that show replicable association with risk for disease. We have thoroughly sampled common variation in these genes, genotyping 355 variants in over 600 individuals for whom

  8. Self-Efficacy and Its Relationship with Social Skills and the Quality of Decision-Making among the Students of Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-mehsin, Salama Aqeel

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the self-efficacy and social skills and their relationship to the quality of decision-making at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University students, and determine the extent of the contribution of self-efficacy and social skills to the quality of decision-making. To achieve this, a questionnaire was built to identify…

  9. The N-terminal third of the BinB subunit from the Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin is sufficient for its interaction with midgut receptors in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Tatiany Patrícia; de-Melo-Neto, Osvaldo Pompílio; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2011-08-01

    Heterodimeric binary (Bin) toxin, the major insecticidal protein from Bacillus sphaericus, acts on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae through specific binding to the midgut receptor Cqm1, a role mediated by its 448-amino-acid-long BinB subunit. The molecular basis for receptor recognition is not well understood and this study attempted to identify protein segments and amino acid motifs within BinB that are required for this event. First, N- and C-terminally truncated constructs were evaluated for their capacity to bind to native Cqm1 through pull-down assays. These showed that residues N33 to L158 of the subunit are required for Cqm1 binding. Nine different full-length mutants were then generated in which selected blocks of three amino acids were replaced by alanines. In new pull-down assays, two mutants, in which residues (85) IRF(87) and (147) FQF(149) were targeted, failed to bind the receptor. Competition binding assays confirmed the requirements for the N-terminal 158 residues, and the (147) FQF(149) epitope, for the mutant proteins to compete with native Bin toxin when binding to membrane fractions from the insect midgut. The data from this work rule out the involvement of C-terminal segments in receptor binding, highlighting the need for multiple elements within the protein's N-terminal third for it to occur. 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research study on call centres in Malta & Gozo

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt & Partners;

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the Call Centre sector in Malta. A Call Centre is a centralized office used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests, mainly by telephone. Types of calls are often divided into Outbound & Inbound. Inbound calls are calls that are initiated by the customer to obtain information, report a malfunction or ask for help. This is substantially different from outbound calls where the agent initiates the call to a customer mostly wit...

  11. Image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT: A sensitivity analysis of respiratory signal, binning method, reconstruction algorithm, and projection angular spacing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Chun-Chien [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kipritidis, John; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kuncic, Zdenka [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Respiratory signal, binning method, and reconstruction algorithm are three major controllable factors affecting image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT), which is widely used in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Previous studies have investigated each of these factors individually, but no integrated sensitivity analysis has been performed. In addition, projection angular spacing is also a key factor in reconstruction, but how it affects image quality is not obvious. An investigation of the impacts of these four factors on image quality can help determine the most effective strategy in improving 4D-CBCT for IGRT. Methods: Fourteen 4D-CBCT patient projection datasets with various respiratory motion features were reconstructed with the following controllable factors: (i) respiratory signal (real-time position management, projection image intensity analysis, or fiducial marker tracking), (ii) binning method (phase, displacement, or equal-projection-density displacement binning), and (iii) reconstruction algorithm [Feldkamp–Davis–Kress (FDK), McKinnon–Bates (MKB), or adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS)]. The image quality was quantified using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio, and edge-response width in order to assess noise/streaking and blur. The SNR values were also analyzed with respect to the maximum, mean, and root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) projection angular spacing to investigate how projection angular spacing affects image quality. Results: The choice of respiratory signals was found to have no significant impact on image quality. Displacement-based binning was found to be less prone to motion artifacts compared to phase binning in more than half of the cases, but was shown to suffer from large interbin image quality variation and large projection angular gaps. Both MKB and ASD-POCS resulted in noticeably improved image quality almost 100% of the time relative to FDK. In addition, SNR

  12. Cell Phone Calls in the Operating Theater and Staff Distractions: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Alexander; Yacobi, Galel; Weissman, Charles; Levin, Phillip D

    2017-01-09

    Cell phones are the primary communication tool in our institution. There are no restrictions on their use in the operating rooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate the extent of cell phone use in the operating rooms during elective surgery and to evaluate whether they cause staff distractions. The following data on cell phone use were recorded anonymously: number of incoming and outgoing cell phone calls, duration of cell phone calls and their content (patient related, work related, private), who was distracted by the cell phone calls, and duration of distractions. We made observations during 52 surgeries. There were 205 cell phone calls, 197 (96.1%; median, 3 per surgery; interquartile range, 2-5) incoming and 8 (3.9%) outgoing. Incoming calls were answered on 110 (55.8%) of 197 (median, 2; interquartile range, 1-3) occasions. The mean duration of incoming calls (64 ± 40 seconds) was shorter than those of the outgoing calls (137 ± 242 seconds, P cell phones (24/30, 80.0%). The mean duration of the distractions was 43.6 ± 22.3 seconds. During all 8 outgoing calls, no other staff members were distracted. The number of cell phone calls in the operating rooms during elective surgery was lower than expected and caused short-lived distractions mainly to the operating surgeons. We recommend that operating surgeons turn off their cell phones before surgery.

  13. Intra- and interspecific responses to Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) social calls.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Susan, C.; Britzke, Eric, R.

    2010-07-01

    Bats respond to the calls of conspecifics as well as to calls of other species; however, few studies have attempted to quantify these responses or understand the functions of these calls. We tested the response of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to social calls as a possible method to increase capture success and to understand the function of social calls. We also tested if calls of bats within the range of the previously designated subspecies differed, if the responses of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats varied with geographic origin of the calls, and if other species responded to the calls of C. rafinesquii. We recorded calls of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats at two colony roost sites in South Carolina, USA. Calls were recorded while bats were in the roosts and as they exited. Playback sequences for each site were created by copying typical pulses into the playback file. Two mist nets were placed approximately 50–500 m from known roost sites; the net with the playback equipment served as the Experimental net and the one without the equipment served as the Control net. Call structures differed significantly between the Mountain and Coastal Plains populations with calls from the Mountains being of higher frequency and longer duration. Ten of 11 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats were caught in the Control nets and, 13 of 19 bats of other species were captured at Experimental nets even though overall bat activity did not differ significantly between Control and Experimental nets. Our results suggest that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats are not attracted to conspecifics’ calls and that these calls may act as an intraspecific spacing mechanism during foraging.

  14. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    , and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling...... into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio...

  15. When bins blur: Patient perspectives on categories of results from clinical whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Leila; Robinson, Jill O; Christensen, Kurt D; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; Slashinski, Melody J; Perry, Denise Lautenbach; Vassy, Jason L; Wycliff, Julia; Green, Robert C; McGuire, Amy L

    2017-01-01

    Clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) is being used in an expanding range of clinical settings. Most approaches to offering patients choices about learning CGES results classify results according to expert definitions of clinical actionability. Little is known about how patients conceptualize different categories of CGES results. The MedSeq Project is a randomized controlled trial studying the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in primary care and cardiology. We surveyed 202 patient-participants about different kinds of WGS results and conducted qualitative interviews with 49 of these participants. Interview data were analyzed both inductively and deductively using thematic content analysis. Participants demonstrated high levels of study understanding and genetic literacy. A small majority of participants wanted to learn all of their WGS results (n = 123, 61%). Qualitative data provided a deeper understanding of participants' perspectives about different types of WGS results. Participants did not have the same views about which WGS results would be actionable or upsetting to learn. They conceptualized variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in a variety of different ways. Many participants expressed optimism that the uncertainty associated with VUS results could be reduced over time. Proposals to determine which WGS/CGES results to disclose by soliciting patient preferences may fail to appreciate the complex ways patients think about disease and the information WGS/CGES can produce. Our findings challenge prevailing methods of facilitating patient choice and assessing the benefits and harms related to the return of WGS/CGES results, which mostly rely on expert definitions of clinical utility to categorize the kinds of results patients can learn.

  16. Gay-related name-calling among Norwegian adolescents--harmful and harmless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaatten, Hilde; Anderssen, Norman; Hetland, Jørn

    2015-12-01

    Being called names such as "gay," "faggot," "lezzie" may be experienced as both harmful or harmless by adolescents, depending on the situation in which the name-calling occurs. The aim of this study was to explore how being called gay-related names by agents with whom the relationship is differentiated by friendship, acquaintance status and perceived likeability is associated with depressive symptoms, and to explore associations between gay-related name-calling, bullying and depressive symptoms. The participants were 921 ninth grade pupils (450 boys) with an age range from 14 to 15 years from 15 schools. The study reveals that the participants' depressive symptoms were more associated with being called gay-related names by someone who did not like them or someone they did not know, than with being called gay-related names by a friend. Being called gay-related names was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for bullying. Boys who were bullied and called gay-related names had even higher levels of depressive symptoms, as indicated by an interaction effect found between being called gay-related names and bullying. Because of the potential harmfulness of gay-related name-calling, anti-bullying programmes should address this topic as a part of their regular anti-bullying strategy. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Are rats predisposed to learn 22 kHz calls as danger-predicting signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Thomas; Widmann, Katrin; Fendt, Markus

    2007-12-28

    Alarm calls are widely used in mammals. Their biological function is to deter predators and warn relatives of danger. Despite this important function of alarm calls, the development of alarm call recognition is poorly understood. Using laboratory rats, the present study investigated in a first experiment whether alarm calls are recognized innately. In experimentally naive animals, we found significantly increased freezing if stimuli in the 22 kHz range were presented but this response was not specific to conspecific 22 kHz calls. Therefore, a second experiment addressed the hypothesis whether recognition of conspecific 22 kHz calls can be learned and whether this learning is facilitated by a preparedness to acquire defensive responses to alarm calls. Our data show that rats learned quickly to associate the 22 kHz calls with aversive stimuli. Interestingly, the animals were more reluctant to extinguish this memory, and this information retained longer in memory than in the case of other types of calls and ultrasonic stimuli. We, therefore, conclude that rats are predisposed to acquire adaptive defensive behaviour in response to alarm calls. In particular, our data indicate that better encoding of such learning in rats leads to a stable memory which better resists extinction.

  18. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-29

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users.

  19. First Class Call Stacks: Exploring Head Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Johnson-Freyd

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak-head normalization is inconsistent with functional extensionality in the call-by-name λ-calculus. We explore this problem from a new angle via the conflict between extensionality and effects. Leveraging ideas from work on the λ-calculus with control, we derive and justify alternative operational semantics and a sequence of abstract machines for performing head reduction. Head reduction avoids the problems with weak-head reduction and extensionality, while our operational semantics and associated abstract machines show us how to retain weak-head reduction's ease of implementation.

  20. Probabilistic base calling of Solexa sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iseli Christian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solexa/Illumina short-read ultra-high throughput DNA sequencing technology produces millions of short tags (up to 36 bases by parallel sequencing-by-synthesis of DNA colonies. The processing and statistical analysis of such high-throughput data poses new challenges; currently a fair proportion of the tags are routinely discarded due to an inability to match them to a reference sequence, thereby reducing the effective throughput of the technology. Results We propose a novel base calling algorithm using model-based clustering and probability theory to identify ambiguous bases and code them with IUPAC symbols. We also select optimal sub-tags using a score based on information content to remove uncertain bases towards the ends of the reads. Conclusion We show that the method improves genome coverage and number of usable tags as compared with Solexa's data processing pipeline by an average of 15%. An R package is provided which allows fast and accurate base calling of Solexa's fluorescence intensity files and the production of informative diagnostic plots.

  1. Untangling Genomes of Novel Planctomycetal and Verrucomicrobial Species from Monterey Bay Kelp Forest Metagenomes by Refined Binning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmers, John; Frentrup, Martinique; Rast, Patrick; Jogler, Christian; Kaster, Anne-Kristin

    2017-01-01

    The kelp forest of the Pacific temperate rocky marine coastline of Monterey Bay in California is a dominant habitat for large brown macro-algae in the order of Laminariales. It is probably one of the most species-rich, structurally complex and productive ecosystems in temperate waters and well-studied in terms of trophic ecology. However, still little is known about the microorganisms thriving in this habitat. A growing body of evidence suggests that bacteria associated with macro-algae represent a huge and largely untapped resource of natural products with chemical structures that have been optimized by evolution for biological and ecological purposes. Those microorganisms are most likely attracted by algae through secretion of specific carbohydrates and proteins that trigger them to attach to the algal surface and to form biofilms. The algae might then employ those bacteria as biofouling control, using their antimicrobial secondary metabolites to defeat other bacteria or eukaryotes. We here analyzed biofilm samples from the brown macro-algae Macrocystis pyrifera sampled in November 2014 in the kelp forest of Monterey Bay by a metagenomic shotgun and amplicon sequencing approach, focusing on Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia from the PVC superphylum. Although not very abundant, we were able to find novel Planctomycetal and Verrucomicrobial species by an innovative binning approach. All identified species harbor secondary metabolite related gene clusters, contributing to our hypothesis that through inter-species interaction, microorganisms might have a substantial effect on kelp forest wellbeing and/or disease-development. PMID:28424662

  2. Two-photon interference at telecom wavelengths for time-bin-encoded single photons from quantum-dot spin qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S; Tanner, Michael G; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H; Fejer, Martin M; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-11-24

    Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances.

  3. Simulation of Granular Flows and Pile Formation in a Flat-Bottomed Hopper and Bin, and Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Yuu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows of 200 μm particles and the pile formation in a flat-bottomed hopper and bin in the presence of air and in a vacuum were predicted based on three-dimensional numerically empirical constitutive relations using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and Computational Fluid Dynamics methods. The constitutive relations for the strain rate independent stress have been obtained as the functions of the Almansi strain including the large deformation by the same method as Yuu et al. [1]. The constitutive relations cover the elastic and the plastic regions including the flow state and represent the friction mechanism of granular material. We considered the effect of air on the granular flow and pile by the two-way coupling method. The granular flow patterns, the shapes of piles and the granular flow rates in the evolution are compared with experimental data measured under the same conditions. There was good agreement between these results, which suggests that the constitutive relations and the simulation method would be applicable for predicting granular flows and pile formation with complex geometry including free surface geometry. We describe the mechanisms by which the air decreases the granular flow rate and forms the convergence granular flow below the hopper outlet.

  4. Two-dimensional data binning for the analysis of genome architecture in filamentous plant pathogens and other eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Diane G O; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Genome architecture often reflects an organism's lifestyle and can therefore provide insights into gene function, regulation, and adaptation. In several lineages of plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes, characteristic repeat-rich and gene-sparse regions harbor pathogenicity-related genes such as effectors. In these pathogens, analysis of genome architecture has assisted the mining for novel candidate effector genes and investigations into patterns of gene regulation and evolution at the whole genome level. Here we describe a two-dimensional data binning method in R with a heatmap-style graphical output to facilitate analysis and visualization of whole genome architecture. The method is flexible, combining whole genome architecture heatmaps with scatter plots of the genomic environment of selected gene sets. This enables analysis of specific values associated with genes such as gene expression and sequence polymorphisms, according to genome architecture. This method enables the investigation of whole genome architecture and reveals local properties of genomic neighborhoods in a clear and concise manner.

  5. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  6. PhyloPythiaS+: a self-training method for the rapid reconstruction of low-ranking taxonomic bins from metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gregor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metagenomics is an approach for characterizing environmental microbial communities in situ, it allows their functional and taxonomic characterization and to recover sequences from uncultured taxa. This is often achieved by a combination of sequence assembly and binning, where sequences are grouped into ‘bins’ representing taxa of the underlying microbial community. Assignment to low-ranking taxonomic bins is an important challenge for binning methods as is scalability to Gb-sized datasets generated with deep sequencing techniques. One of the best available methods for species bins recovery from deep-branching phyla is the expert-trained PhyloPythiaS package, where a human expert decides on the taxa to incorporate in the model and identifies ‘training’ sequences based on marker genes directly from the sample. Due to the manual effort involved, this approach does not scale to multiple metagenome samples and requires substantial expertise, which researchers who are new to the area do not have. Results. We have developed PhyloPythiaS+, a successor to our PhyloPythia(S software. The new (+ component performs the work previously done by the human expert. PhyloPythiaS+ also includes a new k-mer counting algorithm, which accelerated the simultaneous counting of 4–6-mers used for taxonomic binning 100-fold and reduced the overall execution time of the software by a factor of three. Our software allows to analyze Gb-sized metagenomes with inexpensive hardware, and to recover species or genera-level bins with low error rates in a fully automated fashion. PhyloPythiaS+ was compared to MEGAN, taxator-tk, Kraken and the generic PhyloPythiaS model. The results showed that PhyloPythiaS+ performs especially well for samples originating from novel environments in comparison to the other methods. Availability. PhyloPythiaS+ in a virtual machine is available for installation under Windows, Unix systems or OS X on: https://github.com/algbioi/ppsp/wiki.

  7. Learner Attitudes towards CALL Applications at YADIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal OKAN & Pınar TORUN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of educational technology to assist learners in their language studies has become agreat concern for scholars over the past decade. YADIM (School for Foreign Languages at ÇukurovaUniversity in Turkey has invested substantially to introduce students to computer-based languagelearning materials and to integrate technology into existing curriculum. This paper reports on attitudesof YADİM students towards the use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL and theirperceptions on CALL’s relevancy to their regular classroom work. Surveys and follow-up interviewsexplored how learners see the role of the instructor and the accessibility of the labs. The paper alsolooks at how students assess the impact of technology on their language learning process.

  8. Comprometimento organizacional de trabalhadores de call center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely César Martins Paiva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO Neste artigo, analisa-se como se apresenta o comprometimento organizacional de trabalhadores de um call center, localizado em Belo (A Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brasil. Após o delineamento conceitual UJ do tema central, são expostos os resultados de um estudo de caso descritivo, realizado com abordagens quantitativa e qualitativa. Os dados de 399 questionários e 22 entrevistas são, respectivamente, tratados estatisticamente e submetidos à análise de conteúdo. A base de comprometimento que predominou entre esses infoproletários foi "obrigação pelo desempenho" e, em menor grau, "afetiva". Foi observado que quanto maior é o seu tempo de experiência nesse tipo de organização, menores são os níveis de comprometimento de modo geral, fatos esclarecidos, parcialmente, por meio das entrevistas.

  9. [The so-called "fox tapeworm"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, J; Ammann, R

    1990-01-01

    The so-called "fox tapeworm" (Echinococcus multilocularis), the causative agent of a severe disease in man (alveolar echinococcosis), is presently under public discussion in Switzerland. Therefore, actual information is provided on the life cycle of the parasite, epidemiology, disease in humans, symptomatology, diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis. It is recommended that in endemic regions hunters handling foxes should wear protective gloves, dead foxes should be transported in plastic bags and wild fruits, berries and vegetables should be carefully washed and--if possible--heated to more than 70 degrees C for some minutes prior to consumption. After contact with foxes or other final hosts (dogs, cats) infected with E. multilocularis, persons should be monitored with the highly sensitive and specific Em2-ELISA for serum antibodies aiming at an early diagnosis and treatment of a potential infection.

  10. Cross-sectional analysis of patient phone calls to an inflammatory bowel disease clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Juan E.; Yarur, Andres J.; Diaz, Liege; Simmons, Okeefe L.; Sussman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) require close follow up and frequently utilize healthcare services. We aimed to identify the main reasons that prompted patient calls to gastroenterology providers and further characterize the “frequent callers”. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study included all phone calls registered in medical records of IBD patients during 2012. Predictive variables included demographics, psychiatric history, IBD phenotype, disease complications and medical therapies. Primary outcome was the reason for call (symptoms, medication refill, procedures and appointment issues). Secondary outcome was the frequency of changes in management prompted by the call. Results 209 patients participated in 526 calls. The mean number of calls per patient was 2.5 (range 0-27); 49 (23.4%) patients met the criterion of “frequent caller”. Frequent callers made or received 75.9% of all calls. Crohn’s disease, anxiety, extra-intestinal manifestations and high sedimentation rate were significantly associated with higher call volume. 85.7% of frequent callers had at least one call that prompted a therapeutic intervention, compared to 18.9% of non-frequent callers (Pchange in management may improve healthcare delivery. PMID:26126710

  11. Non-specific alarm calls trigger mobbing behavior in Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huaiqing; Gao, Kai; Zhou, Jiang

    2016-09-30

    Alarm calls are important defensive behaviors. Here, we report the acoustic spectrum characteristics of alarm calls produced by Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus) inhabiting Bawangling National Nature Reserve in Hainan, China. Analysis of call data collected from 2002-2014 shows that alarm calls are emitted by all family group members, except infants. Alarm behavior included simple short alarming calls (7-10 min) followed by longer variable-frequency mobbing calls lasting 5-12 min. The duration of individual alarming and mobbing calls was 0.078 ± 0.014 s and 0.154 ± 0.041 s at frequency ranges of 520-1000 Hz and 690-3920 Hz, respectively. Alarming call duration was positively associated with group size. The alarm calls can trigger mobbing behavior in Hainan gibbons; this is a defense way of social animals, and first report among the primates' species. The system of vocal alarm behavior described in this critically endangered species is simple and effective.

  12. A PROSAIC BOOK OF ADVICES WRITTEN IN 16. CENTURY: ABDULKERIM BIN MEHMED’S NESAYIHU’L-EBRAR 16. ASIRDA YAZILMIŞ MENSUR BİR NASİHAT-NÂME: ABDÜLKERİM BİN MEHMED’İN NESÂYİHÜ’L-EBRÂR’I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan EKİNCİ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Works that direct people to the good, the beauty, the truth and raise moral and benefical individuals for society are called book of advice. These moral and didactic works have poetical and prosaic samples. One of the prosaic book of advices is Nesayihu’l-Ebrar, which was written by Abdulkerim bin Mehmed, grandson of Şeyhulislam Ebussuud Efendi who was famous for his shaykh al-islam position and his many books written in law, hermeneutics, doctrines, language and literature.In this article, Nesayihu’l-Ebrar, which has many transcripts in national libraries and libraries in abroad, will be introduced. The life of Abdulkerim bin Mehmed will be laid emphasis on and four transcripts of the work will be criticized comperatively. İnsanları iyiye, doğruya ve güzele yöneltmek; topluma faydalı, ahlâklı bireyler yetişmesini sağlamak maksadıyla kaleme alınan eserlere nasihat-nâme, pend-nâme, öğüt-nâme vb. adlar verilir. Ahlâkî-didaktik nitelikteki bu eserlerin manzum ve mensur örnekleri mevcuttur. Mensur nasihat-nâmelerden biri de tefsir, hukuk, akaid, dil ve edebiyat alanında birçok eser yazan, fetvalarıyla ve uzun süre şeyhülislâmlık makamında bulunmasıyla meşhur olan Şeyhülislâm Ebüssuûd Efendi’nin torunu Abdülkerim bin Mehmed tarafından kaleme alınan Nesâyihü’l-Ebrâr adlı eserdir. Bu makalede, yurtiçi ve yurtdışındaki kütüphanelerde ondan fazla nüshası bulunan Nesâyihü’l-Ebrâr tanıtılacak; ulaşabildiğimiz kaynaklar doğrultusunda eserin müellifi Abdülkerim bin Mehmed’in hayatı üzerinde durulacak ve söz konusu nasihat-nâmenin dört nüshası esas alınarak tenkitli metni verilecektir.

  13. A Novel Range Compression Algorithm for Resolution Enhancement in GNSS-SARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Yang, Yang; Chen, Wu

    2017-06-25

    In this paper, a novel range compression algorithm for enhancing range resolutions of a passive Global Navigation Satellite System-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GNSS-SAR) is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, within each azimuth bin, firstly range compression is carried out by correlating a reflected GNSS intermediate frequency (IF) signal with a synchronized direct GNSS base-band signal in the range domain. Thereafter, spectrum equalization is applied to the compressed results for suppressing side lobes to obtain a final range-compressed signal. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results have demonstrated that significant range resolution improvement in GNSS-SAR images can be achieved by the proposed range compression algorithm, compared to the conventional range compression algorithm.

  14. Staffing to Maximize Profit for Call Centers with Impatient and Repeat-Calling Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by call center practice, we study the optimal staffing of many-server queues with impatient and repeat-calling customers. A call center is modeled as an M/M/s+M queue, which is developed to a behavioral queuing model in which customers come and go based on their satisfaction with waiting time. We explicitly take into account customer repeat behavior, which implies that satisfied customers might return and have an impact on the arrival rate. Optimality is defined as the number of agents that maximize revenues net of staffing costs, and we account for the characteristic that revenues are a direct function of staffing. Finally, we use numerical experiments to make certain comparisons with traditional models that do not consider customer repeat behavior. Furthermore, we indicate how managers might allocate staffing optimally with various customer behavior mechanisms.

  15. RANGE ECONOMICS RESEARCH (THE NATIONAL INTEREST)

    OpenAIRE

    Crom, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing interest in range economics research calls for a more tightly defined set of issues and a menu of research projects addressing these issues. This paper identifies major issues of national importance followed by a brief description of suggested research projects.

  16. Usama bin Ladin’s Father Sheikh: Yunus Khalis and the Return of al-Qaida’s Leadership to Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    Rubin , xxvii;  Wright, 255; Coll, 327; Weaver (2005); and  Gretchen  Peters. “How Opium Profits the Taliban.”  (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace...Michael Scheuer.  Osama Bin Laden. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 105–106; Tomsen, 543, 608; Barnett  Rubin   The Fragmentation of Afghanistan...and also  Gretchen  Peters. How  Opium Profits the Taliban. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace, 2009), 8. For authors who mention  Bin Ladin’s

  17. ATLAS (Automatic Tool for Local Assembly Structures) - A Comprehensive Infrastructure for Assembly, Annotation, and Genomic Binning of Metagenomic and Metaranscripomic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard A.; Brown, Joseph M.; Colby, Sean M.; Overall, Christopher C.; Lee, Joon-Yong; Zucker, Jeremy D.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Jansson, Georg C.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2017-03-02

    ATLAS (Automatic Tool for Local Assembly Structures) is a comprehensive multiomics data analysis pipeline that is massively parallel and scalable. ATLAS contains a modular analysis pipeline for assembly, annotation, quantification and genome binning of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics data and a framework for reference metaproteomic database construction. ATLAS transforms raw sequence data into functional and taxonomic data at the microbial population level and provides genome-centric resolution through genome binning. ATLAS provides robust taxonomy based on majority voting of protein coding open reading frames rolled-up at the contig level using modified lowest common ancestor (LCA) analysis. ATLAS provides robust taxonomy based on majority voting of protein coding open reading frames rolled-up at the contig level using modified lowest common ancestor (LCA) analysis. ATLAS is user-friendly, easy install through bioconda maintained as open-source on GitHub, and is implemented in Snakemake for modular customizable workflows.

  18. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  19. Preliminary comparison of calls of the hybridizing fur seals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five call types were compared: barking, guttural challenges and territorial calls emitted by adult males; the pup attraction call used by adult females and the response: ... Since many of the differences in male calls are audible to the human ear, female seals can presumably also hear these differences and we suggest that ...

  20. Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

  1. Sleeping Disturbances/Disorders in Medical Students of King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Hasan Qaiser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: College students are at risk of many sleep disorders that may affect their performance. We conducted this study to identify the sleeping patterns, poor sleep quality factors among medical students, and to observe if there is any relationship between the student’s grades and their level of distress. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine (male campus, Riyadh. We included 101 (2nd, 3rd, and 4th year male medical students who completed a self-administered questionnaire. The students sleeping disturbances were evaluated by using Epworth Sleeping Scale (ESS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and their distress was evaluated by the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUD. A relationship between student’s distress and their grade was determined by using one-way ANOVA. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. RESULTS: The mean ±SD of the number of hours medical students slept was 5.6±2.6 hours. The most common cause of disturbed sleep was not being able to fall asleep within 30 minutes after going to bed. The mean score for ESS was 8.2 ±5.4. Most students had an ESS score <10 indicating that they had a normal amount of daytime sleepiness and good sleep. There was a relationship between the academic year and ESS; a higher percentage of the students in 3rd and 4th year were sleepy (ESS ≥ 10 than 2nd year (P = 0.04. There was no relation between the student’s grades and their level of distress (P = 0.37. CONCLUSION: Medical students got less actual sleep hours than the optimal sleep duration. However, most had normal day time sleepiness. There was no relation between the student’s grades and their level of distress.

  2. Scale Dependency of Convective Momentum Transport as Diagnosed from Cloud-Resolving Model Simulation with Spectral-bin Microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. C.; Fan, J.; Zhang, G. J.; Xu, K. M.; Ghan, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Convective momentum transport (CMT) has been demonstrated to have a large impact on global atmospheric circulation in both observational and numerical studies. In General Circulation Models (GCMs) CMT is often parameterized in a simple way by assuming that in-cloud horizontal momentum depends only on lateral entrainment and detrainment rates [Schneider and Lindzen, 1976]. In addition to lateral entrainment and detrainment rates the effect of perturbation pressure gradient force induced by convection (Pc) on momentum transport is significant. Because it is the most complicated term to be parameterized, a very simple form of products among a constant coefficient, mass flux, and environment vertical wind shear was employed to parameterize it [Gregory et al., 1997]. In addition, none of these CMT parameterizations deal with the scale problems. Thus, the goal of this study is to evaluate the past CMT parameterizations and explore the scale dependencies of Pc and CMT using Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) coupled with the most sophisticated spectral-bin microphysics. Our preliminary results show that the parameterized CMT from the top-hat approach is underestimated especially at the gray zone scale (~4-50 km); using the simplified 3-updraft and 1-downdraft formulation proposed in our previous study for eddy transport of moisture, the CMT can be represented well. The formulation also produced a more accurate mass flux compared to the top-hat approach, which can potentially improve the parameterization of Pc. We investigate the relative contributions from linear and nonlinear forcing to Pc at different model grid spacing (dx). Our results show that the assumption that non-linear forcing is much smaller than linear force is valid only at dx > 128 km and dx < 8 km. At the dx = 32~16 km, linear and nonlinear forcings become compatible, suggesting a more sophisticated formula for Pc might be needed.

  3. A novel approach to find and optimize bin locations and collection routes using a geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Seyed Mohammad Hassan; Danesh, Shahnaz; Karrabi, Seyed Mohsen; Shad, Rouzbeh

    2017-07-01

    One of the major challenges in big cities is planning and implementation of an optimized, integrated solid waste management system. This optimization is crucial if environmental problems are to be prevented and the expenses to be reduced. A solid waste management system consists of many stages including collection, transfer and disposal. In this research, an integrated model was proposed and used to optimize two functional elements of municipal solid waste management (storage and collection systems) in the Ahmadabad neighbourhood located in the City of Mashhad - Iran. The integrated model was performed by modelling and solving the location allocation problem and capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) through Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The results showed that the current collection system is not efficient owing to its incompatibility with the existing urban structure and population distribution. Application of the proposed model could significantly improve the storage and collection system. Based on the results of minimizing facilities analyses, scenarios with 100, 150 and 180 m walking distance were considered to find optimal bin locations for Alamdasht, C-metri and Koohsangi. The total number of daily collection tours was reduced to seven as compared to the eight tours carried out in the current system (12.50% reduction). In addition, the total number of required crews was minimized and reduced by 41.70% (24 crews in the current collection system vs 14 in the system provided by the model). The total collection vehicle routing was also optimized such that the total travelled distances during night and day working shifts was cut back by 53%.

  4. Innovations in medical internship: benchmarking and application within the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moamary, M S; Mamede, S; Schmidt, H G

    2010-04-01

    While the medical internship (MI) has evolved in some countries into competency-based training with innovative tools for assessment and feedback, the traditional MI is still the norm in many countries. To describe recent advances in the MI in several countries, to discuss the current MI situation in Saudi Arabia as an example of a country that applies a traditional MI, and to present a Framework for Medical Interns' Competencies (FMIC) implemented within the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS). Common electronic databases were searched for the years 1990 to 2008 under keywords related to medical internship education. Information on curricula designed for medical interns or junior doctors in selected countries was obtained by searching relevant websites. At the KSAU-HS, the FMIC was created by first building the case for the urgent need for revising the MI and adapting international approaches to the KSA's needs, followed by dialogue among faculty and leaders, planning, coordination and execution of the framework. Two trends were identified in the recent evolution of the MI. In North America, the first postgraduate year now serves the traditional purpose of the MI. Australia and the United Kingdom have embedded the MI within junior doctor training. These innovative curricula have in common a focus on the domains of medical knowledge, clinical practice, professionalism and communication skills. The FMIC applies innovative principles during the MI years customized to the local medical education setting. The evolution in medical education and healthcare systems worldwide has necessitated innovations in the MI. The FMIC is a model whereby innovative curriculum was introduced to enhance the outcomes of the MI in a country that has applied a traditional MI.

  5. Factors Influencing the Career Choices among Medical University students of King Saub bin Abdulaziz University, Riyadh Saudi Arabia; A Cross-sectional Study Design

    OpenAIRE

    Subait, Abeer Al; Ali, Anna; Andijani, Anas Ibrahim; Altuwaijry, Mohammed Ali; Algarni, Saeed Mohammed; Alduhaimi, Tariq Saad; Alotaibi, Yazeed Mohammed; Metwally, Ashraf El

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the factors that influence career choice among second year dental, medical and nursing students at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Methodology: One hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed to 2nd year pre-professional medical, dental and nursing students (50 questionnaires per group). First part of questionnaire was regarding demographics and in the second part consisted of 23 factors that might influence the students’ career choic...

  6. Evolution of resistance to the Bacillus sphaericus Bin toxin is phenotypically masked by combination with the mosquitocidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Walton, William E; Federici, Brian A

    2010-05-01

    Two insecticidal bacteria are used as larvicides to control larvae of nuisance and vector mosquitoes in many countries, Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis and B. sphaericus. Field studies show both are effective, but serious resistance, as high as 50 000-fold, has evolved where B. sphaericus is used against Culex mosquitoes. To improve efficacy and deal with even greater potential problems of resistance, we previously developed several recombinant larvicidal bacteria that combine the best mosquitocidal proteins of these bacteria. In the present study, we report laboratory selection studies using our best recombinant strain against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. This recombinant, Bti/BsBin, is a strain of B. thuringiensis ssp. israelensis engineered to produce a large amount of the B. sphaericus binary (Bin) toxin, which makes it more than 10-fold as mosquitocidal as the its parental strains. Here we show that larvae exposed to Bti/BsBin failed to develop significant resistance after 30 successive generations of heavy selection pressure. The highest level of resistance obtained at the LC(95) level was 5.2-fold, but declined to less than two-fold at the 35th generation. Testing the selected populations against B. sphaericus alone showed resistance to Bin evolved, but was masked by combination with B. thuringiensis ssp. israelensis. These results suggest that recombinant bacterial strains have improved mosquito and vector management properties compared with the wild-type strains used in current commercial formulations, and should prove useful in controlling important human diseases such as malaria and filariasis on a long-term basis, even when used intensively under field conditions.

  7. C4 Protein of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus Regulates Brassinosteroid Signaling Pathway through Interaction with AtBIN2 and Affects Male Fertility in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiping Bi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweepoviruses have been identified globally and cause substantial yield losses and cultivar decline in sweet potato. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between sweepovirus and plant host by analyzing the function of the viral protein C4 of Sweet potato leaf curl virus-Jiangsu (SPLCV-JS, a sweepovirus cloned from diseased sweet potato plants in East China. Ectopic expression of the C4 in Arabidopsis altered plant development drastically with phenotypic changes including leaf curling, seedling twisting, deformation of floral tissues and reduction of pollen fertility, and seed number. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis, this study demonstrated that the SPLCV-JS C4 protein interacted with brassinosteroid-insensitive 2 (AtBIN2 in the plasma membrane of Nicotiana benthamiana cells. The C4 AtBIN2 interaction was further confirmed by yeast two-hybrid assays. This interaction led to the re-localization of AtBIN2-interacting proteins AtBES1/AtBZR1 into the nucleus which altered the expression of brassinosteroid (BR-response genes, resulting in the activation of BR-signaling pathway. The interaction of SPLCV-JS C4 and AtBIN2 also led to the down-regulated expression of key genes involved in anther and pollen development, including SPROROCYTELESS/NOZZLE, DEFECTIVE IN TAPEL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION 1, and ABORTED MICROSPORES, which caused abnormal tapetal development, followed by defective exine pattern formation of microspores and pollen release. Consequently, male fertility in the C4 transgenic Arabidopsis was reduced. The present study illustrated how the sweepovirus C4 protein functioned in host cells and affected male fertility by interacting with the key components of BR-signaling pathway.

  8. Call for Proposals Safe and Inclusive Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marie-Isabelle Beyer

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... It also seeks to identify the most effective strategies for addressing these .... role of information and communication technologies in development, and integrates these dimensions into all research ..... Well-articulated communication strategy, which proposes a range of outputs, tools and approaches for ...

  9. Male blue monkeys alarm call in response to danger experienced by others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papworth, Sarah; Böse, Anne-Sophie; Barker, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    Male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) of Budongo Forest, Uganda, produce two acoustically distinct alarm calls: hacks to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and pyows to leopards (Panthera pardus) and a range of other disturbances. In playback experiments, males responded...... to leopard growls exclusively with a series of pyows and to eagle shrieks predominantly with hacks. Responses to playbacks of these alarm call series matched the responses to the corresponding predators, suggesting that the calls conveyed something about the nature of the threat. When responding to a series...... of hacks, indicating an eagle, males responded predominately with hacks, but produced significantly more calls if their group members were close to the playback stimulus than far away, regardless of their own position. When responding to a series of pyows, indicating a range of disturbances, males...

  10. REMINDER: In a medical emergency call 74444

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    What happened? A CERN colleague, complaining of pains that might indicate serious heart problem, went to the ?infirmary' on the Prévessin site for medical aid. He was unaware that the ?infirmary' was in fact no such thing, but the office of the French contractors' medical practitioner, and, on top of that, it was closed. He therefore took his own car and went to the CERN Fire Station on the Meyrin Site (Building 65). The firemen and the CERN medical team took care of him and requested helicopter transport to the Geneva cantonal hospital, where he responded well to medical treatment. What do we learn from this event? You must call the CERN internal number 74444 in the event of serious and acute illness, and do not have to present yourself in person or get somebody to go with you. This number is not reserved exclusively for accident, pollution, fire etc. The Firemen can prodice professional assistance at all times as required: first aid on the spot, amulance transport and medical assistance as necessary. ...

  11. DOCSS: doctors on-call smartphone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, M K; Nason, G J; Liddy, S; Fitzgerald, C W; Kelly, M E; Shields, C

    2014-12-01

    Smartphones have revolutionised our demands for constant access to information. The usage of smartphones in the clinical setting is becoming widespread. The aim of our study was to assess smartphone ownership and usage across a cohort of interns. A voluntary novel questionnaire was distributed to interns in two university hospitals. Details regarding smartphone ownership and usage were assessed. Likert scales were utilised for analysis. Sixty-one (74.4 %) interns responded to the survey. Sixty (98.4 %) owned a smartphone with iPhone(®) being the most popular (76.7 %). Fifty-five (91.6 %) interns have downloaded medical applications ('apps'), while 29 (52.3 %) reported paying for them. Regarding smartphone use on-call, 30 (50 %) interns agreed it aids diagnoses, 26 (43 %) agree it helped in interpreting laboratory values, 31 (51.7 %) agreed it helped in dosing of medication and 33 (55 %) agreed it was of assistance in medical emergency protocols. Forty-two (70 %), 42 (70 %) and 46 (76.7 %) interns agreed or strongly agreed smartphones have a positive influence on them in terms of levels of stress, confidence and level of knowledge, respectively. Smartphone usage is widespread among our intern cohort. The introduction of hospital applications with local guidelines would be welcomed; however, this may require informed patient consent regarding their use.

  12. From Systematic Review to Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Erika Metzler; Sobel, Linda L; Annan, Sandra L; Schminkey, Donna L

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and criminal justice concern with significant impacts; especially high rates are seen among rural Hispanic American (HA) communities, the fastest growing population in the United States. They experience additional barriers to care including extreme poverty, lesser education, gender norms, and language and immigration issues. A systematic literature review was conducted using Cooper's framework to identify evidence supporting associations between interventions and prevention, reduction, and elimination of IPV among rural HA women. Searches conducted on databases including CINAHL, PubMed, Medline, Women's Studies International, MedicLatina, and JSTOR used the MeSH terms Hispanic Americans (Latino/a and Hispanic), domestic violence, and intimate partner violence. Selected studies were published between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2014. Of the 617 yielded articles, only 6 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, none closely examined rurality or provided valid and reliable measures of outcomes, instead reporting program descriptions and suggested interventions. We identify key findings to guide program, screening, and tool development. Our study identifies a gap in knowledge, research, and effective practices and issues a call for action to create evidence-based tools to prevent, reduce, and eliminate IPV in these underserved populations.

  13. McNamara calls for action now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Robert McNamara outlined a 6 point global family planning (FP) program he designed to expand FP services to answer unmet need. The plan calls for Fp spending to increase to US$8 billion by 2000. For the US this would mean an increase from US$800 million to US$3.5 billion. This amount is very, very small compared to the total amount spent on official development assistance projected for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. It is easily within the capabilities of OECD countries to meet this goal. The plan would develop a system in which the World Bank and the UNFPA would work together with each developing country to establish population target levels. The World Bank would assume responsibility for organizing external financing and serve as a last resort source of financing. Japan must also begin to take a leadership role more in line with its economic power. Currently it spends only .32% of its GNP to aid developing countries, despite the fact that its per capita income is 20% larger than any other OECD member. This means raising spending form US$9 billion to US$14.5 billion. This could be done easily by raising it US$500 million/year and planning to increase this US$1 billion by 2000.

  14. Rare disease registries: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Paul; Millis, Nicole; Fookes, Megan; Zurynski, Yvonne; Jaffe, Adam; Bellgard, Matthew; Winship, Ingrid; McNeil, John; Bittles, Alan H

    2017-09-01

    When registries collect accurate clinical data over time, they can act as fundamental support structures for patients and their families and powerful cost-effective instruments to support clinical trials and translational research to improve quality of care, quality of life and survival. Registries are critical for rare diseases (RD) with low prevalence and propensity for variation in treatment and outcomes. Rare Voices Australia is leading a call for action to the research and clinical community to prioritise RD data collection and develop an integrated RD Registry strategy for Australia. Financial, operational and governance challenges exist for establishing and maintaining RD registries. As a multidisciplinary team whose interests converge on RD, we highlight the need for the establishment of an Australian RD Registry Alliance. This 'umbrella' organisation will: (i) bring together existing RD registries across Australia; (ii) establish National RD Registry Standards to support interoperability and cohesion across registries; (iii) develop strategies to attract sustainable funding from government and other sources to maximise the utility of existing RD registries and support the development of new RD registries. The most important role for the Alliance would be to use the RD registries for translational research to address current knowledge gaps about RD and to improve the care for the over 1.4 million Australians estimated to live with RD. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Another call to increase STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education becomes increasingly important, U.S. students are lagging behind other nations on international assessments, according to a recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science study. A 22 June report from the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) calls for increasing the focus on STEM education in the United States. “To make progress in improving STEM education for all students, policy makers at the national, state, and local levels should elevate science to the same level of importance as reading and mathematics,” states the report, “Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” It outlines several goals: expand the number of students who pursue advanced degrees and careers in STEM fields; expand the STEM-capable workforce, while also broadening the participation of women and minorities; and increase STEM literacy for all students, whether or not they pursue STEM-related careers or additional study in those areas.

  16. Mitigating Handoff Call Dropping in Wireless Cellular Networks: A Call Admission Control Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Moses Effiong; Udoh, Victoria Idia; Bassey, Udoma James

    2016-06-01

    Handoff management has been an important but challenging issue in the field of wireless communication. It seeks to maintain seamless connectivity of mobile users changing their points of attachment from one base station to another. This paper derives a call admission control model and establishes an optimal step-size coefficient (k) that regulates the admission probability of handoff calls. An operational CDMA network carrier was investigated through the analysis of empirical data collected over a period of 1 month, to verify the performance of the network. Our findings revealed that approximately 23 % of calls in the existing system were lost, while 40 % of the calls (on the average) were successfully admitted. A simulation of the proposed model was then carried out under ideal network conditions to study the relationship between the various network parameters and validate our claim. Simulation results showed that increasing the step-size coefficient degrades the network performance. Even at optimum step-size (k), the network could still be compromised in the presence of severe network crises, but our model was able to recover from these problems and still functions normally.

  17. Perception of organizational justice among call center workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricila de Sousa Zarife

    2016-06-01

    Nevertheless, we did not find Brazilian studies of organizational justice considering telemarketers, an activity characterized by high turnover, competition and pressure for results. This study aimed to investigate the perception of organizational justice employees of a call center and its relationship with socio-occupational variables. This study involved 118 workers from a call center company that operates in two cities of the state of São Paulo. For data collection was used the Perception of Organizational Justice Scale (Epjo, composed of 20 items distributed among three factors: distributive, procedural and interactional justice. For this sample, the instrument's reliability indices ranged between 0.86 and 0.93, indicating Epjo is valid. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance. The overall results indicated that participants perceived organizational justice, with certain homogeneity. Significant differences were obtained in the distributive and procedural justice scores in function of time in the company. Furthermore, significant differences were identified for the variable distributive justice, the interactions between the time in the company and the variables city and marital status.

  18. Optimal temporal placement of the call in beach volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Künzell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The call is a tactical component in beach volleyball attacks. Through the call, the setter indicates to his or her teammate an open spot in the opponent’s court. In two experimental conditions, we investigated the interval between the call and the ball-hand contact (“call shot interval”, CSI of top-level athletes. We show that the probability that a given call is followed is dependent on the duration of the CSI and the number of call options. Longer CSIs result in an increased probability that the given call will be followed, whilst increasing the call options results in a decrease in probability. On average, there is a 50% probability that the call will be followed if the call precedes the shot by 460 ms and if a single call option (“line” is expected. If the attacker has to choose between three call options (“line”, “cut”, “no-one” a 50% probability that the call will be followed is observed at an CSI of 542 ms. It did not appear that gender influenced the ability to follow a call. We recommend that in practice and in competition, players and coaches should consider the proper duration of the CSI for effective calling.

  19. Real estate ads in Emei music frog vocalizations: female preference for calls emanating from burrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianguo; Tang, Yezhong; Narins, Peter M

    2012-06-23

    During female mate choice, both the male's phenotype and resources (e.g. his nest) contribute to the chooser's fitness. Animals other than humans are not known to advertise resource characteristics to potential mates through vocal communication; although in some species of anurans and birds, females do evaluate male qualities through vocal communication. Here, we demonstrate that calls of the male Emei music frog (Babina dauchina), vocalizing from male-built nests, reflect nest structure information that can be recognized by females. Inside-nest calls consisted of notes with energy concentrated at lower frequency ranges and longer note durations when compared with outside-nest calls. Centre frequencies and note durations of the inside calls positively correlate with the area of the burrow entrance and the depth of the burrow, respectively. When given a choice between outside and inside calls played back alternately, more than 70 per cent of the females (33/47) chose inside calls. These results demonstrate that males of this species faithfully advertise whether or not they possess a nest to potential mates by vocal communication, which probably facilitates optimal mate selection by females. These results revealed a novel function of advertisement calls, which is consistent with the wide variation in both call complexity and social behaviour within amphibians.

  20. Responses of male cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) to attenuated and degraded advertisement calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venator, Kurt R; Ryan, Michael J; Wilczynski, Walter

    2017-05-01

    We examined the vocal and non-vocal responses of male cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) to conspecific advertisement calls that had been attenuated or degraded by reducing the depth of amplitude modulation (AM). Both are characteristic of changes to the call as it is transmitted through natural habitats. As stimulus calls became more intense or less degraded, male cricket frogs gradually decreased their call rate and increased the number of call groups and pulse groups in their calls, changes indicative of increased aggressive interactions. At the higher intensities and lower degradation levels, the probability that males would shift to one of two non-vocal behavioral responses, attacking the perceived intruder or ceasing calling and abandoning the call site, gradually increased. The results show that differences in signal attenuation and AM degradation levels are perceived by males and trigger both vocal and non-vocal behavioral responses consistent with their use in evaluating the distance to a challenging male. Furthermore, the results indicate that the male responses are graded, increasing as intensity rises and degradation falls, and hierarchical, with vocal responses preceding behavioral responses over the range of intensities and degradation levels presented.

  1. Effectiveness of the call in beach volleyball attacking play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-12-09

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ(2)(2) = 23.42, p call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  2. Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekdahl, Melinda L; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Goldizen, Anne W; Garland, Ellen C; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined.

  3. Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: call of the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abdul Majid; Mithani, Shoaib

    2007-02-01

    We challenge the routine placement of nephrostomy tube after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) without taking into consideration the size, burden, and multiplicity of the stones; the degree of obstruction of the pelvicaliceal system, or any anatomic variations of the kidney in shape or position. Between January 2005 to March 2006, 110 patients underwent PCNL, 77% of whom had multiple stones. The mean size of the single stones was 4.3 cm (range 2.8-6.5 cm), and the mean single-stone burden was 7.2 cm2 (range 5.6-14.3 cm2). The mean burden of multiple stones was 11.4 cm2 (range 8-23 cm2). Among the patients, 18 had had previous renal surgery, 12 had renal insufficiency, and 7 had a solitary functioning kidney. One patient each had horseshoe kidney and malrotated kidney. In 106 patients, no nephrostomy drain was placed, only an externalized 5F ureteral catheter for 16 to 20 hours. Two patients had simultaneous bilateral tubeless PCNL. The outcome was evaluated prospectively. The frequency of complications, length of hospital stay, and stone-free status were assessed. A stone-free rate of 80% was achieved using PCNL as monotherapy. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 16 to 20 hours. Three patients required placement of a nephrostomy tube because of significant bleeding and one because of purulent renal discharge. In four patients, a ureteral catheter was replaced by a stent because of significant residual stone burdens. The initial 18 patients underwent ultrasound examination on the first postoperative day, and none demonstrated any extrarenal collection, so routine ultrasound examination was omitted in succeeding patients. One patient required exploration because of a retroperitoneal hematoma. Omission of a nephrostomy tube after PCNL while retaining an externalized ureteral catheter for 16 to 20 hours is sufficient and safe irrespective of the stone characteristics. Shape, position, and function of the kidneys are also irrelevant with regard to tubeless PCNL.

  4. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  5. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  6. Mustafa Bin Bâlî ve İlm-i Firâset’i Mustafa Bin Bâlî And İlm-i Firâset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan SARIÇİÇEK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There wasn’t any study over this work which was Mustafa bin Bâlî’s, who lived 16th century, plain-text. But there is some information about works which were made over firâset, physiognomy and like sciences.2 The study which we make over this work comes last stage and it is firstly presented to science-world here. Although it is said that it was compiled from Fahreddin Razi veMuhyiddin-i Arabî at primary of the work, it is quality of an academicstudy which was prepared with study of many more works over scienceof firâset. Not only Fahreddin Razi and Muhyiddin-i Arabî but also theauthor benefited from works of many more scientists from HamdullahHamdi to İbni Sina. we can say that it is unique in its field with thiscourse. In that works, which were written in this field, are generallyover application of firaset science. That is, they pay attention overresults instead of the basic criterion of this science. Nevertheless,thiswork is a well-coorinated study which was made over firaset aswhole.That work compile and gather informations about firaset withcare of an academician while they are in bits and disorganized atanother works.In addition, the work is included various verses like Arabic,Persian and Turkish in spite it is plain-text. As for aspect of language,also it is included materials of language which belonging to Turkish ofAncient Anatolian. 16. yüzyılda yaşayan Mustafa bin Bâlî’nin mensur olan bu eseri üzerinde daha önce bir çalışma yapılmamıştır. Ancak firâset, kıyâfet ve benzeri ilimler üzerinde yapılan çalışmalarda hakkında bazı bilgiler verilmiştir.1 Bizim ise bu eser üzerinde yaptığımız çalışma son aşamasına gelmiş olmakla beraber ilk defa burada bilim âleminin dikkatine sunulmaktadır.Her ne kadar eserin başında Fahreddin Razi ve Muhyiddin-i Arabî’den derlendiği söyleniyor ise de eser firâset ilmi üzerine daha birçok eser de taranarak hazırlanmış akademik bir

  7. Managing the change of context in countering terrorism: Death of Bin Laden and the “Arab Spring”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Ceren Yazgan Etiz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In world political history, 2011 will be remembered as the year when the leader of the Al Qaida (AQ terrorist movement was killed and of the so called “Arab Spring”, when mass demonstrations in some Arab countries fundamentally challenged the way these countries have been ruled for the past few decades.

  8. Calling under pressure: Short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frants Havmand; Marrero Perez, Jacobo; Johnson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species...... among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic...... DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows...

  9. MO-DE-207A-12: Toward Patient-Specific 4DCT Reconstruction Using Adaptive Velocity Binning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.D.; Glide-Hurst, C. [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Klahr, P. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: While 4DCT provides organ/tumor motion information, it often samples data over 10–20 breathing cycles. For patients presenting with compromised pulmonary function, breathing patterns can change over the acquisition time, potentially leading to tumor delineation discrepancies. This work introduces a novel adaptive velocity-modulated binning (AVB) 4DCT algorithm that modulates the reconstruction based on the respiratory waveform, yielding a patient-specific 4DCT solution. Methods: AVB was implemented in a research reconstruction configuration. After filtering the respiratory waveform, the algorithm examines neighboring data to a phase reconstruction point and the temporal gate is widened until the difference between the reconstruction point and waveform exceeds a threshold value—defined as percent difference between maximum/minimum waveform amplitude. The algorithm only impacts reconstruction if the gate width exceeds a set minimum temporal width required for accurate reconstruction. A sensitivity experiment of threshold values (0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 12%) was conducted to examine the interplay between threshold, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and image sharpness for phantom and several patient 4DCT cases using ten-phase reconstructions. Individual phase reconstructions were examined. Subtraction images and regions of interest were compared to quantify changes in SNR. Results: AVB increased signal in reconstructed 4DCT slices for respiratory waveforms that met the prescribed criteria. For the end-exhale phases, where the respiratory velocity is low, patient data revealed a threshold of 0.5% demonstrated increased SNR in the AVB reconstructions. For intermediate breathing phases, threshold values were required to be >10% to notice appreciable changes in CT intensity with AVB. AVB reconstructions exhibited appreciably higher SNR and reduced noise in regions of interest that were photon deprived such as the liver. Conclusion: We demonstrated that patient

  10. Data pre-processing using an FPGA by binning gamma ray energies and forwarding consolidated spectra data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ana, E-mail: anaf@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, Rita C. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Neto, André C. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Kiptily, Vasily [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Dept. de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Gonçalves, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • JET monitor equipped with a DAQ system to digitize gamma signals from 19 detectors. • DAQ FPGAs used for real-time processing and streaming the gamma-ray energy values. • New algorithm was designed to produce at FPGA real-time spectra from energy values. • Spectra built at FPGA ensures streamed packets not limited by count rate. • New algorithm is relevant for future experiments expecting high event count rates. - Abstract: Gamma-ray diagnostics are considered of crucial importance for understanding the plasma behavior of next fusion devices. Among other physical phenomena, gamma-ray spectra can provide information about the fusion reactions rate and the fast ions temperature and confinement, indicators of how close we are from reaching self-sustained burning plasmas. Accordingly, dedicated gamma-ray diagnostics are currently installed at the Joint European Torus (JET). The 2D gamma-ray profile monitor is one of these diagnostics, equipped with an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) Data Acquisition (DAQ) system, capable of digitizing gamma-ray signals from the 19 photodiode detectors. The DAQ system includes Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices, with embedded processing algorithms. These algorithms are responsible for processing the gamma-ray signals acquired from each detector in real-time, and for periodically streaming the corresponding energy values to the DAQ host. However, for higher count rates it will be unfeasible to stream periodically all the energy values without loss. Thus, a new algorithm was designed, capable to produce real-time spectra at FPGA from the processed energy values. The spectra should be periodically streamed, delivering binned data rather than a value for each gamma-ray. This allows to reduce the data rate, avoiding data losses. Consequently, the streaming data can be used for control purposes, as demanded by next fusion experiments with long plasma discharges of high energy

  11. El discurso de la calle: una mirada psicoanalitica al denominado habitante de la calle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Baez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de investigación del proyecto: “El lugar del sujeto en condición de habitante de la calle de la localidad de Suba”. Una propuesta de investigación-intervención, dirigida por el interrogante: ¿Cómo se sitúa un sujeto frente al otro, el otro y su mismidad para llegar a la configuración de su ser, decir y hacer desde el habitar en la calle? Metodológicamente, se desarrolló un trabajo de escucha de carácter analítico, con habitantes de la calle y funcionarios de dicha localidad. El sujeto se halla inscrito en el discurso de la calle, donde, a partir de su posicionamiento ha configurado su ser, decir y hacer, así como el establecimiento del lazo social. Abstract This research paper shows the results of a project named: “The place of the subject as a street in habitant in Suba”. It is a research and intervention proposal, guided by the questions: How does a subject consider himself in relation with another subject? How does a subject and his uniqueness to come to his own being? Does it take into account their living in the street? A listening exercise using an analytical method was developed with street in habitants and officials of the above-mentioned locality. The subject is enrolled in the test, their speech sampled via a series of questions, and the subject is asked why the subject has set his being, why the subject gives these answers, as well as their establishment in the social ties in their networks.

  12. No Call for Action? Why There Is No Union (Yet in Philippine Call Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Reese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents findings from a qualitative study which focused on young urban professionals in the Philippines who work(ed in international call centers – workplaces usually characterized by job insecurity and other forms of precarity, factory-like working conditions, and disembeddedness. Nevertheless, trade unions in these centers have not come into existence. Why collective action is not chosen by call center agents as an option to tackle the above mentioned problems – this is what the research project this article is based on tried to understand. After outlining some workrelated problems identified by Filipino call center agents, the article will focus on the strategies the agents employ to counter these problems (mainly accommodation and everyday resistance. By highlighting five objective and five subjective reasons (or reasons by circumstances and reasons by framing, we conclude that it is not repressive regulation policies, but rather the formative power and the internalization of discourses of rule within individual life strategies that are preventing the establishment of unions and other collective action structures.

  13. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  14. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  15. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  16. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  17. Methodology used for the determination of physical and mechanical properties of crushed coal and new criteria for the selection of calculating parameters according to which coal bins in thermal power plants are dimensioned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obradovic, R. [Mining Institute Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-07-01

    In order to acquire the data necessary for design engineering of coal bins in thermal power plants (TPP), an enhanced research method has been adopted, along with new criteria for the interpretation of the results obtained in the course of crushed coal testing, considering the shearing strength values and the expected elastic deformations of bin walls. The investigations presented in this paper have been carried out in the Thermal Power Plant - Nikola Tesla-B, (TPPNT) in Obrenovac, Yugoslavia. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  18. The advertisement call, color patterns and distribution of Ischnocnema izecksohni (Caramaschi and Kisteumacher, 1989 (Anura, Brachycephalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. G. Taucce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema izecksohni inhabits the gallery forests from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Southern Espinhaço range, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, and it is considered endemic to this region. Its closest related species is I. nasuta according to the original description. We describe the advertisement call of I. izecksohni based on specimens recorded and collected at the municipality of Nova Lima, state of Minas Gerais, distant about 10 km straight line from its type locality. The advertisement call consists of a group of notes emitted sporadically without a regular interval between the calls. Call duration (n = 36 calls in four individuals ranged from 1.03 to 1.85 s (= 1.52 ± 0.21 s and the call rise time from 0.66 to 1.52 s (= 1.16 ± 0.25 s, with 34-57 notes per call (= 47.42 ± 6.03. Peak frequency ranged from 2250 to 2625 Hz, the dominant frequency from 1317.8 to 3128.0 Hz and interval between notes from 22.00 to 41.00 ms (= 28.63 ± 0.03 ms. From the examination of herpetological collections, morphological and bioacoustical data we extended the species known distribution ca. 200 km eastward, to ten new localities, all of them outside the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, at the Mantiqueira mountain range. We analyzed color patterns and we find some dorsal patterns not described at the original description of I. izecksohni. We also make some comments concerning the taxonomic status of I. izecksohni and I. nasuta.

  19. Rank range test for equality of dispersion | Odiase | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper exploits the computational simplicity of the range of a set of data to formulate a twosample scale test called the Rank Range test. The performance of the test statistic is compared with other tests of scale. The exact distribution of the Rank Range test statistic is generated empirically through the unconditional ...

  20. ASR performance analysis of an experimental call routing system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modipa, T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Call routing is an important application of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology. In this paper the authors discuss the main issues affecting the performance of a call routing system and describe the ASR component of the "Auto...

  1. Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

  2. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana ) and four populations of X. laevis . We identify three call types - click, burst and trill - that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure.

  3. Linguistics, Procedure and Technique in CALL Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsani, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Research in CALL education has identified a series of goals and constraints for technology in language education that need to be taken into account when designing a CALL syllabus. This article presents a theoretical framework for syllabus design based on the identification of three areas of expertise within CALL: linguistic knowledge, procedural…

  4. Alarm calls of Bronze Mannikins communicate predator size to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These groups were exposed to latex terrestrial snakes and mounted aerial raptors, and their alarm calls and predator response behaviours recorded. The Bronze Mannikins were able to discriminate between predators of different sizes, and increased their calling rate and decreased the end frequency of the alarm call in ...

  5. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low...

  6. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types — click, burst and trill — that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  7. The Role of Analyst Conference Calls in Capital Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Roelofsen (Erik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMany firms conduct a conference call with analysts shortly after the quarterly earnings announcement. In these calls, management discusses the completed quarter, and analysts can ask questions. Due to SEC requirements, conference calls in the United States are virtually always live

  8. Design considerations for CALL based upon evaluation criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents a rubric for the evaluation of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) software based on international recommendations for effective CALL. After a brief overview of the pedagogical and implementation fundamentals of CALL, and a discussion of what should be included in a needs analysis for ...

  9. CALL and the Responsibilities of Teachers and Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeremy F.

    2001-01-01

    Probes reasons why many teachers remain uncommitted to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and proposes some remedies. In particular, it is argued that CALL should not be too closely associated with self-access or autonomy, and that teachers are needed to drive the CALL process. (Author/VWL)

  10. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently displayed...

  11. Short communications: Calls of three species of arthroleptid frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also provide numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the calls. The calls are compared with previously published descriptions from other parts of their distribution. A new call type is described for Leptodactylodon albiventris. Key words: Amphibia, Arthroleptidae, audiospectrograms.

  12. Design considerations for CALL based upon evaluation criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... be included in a needs analysis for CALL evaluation, the rubric is presented. The author then illustrates how the evaluation criteria in the rubric can be used in the design of a new CALL system. Keywords: Software evaluation, CALL, language laboratory, MarkWrite, writing across the curriculum, software development ...

  13. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  14. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  15. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  16. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  17. Characteristics and Proximal Outcomes of Calls Made to Suicide Crisis Hotlines in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Jaycox, Lisa; Ebener, Pat; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Barnes-Proby, Dionne; Goutam, Prodyumna

    2017-01-01

    Suicide hotlines are commonly used to prevent suicides, although centers vary with respect to their management and operations. To describe variability across suicide prevention hotlines. Live monitoring of 241 calls was conducted at 10 suicide prevention hotlines in California. Call centers are similar with respect to caller characteristics and the concerns callers raise during their calls. The proportion of callers at risk for suicide varied from 3 to 57%. Compliance with asking about current suicide risk, past ideation, and past attempts also ranged considerably. Callers to centers that were part of the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (NSPL) were more likely to experience reduced distress than callers to centers that were not part of the NSPL. Because callers do not generally choose the center or responder that will take their call, it is critical to promote quality across call centers and minimize the variability that currently exists. Accrediting bodies, funders, and crisis centers should require that centers continuously monitor calls to ensure and improve call quality.

  18. The last scream: the distress call of a probably extinct Brazilian anuran (Holoaden bradei Lutz, 1958).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Amanda; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2016-11-03

    The genus Holoaden Miranda-Ribeiro (Anura, Craugastoridae, Holoadeninae) includes four species endemic to the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest, which occur in cloud forests at high elevations (Lutz 1958, Pombal et al. 2008, Martins & Zaher 2013). Out of these, two species are considered threatened by Ministério do Meio Ambiente (2014): H. bradei is classified as critically endangered (CR) and H. luederwaldti as endangered (EN). Holoaden bradei might be already extinct in the wild, as it has not been recorded in the last 40 years in spite of intense scientific activity within its original distribution range (Rocha & van Sluys 2004). The advertisement call has been described only for Holoaden luederwaldti (Martins 2010). Call descriptions, especially of advertisement calls, are important sources of evidence in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies (Roy 1996, Toledo et al. 2007, Andrade et al. 2016). However, there are other call types (see classification in Toledo et al. 2015) that can be used in absence of advertisement calls (e.g., Grenat & Martino 2013). We recently had access to a recording made in 1960's of the distress call of H. bradei. We hereby describe this call.

  19. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  20. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north

  1. Calling vs Receiving Party Pays: Market Penetration and the Importance of the Call Externality

    OpenAIRE

    Majer, Tommaso; Pistollato, Michele

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study how the access price affects the choice of the tariff regime taken by the network operators. We show that for high values of the access price, that is taken as a parameter by the firms, networks decide to charge only the callers. Otherwise, for low values of the access charge, networks charge also the receivers. Moreover, we compare market penetration and total welfare between the two price regimes. Our model suggests that, for high values of call externality, market pe...

  2. Geographic variation in the advertisement calls of Hyla eximia and its possible explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tejeda, Ruth E; Méndez-Cárdenas, María Guadalupe; Islas-Villanueva, Valentina; Macías Garcia, Constantino

    2014-01-01

    Populations of species occupying large geographic ranges are often phenotypically diverse as a consequence of variation in selective pressures and drift. This applies to attributes involved in mate choice, particularly when both geographic range and breeding biology overlap between related species. This condition may lead to interference of mating signals, which would in turn promote reproductive character displacement (RCD). We investigated whether variation in the advertisement call of the mountain treefrog (Hyla eximia) is linked to geographic distribution with respect to major Mexican river basins (Panuco, Lerma, Balsas and Magdalena), or to coexistence with its sister (the canyon treefrog, Hyla arenicolor) or another related species (the dwarf treefrog, Tlalocohyla smithii). We also evaluated whether call divergence across the main river basins could be linked to genetic structure. We found that the multidimensional acoustic space of calls from two basins where H. eximia currently interacts with T. smithii, was different from the acoustic space of calls from H. eximia elsewhere. Individuals from these two basins were also distinguishable from the rest by both the phylogeny inferred from mitochondrial sequences, and the genetic structure inferred from nuclear markers. The discordant divergence of H. eximia advertisement calls in the two separate basins where its geographic range overlaps that of T. smithii can be interpreted as the result of two independent events of RCD, presumably as a consequence of acoustic interference in the breeding choruses, although more data are required to evaluate this possibility.

  3. Evolution of Resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) Selected With a Recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis Strain-Producing Cyt1Aa and Cry11Ba, and the Binary Toxin, Bin, From Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Walton, William E; Federici, Brian A

    2015-09-01

    Fourth instars of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) were selected with a recombinant bacterial strain synthesizing the mosquitocidal proteins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Bin) and Cry11Ba and Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis. Selection was initiated in Generation 1 with a concentration of 0.04 μg/ml, which rose to a maximum selection concentration of 8.0 μg/ml in Generation 14, followed by an unexpected, rapid increase in mortality in Generation 15. Subsequently, a selection concentration of 0.8 μg/ml was determined to be survivable. During this same period, resistance rose to nearly 1,000-fold (by Generation 12) and declined to 18.8-fold in Generation 19. Resistance remained low and fluctuated between 5.3 and 7.3 up to Generation 66. The cross-resistance patterns and interactions among the component proteins were analyzed to identify possible causes of this unusual pattern of evolution. Poor activity in the mid-range concentrations and lower-than-expected synergistic interactions were identified as potential sources of the early resistance. These findings should be considered in the development of genetically engineered strains intended to control nuisance and vector mosquitoes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A method for the parameterization of cloud optical properties in bulk and bin microphysical models. Implications for arctic cloudy boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jerry Y.; Olsson, Peter Q.

    Computationally efficient and numerically accurate methods for computing band-averaged cloud optical properties for radiative transfer interactions with various microphysical parameterizations are described. Parameterizations for bulk microphysical models employing generalized gamma distribution representations of the size spectra and binned representations, in which the size spectra fluctuate with time, are discussed. It is shown that simple exponential fits and look-up tables may be used with minimal computational cost and high accuracy for bulk microphysical models. Binned microphysical representations may be parameterized using mean properties for each bin, if averaged appropriately. The implications for the radiative scheme are discussed in comparison with the computed radiative budget of fall/spring season mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds (ASC). Compared to liquid clouds of the same water path, mixed-phase ASC absorb and reflect less radiation, and transmit more radiation to the surface. This results in greater cooling (warming) of the surface, by up to 60 W m -2, in the infrared (solar) by mixed-phase clouds. The radiative properties of mixed-phase clouds show a significant sensitivity to crystal habit for clouds with ice water paths ≳25 g m -2. Surface net fluxes and cloud absorption may vary by up to 15 W m -2, depending on the ice habit. It is also shown that mixed-phase clouds are more sensitive to the choice of ice effective radius ( re,i) than liquid clouds are to re. Using values of from the literature, it is shown that the surface net fluxes can vary by as much as 50 W m -2 depending on the value of re,i. Furthermore, it is shown that the sign of the surface net flux (i.e. warming or cooling) may be dependent on the value of re,i selected.

  5. A synthetic operational account of call-by-need evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerny, Ian; Danvy, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We present the first operational account of call by need that connects syntactic theory and implementation practice. Syntactic theory: the storeless operational semantics using syntax rewriting to account for demand-driven computation and for caching intermediate results. Implementational practice...... is that the theory of call by need agrees with the theory of call by name, and that the practice of call by need optimizes the practice of call by name. Our operational account takes the form of three new calculi for lazy evaluation of lambda-terms and our synthesis takes the form of three lock-step equivalences...

  6. Calling in the cold: pervasive acoustic presence of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae in Antarctic coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Van Opzeeland

    Full Text Available Humpback whales migrate between relatively unproductive tropical or temperate breeding grounds and productive high latitude feeding areas. However, not all individuals of a population undertake the annual migration to the breeding grounds; instead some are thought to remain on the feeding grounds year-round, presumably to avoid the energetic demands of migration. In the Southern Hemisphere, ice and inclement weather conditions restrict investigations of humpback whale presence on feeding grounds as well as the extent of their southern range. Two years of near-continuous recordings from the PerenniAL Acoustic Observatory in the Antarctic Ocean (PALAOA, Ekström Iceshelf, 70°31'S, 8°13'W are used to explore the acoustic presence of humpback whales in an Antarctic coastal area. Humpback whale calls were present during nine and eleven months of 2008 and 2009, respectively. In 2008, calls were present in January through April, June through August, November and December, whereas in 2009, calls were present throughout the year, except in September. Calls occurred in un-patterned sequences, representing non-song sound production. Typically, calls occurred in bouts, ranging from 2 to 42 consecutive days with February, March and April having the highest daily occurrence of calls in 2008. In 2009, February, March, April and May had the highest daily occurrence of calls. Whales were estimated to be within a 100 km radius off PALAOA. Calls were also present during austral winter when ice cover within this radius was >90%. These results demonstrate that coastal areas near the Antarctic continent are likely of greater importance to humpback whales than previously assumed, presumably providing food resources year-round and open water in winter where animals can breathe.

  7. Calling in the cold: pervasive acoustic presence of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Antarctic coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Opzeeland, Ilse; Van Parijs, Sofie; Kindermann, Lars; Burkhardt, Elke; Boebel, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Humpback whales migrate between relatively unproductive tropical or temperate breeding grounds and productive high latitude feeding areas. However, not all individuals of a population undertake the annual migration to the breeding grounds; instead some are thought to remain on the feeding grounds year-round, presumably to avoid the energetic demands of migration. In the Southern Hemisphere, ice and inclement weather conditions restrict investigations of humpback whale presence on feeding grounds as well as the extent of their southern range. Two years of near-continuous recordings from the PerenniAL Acoustic Observatory in the Antarctic Ocean (PALAOA, Ekström Iceshelf, 70°31'S, 8°13'W) are used to explore the acoustic presence of humpback whales in an Antarctic coastal area. Humpback whale calls were present during nine and eleven months of 2008 and 2009, respectively. In 2008, calls were present in January through April, June through August, November and December, whereas in 2009, calls were present throughout the year, except in September. Calls occurred in un-patterned sequences, representing non-song sound production. Typically, calls occurred in bouts, ranging from 2 to 42 consecutive days with February, March and April having the highest daily occurrence of calls in 2008. In 2009, February, March, April and May had the highest daily occurrence of calls. Whales were estimated to be within a 100 km radius off PALAOA. Calls were also present during austral winter when ice cover within this radius was >90%. These results demonstrate that coastal areas near the Antarctic continent are likely of greater importance to humpback whales than previously assumed, presumably providing food resources year-round and open water in winter where animals can breathe.

  8. Variation of the height of the grain bed of an indirect solar bin dryer; Variacion de la altura del lecho del grano en un secador solar indirecto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, Efrain; Alvarez, Gabriela; Garcia, Saul [CENIDET, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the effect of the variation of the size of the grain bed of an indirect solar bin dryer. This solar dryer was designed and built at the Instituto Tecnologico de Zacatepec and Sima performed the thermal evaluation. The solar bin dryer consists of a bin dryer of 0.92 m diameter and 1 m height (the maximum height of the grain bed is 0.6 m). a 2 m{sup 2} solar collector, a blower and an electronic card to control the inlet air flow of the bin. A load of 36 kg, 45 kg, 52 kg and 64 kg of corn were dried. The heights of the grain were 7.5 cm, 10 cm, 12.5 cm and 17 cm respectively. Solar radiation, inlet air velocity of the solar collector, pressure drop, grain temperature and humidity, ambient temperature and humidity of the drying air were recorded. The initial grain humidity was 27.2% and the final was 11.8%. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el efecto de la variacion del lecho del grano en el proceso de secado de maiz, en un prototipo de secador solar de tipo indirecto. El secador fue disenado y construido en el Tecnologico de Zacatepec y evaluado por Sima, consta de una camara de secado de 0.92 m de diametro y una altura de 1 m. (la altura del lecho maximo de grano posible es de 0.6 m.), un colector solar con un area de 2 m{sup 2}, un extractor de aire y un control electronico para el flujo de aire. El secado de maiz se llevo a cabo con cargas de maiz de 36, 45, 52 y 64 kg. Las alturas en el lecho del grano fueron 7.5, 10, 12.5 y 17 cm. Para cada altura de lecho de grano se realizo una prueba. Durante cada prueba se realizaron mediciones de: radiacion solar, velocidad del aire a la entrada, caida de presion, temperatura del grano, humedad del grano, temperatura del aire ambiente, temperatura y humedad del aire de secado a la entrada y salida del secador. La humedad inicial del grano fue alrededor de 27.2% y la final de 11.8%.

  9. The Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service: High Frequency of Nontransported Calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin E. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. There are no published studies on the Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service and no assessment of the calls that end in nontransported individuals. We describe reasons for the nontransport of potential clients. Methods. We used the Emergency Medical Dispatch (Medical Priority Dispatch System instrument, augmented with five local call types, to collect information on types of calls. The calls were categorised under 7 headings. Correlations between call types and response time were calculated. Results. Most calls were from the category medical (54%. Nineteen (19% percent of calls were in the non-transported category. Calls from call type Cancelled accounted for most of these and this was related to response time, while Refused service was inversely related (. Conclusions. The Barbados Ambulance Service is mostly used by people with a known illness and for trauma cases. One-fifth of calls fall into a category where the ambulance is not used often due to cancellation which is related to response time. Other factors such as the use of alternative transport are also important. Further study to identify factors that contribute to the non-transported category of calls is necessary if improvements in service quality are to be made.

  10. Individual distinctiveness in call types of wild western female gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Salmi

    Full Text Available Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo. Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized, suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication.

  11. In- and Out-of-the-Money Convertible Bond Calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechman, Ken; Lunde, Asger; Zebedee, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Convertible bond calls typically cause significant reactions in equity prices. The empirical research largely finds negative and positive announcement effects for the in-the-money and the out-of-the-money calls respectively. However, this research has difficulty distinguishing between the two mai...... convertible bond; and the stock market's reaction is almost immediate, which is consistent with the signaling effect.......Convertible bond calls typically cause significant reactions in equity prices. The empirical research largely finds negative and positive announcement effects for the in-the-money and the out-of-the-money calls respectively. However, this research has difficulty distinguishing between the two main......-the-money call is predominantly explained by the subsequent order imbalances; and the stock market's reaction is spread over an entire trading day, which is consistent with the price pressure effect. In contrast, the announcement effect for the out-of-the-money call is driven by the size of the called...

  12. Validation of an acoustic location system to monitor Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) long calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillmann, Brigitte; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Willems, Erik P; Mitra Setia, Tatang; Wipfli, Urs; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-07-01

    The long call is an important vocal communication signal in the widely dispersed, semi-solitary orangutan. Long calls affect individuals' ranging behavior and mediate social relationships and regulate encounters between dispersed individuals in a dense rainforest. The aim of this study was to test the utility of an Acoustic Location System (ALS) for recording and triangulating the loud calls of free-living primates. We developed and validated a data extraction protocol for an ALS used to record wild orangutan males' long calls at the Tuanan field site (Central Kalimantan). We installed an ALS in a grid of 300 ha, containing 20 SM2+ recorders placed in a regular lattice at 500 m intervals, to monitor the distribution of calling males in the area. The validated system had the following main features: (i) a user-trained software algorithm (Song Scope) that reliably recognized orangutan long calls from sound files at distances up to 700 m from the nearest recorder, resulting in a total area of approximately 900 ha that could be monitored continuously; (ii) acoustic location of calling males up to 200 m outside the microphone grid, which meant that within an area of approximately 450 ha, call locations could be calculated through triangulation. The mean accuracy was 58 m, an error that is modest relative to orangutan mobility and average inter-individual distances. We conclude that an ALS is a highly effective method for detecting long-distance calls of wild primates and triangulating their position. In combination with conventional individual focal follow data, an ALS can greatly improve our knowledge of orangutans' social organization, and is readily adaptable for studying other highly vocal animals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Economic evaluation of the differential benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; So, Ching; Chau, June; Law, Antony Kwan Pui; Tam, Stanley Ku Fu; McGhee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    home visits and telephone calls are two often used approaches in transitional care, but their differential economic effects are unknown. to examine the differential economic benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support. cost-effectiveness analysis conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT). patients discharged from medical units randomly assigned to control (control, N = 210), home visits with calls (home, N = 196) and calls only (call, N = 204). cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted from the societal perspective comparing monetary benefits and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. the home arm was less costly but less effective at 28 days and was dominating (less costly and more effective) at 84 days. The call arm was dominating at both 28 and 84 days. The incremental QALY for the home arm was -0.0002/0.0008 (28/84 days), and the call arm was 0.0022/0.0104 (28/84 days). When the three groups were compared, the call arm had a higher probability being cost-effective at 84 days but not at 28 days (home: 53%, call: 35% (28 days) versus home: 22%, call: 73% (84 days)) measuring against the NICE threshold of £20,000. the original RCT showed that the bundled intervention involving home visits and calls was more effective than calls only in the reduction of hospital readmissions. This study adds a cost perspective to inform policymakers that both home visits and calls only are cost-effective for transitional care support, but calls only have a higher chance of being cost-effective for a sustained period after intervention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  14. Long-range barcode labeling-sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Tao; Singh, Kanwar K.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Froula, Jeff L.; Eng, Kevin S.

    2016-10-18

    Methods for sequencing single large DNA molecules by clonal multiple displacement amplification using barcoded primers. Sequences are binned based on barcode sequences and sequenced using a microdroplet-based method for sequencing large polynucleotide templates to enable assembly of haplotype-resolved complex genomes and metagenomes.

  15. Classification of large acoustic datasets using machine learning and crowdsourcing: Application to whale calls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamir, L.; Carol Yerby, C.; Simpson, R.; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Tyack, P.; Samarra, F.; Miller, P.; Wallin, J.

    2014-01-01

    Vocal communication is a primary communication method of killer and pilot whales, and is used for transmitting a broad range of messages and information for short and long distance. The large variation in call types of these species makes it challenging to categorize them. In this study, sounds

  16. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  17. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  18. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430].

  19. Measurements of cross sections for the 209Bi(n, 4n) reaction by using high energy neutrons with continuous energy spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung Joo; Bak, Sang-In; Ham, Cheolmin; In, Eun Jin; Kim, Do Yoon; Myung, Hyunjeong; Shim, Chungbo; Shin, Jae Won; Zhou, Yujie; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2017-09-01

    We measured 209Bi(n, 4n) cross sections at neutron energies En = 29.8 ± 1.8 MeV and En = 34.8 ± 1.8 MeV. Bismuth oxide samples were irradiated with the neutrons produced by impinging 30, 35 and 40 MeV proton beams on a 1.05 cm thick beryllium target, where the proton beams were from the MC-50 Cyclotron of Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The neutron flux for each proton beam energy Ep, ΦEp(En), has a broad spectrum with respect to En. By taking the difference in the neutron fluxes, the difference spectra, Φ40(En) -Φ35(En) and Φ35(En) -Φ30(En), are obatined and found to be peaked at En = 29.8 and 34.8 MeV, respectively, with a width of about 3.6 MeV. By making use of this observation and employing the TENDL-2009 library we could extract the 209Bi(n, 4n)206Bi cross sections at the aforementioned neutron energies.

  20. Reducing juvenile delinquency with automated cell phone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burraston, Bert O; Bahr, Stephen J; Cherrington, David J

    2014-05-01

    Using a sample of 70 juvenile probationers (39 treatment and 31 controls), we evaluated the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program that combined cognitive-behavioral training and automated phone calls. The cognitive-behavioral training contained six 90-min sessions, one per week, and the phone calls occurred twice per day for the year following treatment. Recidivism was measured by whether they were rearrested and the total number of rearrests during the 1st year. To test the impact of the phone calls, those who received phone calls were divided into high and low groups depending on whether they answered more or less than half of their phone calls. Those who completed the class and answered at least half of their phone calls were less likely to have been arrested and had fewer total arrests.

  1. Modeling synchronized calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Ikkyu

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally observed synchronized calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs Hyla japonica; namely, while isolated single frogs called nearly periodically, a pair of interacting frogs called synchronously almost in antiphase or inphase. In this study, we propose two types of phase-oscillator models on different degrees of approximations, which can quantitatively explain the phase and frequency properties in the experiment. Moreover, it should be noted that, although the second model is obtained by fitting to the experimental data of the two synchronized states, the model can also explain the transitory dynamics in the interactive calling behavior, namely, the shift from a transient inphase state to a stable antiphase state. We also discuss the biological relevance of the estimated parameter values to calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs and the possible biological meanings of the synchronized calling behavior.

  2. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A MacLean

    Full Text Available The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses.

  3. BBCAnalyzer: a visual approach to facilitate variant calling

    OpenAIRE

    Sandmann, S.; Graaf, A.O. de; Dugas, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Deriving valid variant calling results from raw next-generation sequencing data is a particularly challenging task, especially with respect to clinical diagnostics and personalized medicine. However, when using classic variant calling software, the user usually obtains nothing more than a list of variants that pass the corresponding caller?s internal filters. Any expected mutations (e.g. hotspot mutations), that have not been called by the software, need to be investigated manually...

  4. naiveBayesCall: an efficient model-based base-calling algorithm for high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wei-Chun; Song, Yun S

    2011-03-01

    Immense amounts of raw instrument data (i.e., images of fluorescence) are currently being generated using ultra high-throughput sequencing platforms. An important computational challenge associated with this rapid advancement is to develop efficient algorithms that can extract accurate sequence information from raw data. To address this challenge, we recently introduced a novel model-based base-calling algorithm that is fully parametric and has several advantages over previously proposed methods. Our original algorithm, called BayesCall, significantly reduced the error rate, particularly in the later cycles of a sequencing run, and also produced useful base-specific quality scores with a high discrimination ability. Unfortunately, however, BayesCall is too computationally expensive to be of broad practical use. In this article, we build on our previous model-based approach to devise an efficient base-calling algorithm that is orders of magnitude faster than BayesCall, while still maintaining a comparably high level of accuracy. Our new algorithm is called naive-BayesCall, and it utilizes approximation and optimization methods to achieve scalability. We describe the performance of naiveBayesCall and demonstrate how improved base-calling accuracy may facilitate de novo assembly and SNP detection when the sequence coverage depth is low to moderate.

  5. Oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau boatwhistle call detection and patterns within a large-scale oyster restoration site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon W Ricci

    Full Text Available During May 2015, passive acoustic recorders were deployed at eight subtidal oyster reefs within Harris Creek Oyster Sanctuary in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland USA. These sites were selected to represent both restored and unrestored habitats having a range of oyster densities. Throughout the survey, the soundscape within Harris Creek was dominated by the boatwhistle calls of the oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau. A novel, multi-kernel spectral correlation approach was developed to automatically detect these boatwhistle calls using their two lowest harmonic bands. The results provided quantitative information on how call rate and call frequency varied in space and time. Toadfish boatwhistle fundamental frequency ranged from 140 Hz to 260 Hz and was well correlated (r = 0.94 with changes in water temperature, with the fundamental frequency increasing by ~11 Hz for every 1°C increase in temperature. The boatwhistle call rate increased from just a few calls per minute at the start of monitoring on May 7th to ~100 calls/min on May 10th and remained elevated throughout the survey. As male toadfish are known to generate boatwhistles to attract mates, this rapid increase in call rate was interpreted to mark the onset of spring spawning behavior. Call rate was not modulated by water temperature, but showed a consistent diurnal pattern, with a sharp decrease in rate just before sunrise and a peak just after sunset. There was a significant difference in call rate between restored and unrestored reefs, with restored sites having nearly twice the call rate as unrestored sites. This work highlights the benefits of using automated detection techniques that provide quantitative information on species-specific call characteristics and patterns. This type of non-invasive acoustic monitoring provides long-term, semi-continuous information on animal behavior and abundance, and operates effectively in settings that are otherwise difficult to sample.

  6. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  7. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls-the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)-across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal.

  8. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Linhart

    Full Text Available Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls-the scream (a distress call and the grunt (a contact call-across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal.

  9. Sharing Programming Resources Between Bio* Projects Through Remote Procedure Call and Native Call Stack Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.C.P.; Goto, N.; Yates, A.; Gautier, L.; Willis, S.; Fields, C.; Katayama, T.

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for

  10. Geographic Variation in Advertisement Calls in a Tree Frog Species: Gene Flow and Selection Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yikweon; Hahm, Eun Hye; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Park, Soyeon; Won, Yong-Jin; Choe, Jae C.

    2011-01-01

    Background In a species with a large distribution relative to its dispersal capacity, geographic variation in traits may be explained by gene flow, selection, or the combined effects of both. Studies of genetic diversity using neutral molecular markers show that patterns of isolation by distance (IBD) or barrier effect may be evident for geographic variation at the molecular level in amphibian species. However, selective factors such as habitat, predator, or interspecific interactions may be critical for geographic variation in sexual traits. We studied geographic variation in advertisement calls in the tree frog Hyla japonica to understand patterns of variation in these traits across Korea and provide clues about the underlying forces for variation. Methodology We recorded calls of H. japonica in three breeding seasons from 17 localities including localities in remote Jeju Island. Call characters analyzed were note repetition rate (NRR), note duration (ND), and dominant frequency (DF), along with snout-to-vent length. Results The findings of a barrier effect on DF and a longitudinal variation in NRR seemed to suggest that an open sea between the mainland and Jeju Island and mountain ranges dominated by the north-south Taebaek Mountains were related to geographic variation in call characters. Furthermore, there was a pattern of IBD in mitochondrial DNA sequences. However, no comparable pattern of IBD was found between geographic distance and call characters. We also failed to detect any effects of habitat or interspecific interaction on call characters. Conclusions Geographic variations in call characters as well as mitochondrial DNA sequences were largely stratified by geographic factors such as distance and barriers in Korean populations of H. japoinca. Although we did not detect effects of habitat or interspecific interaction, some other selective factors such as sexual selection might still be operating on call characters in conjunction with restricted gene

  11. Geographic variation in advertisement calls in a tree frog species: gene flow and selection hypotheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikweon Jang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a species with a large distribution relative to its dispersal capacity, geographic variation in traits may be explained by gene flow, selection, or the combined effects of both. Studies of genetic diversity using neutral molecular markers show that patterns of isolation by distance (IBD or barrier effect may be evident for geographic variation at the molecular level in amphibian species. However, selective factors such as habitat, predator, or interspecific interactions may be critical for geographic variation in sexual traits. We studied geographic variation in advertisement calls in the tree frog Hyla japonica to understand patterns of variation in these traits across Korea and provide clues about the underlying forces for variation. METHODOLOGY: We recorded calls of H. japonica in three breeding seasons from 17 localities including localities in remote Jeju Island. Call characters analyzed were note repetition rate (NRR, note duration (ND, and dominant frequency (DF, along with snout-to-vent length. RESULTS: The findings of a barrier effect on DF and a longitudinal variation in NRR seemed to suggest that an open sea between the mainland and Jeju Island and mountain ranges dominated by the north-south Taebaek Mountains were related to geographic variation in call characters. Furthermore, there was a pattern of IBD in mitochondrial DNA sequences. However, no comparable pattern of IBD was found between geographic distance and call characters. We also failed to detect any effects of habitat or interspecific interaction on call characters. CONCLUSIONS: Geographic variations in call characters as well as mitochondrial DNA sequences were largely stratified by geographic factors such as distance and barriers in Korean populations of H. japonica. Although we did not detect effects of habitat or interspecific interaction, some other selective factors such as sexual selection might still be operating on call characters in conjunction with

  12. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  13. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  14. Speaking up: Killer whales (Orcinus orca) increase their call amplitude in response to vessel noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Veirs, Val; Emmons, Candice K; Veirs, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of anthropogenic sound exposure on the vocal behavior of free-ranging killer whales. Endangered Southern Resident killer whales inhabit areas including the urban coastal waters of Puget Sound near Seattle, WA, where anthropogenic sounds are ubiquitous, particularly those from motorized vessels. A calibrated recording system was used to measure killer whale call source levels and background noise levels (1-40 kHz). Results show that whales increased their call amplitude by 1 dB for every 1 dB increase in background noise levels. Furthermore, nearby vessel counts were positively correlated with these observed background noise levels.

  15. Modeling and measuring sound propagation of hooded crow calls in open field habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Attenborough, Keith

    , an optimal frequency range between approximately 500 Hz and 2 kHz. The hearing system of crows enables the most sensitive detection of signals in noise within this range. From modeling, noise measurements, and hearing data we estimate hooded crow active space to be roughly 1 km, but with great variance...... In a study of territorial communication distance of hooded crows we find an excellent correspondence between model predicted crow call transmission and re-recorded crow calls. Modeling average transmission characteristics within a spatial matrix of sender/receiver distances and heights...... representative of crow territorial communication and taking into account ground effect and air turbulence, we predict an optimal transmission frequency range between 0,5-1.6 kHz. In a natural open field crow habitat we measure, with sender and receiver heights of 2.8 m and transmission distances up to 320 m...

  16. Professional learning needs in using video calls identified through workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, Sarah; Jones, Ray; Thomas, Martin; North, Tracie; Endacott, Ruth; Frost, Adrian; Tighe, Dazzle; Wilson, Gail

    2016-05-10

    Most people want to die at home but only half do. Supporting patients in rural locations is challenging. Video calls such as Skype, might help but are not routinely used; we should consider learning needs to increase uptake and ensure effective use. We aimed to identify learning needs of healthcare professionals (HCPs) in using video calls to support patients (and their carers) to die at home. Face-to-face workshops were held in five Southwest England locations. Participants discussed advantages, disadvantages, scenarios for use, and the learning needs of video call users. Ideas were documented on flipcharts and discussions audio-recorded. The 116 participants included nurses, allied HCPs, doctors and previously bereaved volunteers. Lists of advantages, disadvantages, scenarios and learning needs were compiled and circulated to participants. In a subsequent online workshop, 21 participants ranked seven groups of learning needs in priority order. Most participants thought video calls could be used to advantage in many end-of-life scenarios, especially in rural areas. Seven themes, covering 59 learning needs for HCPs, were identified (in priority order): (i) confidence and technical ability in using video calls; (ii) being aware of how video calls fit into clinical practice; (iii) managing video calls; (iv) communication skills on 'camera'; (v) understanding how patients and families may be affected by video call use; (vi) presenting video calls as an option to patients and families to assess their readiness; (vii) normal professional skills that become essential for effective video calls. Although almost ubiquitous, video call software is not routinely and effectively used in British clinical practice. Supporting patients and families at end-of-life is one example where it could be used to advantage, but clinicians need to plan and practise before using it in real situations. Learning needs were identified that could be developed into learning modules and/or courses.

  17. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  18. Call Centres in Denmark 2004 - Strategy, HR Practices & Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole H.; El-Salanti, Nadia

    This survey is the first scientifically based benchmarking study of the Danish call centre industry. The main results from the study are based on answers from 128 call centres, which correspond to a response rate of 65%. The Danish study is part of a global project coordinated by researchers...

  19. Implications of Research on Human Memory for CALL Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forester, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of what is generally accepted about how human memory works as it applied to computer assisted language learning (CALL). Discusses a number of interactions from various CALL products in light of the research summarized. (Author/VWL)

  20. Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)