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Sample records for rangely oil field

  1. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Kashagan oil field development. Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbaniak, D.; Gerebizza, E.; Wasse, G.; Kochladze, M.

    2007-12-01

    Based on our research and field investigations of the Kashagan oil field development and relevant infrastructure in the Atyrau and Mangistau regions of Kazakhstan (cities and vicinities of Aktau, Atash, Atyrau, Bautino, Bolashak, Karabatan and Koshanai) evidence has been collected that raises serious concerns about environmental, social and health effects of this oil field development - such as sulphur emissions and storage which may pose serious threats for the communities close to the Kashagan oil facilities and for the Caspian Sea environment. Furthermore, since becoming the single Operator of the North Caspian Sea Production Sharing Agreement (PSA), the Agip Kazakhstan North Caspian Operating Company N.V. (Agip KCO) has failed to release all information available on the environmental, health and social impacts of its operations in the Kashagan oil field. As requested by the local communities and required by Constitution of Kazakhstan Republic and Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters ratified by Kazakhstan in 2001, such information must be made available. There is also a growing concern among the civil society that the European Commission through its officials is publicly expressing support to European oil companies' members of the Agip KCO despite their failure to fulfil basic environmental regulations. This continued support contradicts the European Union's fundamental values and frequent statements related to Human Rights and Sustainable Development. Thousands of people have already been relocated in the region because of sulphur emissions and other highly poisonous chemicals such as mercaptans, which are present at very high levels in Northern Caspian oil. Unprotected storage of large quantities of sulphur is also recognised as a major cause of acid rain on a global level. This Report implores Agip KCO to release all available and required information on the

  4. Giant Oil Fields - The Highway to Oil: Giant Oil Fields and their Importance for Future Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robelius, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s, oil has been the dominant source of energy in the world. The cheap supply of oil has been the engine for economic growth in the western world. Since future oil demand is expected to increase, the question to what extent future production will be available is important. The belief in a soon peak production of oil is fueled by increasing oil prices. However, the reliability of the oil price as a single parameter can be questioned, as earlier times of high prices have occurred without having anything to do with a lack of oil. Instead, giant oil fields, the largest oil fields in the world, can be used as a parameter. A giant oil field contains at least 500 million barrels of recoverable oil. Only 507, or 1 % of the total number of fields, are giants. Their contribution is striking: over 60 % of the 2005 production and about 65 % of the global ultimate recoverable reserve (URR). However, giant fields are something of the past since a majority of the largest giant fields are over 50 years old and the discovery trend of less giant fields with smaller volumes is clear. A large number of the largest giant fields are found in the countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. The domination of giant fields in global oil production confirms a concept where they govern future production. A model, based on past annual production and URR, has been developed to forecast future production from giant fields. The results, in combination with forecasts on new field developments, heavy oil and oil sand, are used to predict future oil production. In all scenarios, peak oil occurs at about the same time as the giant fields peak. The worst-case scenario sees a peak in 2008 and the best-case scenario, following a 1.4 % demand growth, peaks in 2018

  5. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  6. The oil field chemists role during field abandonment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, P.A.; Alfsnes, K.

    1996-12-31

    During the next ten years an increasing number of redundant oil and gas production facilities are scheduled for decommissioning on the Norwegian continental shelf. The oil field chemists role in this connection is discussed. Many of the facilities are large combined drilling and production platforms, others no more than field control centres. Their construction materials and methods are very varied, ranging from steel jackets to concrete gravity structures. Many sub sea templates and flow lines will be targeted for removal. An initial review of a simple production platform has revealed the presence of almost 800 chemical substances. The environmental fate of the materials is needed for estimating the best possible environmental option for the disposal of installations and their contents

  7. Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, D.G.; Edwards, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important

  8. In situ viscosity of oil sands using low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.; Moon, D.; Kantzas, A.

    2005-01-01

    In heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs, oil viscosity is a vital piece of information that will have great bearing on the chosen EOR scheme and the recovery expected. Prediction of in situ viscosity with a logging tool would he very beneficial in reservoir characterization and exploitation design. Low field NMR is a technology that has shown great potential as a tool for characterizing hydrocarbon properties in heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. An oil viscosity correlation has previously been developed that is capable of providing order of magnitude viscosity estimates for a wide range of oils taken from various fields in Alberta. This paper presents tuning procedures to improve the NMR predictions for different viscosity ranges, and extends the NMR viscosity model to in situ heavy oil in unconsolidated sands. The results of this work show that the NMR oil peak can be de-convoluted from the in situ signals of the oil and water, and the bulk viscosity correlation that was developed for bulk oils can he applied to predict the in situ oil viscosity. These results can be translated to an NMR logging tool algorithm, allowing for in situ measurements of oil viscosity at the proper reservoir conditions. (author)

  9. Oil and Gas Field Locations, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_fields_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS layer consists of oil and gas field approximate center point locations (approximately 1,800). Oil and gas fields not assigned a center point by the DNR...

  10. Imaging using long range dipolar field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutteridge, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been undertaken by the author, except where indicated in reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre, at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1998 to March 2001. This thesis details the different characteristics of the long range dipolar field and its application to magnetic resonance imaging. The long range dipolar field is usually neglected in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, as molecular tumbling decouples its effect at short distances. However, in highly polarised samples residual long range components have a significant effect on the evolution of the magnetisation, giving rise to multiple spin echoes and unexpected quantum coherences. Three applications utilising these dipolar field effects are documented in this thesis. The first demonstrates the spatial sensitivity of the signal generated via dipolar field effects in structured liquid state samples. The second utilises the signal produced by the dipolar field to create proton spin density maps. These maps directly yield an absolute value for the water content of the sample that is unaffected by relaxation and any RF inhomogeneity or calibration errors in the radio frequency pulses applied. It has also been suggested that the signal generated by dipolar field effects may provide novel contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the third application, the effects of microscopic susceptibility variation on the signal are studied and the relaxation rate of the signal is compared to that of a conventional spin echo. (author)

  11. Mixed Field Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, A.

    2006-01-01

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanatee (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of accumulated doses (0.0-3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing field of the SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of COPU, unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tests. Increased bond formation resulting from radiation-induced crosslinking was confirmed by favorable increases in mechanical properties and by solid-state 13 C -NMR and FTIR spectra

  12. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  13. Backreacted axion field ranges in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baume, Florent; Palti, Eran [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Philosophenweg 19, Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany)

    2016-08-05

    String theory axions are interesting candidates for fields whose potential might be controllable over super-Planckian field ranges and therefore as possible candidates for inflatons in large field inflation. Axion monodromy scenarios are setups where the axion shift symmetry is broken by some effect such that the axion can traverse a large number of periods potentially leading to super-Planckian excursions. We study such scenarios in type IIA string theory where the axion shift symmetry is broken by background fluxes. In particular we calculate the backreaction of the energy density induced by the axion vacuum expectation value on its own field space metric. We find universal behaviour for all the compactifications studied where up to a certain critical axion value there is only a small backreaction effect. Beyond the critical value the backreaction is strong and implies that the proper field distance as measured by the backreacted metric increases at best logarithmically with the axion vev, thereby placing strong limitations on extending the field distance any further. The critical axion value can be made arbitrarily large by the choice of fluxes. However the backreaction of these fluxes on the axion field space metric ensures a precise cancellation such that the proper field distance up to the critical axion value is flux independent and remains sub-Planckian. We also study an axion alignment scenario for type IIA compactifications on a twisted torus with four fundamental axions mixing to leave an axion with an effective decay constant which is flux dependent. There is a choice of fluxes for which the alignment parameter controlling the effective decay constant is unconstrained by tadpoles and can in principle lead to an arbitrarily large effective decay constant. However we show that these fluxes backreact on the fundamental decay constants so as to precisely cancel any enhancement leaving a sub-Planckian effective decay constant.

  14. Venezuela slates second oil field revival round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Venezuela will accept bids under a second round next year from private foreign and domestic companies for production contracts to operate marginal active as well as inactive oil fields. The first such round came earlier this year, involving about 55 other marginal, inactive fields. It resulted in two contractors signed with domestic and foreign companies. It represented the first time since nationalization of the petroleum industry in Venezuela in 1976 that private companies were allowed to produce oil in the country. A public bid tender was expected at presstime last week

  15. Integrated field modelling[Oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Bamshad

    2002-07-01

    This research project studies the feasibility of developing and applying an integrated field simulator to simulate the production performance of an entire oil or gas field. It integrates the performance of the reservoir, the wells, the chokes, the gathering system, the surface processing facilities and whenever applicable, gas and water injection systems. The approach adopted for developing the integrated simulator is to couple existing commercial reservoir and process simulators using available linking technologies. The simulators are dynamically linked and customised into a single hybrid application that benefits from the concept of open software architecture. The integrated field simulator is linked to an optimisation routine developed based on the genetic algorithm search strategies. This enables optimisation of the system at field level, from the reservoir to the process. Modelling the wells and the gathering network is achieved by customising the process simulator. This study demonstrated that the integrated simulation improves current capabilities to simulate the performance of the entire field and optimise its design. This is achieved by evaluating design options including spread and layout of the wells and gathering system, processing alternatives, reservoir development schemes and production strategies. Effectiveness of the integrated simulator is demonstrated and tested through several field-level case studies that discuss and investigate technical problems relevant to offshore field development. The case studies cover topics such as process optimisation, optimum tie-in of satellite wells into existing process facilities, optimal well location and field layout assessment of a high pressure high temperature deepwater oil field. Case study results confirm the viability of the total field simulator by demonstrating that the field performance simulation and optimal design were obtained in an automated process with treasonable computation time. No significant

  16. Formation of the oil composition of the Yu0 Bazhenov formation, Salym oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Soboleva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bazhenov horizon of Western Siberia has been studied in considerable detail from different perspectives and different methods, a large number of studies have been devoted to a wide range of issues related to the lithological composition of rocks, their reservoir properties, the study of organic matter, properties and composition of oil at various analytical levels, and many others. This work is devoted to restoring conditions for the formation of oil properties and composition of the Yu0 Salym oil field, based mainly on the geochemical aspects of the study of oil changes both in area and in the section within the productive layer of Salym structure, using some geological data, such as structural plan for the reflecting horizon B (the roof of the Bazhenov formation, having a complex configuration, reservoir temperatures and pressure, well flow rates, and others. There is no single reservoir at the Salym field in the Yu0 formation. For the conclusions of the geological-geochemical interpretation, a sampling of 61 samples of oil from exploration, appraisal and production wells of the initial stages of production was used, since in the future when oil is extracted, the ecology in the deposits changes, and 21 samples of oil from other fields in the West Siberian oil and gas basin. Conventionally, three types of oils are distinguished, differing in their physicochemical parameters, group hydrocarbon and molecular composition. It was suggested that in addition to the own organic matter of the Bazhenov formation, hydrocarbon fluids of the Vasyugan, Tyumen formations and possibly Paleozoic rocks were involved in the formation of the oil composition. The flow of light liquid hydrocarbons and gases occurred along the zones of faults of different genesis and duration of existence.

  17. Maximizing probable oil field profit: uncertainties on well spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, J.A.; Lerche, I.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of uncertainties in field development costs, well costs, lifting costs, selling price, discount factor, and oil field reserves are evaluated for their impact on assessing probable ranges of uncertainty on present day worth (PDW), oil field lifetime τ 2/3 , optimum number of wells (OWI), and the minimum (n-) and maximum (n+) number of wells to produce a PDW ≥ O. The relative importance of different factors in contributing to the uncertainties in PDW, τ 2/3 , OWI, nsub(-) and nsub(+) is also analyzed. Numerical illustrations indicate how the maximum PDW depends on the ranges of parameter values, drawn from probability distributions using Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, the procedure illustrates the relative importance of contributions of individual factors to the total uncertainty, so that one can assess where to place effort to improve ranges of uncertainty; while the volatility of each estimate allows one to determine when such effort is needful. (author)

  18. Innovative technologies for managing oil field waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste that is generated. Many companies follow a three-tiered waste management approach. First, companies try to minimize waste generation when possible. Next, they try to find ways to reuse or recycle the wastes that are generated. Finally, the wastes that cannot be reused or recycled must be disposed of. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has evaluated the feasibility of various oil field waste management technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper describes four of the technologies Argonne has reviewed. In the area of waste minimization, the industry has developed synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) that have the desired drilling properties of oil-based muds without the accompanying adverse environmental impacts. Use of SBMs avoids significant air pollution from work boats hauling offshore cuttings to shore for disposal and provides more efficient drilling than can be achieved with water-based muds. Downhole oil/water separators have been developed to separate produced water from oil at the bottom of wells. The produced water is directly injected to an underground formation without ever being lifted to the surface, thereby avoiding potential for groundwater or soil contamination. In the area of reuse/recycle, Argonne has worked with Southeastern Louisiana University and industry to develop a process to use treated drill cuttings to restore wetlands in coastal Louisiana. Finally, in an example of treatment and disposal, Argonne has conducted a series of four baseline studies to characterize the use of salt caverns for safe and economic disposal of oil field wastes.

  19. 16. International oil field chemistry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    The symposium deals with topics on well chemicals, petrochemicals, well injection fluids, reservoir describing methods, reservoir exploitation enhancing chemicals, corrosion inhibitors, production methods and chemical aspects of maintenance, multiphase flow and reservoir geochemistry. The environmental effects of the chemicals and preservation of the environment is also focussed on. Some aspects of decommissioning of oil fields are dealt with

  20. Oil fields of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, W; Held, W; Koenig, A

    1981-06-15

    The recent changes in the raw material- and energy-sector have given rise to a rethinking of the field of fuel technology. The Energy Research and New Technologies Department at Volkswagenwerk AG is thus intensively engaged in processes for the production of alternative fuels from biomass. The alcohols ethanol and methanol are well suited for use in the motor vehicle. Bearing in mind the conditions obtaining in individual countries and with the application of the latest bio-technology the production of alcohol in various countries can soon become economically viable.

  1. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  2. Reserve growth of the world's giant oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of estimated total recoverable oil volume (field size) of 186 well-known giant oil fields of the world (>0.5 billion bbl of oil, discovered prior to 1981), exclusive of the United States and Canada, demonstrates general increases in field sizes through time. Field sizes were analyzed as a group and within subgroups of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and non-OPEC countries. From 1981 through 1996, the estimated volume of oil in the 186 fields for which adequate data were available increased from 617 billion to 777 billion bbl of oil (26%). Processes other than new field discoveries added an estimated 160 billion bbl of oil to known reserves in this subset of the world's oil fields. Although methods for estimating field sizes vary among countries, estimated sizes of the giant oil fields of the world increased, probably for many of the same reasons that estimated sizes of oil fields in the United States increased over the same time period. Estimated volumes in OPEC fields increased from a total of 550 billion to 668 billion bbl of oil and volumes in non-OPEC fields increased from 67 billion to 109 billion bbl of oil. In terms of percent change, non-OPEC field sizes increased more than OPEC field sizes (63% versus 22%). The changes in estimated total recoverable oil volumes that occurred within three 5-year increments between 1981 and 1996 were all positive. Between 1981 and 1986, the increase in estimated total recoverable oil volume within the 186 giant oil fields was 11 billion bbl of oil; between 1986 and 1991, the increase was 120 billion bbl of oil; and between 1991 and 1996, the increase was 29 billion bbl of oil. Fields in both OPEC and non-OPEC countries followed trends of substantial reserve growth.

  3. Model improves oil field operating cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed operating cost model that forecasts operating cost profiles toward the end of a field's life should be constructed for testing depletion strategies and plans for major oil fields. Developing a good understanding of future operating cost trends is important. Incorrectly forecasting the trend can result in bad decision making regarding investments and reservoir operating strategies. Recent projects show that significant operating expense reductions can be made in the latter stages o field depletion without significantly reducing the expected ultimate recoverable reserves. Predicting future operating cost trends is especially important for operators who are currently producing a field and must forecast the economic limit of the property. For reasons presented in this article, it is usually not correct to either assume that operating expense stays fixed in dollar terms throughout the lifetime of a field, nor is it correct to assume that operating costs stay fixed on a dollar per barrel basis

  4. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, A.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2006-01-01

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing 13 C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  5. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortley, A.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: aba.mortley@rmc.ca

    2006-07-01

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing {sup 13}C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  6. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  7. Toxicology of oil field pollutants in cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, R W; Mostrom, M S; Khan, A A; Semalulu, S S

    1995-12-01

    Cattle are poisoned by petroleum and substances used in drilling and operating oil and gas wells. The most common reported route of exposure for non-gaseous material is oral. Exposures occur when the petroleum or chemicals used in oil and gas field activities are available to cattle and when water and feed-stuffs are contaminated. Cattle, as a leisure activity, explore and ingest crude oil. Based on morbidity patterns in cattle herds, the amount of toxic substance ingested is variable. When water and feedstuffs are contaminated, a larger number in a herd generally are affected. Cattle have been poisoned by a wide variety of chemical mixtures. For substances high in volatile hydrocarbons, the lung is a target organ. Hydrocarbons also target the kidney, liver and brain. Exposure-linked abortions have been reported in cattle. Diethylene glycol targets the brain, liver and kidney. The reported threshold dose of unweathered oil for cattle ranges from 2.5 to 5.0 ml/kg bw, and the reported threshold dose for weathered oil is 8.0 ml/kg.

  8. English-Chinese oil field dictionary. [English-Chinese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gow, S [comp.

    1979-01-01

    In this edition the original English-Chinese Oil Field Dictionary was modified line by line and major additions and deletions were made. A total of 37,000 terms and phrases were collected. The following disciplines were included: petroleum geology, earth physics and detection, well prospecting and measuring, development of oil fields, oil recovery, oil storage and transport, etc. In addition, a limited number of common scientific terms, phrases and terminologies were also included.

  9. High range electromagnetic fields. Experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comino, E.; Boccardo, D.; Quaglino, A.

    2001-01-01

    It has been often discussed on the health effects from the electromagnetic fields, and nowadays this theme is particularly controlled and studied by the research-workers. It needs to know what is the risk connected to the exposure to the electromagnetism during a short or a long quantity of time and what are the health pathologies caused by the continue exposure. On one hand the results from epidemiological research can not still define the effect of the dose, on the other hand the legislative frame is variously fragmented and based on cautious concepts. But in this work, under the collaboration of Energy Resources Laboratory in Lausanne and the Geo resources and Territory Department in Turin University, are presented the early results on the experiments got out on high frequency (950 MHZ) in order to give a contribution to the debate between the scientific community and the public opinion [it

  10. Oil field management, evolution and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Guilherme T.; Palagi, Cesar L.; Morooka, Celso K.

    2000-01-01

    After a commercial discovery of a petroleum field, the exploitation activities should be conducted in an way that maximize the objectives expected to this new field. This exploitation process have been experiencing a great evolution in almost all of the petroleum companies, where the organizational structure changed from a pure functional model with emphasis just in reservoir engineering, to a model based in assets and multidisciplinary teams.Many authors in the literature had already defined Reservoir Management, but this paper is giving an additional contribution defining as Asset Management this new model, that have been consolidated and implemented in the majority of the oil companies since late 80s. Based in a large bibliography study, this paper analyzes the technical evolution, the experience obtained through the best cases and mistakes, and concludes suggesting a new model based on the best success examples listed in the literature. (author)

  11. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H. [Research and Development Centre for Oil and Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  12. Geology and development of oil fields in Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The anthology is dedicated to the geology, geophysics, hydrodynamics, and development of oil fields in Western Siberia. The articles on geological, industrial-geophysical and theoretical mathematical studies make recommendations and suggest measures to improve procedures for calculating oil reserves, to increase development efficiency and raise oil output.

  13. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant formulations for oil field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S [Naperville, IL; Jeong, Seung-Young [Taejon, KR; McDaniel, Richard [Crest Hill, IL

    2008-10-21

    A sealant for an oil or geothermal well capable of setting within about 3 to about 6 hours at temperatures less than about 250.degree. F. for shallow wells less than about 10,000 feet and deep wells greater than about 10,000 feet having MgO present in the range of from about 9.9 to about 14.5%, KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 present in the range of from about 29.7 to about 27.2%, class C fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 36.3%, class F fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 0%, boric acid or borax present in the range of from about 0.39 to about 1.45%, and water present in the range of from about 20.3 to about 21.86% by weight of the sealant.A method of sealing wells is disclosed as are compositions for very high temperature wells is disclosed as is a composition for treating oil field wastes.

  14. The equilibrium price range of oil: economics, politics and uncertainty in the formation of oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.-N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify the articulation between economic and political factors in the formation of petroleum prices. The essential point is that when factors control significant low cost reserves and will not or cannot adopt behaviour of a 'substantial economic rationality' then the economic analysis does not allow a unique dynamic equilibrium price to be determined. However, it does permit definition of an equilibrium price range within which political preferences may be expressed. Finally, the paper draws some conclusions on what could be discussed within the scope of a new oil producer-consumer dialogue. (author)

  15. Inertial range spectrum of field-aligned whistler turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwivedi, Navin Kumar; Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    the background magnetic field is exploited to derive the inertial range scaling laws corresponding to the electric field and magnetic field fluctuations. The model is based on the concept of Iroshnikov-Kraichnan inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The present phenomenological turbulence scaling model...

  16. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  17. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, P. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 μg/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 μg/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

  18. Numerical challenges of short range wake field calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Thomas; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF)

    2011-07-01

    For present and future accelerator projects with ultra short bunches the accurate and reliable calculation of short range wake fields is an important issue. However, the numerical calculation of short range wake fields is a numerical challenging task. The presentation gives an overview over the numerical challenges and techniques for short range wake field calculations. Finally, some simulation results obtained by the program PBCI developed at the TU Darmstadt are presented.

  19. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-04

    This is the ninth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1990 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. There are 54,963 field records in this year's Oil and Gas Field Code Master List (FCML). This amounts to 467 more than in last year's report. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes: Field records for each state and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides;field records for each alias field name; fields crossing state boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective state naming authorities.

  20. Dynamic characterization of oil fields, complex stratigraphically using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Santiago; Hidrobo, Eduardo A

    2004-01-01

    A novel methodology is presented in this paper for the characterization of highly heterogeneous oil fields by integration of the oil fields dynamic information to the static updated model. The objective of the oil field's characterization process is to build an oil field model, as realistic as possible, through the incorporation of all the available information. The classical approach consists in producing a model based in the oil field's static information, having as the process final stage the validation model with the dynamic information available. It is important to clarify that the term validation implies a punctual process by nature, generally intended to secure the required coherence between productive zones and petrophysical properties. The objective of the proposed methodology is to enhance the prediction capacity of the oil field's model by previously integrating, parameters inherent to the oil field's fluid dynamics by a process of dynamic data inversion through an optimization procedure based on evolutionary computation. The proposed methodology relies on the construction of the oil field's high-resolution static model, escalated by means of hybrid techniques while aiming to preserve the oil field's heterogeneity. Afterwards, using an analytic simulator as reference, the scaled model is methodically modified by means of an optimization process that uses genetic algorithms and production data as conditional information. The process's final product is a model that observes the static and dynamic conditions of the oil field with the capacity to minimize the economic impact that generates production historical adjustments to the simulation tasks. This final model features some petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability and water saturation), as modified to achieve a better adjustment of the simulated production's history versus the real one history matching. Additionally, the process involves a slight modification of relative permeability, which has

  1. Plans to revive oil fields in Venezuela on track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the three operating units of Venezuela's state owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA which will begin receiving bids Feb. 28 from companies interested in operating 55 inactive oil fields in nine producing areas of Venezuela. Francisco Pradas, Pdvsa executive in charge of the program, the the company expects 88 companies or combines of foreign and domestic private companies to participate in the bidding. The program, announced last year, aims to reactivate production in marginal oil fields. It will involve the first direct participation by private companies in Venezuela's oil production since nationalization in 1976

  2. Assessment of potential increased oil production by polymer-waterflood in northern and southern mid-continent oil fields. Progress report for the quarter ending December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Six tasks are reported on: geological and engineering study of the DOE-Kewanee polymer-augmented waterflood, review of polymer injection program in this field, evaluation of results of polymer-augmented waterflood in this field, review of geological and engineering characteristics of oil fields now in waterflood as candidates for polymer augmentation, review of fields currently under primary production, and determination of ranges of future increased oil production from the polymer-water process in the project area.

  3. Hand Injuries in the Oil Fields of Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Devkota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hands are essential organs and their agility and dexterity are vital to our daily lives. In the present study, we analysed 107 patients who presented at the local hospital with hand injuries sustained in the oil fields, oil industries and related employment sectors from the surrounding regions. All the patients were male and the mean age was 37.89 years (range,21-61y. Forty-seven (43.93% patients had simple cut injuries, 14 patients (13.08% had tendon injuries, 13 patients (12.14% had amputation of the digit (30.84% had bone fractures (including 20 (66.66% open fractures. Only 19 (17.75% patients were admitted in hospital for further treatment. Ninety-one (85.04% patients injured within one year of employment and 57(53.27% patients were not satisfied with instructions and orientation before starting their job. Hand injury is one of the most common injuries in the oil industry and overtime work further increases incidence of this injury.

  4. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Oil and gas field development: an NOC perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronman, George [Halliburton Energy Services (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Every day, oil companies around the world face real-life field development and management problems like the ones described above. Making timely and well-informed field development decisions are among the most important decisions the management of any oil company can make. The field development phase of the oil and gas life cycle extends from the discovery of a hydrocarbon deposit through initial production. It also includes revitalization of mature and marginal fields. Field development projects require the greatest level of cross-disciplinary integration and the largest investment decisions in the entire oil field life cycle. The ultimate economic success or failure of most fields is set by the quality of decisions made during field development. Oil companies take many different approaches to field development based on unique business drivers, their asset portfolio mix and risk tolerance, access to data and experienced manpower, adoption of technology, availability of capital, ownership, management style and so on. This paper focuses on understanding and addressing the particular field development challenges facing NOCs today. (author)

  6. Procedures in field systems for collecting and demulsifying crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhitov, G G; Graifer, V I; Tronov, V P; Zakirov, I G

    1969-01-01

    This microscopic study of crude oil emulsification and demulsification showed that the sooner an emulsion is chemically treated, the less its stability. This finding led to the practice of adding demulsifiers to the crude oil in pipelines. This method of demulsification is now used in Romashkino, Bablinsk, and Elkhovs fields. By this early addition of a chemical, the tendency of the pipeline to form stable, highly viscous emulsions is reduced. This treatment also facilitates separation of water from oil in storage tanks. Repeated tests have shown that pipeline demulsification is a highly effective and economic process. This method reduces crude oil dewatering costs by several hundred percent.

  7. RADARSAT SAR data assessment of oil lakes in the Greater Burgan Oil Field, Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwarteng, A. Y.; Al-Ajmi, D.; Singhroy, V.; Saint-Jean, R.

    1997-01-01

    RADARSAT images recorded in different beam modes were processed and used to assess the oil lakes in the Burgan oil field in Kuwait created by the fire setting of oil wells by the retreating Iraqi forces in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The images were geometrically registered to each other and used as input to a change detection program. The main interest was to map and differentiate between the oil lakes, tarmats, vegetation, buried oil lakes, and also to evaluate the usefulness of RADARSAT's beam modes in characterizing such features. Results of the RADARSAT imagery analysis were compared to similar studies using optical and SIR-C/X-SAR data. Initially, there have approximately 300 oil lakes covering an area of about 49 sq km. Twenty-one million barrels of oil were recovered and exported; about one million barrels of unrecoverable oil was left in the oil fields. Since then most of the oil has evaporated, dried up to form tarmats, or has been covered by a veneer of sand and is no longer visible on the surface

  8. Field-glass range finder with a semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Leszek; Jankiewicz, Zdzislaw; Jarocki, Roman; Marczak, Jan

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents the project of a laboratory model of a field-glasses range-finger. The optical transmitter of the device contains a commercial pulse semiconductor laser which generates IR wavelength around 905 nm. Some of the technical parameters of this device are: a maximum range of up to 3 km; an accuracy of +/- 5 m, divergence of a laser beam of 1 mrad; a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Dichroic elements of the receiver ensure a capability of an optimization of a field of view, without the worsening of luminance and size of an observation field.

  9. Tracing enhanced oil recovery signatures in casing gases from the Lost Hills oil field using noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Peter H.; Kulongoski, Justin; Landon, Matthew K.; Tyne, R.L.; Gillespie, Janice; Stephens, Michael; Hillegonds, D.J.; Byrne, D.J.; Ballentine, C.J.

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and hydraulic fracturing practices are commonly used methods to improve hydrocarbon extraction efficiency; however the environmental impacts of such practices remain poorly understood. EOR is particularly prevalent in oil fields throughout California where water resources are in high demand and disposal of high volumes of produced water may affect groundwater quality. Consequently, it is essential to better understand the fate of injected (EOR) fluids in California and other subsurface petroleum systems, as well as any potential effect on nearby aquifer systems. Noble gases can be used as tracers to understand hydrocarbon generation, migration, and storage conditions, as well as the relative proportions of oil and water present in the subsurface. In addition, a noble gas signature diagnostic of injected (EOR) fluids can be readily identified. We report noble gas isotope and concentration data in casing gases from oil production wells in the Lost Hills oil field, northwest of Bakersfield, California, and injectate gas data from the Fruitvale oil field, located within the city of Bakersfield. Casing and injectate gas data are used to: 1) establish pristine hydrocarbon noble-gas signatures and the processes controlling noble gas distributions, 2) characterize the noble gas signature of injectate fluids, 3) trace injectate fluids in the subsurface, and 4) construct a model to estimate EOR efficiency. Noble gas results range from pristine to significantly modified by EOR, and can be best explained using a solubility exchange model between oil and connate/formation fluids, followed by gas exsolution upon production. This model is sensitive to oil-water interaction during hydrocarbon expulsion, migration, and storage at reservoir conditions, as well as any subsequent modification by EOR.

  10. A high-resolution full-field range imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, D. A.; Cree, M. J.; Dorrington, A. A.

    2005-08-01

    There exist a number of applications where the range to all objects in a field of view needs to be obtained. Specific examples include obstacle avoidance for autonomous mobile robots, process automation in assembly factories, surface profiling for shape analysis, and surveying. Ranging systems can be typically characterized as being either laser scanning systems where a laser point is sequentially scanned over a scene or a full-field acquisition where the range to every point in the image is simultaneously obtained. The former offers advantages in terms of range resolution, while the latter tend to be faster and involve no moving parts. We present a system for determining the range to any object within a camera's field of view, at the speed of a full-field system and the range resolution of some point laser scans. Initial results obtained have a centimeter range resolution for a 10 second acquisition time. Modifications to the existing system are discussed that should provide faster results with submillimeter resolution.

  11. Weathering of oils at sea: model/field data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, Per S.; Stroem, Tove

    1999-01-01

    The SINTEF Oil Weathering Model (OWM) has been extensively tested with results from full-scale field trials with experimental oil slicks in the Norwegian NOFO Sea trials in 1994 and 1995 and the AEA 1997 trials in UK. The comparisons between oil weathering values predicted by the model and ground-truth obtained from the field trials are presented and discussed. Good laboratory weathering data of the specific oil as input to the model is essential for obtaining reliable weathering predictions. Predications provided by the SINTEF-OWM enable oil spill personnel to estimate the most appropriate 'window of opportunity' for use of chemical dispersants under various spill situations. Pre-spill scenario analysis with the SINTEF Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) model system, in which the SINTEF-OWM is one of several components, has become an important part of contingency plans as well as contingency training of oil spill personnel at refineries, oil terminals and offshore installations in Norway. (Author)

  12. Oil and gas field code master list 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

  13. Measurement of positron range in matter in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, B.E.; Christensen, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    Positron range is one factor that places a limitation on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) resolution. The distance a positron travels through matter before it annihilates with an electron is a function of its initial energy and the electron density of the medium. A strong magnetic field limits positron range when momentum components are transverse to the field. Measurement of positron range was determined by deconvolving the effects of detector response and radioactive distribution from the measured annihilation spread function. The annihilation spread function for a 0.5 mm bead of 68 Ga was measured with 0.2 and 1.0 mm wide slit collimators. Based on the annihilation spread function FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) for a 1.0 mm wide slit the median positron range in tissue equivalent material is 0.87, 0.50, 0.22 mm at 0, 5.0 and 9.4 T, respectively

  14. Oil and gas field code master list 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the sixteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the US. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry. As a result of their widespread adoption they have in effect become a national standard. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on survey forms and other reports regarding field-specific data collected by EIA. There are 58,366 field records in this year`s FCML, 437 more than last year. The FCML includes: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (definition of alias is listed); fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. This report also contains an Invalid Field Record List of 4 records that have been removed from the FCML since last year`s report. These records were found to be either technically incorrect or to represent field names which were never recognized by State naming authorities.

  15. Oil Fields, Oil and gas production platforms are potential source for oil spills and may interfere with mechanical means to clean up oil spills., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Oil Fields dataset current as of 1998. Oil and gas production platforms are potential source for oil spills and may interfere with mechanical means to clean up oil...

  16. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.; Hinton, S.M.; Elmendorf, D.L.; Lute, J.R.; Grossman, M.J.; Robbins, W.K.; Hsu, Chang S.; Richard, B.E.; Haith, C.E.; Senius, J.D.; Minak-Bernero, V.; Chianelli, R.R.; Bragg, J.R.; Douglas, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines

  17. Problems in waterflooding fields containing paraffinic crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, A G; Lyutin, L V; Perevalov, V G

    1968-11-01

    When Caspian seawater is injected into the Uzen field reservoir, the temperature of the reservoir oil can be lowered 10/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/C below initial reservoir temperature. Because Uzen crude oil is saturated with paraffin, the cold injection water can deposit paraffin in the formation and reduce oil recovery. In a related study, it was shown that the lower temperature should not adversely affect capillary and wettability behavior of the crude oil in the reservoir. Oil recovery was found to be essentially independent of water composition. However, fresh water is easier to handle in injection systems than brines. Several studies have shown that oil recovery from Uzen field should be increased by use of hot injection water. Various methods of heating the water are discussed. To reduce corrosivity and scaling of hot brine, sodium hexametaphosphate is added in concentrations of 2 to 15 mg/liter. It is concluded that it would be practical to use hot injection water in this field.

  18. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR.

  19. The Study of the Desulfurization Process of Oil and Oil Products of "Zhanazhol" Oil Field Using the Approaches of Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaksyntay K. Kairbekov; Zhannur K. Myltykbaeva; Nazym T. Smagulova; Dariya K. Kanseitova

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we studied sono catalytic oxidative desulfurization of oil and diesel fraction from “Zhanazhol” oil deposits. We have established that the combined effect of the ultrasonic field and oxidant (ozone-air mixture) in the presence of the catalyst on the oil is potentially very effective method of desulfurization of oil and oil products. This method allows increasing the degree of desulfurization of oil by 62%.

  20. Hydrophobically associating polymers for oil field applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, K.C. [Taylor Industrial Research Inc., Victoria, BC (Canada); Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dharhan (Saudi Arabia). R and D Center

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed developments in water soluble hydrophobically associating polymers and their use in oilfield applications. The polymers are now being investigated for the potential application in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) as well as in completion fluids and profile modifications. The polymers are also purported to selectively reduce water permeability in sandstones. This study showed that the adsorption behaviour of the associating polymers is of greater significance than the rheology, particularly in non-damaging completion fluids and in profile modification. Issues related to acid diversion and conformance control applications were discussed, and drag reducing agents were reviewed. The study also discussed drilling and completion fluids; adsorption behaviour; rheology; and synthesis and characterization. It was concluded that gels are now being developed for conformance control and continued use for modification of water relative permeability. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Dalhart's only Permian field gets best oil well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that activity is picking up in Proctor Ranch oil field in the northwestern Texas panhandle, the only Permian producing field in the lightly drilled Dalhart basin. During the last 2 1/2 months, the field has a new operator and a new producing well, the best of five drilled since discovery in 1990. Corlena Oil Co., Amarillo, acquired the field from McKinney Oil Co. in May and tested its first well in early July. The 1-64 Proctor, 18 miles west of Channing, pumped at rates as high as 178 bd of oil and 6 b/d of water from Permian Wolfcamp dolomite perforations at 4,016-29 ft. Corlena plans to drill another well south of the field soon. The lease requires that the next well be spudded by early November. The field appears to be combination structural-stratigraphic trap in which the dolomite pinches out against the Bravo Domes-Oldham nose to the west

  2. Oil-field equipment in Romania. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinis, R.

    1991-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil field equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Romanian consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Romanian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Romanian tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Romanian market for oil field equipment

  3. Modeling of the Temperature Field Recovery in the Oil Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibullin, I. L.; Davtetbaev, A. Ya.; Mar'in, D. F.; Khisamov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the problem on mathematical modeling of the temperature field recovery in the oil pool upon termination of injection of water into the pool. The problem is broken down into two stages: injection of water and temperature and pressure recovery upon termination of injection. A review of the existing mathematical models is presented, analytical solutions for a number of cases have been constructed, and a comparison of the analytical solutions of different models has been made. In the general form, the expression has been obtained that permits determining the temperature change in the oil pool upon termination of injection of water (recovery of the temperature field).

  4. Absorption properties of water-in-oil emulsions in the low THz frequency range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    We use transmission THz spectroscopy to investigate the absorption properties of water-in-oil emulsions with water content varying in the 0-20% range, relevant for a range of food products. We find that at low frequencies the effective absorption coefficient of the emulsion is suppressed compared...... to bulk water....

  5. Oil field rejuvenation work starts at 14 project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzet, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy and oil and gas companies have released more information about a joint effort to rejuvenate aging U.S. oil fields in danger of abandonment. Work is starting on 14 demonstration projects that could recover 21 million bbl of oil from the fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs in which they are conducted. Wider application of the same techniques, if they are successful, could results in addition of 6.3 billion bbl of reserves, nearly 25% of U.S. crude oil reserves. A multidisciplinary team approach is to be used, with as many as 11 operators, service companies, universities, or state agencies participating in each project. All of the projects will culminate in extensive technology transfer activities. Here are descriptions of the projects gleaned from public abstracts provided by the DOE contractors

  6. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia

    2009-07-01

    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  7. Flood offers new hope for marginal oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-03-14

    The economics of producing a marginal Cardium sand oil field in west-central Alberta have been greatly improved by introduction of an inexpensive waterflood pressure maintenance and secondary recovery project. Canadian Gridoil Ltd. is now in full operation at its Willesden Green Cardium Unit No. 5. Of the 8.1 million bbl estimated original oil in place, only 9% would have been recoverable by primary depletion. The waterflood is calculated to add 13%, for ultimate recovery of 22% or 1.8 million bbl. This waterflood installation is considered a prototype of economical and profitable pressure maintenance systems which can be built to advantage in marginal oil fields in Alberta. Ultimate returns in the form of increased oil production and more than doubled oil recovery will be immensely greater than the capital investment of $195,000 in the facilities. Assuming GOR control and full well allowables, the entire capital cost should be paid out within 3 years. Life of the field is estimated at not less than 25 years.

  8. Earth's field NMR detection of oil under arctic ice-water suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Mark S.; Altobelli, Stephen A.; Sowko, Nicholas J.; Conradi, Susan H.; Fukushima, Eiichi

    2018-03-01

    Earth's field NMR has been developed to detect oil trapped under or in Arctic sea-ice. A large challenge, addressed here, is the suppression of the water signal that dominates the oil signal. Selective suppression of water is based on relaxation time T1 because of the negligible chemical shifts in the weak earth's magnetic field, making all proton signals overlap spectroscopically. The first approach is inversion-null recovery, modified for use with pre-polarization. The requirements for efficient inversion over a wide range of B1 and subsequent adiabatic reorientation of the magnetization to align with the static field are stressed. The second method acquires FIDs at two durations of pre-polarization and cancels the water component of the signal after the data are acquired. While less elegant, this technique imposes no stringent requirements. Similar water suppression is found in simulations for the two methods. Oil detection in the presence of water is demonstrated experimentally with both techniques.

  9. Purification of produced waters in oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyazov, R S; Baikov, U M

    1970-01-01

    Experience has shown that a single step water-conditioning process cannot be used to prepare Bashkirian produced waters for underground injection. In the single-step process, the water is passed through horizontal or vertical settling basins to remove solids. This system does not work when suspended solids increase above 200 to 500 mg/liter. The required quality of injection water can be obtained by filtering the water through sand at flow velocities of 5 to 10 m/hr. The filter has a sand layer 0.6 to 1 m thick, composed of 0.35 to 1.0 mm sand. Water entering the filters should not contain more than 100 to 150 mg/liter of oil products. The filters are backwashed at velocity of 10 to 15 m/hr and rates of 12 to 16 liters/sec sq m for 10 to 15 min. Clean water is used in backwashing. When surfactant is added to the backwash water, the filter cycle lasts longer.

  10. Long-range interactions in lattice field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabin, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    Lattice quantum field theories containing fermions can be formulated in a chirally invariant way provided long-range interactions are introduced. It is established that in weak-coupling perturbation theory such a lattice theory is renormalizable when the corresponding continuum theory is, and that the continuum theory is indeed recovered in the perturbative continuum limit. In the strong-coupling limit of these theories one is led to study an effective Hamiltonian describing a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long-range interactions. Block-spin renormalization group methods are used to find a critical rate of falloff of the interactions, approximately as inverse distance squared, which separates a nearest-neighbor-antiferromagnetic phase from a phase displaying identifiable long-range effects. A duality-type symmetry is present in some block-spin calculations.

  11. Long-range interactions in lattice field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    Lattice quantum field theories containing fermions can be formulated in a chirally invariant way provided long-range interactions are introduced. It is established that in weak-coupling perturbation theory such a lattice theory is renormalizable when the corresponding continuum theory is, and that the continuum theory is indeed recovered in the perturbative continuum limit. In the strong-coupling limit of these theories one is led to study an effective Hamiltonian describing a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long-range interactions. Block-spin renormalization group methods are used to find a critical rate of falloff of the interactions, approximately as inverse distance squared, which separates a nearest-neighbor-antiferromagnetic phase from a phase displaying identifiable long-range effects. A duality-type symmetry is present in some block-spin calculations

  12. Dispersant effectiveness in the field on fresh oils and emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunel, T.; Davies, L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed data set on the effectiveness of dispersants on fresh oils and emulsions, was presented. The data set could be used to calibrate laboratory dispersant tests and dispersion models so that oil spill response teams would have accurate information to make decisions regarding remediation processes. AEA Technology developed steady state continuous release experiments to provide a data set with quantitative measures of dispersant effectiveness in the field. The Sea Empress incident was closely monitored in order to compare the quantification obtained through field trials. It was noted that the prediction of the percentage of oil dispersed chemically is not the only indication of whether or not to use a dispersant. The important determinant to consider should be the extent to which the natural dispersion process would be enhanced by dispersant application. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 18 figs

  13. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated-oil field drill-cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of 2 bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the restoration of oil-field drill-cuttings contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied. A mixture of 4 kg of the drill-cuttings and 0.67 kg of top-soil were charged into triplicate plastic reactors labeled A1 to A3, ...

  14. Microbial diversity of a high salinity oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neria, I.; Gales, G.; Alazard, D.; Ollivier, B.; Borgomano, J.; Joulian, C.

    2009-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study to investigate the microbial diversity of an onshore oil field. It aim to compare results obtained from molecular methods, physicochemical analyses and cultivation. A core of 1150 m depth sediments ( in situ T=45 degree centigrade) was collected and immediately frozen with liquid nitrogen prior to further investigation. Macroscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses were performed. (Author)

  15. Oil spill contingency planning for offshore oil fields - a new concept established for the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singsaas, I.; Reed, M.; Nygaard, T.; Sundnes, G.Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a new concept for oil spill contingency planning to be used for offshore oil fields on the Norwegian continental shelf was discussed. The factors which are important in developing a good oil spill contingency plan include a good understanding of: (1) the fate, behaviour and weathering of the specific oil, (2) relevant oil spill scenarios, (3) drift and spreading of the oil, and (4) specific requirements for the effectiveness of the chosen response options. The oil spill contingency and response (OSCAR) model was used for quantitative comparison of alternative response options. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  16. Investigations of Flare Gas Emissions in Taq Taq Oil Field on the Surrounding Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar A. Ali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by oil takes many different forms; one of the most damaging sources is simply the combustion of oil products, such as a well flare burn-off. This paper presents the results of a survey of the agriculture lands around the Taq Taq Oil Production Company. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential contamination caused by the gas emissions from the well flares. Taq Taq field is located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, 60 km north of the giant Kirkuk oil field, 85 km south-east of Erbil and 120 km north-west of Suleimani. Samples of soil were collected from several locations around the site and analyzed to determine the content of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAH present. A gas chromatography linked to a mass spectrometry (GCMS machine was used for these measurements. The PAH contamination at each location of soil was determined and the 16-PAHs, as listed in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA documentation were investigated. The average content of total PAH in all samples of the agricultural soil was 0.654 mg·kg-1 with the concentrations ranging from 0.310 to 0.869 mg·kg-1. It was found that the PAH concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the TTOPCO oil field, indicating that pollution was evident, the area close to the field being more affected by the gas pollution.

  17. Intelligent systems in oil field development under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Marco A.C.; Vellasco, Marley M.B.R. (eds.) [PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Intelligent Systems use a range of methodologies for analysis, pre-processing, storage, organization, enhancing and mining of operational data, turning it into useful information and knowledge for decision makers in business enterprises. These intelligent technologies for decision support have been used with success by companies and organizations that are looking for competitive advantages whenever the issues on forecast, optimization, risks analysis, fraud detection, and decision under uncertainties are presented. Intelligent Systems (IS) offer to managers and decision makers the best solutions for complex applications, normally considered difficult, very restrictive or even impossible. The use of such techniques leads to a revolutionary process which has a significant impact in the business management strategy, by providing on time, correct information, ready to use. Computational intelligence techniques, especially genetic algorithms, genetic programming, neural networks, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy as well as modern finance theories, such as real options theory, are here presented and exemplified in oil and gas exploitation and production. This book is addressed to executives and students, directly involved or interested in intelligent management in different fields. (orig.)

  18. Microbial enhanced heavy crude oil recovery through biodegradation using bacterial isolates from an Omani oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayegh, Abdullah; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Joshi, Sanket

    2015-09-16

    Biodegradation is a cheap and environmentally friendly process that could breakdown and utilizes heavy crude oil (HCO) resources. Numerous bacteria are able to grow using hydrocarbons as a carbon source; however, bacteria that are able to grow using HCO hydrocarbons are limited. In this study, HCO degrading bacteria were isolated from an Omani heavy crude oil field. They were then identified and assessed for their biodegradation and biotransformation abilities under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were grown in five different minimum salts media. The isolates were identified by MALDI biotyper and 16S rRNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank (NCBI) database. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis. To assess microbial growth and biodegradation of HCO by well-assay on agar plates, samples were collected at different intervals. The HCO biodegradation and biotransformation were determined using GC-FID, which showed direct correlation of microbial growth with an increased biotransformation of light hydrocarbons (C12 and C14). Among the isolates, B. licheniformis AS5 was the most efficient isolate in biodegradation and biotransformation of the HCO. Therefore, isolate AS5 was used for heavy crude oil recovery experiments, in core flooding experiments using Berea core plugs, where an additional 16 % of oil initially in place was recovered. This is the first report from Oman for bacteria isolated from an oil field that were able to degrade and transform HCO to lighter components, illustrating the potential use in HCO recovery. The data suggested that biodegradation and biotransformation processes may lead to additional oil recovery from heavy oil fields, if bacteria are grown in suitable medium under optimum growth conditions.

  19. Field Engineers' Scheduling at Oil Rigs: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Usmani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil exploration and production operations face a number of challenges. Professional planners have to design solutions for various practical problems or issues. However, the time consumed is often very extensive because of the large number of possible solutions. Further, the matter of choosing the best solution remains. The present paper investigates a problem related to leading companies in the energy and chemical manufacturing sector of the oil and gas industry. Each company’s field engineers are expensive and valuable assets. Therefore, an optimized roster is rather important. In the present paper, the objective is to design a field engineers’ schedule which would be both feasible and satisfying towards the various demands of rigs, with minimum operational cost to the company. An efficient and quick optimization technique is presented to schedule the shifts of field engineers.

  20. History and performance of the Steelman Oil Field, Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaychuk, J; Francis, R E

    1965-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development and performance of the Steelman oil field in southeastern Saskatchewan. Steelman was the first field in southeastern Saskatchewan in which pressure maintenance by waterflooding was attempted. Production is obtained, at a depth of 4,700 ft, mainly from the dolomitized limestone Midale beds reservoir. Some production is also obtained from the underlying Frobisher beds, but the productive development of this zone is quite sporadic. The discovery of the field in 1954 was followed by the drilling of approximately 800 wells on 80-acre spacing. An early decline in reservoir pressure and increasing gas-oil ratios in this solution gas drive reservoir caused the working-interest owners to unitize most of the field and institute a program of pressure maintenance by waterflooding. The bulk of the field is unitized as 6 separate units, with pressure maintenance being conducted by three operators. To the end of 1964, the cumulative oil production from the six-unit area was approximately 77,000,000 bpd.

  1. Radiological impact of oil and Gas Activities in selected oil fields in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A study of the radiological impact of oil and gas exploration activities in the production land area of Delta ... the public and non-nuclear industrial environment, while the levels for the fields at Otorogu, Ughelli West, ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Gas migration from oil and gas fields and associated hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.E.; Endres, B.L.; Robertson Jr, J.O.; Chilingar, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    The migration of gas from oil and gas formations to the surface is a problem that greatly affects those surface areas where human activity exists. Underground gas storage facilities and oil fields have demonstrated a long history of gas migration problems. Experience has shown that the migration of gas to the surface creates a serious potential risk of explosion, fires, noxious odors and potential emissions of carcinogenic chemicals. These risks must be seriously examined for all oil and gas operations located in urban areas. This paper presents the mechanics of gas migration, paths of migration and a review of a few of the risks that should be considered when operating a gas facility in an urban area. The gas can migrate in a continuous or discontinuous stream through porous, water-filled media to the surface. The primary force in this migration of gas is the difference between specific weights of gas and water

  3. Problems in operation of gas-oil condensate fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheltov, Yu V; Martos, V N

    1966-12-01

    This is a review of various methods used to deplete gas-oil condensate reservoirs. Four depletion techniques are discussed: (1) natural depletion without injection of fluids into the reservoir; (2) depletion accompanied by gas cycling; (3) depletion in which the gas cap is separated from the oil by water injected into the reservoir, a method in which each part of the reservoir is produced essentially independently of the other; and (4) depletion in which reservoir temperature is raised above the cricondentherm point by in-situ combustion, so that gas and oil form a single phase. This method is prospective, and has not been tried in the field. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. It is concluded that a gas condensate reservoir can be depleted most economically only if some secondary energy is added. (13 refs.)

  4. Hydroprocessing full-range of heavy oils and bitumen using ultradispersed catalysts at low severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Enzo

    The progressive exhaustion of light crude oils is forcing the petroleum industry to explore new alternatives for the exploitation of unconventional oils. New approaches are searching for technologies able to produce, transport and refine these feedstocks at lower costs, in which symbiotic processes between the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the conventional upgrading technologies are under investigation. The process explored in this thesis is an interesting alternative for in-situ upgrading of these crude oils in the presence of ultradispersed (UD) catalysts, which are included as a disperse phase able to circulate along with the processed feed. The objectives of this work are: (a) study the performance of UD catalysts in the presence of a full range (non fractioned) heavy oil and bitumen and (b) evaluate the recyclability of the UD catalysts. Four different heavy crude oils were evaluated in the presence with UD catalysts at a total pressure of 2.8 MPa, residence time of 8 hours and reaction temperatures from 360 up to 400ºC. Thermal and catalytic hydro-processing were compared in terms of conversion and product stability. A comparison between the different crude oils was additionally derived in terms of SARA, initial micro-carbon content and virgin oil stability among other properties. Advantages of catalytic hydro-processing over thermal hydro-processing were evidenced, with UD catalysts playing an essential hydrogenating role while retarding coke formation; microcarbon and asphaltenes reduction in the presence of UD catalysts was observed. To evaluate the feasibility of recycling the UD catalysts, a micro-slurry recycled unit was developed as part of this research. These main results showed: (a) a successful design of this unit, (b) that temperature, LHSV and fractional recycling ratio have more impact on VGO conversion, while pressure has almost no effect, and (c) an UD catalysts agglomeration process was detected, however this process is slow and reversible.

  5. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  6. Geothermal studies in oil field districts of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-An; Wang, Ji-Yang; Yan, Shu-Zhen; Lu, Xiu-Wen

    In North China, Tertiary sediments give the main oil-genetic series. The mean value of terrestrial heat flow density has been considered to be 60 - 65 mW/m2, and the geothermal gradient in Tertiary sediments usually ranges from 30 to 40° C/km in the region studied. Supposing that the onset of oil generation lies at about 90° C, the upper limit of the depth of oil-generation is at about 2000 to 2500 m depth. Recent paleogeothermal studies using vitrinite reflectance, clay and authigenic minerals, as well as other methods showed that in Eocene the geothermal gradient has been higher than at present. Some results were obtained and discussed.

  7. Short range attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males to six commercially available plant essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils have a number of roles in insect pest management. For male Ceratitis capitata, this includes use of angelica seed oil as long range attractants and ginger root oil as aromatherapy, which is exposure to sterile males to increase mating success. Neither of these plants are hosts f...

  8. Analysis on 'new fundamentals' and range of oil price trend in the long run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui, Chen

    2010-09-15

    The range of trend of oil price will be decided by marginal production cost of crude oil and production cost of alternative energy consumed as transportation fuel on a large scale. The former factor determines the lower limit and the latter determines the upper limit of oil price. financial factors and the value of USD will not only affect the short-term change of oil price, they may become fundamentals factors that exert influence on the mid-long term change of oil price, namely, New Fundamentals, which will determine the fluctuation degree of oil price in the long run.

  9. Crude oil He and Ar isotopic characteristics and their geochemical significance: an example from the Gangxi oil field in the Huanghua depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chenpeng

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sampled from the Gangxi oil field in the Huanghua depression, Bohaiwan Basin, the crude oil He and Ar isotopic compositions and their geochemical significance were investigated. The result shows that i the 3He/4He values of the six oil samples free from air contamination indicate a mantle helium contribution ranging between 13.9% and 32.8% and averaging 24.1%, which means that the Gangxi oil field once had a tectonic background of the mantle-derived helium input and higher geothermal flow with an average of 75.0 mWm-2; ii deduced from the 40Ar/36Ar aging effect the Gangxi oil should be derived from the Tertiary; iii water injection is the main reason for the air contamination for the Gangxi oil noble gases and the relations between 3He/4He and 4He/20Ne as well as 40Ar/36Ar and 4He/20Ne are of an applicative potential in estimating the water injection effect and the connectivity of producing formations. The search for the crude oil He and Ar isotopes provides a new approach to inferring natural gas and oil sources, tectonic backgrounds, geothermal flow and water injection effect.

  10. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  11. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  12. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, S.

    2017-01-01

    Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV) visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2) curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively. [es

  13. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-01-01

    that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes

  14. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  15. Emerald oil field on production in North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Midland and Scottish Energy Ltd. (MSE) has placed Emerald oil field on stream in the U.K. North Sea with a floating production unit. Initial production, from two satellite wells, will be used to commission facilities. Three water injection wells have been unplugged and are ready for start-up. MSE will place a central cluster of wells-five producers and one water injector-on stream during the next few weeks. Production will build to an expected 25,000 b/d from 35 million bbl of reserves. Field development has undergone an unusually large number of setbacks and changes

  16. Decontamination of contaminated oils with radio nuclides using magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez R, C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is focused in to find a solution to the wastes treatment that are generated during the maintenance to the nuclear power industry, the specify case of the contaminated oils with radio nuclides, for this purpose was necessary to make a meticulous characterization of the oils before the treatment proposal using advanced techniques, being determined the activity of them, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics. By means of the developed procedure that combines the use of magnetic fields and filtration to remove the contaminated material with radioactive particles, is possible to diminish the activity of the oils from values that oscillate between 6,00 and 10,00 up to 0,00 to 0,0003 Bq/ml. The decontamination factor of the process is of 99.00%. The proposal of the necessary technology for to decontaminate the oils is also made and is carried out the economic analysis based on the reuse of these, as well as the calculation of the avoided damages. (Author)

  17. Application of large computers for predicting the oil field production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, W; Gunkel, W; Marsal, D

    1971-10-01

    The flank injection drive plays a dominant role in the exploitation of the BEB-oil fields. Therefore, 2-phase flow computer models were built up, adapted to a predominance of a single flow direction and combining a high accuracy of prediction with a low job time. Any case study starts with the partitioning of the reservoir into blocks. Then the statistics of the time-independent reservoir properties are analyzed by means of an IBM 360/25 unit. Using these results and the past production of oil, water and gas, a Fortran-program running on a CDC-3300 computer yields oil recoveries and the ratios of the relative permeabilities as a function of the local oil saturation for all blocks penetrated by mobile water. In order to assign kDwU/KDoU-functions to blocks not yet reached by the advancing water-front, correlation analysis is used to relate reservoir properties to kDwU/KDoU-functions. All these results are used as input into a CDC-660 Fortran program, allowing short-, medium-, and long-term forecasts as well as the handling of special problems.

  18. Plans for first oil production revived in two Sudanese fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A Vancouver, British Columbia, independent and its Sudanese partner have filed a development plan with the government of Sudan to produce an initial 40,000 b/d from Heglig and Unity oil fields in Sudan. Arakis Energy Corp., and the private Sudanese company State Petroleum Corp. (SPC) want to begin the first commercial hydrocarbon production in the destitute, war torn country. They are picking up where Chevron Corp. left off after years of grappling with an ambitious, costly - and ultimately futile - effort to export crude-oil from Sudan. After finding almost 300 million bbl of oil in Sudan during the early 1980s, Chevron scuttled a $2 billion project to export 50,000 b/d of Sudanese crude in 1986. It drilled 90 wells and sank more than $1 billion into the project. But it dropped the plan, citing the 1986 collapse of oil prices and concerns over security after repeated guerrilla attacks delayed work. The paper details the project

  19. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  20. The value of flexibility in offshore oil field development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Morten Wattengaard

    1997-12-31

    Offshore oil field development projects often face substantial uncertainties and the operator`s ability to take corrective actions is very important. The main objective of this thesis was to identify the value of flexibility in such projects. Estimates obtained from exploratory wells can be dependent through common information. The effect of stochastic dependence was illustrated by an analytical model, where the dependence was expressed in terms of correlation between estimate errors. It was found that a high degree of correlation might distort the benefit of additional exploration. A prototype that covered the major phases of the project was developed to study the value of flexibility. The prototype was a Markov decision process, solved by stochastic dynamic programming. Based on discussions with Norwegian oil companies, three uncertain variables were addressed: the reservoir volume, the well rate, and the oil price. Simple descriptions were used to mimic the uncertainty. The reservoir was thus depicted as a tank model, and the well rate and oil prices were assumed to follow Markov processes. Flexibility was restricted to managerial as opposed to financial flexibility. Application of the prototype to a case study, based on an ongoing field development, showed that flexibility might be of considerable value to the project. In particular, capacity flexibility and initiation flexibility were identified as important aspects of the development. The results also emphasized the importance of a joint assessment, as the values of different flexibility types are not additive. In conclusion, the proposed model motivates further development of the decision support system presently available. Future decision making should therefore be made within a framework that gives consideration to flexibility. 129 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Overview of DOE Oil and Gas Field Laboratory Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhal, G.; Ciferno, J.; Covatch, G.; Folio, E.; Melchert, E.; Ogunsola, O.; Renk, J., III; Vagnetti, R.

    2017-12-01

    America's abundant unconventional oil and natural gas (UOG) resources are critical components of our nation's energy portfolio. These resources need to be prudently developed to derive maximum benefits. In spite of the long history of hydraulic fracturing, the optimal number of fracturing stages during multi-stage fracture stimulation in horizontal wells is not known. In addition, there is the dire need of a comprehensive understanding of ways to improve the recovery of shale gas with little or no impacts on the environment. Research that seeks to expand our view of effective and environmentally sustainable ways to develop our nation's oil and natural gas resources can be done in the laboratory or at a computer; but, some experiments must be performed in a field setting. The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Lab Observatory projects are designed to address those research questions that must be studied in the field. The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a suite of "field laboratory" test sites to carry out collaborative research that will help find ways of improving the recovery of energy resources as much as possible, with as little environmental impact as possible, from "unconventional" formations, such as shale and other low permeability rock formations. Currently there are three field laboratories in various stages of development and operation. Work is on-going at two of the sites: The Hydraulic Fracturing Test Site (HFTS) in the Permian Basin and the Marcellus Shale Energy and Environmental Lab (MSEEL) project in the Marcellus Shale Play. Agreement on the third site, the Utica Shale Energy and Environmental Lab (USEEL) project in the Utica Shale Play, was just recently finalized. Other field site opportunities may be forthcoming. This presentation will give an overview of the three field laboratory projects.

  2. Saudi Aramco: Oil to a Thirsty Market - International Cooperation Brings New Oil Field on Quickly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajmi, Ali

    2007-07-01

    In response to high oil demand in 2004, Saudi Aramco committed to build facilities for the 500,000 BOPD Khursaniyah Oil Field in only 34 months from the start of preliminary engineering to startup. The project schedule was six months faster than any previous project, in the most resource competitive market the oil business has ever seen. The execution of this project required a new contract strategy, novel engineering and construction methods, and international cooperation from EPC firms and manufacturers. The project is also building a new one billion SCF per day gas plant receiving gas from five different sources with varying pressure and H2S content, along with huge water supply and injection facilities, oil gathering lines, and product distribution lines. To execute the project in this short time frame, a temporary construction city for 30,000 men has been constructed in the desert. This city has workers from all over 30 countries, speaking more than 15 languages, all focused on achieving one goal - on time completion of the most complex project ever done in Saudi Arabia. The paper will focus on the unique challenges of managing a city of this size that lasts for only 24 months. (auth)

  3. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enpeng

    topic. Dr. Tao with his group at Temple University, using his electro or magnetic rheological viscosity theory has developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. After we successfully reduced the viscosity of crude oil with field and investigated the microstructure changing in various crude oil samples with SANS, we have continued to reduce the viscosity of heavy crude oil, bunker diesel, ultra low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel and crude oil and ultra low temperature with electric field treatment. Our research group developed the viscosity electrorheology theory and investigated flow rate with laboratory and field pipeline. But we never visualize this aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering experiment has confirmed the theoretical prediction that a strong electric field induces the suspended nano-particles inside crude oil to aggregate into short chains along the field direction. This aggregation breaks the symmetry, making the viscosity anisotropic: along the field direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced. The experiment enables us to determine the induced chain size and shape, verifies that the electric field works for all kinds of crude oils, paraffin-based, asphalt-based, and mix-based. The basic physics of such field induced viscosity reduction is applicable to all kinds of suspensions.

  4. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  5. Characteristics of gas-liquid dynamics in operation of oil fields producing non-Newtonian crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Khasaev, A M; Gurbanov, R S; Akhmedov, Z M

    1968-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that crude oils from Azerbaidzhan, Uzbekistan, Tataria, Kazakhstan and other areas have anomalous properties under reservoir conditions. Such crude oils are non-Newtonian and (1) obey Darcys Law at low velocities; (2) obey an exponential law at higher velocities; and (3) obey a modified Darcys Law at most velocities. A discussion is given of (1) flow of non-Newtonian crude oils together with gas or water; (2) flow of non-Newtonian crude oils in well tubing; (3) behavior of wells producing non-Newtonian crude oils; and (4) pumping of non-Newtonian oils in wells. Experiments have shown that a visco-plastic liquid does not fill pump inlets completely; as the diameter of the pump inlet decreases so also does the degree of liquid filling. A statistical analysis of production data from 160 fields with Newtonian oil and 129 fields with non- Newtonian oil has shown that much higher production is obtained from fields with Newtonian crude oils.

  6. Passive magnetic cylindrical shielding at gauss-range static fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Gil-Botella, I.; Palomares, C.; Rodriguez, I.; Toral, F.; Verdugo, A.

    2009-01-01

    A study has been performed in order to find the optimal solution for the magnetic shielding of the 10 in. photomultipliers which will be used in the Double Chooz neutrino experiment under a very low magnetic field (less than 2 G). The results obtained with analytical and numerical calculations are compared with measurements made using test prototypes of several magnetic materials, with different dimensions and from different manufacturers. An exhaustive analysis of the magnetic materials was needed to understand the observed disagreement between calculations and test results obtained at low field values.

  7. The Ranges Of Subauroral Geomagnetic Field Elements | Rabiu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics ... An anomaly in seasonal response of range at high solar activity is observed on disturbed condition. ... apart from the anomaly - maintain the order e>j>d of seasonal variation which is in agreement with the popular equinoctial maximum observed in geomagnetic activity.

  8. Isotopic characterization and genetic origin of crude oils from Gulf of Suez and western desert fields in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Samie, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopes were used to asses the general characteristics of the western desert and Gulf of Suez crude oils in accordance with hydrocarbon generation, source rocks, thermal gradient and maturation level. The carbon isotopic results of all the analyzed oil samples in both areas lie in the range from -29.62 to -24.11 %. The av. σ 13 C values in the Gulf of Suez reaches about -28.6% and -26.4% in western desert. It was accounted a marginal difference between the two areas by about 2.5 : 3% in carbon-13 isotope of the whole oil indicated two distinct oil types of different organic input and varies in the depositional environment. It was found that Gulf of Suez oils are dominated by marine organic matter (plankton algae) deposited in saline environment. The derived oils from the northern and central provinces of the Gulf are isotopically light, higher in sulfur content, lower in API gravity degree and have Pristane/Phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio less than or equal one (Pr/Ph = 1). In the southern province, about 0.5% isotopic enrichment was recorded in the produced oils from shallower depths, associated with gradual increment in API and maturity level as thermal gradient increase. However, low API gravity degree and less maturity of the Gulf of Suez oils could be related to the rifting temperature that forced and accelerated the expulsion rate and hydrocarbon generation prior reaching higher maturation levels. On the other hand, the produced oils from the western desert fields belong mostly to terrestrial organic debris (with minor marine fragment in some basins) deposited at deeper geological formations. It is characterized by isotopic enrichment, paraffinic waxy oils, low in sulphur content, have Pr/Ph = 1, high in API gravity and maturity level. Hydrocarbon generated from the western desert fields has been controlled by time-temperature effect in the source rocks and reservoirs where the humic organic matter are affected by high temperature over longer period of

  9. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the anal......The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted...... the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils...... of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg-1. Three...

  10. Natural occurring radioactivity materials (NORM) in Ecuadorian oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, R.; Enriquez, F.; Reinoso, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Many natural elements contain radioactive isotopes, and most of them are present in the soil. In the gas and oil industries the most important radio nuclides are Ra-226 from the decay series of U-238, and in lower grade Ra-228 from the decay series of Th-232. Water exit from the perforation and perforation mud in the Oil towers drowns the NORM materials. Changes in temperature and pressure, allows the presence of sulphates and carbonates in pipes and internal areas of equipment. A Ra and Ba similarity leads to the selective co-precipitation in mud and incrustations of radioisotopes. A measure made in the pipe lines show that these industries generate important doses overcoming the levels of exemption and even the limits of established doses. The research was done by finding a pipe at Shushufindi 52 B well of production near by Coca city in the Ecuadorian jungle. The 'Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica' (CEEA), supervises the pipe line and accessories that are used in PETROPRODUCION fields accomplishing the radiological characterization, identifying the useless pipes and separate them in order of take care the good ones. Meanwhile the identification of the radioactive isotopes the CEEA proceed with the isolation of the radioactive disposals. From 57.830 pipes and accessories there were 1.607 useless ones, 56.223 didn't show radioactivity. Those pipes were monitored from the PETRODUCCION'S warehouses in Coca, Lago Agrio and Guarumo from September 12 th 2005 to September 12 th 2006. The CEEA is interested in NORMS because inadvertent workers may get high levels of radioactivity exposition. The Oil industries should have a manual about the complete handling of these materials. (author)

  11. Correlation analysis of Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen, Temperature and Humidity of Yadavaran Oil field in Khuzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad velayatzadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective:Emission of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has an important role in increasing temperatures and, its higher concentration can effect on human health. Due to this issue, this study is aimed to measure the amount of the released carbon dioxide into the atmosphere in different part of Yadavaran Oil field and compare with international standards in 2017. Material & Methods:The present investigation was accomplished in Yadavaran oil field of Khuzestan province of Iran in 2017. In this study measurement of parameters including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, relative humidity and temperature was done in 64 stations with 3 replications using ALTAIR 4X and Trotec BZ30. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests. Moreover, Correlation analysis was performed using Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Results:The results showed that concentration range of carbon dioxide and oxygen was 490-590 and 19-208ppm respectively. Also, the highest and lowest levels of carbon dioxide were 584.56±6.36 and 453.94±77.7 ppm in wet water camp and S10 wells (P 0.05 in the same order. Conclusion:Pearson and Spearman coefficient analysis showed no significant correlation between temperature, humidity, oxygen and carbon dioxide. According to the results, the concentration of carbon dioxide in different areas of the oil field of Yadavaran was acceptable.

  12. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  13. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes

  14. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  15. Preliminary hydrocarbon analysis of crude oils from Umutu/Bomu fields, south west Niger Delta Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Onojake

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven different crude oil samples were collected from two oil fields in the Niger Delta Nigeria. The bulk properties of these crude oils which include API gravity, reid vapour pressure; kinematic viscosity, dynamic viscosity, moisture, gum content and cloud point were analysed. Aliphatic biomarkers were used as supporting tool to deduce the geochemical characteristics such as thermal maturity, depositional environments, source of organic matter and extent of biodegradation. Results show that API° gravity ranged from 29.00° to 85.00°, specific gravity 0.65 to 0.88, 3.00 to 9.00, reid vapour pressure 3.00 to 9.00 kPa, kinematic viscosity 0.90 to 10.10 cSt, dynamic viscosity 0.70 to 8.90 cP, moisture content 0.13% to 26.00%, gum content 6.27 to 45.84 mg/L, cloud point 3.00 to 12.00 °C, pour point −7.00 to 4.00 °C and flash point <30.00 °C. Distribution of n-alkanes (Pr/Ph, and isoprenoide/n-alkanes ratios reflects that the oil samples originated mainly from terrestrial organic sources deposited in an oxic paleoenvironment.

  16. Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils.

  17. Role of interfacial rheological properties in oil field chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Lakatos, I.; Kosztin, B.

    1996-12-31

    Interfacial rheological properties of different Hungarian crude oil/water systems were determined in wide temperature and shear rate range and in presence of inorganic electrolytes, tensides, alkaline materials and polymers. The detailed laboratory study definitely proved that the interfacial rheological properties are extremely sensitive parameters towards the chemical composition of inmiscible formation liquids. Comparison and interpretation of the interfacial rheological properties may contribute significantly to extension of the weaponry of the reservoir characterization, better understanding of the displacement mechanism, development of the more profitable EOR/IOR methods, intensification of the surface technologies, optimization of the pipeline transportation and improvement of the refinery operations. It was evidenced that the interfacial rheology is an efficient and powerful detection technique, which may enhance the knowledge on formation, structure, properties and behaviour of interfacial layers. 17 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Functional gene diversity of soil microbial communities from five oil-contaminated fields in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe; Zhou, Jizhong

    2011-03-01

    To compare microbial functional diversity in different oil-contaminated fields and to know the effects of oil contaminant and environmental factors, soil samples were taken from typical oil-contaminated fields located in five geographic regions of China. GeoChip, a high-throughput functional gene array, was used to evaluate the microbial functional genes involved in contaminant degradation and in other major biogeochemical/metabolic processes. Our results indicated that the overall microbial community structures were distinct in each oil-contaminated field, and samples were clustered by geographic locations. The organic contaminant degradation genes were most abundant in all samples and presented a similar pattern under oil contaminant stress among the five fields. In addition, alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes such as monooxygenase and dioxygenase were detected in high abundance in the oil-contaminated fields. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the microbial functional patterns were highly correlated to the local environmental variables, such as oil contaminant concentration, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, salt and pH. Finally, a total of 59% of microbial community variation from GeoChip data can be explained by oil contamination, geographic location and soil geochemical parameters. This study provided insights into the in situ microbial functional structures in oil-contaminated fields and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and environmental variables, which is important to the application of bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites.

  19. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by oil field isolated bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mixed consortium was prepared with 15 bacteria isolated by enrichment technique from the sample collected from an oil contaminated site. This consortium was incubated with crude oil to investigate the metabolic capability of bacteria. The degradation efficiency of the isolates in consortium was checked with 2% crude oil ...

  20. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.

    1979-10-01

    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  1. Open-source LCA tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Houjeiri, Hassan M; Brandt, Adam R; Duffy, James E

    2013-06-04

    Existing transportation fuel cycle emissions models are either general and calculate nonspecific values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil production, or are not available for public review and auditing. We have developed the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) to provide open-source, transparent, rigorous GHG assessments for use in scientific assessment, regulatory processes, and analysis of GHG mitigation options by producers. OPGEE uses petroleum engineering fundamentals to model emissions from oil and gas production operations. We introduce OPGEE and explain the methods and assumptions used in its construction. We run OPGEE on a small set of fictional oil fields and explore model sensitivity to selected input parameters. Results show that upstream emissions from petroleum production operations can vary from 3 gCO2/MJ to over 30 gCO2/MJ using realistic ranges of input parameters. Significant drivers of emissions variation are steam injection rates, water handling requirements, and rates of flaring of associated gas.

  2. The use of long range identification and tracking (LRIT) for modelling the risk of ship-based oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Andrew [Canadian Coast Guard (Canada)], email: andrew.szeto@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Pelot, Ronald [Dalhousie University (Canada)], email: ronald.pelot@dal.ca

    2011-07-01

    Accidents involving oil tankers have caused many and sometimes very large oil spills. Such spills to marine areas have a significant impact on environmental quality affecting all aspects of marine ecosystems. Based on valid shipping traffic data as a very important factor that must be considered in modeling the risk of ship-based oil spills, this paper shows the importance of use of the long-range identification and tracking (LRIT) system and looks at how it can be implemented to better assess ship-based oil pollution. The system is a new, accurate and reliable world-wide vessel tracking system with a range of data extended out to 1000 nm from Canadian shores and currently tracks up to about 900 vessels a day in real-time. It is believed that traffic data and effective monitoring can assist with search planning for detection of mystery spills, better resource deployment for spill mitigation, and improving information for research and management.

  3. Effect of Magnetic Field on Diesel Engine Power Fuelled with Jatropha-Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarni Sukarni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha oil has characteristics very close to the diesel fuel, so it has good prospects as a substitute or as a mixture of diesel fuel. Previous research showed that jatropha oil usage in diesel engines caused power to decrease. It was probably owing to the higher viscosity of the Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel oil. Installing the magnetic field in the fuel line of a diesel engine fueled with jatropha-diesel oil is expected to reduce the viscosity of jatropha-diesel oil mixture, hence improve the combustion reaction process. This research aims to know the influence of the magnetic field strength in the fuel lines to the power of diesel engines fueled with a mixture of jatropha-diesel oil. The composition of Jatropha oil-diesel was 20% jatropha oil and 80% diesel oil. Magnetic field variations were 0.122, 0.245 and 0.368 Tesla. The results showed that the higher the strength of the magnetic field was, the higher the average diesel engine’s power would be.

  4. Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 Catalyst for Gasoil Range Hydrocarbon Production by Catalytic Hydrocracking of Ceiba pentandra oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustia Wulandari Mirzayanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel from vegetable oil becomes one of the most suitable and logical alternatives to replace fossil fuel. The research focused on various metal ratio Zinc/Molybdenum/HZSM-5 (Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst to produce liquid hydrocarbon via catalytic hydrocracking of Ceiba penandra oil. The catalytic hydrocracking process has been applied in this study to crack Ceiba pentandra oil into a gasoil range hydrocarbon using Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 as a catalyst. The effect of various reaction temperature on the catalytic hydrocracking of Ceiba pentandra oil were studied. The Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst with metal ratio was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. This process used slurry pressure batch reactor with a mechanical stirrer. A series of experiments were carried out in the temperature range from 300-400 oC for 2 h at pressure between 10-15 bar. The conversion and selectivity were estimated. The liquid hydrocarbon product were identified to gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil. The results show that the use of Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 can produce gas oil as the most component in the product. Overall, the highest conversion and selectivity of gas oil range hydrocarbon was obtained when the ZnMo/HZSM-5 metal ratio was Zn(2.86 wt.%-Mo(5.32 wt.%/HZSM-5 and the name is Zn-Mo/HZSM-5_102. The highest conversion was obtained at 63.31 % and n-paraffin (gas oil range selectivity was obtained at 90.75 % at a temperature of 400 oC. Ceiba pentandra oil can be recommended as the source of inedible vegetable oil to produce gasoil as an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 8th September 2017; Revised: 9th September 2017; Accepted: 17th September 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Mirzayanti, Y.W., Kurniawansyah, F., Prajitno, D.H., Roesyadi, A. (2018. Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 Catalyst for Gasoil Range Hydrocarbon Production by Catalytic Hydrocracking of Ceiba pentandra

  5. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaganova, N. A., E-mail: vna@imm.uran.ru [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Filimonov, M. Yu., E-mail: fmy@imm.uran.ru [Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia and Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  6. Density Measurements of Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel and Diesel Blends Over Extended Pressure and Temperature Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Xuan NguyenThi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Density and compressibility are primordial parameters for the optimization of diesel engine operation. With this objective, these properties were reported for waste cooking oil biodiesel and its blends (5% and 10% by volume mixed with diesel. The density measurements were performed over expanded ranges of pressure (0.1 to 140 MPa and temperature (293.15 to 353.15 K compatible with engine applications. The isothermal compressibility was estimated within the same experimental range by density differentiation. The Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs profile of the biodiesel was determined using a Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The storage stability of the biodiesel was assessed in terms of the reproducibility of the measured properties. The transferability of this biodiesel fuel was discussed on the basis of the standards specifications that support their use in fuel engines. Additionally, this original set of data represents meaningful information to develop new approaches or to evaluate the predictive capability of models previously developed.

  7. Defining the temperature range for cooking with extra virgin olive oil using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naveed; Saleem, M.; Ali, H.; Bilal, M.; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Ahmed, M.; Mahmood, S.

    2017-09-01

    Using the potential of Raman spectroscopy, new findings regarding the effects of heating on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) during frying/cooking are presented. A temperature range from 140 to 150 °C has been defined within which EVOO can be used for cooking/frying without much loss of its natural molecular composition. Raman spectra from the EVOO samples were recorded using an excitation laser at 785 nm in the range from 540 to 1800 cm-1. Due to heating, prominent variations in intensity are observed at Raman bands from 540 to 770 cm-1, 790 to 1170 cm-1 and 1267 and 1302 cm-1. The Raman bands at 1267 and 1302 cm-1 represent cis unsaturated fats and their ratio is used to investigate the effects of temperature on the molecular composition of EVOO. In addition, principal component analysis has been applied on all the groups of data to classify the heated EVOO samples at different temperatures and for different times. In addition, it has been found that use of EVOO for frying twice does not have any prominent effect on its molecular composition.

  8. Overall management of risk in oil field development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.L.; Minty, A.M.; Gregory, C.A.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the last decade, and particularly since 1988, significant effort and expenditure has been applied in the offshore sector to the reduction of risk. This risk has been measured in terms of fatalities and injuries to the workforce and the effectiveness of the investment to reduce risk has been assessed on the basis of potential lives saved or fatalities averted. Regulations, notably SI2015, have demanded that risks to personnel be reduced to levels that are 'as low as is reasonably practicable' or ALARP. The regulations state that operators must demonstrate that the risks have been reduced to ALARP levels and advise that this can be done using cost-benefit analysis. ALARP levels are achieved, they state, when the cost of further risk reduction is 'grossly disproportionate' to the benefits achieved. Although the ALARP criterion has caused confusion it has provided a sound philosophical basis for changing the nature of regulations from prescriptive to goal-setting. It could be inferred from this criterion, also, that an underlying principle for regulation could be that the goals/objectives of the regulators, operators and asset owners are entirely consistent. The authors of the paper believe that this concept can be applied to the overall management of risk of an organization. Oil field development and insurance purchase strategies can be cited as examples of how the techniques can be applied. The paper will seek to show how risk, decision-making and asset management can be integrated under an 'ALARP' style concept. (author)

  9. Characterization of indigenous oil field microorganisms for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitte, J.; Krueger, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Biegel, E.; Herold, A. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Alkan, H. [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Kassel (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Microbial activities and their resulting metabolites became a focus of attention for enhanced oil recovery (MEOR, microbial enhanced oil recovery) in the recent years. In order to develop a strategy for a MEOR application in a German oil field operated by Wintershall experiments were performed to investigate different sampling strategies and the microbial communities found in these samples. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the indigenous microbial communities, (2) to investigate the dependency of microbial activity/diversity on the different sampling strategies, and (3) to study the influence of the in situ pressure on bacterial growth and metabolite production. Fluids were sampled at the well head (surface) and in situ in approx. 785 m depth to collect uncontaminated production water directly from the reservoir horizon and under the in situ pressure of 31 bar (subsurface). In the lab the pressure was either released quickly or slowly to assess the sensitivity of microorganisms to rapid pressure changes. Quantitative PCR resulted in higher microbial cell numbers in the subsurface than in the surface sample. Biogenic CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} formation rates were determined under atmospheric and high pressure conditions in the original fluids, with highest rates found in the surface fluid. Interestingly, no methane was formed in the native fluid samples. While nitrate reduction was exclusively detected in the surface samples, sulfide formation also occurred in the subsurface fluids. Increased CO{sub 2} formation was measured after addition of a variety of substrates in the surface fluids, while only fructose and glucose showed a stimulating effect on CO{sub 2} production for the subsurface sample. Stable enrichment cultures were obtained in complex medium inoculated with the subsurface fluid, both under atmospheric and in situ pressure. Growth experiments with constant or changing pressure, and subsequent DGGE analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes

  10. The Application of Biogeophysical Studies in the Search for Oil Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sh. Mardanov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an analysis of qualitative and quantitative indices of biogeophysical anomalies (BGPh-anomalies recorded over oil deposits, obtained as a result of experimental and methodological work on the oil fields studied in detail. By the degree of intensity and complexity of the BGPh-anomalies registered in digital form with special equipment developed by the authors, a set of qualitative and quantitative features has been developed that make it possible to determine the genetic type of the structural trap of the identified oil deposit, and, under favorable conditions, the depth of its occurrence. BGPh-anomalies of the “tectonic fault” type, their influence on the “oil deposit” type of BGPh-anomalies have been studied. The limiting values ​​of the watercut in the exploited oil reservoir are determined, when exceeding, the oil reservoir ceases to create a BGPh-anomaly such as “oil deposit”, which can be used for the areal monitoring of oil fields. The minimum thickness of the oil-saturated reservoir is determined, which creates an anomaly of the “oil deposit” type. Based on this analysis, it is assumed that the BGPh-anomalies arise only over oil deposits, potential for industrial development.

  11. Exploratory assessment of the economic gains of a pre-salt oil field in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Rodrigues, Larissa; Luís Sauer, Ildo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Brazil has made public several oil discoveries located in deep waters, below the salt layer. Discoveries are steadily enhancing national reserves and have brought the country into a new role in the global oil industry. This paper aims at investigating the economic gains that could be expected from a Brazilian oil field in the pre-salt region. Analyses were conducted based on the Libra field, the largest oil discovery in Brazil until now, with approximately 10 billion barrels. The results were calculated for different scenarios of oil prices, companies' arrangements and regulatory regimes. The findings suggest that economic gains could be higher for the Brazilian Government if the oil production were conducted under a service contract scheme. However, considering the current production-sharing regime in force for pre-salt areas, economic gains could be higher if a bidding process was conducted, ensuring for the Brazilian Government a higher participation in the oil to be produced. Additionally, the results demonstrate that under the current rules applied for the production-sharing regime, the government quota of oil has decreased over time, putting at risk economic results. - Highlights: • The paper investigates the economic gains of a pre-salt oil field in Brazil. • Government earnings could be higher under a service contract scheme. • The first production-sharing regime bid did not encourage competition. • Under the production-sharing rules government quota of oil decreases over time.

  12. Field instruments for real time in-situ crude oil concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, C.B.; Bonner, J.S.; Page, C.A.; Arrambide, G.; Sterling, M.C.Jr.; Ojo, T.O.

    2003-01-01

    Accidental oil spills, contaminant release during resuspension, storms, and harmful algal blooms are all episodic events that can effect coastal margins. It is important to quantitatively describe water and ecological quality evolution and predict the impact to these areas by such events, but traditional sampling methods miss environmental activity during cyclical events. This paper presents a new sampling approach that involves continuous, real-time in-situ monitoring to provide data for development of comprehensive modeling protocols. It gives spill response coordinators greater assurance in making decisions using the latest visualization tools which are based on a good understanding of the physical processes at work in pulsed events. Five sensors for rapid monitoring of crude oil concentrations in aquatic systems were described. The in-situ and ex-situ sensors can measure plume transport and estimate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure concentrations to assess risk of toxicity. A brief description and evaluation of the following 5 sensors was provided: the LISST-100 by Sequoia Instrument, a submersible multi-angle laser scattering instrument; the AU-10 field fluorometer by Turner Designs, an ex-situ single wavelength fluorometer; the Flashlamp by WET Labs Inc., an in-situ single wavelength fluorometer; and, the ECO-FL3 and SAFire by WET Labs Inc., two in-situ multiple wavelength fluorometers. These instruments were used to analyze crude oil emissions of various concentrations. All of the instruments followed a linear response within the tested concentration range. At the lowest concentrations the LISST-100 was not as effective as the fluorometers because of limited particle volume for scatter. For the AU-10 field fluorometer, the highest concentrations tested were above the measurement range of the instrument. 6 refs., 5 figs

  13. Effect of the magnetic field on positron range using GATE for PET-MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleftheriou, Afroditi; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; Bertolli, Ottavia; Stiliaris, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    Positron range is an important spatial resolution limiting factor in PET. When imaging inside a magnetic field the positron range is non-uniformly affected. A decrease of the positron range is expected in the directions perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field, whereas no variation is expected in the direction of the magnetic field. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to validate these expectations.

  14. On the determination of the dynamic properties of a transformer oil based ferrofluid in the frequency range 0.1–20 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannin, P.C.; Vekas, L.; Marin, C.N.; Malaescu, I.

    2017-01-01

    Complex susceptibility measurements provide a unique and efficient means for the investigation and determination of the dynamic properties of magnetic fluids. In particular, measurement of the frequency, f(Hz), and field, H(kA/m), dependent, complex susceptibility, χ(ω, Η)= χ′(ω, Η)−iχ″(ω, Η), of magnetic fluids has proven to be a valuable and reliable technique for investigating such properties. The experimental data presented here was obtained from measurements of a transformer oil based ferrofluid, with measurements being performed over the frequency range 0.1–20 GHz and polarising fields 0–168 kA/m. In the case of transformer oil magnetic fluids, the normal measurement emphasis has been on the investigation of their dielectric properties, including the effects which lightning may have on these properties. Little has been reported on the measurement of the corresponding magnetic susceptibility, χ(ω), of such fluids and in this paper we address this fact. Thus we consider it worthwhile, in the case of a transformer with magnetic fluid transformer oil, being affected as a result of a lightening occurrence, to have knowledge of the fluids dynamic properties, at the microwave frequencies. In the process of determining the sample susceptibility profiles, it was found that the peak value of the χ″(ω) component, was approximately constant over the frequency range 2.4–6.3 GHz. From this it was determined that the fluid was effectively operating as a wideband absorber over a bandwidth of 3.9 GHz. - Highlights: • Complex magnetic susceptibility measurements in the frequency range 0.1–20 GHz. • Determination of the dynamic properties of a transformer oil based ferrofluid. • Wideband attenuator ( Absorber) in the frequency range 2.4–6.3 GHz.

  15. Change in the flow curves of non-Newtonian oils due to a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliev, F.G.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a variable magnetic field on the rheological properties of non-Newtonian fluids is evaluated. Bituminous pitch oils were analyzed by recording the flow curves Q.Q(Δp) - the dependence of the volumetric flow rate on the pressure gradient - with and without a field. The results obtained indicate that variable magnetic fields can produce obvious changes in the rheological properties of bituminous pitch oils, although they are nonmagnetoactive and practically electrically nonconducting

  16. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  17. Increasing Heavy Oil in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies. Annual Report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, Edith

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs

  18. Some characteristics in operation of long exploited oil fields in Fergana depression. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordinskii, E V; Ovanesov, M G; Irmatov, E K

    1969-01-01

    A review of geological and oil production data from 3 Fergana fields is presented. The reservoirs are small, tectonically bounded, and are anticlines of Paleogenic carbonates. Reservoirs are heterogeneous with porosity ranging from 3 to 25% and permeability ranging from a few to 500 md. Some of the reservoirs have expanding gas caps, some are solution drive, and others have been waterflooded. All are now in the final stage of depletion. Production history and characteristics of each group are given. One way of increasing present production rate appears to be injection of gas or air into the reservoirs. This can be done inexpensively, since additional injection wells would not have to be drilled and some produced gas is available. Increased fluid withdrawal from present wells should also be beneficial.

  19. Use of remote sensing and ground control in monitoring oil fields in Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Moreaux, P E; Muzikar, R [ed.

    1978-01-01

    Present and future water pollution problems resulting from oil field operations in Alabama are analyzed. An outline of a program of data collection and interpretation necessary to determine and evaluate solutions to these problems is presented. A method of adequate monitoring of the oil and gas fields in Alabama to protect against pollution of its valuable surface and groundwater supplies is described. Samples of brine are continuously collected and analyzed from sources representing all water producing horizons in the oil fields. A network of observation wells has been established in oil fields to periodically determine changes in the chemical quality of groundwaters. Water samples from wells adjacent to all major saltwater evaporation pits have been collected and analyzed for possible changes in chemical quality. Discharge measurements are made on streams adjacent to all oil fields. Periodic aerial photographs are being made of each field. Preliminary administrative reports are regularly prepared on each problem in the oil fields and remedial or disciplinary actions are taken by the Oil and Gas Board.

  20. Field research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in-situ burning. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S.; Nedwed, T.; Mullin, J.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have been performed in recent years to determine the capability of herding agents to thicken oil slicks among loose pack ice for the purpose of in situ burning. In loose pack ice conditions where booms are not practical, effective in situ burns may be possible if thin slicks could be thickened to the 2 to 5 mm range. However, specific chemical surface-active agents known as herders are need to clear and contain oil slicks on an open water surface. The agents spread quickly over a water surface into a monomolecular layer due to their high spreading coefficients. The best agents have spreading pressures in the mid 40 mN/m range. As such, only small quantities of these surfactants are needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water surface, and to contract it into thicker slicks. This paper summarized the previous studies that evaluated shoreline-cleaning agents with oil herding properties. However, the main focus of this paper was on the final phase of testing conducted at the Prudhoe Bay Fire Training Grounds in November 2006 in which a series of outdoor burns were conducted at the scale of 30 m 2 with herders and crude oil in a test pool containing pieces of ice. The tests revealed that when a herder was used on crude oil slicks that were otherwise unignitable, the slicks could be ignited and burned in situ in brash and slush ice conditions at temperatures as low as -17 degrees C. Both the removal rate and efficiencies for the herded slicks were comparable to the theoretical maximum achievable for mechanically contained slicks on open water. 13 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs

  1. Remediation Of Radioactive Contaminated Soil in Oil Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, A.A.; Hassib, G.M.; Ibrahim, Z.A.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in evaporation pond has been evaluated. At several onshore oil field locations, the produced water is discharged to form artificial lagoons or ponds. Subsequently, the released waters drain to the ground leaving radioactive deposits associated with the soil that eventually require remedial action in accordance with radiation protection principles. The present study aims to investigate the remediation of contaminated soil in some oil fields and in this concern, two scenarios were proposed. The first scenario is studying the feasibility of using soil washing technique (a physical-chemical separation process) for removing radium-226 from the contaminated soil samples collected from an evaporating pond. The size/activity distribution analyses were carried out. The data obtained showed that almost 68 % of the investigated soil was coarse sand (≥ 300 μm), 28 % was medium and fine sand (≤300 μm and (≥75 μm) and only small fraction of 4 % was silt and clay (≤75 μm). A series of mild acids such as HCl and mild NaCl/HCl (chloride washing) were used for washing the investigated soil fractions. The obtained data showed that the coarse fraction ≥ 300 μm can be re mediated below a regulatory level of 1Bq/g. and the radium from this coarse fraction could be easily removed by screening and chloride washing. For the remediation of (≤ 300 μm and (≥ 75 μm soil fractions, a series of mild chloride washing experiments also showed that the chloride base (NaCl/HCl) was found to be potentially useful. However, there was a difficulty in achieving a low radium value in the fine (≥ 75 μm size fractions using chloride washing. The second scenario is to get rid of all contaminated soil and store it in a concrete basin through the program of radiological protection of personnel and environment. Preliminary gamma survey of contaminated soil showed that the significant area of the investigated

  2. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  3. Environmental effects of the Kuwaiti oil field fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, J.

    1991-01-01

    Theory suggests that the rates of smoke emission and heat generation and, consequently, the atmospheric injection height and residence time of the smoke are crucial in determining whether the environmental effects are of global or only regional importance. Confirming the results of model calculations, observations have shown that, up to now, the smoke did not rise higher than to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), about 3,300 m at a maximum. The photochemistry within the smoke cloud very likely is significantly different from that of the smoke-free troposphere. Also, because there is very little precipitation in the greater Gulf region from May through October, it is difficult to predict how and where NO x , SO 2 , and their oxidation products HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 will be deposited. Photochemical oxidation should be largely suppressed in the denser parts of the smoke cloud, so major acid deposition is likely to occur at some distance from the source area, probably as far away as 2,000 km. Results of model calculations suggest that the effect of the smoke emission in Kuwait on the Asian summer monsoon is small. In summary, one should expect severe environmental consequences of the Kuwaiti oil field fires for the territory of Kuwait and for parts of Iraq, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Serious effects also may be felt in Iran and the other Gulf states, and perhaps even as far away as Turkey and Afghanistan. The surface waters of the Gulf also may be severely affected by smoke deposition. Significant environmental effects on a global or even hemispheric scale, however, are not likely to occur

  4. Environmental effects of the Kuwaiti oil field fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, J. (Fraunhofer Inst. for Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (West Germany))

    1991-09-01

    Theory suggests that the rates of smoke emission and heat generation and, consequently, the atmospheric injection height and residence time of the smoke are crucial in determining whether the environmental effects are of global or only regional importance. Confirming the results of model calculations, observations have shown that, up to now, the smoke did not rise higher than to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), about 3,300 m at a maximum. The photochemistry within the smoke cloud very likely is significantly different from that of the smoke-free troposphere. Also, because there is very little precipitation in the greater Gulf region from May through October, it is difficult to predict how and where NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and their oxidation products HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} will be deposited. Photochemical oxidation should be largely suppressed in the denser parts of the smoke cloud, so major acid deposition is likely to occur at some distance from the source area, probably as far away as 2,000 km. Results of model calculations suggest that the effect of the smoke emission in Kuwait on the Asian summer monsoon is small. In summary, one should expect severe environmental consequences of the Kuwaiti oil field fires for the territory of Kuwait and for parts of Iraq, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Serious effects also may be felt in Iran and the other Gulf states, and perhaps even as far away as Turkey and Afghanistan. The surface waters of the Gulf also may be severely affected by smoke deposition. Significant environmental effects on a global or even hemispheric scale, however, are not likely to occur.

  5. Tribological Behavior of HNBR in Oil and Gas Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winoj Balasooriya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The common usages of elastomeric components in oil and gas field applications are in dynamic atmospheres; especially sealing appliances that are in relative motion when interacting with surfaces. Therefore, their performance and service life mainly depend on the wear and friction characteristics in use. The objective of this scientific work is to identify the effect of swelling-induced ageing on the tribological properties and surface damage mechanisms of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR in contact with different liquids. Furthermore, the investigation of the co-relation between mechanical properties and surface properties in the tested conditions is indispensable. In the swollen state, deteriorated mechanical properties were observed; however, in de-swollen conditions, the mechanical properties were restored. As far as the surface characterization is concerned, when the HNBR was swollen by a standard IRM 903 solvent, its wear was greater compared with the un-swollen specimen (1.1 times despite the lower coefficient of friction (COF (reduced by ~25% and surface temperature (reduced by ~2.4 °C. In the de-swollen condition, wear was even greater (6 times, but the COF and surface temperature were situated in between those recorded in the swollen and un-swollen conditions. With swelling, greater wear damage and lower COF were observed; higher surface ageing (softness, which eases crack growth, created bigger debris. Under the conditions used, in the de-swollen states, the bulk mechanical properties were almost recovered, in contrast to the surface properties, which were still significantly impaired.

  6. Effect of paraffin saturation in a crude oil on operation of a field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebin, G F; Kapyrin, Yu V

    1968-11-01

    Both theoretical and practical studies in recent years have shown that in planning operational procedures for an oil field, the paraffin saturation of the crude oil must be considered. If the crude oil is essentially saturated with paraffin at reservoir condition, then paraffin deposition can occur around the well and in the well. Temperature in the reservoir can be lowered by 2 mechanisms: (1) by injection of water below reservoir temperature, and (2) by expansion of produced gas and consequent cooling of the produced oil. Possible application of these principles to several Soviet oil fields is discussed. In the Uzen field, a preliminary investigation is under way to test the feasibility of heating the injection water to prevent paraffin deposition in the reservoir.

  7. Anxiolytic effects of lavender oil inhalation on open-field behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D; Annett, J M; Doherty, B; Leslie, J C

    2007-09-01

    To establish a valid animal model of the effects of olfactory stimuli on anxiety, a series of experiments was conducted using rats in an open-field test. Throughout, effects of lavender oil were compared with the effects of chlordiazepoxide (CDP), as a reference anxiolytic with well-known effects on open-field behaviour. Rats were exposed to lavender oil (0.1-1.0 ml) for 30 min (Experiment 1) or 1h (Experiment 2) prior to open-field test and in the open field or injected with CDP (10 mg/kg i.p.). CDP had predicted effects on behaviour, and the higher doses of lavender oil had some effects on behaviour similar to those of CDP. In Experiment 3, various combinations of pre-exposure times and amounts of lavender oil were used. With sufficient exposure time and quantity of lavender the same effects were obtained as in Experiment 2. Experiment 4 demonstrated that these behavioural effects of lavender could be obtained following pre-exposure, even if no oil was present in the open-field test. In Experiments 2-4, lavender oil increased immobility. Together, these experiments suggest that lavender oil does have anxiolytic effects in the open field, but that a sedative effect can also occur at the highest doses.

  8. Composition and Physical Properties of Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profile and tocopherol, and phytosterol contents of crude cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oils are reported, along with yields from the corresponding seeds. The physical properties of these oils were also determined, which included oxidative stab...

  9. Market potential of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery-a techno-economic model for Issaran oil field in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunay; Guédez, Rafael; Laumert, Björn

    2017-06-01

    Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (S-EOR) is an advanced technique of using concentrated solar power (CSP) technology to generate steam and recover oil from maturing oil reservoirs. The generated steam is injected at high pressure and temperature into the reservoir wells to facilitate oil production. There are three common methods of steam injection in enhanced oil recovery - continuous steam injection, cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). Conventionally, this steam is generated through natural gas (NG) fired boilers with associated greenhouse gas emissions. However, pilot projects in the USA (Coalinga, California) and Oman (Miraah, Amal) demonstrated the use of S-EOR to meet their steam requirements despite the intermittent nature of solar irradiation. Hence, conventional steam based EOR projects under the Sunbelt region can benefit from S-EOR with reduced operational expenditure (OPEX) and increased profitability in the long term, even with the initial investment required for solar equipment. S-EOR can be realized as an opportunity for countries not owning any natural gas resources to make them less energy dependent and less sensible to gas price fluctuations, and for countries owning natural gas resources to reduce their gas consumption and export it for a higher margin. In this study, firstly, the market potential of S-EOR was investigated worldwide by covering some of the major ongoing steam based EOR projects as well as future projects in pipeline. A multi-criteria analysis was performed to compare local conditions and requirements of all the oil fields based on a defined set of parameters. Secondly, a modelling approach for S-EOR was designed to identify cost reduction opportunities and optimum solar integration techniques, and the Issaran oil field in Egypt was selected for a case study to substantiate the approach. This modelling approach can be consulted to develop S-EOR projects for any steam flooding based oil

  10. Extended parametric gain range in photonic crystal fibers with strongly frequency-dependent field distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2014-01-01

    The parametric gain range of a degenerate four-wave mixing process is determined in the undepleted pump regime. The gain range is considered with and without taking the mode field distributions of the four-wave mixing components into account. It is found that the mode field distributions have...

  11. Palm oil based polymer materials obtained by ROMP: study by low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Henrique; Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Lima-Neto, Benedito S.

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to study and develop new materials synthesized from sustainable sources, several polymers were prepared using in its monomeric composition, different amounts of NPO (Norbornenyl Palm Oil) monomer. This monomer was developed based on a vegetable oil rather produced in northern Brazil, the Palm Oil. Since this oil have a low content of unsaturation, its use in developing new monomer for ROMP (Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization) is not exploited. In this regard, polymeric materials were obtained using the NOP and both the reaction process and the resulting products were analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the time domain (TD-NMR) at low magnetic field. (author)

  12. Surface ozone in the Colorado northern Front Range and the influence of oil and gas development during FRAPPE/DISCOVER-AQ in summer 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Cheadle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High mixing ratios of ozone (O3 in the northern Front Range (NFR of Colorado are not limited to the urban Denver area but were also observed in rural areas where oil and gas activity is the primary source of O3 precursors. On individual days, oil and gas O3 precursors can contribute in excess of 30 ppb to O3 growth and can lead to exceedances of the EPA O3 National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Data used in this study were gathered from continuous surface O3 monitors for June–August 2013–2015 as well as additional flask measurements and mobile laboratories that were part of the FRAPPE/DISCOVER-AQ field campaign of July–August 2014. Overall observed O3 levels during the summer of 2014 were lower than in 2013, likely due to cooler and damper weather than an average summer. This study determined the median hourly surface O3 mixing ratio in the NFR on summer days with limited photochemical production to be approximately 45–55 ppb. Mobile laboratory and flask data collected on three days provide representative case studies of different O3 formation environments in and around Greeley, Colorado. Observations of several gases (including methane, ethane, CO, nitrous oxide along with O3 are used to identify sources of O3 precursor emissions. A July 23 survey demonstrated low O3 (45–60 ppb while August 3 and August 13 surveys recorded O3 levels of 75–80 ppb or more. August 3 exemplifies influence of moderate urban and high oil and gas O3 precursor emissions. August 13 demonstrates high oil and gas emissions, low agricultural emissions, and CO measurements that were well correlated with ethane from oil and gas, suggesting an oil and gas related activity as a NOx and O3 precursor source. Low isoprene levels indicated that they were not a significant contributor to O3 precursors measured during the case studies.

  13. Alkalinity in oil field waters - what alkalinity is and how it is measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasa, B.; Oestvold, T.

    1996-01-01

    The alkalinity is an important parameter in the description of pH-behaviour, buffer capacity and scaling potentials in oil field waters. Although the alkalinity is widely used, it seems to be considerable confusion in connection with the concept. It is often used incorrectly and different authors define the concept in different ways. Several different methods for the determination of alkalinity can be found in the literature. This paper discusses the definition of alkalinity and how to use alkalinity in oil field waters to obtain data of importance for scale and pH predictions. There is also shown how a simple titration of oil field waters can give both the alkalinity and the content of organic acids in these waters. It is obvious from these findings that most of the methods used to day may give considerable errors when applied to oil field waters with high contents of organic acids. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Improving the organization of the outfitting of gas and oil fields in a unitized design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.L.; Kurepin, B.N.; Sivergin, M.Yu.; Telegin, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    The basic tenets of the organization of outfitting gas and oil fields in a unitized design are examined. An economic and mathematical model for selecting a variant for transporting unitized devices is proposed in which the transport expenditures are minimal.

  15. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  16. Extended parametric gain range in photonic crystal fibers with strongly frequency-dependent field distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Sidsel R; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Olausson, Christina B; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2014-08-15

    The parametric gain range of a degenerate four-wave mixing process is determined in the undepleted pump regime. The gain range is considered with and without taking the mode field distributions of the four-wave mixing components into account. It is found that the mode field distributions have to be included to evaluate the parametric gain correctly in dispersion-tailored speciality fibers and that mode profile engineering can provide a way to increase the parametric gain range.

  17. Development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for an aging oil field : Devon Canada Swan Hills Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, M.; North, C.; Leighton-Boyce, G. [WorleyParsons Komex, Calgary, AB (Canada); Moore, D. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for the aging Devon Canada Swan Hills oil field was examined along with the key components of the closure strategy. These included source removal to the extent practical, long term monitoring, and achievable risk-based remedial objectives that were appropriate to the remote boreal forest setting of the Swan Hills field. A two stage approach was presented. The first stage involved a field wide background framework which included defining areas of common physical and ecological setting and developing appropriate exposure scenarios. The second stage involved site-specific risk assessments which included adjusting for site-specific conditions and an early demonstration project to prove the concept. A GIS approach was used to identify areas of common physical and ecological setting including: physiography; surface water; land use; vegetation ecozones; surficial and bedrock geology; and water well use. Species lists were compiled for vegetation, terrestrial wildlife (mammals, birds, amphibians), and aquatic species (fish and invertebrates). Major contaminant sources, problem formulation, vegetation bioassays, invertebrate bioassays, black spruce emergence, and guideline development were other topics covered during the presentation. Last, a summary of progress was presented. A field-wide review and development of risk zones and site-specific risk assessment has been completed. A regulatory review is underway. tabs., figs.

  18. Technical and economic feasibility study of flue gas injection in an Iranian oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2015-09-01

    The main aim of this research is to investigate various gas injection methods (N2, CO2, produced reservoir gas, and flue gas in one of the northern Persian gulf oil fields by a numerical simulation method. Moreover, for each scenario of gas injection technical and economical considerations are took into account. Finally, an economic analysis is implemented to compare the net present value (NPV of the different gas injection scenarios in the aforementioned oil field.

  19. Field experiments with subsurface releases of oil and and dyed water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, H.; Brandvik, P.J.; Strom, T.

    1998-01-01

    A field experiment with a subsurface release of oil and air was carried out in June 1996 close to the Frigg Field in the North Sea area. One of the purposes of this sea trial was to increase the knowledge concerning the behaviour of the oil and gas during a subsurface blowout. This was done by releasing oil and air at 106 meters depth with a realistic gas oil ratio (GOR=67) and release velocity of the oil. In addition to the oil release, several releases with dyed water and gas (GOR=7 - 65) were performed. Important and unique data were collected during these subsurface releases. In particular, the experiments with the dyed water releases combined with air turned out to be an efficient way of obtaining field data for the behaviour of subsurface plumes. The main conclusions from analysis for the data collected are: the field methodology used to study blowout releases in the field appears to be appropriate. The use of dyed water to determine the performance of the subsurface plume proved out to be an efficient way to obtain reliable and useful data. The behaviour of the subsurface plume is very sensitive to gas flow rates. For low gas flow rates, the plume did not reach the sea surface at all due to the presence of stratification in the ambient water. Some discrepancies were found between a numerical model for subsurface releases and field results. These discrepancies are pointed out, and recommendations for possible model improvements are given. (author)

  20. The performance of electroless nickel deposits in oil-field environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, R.; Bayes, M.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted on an electroless nickel plated (represented by Enplate NI-422) C-90 steel, uncoated C-90 steel, AISI 420, 174 PH, SAF 2205, and HASTELLOY /sup R/ G-3 to determine their corrosion-performance in twelve simulated downhole oil or gas production environments during 28 day exposures. These environments were aqueous brines containing various concentrations of Cl - , H 2 S and/or CO 2 , and over a range of temperatures. The results from this study and oilfield data for electroless nickel plated low alloy steels are presented and discussed. The study demonstrates the feasibility of electroless nickel coated low alloy steels as an economical substitute for some highly alloyed materials in certain oilfield applications; the field data support this

  1. Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D

  2. Absorption spectroscopy and multi-angle scattering measurements in the visible spectral range for the geographic classification of Italian exravirgin olive oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Cimato, Antonio; Sani, Graziano; Smith, Peter R.

    2004-03-01

    Absorption spectroscopy and multi-angle scattering measurements in the visible spectral range are innovately used to analyze samples of extra virgin olive oils coming from selected areas of Tuscany, a famous Italian region for the production of extra virgin olive oil. The measured spectra are processed by means of the Principal Component Analysis method, so as to create a 3D map capable of clustering the Tuscan oils within the wider area of Italian extra virgin olive oils.

  3. Overview of Raw Materials for Oil Field Chemicals and Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The local content contribution to the oil industry is however presently not up to five percent. The concept of the local content development is not about awarding of contracts to Nigerians with foreign counterparts, but developing and expanding the industry for the benefit of the majority. Comparative study of the local materials ...

  4. Index to names of oil and gas fields in Oklahoma, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacina, J.L.

    1979-05-01

    This index contains the current and discontinued names of the oil and gas fields in Oklahoma. They are listed according to assignments made by the Oklahoma Nomenclature Committee of the Kansas-Oklahoma Division, Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association. Also listed are some names which have been used locally or unofficially for certain areas. Included also are: (1) the date when the field was named; (2) the description of location by county, township, and section; and (3) a statement as to the disposition of a field when it was combined with other fields.

  5. Oil, gas field growth projections: Wishful thinking or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Mast, R.F.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The observed `field growth' for the period from 1992 through 1996 with the US Geological Survey's (USGS) predicted field growth for the same period are compared. Known field recovery of field size is defined as the sum of past cumulative field production and the field's proved reserves. Proved reserves are estimated quantities of hydrocarbons which geologic and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to recoverable from known fields under existing economic and operating conditions. Proved reserve estimates calculated with this definition are typically conservative. The modeling approach used by the USGS to characterize `field growth phenomena' is statistical rather that geologic in nature.

  6. Fine-particle sodium tracer for long-range transport of the Kuwaiti oil-fire smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowenthal, D.H.; Borys, R.D.; Rogers, C.F.; Chow, J.C.; Stevens, R.K.

    1993-04-23

    Evidence for long-range transport of the Kuwaiti oil-fire smoke during the months following the Persian Gulf War has been more or less indirect. However, more-recent data on the aerosol chemistry of Kuwaiti oil-fire plumes provides a direct link between those fires and aerosols collected at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) during the late spring and summer of 1991. By itself, temporal covariation of fine-particle concentrations of elemental carbon, sulfur, and the noncrustal V/Zn ratio in MLO aerosols suggested a link to large-scale oil-combustion sources, but not necessarily to Kuwait. However, high concentrations of fine-particle (0.1-1.0 microm diameter) NaCl were observed in the 'white' oil-fire plumes over Kuwait during the summer of 1991. In the absence of other demonstratable sources of fine-particle Na, these relationships provide a direct link between the Kuwaiti oil-fires and aerosol composition observed at MLO. (Copyright (c) 1993 American Geophysical Union.)

  7. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A. [INTEVEP S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  8. Field test and mathematical modeling of bioremediation of an oil-contaminated soil. Part 1: Field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.Y.; Xu, T.; Colapret, J.A.; Cawley, W.A.; Bonner, J.S.; Ernest, A.; Verramachaneni, P.B.

    1994-01-01

    A fire-wall area (about 270 ft x 310 ft) with the Bunker C oil contaminated soil was selected for the bioremediation field test. This fire-wall area was separated into 18 plots by dirt dikes to test 6 bioremediation methods with three tests of each method. The six treatment methods were: (a) aeration with basic nutrients and indigenous organisms (BNIO); (b) aeration with basic nutrients and inoculation from a refinery wastewater treatment facility (BNSIWT); (c) aeration with an oleophilic fertilizer and indigenous organisms (INIPOL); (d) aeration with basic nutrients and biosurfactant organisms (EPA Seal Beach consortia) (EPA); (e) aeration with proprietary nutrients and organisms (PRO); and (f) aeration only for active control (CONTROL). This field test was conducted for 91 days. In general the oil contents in 18 plots were reduced, but the results showed significant fluctuations. A statistical method was used to examine if the oil reductions of six methods were the results from the random error of sampling and sample analysis or biodegradation. The results of the statistical analysis showed that oil reduction was concluded from all but the plots of PRO. From the data analysis, it may be concluded that the oil reduction rate in these studies is controlled by oil transfer from soil into the aqueous solution. An example of calculation was used to illustrate this conclusion

  9. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

    2001-03-28

    Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

  10. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  11. Image Analysis in the Field of Oil Contamination Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ceco, Ema

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring wear particles in lubricating oils allows specialists to evaluate thehealth and functionality of a mechanical system. The main analysis techniquesavailable today are manual particle analysis and automatic optical analysis. Man-ual particle analysis is effective and reliable since the analyst continuously seeswhat is being counted . The drawback is that the technique is quite time demand-ing and dependent of the skills of the analyst. Automatic optical particle countingconstitutes o...

  12. Uncertainties in ecological epidemiology: A cautionary tale featuring kit foxes and oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1993-01-01

    Ecological epidemiology, like human epidemiology, often must employ encountered rather than statistically designed data set and must make comparisons among populations that differ in terms of various poorly defined confounding variables. These properties can result in false positive or false negative results if statistics are naively applied. The case in point is a study of a population of an endangered subspecies, the San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), inhabiting an oil field. The fox population abundance declined sharply following an increase in oil development until it was virtually absent from the developed portion of the field. It was decided that the possibility of toxicological effects would be investigated by analyzing historic and current hair samples. Metal concentrations were found to be statistically significantly higher for foxes from the developed area compared with those from undeveloped areas of the field. However, analysis of fur from two areas remote from oil fields and from another oil field indicated that the foxes from the developed portions of the subject oil field were not unusually metalliferous but that the foxes from the undeveloped portions were unusually low in metals. The conclusions of this study will be used to draw lessons for the design of studies in ecological epidemiology

  13. Redistribution of charged aluminum nanoparticles on oil droplets in water in response to applied electrical field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing, E-mail: dongqing@mme.uwaterloo.ca [University of Waterloo, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Janus droplets with two opposite faces of different physical or chemical properties have great potentials in many fields. This paper reports a new method for making Janus droplets by covering one side of the droplet with charged nanoparticles in an externally applied DC electric field. In this paper, aluminum oxide nanoparticles on micro-sized and macro-sized oil droplets were studied. In order to control the surface area covered by the nanoparticles on the oil droplets, the effects of the concentration of nanoparticle suspension, the droplet size as well as the strength of electric field on the final accumulation area of the nanoparticles are studied.Graphical abstract.

  14. Geochemical and petrographic investigation of Himmetoglu oil shale field, Goynuk, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, M.; Gundogdu, M.N. [General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Ankara (Turkey)

    1996-09-01

    The Himmetoglu field is a good example of oil shale fields in Turkey. Mineral and maceral types show that the huminite and liptinite groups tend to be associated with smectite, clinoptilolite and calcite in Himmetoglu oil shale, while the liptinite group is accompanied by analcime and dolomite in bituminous laminated marl. The pH value increases from bottom (pH {lt} 9) to top (pH {gt} 9) in the Himmetoglu formation and volcanogenic materials have played a very important role in deposition of organic matter. The negative correlation between trace elements and organic carbon suggests absence of enrichment of trace elements in oil shales. The results of g.c.-m.s. and carbon isotope analysis show that there is a decrease in the amount of terrestrial organic matter and a relative decrease in maturity of the organic matter in the vertical succession from Himmetoglu oil shape up to the bituminous laminated marl. 8 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Effect of external magnetic field on locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanuman Singh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have studied the effect of external applied magnetic field on the locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator. Injection locking of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer and fractional multiple of its auto oscillation frequency was demonstrated recently. Here we show that the locking range increases with increasing external magnetic field. We also show synchronization of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer (n=1,2,3 multiples of auto oscillation frequency and side band peaks at higher external magnetic field values. We have verified experimental results with macro-spin simulation using similar conditions as used for the experimental study.

  16. Effect of external magnetic field on locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanuman; Konishi, K.; Bose, A.; Bhuktare, S.; Miwa, S.; Fukushima, A.; Yakushiji, K.; Yuasa, S.; Kubota, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Tulapurkar, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work we have studied the effect of external applied magnetic field on the locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator. Injection locking of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer and fractional multiple of its auto oscillation frequency was demonstrated recently. Here we show that the locking range increases with increasing external magnetic field. We also show synchronization of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer (n=1,2,3) multiples of auto oscillation frequency and side band peaks at higher external magnetic field values. We have verified experimental results with macro-spin simulation using similar conditions as used for the experimental study.

  17. Oil palm and the emission of greenhouse gasses- from field measurements in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Niharika; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Giller, Ken E.; Magid, Jakob; van de Ven, Gerrie; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Palm oil from the oil palm (Elaeis guianensis) has in recent years become the world's most important vegetable oil. The increasing demand for palm oil has led to expansion of oil palm plantations, which has caused environmental controversies associated with carbon losses and the use of large amounts of mineral fertilizers. Efforts to increase sustainability of oil palm cultivation, include recycling of oil-mill residues and pruning's, but with this comes increased potential for methane emission from the plantations. Until now no field-based data on greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm plantations have been reported. Here for the first time we present data from a long term (360 days) field trial in Bah Lias Research Station, North Sumatra, Indonesia on greenhouse gas emissions from an oil palm plantation with various treatments of recycled oil palm waste products, fertilizers and simulated rainfall. The first experiment was conducted over a full year (dry + wet season) with mineral fertilizer treatments including urea and ammonium sulphate, and organic fertilizer treatments constituting: empty fruit bunches (EFB), enriched mulch (EFB + palm oil mill effluent (POME) ) and pruned oil palm fronds (OPF). Treatment doses represent the current management in Indonesian plantations and the higher doses that are expected in the imminent future. For the organic treatments several methods of application (applied in inter-rows, piles, patches or bands) were evaluated. The second experiment investigated effects of soil water saturation on GHG emissions through adding 25 mm simulated rainfall per day for 21 days. Each palm tree received 1 kg of N fertilizer as urea or ammonium sulphate and enriched mulch. The gas fluxes in the fields was measured by a large static-chamber (1.8 m x 1.2 m) method and CH4 and N2O concentrations were determined using gas chromatographs. We found that emissions were significantly affected by the type and dose of mineral fertilizers. Application of

  18. Microbial degradation of waste hydrocarbons in oily sludge from some Romanian oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, I.; Dobrota, S.; Voicu, A.; Stefanescu, M.; Sandulescu, L.; Petrisor, I.G.

    1999-01-01

    During oil production and processing activities, significant quantities of oily sludge are produced. The sludge represents not only an environmental pollution source but also occupies big spaces in storage tanks. Romania, an experienced European oil-producing and processing country, is faced with environmental problems generated by oily sludge accumulations. Many such accumulations are to be submitted to bioremediation processes based on the hydrocarbon degradation activity of naturally occurring, selectively isolated bacteria. In this paper the results concerning a laboratory screening of several natural bacterial consortia and laboratory tests to establish the performance in degradation of hydrocarbons contained in oily sludges from Otesti oil field area, are presented. As a result of the laboratory screening, we selected six natural bacterial consortia (BCSl-I 1 to BCSl-I 6 ) with high ability in degradation of hydrocarbons from paraffinic and non-paraffinic asphaltic oils (between 25.53%-64.30% for non-paraffinic asphaltic oil and between 50.25%-72.97% for paraffinic oil). The laboratory tests proved that microbial degradation of hydrocarbons contained in oily sludge from Otesti oil field area varied from 16.75% to 95.85% in moving conditions (Erlenmeyers of 750 ml on rotary shaker at 200 rpm) and from 16.85% to 51.85% in static conditions (Petri dishes Oe 10 cm or vessels of 500 ml)

  19. Investigation of an innovative technology for oil-field brine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskovic, D; Dalmacija, B; Hain, Z; Karlovic, E; Maric, S; Uzelac, N [Inst. of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, V. Vlahovica 2 (YU)

    1989-01-01

    Various aspects of an innovative technology for oil field brine treatment were investigated on a laboratory scale. The both free and dispersed oily matter were separated by gravitation and sedimentation. Apart from the physico-chemical oil removal process, special attention was paid to different variants of improved microbiological treatment: dilution with fresh water and application of powdered activated carbon (PAC). Advanced treatment was carried out on granular biological activated carbon (GBAC). A technological scheme for complete treatment was proposed. (author).

  20. Treatment And Disposal Options For Oil Field-Norm-Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, Sh.I.

    1999-01-01

    The presentation discusses the origin of NORM in gas and oil industries and the hazards arising from working with Natural Occurring Radioactive Material. This paper illustrates the positive steps taken related to personnel health,environmental impact, the extent of the problem, prevention and controlling, as well as handling and disposal control of radioactive material. The study aims at avoiding the release of contaminated substances into the surrounding environment and at taking radiation protection measures in order to prevent and / or limit the radiological risk involved in routine maintenance operations

  1. The influence of external field on the lubricity of mineral oil for railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Serhii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mineral oil is associated with its gradual operational degradation caused by its natural aging and contamination with various impurities. As the concentration of impurities increases, the number of active surface molecules which determine the operational properties of mineral oils decreases. A promising method of recovery of the operational properties of oils is the treatment with an electric field, which makes it possible to enhance the activity of surfactants in the tribo-contact area. This statement is proved through the improvement of the wettability of the bronze surface with mineral oils after their treatment with an electrostatic field. However, the method of electrical treatment is associated with the need to increase the requirements for the purity of liquids, especially to the presence of water, which requires creating an oil pre-treatment system. As an alternative, a method of electrical treatment with special field parameters is proposed enabling to accelerate the coalescence process. The major parameter that accelerates the coalescence process is the electric field oscillation frequency. The results of the study give grounds for choosing the optimal field parameters.

  2. On the determination of the dynamic properties of a transformer oil based ferrofluid in the frequency range 0.1-20 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannin, P. C.; Vekas, L.; Marin, C. N.; Malaescu, I.

    2017-02-01

    Complex susceptibility measurements provide a unique and efficient means for the investigation and determination of the dynamic properties of magnetic fluids. In particular, measurement of the frequency, f(Hz), and field, H(kA/m), dependent, complex susceptibility, χ(ω, Η)= χ‧(ω, Η)-iχ″(ω, Η), of magnetic fluids has proven to be a valuable and reliable technique for investigating such properties. The experimental data presented here was obtained from measurements of a transformer oil based ferrofluid, with measurements being performed over the frequency range 0.1-20 GHz and polarising fields 0-168 kA/m. In the case of transformer oil magnetic fluids, the normal measurement emphasis has been on the investigation of their dielectric properties, including the effects which lightning may have on these properties. Little has been reported on the measurement of the corresponding magnetic susceptibility, χ(ω), of such fluids and in this paper we address this fact. Thus we consider it worthwhile, in the case of a transformer with magnetic fluid transformer oil, being affected as a result of a lightening occurrence, to have knowledge of the fluids dynamic properties, at the microwave frequencies. In the process of determining the sample susceptibility profiles, it was found that the peak value of the χ″(ω) component, was approximately constant over the frequency range 2.4-6.3 GHz. From this it was determined that the fluid was effectively operating as a wideband absorber over a bandwidth of 3.9 GHz.

  3. Environmentally safe oil-field reagents for development and operation of oil-gas deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhreeva, A. V.; Manaure, D. A.; Dokichev, V. A.; Voloshin, A. I.; Telin, A. G.; Tomilov, Yu V.; Nifantiev, N. E.

    2018-04-01

    Sodium-carboxymethylcellulose and arabinogalactane inhibits the crystallization of calcium carbonate from a supersaturated aqueous solution at 80°C. The sizes of formed crystals CaCO3 in the presence of arabinogalactane, sodium-carboxymethylcellulose and neonol AF 9-10 decrease on an average 7-12 μm and a change of their structure. It is expected, that the mechanism of inhibitionis in specific adsorption polysaccharides and neonol on occurring crystalline surface of the calcium carbonate, both at the expense of electrostatic interaction of functional groups with Ca2+ ions, located on the surface of the crystal, and due to coordination and hydrogen bonds with oxygen atoms and HO-groups of additives. Oil-water emulsion rheology in the presence of neonol AF 9-10 has been studied. It is shown that neonol AF 9-10 decrease viscosity natural water-oil emulsion by 25 times. Addition of 5% neonol to water-oil emulsion leads to formation more than 20 stable emulsion forms of different density and composition. New highly effective “green” oilfield reagents have been developed on the basis of neonol and natural polysaccharides.

  4. Ionization induced by strong electromagnetic field in low dimensional systems bound by short range forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eminov, P.A., E-mail: peminov@mail.ru [Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Sciences, 20 Stromynka Street, Moscow 2107996 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 3/12 Bolshoy Trekhsvyatskiy pereulok, Moscow 109028 (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-01

    Ionization processes for a two dimensional quantum dot subjected to combined electrostatic and alternating electric fields of the same direction are studied using quantum mechanical methods. We derive analytical equations for the ionization probability in dependence on characteristic parameters of the system for both extreme cases of a constant electric field and of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The ionization probabilities for a superposition of dc and low frequency ac electric fields of the same direction are calculated. The impulse distribution of ionization probability for a system bound by short range forces is found for a superposition of constant and alternating fields. The total probability for this process per unit of time is derived within exponential accuracy. For the first time the influence of alternating electric field on electron tunneling probability induced by an electrostatic field is studied taking into account the pre-exponential term.

  5. Rock mechanics related to Jurassic underburden at Valdemar oil field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels

    1999-01-01

    .It has been initiated as a feasibility study of the North Jens-1 core 12 taken in the top Jurassic clay shale as a test specimens for integrated petrological, mineralogical and rock mechanical studies. Following topics are studied:(1) Pore pressure generation due to conversion of organic matter...... and deformation properties of the clay shale using the actual core material or outcrop equivalents.(3) Flushing mechanisms for oil and gas from source rocks due to possibly very high pore water pressure creating unstable conditions in deeply burried sedimentsThere seems to be a need for integrating the knowledge...... in a number of geosciences to the benefit of common understanding of important reservoir mechanisms. Rock mechanics and geotechnical modelling might be key points for this understanding of reservoir geology and these may constitute a platform for future research in the maturing and migration from the Jurassic...

  6. Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, G.J.; Mamora, D.D. [Texas A and M Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Laboratory experiments have been conducted at Texas A and M University to examine the use of steam additives such as propane, methane and nitrogen to improve the production of heavy oils and increase steam recovery efficiency. In particular, the use of steam-propane injection for heavy Hamaca crude oil with API gravity of 9.3 and viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50 degrees C was examined. Experimental runs involved the injection of steam or propane into injection cells at a constant rate, temperature and cell outlet pressure. The experimental results suggest that the use of steam-propane injection may translate to reduction of fuel costs for field injections. Initially, propane-steam injection resulted in a two-month oil production acceleration compared to pure steam injection. A significant gain in discounted revenue and savings in steam injection costs could be realized. The study also showed the oil product rate peak with steam-propane injection was much higher than that with pure steam injection. The oil production acceleration increases with increasing propane content. Oil recovery at the end of a five-year forecast period increases by 6.7 per cent of original oil in place (OOIP) compared to 2.3 per cent OOIP with pure steam injection. 12 refs., 6 tabs., 28 figs.

  7. Performance of Surfactant Methyl Ester Sulphonate solution for Oil Well Stimulation in reservoir sandstone TJ Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eris, F. R.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Permadi, P.

    2017-05-01

    Asphaltene, paraffin, wax and sludge deposition, emulsion and water blocking are kinds ofprocess that results in a reduction of the fluid flow from the reservoir into formation which causes a decrease of oil wells productivity. Oil well Stimulation can be used as an alternative to solve oil well problems. Oil well stimulation technique requires applying of surfactant. Sodium Methyl Ester Sulphonate (SMES) of palm oil is an anionic surfactant derived from renewable natural resource that environmental friendly is one of potential surfactant types that can be used in oil well stimulation. This study was aimed at formulation SMES as well stimulation agent that can identify phase transitions to phase behavior in a brine-surfactant-oil system and altered the wettability of rock sandstone and limestone. Performance of SMES solution tested by thermal stability test, phase behavioral examination and rocks wettability test. The results showed that SMES solution (SMES 5% + xylene 5% in the diesel with addition of 1% NaCl at TJformation water and SMES 5% + xylene 5% in methyl ester with the addition of NaCl 1% in the TJ formation water) are surfactant that can maintain thermal stability, can mostly altered the wettability toward water-wet in sandstone reservoir, TJ Field.

  8. Effective use of complex secondary recovery methods in operation of small oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, M R; Akulov, V P; Khutorov, A M

    1966-11-01

    The North Sokhs Field, located in the southern part of the Fergen depression, is composed of many horizons and has an anticlinal structure. The eighth horizon has highest oil saturation, with an average porosity of 17% and permeability of 80 md. Poor oil recovery was initially obtained from this horizon because the basic producing mechanism was solution gas drive. In 1961, when reservoir pressure was 94 kg/cmU2D and gas factor was 700-800mU3D/ton, pressure maintenance was initiated by injection of gas to the structure. Gas injection improved oil recovery considerably; however, high gas-oil ratios appeared in several wells. Next, peripheral water injection was started, and continued simultaneously with gas injection. The simultaneous injection of gas and water almost doubled oil production. Because of continued, high produced gas/oil ratios, gas injection was eventually discontinued, while water injection was continued. Water injection is building up reservoir pressure and improving oil recovery.

  9. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

  10. Multivariate statisticalmethods applied to interpretation of saturated biomarkers (Velebit oil field, SE Pannonian Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA SOLEVIC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five crude oils originating from the Velebit oil field (SE Pannonian Basin, the most important oil field in Serbia, were investigated. Saturated biomarkers (n-alkanes, isoprenoids, steranes and triterpanes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Based on the distribution and abundance of these compounds, a large number of source and maturation parameters were calculated, particularly those most often used in correlation studies of oils. The examined samples were classified according to their origin and level of thermal maturity using factor, cluster and discriminant analyses. According to the source and maturation parameters, combined factor and cluster analyses using the Ward method enabled the categorization of the investigated oils into three groups. The cluster Ward analysis was shown to be of greater susceptibility and reliability. However, in addition to the two aforementioned methods, K-Means cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were shown to be necessary for a more precise and detailed categorization in the case of a large number of samples in one group. Consequently, it was concluded that factor and cluster K-Means andWard analyses can generally be used for the interpretation of saturated biomarkers in correlation studies of oils, but the observed results have to be checked, i.e., confirmed by discriminant analysis.

  11. Field development planning for an offshore extra heavy oil in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G.; Anguiano-Rojas, J. [PEMEX Exploration and Production, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a phased development strategy for an offshore extra-heavy oil development located in the Gulf of Mexico. The Ayatsil-1 oil field is located in an upper Cretaceous brecciated formation. One of the primary concerns of the project is the infrastructure that is needed to handle low reservoir temperatures and high viscosity, low gravity API oil. A delineation well was drilled in order to confirm the areal extension of the reservoir. The field contains an estimated 3.1 billion barrels of oil-in-place. The project will involve the installation of fixed platforms and production platforms. Electric submersible pumps (ESPs) and multiphase pumps will be used to transport the oil from between 17 to 25 wells. Analyses were conducted to determine transport mechanisms as well as gathering networks in both stationary and transitory regimes. The viscosity of live and dead oil in the reservoirs must be accurately measured in relation to temperature in order to define the artificial systems that will be used to reduce viscosity. Results from several studies will be used to determine the feasibility of various chemical, thermal, and diluent applications. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Computational Flow Dynamic Simulation of Micro Flow Field Characteristics Drainage Device Used in the Process of Oil-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous crude oil often contains large amounts of produced water and heavy sediment, which seriously threats the safety of crude oil storage and transportation. Therefore, the proper design of crude oil tank drainage device is prerequisite for efficient purification of aqueous crude oil. In this work, the composition and physicochemical properties of crude oil samples were tested under the actual conditions encountered. Based on these data, an appropriate crude oil tank drainage device was developed using the principle of floating ball and multiphase flow. In addition, the flow field characteristics in the device were simulated and the contours and streamtraces of velocity magnitude at different nine moments were obtained. Meanwhile, the improvement of flow field characteristics after the addition of grids in crude oil tank drainage device was validated. These findings provide insights into the development of effective selection methods and serve as important references for oil-water separation process.

  13. Economic study of NHR application on high pour point oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Gang; Zhang Zuoyi; Ma Yuanle

    1997-01-01

    In order to extent the application of NHR (nuclear heating reactor) and cut down the oil production costs, the authors designed different heating disposition by NHR and boiler heating stations in high pour point oil reservoir, total 16.9 km 2 , in Daqing oil field. This work was based on the study of history matching, water flood planning and hot water circulation for the reservoir. The analyzing results show that, the convert heating cost of NHR is a third of boiler's and the net oil production of NHR is 4 times more than the latter. Considering economization and reliability, authors suggest to adopt the scheme of two NHR with one boiler heating station

  14. Application of bio-huff-`n`-puff technology at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Yan-Fed Xue; Gang Dai; Ling Zhao [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An enriched culture 48, capable of adapting to the reservoir conditions and fermenting molasses to produce gas and acid, was used as an inoculum for bio- huff-`n`-puff tests at Fuyu oil area of Jilin oil field. The production well was injected with water containing 4-6% (v/v) molasses and inoculum, and then shut in. After 15-21 days, the well was placed back in operation. A total of 44 wells were treated, of which only two wells showed no effects. The daily oil production of treated wells increased by 33.3-733.3%. Up to the end of 1994, the oil production was increased by 204 tons per well on average. Results obtained from various types of production wells were discussed.

  15. Methodology for oil field development; Metodologia para o desenvolvimento de campos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeano, Yadira Diaz

    1998-07-01

    The main scope of this work is to study and develop a methodology which allows the elaboration of project for oil field development. There fore it is necessary to consider to consider the integration of the human, technological and economical issues that are important parameters in the engineering project. The spiral concept was applied for the project in order to coordinate, in a reasonable and logical way, the activities involved in the field development, as well as the hierarchical analysis method for the decision making process. The development of an oil field is divided in viability study, preliminary project, final project, project implementation, production and field abandonment cycles. The main components for each cycle are external aspects, environmental criteria, reservoir management, and drilling, completion and well workover, production systems, exportation systems, and risk and economical analysis. The proposed methodology establishes a general scheme for planning and it presents applicable procedures for any field. (author)

  16. Influence of carbon dioxide on the fluid properties and calculation of initial oil in place of the Sandrovac field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krizmanic, K; Peric, M

    1973-01-01

    The aim of this study is to acquaint the reader with the essential physical and production properties of the Sandrovac oil field. Extreme containment of carbon dioxide in fluids was encountered. Ranging in some places to 80%, this greatly influences physical properties of saturating fluids, and requires the study of the closest association of the content of carbon dioxide and physical parameters of fluids. At the same time, it enables the application of a qualitatively new and very efficient method of increasing the fluid recovery method of oil displacement by carbon dioxide. Principles and methods of calculating and processing the PVT data, capillary pressure, fluid saturations, relative permeabilities, and material balance calculations for tectonic blocks and hydrodynamic units, are given. (11 refs.)

  17. Effect of cold water injection on operation of and oil production from formations of Romashkino field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingareev, R Sh; Vakhitov, G G; Sultanov, S A

    1968-11-01

    Each year about 130 million cu m of cold water are injected into this field. Since cold water can lower reservoir temperature, increase oil viscosity, deposit paraffin in the formation, and reduce oil recovery, a thermal survey of this field was conducted. The survey showed that the average reservoir temperature was not reduced by cold-water injection for 15 yr. However, local cooling was observed at distances less than 400 m from the water injection well. Through these wells more than 4 PV of water have passed. The thermal front lags 1,500 m behind the advancing water front. For this reason, cold-water injection does not reduce oil recovery where there is uniform advance of the floodwater. When the formation is heterogeneous so that water advances more rapidly in high-permeability sand than in adjoining low-permeability sand, then the cooling effect can reduce oil recovery. For this reason, it is advisable to force water into the entire interval of the oil formation. An isotherm map of the Romashkino field is shown.

  18. Fiber optic probe of free electron evanescent fields in the optical frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Jin-Kyu, E-mail: js1m10@orc.soton.ac.uk; MacDonald, Kevin F. [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zheludev, Nikolay I. [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2014-05-19

    We introduce an optical fiber platform which can be used to interrogate proximity interactions between free-electron evanescent fields and photonic nanostructures at optical frequencies in a manner similar to that in which optical evanescent fields are sampled using nanoscale aperture probes in scanning near-field microscopy. Conically profiled optical fiber tips functionalized with nano-gratings are employed to couple electron evanescent fields to light via the Smith-Purcell effect. We demonstrate the interrogation of medium energy (30–50 keV) electron fields with a lateral resolution of a few micrometers via the generation and detection of visible/UV radiation in the 700–300 nm (free-space) wavelength range.

  19. Effect of oil-pipelines existed in HVTL corridor on the electric field distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, H.M. [College of Technological Studies, Kuwait (Kuwait). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The overhead transmission of large amounts of electricity over long distances requires high transmission voltages which can generate high electric fields that may have harmful effects on both human and animals. Therefore, corridors or right-of-way are left on both sides along the route of transmission lines. Overhead power transmission lines need strips of land to be designated as rights-of-way. These strips of land can also support other uses such as pipelines, railroads and highways. The primary purpose for minimizing the field effects of high voltage AC lines is to reduce the electric field at ground level. This study investigated the effects of oil-pipelines running parallel to the lines in the rights-of-way corridors on the electric fields generated from high voltage electrical networks in Kuwait. In order to examine the impact of certain design parameters on the electric field distribution near the ground surface, this study varied the oil pipelines diameter, the proximity of the pipeline from the transmission line center and the number of pipelines. The objective was to determine if the amount of land which is required as right-of-way can be reduced. This study also examined the effect of two parallel oil pipelines on the field distribution. Both pipelines were separated by a given distance and ran parallel to the transmission line conductors. The charge simulation method (CSM) was used to simulate and model both the conductors of the transmission lines and the oil-pipelines. Graphs for the electric field distribution profiles at the ground surface, at transmission line conductors' surfaces and at the surfaces of the oil pipelines were presented and evaluated for each scenario. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  20. The Prestige oil spill: bacterial community dynamics during a field biostimulation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, N; Solanas, A M [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Vinas, M [GIRO Technological Centre, Mollet del Valles (Spain); Bayona, J M; Albaiges, J [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2007-12-15

    A field bioremediation assay using the oleophilic fertilizer S200 was carried out 12 months after the Prestige heavy fuel-oil spill on a beach on the Cantabrian coast (north Spain). This assay showed that S200-enhanced oil degradation, particularly of high-molecular-weight n-alkanes and alkylated PAHs, suggesting an increase in the microbial bioavailability of these compounds. The bacterial community structure was determined by cultivation-independent analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterial community was mainly composed of {alpha}-Proteobacteria (Rhodobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae). Representatives of {gamma}-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales, Moraxellaceae, and Halomonadaceae), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriaceae), and Actinobacteria group (Nocardiaceae and Corynebacteriaceae) were also found. The addition of the fertilizer led to the appearance of the bacterium Mesonia algae in the early stages, with a narrow range of growth substrates, which has been associated with the common alga Achrosiphonia sonderi. The presence of Mesonia algae may be attributable to the response of the microbial community to the addition of N and P rather than indicating a role in the biodegradation process. The Rhodococcus group appeared in both assay plots, especially at the end of the experiment. It was also found at another site on the Galician coast that had been affected by the same spill. This genus has been associated with the degradation of n-alkanes up to C{sub 36}. Taking into account the high content of heavy alkanes in the Prestige fuel, these microorganisms could play a significant role in the degradation of such fuel. A similar bacterial community structure was observed at another site that showed a similar degree of fuel weathering. (orig.)

  1. Economic and fiscal aspects of oil and gas field abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The abandonment of fields in the North Sea raises a number of physical, environmental, and economic issues. Key economic aspects are (a) the costs incurred in the abandonment operations: (b), the criteria to be employed in determining the optimal timing of field abandonment; (c), the fiscal reliefs available for the expenditures incurred; and, (d) the (financial) security aspects relating to the activity. These topics are discussed in this paper with particular reference to the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS). Comparisons with Norway and the Netherlands are made on the fiscal aspects. (Author)

  2. Biogeographic patterns of microbial communities from different oil-contaminated fields in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yuting; Li, Guanghe [School of Environment, Tsinghua University (China); Zhou, Ji zhong [Institute for Environmental Genomics, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma (United States)], email: jzhou@ou.edu

    2011-07-01

    Some striking biological challenges of the 21st century include linking biodiversity to ecosystem functions, information scaling, and linking genomics to ecology. This paper discusses the biogeographic patterns of microbial communities from various oil-contaminated fields in China. Two kinds of high throughput approaches are used, open format and closed format. Key differences between them are outlined. The GeoChip, or functional gene array (FGA) approach is presented. This is a high throughput tool for linking community structure to functions. Its main advantages are its high resolution and detecting functions. This approach was applied to soils, bioreactors and ground waters, among others. Issues related to specificity, sensitivity and quantification are listed. An overview of the microarray analysis is given. This is applied to the BP oil spill. 100 samples were chosen from representative oil fields to study the biogeographic patterns of microbial communities in China. The complete study is presented with the results.

  3. Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

  4. Surface impedance of superconductors in wide frequency ranges for wake field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovskii, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of the surface impedance of superconductors in wide frequency ranges for calculations of wake fields, generated by bunches of charged particles moving axially inside a metallic vacuum chambers, is solved. The case of specular electron reflection at the superconductor surface is considered. The expression for the surface impedance of superconductors suitable for numerical computation is derived [ru

  5. Preventing the settling of salts of calcium and magnesium in oil production on the Boka oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katincic, Z

    1972-01-01

    The results are given of laboratory and plant tests of the influence of sodium hexametaphosphate on the prevention of separation and settling of the salts of calcium and magnesium in the pipelines of the Boka oil field. All the former methods of fighting the salts consisted in dissolving the sediments of salt and paraffin in pipelines and the obligatory holding up of production, which required a loss in production in addition to material costs. By using the sodium hexametaphosphate, the settling of Ca and Mg salts in pipelines was prevented without holding up the production at considerably smaller cost.

  6. Is Low-field NMR a Complementary Tool to GC-MS in Quality Control of Essential Oils? A Case Study: Patchouli Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andre; Wu, Yu; Tian, Runtao; van Beek, Teris A

    2018-04-24

    High-field NMR is an expensive and important quality control technique. In recent years, cheaper and simpler low-field NMR has become available as a new quality control technique. In this study, 60 MHz 1 H-NMR was compared with GC-MS and refractometry for the detection of adulteration of essential oils, taking patchouli essential oil as a test case. Patchouli essential oil is frequently adulterated, even today. In total, 75 genuine patchouli essential oils, 10 commercial patchouli essential oils, 10 other essential oils, 17 adulterants, and 1 patchouli essential oil, spiked at 20% with those adulterants, were measured. Visual inspection of the NMR spectra allowed for easy detection of 14 adulterants, while gurjun and copaiba balsams proved difficult and one adulterant could not be detected. NMR spectra of 10 random essential oils differed not only strongly from patchouli essential oil but also from one another, suggesting that fingerprinting by low-field NMR is not limited to patchouli essential oil. Automated chemometric evaluation of NMR spectra was possible by similarity analysis (Mahalanobis distance) based on the integration from 0.1 - 8.1 ppm in 0.01 ppm increments. Good quality patchouli essential oils were recognised as well as 15 of 17 deliberate adulterations. Visual qualitative inspection by GC-MS allowed for the detection of all volatile adulterants. Nonvolatile adulterants, and all but one volatile adulterant, could be detected by semiquantitation. Different chemometric approaches showed satisfactory results. Similarity analyses were difficult with nonvolatile adulterants. Refractive index measurements could detect only 8 of 17 adulterants. Due to advantages such as simplicity, rapidity, reproducibility, and ability to detect nonvolatile adulterants, 60 MHz 1 H-NMR is complimentary to GC-MS for quality control of essential oils. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Zero mass field quantization and Kibble's long-range force criterion for the Goldstone theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    The central theme of the dissertation is an investigation of the long-range force criterion used by Kibble in his discussion of the Goldstone Theorem. This investigation is broken up into the following sections: I. Introduction. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone Theorem and the conditions under which it holds are discussed. II. Massless Wave Expansions. In order to make explicit calculations of the operator commutators used in applying Kibble's criterion, it is necessary to work out the operator expansions for a massless field. Unusual results are obtained which include operators corresponding to classical macroscopic field modes. III. The Kibble Criterion for Simple Models Exhibiting Spontaneously Broken Symmetries. The results of the previous section are applied to simple models with spontaneously broken symmetries, namely, the real scalar massless field and the Goldstone model without gauge coupling. IV. The Higgs Mechanism in Classical Field Theory. It is shown that the Higgs Mechanism has a simple interpretation in terms of classical field theory, namely, that it arises from a derivative coupling term between the Goldstone fields and the gauge fields. V. The Higgs Mechanism and Kibble's Criterion. This section draws together the material discussed in sections II to IV. Explicit calculations are made to evaluate Kibble's criterion on a Goldstone-Higgs type of model in the Coulomb gauge. It is found, as expected, that the criterion is not met, but not for reasons relating to the range of the mediating force. By referring to the findings of sections III and IV, it is concluded that the common denominator underlying both the Higgs Mechanism and the failure of Kibble's criterion is a structural aspect of the field equations: derivative coupling between fields

  8. Efficiency of preliminary discharge of stratum water in Tuymazinskoe oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhametova, E. M.; Akimov, A. V.; Kalinina, S. V.; Fatkullin, I. F.; Gizetdinov, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The high water content of oil is a common occurrence for many Russian fields at the late stage of development. Due to the elimination of associated water in oil, the overload of field pipelines often takes place. Products are often collected by a one-pipe system, which means that the formation water is discharged using special plants PWDS. Research workers have made it clear that the complexity of production “BashNIPIneft” and OGPD “Tuymazaneft” on Tuimazy field was due to the fact that the collection of production, in most cases, uses a centralized system, which loses its advantages when there is a large content of water in the emulsions. Research has indicated that the reagents, used in the field, proved to be ineffective, as the oil of Devonian formations is heavily saturated with paraffins. But, ultimately, the most effective agents for the destruction of emulsions have been nonetheless identified. This paper describes the implementation of the system of track discharge of formation water, which is currently in use for many oil companies not only in Russia but also worldwide.

  9. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  10. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  11. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations

  12. Evaluation of miscible and immiscible CO2 injection in one of the Iranian oil fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Hashemi Fath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 flooding is one of the most important methods for enhanced oil recovery (EOR because it not only increases oil recovery efficiency but also causes a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It is a very complex system, involving phase behavior that could increase the recovery of oil by means of swelling, evaporation and decreasing viscosity of the oil. In this study, a reservoir modeling approach was used to evaluate immiscible and miscible CO2 flooding in a fractured oil field. To reduce simulation time, we grouped fluid components into 10 pseudo-components. The 3-parameter, Peng–Robinson Equation of State (EOS was used to match PVT experimental data by using the PVTi software. A one-dimensional slim-tube model was defined using ECLIPSE 300 software to determine the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP for injection of CO2. We used FloGrid software for making a reservoir static model and the reservoir model was calibrated using manual and assisted history matching methods. Then various scenarios of natural depletion, immiscible and miscible CO2 injection have been simulated by ECLIPSE 300 software and then the simulation results of scenarios have been compared. Investigation of simulation results shows that the oil recovery factor in miscible CO2 injection scenario is more than other methods.

  13. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-08

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations.

  14. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1994 through 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (compliance costs and lease availability) have a significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas equipment and production operations

  15. Rhizosphere biodegradation of xenobiotics: Microbiological study of a rice field polluted by oil refinery residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasolomanana, J.L.; Balandreau, J.

    1987-07-01

    A rice field had been studied in which the disposal of oil residues from a refinery plant seemed to improve rice growth and soil N content. To check the hypothesis that nitrogen fixation by oil-adapted bacteria could explain this observation we isolated and studied dominant diazotrophic bacteria from the rhizosphere of an actively N/sub 2/-fixing rice plant growing on the polluted soil; for this purpose we used an axenic plant as an enrichment step. The rhizosphere did not contain more than 10/sup 5/ N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria per g dry soil, essentially Bacillus polymyxa; one of the isolates, strain R3 could grow and reduce C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ on oil residues only in the presence of glucose or of exudates from an axenic plant (spermosphere model); the presence of R3 diminished the inhibition of rice growth due to the oil residues; R3 nitrogenase activity in the rhizosphere of rice was increased in the presence of these residues. This cometabolism of oil residues in the presence of exudates and their stimulating effect on N/sub 2/ fixation provide a likely explanation for observed positive effects of the disposal of oil residues on arable lands, and are conducive to the hypothesis that rhizosphere cometabolism could greatly enhance soil organic matter turn over and humification rates.

  16. Linear least-squares method for global luminescent oil film skin friction field analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taekjin; Nonomura, Taku; Asai, Keisuke; Liu, Tianshu

    2018-06-01

    A data analysis method based on the linear least-squares (LLS) method was developed for the extraction of high-resolution skin friction fields from global luminescent oil film (GLOF) visualization images of a surface in an aerodynamic flow. In this method, the oil film thickness distribution and its spatiotemporal development are measured by detecting the luminescence intensity of the thin oil film. From the resulting set of GLOF images, the thin oil film equation is solved to obtain an ensemble-averaged (steady) skin friction field as an inverse problem. In this paper, the formulation of a discrete linear system of equations for the LLS method is described, and an error analysis is given to identify the main error sources and the relevant parameters. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the LLS method and the effects of the image patterns, image noise, and sample numbers on the results in comparison with the previous snapshot-solution-averaging (SSA) method. An experimental case is shown to enable the comparison of the results obtained using conventional oil flow visualization and those obtained using both the LLS and SSA methods. The overall results show that the LLS method is more reliable than the SSA method and the LLS method can yield a more detailed skin friction topology in an objective way.

  17. Structure and viscosity of a transformer oil-based ferrofluid under an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajnak, M., E-mail: rajnak@saske.sk [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice (Slovakia); Timko, M.; Kopcansky, P.; Paulovicova, K. [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Tothova, J.; Kurimsky, J.; Dolnik, B.; Cimbala, R. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice (Slovakia); Avdeev, M.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Moscow region, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Petrenko, V.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Moscow region, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Feoktystov, A. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    Various structural changes of ferrofluids have been intensively studied under external magnetic fields. In this work we present an experimental evidence of similar changes induced by an electric field. In the context of the electric field effect on ferrofluids structure, we studied a simple ferrofluid consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and dispersed in transformer oil. The structural changes have been observed both on macroscopic and microscopic scale. We also demonstrate a remarkable impact of the electric field on the ferrofluid viscosity in relation to the reported structural changes. It was found that the electric field induced viscosity changes are analogous to the magnetoviscous effect. These changes and the electroviscous effect are believed to stem from the dielectric permittivity contrast between the iron oxide nanoparticles and transformer oil, giving rise to the effective electric polarization of the nanoparticles. It is highlighted that this electrorheological effect should be considered in studies of ferrofluids for high voltage engineering applications, as it can have impact on the thermomagnetic convection or the dielectric breakdown performance. - Highlights: • An experimental evidence of the electric field induced structural changes in a ferrofluid is presented. • An electroviscous effect in the transformer oil-based ferrofluid is shown. • The dielectric contrast between the particles and the carrier fluid is the key factor. • The potential impact on the thermomagnetic convection of ferrofluids in power transformers is highlighted.

  18. The effect of 25 years of oil field flow line service on epoxy fiberglass pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    Glass fiber reinforced epoxy and vinyl ester piping systems have been used for over 35 years to control corrosion problems in oil fields and chemical and industrial plants and many case histories have been reported to document the successful performances of fiberglass reinforced thermosetting plastics in a wide range of corrosive services. This information is reinforced by laboratory test data from flat laminates and pipe exposed to numerous chemicals and mixtures of chemicals, but little has been published to document the effect of long-term, in-service exposure on fiberglass equipment. The purpose of this paper is to help to fill this void by comparing data from physical testing of pipe removed from successful corrosive service applications with data obtained from the same type of pipe at the time of manufacture. The information supplied in these papers represents only a few of the successful applications of filament wound epoxy and vinyl ester pipe as it is difficult to obtain permission to remove pipe from an operating line

  19. Geochemical haloes as an indication of over oil and gas fields in the Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Hydrocarbon deposits at the Arctic shelf of Russia are a source of jet dispersion of heavy metals that forms haloes in sediments and in the bottom layer of sea water. The intensity of the haloes and their spatial position are jointly determined by geological structure of their source and the environment, i.e., hydrocarbon deposits in host rocks, seafloor lithodynamics and oceanographic factors. Based on theoretical works of Kholmyansky and Putikov (2000; 2006; 2008), an application of electrochemical modification of electric prospecting for offshore hydrocarbon exploration and detailed survey of the morphology of deposits was developed. Specialized equipment was developed for studies of electrochemical features of bottom water layer. With this equipment one can detect ion anomalies in water and determine the type of deposit as gas, gas hydrate, gas condensate or oil. At operation, the unit with equipment is towed underwater off the stern of research vessel. Type and configuration of deposits are determined based on occurrence of trace heavy metals detected by ion-selective electrodes. The proposed method was applied to study a few hydrocarbon fields in Barents and Kara seas in 2001 -2012 including Shtokman, Medyn, Polyarnoe, Prirazlomnoye and others. The results allowed us to trace the margins of the deposits in more detail, and geochemical data, in addition, showed the type of deposits. In general, the method has proven efficient and applicable to a wide range of hydrocarbon deposits.

  20. Analysis and suppression of reflections in far-field antenna measurement ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Castañer, Manuel; Cano Facila, Francisco Jose; Foged, Lars Jacob; Saccardi, Francesco; Nader Kawassaki, Guilherme; Raimundi, Lucas dos Reis; Vilela Rezende, Stefano Albino

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the reflections in two kind of spherical far field ranges: one if the classical acquisition where the AUT is rotated and the second one corresponds to the systems where the AUT is fixed and the antenna probe is rotated. In large far field systems this is not possible, but this can be used to the measurement of small antennas, for instance, with the SATIMO StarGate system. In both cases, it is assumed that only one frequency is acquired and the results shoul...

  1. Exploration and development of offshore oil and gas fields. [North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    In the last 9 years, the British companies, based on their rich engineering and commercial experience, have directed a considerable part of their material and manpower resources at developing oil and gas fields in the North Sea. The technological innovations used by British industry are: aero- and marine surveys to prospect for oil, underwater laying of pipelines, arrangement of platforms, etc.; exploratory drilling in the open sea and on dry land; design of platforms with regard for the depth of the water and unique weather conditions of the North Sea, their assembly and development; use of auxiliary ships and helicopters, and diving equipment.

  2. The experimental research of a field-enhanced multichannel oil switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, R.; Zeng, N.; Yang, D.; Jiang, X.; Wang, X.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of a field enhanced multichannel oil switch which is used as the main switch of HEAVEN-LIGHT II intense pulsed electron beam accelerator at CIAE. The switch experiments have been carried out with different inductance of the solenoid inductor in series with a self-closing axial gap and position and diameter of the trigger disc. The experiments using water as a breakdown medium of the switch have been done to compare with oil switch. These experimental results and conclusions are presented in the paper

  3. Occurrence, sources and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around oil wells in the border regions between oil fields and suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Wen; Li, Tian-Yuan; Ji, Lei; Wang, Lei-Lei; Zheng, Li-Wen; Wang, Jia-Ning; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-08-15

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical region where oil fields generally overlap cities and towns, leading to complex soil contamination from both the oil fields and human activities. To clarify the distribution, speciation, potential sources and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of border regions between oil fields and suburbs of the YRD, 138 soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected among 12 sampling sites located around oil wells with different extraction histories. The 16 priority control PAHs (16PAHs), as selected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were extracted via an accelerated solvent extraction and detected by GC-MS. The results showed that soils of the study area were generally polluted by the 16PAHs. Among these pollutions, chrysene and phenanthrene were the dominant components, and 4-ring PAHs were the most abundant. A typical temporal distribution pattern of the 16PAHs was revealed in soils from different sampling sites around oil wells with different exploitation histories. The concentrations of total 16PAHs and high-ring PAHs (HPAHs) both increased with the extraction time of the nearby oil wells. Individual PAH ratios and PCA method revealed that the 16PAHs in soil with newly developed oil wells were mainly from petroleum pollutants, whereas PAHs in soils around oil wells with a long exploitation history were probably from petroleum contamination; combustion of petroleum, fuel, and biomass; and degradation and migration of PAHs from petroleum. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the health risks of the 7 carcinogenic PAHs and 9 non-carcinogenic PAHs in the study area. The results indicated that ingestion and dermal contact were the predominant pathways of exposure to PAH residues in soils. Both the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic burden of the 16PAHs in soils of the oil field increased significantly with exploitation time of nearby oil wells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Effects of two diamine biocides on the microbial community from an oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telang, A.; Voordouw, G.; Ebert, S.; Foght, J. M.; Westlake, D. W. S.

    1998-01-01

    Oil production facilities are routinely treated with biocides to control or eliminate microbes responsible for souring odor, or microbially influenced corrosion. In this study the effects of diamine biocides A and B on the microbial population from an oil field were investigated using reverse sample genome probing (RSGP), a technique designed to track multiple oil field bacteria in a single assay. RSGP studies of sessile microbial populations scraped from corrosion coupons obtained from biocide-treated oil field installations indicate dominance of Desulfovibrio species Lac6 and Eth3. Laboratory studies suggest that batchwise application of high doses (400 ppm) of biocide A is capable of killing planktonic populations of Desulfovibrio spp. Lac6 and Eth3. Batchwise application of similar doses of biocide B did not have this effect. Overall results indicate that the application of 400 ppm biocide B and 40 ppm biocide A may actually promote survival of selected Desulfovibrio spp., which may then effectively colonize available metal surfaces. 15 refs., 3 figs

  5. Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin: reservoir characterization for improved well completion and oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Morgan, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    Bluefield Field is the largest oil-producing area in the Unita basin of northern Utah. The field inclucdes over 300 wells and has produced 137 Mbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10 500-13 000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta Basin withi reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.Bluebell field is the largest oil-producing area in the Uinta basin of northern Utah. The field includes over 300 wells and has produced 137 MMbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine

  6. Short-range correlations in an extended time-dependent mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madler, P.

    1982-01-01

    A generalization is performed of the time-dependent mean-field theory by an explicit inclusion of strong short-range correlations on a level of microscopic reversibility relating them to realistic nucleon-nucleon forces. Invoking a least action principle for correlated trial wave functions, equations of motion for the correlation functions and the single-particle model wave function are derived in lowest order of the FAHT cluster expansion. Higher order effects as well as long-range correlations are consider only to the extent to which they contribute to the mean field via a readjusted phenomenological effective two-body interaction. The corresponding correlated stationary problem is investigated and appropriate initial conditions to describe a heavy ion reaction are proposed. The singleparticle density matrix is evaluated

  7. Optimization of lift gas allocation in a gas lifted oil field as non-linear optimization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper allocation and distribution of lift gas is necessary for maximizing total oil production from a field with gas lifted oil wells. When the supply of the lift gas is limited, the total available gas should be optimally distributed among the oil wells of the field such that the total production of oil from the field is maximized. This paper describes a non-linear optimization problem with constraints associated with the optimal distribution of the lift gas. A non-linear objective function is developed using a simple dynamic model of the oil field where the decision variables represent the lift gas flow rate set points of each oil well of the field. The lift gas optimization problem is solved using the emph'fmincon' solver found in MATLAB. As an alternative and for verification, hill climbing method is utilized for solving the optimization problem. Using both of these methods, it has been shown that after optimization, the total oil production is increased by about 4. For multiple oil wells sharing lift gas from a common source, a cascade control strategy along with a nonlinear steady state optimizer behaves as a self-optimizing control structure when the total supply of lift gas is assumed to be the only input disturbance present in the process. Simulation results show that repeated optimization performed after the first time optimization under the presence of the input disturbance has no effect in the total oil production.

  8. Injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with super-high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-09-01

    We studied the origin of injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with anomalously high formation pressures (AHFP). Using fields in Azerbaydzhan and Chechen-Ingushetiya as an example, we demonstrate the effect of certain factors (in particular, faults and zones of increased macro- and micro-jointing) on the morpholoy of the halos. The intensity of micro-jointing (jointing permeability, three-dimensional density of micro-jointing) is directly connected with vertical dimensions of the halos. We measured halos based on transverse profiles across the Khayan-Kort field and studied the distribution of bitumen saturation within the injection halo. Discovery of injection halos during drilling has enabled us to improve the technology of wiring deep-seated exploratory wells for oil and gas in regions with development of AHFP.

  9. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.

  10. Mass transfer of H2O between petroleum and water: implications for oil field water sample quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCartney, R.A.; Ostvold, T.

    2005-01-01

    Water mass transfer can occur between water and petroleum during changes in pressure and temperature. This process can result in the dilution or concentration of dissolved ions in the water phase of oil field petroleum-water samples. In this study, PVT simulations were undertaken for 4 petroleum-water systems covering a range of reservoir conditions (80-185 o C; 300-1000 bar) and a range of water-petroleum mixtures (volume ratios of 1:1000-300:1000) to quantify the extent of H 2 O mass transfer as a result of pressure and temperature changes. Conditions were selected to be relevant to different types of oil field water sample (i.e. surface, downhole and core samples). The main variables determining the extent of dilution and concentration were found to be: (a) reservoir pressure and temperature, (b) pressure and temperature of separation of water and petroleum, (c) petroleum composition, and (d) petroleum:water ratio (PWR). The results showed that significant dilution and concentration of water samples could occur, particularly at high PWR. It was not possible to establish simple guidelines for identifying good and poor quality samples due to the interplay of the above variables. Sample quality is best investigated using PVT software of the type used in this study. (author)

  11. Ecological aspects in construction of West Siberian oil field surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scvortzov, I.D.; Crushin, P.N.

    1991-01-01

    The exploitation of arctic regions, where permanently frozen grounds are widespread, leads to problems concerning the climate and the geo-cryological environment. One of the most urgent tasks is to minimize effects on the environment, otherwise irreversible, catastrophic processes, the deterioration of permafrost into swamps, fouling subsoil waters and rivers, ground surface pollution with petroleum products, and destruction of fish and birds, may occur. The measures aimed at providing the environmental ecological equilibrium during the exploitation of the northern oil deposits of West Siberia are described in this paper. These measures are worked out during the design stage. Then appropriate engineering decisions and product procedures are chosen, where much prominence is given to reliability of the oil and gas field facilities. The paper includes information about developing measures for the preventive systematic maintenance of the oil pipelines, maintenance schedule, prediction of accidents and certain procedures for their rectification

  12. Assessing field-scale biogeophysical signatures of bioremediation over a mature crude oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Atekwana, Estella; Mewafy, Farag; Revil, Andre; Skold, Magnus; Gorby, Yuri; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Lane, John W.; Trost, Jared J.; Werkema, Dale D.; Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.; Rectanus, H.V.; Sirabian, R.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted electrical geophysical measurements at the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site (Bemidji, MN). Borehole and surface self-potential measurements do not show evidence for the existence of a biogeobattery mechanism in response to the redox gradient resulting from biodegradation of oil. The relatively small self potentials recorded are instead consistent with an electrodiffusion mechanism driven by differences in the mobility of charge carriers associated with biodegradation byproducts. Complex resistivity measurements reveal elevated electrical conductivity and interfacial polarization at the water table where oil contamination is present, extending into the unsaturated zone. This finding implies that the effect of microbial cell growth/attachment, biofilm formation, and mineral weathering accompanying hydrocarbon biodegradation on complex interfacial conductivity imparts a sufficiently large electrical signal to be measured using field-scale geophysical techniques.

  13. Spin-interaction effects for ultralong-range Rydberg molecules in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Frederic; Fey, Christian; Schmelcher, Peter

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the fine and spin structure of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules exposed to a homogeneous magnetic field. Each molecule consists of a 87Rb Rydberg atom the outer electron of which interacts via spin-dependent s - and p -wave scattering with a polarizable 87Rb ground-state atom. Our model includes also the hyperfine structure of the ground-state atom as well as spin-orbit couplings of the Rydberg and ground-state atom. We focus on d -Rydberg states and principal quantum numbers n in the vicinity of 40. The electronic structure and vibrational states are determined in the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for varying field strengths ranging from a few up to hundred Gauss. The results show that the interplay between the scattering interactions and the spin couplings gives rise to a large variety of molecular states in different spin configurations as well as in different spatial arrangements that can be tuned by the magnetic field. This includes relatively regularly shaped energy surfaces in a regime where the Zeeman splitting is large compared to the scattering interaction but small compared to the Rydberg fine structure, as well as more complex structures for both weaker and stronger fields. We quantify the impact of spin couplings by comparing the extended theory to a spin-independent model.

  14. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  15. Research on the spatial structure of crude oil flow and the characteristics of its flow field in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuan; Hao, Li-Sha; Wan, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Crude oil flow is a sort of oil spatial movement, and in China, it is large scale and covers wide area with extensive social-economic effects. This paper analyses the spatial structure of crude oil flow in China, the characters of its flow field and the layout of its flow track. The results show that oil flow in China has a spatial characteristic of centralized output and decentralized input; its spatial structure is composed of Source System in the shape of right-angled triangle, Confluence System in the shape of right-angled trapezium and Multiplex System in the shape of obtuse-angled triangle, which are mutually nested, and on a whole, the presence of Multiplex System balances and optimizes the flow layout; oil flow field in China can be divided into four parts, i.e. the North, North-west, East and South Field, two or three of which overlap with each other, extending the oil flow and making the flow more flexible and maneuverable; oil flow track is a multi-objective decision-making route and in the decision-making process oil transportation cost is one of the essential factors, in China, oil flow track falls into the Northeast, North, East, Northwest and South five cluster regions, which connect with each other, and series-parallel connection between various kinds of transportation channels is widely seen in them, reinforcing the supply security of crude oil

  16. Magnetic enhancement caused by hydrocarbon migration in the Mawangmiao Oil Field, Jianghan Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingsheng; Yang, Tao [Department of Geophysics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Qingsong [National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Chan, Lungsang [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Xia, Xianghua; Cheng, Tongjin [Wuxi Institute of Petroleum Geology, SNOPEC, Jiangsu Wuxi 214151 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Magnetic parameters (volume-specific susceptibility k, and hysteresis parameters and ratios) of 47 samples, collected from an oil-producing well (M{sub 36}) and a dry well (M{sub 46}) from the oil-bearing II-You Formation of Paleogene Xingouzui Group in the Mawangmiao Oil Field in China, were measured to address the secondary alteration of iron-bearing minerals associated with hydrocarbon migration. Our results indicated that both k and magnetization (saturation magnetization J{sub s} and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization J{sub rs}) of oil-bearing formation have been dramatically enhanced. Further grain size estimation reveals that the background samples (samples both in M{sub 46} and outside the oil-bearing formation in M{sub 36}) contain coarser-grained magnetic particles (circa 30{mu}m) of detrital origin. In contrast, the alteration of hydrocarbon produces finer-grained (circa 25nm) magnetic particles. The new constraints on grain sizes and its origin of the hydrocarbon-related magnetic particles improve our understanding of the mechanism of formation of these secondary finer-grained particles, even though the precise nature of this process is still unknown. (author)

  17. Quantitative calculation of GOR of complex oil-gas-water systems with logging data: A case study of the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field in the Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Liqiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field of the Qaidam Basin, multiple suites of oil-gas-water systems overlie each other vertically, making it difficult to accurately identify oil layers from gas layers and calculate gas-oil ratio (GOR. Therefore, formation testing and production data, together with conventional logging, NMR and mud logging data were integrated to quantitatively calculate GOR. To tell oil layers from gas layers, conventional logging makes use of the excavation effect of compensated neutron log, NMR makes use of the different relaxation mechanisms of light oil and natural gas in large pores, while mud logging makes use of star chart of gas components established based on available charts and mathematical statistics. In terms of the quantitative calculation of GOR, the area ratio of the star chart of gas components was first used in GOR calculation. The study shows that: (1 conventional logging data has a modest performance in distinguishing oil layers from gas layers due to the impacts of formation pressure, hydrogen index (HI, shale content, borehole conditions and invasion of drilling mud; (2 NMR is quite effective in telling oil layers from gas layers, but cannot be widely used due to its high cost; (3 by contrast, the star chart of gas components is the most effective in differentiating oil layers from gas layers; and (4 the GOR calculated by using the area ratio of star chart has been verified by various data such as formation testing data, production data and liquid production profile.

  18. Use of the truncated shifted Pareto distribution in assessing size distribution of oil and gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The truncated shifted Pareto (TSP) distribution, a variant of the two-parameter Pareto distribution, in which one parameter is added to shift the distribution right and left and the right-hand side is truncated, is used to model size distributions of oil and gas fields for resource assessment. Assumptions about limits to the left-hand and right-hand side reduce the number of parameters to two. The TSP distribution has advantages over the more customary lognormal distribution because it has a simple analytic expression, allowing exact computation of several statistics of interest, has a "J-shape," and has more flexibility in the thickness of the right-hand tail. Oil field sizes from the Minnelusa play in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, are used as a case study. Probability plotting procedures allow easy visualization of the fit and help the assessment. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. Holistic oil field value management: using system dynamics for 'intermediate level' and 'value-based' modelling in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corben, D.; Stevenson, R.; Wolstenholme, E.F.

    1999-01-01

    System dynamics has been seen primarily as a strategic tool, most effectively used at the highest level of strategy to identify robust policy interventions under a wide range of scenarios. However, an alternative, complementary and powerful role is emerging. This is at an 'intermediate level' in organisations to coordinate and integrate policies across the value chain. It is at this level where business value, as defined by the discounted value of future free cash flow, is both created and destroyed. This paper introduces the need for 'intermediate-level' and 'value-based' modelling and emphasises the natural role of system dynamics in supporting a methodology to fulfil the need. It describes the development of an approach and its application in the oil industry to coordinate the response of people and tools within operational, financial and commercial functions across the value chain to address a variety of problems and issues. (author)

  20. Effect of Kuwait oil field fires on human comfort and environment in Jubail, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

    1992-03-01

    The plumes from the Kuwait oil field fires reduced hemispheric (total) solar radiation by 26 36% during January June 1991 in Jubail (300 km SE of Kuwait City), Saudi Arabia. Residents feel noticeably cooler even though air temperatures have not been lowered significantly (up to June 1991). These observations support human comfort theories and demonstrate the importance of shade to comfort. The desirability of complete solar radiation measurements, including those of diffuse radiation, is indicated.

  1. Transformation of iron sulfide to greigite by nitrite produced by oil field bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiping; Krause, Federico; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    Nitrate, injected into oil fields, can oxidize sulfide formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) through the action of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). When reservoir rock contains siderite (FeCO(3)), the sulfide formed is immobilized as iron sulfide minerals, e.g. mackinawite (FeS). The aim of our study was to determine the extent to which oil field NR-SOB can oxidize or transform FeS. Because no NR-SOB capable of growth with FeS were isolated, the well-characterized oil field isolate Sulfurimonas sp. strain CVO was used. When strain CVO was presented with a mixture of chemically formed FeS and dissolved sulfide (HS(-)), it only oxidized the HS(-). The FeS remained acid soluble and non-magnetic indicating that it was not transformed. In contrast, when the FeS was formed by adding FeCl(2) to a culture of SRB which gradually produced sulfide, precipitating FeS, and to which strain CVO and nitrate were subsequently added, transformation of the FeS to a magnetic, less acid-soluble form was observed. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry indicated the transformed mineral to be greigite (Fe(3)S(4)). Addition of nitrite to cultures of SRB, containing microbially formed FeS, was similarly effective. Nitrite reacts chemically with HS(-) to form polysulfide and sulfur (S(0)), which then transforms SRB-formed FeS to greigite, possibly via a sulfur addition pathway (3FeS + S(0) --> Fe(3)S(4)). Further chemical transformation to pyrite (FeS(2)) is expected at higher temperatures (>60 degrees C). Hence, nitrate injection into oil fields may lead to NR-SOB-mediated and chemical mineral transformations, increasing the sulfide-binding capacity of reservoir rock. Because of mineral volume decreases, these transformations may also increase reservoir injectivity.

  2. Petrophysical and sedimentological characterization of the Zuata field in Orinoco Oil Belt. Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.; Baena, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Zuata field is in the middle of the Jun in block in Orinoco Oil Belt and its production is handled by the district of Cabrutica which planning to develop a comprehensive reservoir model that allows leverage a correct management of hydrocarbon reserves. The purpose of this study is to generate a sedimentological and petrophysical model to know the architecture and quality of the rocks

  3. The wells of the Lipinki oil field in the aspect of borehole heat exchangers retrained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gonet

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Geological conditions of the Gorlice-Lipinki structure are presented in the paper. The construction of a well in the Lipinki oil field was characterized on this basis. The authors analysed an adaptability of the wells intothe borehole heat exchangers (BHE with its potential heating power estimation on the basis of an example. In the article, a discussion of the heat consumer choose, which can be buildings by a local communite utilization.

  4. Static Electric Field Mapping Using a Mosquito Racket and Baby Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediansyah, Herfien; Khairurrijal; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to design a simple experimental device to see electric field force lines using common components which are readily available in everyday life. A solution of baby oil was placed in a plastic container, 4.5 × 4.5 × 1 inches, with both ends of the electrodes (metal wire) immersed in the solution at a depth of 0.2 inches.…

  5. On DSS Implementation in the Dynamic Model of the Digital Oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovin, Iakov S.; Khisamutdinov, Maksim V.; Kalyaev, Anatoly I.

    2018-02-01

    Decision support systems (DSS), especially based on the artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are been widely applied in different domains nowadays. In the paper we depict an approach of implementing DSS in to Digital Oil Field (DOF) dynamic model structure in order to reduce the human factor influence, considering the automation of all production processes to be the DOF model clue element. As the basic tool of data handling we propose the hybrid application on artificial neural networks and evolutional algorithms.

  6. Standardization of radiation protection measurements in mixed fields of an extended energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    The improved ICRU concept of dose equivalent index aims at standardizing both area and personnel dose measurements so that the results on the dosimetry of external irradiations in radiation protection become compatible. It seems that for photon and neutron energies up to 3 and 20 MeV respectively the realization of dose-equivalent index is straightforward, but the inclusion of higher energies and/or other types of radiation will lead both to conceptual and practical difficulties. It will be shown that practical measurements in mixed radiation fields of an extended energy range for protection purposes will overestimate the standardized quantity. While area measurements can be performed to represent a good approximation, greater uncertainties have to be accepted in personnel dosimetry for stray radiation fields around GeV proton accelerators

  7. Current status and future of developing Upper Cretaceous oil deposits in the Oktyabrskoye field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamyshnikova, A.I.; Lapshin, M.Ye.

    1979-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous deposit at the Oktyabrskoye field was discovered in 1966. Fractured, cavernous limestone, similar to the producing rock of many Upper Cretaceous deposits of the Chechen Ingush ASSR, form the reservoir. The deposit is situated toward a narrow anticlinal fold with angles of rock drop 40-45/sup 0/. Its heighth is 950m; the average capacity of the producing part is 400m; the deposit depth is 4200-5150m; the layer temperature is 150-160/sup 0/C. Exploratory work on the deposit is incomplete. The deposit was brought under industrial development in 1974. The development is conducted based on a refined, technological system, that includes contour flooding to maintain layer pressure in the center to edge part of the deposit at 36.0 MPa. This somewhat increases the pressure of the gas saturated oil, as well as the subsequent increase in layer pressure to 45.9 MPa for assuring wide open well flow during the late stages of development. Currently, the amount of oil obtained somewhat exceeds the planned level but the pumping volume is less than that planned. The deposit has not yet been studied sufficiently. Its boundaries have not been established; the locations of the initial and working water/oil edges are conditional; the structural plan is approximate. Data on the degree of waterflooding in the deposit and the magnitude of the actual oil yield coefficient are lacking inasmuch as the amount of oil already extracted at this time exceeds the calculated reserves. To increase the effectiveness of further development of the deposit and acquisition of the necessary data for calculating oil reserves, the deposit will be studied according to a special plan over a number of new drilling wells.

  8. Zero-range effective field theory for resonant wino dark matter. Part III. Annihilation effects

    OpenAIRE

    Braaten, Eric; Johnson, Evan; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Near a critical value of the wino mass where there is a zero-energy S-wave resonance at the neutral-wino-pair threshold, low-energy winos can be described by a zero-range effective field theory (ZREFT) in which the winos interact nonperturbatively through a contact interaction and through Coulomb interactions. The effects of wino-pair annihilation into electroweak gauge bosons are taken into account through the analytic continuation of the real parameters for the contact interaction to comple...

  9. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  10. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  11. Application of naturally occurring isotopes and artificial radioactive tracer for monitoring water flooding in oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, I.H.; Farooq, M.; Tasneem, M.A.; Rafiq, M.; Din, U.G.; Gul, S.

    2002-03-01

    Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Water is injected in the oil formation under high pressure through an injection well. Movement of the injected water is needed to be traced to test the performance of water flood, investigate unexpected anomalies in flow and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. In the present study environmental isotopes and artificial radiotracer (tritium) were used at Fimkassar Oil Field of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) where water flooding was started in March 1996 in Sakessar formation to maintain its pressure and enhance the oil recovery. Environmental isotopes: /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time and contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected from the injection well, production well and some other fields for reference indices of Sakessar Formation during June 1998 to August 1999. These samples were analyzed for the /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents. Results show that the water of production well is mixture of fresh water and formation water. The fresh water contribution varied from 67% to 80%, while remaining component was the old recharged formation water. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of break-through till the last sampling which indicates good mixing in the reservoir and absence of any quick channel. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months as the fresh water contributed significantly in the first appearance of water in the production well in June 1998. Tritium tracer, which was injected in November 1998, appeared in the production well after 8 months. It show that breakthrough time decreased with the passage of time. /sup 14/C of inorganic carbon in the water in Chorgali and Sakessar Formations was also analyzed which indicates that the water is at least few thousand years old. (author)

  12. Succession in the petroleum reservoir microbiome through an oil field production lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Adrien; Alsop, Eric B; Lomans, Bartholomeus P; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Head, Ian M; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Subsurface petroleum reservoirs are an important component of the deep biosphere where indigenous microorganisms live under extreme conditions and in isolation from the Earth's surface for millions of years. However, unlike the bulk of the deep biosphere, the petroleum reservoir deep biosphere is subject to extreme anthropogenic perturbation, with the introduction of new electron acceptors, donors and exogenous microbes during oil exploration and production. Despite the fundamental and practical significance of this perturbation, there has never been a systematic evaluation of the ecological changes that occur over the production lifetime of an active offshore petroleum production system. Analysis of the entire Halfdan oil field in the North Sea (32 producing wells in production for 1-15 years) using quantitative PCR, multigenic sequencing, comparative metagenomic and genomic bins reconstruction revealed systematic shifts in microbial community composition and metabolic potential, as well as changing ecological strategies in response to anthropogenic perturbation of the oil field ecosystem, related to length of time in production. The microbial communities were initially dominated by slow growing anaerobes such as members of the Thermotogales and Clostridiales adapted to living on hydrocarbons and complex refractory organic matter. However, as seawater and nitrate injection (used for secondary oil production) delivered oxidants, the microbial community composition progressively changed to fast growing opportunists such as members of the Deferribacteres, Delta-, Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria, with energetically more favorable metabolism (for example, nitrate reduction, H 2 S, sulfide and sulfur oxidation). This perturbation has profound consequences for understanding the microbial ecology of the system and is of considerable practical importance as it promotes detrimental processes such as reservoir souring and metal corrosion. These findings provide a new

  13. Real-space, mean-field algorithm to numerically calculate long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhe, A.; Costa, B. V.

    2016-02-01

    Long-range interactions are known to be of difficult treatment in statistical mechanics models. There are some approaches that introduce a cutoff in the interactions or make use of reaction field approaches. However, those treatments suffer the illness of being of limited use, in particular close to phase transitions. The use of open boundary conditions allows the sum of the long-range interactions over the entire system to be done, however, this approach demands a sum over all degrees of freedom in the system, which makes a numerical treatment prohibitive. Techniques like the Ewald summation or fast multipole expansion account for the exact interactions but are still limited to a few thousands of particles. In this paper we introduce a novel mean-field approach to treat long-range interactions. The method is based in the division of the system in cells. In the inner cell, that contains the particle in sight, the 'local' interactions are computed exactly, the 'far' contributions are then computed as the average over the particles inside a given cell with the particle in sight for each of the remaining cells. Using this approach, the large and small cells limits are exact. At a fixed cell size, the method also becomes exact in the limit of large lattices. We have applied the procedure to the two-dimensional anisotropic dipolar Heisenberg model. A detailed comparison between our method, the exact calculation and the cutoff radius approximation were done. Our results show that the cutoff-cell approach outperforms any cutoff radius approach as it maintains the long-range memory present in these interactions, contrary to the cutoff radius approximation. Besides that, we calculated the critical temperature and the critical behavior of the specific heat of the anisotropic Heisenberg model using our method. The results are in excellent agreement with extensive Monte Carlo simulations using Ewald summation.

  14. Improved linearity using harmonic error rejection in a full-field range imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Andrew D.; Dorrington, Adrian A.; Cree, Michael J.; Carnegie, Dale A.

    2008-02-01

    Full field range imaging cameras are used to simultaneously measure the distance for every pixel in a given scene using an intensity modulated illumination source and a gain modulated receiver array. The light is reflected from an object in the scene, and the modulation envelope experiences a phase shift proportional to the target distance. Ideally the waveforms are sinusoidal, allowing the phase, and hence object range, to be determined from four measurements using an arctangent function. In practice these waveforms are often not perfectly sinusoidal, and in some cases square waveforms are instead used to simplify the electronic drive requirements. The waveforms therefore commonly contain odd harmonics which contribute a nonlinear error to the phase determination, and therefore an error in the range measurement. We have developed a unique sampling method to cancel the effect of these harmonics, with the results showing an order of magnitude improvement in the measurement linearity without the need for calibration or lookup tables, while the acquisition time remains unchanged. The technique can be applied to existing range imaging systems without having to change or modify the complex illumination or sensor systems, instead only requiring a change to the signal generation and timing electronics.

  15. Toward 1-mm depth precision with a solid state full-field range imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, Adrian A.; Carnegie, Dale A.; Cree, Michael J.

    2006-02-01

    Previously, we demonstrated a novel heterodyne based solid-state full-field range-finding imaging system. This system is comprised of modulated LED illumination, a modulated image intensifier, and a digital video camera. A 10 MHz drive is provided with 1 Hz difference between the LEDs and image intensifier. A sequence of images of the resulting beating intensifier output are captured and processed to determine phase and hence distance to the object for each pixel. In a previous publication, we detailed results showing a one-sigma precision of 15 mm to 30 mm (depending on signal strength). Furthermore, we identified the limitations of the system and potential improvements that were expected to result in a range precision in the order of 1 mm. These primarily include increasing the operating frequency and improving optical coupling and sensitivity. In this paper, we report on the implementation of these improvements and the new system characteristics. We also comment on the factors that are important for high precision image ranging and present configuration strategies for best performance. Ranging with sub-millimeter precision is demonstrated by imaging a planar surface and calculating the deviations from a planar fit. The results are also illustrated graphically by imaging a garden gnome.

  16. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Krapac, Ivan G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Damico, James R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Okwen, Roland T. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); McKaskle, Ray W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  17. Subsurface oil release field experiment - observations and modelling of subsurface plume behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, H.; Brandvik, P.J.; Reed, M.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at sea, in which oil was released from 107 metres depth, in order to study plume behaviour. The objective of the underwater release was to simulate a pipeline leakage without gas and high pressure and to study the behaviour of the rising plume. A numerical model for the underwater plume behaviour was used for comparison with field data. The expected path of the plume, the time expected for the plume to reach the sea surface and the width of the plume was modelled. Field data and the numerical model were in good agreement. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  18. Atmospheric characterization through fused mobile airborne and surface in situ surveys: methane emissions quantification from a producing oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Melton, Christopher; Fischer, Marc L.; Fladeland, Matthew; Frash, Jason; Gore, Warren; Iraci, Laura T.; Marrero, Josette E.; Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Yates, Emma L.

    2018-03-01

    Methane (CH4) inventory uncertainties are large, requiring robust emission derivation approaches. We report on a fused airborne-surface data collection approach to derive emissions from an active oil field near Bakersfield, central California. The approach characterizes the atmosphere from the surface to above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and combines downwind trace gas concentration anomaly (plume) above background with normal winds to derive flux. This approach does not require a well-mixed PBL; allows explicit, data-based, uncertainty evaluation; and was applied to complex topography and wind flows. In situ airborne (collected by AJAX - the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment) and mobile surface (collected by AMOG - the AutoMObile trace Gas - Surveyor) data were collected on 19 August 2015 to assess source strength. Data included an AMOG and AJAX intercomparison transect profiling from the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) floor into the Sierra Nevada (0.1-2.2 km altitude), validating a novel surface approach for atmospheric profiling by leveraging topography. The profile intercomparison found good agreement in multiple parameters for the overlapping altitude range from 500 to 1500 m for the upper 5 % of surface winds, which accounts for wind-impeding structures, i.e., terrain, trees, buildings, etc. Annualized emissions from the active oil fields were 31.3 ± 16 Gg methane and 2.4 ± 1.2 Tg carbon dioxide. Data showed the PBL was not well mixed at distances of 10-20 km downwind, highlighting the importance of the experimental design.

  19. A new experimental method to prevent paraffin - wax formation on the crude oil wells: A field case study in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhaddad Elnori E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wax formation and deposition is one of the most common problems in oil producing wells. This problem occurs as a result of the reduction of the produced fluid temperature below the wax appearance temperature (range between 46°C and 50°C and the pour point temperature (range between 42°C and 44°C. In this study, two new methods for preventing wax formation were implemented on three oil wells in Libya, where the surface temperature is, normally, 29°C. In the first method, the gas was injected at a pressure of 83.3 bar and a temperature of 65°C (greater than the pour point temperature during the gas-lift operation. In the second method, wax inhibitors (Trichloroethylene-xylene (TEX, Ethylene copolymers, and Comb polymers were injected down the casings together with the gas. Field observations confirmed that by applying these techniques, the production string was kept clean and no wax was formed. The obtained results show that the wax formation could be prevented by both methods.

  20. Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants, superdispersant-25 and corexit 9527, to a range of coastal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Alan; Galloway, Tamara S; Canty, Martin; Smith, Emma L; Nilsson, Johanna; Rowland, Steven J

    2005-05-01

    The acute toxicity of the oil dispersant Corexit 9527 reported in the literature is highly variable. No peer-reviewed data exist for Superdispersant-25 (SD-25). This study compares the toxicity of the two dispersants to a range of marine species representing different phyla occupying a wide range of niches: The marine sediment-dwelling amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas), the common mussel Mytilus edulis (L.), the symbiotic snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis (Forskål), and the seagrass Zostera marina (L.). Organisms were exposed to static dispersant concentrations for 48-h and median lethal concentration (LC50), median effect concentration (EC50), and lowest-observable-effect concentration (LOEC) values obtained. The sublethal effects of 48-h exposures and the ability of species to recover for up to 72 h after exposure were quantified relative to the 48-h endpoints. Results indicated that the anemone lethality test was the most sensitive with LOECs of 20 ppm followed by mussel feeding rate, seagrass photosynthetic index and amphipod lethality, with mussel lethality being the least sensitive with LOECs of 250 ppm for both dispersants. The results were consistent with current theory that dispersants act physically and irreversibly on the respiratory organs and reversibly, depending on exposure time, on the nervous system. Superdispersant-25 was found overall to be less toxic than Corexit 9527 and its sublethal effects more likely to be reversible following short-term exposure.

  1. Comparison of field-collected ascovirus isolates by DNA hybridization, host range, and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J J; Styer, E L; Federici, B A

    1998-09-01

    Six field-collected ascovirus isolates obtained from five noctuid species in the continental United States were compared with respect to the general relatedness of their DNA, host range, and histopathology. Two isolates were from Spodoptera frugiperda, and the other four were from Autographa precationis, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa zea, and Trichoplusia ni. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed that the six isolates belonged to three distinct viral species, with the isolates from S. frugiperda composing one species, those from A. precationis and H. virescens a second species, and those from H. zea and T. ni a third species. The host range and histopathology of each isolate was studied in eight noctuid species, S. frugiperda, Spodoptera ornithogalli, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera eridania, H. virescens, H. zea, A. precationis, and Feltia subterranea. Though some variation existed between the different isolates of each viral species, distinct patterns were apparent for each. The viral species from S. frugiperda had a host range that was limited primarily to Spodoptera species and both isolates of this virus only replicated and caused significant pathology in the fat body, whereas the viral species from A. precationis and H. virescens had a much broader host range that included most of the species tested, but also had a tissue tropism primarily restricted to the fat body. The viral species from T. ni and H. zea readily infected all the hosts tested, where the principal site of replication and significant pathology was the epidermis. In many test hosts, however, this viral species also replicated and caused significant pathology in the tracheal epithelium and to a lesser extent in the fat body. Aside from contributing to knowledge of ascovirus biology, these studies indicate that DNA hybridization profiles combined with studies of host range and tissue tropism can be used as characters for defining ascovirus species. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  2. The Kashagan Field: A Test Case for Kazakhstan's Governance of Its Oil and Gas Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campaner, N.; Yenikeyeff, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the factors behind Kazakhstan's decision to renegotiate the terms of the existing Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) with International Oil Companies (IOCs), in the context of the development of the huge Kashagan oil field. The development of Kashagan, one of the largest and most recently discovered oil fields in Kazakhstan, is crucial for Kazakhstan's ambitions of becoming a global oil producer. Kazakhstan, which has the largest oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region, is the second largest regional producer after Russia in the former Soviet Union. The country's potential for oil exports is also strategically significant as a future source of non- OPEC supplies. Amongst the CIS states, Kazakhstan is considered one of the most open countries for foreign investments. International projects in the form of Joint Ventures, Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) or exploration/field concessions have brought foreign investments into the country's natural resources sector, particularly in the oil and gas industry. However, new developments have recently taken place, which have marked a shift in the Kazakh government's approach towards foreign investment in its energy sector. This study will therefore examine the following issues: - Kazakhstan's plans to abandon the practice of attracting foreign investments in its energy sector through new PSAs. - The recent entry of state-controlled KazMunaiGaz into the consortium operating over the Kashagan field and its impact on IOCs. - The impact of high oil prices on the negotiating power of producer states in the context of Kazakhstan's new stance on PSAs. Specifically, this study will focus on the following key factors, which will seek to further explain the changes in Kazakhstan's attitude toward the Kashagan PSA2: - Operational factors - management of the project, development strategy, cost estimates, levels of production and export markets. - Consortium factors - the relative strength of the investment

  3. Genre Differences on Visual Perception of Color Range and Depth of Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ballesteros

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is the result of the integration of various related factors of the observed object and its environment. In this study we evaluated the impact of tridimensional form on color perception and the angle from the horizontal plane of a set of similar objets on the depth of field perception between young men and women. A panel half magenta and half white placed at the end of a black box, folded either concaved or convexed to alter the chromatic effect perceived were used to determine tridimensional form on color perception. Four sets of identical sticks where the angle from the horizontal plane varied for each, were used to determine the effect of spatial distribution of depth of field perception. The parameters taking into account were age, genre, associated visual defects for each individual evaluated. Our results show that the tridimensional form alters color perception but the range of color perceived was larger for women whereas depending on the angle from the horizontal plane we found genre differences on the depth of field perception.

  4. Wind field reconstruction from nacelle-mounted lidar short-range measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borraccino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Profiling nacelle lidars probe the wind at several heights and several distances upstream of the rotor. The development of such lidar systems is relatively recent, and it is still unclear how to condense the lidar raw measurements into useful wind field characteristics such as speed, direction, vertical and longitudinal gradients (wind shear. In this paper, we demonstrate an innovative method to estimate wind field characteristics using nacelle lidar measurements taken within the induction zone. Model-fitting wind field reconstruction techniques are applied to nacelle lidar measurements taken at multiple distances close to the rotor, where a wind model is combined with a simple induction model. The method allows robust determination of free-stream wind characteristics. The method was applied to experimental data obtained with two different types of nacelle lidar (five-beam Demonstrator and ZephIR Dual Mode. The reconstructed wind speed was within 0.5 % of the wind speed measured with a mast-top-mounted cup anemometer at 2.5 rotor diameters upstream of the turbine. The technique described in this paper overcomes measurement range limitations of the currently available nacelle lidar technology.

  5. Development of heavy oil fields onshore and offshore: resemblances and challenges; Desenvolvimento de campos de oleos pesados em terra e em mar: semelhancas e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Celso Cesar Moreira; Moczydlower, Priscila [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The so called offshore heavy oils (API gravity lower than 19) and extra heavy oils (API lower than 10) are receiving increasing importance due to the light oil production decline and also to exploration difficulties. In countries like Canada, Venezuela, China and the US (California) there are immense onshore heavy oil resources sometimes classified as non conventional. Differently in Brazil, onshore heavy oil volumes are modest being important those located in offshore fields (although non comparable to the Canadian and Venezuelan ones). The issue raised in this paper is: the field location, whether onshore or offshore, is always the main constraint in the development process? Well, the question has both a 'yes' and 'no' as an answer. There are important differences but some similarities in the technologies that can be applied. In this text the authors intend to explore this point while at the same time depicting some of the main related aspects under research for proper exploitation of heavy and extra heavy oil assets. The most relevant difference between onshore and offshore heavy oil fields is the application of thermal methods for improved recovery: while worldwide spread and commercially applied to onshore fields, steam injection is not yet viable for offshore operations. The only option for improving recovery in offshore fields is water injection, which has the drawback of producing large volumes of water during the field life. Another aspect is the cost of the production wells: much cheaper onshore they allow well spacing in the order of 100 m or even 50 m whereas in offshore well spacing are in the 1000 m range. From the flow assurance point of view, inland installations can take use of solvents for heavy oil dilution, such as diesel or naphtha. Offshore this option is complicated by the long distances from the wellheads to the producing facilities in the platform, in the case of wet completions. There are also differences regarding the

  6. Emailing Drones: From Design to Test Range to ARS Offices and into the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, D. R.; Singer, S.; Rodriguez, R., III; Collick, A.; Cunningham, A.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Manoukis, N. C.; Matthews, B.; Ralston, T.; Easton, Z. M.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or `drones') are one of the newest tools available for collecting geo- and biological-science data in the field, though today's commercial drones only come in a small range of options. While scientific research has benefitted from the enhanced topographic and surface characterization data that UAVs can provide through traditional image based remote sensing techniques, drones have significantly greater mission-specific potential than are currently utilized. The reasons for this under-utilization are twofold, 1) because with their broad capabilities comes the need to be careful in implementation, and as such, FAA and other regulatory agencies around the world have blanket regulations that can inhibit new designs from being implemented, and 2) current multi-mission-multi-payload commercial drones have to be over-designed to compensate for the fact that they are very difficult to stabilize for multiple payloads, leading to a much higher cost than necessary. For this project, we explore and demonstrate a workflow to optimize the design, testing, approval, and implementation of embarrassingly inexpensive mission specific drones, with two use cases. The first will follow the process from design (at VTech and UH Hilo) to field implementation (by USDA-ARS in PA and Extension in VA) of several custom water quality monitoring drones, printed on demand at ARS and Extension offices after testing at the Pan-Pacific UAS Test Range Complex (PPUTRC). This type of customized drone can allow for an increased understanding in the transition from non-point source to point source agri-chemical and pollutant transport in watershed systems. The second use case will follow the same process, resulting in customized drones with pest specific traps built into the design. This class of customized drone can facilitate IPM pest monitoring programs nationwide, decreasing the intensive and costly quarantine and population elimination measures that currently exist

  7. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  8. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations, 1992--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sum (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measured do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables

  9. Field guide for the protection and cleanup of oiled Arctic shorelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    Practical suggestions for the protection, treatment and cleanup of oiled shorelines during summer and open-water conditions are described. This manual was developed as a field guide to be used during spill response operations for the rapid identification of shoreline response options. Special attention is given to techniques that are normally available and appropriate for shoreline types and coastal environmental setting that are typical of Arctic regions. The guide is divided into four main sections: (1) shoreline protection, (2) treatment strategy by shoreline type, (3) treatment or cleanup methods, and (4) response strategies for specific environments. The importance of the type and volume of oil spilled, and the environmental factors that should be taken into account in the event of a spill (time of year, weather, ice and wave conditions) are stressed. The presence of sensitive resources such as wildlife, fish stocks, plant communities and human-use activities are also considered. tabs., figs

  10. Integral anomalous effect of an oil and gas deposit in a seismic wave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostyshevskiy, M.B.; Nabokov, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    The basic precepts of an elaborated version of a procedure for forecasting (direct exploration) of oil and gas deposits according to seismic prospecting data MOV are examined. This procedure was previously called the procedure of analysis of the integral affect of an oil and gas deposit in a seismic wave field (MIIEZ-VP). The procedure is implemented in the form of an automated system ASOM-VP for the BESM-4 computer in a standard configuration equipped with standard input-output devices for seismic information (''Potok'', MVU, ''Atlas''). The entire procedure of processing from input of data into the computer to output of resulting maps and graphs on graph plotter ''Atlas'' is automated. Results of testing of procedure MIIEZ-VP and system ASOM-VP on drilled areas of Kazakhstan, Azerbaydzhan and Uzbekistan are cited.

  11. VSP Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Aneth Oil Field in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Rutledge, J.; Zhou, R.; Denli, H.; Cheng, A.; Zhao, M.; Peron, J.

    2008-12-01

    Remotely tracking the movement of injected CO2 within a geological formation is critically important for ensuring safe and long-term geologic carbon sequestration. To study the capability of vertical seismic profiling (VSP) for remote monitoring of CO2 injection, a geophone string with 60 levels and 96 channels was cemented into a monitoring well at the Aneth oil field in Utah operated by Resolute Natural Resources and Navajo National Oil and Gas Company. The oil field is located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, and was selected by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration. The geophones are placed at depths from 805 m to 1704 m, and the oil reservoir is located approximately from 1731 m to 1786 m in depth. A baseline VSP dataset with one zero-offset and seven offset source locations was acquired in October, 2007 before CO2 injection. The offsets/source locations are approximately 1 km away from the monitoring well with buried geophone string. A time-lapse VSP dataset with the same source locations was collected in July, 2008 after five months of CO2/water injection into a horizontal well adjacent to the monitoring well. The total amount of CO2 injected during the time interval between the two VSP surveys was 181,000 MCF (million cubic feet), or 10,500 tons. The time-lapse VSP data are pre-processed to balance the phase and amplitude of seismic events above the oil reservoir. We conduct wave-equation migration imaging and interferometry analysis using the pre-processed time-lapse VSP data. The results demonstrate that time-lapse VSP surveys with high-resolution migration imaging and scattering analysis can provide reliable information about CO2 migration. Both the repeatability of VSP surveys and sophisticated time-lapse data pre-processing are essential to make VSP as an effective tool for monitoring CO2 injection.

  12. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  13. Microbial diversity in methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures isolated from a water-flooded oil reservoir (Dagang oil field, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans H.; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial transformation of oil to methane is one of the main degradation processes taking place in oil reservoirs, and it has important consequences as it negatively affects the quality and economic value of the oil. Nevertheless, methane could constitute a recovery method of carbon from exhausted reservoirs. Previous studies combining geochemical and isotopic analysis with molecular methods showed evidence for in situ methanogenic oil degradation in the Dagang oil field, China (Jiménez et al., 2012). However, the main key microbial players and the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unknown. In order to better characterize these processes and identify the main microorganisms involved, laboratory biodegradation experiments under methanogenic conditions were performed. Microcosms were inoculated with production and injection waters from the reservoir, and oil or 13C-labelled single hydrocarbons (e.g. n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene) were added as sole substrates. Indigenous microbiota were able to extensively degrade oil within months, depleting most of the n-alkanes in 200 days, and producing methane at a rate of 76 ± 6 µmol day-1 g-1 oil added. They could also produce heavy methane from 13C-labeled 2-methylnaphthalene, suggesting that further methanogenesis may occur from the aromatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. Microbial communities from oil and 2-methyl-naphthalene enrichment cultures were slightly different. Although, in both cases Deltaproteobacteria, mainly belonging to Syntrophobacterales (e.g. Syntrophobacter, Smithella or Syntrophus) and Clostridia, mostly Clostridiales, were among the most represented taxa, Gammaproteobacteria could be only identified in oil-degrading cultures. The proportion of Chloroflexi, exclusively belonging to Anaerolineales (e.g. Leptolinea, Bellilinea) was considerably higher in 2-methyl-naphthalene degrading cultures. Archaeal communities consisted almost exclusively of representatives of

  14. Oil field and freshwater isolates of Shewanella putrefaciens have lipopolysaccharide polyacrylamide gel profiles characteristic of marine bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, C.; Foght, J.M.; Pickard, M.A.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide structure of oil field and freshwater isolates of bacteria that reduce ferric iron, recently classified as strains of Shewanella putrefaciens, was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a lipopolysaccharide-specific silver-staining procedure. The results demonstrate that all the oil field and freshwater isolates examined exhibited the more hydrophobic R-type lipopolysaccharide, which has been found to be characteristic of Gram-negative marine bacteria. This hydrophobic lipopolysaccharide would confer an advantage on bacteria involved in hydrocarbon degradation by assisting their association with the surface of oil droplets. 15 refs., 1 fig

  15. Biodegradation of crude oil by introduced psychotropic microbial association and indigenous bacteria under laboratory and field conditions in soils of Moscow region, Russia. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filonov, A.; Boronin, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented an in-situ bioremediation method that accelerates the degradation of crude oil. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effect of adding mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and accelerate microbial metabolism. The strongest effect was observed when nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium sources were added with microbial association jointly, particularly in field soil experiments. A 22 per cent oil spill removal was achieved due to metabolic activity of indigenous bacteria after only 2 months of experimenting. This study examined the kinetics of total number and crude oil degrading bacteria in the soil resulting from nutrient inoculation. It was shown that the rate of hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms in the environment is determined by a range of factors such as temperature, soil pH, oxygen, water and nutritive availability. The use of psychotrophic degrader strains resulted in a higher degree of oil degradation in the field than in the laboratory. The study also revealed that the biodegradation process in polluted Arctic soils polluted with diesel was accelerated with the addition of degrader microorganisms. It was recommended that in cold climates, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium should be introduced simultaneously. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  16. Biodegradation of crude oil by introduced psychotropic microbial association and indigenous bacteria under laboratory and field conditions in soils of Moscow region, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filonov, A.; Boronin, A. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms; Nechaeva, I.; Akhmetov, L.; Gafarov, A.; Puntus, I. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented an in-situ bioremediation method that accelerates the degradation of crude oil. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effect of adding mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and accelerate microbial metabolism. The strongest effect was observed when nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium sources were added with microbial association jointly, particularly in field soil experiments. A 22 per cent oil spill removal was achieved due to metabolic activity of indigenous bacteria after only 2 months of experimenting. This study examined the kinetics of total number and crude oil degrading bacteria in the soil resulting from nutrient inoculation. It was shown that the rate of hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms in the environment is determined by a range of factors such as temperature, soil pH, oxygen, water and nutritive availability. The use of psychotrophic degrader strains resulted in a higher degree of oil degradation in the field than in the laboratory. The study also revealed that the biodegradation process in polluted Arctic soils polluted with diesel was accelerated with the addition of degrader microorganisms. It was recommended that in cold climates, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium should be introduced simultaneously. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  17. Biodegradation of crude oil by introduced psychotropic microbial association and indigenous bacteria under laboratory and field conditions in soils of Moscow region, Russia. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filonov, A.; Boronin, A. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms; Nechaeva, I.; Akhmetov, L.; Gafarov, A.; Puntus, I. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented an in-situ bioremediation method that accelerates the degradation of crude oil. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effect of adding mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and accelerate microbial metabolism. The strongest effect was observed when nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium sources were added with microbial association jointly, particularly in field soil experiments. A 22 per cent oil spill removal was achieved due to metabolic activity of indigenous bacteria after only 2 months of experimenting. This study examined the kinetics of total number and crude oil degrading bacteria in the soil resulting from nutrient inoculation. It was shown that the rate of hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms in the environment is determined by a range of factors such as temperature, soil pH, oxygen, water and nutritive availability. The use of psychotrophic degrader strains resulted in a higher degree of oil degradation in the field than in the laboratory. The study also revealed that the biodegradation process in polluted Arctic soils polluted with diesel was accelerated with the addition of degrader microorganisms. It was recommended that in cold climates, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium should be introduced simultaneously. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  18. Time of flight and range of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Karkantzakos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the classical problem of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field under the influenceof a retarding force proportional to the velocity. Specifically, we express the time of flight, the time of fall and the range ofthe motion as a function of the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile. We also prove that the time of fall isgreater than the time of rise with the exception of the case of zero constant of resistance where we have equality. Finally weprove a formula from which we can compute the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile from time of flight andrange of the motion when the acceleration due to gravity and the initial velocity of the projectile are known.

  19. An all-field-range description of the critical current density in superconducting YBCO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchanskiy, I A; Pan, A V; Shcherbakova, O V; Fedoseev, S A; Dou, S X

    2011-01-01

    A new critical current density (J c ) model for high-quality YBCO (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 ) thin films has been proposed, combining thermally activated flux creep with a vortex pinning potential for columnar defects. The pinning for thermally activated vortices has been described as strong pinning on chains of individual edge dislocations that form low-angle domain boundaries in high-quality YBCO thin films. The model yields an adequate description of the J c behaviour over the whole applied field range, as verified by direct measurements of J c in YBCO thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition. It also indicates that the effective pinning landscape changes under the influence of the external conditions. Remarkably, the pinning potential obtained from the model is consistent with the values obtained for columnar defects, which confirms the validity of the overall approach.

  20. Field testing and applications of the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data (USRAD) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Pickering, D.A.; Blair, M.S.; Espegren, M.L.; Nyquist, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data (USRAD) System is a patented, computerized data acquisition system developed to relate the radiological surveyor's precise physical location to instantaneous radiation data taken during walk-on surveys. The USRAD System incorporates three technologies: radio frequency communications, ultrasonics, and microcomputers. Initial field testing of the USRAD System has resulted in several improvements to walk-on radiological surveys including real-time position data, reproducible survey results, on-site verification of survey coverage, on-site data reduction and graphics, and permanent data storage on magnetic media. Although the USRAD System was developed specifically for use with a gamma-ray detector, it is adaptable to other instruments. Applications of the USRAD System may include verification of remediated and uncontaminated areas, emergency response in mapping pollutant locations after accidents, and characterization of hazardous waste areas. 2 refs., 8 figs

  1. Use of a commercial ranging system in field surveys of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worth, G.M.; Crowell, J.M.; Meddles, A.D.; Jarrett, J.D.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.; Moyer, C.

    1984-01-01

    Now, the adaptation of a commercial ranging and tracking system interfaced to these instruments and to an advanced computer graphics system promises another major improvement to the automation of data collection. Contour maps with radiation isopleths and the x-y position of up to eight instrument operators superimposed thereon can be displayed in near real time. A bidirectional data link offers a further improvement in simulation of, and training for, field surveys since previously collected or computer simulated radiation data as a function of position can be transmitted back to the same survey instrument and displayed to the operator in a manner indistinguishable from real-time data. Additionally, simulated instrument malfunctions such as low battery, detector failure, or total failure can be commanded to occur to evaluate operator response to unusual occurrences under the stress of field conditions. This training mode will greatly improve the ability to simulate situations and to train and evaluate operations personnel while eliminating the need to use special sites and potentially hazardous contamination simulants as are used now

  2. Microseepage of methane to the atmosphere from the Dawanqi oil-gas field, Tarim Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junhong; Xu, Yue; Wang, Guojian; Etiope, Giuseppe; Han, Wei; Yao, Zhitong; Huang, Jingang

    2017-04-01

    The microseepage of natural gas from subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs is a widespread process in petroleum basins. On a global scale, microseepage represents an important natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4). To date, microseepage CH4 flux data have been obtained from 20 petroleum systems in North America, Europe, and Asia. While the seasonal variations of gas flux due to soil methanotrophic activity are known, the role of geological factors in controlling gas fluxes has been poorly investigated. Here we present new microseepage data from the Dawanqi oil-gas field located within the Tarim Basin (China), a petroleum system characterized by intense faulting and shallow (petroleum fields with active tectonics. Our results confirm that dry soil over petroleum fields can be a net source of atmospheric CH4 and its flux is primarily controlled by faulting, and reservoir depth and pressure. These factors shall be considered in global bottom-up seepage emission estimates.

  3. Electrorheology of a zeolite/silicone oil suspension under dc fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang; Wen, Shizhu

    2001-01-01

    The electrorheology of electrorheological (ER) fluids based on zeolite and silicone oil under dc fields was investigated at room temperature. ER fluids with volume fractions of 27% and 30% were prepared and tested. When a 5 kV/mm dc field was applied, shear yield stress of 26.7 kPa was obtained for the latter. The ER fluid with a higher volume fraction of zeolite had a higher current density and a higher shear yield stress under the same electric field. Compared with other ER fluids based on zeolite particles with low shear yield stress, the zeolite employed by us was found to have high dielectric constant and conductivity. The high permittivity mismatch and the high conductivity mismatch of the components of the fluids were considered responsible for the high shear yield stress. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  4. Electrofacies vs. lithofacies sandstone reservoir characterization Campanian sequence, Arshad gas/oil field, Central Sirt Basin, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki, Milad; Darwish, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    The present study focuses on the vertically stacked sandstones of the Arshad Sandstone in Arshad gas/oil field, Central Sirt Basin, Libya, and is based on the conventional cores analysis and wireline log interpretation. Six lithofacies types (F1 to F6) were identified based on the lithology, sedimentary structures and biogenic features, and are supported by wireline log calibration. From which four types (F1-F4) represent the main Campanian sandstone reservoirs in the Arshad gas/oil field. Lithofacies F5 is the basal conglomerates at the lower part of the Arshad sandstones. The Paleozoic Gargaf Formation is represented by lithofacies F6 which is the source provenance for the above lithofacies types. Arshad sediments are interpreted to be deposited in shallow marginal and nearshore marine environment influenced by waves and storms representing interactive shelf to fluvio-marine conditions. The main seal rocks are the Campanian Sirte shale deposited in a major flooding events during sea level rise. It is contended that the syn-depositional tectonics controlled the distribution of the reservoir facies in time and space. In addition, the post-depositional changes controlled the reservoir quality and performance. Petrophysical interpretation from the porosity log values were confirmed by the conventional core measurements of the different sandstone lithofacies types. Porosity ranges from 5 to 20% and permeability is between 0 and 20 mD. Petrophysical cut-off summary of the lower part of the clastic dominated sequence (i. e. Arshad Sandstone) calculated from six wells includes net pay sand ranging from 19.5‧ to 202.05‧, average porosity from 7.7 to 15% and water saturation from 19 to 58%.

  5. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-11-19

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast-southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006-2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957-1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change.

  6. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  7. Remediation plan for contaminated areas by naturally occurring radioactivity materials in Syrian Petroleum Company oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Al-Masri, M. S.; Awad, I.

    2006-01-01

    The present report contains a detailed plan for remediation of areas contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in the syrian Petroleum Company Oil fields. This plan includes a description of the contaminated areas and the procedures that will be followed before and during the execution of the project in addition to the final radiation surveys according to the Syrian regulations. In addition, responsibilities of the main personnel who will carry out the work have been defined and the future monitoring program of the remediated areas was determined. (author)

  8. Remediation plan for contaminated areas by naturally occurring radioactivity materials in Syrian petroleum company oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shwekani, R.; Al-Masri, M.S.; Awad, I.

    2005-08-01

    The present report contains a detailed plan for remediation of areas contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Syrian petroleum company oil fields. This plan includes a description of the contaminated areas and the procedures that will be followed before and during the execution of the project in addition to the final radiation surveys according to the Syrian regulations. In addition, responsibilities of the main personnel who will carry out the work have been defined and the future monitoring program of the remediated areas was determined. (author)

  9. Physical and Numerical Modeling of the Stability of Deep Caverns in Tahe Oil Field in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cave collapses emerge during the process of oil reservoir development, seriously affecting oil production. To reveal the collapse and failure mechanism of the carbonate cavern with a buried depth of 5600 m in Tahe Oil Field, using a self-developed ultra-high pressure model test system with the intelligent numerical control function, the model simulation material of carbonate rocks developed to carry out the 3D geo-mechanical model test. The model test and numerical results indicate that: (1 collapse and failure mechanism of the deep-buried caves mainly involve the failure mode of tensile shear. The rupture plane on the side wall is approximately parallel to the direction of maximum principal compressive stress. The V-type tension and split rupture plane then emerges. (2 In the process of forming holes in the model caverns, micro cracks are generated at the foot of the left and right side walls of the caverns, and the roof panels are constantly moving downward. The shorter the distance to the cave wall, the severer the destructiveness of the surrounding rocks will be. (3 The displacement of the top of the model cavern is relatively large and uniform, indicating that the cave roof moves downward as a whole. The area of the cavity suffering damage is 2.3 times as large as the cave span. The research results in this paper lay a solid test basis for revealing the cave collapse and failure mechanism in super depth.

  10. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases

  11. Fields of dreams[Oil field development in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, Marshall

    2001-04-01

    The steady increase in deepwater development projects in the US Gulf of Mexico is discussed, and individual field descriptions are given with details of the development, the water depth, onstream date, and location for the Typhoon (Chevron), Prince (El Paso), Brutus (Shell), Nansen/Boomvang (Kerr-McGee), Canyon Express (TotalFinaElf), Medusa (Murphy), Horn Mountain (BP), NaKika (Shell), Crazy Horse (BP), Serrano/Oregano (Shell), and Crosby (Shell) projects. Information on the production, reserves, water depths and locations of >100 projects in the area are tabulated.

  12. Barents Sea field test of herder to thicken oil for in-situ burning in drift ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S.; Sorstrom, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Thick oil slicks are the key to effective in situ burning. Pack ice can enable in situ burning by keeping slicks thick. Oil spills in drift ice conditions can rapidly spread and become too thin to ignite. The application of chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders are commonly used in open waters to clean and contain oil slicks. Herders result in the formation of a monolayer of surfactants on the water surface and reduce the surface tension on the surrounding water considerably. When the surfactant monolayer reaches the edge of a thin oil slick, it changes the balance of interfacial forces acting on the slick edge and allows the interfacial tensions to contract the oil into thicker layers. This study examined the use of chemical herding agents to thicken oil spills in broken ice to allow them to be ignited and burned in situ. Two meso-scale field burn tests were conducted in May 2008 with crude oil slicks of about 0.1 and 0.7 m 3 in open drift ice off Svalbard in the Barents Sea. Prior to the field experiments, 2 series of small laboratory tests were conducted using Heidrun and Statfjord crudes to determine the ability of the U.S. Navy herding agent to contract slicks of the oil. In the first field experiment involving 102 litres of fresh Heidrun, the slick was unexpectedly carried by currents to a nearby ice edge where the oil was ignited and burned. Approximately 80 per cent of the oil was consumed in the burn. In the second field experiment involving 630 litres of fresh Heidrun, the free-drifting oil was allowed to spread for 15 minutes until it was much too thin to ignite. When the herding agent was applied, the slick contracted and thickened for about 10 minutes and was then ignited using a gelled gas igniter. A 9-minute long burn consumed about 90 per cent of the oil. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 34 figs.

  13. Performance analysis of a full-field and full-range swept-source OCT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, J.; Boettcher, T.; Körner, K.; Gronle, M.; Osten, W.; Passilly, N.; Froehly, L.; Perrin, S.; Gorecki, C.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) became gained importance in medical disciplines like ophthalmology, due to its noninvasive optical imaging technique with micrometer resolution and short measurement time. It enables e. g. the measurement and visualization of the depth structure of the retina. In other medical disciplines like dermatology, histopathological analysis is still the gold standard for skin cancer diagnosis. The EU-funded project VIAMOS (Vertically Integrated Array-type Mirau-based OCT System) proposes a new type of OCT system combined with micro-technologies to provide a hand-held, low-cost and miniaturized OCT system. The concept is a combination of full-field and full-range swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) detection in a multi-channel sensor based on a micro-optical Mirau-interferometer array, which is fabricated by means of wafer fabrication. This paper presents the study of an experimental proof-of-concept OCT system as a one-channel sensor with bulk optics. This sensor is a Linnik-interferometer type with similar optical parameters as the Mirau-interferometer array. A commercial wavelength tunable light source with a center wavelength at 845nm and 50nm spectral bandwidth is used with a camera for parallel OCT A-Scan detection. In addition, the reference microscope objective lens of the Linnik-interferometer is mounted on a piezo-actuated phase-shifter. Phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) techniques are applied for resolving the conjugate complex artifact and consequently contribute to an increase of image quality and depth range. A suppression ratio of the complex conjugate term of 36 dB is shown and a system sensitivity greater than 96 dB could be measured.

  14. Experimental studies on the enhanced performance of lightweight oil recovery using a combined electrocoagulation and magnetic field processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Jie; Jiang, Wenming; Chen, Yimei; Yang, Chaojiang; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yuxing

    2018-08-01

    On marine oil spill, inflammable lightweight oil has characteristics of explosion risk and contamination of marine enviroment, therefore treatment of stable emulsion with micron oil droplets is urgent. This study aimed to propose a combined electrocoagulation and magnetic field processes to enhance performance of lightweight oil recovery with lower energy consumption. The effects of current density, electrolysis time, strength and direction of magnetic field on the overall treatment efficiency of the reactor were explored. Furthermore, the comparison between coupling device and only electrocoagulation through tracking oil removal in nine regions between the electrodes. The results were shown that the permanent magnets applied was found to enhance demulsification process within electrocoagulation reactor. For a given current density of 60 A m -2 at 16 min, Lorentz force downward was proved to promote the sedimentation of coagulants. As the magnetic field strength increases from 20 to 60 mT, oil removal efficiency was observed to increase and then decrease, and simultaneously energy consumption reduced and then present constantly. The results were found that the magnetic field strength of 40 mT was optimal within electrocoagulation reactor, which can not only diminishe difference of mass transfer rate along the height of vertical plate but also consume lowest energy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical and economic feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery in six Colombian fields. Appendix C. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to determine which of the reservoirs in the principal fields were amenable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, to evaluate which process was the most effective from both a technical and economic point of view, and to propose the steps required to further investigate the recommended EOR methods at the laboratory and field (pilot) level. Appendix C is divided into three sections: (A) Casabe Field; (B) La Cira Field; and (C) Tibu-Barco.

  16. Organic geochemistry of heavy/extra heavy oils from sidewall cores, Lower Lagunillas Member, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Basin, Venenzuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocco, R.; Alberdi, M. [PDVSA-Inteveo S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    2002-10-01

    The study of 22 oils from sidewall cores taken at different depths in the Lower Lagunillas Member, well LSJ-AB, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Lake is presented, with the purpose of predicting the intervals that present the best crude oil quality. Differences were detected in the biodegradation levels of the studied samples, which are correlated with the depth at which the sidewall core was taken. The API gravity was considered for the oils from each sidewall core and it was found that toward the top of the sequence, the oils have an API gravity of 10.6-11.2{sup o}C, while toward the base part of the sequence, the well produces extra heavy oils with an API gravity that varies between 8.2 and 8.7{sup o}. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Validation of SplitVectors Encoding for Quantitative Visualization of Large-Magnitude-Range Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henan Zhao; Bryant, Garnett W; Griffin, Wesley; Terrill, Judith E; Jian Chen

    2017-06-01

    We designed and evaluated SplitVectors, a new vector field display approach to help scientists perform new discrimination tasks on large-magnitude-range scientific data shown in three-dimensional (3D) visualization environments. SplitVectors uses scientific notation to display vector magnitude, thus improving legibility. We present an empirical study comparing the SplitVectors approach with three other approaches - direct linear representation, logarithmic, and text display commonly used in scientific visualizations. Twenty participants performed three domain analysis tasks: reading numerical values (a discrimination task), finding the ratio between values (a discrimination task), and finding the larger of two vectors (a pattern detection task). Participants used both mono and stereo conditions. Our results suggest the following: (1) SplitVectors improve accuracy by about 10 times compared to linear mapping and by four times to logarithmic in discrimination tasks; (2) SplitVectors have no significant differences from the textual display approach, but reduce cluttering in the scene; (3) SplitVectors and textual display are less sensitive to data scale than linear and logarithmic approaches; (4) using logarithmic can be problematic as participants' confidence was as high as directly reading from the textual display, but their accuracy was poor; and (5) Stereoscopy improved performance, especially in more challenging discrimination tasks.

  18. Water scaling in the North Sea oil and gas fields and scale prediction: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, M

    1997-12-31

    Water-scaling is a common and major production chemistry problem in the North Sea oil and gas fields and scale prediction has been an important means to assess the potential and extent of scale deposition. This paper presents an overview of sulphate and carbonate scaling problems in the North Sea and a review of several widely used and commercially available scale prediction software. In the paper, the water chemistries and scale types and severities are discussed relative of the geographical distribution of the fields in the North Sea. The theories behind scale prediction are then briefly described. Five scale or geochemical models are presented and various definitions of saturation index are compared and correlated. Views are the expressed on how to predict scale precipitation under some extreme conditions such as that encountered in HPHT reservoirs. 15 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Neotectonic Activity from the Upper Reaches of the Arabian Gulf and Possibilities of New Oil Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissakian, V. K.; Abdul Ahad, A. D.; Al-Ansari, N.; Knutsson, S.

    2018-03-01

    Upper reaches of the Arabian Gulf consist of different types of fine sediments including the vast Mesopotamia Plain sediments, tidal flat sediments and estuarine sabkha sediments. The height of the plain starts from zero meter and increases northwards to three meters with extremely gentle gradient. The vast plain to the north of the Arabian Gulf is drained by Shat Al-Arab (Shat means river in Iraqi slang language) and Khor Al-Zubair (Khor means estuary). The former drains the extreme eastern part of the plain; whereas, the latter drains the western part. Shat Al-Arab is the resultant of confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers near Al-Qurna town; about 160 km north of the Arabian Gulf mouth at Al-Fao town; whereas, the length of Khor Al-Zubair is about 50 km; as measured from Um Qasir Harbor. The drainage system around Khor Al-Zubair is extremely fine dendritic; whereas around Shat Al-Arab is almost parallel running from both sides of the river towards the river; almost perpendicularly. The fine dendritic drainage around Khor Al-Zubair shows clear recent erosional activity, beside water divides, abandoned irrigation channels and dislocated irrigational channels and estuarine distributaries; all are good indication for a Neotectonic activity in the region. These may indicate the presence of subsurface anticlines, which may represent oil fields; since tens of subsurface anticlines occur in near surroundings, which are oil fields.

  20. Geological implications of radium and helium in oil-field brines: observations, inferences and speculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1993-01-01

    The 1600 yr half-life of radium restricts the time and thus the distance over which radium can migrate in sediments. The dominant source of unsupported radium in sandstone reservoir brines must then be close by and is likely in shales adjacent to the oil-field reservoirs. The chemical similarity of calcium and radium can be used to argue for a local shale-source contribution to the calcium in reservoir sands -suggesting the probability of calcite cementation early in the sedimentary sequence. Helium production by radium decay increases with time. Concentrations of helium found in reservoir oil field brines are then used to suggest that: (a) such reservoirs are dominantly closed systems over geological times; (b) neither methane nor helium in the reservoirs have migrated any significant distance; and (c) the mechanism responsible for the observed helium in the brine is a continuous on-going process operative today. Diagenetic studies should then deal with both sands and shales interdependently, the two are not separable. Shales control the transport mechanisms of migration so that the primary migration of hydrocarbons, the result of kerogen catagenesis in shales, should occur sufficiently early in the sedimentary sequence in order to avoid exclusion from the reservoir by calcite cementation in association with radium transport. (author)

  1. Stereoselective biodegradation of tricyclic terpanes in heavy oils from the Bolivar Coastal Fields, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, M. [Stanford University (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences; PDVSA-Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela); Moldowan, J.M.; Dahl, J.E. [Stanford University (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences; Peters, K.E. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS-MS analyses of heavy oils from Bolivar Coastal Fields (Lagunillas Field) show a complete set of demethylated tricyclic terpanes. As is the case for the 25-norhopanes, the demethylated tricyclics are probably formed in reservoirs by microbially-mediated removal of the methyl group from the C-10 position, generating putative 17-nor-tricyclic terpanes. Diastereomeric pairs of tricyclic terpanes are resolved above C{sub 24} due to resolution of 22S and 22R epimers, but the elution order of the 22S and 22R epimers is unknown. Early-eluting diastereomers (EE) predominate over late-eluting diastereomers (LE) (C{sub 25}-C{sub 29}) in the heavily degraded oils, indicating a stereoselective preference for the LE stereoisomers during biodegradation. Conversely, the LE diastereomers predominate over the EE diastereomers in the 17-nor tricyclic series (C{sub 24}-C{sub 28}), indicating that tricyclic terpanes and 17-nor-tricyclic terpanes are directly linked as precursors and products, respectively. A good correlation exists between the destruction of steranes and the demethylation of hopanes and tricyclic terpanes. This suggests that terpane demethylation occurs during sterane destruction and hopane demethylation, although the rate is slower, indicating that tricyclic terpanes are more resistant to biodegradation. (Author)

  2. Application of seismic attributes in structural study and fracture analysis of DQ oil field, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahoo Maleki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the most unstable areas in oil fields is critical for addressing engineering problems of wellbore and sand production as well as geologic problems such as understanding dynamic constraints on hydrocarbon migration and fracture permeability. In this research work, coherency seismic attribute has been used for the determination of the most critical areas in terms of drilling stabilities in the DQ oil field, Iran. The results obtained have shown that the (1 predominant features are the SSE–NNW and N–S trends (2 the central part of the DQ structure shows the highest concentration of segment bundles, (3 the segment bundles seem to be aligned along some lineaments oriented SE–NW and SSE–NNW, and (4 on the eastern and western margins of the map there is an anomalous concentration of segments oriented E–W. It can be concluded that coherency attribute is a valuable tool for structural analysis highlighting those areas containing unstable features.

  3. Mercury concentrations in urine of amerindian populations near oil fields in the peruvian and ecuadorian amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T.; Ross, Nancy; Mergler, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mercury is a global contaminant with toxic, persistent effects on human health. Petroleum extraction is an important source of elemental mercury; little is known about human exposure levels near oil fields in the Amazon basin. Objectives: To characterize mercury levels in people living near oil production sites in the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon, controlling for fish consumption, occupation, source of water and socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: Analyze mercury levels in urine samples using cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry from 76 indigenous men and women in eight riverine communities situated near oil wells or pipelines. Subjects answered a questionnaire soliciting socio-demographic, occupational and dietary information. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression modeling. Results: The mean value of U-Hg was 2.61 μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 2.14–3.08), with 7% of the sample recording values above the global background standard suggested by The World Health Organization (5 μg/g creatinine). Women who used water from a surface source had two and a half times the amount of mercury in their urine (mean=3.70 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 2.26–5.15) compared with women who used other water sources (mean =1.39 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 0.51–2.25). Men who were involved in an oil clean-up operation had twice as much mercury in their urine (mean =3.07 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.97–4.16) as did those who worked on other tasks (mean =1.56 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.48–2.65). Mercury levels were not associated with the number of fish meals per week. Conclusions: Indigenous peoples of the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon living near oil production sites generally had urine mercury levels within the global background standard suggested by the World Health Organization. Increased levels of mercury in urine were detected for men involved in oil spill remediation and for women who relied on surface water for household needs. These

  4. Mercury concentrations in urine of amerindian populations near oil fields in the peruvian and ecuadorian amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Jena, E-mail: jena.webb@mail.mcgill.ca [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3A2K6 (Canada); Coomes, Oliver T., E-mail: oliver.coomes@mcgill.ca [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3A2K6 (Canada); Ross, Nancy, E-mail: nancy.ross@mcgill.ca [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3A2K6 (Canada); Mergler, Donna, E-mail: mergler.donna@uqam.ca [CINBIOSE,UQAM, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case postale 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada, H3C3P8 (Canada)

    2016-11-15

    Background: Mercury is a global contaminant with toxic, persistent effects on human health. Petroleum extraction is an important source of elemental mercury; little is known about human exposure levels near oil fields in the Amazon basin. Objectives: To characterize mercury levels in people living near oil production sites in the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon, controlling for fish consumption, occupation, source of water and socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: Analyze mercury levels in urine samples using cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry from 76 indigenous men and women in eight riverine communities situated near oil wells or pipelines. Subjects answered a questionnaire soliciting socio-demographic, occupational and dietary information. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression modeling. Results: The mean value of U-Hg was 2.61 μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 2.14–3.08), with 7% of the sample recording values above the global background standard suggested by The World Health Organization (5 μg/g creatinine). Women who used water from a surface source had two and a half times the amount of mercury in their urine (mean=3.70 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 2.26–5.15) compared with women who used other water sources (mean =1.39 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 0.51–2.25). Men who were involved in an oil clean-up operation had twice as much mercury in their urine (mean =3.07 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.97–4.16) as did those who worked on other tasks (mean =1.56 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.48–2.65). Mercury levels were not associated with the number of fish meals per week. Conclusions: Indigenous peoples of the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon living near oil production sites generally had urine mercury levels within the global background standard suggested by the World Health Organization. Increased levels of mercury in urine were detected for men involved in oil spill remediation and for women who relied on surface water for household needs. These

  5. Tilting oil-water contact in the chalk of Tyra Field as interpreted from capillary pressure data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Rana, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Tyra Field in the central North Sea is located in Palaeogene and Upper Cretaceous chalk. It contains a natural gas zone underlain by an oil leg. Based on analysis of logs and core data from ten wells drilled prior to the field being put into production, normalized water saturation depth-trend...... inequilibriumin the aquifer following tectonic tilting....

  6. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  7. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Hou, Du-Jie [China Univ. of Geosciences, Beijing (China). The Key Lab. of Marine Reservoir Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism; She, Yue-Hui [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology; Li, Hua-Min [Beijing Bioscience Research Center (China); Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Yu, Long-Jiang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology

    2012-08-15

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes. (orig.)

  8. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes.

  9. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Luh Arpiwi; I Made Sutha Negara; I Nengah Simpen

    2017-01-01

    Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field. The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to e...

  10. Feasibility to apply the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique in the country's heavy crude-oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Edwin; Orjuela, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    The steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oil field base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching recovery factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oil field's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (ODR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of software, which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project

  11. Atmospheric characterization through fused mobile airborne and surface in situ surveys: methane emissions quantification from a producing oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Leifer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 inventory uncertainties are large, requiring robust emission derivation approaches. We report on a fused airborne–surface data collection approach to derive emissions from an active oil field near Bakersfield, central California. The approach characterizes the atmosphere from the surface to above the planetary boundary layer (PBL and combines downwind trace gas concentration anomaly (plume above background with normal winds to derive flux. This approach does not require a well-mixed PBL; allows explicit, data-based, uncertainty evaluation; and was applied to complex topography and wind flows. In situ airborne (collected by AJAX – the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment and mobile surface (collected by AMOG – the AutoMObile trace Gas – Surveyor data were collected on 19 August 2015 to assess source strength. Data included an AMOG and AJAX intercomparison transect profiling from the San Joaquin Valley (SJV floor into the Sierra Nevada (0.1–2.2 km altitude, validating a novel surface approach for atmospheric profiling by leveraging topography. The profile intercomparison found good agreement in multiple parameters for the overlapping altitude range from 500 to 1500 m for the upper 5 % of surface winds, which accounts for wind-impeding structures, i.e., terrain, trees, buildings, etc. Annualized emissions from the active oil fields were 31.3 ± 16 Gg methane and 2.4 ± 1.2 Tg carbon dioxide. Data showed the PBL was not well mixed at distances of 10–20 km downwind, highlighting the importance of the experimental design.

  12. Study of crude and plasma-treated heavy oil by low- and high-field 1H NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honorato, Hercilio D. A.; Silva, Renzo C.; Junior, Valdemar Lacerda; Castro, Eustaquio V. R. de; Freitas, Jair C. C. [Research and Methodology Development Laboratory for Crude Oil Analysis - LabPetro, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Espirito Santo (Brazil)], email: jairccfreitas@yahoo.com.br; Piumbini, Cleiton K.; Cunha, Alfredo G.; Emmerich, Francisco G. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Espirito Santo (Brazil); Souza, Andre A. de; Bonagamba, Tito J. [Institute of Physics of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This document is intended to describe the combination of H low-field NMR and thermogravimetry (TG), rheological measurement and H high-field NMR to assess the physical and chemical changes that can occur in a heavy crude oil from treatment in a plasma reactor. This research was done using a heavy crude oil, API gravity of 10.1, which was treated in a double dielectric barrier (DDB) plasma reactor using different plasma gases: natural gas (NG), C02 or H2. The low-field HNMR experiments were conducted in a Maran Ultra spectrometer, from Oxford Instruments, at 27.5? C. After rheological analysis, a reduction in the viscosity of the plasma-treated oils in comparison to that of the crude oil was observed. Finally, it was confirmed that the use of H low-field NMR relaxometry and H high-field NMR spectroscopy allowed a separate analysis of the effects of the plasma treatment on the water and oil fractions to be made.

  13. Investigation of geothermal fields in himalayan range in pakistan using isotope and chemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Sheikh, M.R.; Akram, W.; Tasneem, M.A.; Iqbal, N.; Latif, Z.

    2007-07-01

    There are many geothermal sites in Himalayan belt of Pakistan having low to high temperatures(boiling water). Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal fields at Tatta Pani and Tato lying along Main Mantle Thrust, Murtazabad along Main Karakoram Thrust and Kotli in the area of overlapping thrusts: Punjal Thrust, Main Boundary Thrust and the Himalaya Frontal Thrust. Discharge of the springs varies from 30 to 2000 liters per minute with the surface temperature from 47.3 to 92 degree C. Two sets of water samples were collected from these fields. The samples were analyzed for various isotopes (O/sup 18/, H/sup 2/ and H/sup 3/ of water; C/sup 13/ of dissolved inorganic carbon; S/sup 34/ and O/sup 18/ of dissolved sulphates); and water chemistry. The thermal waters of the Northern Areas of Pakistan are generally neutral to slightly alkaline and have low dissolved contents. Sodium is the dominant cation in all the cases. In terms of anions, HCO/sub 3/ is dominating. Source of recharge is meteoric water (rains and/or snow-melt). The dominant process of cooling is conduction at Tatta Pani, Tato, and Murtazabad. Shallow groundwater is mixing with the thermal springs in different proportions at Murtazabad, while there is no mixing in the thermal waters of Tatta Pani and Tato. The equilibrium temperature of the thermal end-member at Murtazabad is in the range of 185- 225 degree C and the isochemical-mixing model based on the Na-K and quartz geothermometers estimates 227 degree C temperature. O/sup 18/ (SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geothermometer indicates equilibrium temperatures (before mixing) above I85 degree C. The dissolved silica vs. enthalpy plot suggests heat losses through conduction from the original temperature about 245 degree C. The reservoir temperatures of Tatta Pani (100-130 degree C) determined by the Na-K, K-Mg and quartz geothermometers are in good agreement. O/sup 18/ (SO

  14. Multi-Scale Long-Range Magnitude and Sign Correlations in Vertical Upward Oil-Gas-Water Three-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, An; Jin, Ning-de; Ren, Ying-yu; Zhu, Lei; Yang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    In this article we apply an approach to identify the oil-gas-water three-phase flow patterns in vertical upwards 20 mm inner-diameter pipe based on the conductance fluctuating signals. We use the approach to analyse the signals with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and extracting their scaling properties. We find that the magnitude series relates to nonlinear properties of the original time series, whereas the sign series relates to the linear properties. The research shows that the oil-gas-water three-phase flows (slug flow, churn flow, bubble flow) can be classified by a combination of scaling exponents of magnitude and sign series. This study provides a new way of characterising linear and nonlinear properties embedded in oil-gas-water three-phase flows.

  15. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  16. Experimental investigation of ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating scenarios for ITER's half-field hydrogen phase performed in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerche, E.; Van Eester, D.; Johnson, T. J.; Hellsten, T.; Ongena, J.; Mayoral, M. L.; Frigione, D.; Sozzi, C.; Calabro, G.; Lennholm, M.; Beaumont, P.; Blackman, T.; Brennan, D.; Brett, A.; Cecconello, M.; Coffey, I.; Coyne, A.; Crombe, K.; Czarnecka, A.; Felton, R.; Giroud, C.; Gorini, G.; Hellesen, C.; Jacquet, P.; Kiptily, V.; Knipe, S.; Krasilnikov, A.; Maslov, M.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Nocente, M.; Pangioni, L.; Proverbio, I.; Sergienko, G.; Stamp, M.; Studholme, W.; Tardocchi, M.; Vdovin, V.; Versloot, T.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Whitehurst, A.; Wooldridge, E.; Zoita, V.; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2012-01-01

    Two ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating schemes proposed for the half-field operation phase of ITER in hydrogen plasmas—fundamental H majority and second harmonic 3 He ICRF heating—were recently investigated in JET. Although the same magnetic field and RF frequencies ( f ≈ 42 MHz and f

  17. Measured electric field intensities near electric cloud discharges detected by the Kennedy Space Center's Lightning Detection and Ranging System, LDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    For a summer thunderstorm, for which simultaneous, airborne electric field measurements and Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System data was available, measurements were coordinated to present a picture of the electric field intensity near cloud electrical discharges detected by the LDAR System. Radar precipitation echos from NOAA's 10 cm weather radar and measured airborne electric field intensities were superimposed on LDAR PPI plots to present a coordinated data picture of thunderstorm activity.

  18. Research and field trials with a blend of ethanol in diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Autoemission K-E E Consultant, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this report is to summarize the experiences acquired and data generated during the project named `The mixed fuel project` which was carried out during the years 1993 to 1997. The project was initiated after that some information had been collected in Australia, where a similar project was underway. The Australian project showed some interesting data and within that project an emulsifier had been developed - an emulsifier which has also been used in the Swedish project. In order to avoid a costly development of a method for blending ethanol in diesel oil, a form of co-operation was established between the people involved in Australia and those involved in Sweden. The content of ethanol in diesel oil used in Australia was 15 % and the investigations in Sweden reported further down in this report the ratio 15 % ethanol in MK 1 (an environmentally classified diesel fuel in Sweden) was the best alternative to be used also in Sweden. Twelve reports have been studied and used as references in order to summarize the results and experiences from the project. In order to fulfil the obligations of the project many institutions, private and community companies, consultants and universities in Sweden were involved. In the report presents the main results from the different investigations and field trials with ethanol-diesel fueled vehicles. It can be said that there are no technical problems connected to the use of ethanol-diesel fuel but the most serious drawback is the cost of the fuel. There is also a need for further development of the technology of making a homogenous emulsion of ethanol in diesel oil at a reasonable cost. The main advantage of using the mixed fuel is that the emission of particles is considerably reduced. The emission of CO{sub 2} is also reduced when the ethanol is produced from biomass using an environmentally friendly method 17 refs, 22 figs, 22 tabs

  19. Formation and distribution of large lithologic-stratigraphic oil & gas fields (provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizhen Tao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the “Tenth Five-Year Plan”, lithologic and stratigraphic reservoirs have been the main contribution of both the discovery as well as reserve and production increase in China; there were about 80% of proven reserves. The typical reservoirs in six major basins in the eastern, central, and western China were adopted as reservoir forming models. The reservoir forming models in three types of slopes, three types of depressions, and three types of lithologic reservoir assemblages have been built on the basis of application of new technologies, physical modeling of reservoir forming mechanism, and investigation to the formation and distribution of the reservoirs. The evaluation methods for large lithologic reservoirs provinces were established based on the forming mechanism and main controlling factors mentioned above. In addition, the study reveals the main controlling factors and the laws of enrichment of two types of stratigraphic reservoirs (pinch-out and weathered karst reservoirs based on the evaluation methods for large stratigraphic reservoir provinces that have been established. By comprehensively understanding the laws of enrichment of lithologic-stratigraphic reservoirs in four types of basins, specific evaluation methods and fine exploration techniques have been developed. The findings led to an exploration direction in the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period. The study supported the exploration and selection of oil and gas plays, as well as promoted the exploration of lithologic and stratigraphic reservoirs. Keywords: Lithologic trap, Stratigraphic trap, Lithostratigraphic reservoir, Large oil and gas field, Large oil and gas province, Formation and distribution, Exploration potential

  20. Ionization from short-range potential under action of electromagnetic field of complex configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Rodionov, V N; Kravtsova, G A

    2002-01-01

    The transcendental equation for the complex energy is obtained on the basis of the exactly solvable 3D model of the short-acting potential and the Green time function in the intensive electromagnetic field, constituting the combination of the constant magnetic field and the circular-polarization wave field. The electron quasistationary states parameters in the delta-potential with an account of the action of the intensive external field of complex configuration are calculated. The problem on the possibility of stabilizing the bound states decay of the spinor and scalar particles through the intensive magnetic field is clarified. It is established that the obtained results regime the reexamination of the accepted notion on the stabilizing role of the strong magnetic field by the atoms ionization

  1. Human health cost of hydrogen sulfide air pollution from an oil and gas Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenessary, Dinara; Kenessary, Almas; Kenessariyev, Ussen Ismailovich; Juszkiewicz, Konrad; Amrin, Meiram Kazievich; Erzhanova, Aya Eralovna

    2017-06-08

    Introduction and objective. The Karachaganak oil and gas condensate field (KOGCF), one of the largest in the world, located in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RoK) in Central Asia, is surrounded by 10 settlements with a total population of 9,000 people. Approximately73% of this population constantly mention a specific odour of rotten eggs in the air, typical for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions, and the occurrence of low-level concentrations of hydrogen sulfide around certain industrial installations (esp. oil refineries) is a well known fact. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the impact on human health and the economic damage to the country due to H2S emissions. Materials and method. Dose-response dependency between H2S concentrations in the air and cardiovascular morbidity using multiple regression analysis was applied. Economic damage from morbidity was derived with a newly-developed method, with Kazakhstani peculiarities taken into account. Results.Hydrogen sulfide air pollution due to the KOGCF activity costs the state almost $60,000 per year. Moreover, this is the reason for a more than 40% rise incardiovascular morbidity in the region. Conclusion. The reduction of hydrogen sulfide emissions into the air is recommended, as well as successive constant ambient air monitoring in future. Economic damage evaluation should be made mandatory, on a legal basis, whenever an industrial facility operation results in associated air pollution.

  2. Centrifuge - dewatering of oil sand fluid tailings: phase 2 field-scale test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Jack T.C. [BGC Engineering Inc (Canada); O' Kane, Mike [O' Kane Consultants Inc (Canada); Donahue, Robert [Applied Geochemical Solutions Engineering (Canada); Lahaie, Rick [Syncrude Canada Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In order to reduce the accumulation of oil sand fluid fine tailings (FFT) and to create trafficable surfaces for reclamation, Syncrude Canada Ltd. has been studying several tailings technologies. Centrifuge-dewatering is one such technology. This paper discusses the phase 2 field-scale tests for centrifuge-dewatering of oil sand FFT. In centrifuge-dewatering, FFT is diluted and treated with flocculant, then processed through a centrifuge plant and the high-density underflow is transported to a tailings deposit. This technology has evolved since 2005 from laboratory bench scale tests. More than 10,000 cubic meters of centrifuge cake was treated, produced and transported to ten different deposits over a 12-week period from August to October 2010. The amount of solids in FFT was increased from 30% to 50% by centrifuging. Sampled deposits were tested and instrumented for in situ strength. It can be concluded that the deposits can be strengthened and densified by natural dewatering processes like freeze-thaw action and evaporative drying.

  3. Seismic monitoring of in situ combustion process in a heavy oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadeh, Hossein Mehdi; Srivastava, Ravi P; Vedanti, Nimisha; Landrø, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Three time-lapse 3D seismic surveys are analysed to monitor the effect of in situ combustion, a thermal-enhanced oil recovery process in the Balol heavy oil reservoir in India. The baseline data were acquired prior to the start of the in situ combustion process in four injection wells, while the two monitor surveys were acquired 1 and 2 years after injection start, respectively. We present the results of baseline and second monitor surveys. Fluid substitution studies based on acoustic well logs predict a seismic amplitude decrease at the top reservoir and an increase at the base reservoir. Both the amplitude dimming at the top reservoir and the brightening at the base reservoir are observed in the field data. The extent of the most pronounced 4D anomaly is estimated from the seismic amplitude and time shift analysis. The interesting result of seismic analysis is that the anomalies are laterally shifted towards the northwest, rather than the expected east, from the injector location suggesting a northwest movement of the in situ combustion front. No clear evidence of air leakage into other sand layers, neither above nor below the reservoir sand, is observed. This does not necessarily mean that all the injected air is following the reservoir sand, especially if the thief sand layers are thin. These layers might be difficult to observe on seismic data

  4. Compressive effect of the magnetic field on the positron range in commonly used positron emitters simulated using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Cao, Xingzhong; Liu, Fuyan; Tang, Haohui; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Baoyi; Wei, Long

    2017-11-01

    The compressive effect of a magnetic field on the positron range from commonly used positron emitters in PET (Positron Emission Tomography) was simulated using the Geant4 toolkit with H2O as the environmental material. The compression of the positron range, which was different in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, showed finite final variation of relative change rate versus the magnetic field. The variation greatly depended on the positron-emission energy spectrum in the same medium. Furthermore, the volume of the positron annihilation point was dramatically compressed as the magnetic field was set in the range of 3-6T. It was more prominent for 82Rb , which is generally used as a positron source in PET technology.

  5. The features of oil & gas complex's strategic management and hydrocarbon products transportation at developing marine oil & gas fields in Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadeev А. М.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some theoretical and practical issues of strategic management of oil and gas complex at the development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic offshore. The analysis of existing approaches in process and project management of oil and gas complex has been carried out taking into account characteristics of offshore projects in the Arctic zone. Considerable attention has been paid to the history and evolution of strategic management as an economic category, functional areas of strategic management at different levels of management have been proposed. The analysis of existing scientific works dedicated to the projects on the Arctic shelf, has shown insufficient development of the strategic management's theory and practice. In particular, the biggest part of the scientific studies is focused on studying issues of the management at the corporate level, at the same time questions at the level of the oil and gas complex are not considered. In existing studies, the project and process approaches to management are often opposed to each other, and according to the authors it is incorrect in relation to the management of the oil and gas complex on the Arctic shelf. The oil and gas complex is a complex and multilevel system that implements unprecedentedly difficult projects in terms of technology. The beginning of hydrocarbon production on the Arctic shelf is inextricably linked with the transportation of extracted raw materials to the processing and marketing sites; it complements the strategic management of the oil and gas complex by the features of organizing efficient transport and logistics solutions.

  6. High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data

  7. Effect of nitrogen form for the amendment of crude oil bioremediation field experiment in the Sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, H.; Hiwatari, T.; Kohata, K.; Watanabe, M.; Miyazaki, H.; Yamasaki, F.; Tanimoto, T.

    2002-01-01

    Some small-scale field experiments have been conducted regarding the bioremediation of oil at a rocky beach in the Sea of Japan. During the 4 month experiment, artificial mixtures of weathered Arabian light crude oil and sand were wrapped in teflon net envelopes which were placed in perforated vessels to facilitate exchange with seawater in the intertidal area. Two inorganic and two organic slow release nitrogen fertilizers were added to the oil and sand mixtures which were then periodically sampled and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual petroleum compounds degraded at a quicker rate when fertilizer was added. In addition, fertilizer helped to remove the oil from the sand. After 4 months, the oil content in the sands fertilized with ammonium sulfate, urea and isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) was one third that of the control sand. Ammonium nitrate fertilizers did not work as well at removing the oil from the sand. It was concluded that organic nitrogen fertilizers such as urea and IBDU have significant potential to stimulate microbial degradation and physical removal of oil rather than organic nitrogen fertilizers. 16 refs., 3 figs

  8. Feasibility of CO{sub 2} geological storage in the Xingou oil field, Jianghan Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Sanxi [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China); Shana, Huimei; Li, Yilian [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Yang, Zhen; Zhong, Zhaohong [Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Geological storage of CO{sub 2} as an effective way of reducing CO{sub 2} output to the atmosphere receives growing attention worldwide. To evaluate the feasibility of this technique in the Xingou oil field of Jianghan Basin in China, 2D and 3D models of CO{sub 2} geological storage were established using TOUGH2 software. Results showed that CO{sub 2} gas can be stored in the deepest reservoir through continuous injection over 50 years, and will remain effectively confined within the space under the second cap-rock during its diffusion over 500 years. Compared with 2D models, 3D models showed that the diffusion process of CO{sub 2} gas in the reservoir will create a mushroom-shaped zone of influence. (authors)

  9. Cumulative impacts of an evolving oil-field complex on the distribution of calving caribou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellemann, C.; Cameron, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship between caribou density and road density as one means of assessing the reaction of caribou to activities associated with the evolving Prudhoe Bay oil-field complex in Alaska. Aerial surveys from 1987 to 1992 have shown that caribou density is inversely related to road density. The effects of avoidance were most apparent in preferred rugged terrain which are important habitats for foraging during the calving period. Female calves were found to be much more sensitive to surface development than adult males and yearlings. The biggest disturbances were caused by initial road construction and related facilities. The recent displacement of some calving activity within the Kuparuk Development area may result in heightened competition for forage, increased risk of predation, and lower productivity of the herd. 43 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Studies on oil palm trunks as sources of infection in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, J; Keenan, L; Wayne, S; Hasan, Y

    2005-01-01

    Diseases of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense are of major economic importance in much of South-East Asia. This paper describes results from an ongoing field trial concerning the spread of the pathogen from artificially inoculated trunks used to simulate spread from windrowed trunks. Three planting distances for bait seedlings revealed that the closer the seedling was planted to the source of inoculum the sooner it succumbed to the disease. However, infection only occurred when the trunks were mounded (covered with soil), and seedlings planted around uncovered trunks (at any distance) have showed no symptoms of disease to date. Isolates are being collected from infected plants and molecular analysis is being undertaken to give more information on the spread of the pathogen.

  11. Back to basics for e-biz[Use of internet in oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBarnet, A.

    2002-05-01

    This article reports on the launching of the OFS Portal in 2000 with the support of major oil field companies and with the aim of using standardised electronic cataloging of products and services. The lack of adequate software procurement tools for buyers, and the advantages of e-commerce as opposed to paper-based transactions are discussed. Details are given of the joining of OFS with the POSC organisation on a basis of a comprehensive and consistent classification system, the ratification of the OFS Portal proposed standard by the American Petroleum Institute and the Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, the setting up of Trade-Ranger for on-line procurement connecting buyers and sellers, and information gathering.

  12. Deciphering biodegradation effects on light hydrocarbons in crude oils using their stable carbon isotopic composition: a case study from the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand [Vieth; Heinz Wilkes

    2006-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis has become an important tool in environmental studies and is an especially powerful way to evaluate biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Here, carbon isotope ratios of light hydrocarbons were used to characterise in-reservoir biodegradation in the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway. Increasing biodegradation, as characterised, for example, by increasing concentration ratios of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18, and decreasing concentrations of individual light hydrocarbons ...

  13. Large tensor mode, field range bound and consistency in generalized G-inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimitsu, Taro; Suyama, Teruaki; Watanabe, Yuki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-01-01

    We systematically show that in potential driven generalized G-inflation models, quantum corrections coming from new physics at the strong coupling scale can be avoided, while producing observable tensor modes. The effective action can be approximated by the tree level action, and as a result, these models are internally consistent, despite the fact that we introduced new mass scales below the energy scale of inflation. Although observable tensor modes are produced with sub-strong coupling scale field excursions, this is not an evasion of the Lyth bound, since the models include higher-derivative non-canonical kinetic terms, and effective rescaling of the field would result in super-Planckian field excursions. We argue that the enhanced kinetic term of the inflaton screens the interactions with other fields, keeping the system weakly coupled during inflation

  14. Large tensor mode, field range bound and consistency in generalized G-inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunimitsu, Taro; Suyama, Teruaki; Watanabe, Yuki; Yokoyama, Jun' ichi, E-mail: kunimitsu@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: suyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: watanabe@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-08-01

    We systematically show that in potential driven generalized G-inflation models, quantum corrections coming from new physics at the strong coupling scale can be avoided, while producing observable tensor modes. The effective action can be approximated by the tree level action, and as a result, these models are internally consistent, despite the fact that we introduced new mass scales below the energy scale of inflation. Although observable tensor modes are produced with sub-strong coupling scale field excursions, this is not an evasion of the Lyth bound, since the models include higher-derivative non-canonical kinetic terms, and effective rescaling of the field would result in super-Planckian field excursions. We argue that the enhanced kinetic term of the inflaton screens the interactions with other fields, keeping the system weakly coupled during inflation.

  15. Transient magnetic fields of H-like ions in the range 10≤ZIon≤28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cub, J.

    1993-07-01

    Experiments with the hydrogen-like ions Ne-20, S-32, Ar-40, Fe-54 and Ni-62 were performed in order to measure the transient magnetic fields of the ions by perturbed angular correlation of the gamma radiation

  16. Achieving sub-millimetre precision with a solid-state full-field heterodyning range imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, A. A.; Cree, M. J.; Payne, A. D.; Conroy, R. M.; Carnegie, D. A.

    2007-09-01

    We have developed a full-field solid-state range imaging system capable of capturing range and intensity data simultaneously for every pixel in a scene with sub-millimetre range precision. The system is based on indirect time-of-flight measurements by heterodyning intensity-modulated illumination with a gain modulation intensified digital video camera. Sub-millimetre precision to beyond 5 m and 2 mm precision out to 12 m has been achieved. In this paper, we describe the new sub-millimetre class range imaging system in detail, and review the important aspects that have been instrumental in achieving high precision ranging. We also present the results of performance characterization experiments and a method of resolving the range ambiguity problem associated with homodyne and heterodyne ranging systems.

  17. Testing the gravitational interaction in the field of the Earth via satellite laser ranging and the Laser Ranged Satellites Experiment (LARASE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchesi, D M; Peron, R; Visco, M; Anselmo, L; Pardini, C; Bassan, M; Pucacco, G

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the Laser Ranged Satellites Experiment (LARASE) is presented. This is a research program that aims to perform new refined tests and measurements of gravitation in the field of the Earth in the weak field and slow motion (WFSM) limit of general relativity (GR). For this objective we use the free available data relative to geodetic passive satellite lasers tracked from a network of ground stations by means of the satellite laser ranging (SLR) technique. After a brief introduction to GR and its WFSM limit, which aims to contextualize the physical background of the tests and measurements that LARASE will carry out, we focus on the current limits of validation of GR and on current constraints on the alternative theories of gravity that have been obtained with the precise SLR measurements of the two LAGEOS satellites performed so far. Afterward, we present the scientific goals of LARASE in terms of upcoming measurements and tests of relativistic physics. Finally, we introduce our activities and we give a number of new results regarding the improvements to the modelling of both gravitational and non-gravitational perturbations to the orbit of the satellites. These activities are a needed prerequisite to improve the forthcoming new measurements of gravitation. An innovation with respect to the past is the specialization of the models to the LARES satellite, especially for what concerns the modelling of its spin evolution, the neutral drag perturbation and the impact of Earth's solid tides on the satellite orbit. (paper)

  18. Assessing the Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Activities on Regional Air Quality in the Colorado Northern Front Range using WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdioskouei, M.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent increases in the Natural Gas (NG) production through hydraulic fracturing have questioned the climate benefit of switching from coal-fired to natural gas-fired power plants. Higher than expected levels of methane, VOCs, and NOx have been observed in areas close to oil and NG (OnG) operation facilities. High uncertainty in the OnG emission inventories and methane budget challenge the assessment of OnG impact on air quality and climate and consequently development of effective mitigation policies and control regulations. In this work, we focus on reducing the uncertainties around the OnG emissions by using high resolution (4x4 km2) WRF-Chem simulations coupled with detailed observation from the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ 2014) field campaign. First, we identified the optimal WRF-Chem configurations in the NFR area. We compared the performance of local and non-local Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes in predicting the PBL height and vertical mixing in the domain. We evaluated the impact of different meteorological and chemical initial and boundary conditions on the model performance. Next, simulations based on optimal configurations were used to assess the performance of the emission inventory (NEI-2011v2). To evaluate the impact of OnG emission on regional air quality and performance of NEI-2011 we tested the sensitivity of the model to the OnG emission. Comparison between simulated values and ground-based and airborne measurements shows a low bias of OnG emission in NEI-2011. Finally, inverse modeling techniques based on emission sensitivity simulations are being used to optimal scaling the OnG emission from the NEI-2011.

  19. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  20. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when

  1. Feasibility analysis of the development of an oil field: a real options approach in a production sharing agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nunes Fonseca

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this research is to analyze the feasibility of developing a real oil field in Africa under a production sharing agreement, through the application of the real options theory. Design/methodology/approach – The research was conducted according to the principles of modeling and simulation, based on a structure that consists of three phases, in order to facilitate project feasibility analysis. Findings – Initially, according to the traditional method, we suggest that the decision-maker does not invest in the development of the field. However, by incorporating uncertainty into the decision-making process, other results were obtained. Although reduced, we attested that there is a likelihood of feasibility. Next, by using the binomial model to represent the process of oil barrel price diffusion, the asset value is calculated considering the flexibility of delaying the development of the field. Originality/value – The results show that, if a manager has the right to invest in the future and wait for better oil prices, postponing the development of an oil field adds value to his assets. The proposed method is a contribution that offers subsidies to improve decisionmaking processes to evaluate investments.

  2. Hydraulic Fracturing of 403 Shallow Diatomite Wells in South Belridge Oil Field, Kern County, California, in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, D. B.; Agusiegbe, V.

    2015-12-01

    We examine all 403 Hydraulic Fracture (HF) jobs performed by Aera Energy, LLC, in the South Belridge oil field, Kern County, CA in 2014. HFs in the South Belridge oil field are atypical amongst North American plays because the reservoir is shallow and produced via vertical wells. Our data set constitutes 88% of all HF jobs performed in CA oil fields in calendar-2014. The South Belridge field produces 11% of California's oil and the shallow HFs performed here differ from most HFs performed elsewhere. We discuss fracture modeling and methods and summary statistics, and modelled dimensions of fractures and their relationships to depth and reservoir properties. The 403 HFs were made in the diatomite-dominated Reef Ridge member of the Monterey Formation. The HFs began at an average depth of 1047 feet below ground (ft TVD) and extended an average of 626 ft vertically downward. The deepest initiation of HF was at 2380 ft and the shallowest cessation was at 639 ft TVD. The average HF was performed using 1488 BBL (62,496 gallons) of water. The HFs were performed in no more than 6 stages and nearly all were completed within one day. We (1) compare metrics of the South Belridge sample group with recent, larger "all-CA" and nationwide samples; and (2) conclude that if relationships of reservoir properties, well completion and HF are well understood, shallow diatomite HF may be optimized to enhance production while minimizing environmental impact.

  3. Experimental study on stabilizing range extension of diamagnetic levitation under modulated magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, T C S; Wong, P L; Liu, K P, E-mail: 50578230@student.cityu.edu.h, E-mail: meplwong@cityu.edu.h, E-mail: mekpliu@cityu.edu.h [Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management Department, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-01-01

    The real energy-free levitation exists with the help of diamagnetic material. Its ultra-high sensitivity to force is particularly attractive to micro/nano force sensing. A key parameter: Levitation Stabilizing Local Range, LR (allowable moving range of the floater) is critical to the load and self-rotating performance. Besides, larger LR reduces the energy loss due to the eddy current and has greater application potential. Recently, an idea of extending the LR by a modulating coil array has been validated using numerical simulation. This paper takes the next move to carry out an experimental study on the shape effect of stacked coil arrays with different currents on LR.

  4. Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2015-01-15

    The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2 kV/cm; 11.25 kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural gas in 1936: Petroleum in 1936: The gas and oil fields in the Guelph and Medina (Grimsby) formations: Appendix, the Brownsville Gas Field: Gas and oil in eastern Ontario. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B; Evans, C S

    1938-12-31

    Part V of this annual report consists of four separate reports: Natural gas, petroleum, gas and oil fields in the Guelph and Medina (Grimsby) formations, and gas and oil in eastern Ontario. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution; changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, being presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  6. Observation of field-induced long-range order in disordered Sr14Cu24O41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsugi, S.; Matsumoto, S.; Kitaoka, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Uehara, M.; Nagata, T.; Akimitsu, J.

    2004-01-01

    Field-induced magnetic order in a structural disordered single-crystal Sr 14 Cu 24 O 41 (Sr 14 -B) has been observed in the Cu-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements for the ladder sites below 20 K under the magnetic field H∼11 T. For the Zhang Rice (ZR) sites in the chains, the spectrum splits below 20 K due to an appearance of the internal field, whereas that of less disordered Sr 14 -A does not. This gives an evidence of three-dimensional (3D) long-range (LR) ordering in Sr 14 -B below T N ∼20 K under H∼11 T

  7. Field guide to old ponderosa pines in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie Stroh Huckaby; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Paula J. Fornwalt; Jason M. Stoker; Chuck Dennis

    2003-01-01

    We describe the distinguishing physical characteristics of old ponderosa pine trees in the Front Range of Colorado and the ecological processes that tend to preserve them. Photographs illustrate identifying features of old ponderosa pines and show how to differentiate them from mature and young trees. The publication includes a photographic gallery of old ponderosa...

  8. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. PMID:29329313

  9. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues.

  10. Conductance of partially disordered graphene: crossover from temperature-dependent to field-dependent variable-range hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, C Y; Jaurigue, L C; Kaiser, A B; Gómez-Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of low-temperature measurements of the conductance of partially disordered reduced graphene oxide, finding that the data follow a simple crossover scenario. At room temperature, the conductance is dominated by two-dimensional (2D) electric field-assisted, thermally driven (Pollak–Riess) variable-range hopping (VRH) through highly disordered regions. However, at lower temperatures T, we find a smooth crossover to follow the exp(−E 0 /E) 1/3 field-driven (Shklovskii) 2D VRH conductance behaviour when the electric field E exceeds a specific crossover value E C (T) 2D =(E a E 0 1/3 /3) 3/4 determined by the scale factors E 0 and E a for the high-field and intermediate-field regimes respectively. Our crossover scenario also accounts well for experimental data reported by other authors for three-dimensional disordered carbon networks, suggesting wide applicability. (paper)

  11. Short-range dynamics and prediction of mesoscale flow patterns in the MISTRAL field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O.; Kaufmann, P.; Talkner, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In a limited area of about 50 km by 50 km with complex topography, wind measurements on a dense network were performed during the MISTRAL field experiment in 1991-1992. From these data the characteristic wind fields were identified by an automated classification method. The dynamics of the resulting twelve typical regional flow patterns is studied. It is discussed how transitions between the flow patterns take place and how well the transition probabilities can be described in the framework of a Markov model. Guided by this discussion, a variety of prediction models were tested which allow a short-term forecast of the flow pattern type. It is found that a prediction model which uses forecast information from the synoptic scale has the best forecast skill. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  12. Resonance oscillations of nonreciprocal long-range van der Waals forces between atoms in electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkunov, Yury

    2018-03-01

    We study theoretically the van der Waals interaction between two atoms out of equilibrium with an isotropic electromagnetic field. We demonstrate that at large interatomic separations, the van der Waals forces are resonant, spatially oscillating, and nonreciprocal due to resonance absorption and emission of virtual photons. We suggest that the van der Waals forces can be controlled and manipulated by tuning the spectrum of artificially created random light.

  13. Atom probe field ion microscope study of the range and diffusivity of helium in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.

    1978-08-01

    A time-of-flight (TOF) atom-probe field-ion microscope (FIM) specifically designed for the study of defects in metals is described. With this automated system 600 TOF min -1 can be recorded and analyzed. Performance tests of the instrument demonstrated that (1) the seven isotopes of molybdenum and the five isotopes of tungsten can be clearly resolved; and (2) the concentration and spatial distribution of all constitutents present at levels greater than 0.05 at. % in a W--25 at. % Re, Mo--1.0 at. % Ti, Mo--1.0 at. % Ti--0.08 at. % Zr (TZM), a low swelling stainless steel (LS1A) and a metallic glass (Metglas 2826) can be measured. The effect of the rate of field evaporation on the quantitative atom probe analysis of a Mo--1.0 at. % Ti alloy and a Mo--1.0 at. % Ti--0.08 at. % Zr alloy was investigated. As the field evaporation rate increased the measured Ti concentration was found to also increase. A simple qualitative model was proposed to explain the observation. The spatial distribution of titanium in a fast neutron irradiated Mo--1.0 at. % Ti alloy has been investigated. No evidence of Ti segregation to the voids was detected nor has any evidence of significant resolution of Ti from the TiC precipitates been detected. A small amount of segregation of carbon to a void was detected

  14. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Arpiwi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field.  The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to evaluate the survival and growth of budded plants in the field. Pods were collected from 30 trees in Lovina Beach, Buleleng Regency, Bali. Oil was extracted from seeds using soxhlet with hexane as a solvent.  The high oil yielding trees were propagated by budding using root stocks grown from M. pinnata seeds.  Scions were taken from young branches of selected trees. Incision was made on rootstock and the same size of cut was made on a scion containing a single bud.  The scion was inserted to the incision of rootstock then closed tightly using plastic strips.   The plastic was removed when the scion grew into a little green shoot. One month after plastic removal, the scion union grew into a single shoot and then the budded plants were removed to polybags. Budded plants were planted in the field of Bukit Jimbaran, Badung Regency, Bali with 4 × 4 spacing. Results showed all budded plants successfully grow new shoots. Two months after planting the survival of budded plants was 100%. Plant height increased by 22.13 cm, stem diameter increased by 2.43 mm and the number of compound leaf increased by 2.08.  It can be concluded that four high oil yielding trees were selected from Lovina Beach and successfully propagated by budding. Survival of budded plants was 100% with vigorous growth.

  15. Strontium isotopic signatures of oil-field waters: Applications for reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Oetting, G.C.; Gao, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 87Sr/86Sr compositions of formation waters that were collected from 71 wells producing from a Pennsylvanian carbonate reservoir in New Mexico display a well-defined distribution, with radiogenic waters (up to 0.710129) at the updip western part of the reservoir, grading downdip to less radiogenic waters (as low as 0.708903 to the east. Salinity (2800-50,000 mg/L) displays a parallel trend; saline waters to the west pass downdip to brackish waters. Elemental and isotopic data indicate that the waters originated as meteoric precipitation and acquired their salinity and radiogenic 87Sr through dissolution of Upper Permian evaporites. These meteoric-derived waters descended, perhaps along deeply penetrating faults, driven by gravity and density, to depths of more than 7000 ft (2100 m). The 87 Sr/86Sr and salinity trends record influx of these waters along the western field margin and downdip flow across the field, consistent with the strong water drive, potentiometric gradient, and tilted gas-oil-water contacts. The formation water 87Sr/86Sr composition can be useful to evaluate subsurface flow and reservoir behavior, especially in immature fields with scarce pressure and production data. In mature reservoirs, Sr Sr isotopes can be used to differentiate original formation water from injected water for waterflood surveillance. Strontium isotopes thus provide a valuable tool for both static and dynamic reservoir characterization in conjunction with conventional studies using seismic, log, core, engineering, and production data. Copyright ??2004. The American Association of Petroleum Geologist. All rights reserved.

  16. Two-nucleon electromagnetic current in chiral effective field theory: One-pion exchange and short-range contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, S.; Epelbaum, E.; Krebs, H.; Meissner, U.-G.

    2011-01-01

    We derive the leading one-loop contribution to the one-pion exchange and short-range two-nucleon electromagnetic current operator in the framework of chiral effective field theory. The derivation is carried out using the method of unitary transformation. Explicit results for the current and charge densities are given in momentum and coordinate space.

  17. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  18. Economic effectiveness of intensification of oil production from strongly waterflooded Chokrakskii and Karaganskii formations of Oktyabrskii field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titova, N I; Umanskii, M M

    1969-09-01

    The forced method of exploitation was initiated at Oktyabrskii field in 1943. In this method, the wells are equipped with submerged electric pumps.From 1943 to 1967, this method of pumping wells with highly water-cut production, recovered an additional 1,876 tons of oil. Better results were obtained when the forced exploitation method was combined with waterflooding. The high profitability of using submerged centrifugal pumps in oil wells with high water production is shown. Year-by-year results obtained with this production method are shown in 4 tables.

  19. Hydrocarbon degassing of the earth and origin of oil-gas fields (isotope-geochemical and geodynamic aspects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyaev, Boris; Dremin, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    More than half a century ago, Academician PN Kropotkin substantiated the relationship of the formation and distribution of oil and gas fields with the processes of emanation hydrocarbon degassing of the Earth. Over the years, the concept of PN Kropotkin received further development and recognition of studies based on new factual material. Of particular importance are the following factors: a) the results of studies on global and regional uneven processes of traditional oil and gas and the role of deep faults in controlling the spread of oil and gas fields; b) the results of the research on gigantic volumes and localization of the discharges of hydrocarbon fluids (mud volcanoes, seeps) on land and into the atmosphere and through the bottom of the World ocean; c) the results of the studies on grand volumes of the spread of unconventional hydrocarbon resources in their non-traditional fields, especially on near-surface interval of unconventional oil and gas accumulation with gas hydrates, heavy oil and bitumen, as well as extraordinary resources of oil and gas in the shale and tight rocks. Deep mantle-crust nature of oil and gas in traditional and nontraditional deposits thus received further substantiation of geological and geophysical data and research results. However, isotopic and geochemical data are still interpreted in favor of the concept of the genesis of oil and gas in the processes of thermal catalytic conversion of organic matter of sedimentary rocks, at temperatures up to 200°C. In this report an alternative interpretation of the isotope carbon-hydrogen system (δ13C-δD) for gas and of oil deposits, isotope carbon system for methane and carbon dioxide (δ13C1-δ13C0) will be presented. An alternative interpretation will also be presented for the data on carbon-helium isotope geochemical system for oil and gas fields, volcanoes and mud volcanoes. These constructions agree with the geological data on the nature of deep hydrocarbon fluids involved in the

  20. RF-field generation in wide frequency range by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanovich, B.; Nesterovich, A.; Minaev, S.

    1996-01-01

    A simple device for generating powerful RF oscillations in the frequency range of 100-250 MHz is considered. The two-gaps cavity is based on the quarter-wavelength coaxial line loaded by drift tubes. Frequency tuning is accomplished by using the movable shorting plunger. A permanent electron beam being modulated at the first gap return the energy at the second one. The additional tube with the permanent decelerating potential, introduced into the main drift tube, allows to decrease the drift tube length and keep the excitation conditions in frequency tuning. Both autogeneration and amplification modes are under consideration. RF-parameters of the cavity and experimental results are described. (author)

  1. Possibility of removing condensate and scattered oil from gas-condensate field during bed flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, N.A.; Yagubov, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The problem is set of evaluating the possible removal from the bed of scattered oil and condensate during flooding of the bed. For this purpose, an experimental study was made of the displacement by water from the porous medium of the oil and condensate saturating it. The obtained experimental results permit evaluation of the possible removal from the gas-condensate bed of scattered oil and condensate during flooding of the bed.

  2. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) wastes in oil fields are a radiological problem, but they are useful tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ibrahim; Al-Masri, Mohammad Said

    2008-01-01

    Produced water, scales and sludges associated with the production of oil and gas contains enhanced concentrations of radium isotopes. Uncontrolled disposal of these wastes could lead to environmental pollution and thus to radiation exposure of members of the public. In the present work, radium isotopes in scales accumulated in oil field equipment, and produced water have been used for dating the deposited scales, studying between wells interactions and water flooding processes in addition to dating contaminated soils in the Syrian oil fields. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio in scales can be considered a fingerprint of the Th/U mass ratio in the geological formation of the reservoir. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio variations were found to reflect the variability of the Th/U mass ratio of the geological formation, suggesting two different source rock types found in the Syrian oil fields. The calculated mean Th/U mass ratio for these two possible types of source rock were 2.4 and 5.78. In addition, the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra mean activity ratio was also used to estimate the age of some deposited scales in tubulars; the results were compared with the 224 Ra/ 228 Ra activity ratio dating method. Moreover, 228 Ra/ 226 Ra, 224 Ra/ 228 Ra and 210 Pb/ 226 Ra activities ratios in contaminated soils due to disposal of production water were used to date contaminated sites at the oil fields; the results have been found to be in agreement with the actual disposal date. The methods can be used by the regulatory body to assess any uncontrolled disposal of such waste. (author)

  3. The response of solar radiation in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, to smoke from oil field fires in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

    1992-09-01

    The relative monthly solar radiation in Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia (300 km southeast of Kuwait City) was reduced to 75% of the recent 10-year mean value by the torching of the first 50 of many oil wells and production facilities in Kuwait in mid-January 1991. The value was reduced further when an additional 600 wells were ignited in late February. Solar radiation continued at 55 65% of normal levels during March to August, when 341 oil wells were still burning. Recovery was rapid as the fires in oil fields located directly upwind of Jubail were extinguished, with the solar radiation reaching 95% of the long-term mean in October.

  4. Verification of the effects of Schumann frequency range electromagnetic fields on the human cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzhilkin, D. A.; Borodin, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the study of variations in the electromagnetic background parameters of the Schumann resonator frequency range and the variability indices of the human heart period during its free activity are presented on the basis of 24-hour synchronous monitoring data. It is shown that the integral evaluation of the conjugacy of the heart rate variability indices from the Schumann resonance parameters is extremely weak. In this case, the differential evaluation of this dependence with separation into characteristic time intervals of the day, characterized by different motor activity of the subjects, becomes significantly higher. The number of volunteers whose conjugacy is characterized by a strong correlation in some cases reaches 35 percent of the sample.

  5. Searching for the Haplorrhine Heterotherm: Field and Laboratory Data of Free-Ranging Tarsiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Welman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The observation of heterothermy in a single suborder (Strepsirrhini only within the primates is puzzling. Given that the placental-mammal ancestor was likely a heterotherm, we explored the potential for heterothermy in a primate closely related to the Strepsirrhini. Based upon phylogeny, body size and habitat stability since the Late Eocene, we selected western tarsiers (Cephalopachus bancanus from the island of Borneo. Being the sister clade to Strepsirrhini and basal in Haplorrhini (monkeys and apes, we hypothesized that C. bancanus might have retained the heterothermic capacity observed in several small strepsirrhines. We measured resting metabolic rate, subcutaneous temperature, evaporative water loss and the percentage of heat dissipated through evaporation, at ambient temperatures between 22 and 35°C in fresh-caught wild animals (126.1 ± 2.4 g. We also measured core body temperatures in free-ranging animals. The thermoneutral zone was 25–30°C and the basal metabolic rate was 3.52 ± 0.06 W.kg−1 (0.65 ± 0.01 ml O2.g−1.h−1. There was no evidence of adaptive heterothermy in either the laboratory data or the free-ranging data. Instead, animals appeared to be cold sensitive (Tb ~ 31°C at the lowest temperatures. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent lack of heterothermy in tarsiers, and identify putative heterotherms within Platyrrhini. We also document our concern for the vulnerability of C. bancanus to future temperature increases associated with global warming.

  6. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the Arctic slope of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.D.; Reed, D.J.; Smith, W.T.; Dau, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted annually in June 1978-87 near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to determine changes in the distribution of calving caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that accompanied petroleum-related development. With construction of an oil field access road through a calving concentration area, mean caribou density (no./km 2 ) decreased from 1.41 to 0.31 within 1 km and increased from 1.41 to 4.53, 5-6 km from the road. Concurrently, relative caribou use of the adjacent area declined apparently in response to increasing surface development. It is suggested that perturbed distribution associated with roads reduced the capacity of the nearby area to sustain parturient females and that insufficient spacing of roads may have depressed overall calving activity. Use of traditional calving grounds and of certain areas therein appears to favor calf survival, principally through lower predation risk and improved foraging conditions. Given the possible loss of those habitats through displacement and the crucial importance of the reproductive process, a cautious approach to petroleum development on the Arctic Slope is warranted. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Subsurface transport of inorganic and organic solutes from experimental road spreading of oil-field brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, E.S.; Digel, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    A study designed to evaluate ground water quality changes resulting from spreading oil-field brine on roads for ice and dust control was conducted using a gravel roadbed that received weekly applications of brine eight times during the winter phase and 11 times during the summer phase of the study. A network of 11 monitoring wells and five pressure-vacuum lysimeters was installed to obtain ground water and soil water samples. Thirteen sets of water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds. Two sets of samples were taken prior to brine spreading, four sets during winter-phase spreading, five sets during summer-phase spreading, and two sets during the interim between the winter and summer phases. A brine plume delineated by elevated specific-conductance values and elevated chloride concentrations in ground water samples to exceed US EPA public drinking-water standards by two-fold during the winter phase and five-fold during the summer phase. No other major ions, trace metals, or volatile organic compounds exceeded the standards during the winter or summer phases. More than 99% dilution of the solutes in the brine occurred between the roadbed surface and the local ground water flow system. Further attenuation of calcium, sodium, potassium, and strontium resulted from adsorption, whereas further attenuation of benzene resulted from volatilization and adsorption

  8. Effect of injection water quality on permeability of productive sands in Shaimsk group of oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, N I; Ivanov, V N; Lazarev, V N; Maksimov, V P

    1966-01-01

    Water from the Kond River is used to flood Shaimsk oil fields. Effect of raw and filtered waters on permeability of Shaimsk cores was experimentally determined. The raw river water contained 26 mg/liter of suspended solids, 10.7 mg/liter of total iron, 4.3 mg/liter of suspended iron oxide, and a pH of 6.4. The filtered river water was free of suspended solids and had a pH of 6.2. It was found that both raw and filtered water decreased core permeability. The unfiltered water decreased permeability 2 to 7 times more than the filtered water. Also, the decrease in permeability occurs much more slowly with the filtered than the unfiltered water. The effect of water on core permeability is essentially irreversible. Efforts to restore core permeability by reversing flow direction were not successful. Among the reasons for the permeability decrease were hydration and swelling of clays and evolution of gases from water in the cores. (10 refs.)

  9. Modified vegetation indices for Ganoderma disease detection in oil palm from field spectroradiometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Anuar, M. Izzuddin; Saripan, M. Iqbal

    2009-10-01

    High resolution field spectroradiometers are important for spectral analysis and mobile inspection of vegetation disease. The biggest challenges in using this technology for automated vegetation disease detection are in spectral signatures pre-processing, band selection and generating reflectance indices to improve the ability of hyperspectral data for early detection of disease. In this paper, new indices for oil palm Ganoderma disease detection were generated using band ratio and different band combination techniques. Unsupervised clustering method was used to cluster the values of each class resultant from each index. The wellness of band combinations was assessed by using Optimum Index Factor (OIF) while cluster validation was executed using Average Silhouette Width (ASW). 11 modified reflectance indices were generated in this study and the indices were ranked according to the values of their ASW. These modified indices were also compared to several existing and new indices. The results showed that the combination of spectral values at 610.5nm and 738nm was the best for clustering the three classes of infection levels in the determination of the best spectral index for early detection of Ganoderma disease.

  10. 4.5 Tesla magnetic field reduces range of high-energy positrons -- Potential implications for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirrwar, A.; Vosberg, H.; Herzog, H.; Halling, H.; Weber, S.; Mueller-Gaertner, H.W.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH

    1997-01-01

    The authors have theoretically and experimentally investigated the extent to which homogeneous magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla reduce the spatial distance positrons travel before annihilation (positron range). Computer simulations of a noncoincident detector design using a Monte Carlo algorithm calculated the positron range as a function of positron energy and magnetic field strength. The simulation predicted improvements in resolution, defined as full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the line-spread function (LSF) for a magnetic field strength up to 7 Tesla: negligible for F-18, from 3.35 mm to 2.73 mm for Ga-68 and from 3.66 mm to 2.68 mm for Rb-82. Also a substantial noise suppression was observed, described by the full-width at tenth-maximum (FWTM) for higher positron energies. The experimental approach confirmed an improvement in resolution for Ga-68 from 3.54 mm at 0 Tesla to 2.99 mm FWHM at 4.5 Tesla and practically no improvement for F-18 (2.97 mm at 0 Tesla and 2.95 mm at 4.5 Tesla). It is concluded that the simulation model is appropriate and that a homogeneous static magnetic field of 4.5 Tesla reduces the range of high-energy positrons to an extent that may improve spatial resolution in positron emission tomography

  11. Geotechnical field investigation of the rapid densification phenomenon in oil sands mature fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, C.; Chalaturnyk, R.J.; Scott, J.D.; Cyre, G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2002-07-01

    The Mildred Lake Settling Basin (MLSB) is an oil sand tailings pond with a water area of about 11 square km and a maximum depth of mature fine tailings (MFT) of about 50 m, rendering it Syncrude's largest disposal site for tailings. Syncrude began storing the MFT in 1978 but in recent years there has been a sharp increase in the consolidation of the fine tailings, creating pumping challenges in the transfer of tailings from the MLSB for the creation of composite tailings. This paper presents preliminary results of field and laboratory study which have been launched to better manage the rapid densification of fine tailings. The study involves sampling, field vane tests, cone penetration tests, steel plate penetration tests and earth pressure measurements. Methane producing microorganisms have become very active in the part of the pond that is experiencing rapid densification. The objective of the study was to determine the inventory and distribution of high strength MFT in current storage ponds and to assess whether geotechnical properties are enough to support direct loading with solids such as sand, clay or coke. The cause of the phenomena was also examined along with ways to possibly enhance MFT development through microbial, physical or chemical treatments. Results show that the accumulation of methane gas may have reached a critical state in some parts of the pond. The densification phenomenon at the southern pond is more significant compared to the northern pond. Earth pressure measurements indicate that the earth pressure cell has good sensitivity and that the coefficient of earth pressure at rest is approximately one. Good agreement was reached between different testing methods used to determine geotechnical properties of MFT. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs.

  12. Organic geochemistry of oils and condensates in the Kekeya field, southwest depression of the Tarim Basin (China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maowen Li; Snowdon, L.R. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary (Canada); Renzi Lin; Peirong Wang [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China); Yongsheng Liao; Peilong Li [Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau, Shandong (China)

    1999-07-01

    This study shows that the oils and condensates in the Kekeya Field in the Tarim Basin, NW China, belong to a single family, most likely derived from marine shale source rocks deposited under oxic-suboxic conditions with mixed terrigenous and algal-bacterial organic inputs. The maturity data clearly indicate that the paraffinic condensates were not formed by thermal cracking of oil during late catagenesis (R{sub o} > 1.2%). Both the oils and condensates were generated within the normal oil window, whereas addition of gaseous hydrocarbons from a separate source resulted in migration fractionation and hence spuriously high heptane indices. Age specific biomarkers show that the oils and condensates were not generated from the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata, but from the Carboniferous-Permian sections. 1D basin modelling results are consistent with this interpretation, suggesting that the Mesozoic-Eocene strata are currently immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. Deep-seated faults may have provided routes for upward fluid migration at the time of active deformation during several pulses of the Himalayan orogeny. The favoured targets for further petroleum exploration in front of the Kunlun Mountains include the deep structures within the Carboniferous-Permian strata for indigenous petroleum accumulations and anticlines and stratigraphic traps within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sections that are cut by deep-seated thrust faults where secondary petroleum accumulations most likely occurred. (author)

  13. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  14. Assessment of potential increased oil production by polymer-waterflood in northern and southern mid-continent oil fields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, R.W.; Durham, E.N.; Watson, J.A.

    1979-09-01

    A conventional waterflood in the North Stanley Field, Osage County, Oklahoma, nearing the economic limit, was modified by substituting an aqueous solution of polyacrylamides for brine as the intected fluid. Remedial operations on existing facilities were performed before polymer injection began. Positive oil production response was achieved from this 1000-acre project, a maximum EOR production rate of about 200 barrels per day being achieved within 1-1/2 years after the start of polymer injection. Based on performance to January 1979, ultimate EOR recovery is estimated at 500,000 barrels.

  15. Environmental Management System of Petroleum Industries: A case study of Oil and Gas Exploration in the Zamrud Field Conservation Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background:The Zamrud Field is one of the oil fields managed by Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI a production sharing contractor of Pertamina. It is located in the Coastal Plain and  Pekanbaru (CPP Block. The government of Indonesia has designated Zamrud as a conservation area. The petroleum industry in Zamrud fields has received 14001 ISO Certificate on Environmental Management System. The production sharing contract between CPI and the Government of Indonesia expired in August 2002 Methods: .This case study describes how CPI managed the development  of oil and gas production and compared to  the environmental management system for  petroleum industries  that should be taken  in the Zamrud conservation areas. Results: A number of specific measures were employed by CPI  to protect this sensitive area including a green seismic project, zero-discharge drilling, water management, preservation of nature and regular monitoring and impact assessment. There are two  important points that should be in consideration  for the environmental management system by CPI in the Zamrud areas, including top soil utilization to maintain biological and nutrients quality and re-vegetation in all areas of significant disturbances. Conclusion: oil and gas  exploration and production in conservation areas has to be managed through high commitment to good environmental  and social practices. Key words     : Environmental Management System (EMS, Petroleum Industries, Zamrud Field

  16. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  17. Temperature range extension of an organically crosslinked polymer system and its successful field application for water and gas shutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Julio; Eoff, Larry; Dalrymple, Dwyann [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro. RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Excessive water production from hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most serious problems in the oil industry. Water production greatly affects the economic life of producing wells and brings along secondary problems such as sand production, corrosion, and tubular scale. Remediation techniques for controlling water production, generally referred to as conformance control, include the use of polymer systems to reduce or plug permeability to water. This paper presents the laboratory evaluation of an organically crosslinked polymer (OCP) system used as a sealant for water control problems in hydrocarbon wells. Originally, the OCP system had a limited working temperature range (140 deg to 260 deg F). Recently, an alternative base polymer (for low temperatures) and a retarder (for high temperatures) have been introduced to expand the temperature range of applicability of the OCP system from 70 deg F to 350 deg F without compromising its effectiveness or thermal stability. More than 400 jobs have been performed with the OCP system around the world to address conformance problems such as water coning/cresting, high-permeability streaks, gravel pack isolation, fracture shutoff, and casing leak repairs. This paper presents an overview of case histories that used the OCP system in various regions of the world for a wide variety of applications. (author)

  18. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY FROM UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER CARBONATES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AT WOMACK HILL OIL FIELD, CHOCTAW AND CLARKE COUNTIES, EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-05-20

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates are undertaking a focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling and an integrated field demonstration project at Womack Hill Oil Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The principal research efforts for Year 3 of the project have been recovery technology analysis and recovery technology evaluation. The research focus has primarily been on well test analysis, 3-D reservoir simulation, microbial core experiments, and the decision to acquire new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field area. Although Geoscientific Reservoir Characterization and 3-D Geologic Modeling have been completed and Petrophysical and Engineering Characterization and Microbial Characterization are essentially on schedule, a no-cost extension until September 30, 2003, has been granted by DOE so that new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field can be acquired and interpreted to assist in the determination as to whether Phase II of the project should be implemented.

  19. Control of Chiral Magnetism Through Electric Fields in Multiferroic Compounds above the Long-Range Multiferroic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J; Baum, M; Holbein, S; Finger, T; Cronert, T; Tölzer, C; Fröhlich, T; Biesenkamp, S; Schmalzl, K; Steffens, P; Lee, C H; Braden, M

    2017-10-27

    Polarized neutron scattering experiments reveal that type-II multiferroics allow for controlling the spin chirality by external electric fields even in the absence of long-range multiferroic order. In the two prototype compounds TbMnO_{3} and MnWO_{4}, chiral magnetism associated with soft overdamped electromagnons can be observed above the long-range multiferroic transition temperature T_{MF}, and it is possible to control it through an electric field. While MnWO_{4} exhibits chiral correlations only in a tiny temperature interval above T_{MF}, in TbMnO_{3} chiral magnetism can be observed over several kelvin up to the lock-in transition, which is well separated from T_{MF}.

  20. Sea bird observations during an experimental oil spill on the Frigg field August 1995; Observasjoner av sjoefugl i forbindelse med eksperimentelt oljeutslipp - Friggfeltet august 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorentsen, S.H.

    1995-10-01

    During an experimental oil spill on the Frigg field in August 1995 the distribution and number of sea birds was mapped prior to the release of the first oil spill. As discussed in this report, behavioural studies were carried out to estimate the number of sea birds harmed in a real oil spill. There were three spills of 15 m{sup 3} each and two spills of 25 m{sup 3} each, of clean oil. Very few birds were observed to have oil damage. The usefulness of this type of exercise for vulnerability studies is discussed. It is concluded that experimental as well as real oil spill situations should be utilized to collect information on the behavioural reaction of sea birds to drifting oil spills. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) and critical temperature (Tc). The critical current (Ic) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new Ic measurement system that can carry out accurate Ic measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The Ic measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa2Cu3O7-x(YBCO) tapes Ic determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  2. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (H c2 ) and critical temperature (T c ). The critical current (I c ) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new I c measurement system that can carry out accurate I c measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The I c measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) tapes I c determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  3. Passive Reactive Berm to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges: Field Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges Field Demonstration E nv ir on m en ta l L ab or at or y Michelle Wynter, Steven L. Larson, W.A...efficiency of 37 to 100 percent can be achieved through the process of hydroxyapatite dissolution and hydroxypyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2...al. 2006; Tardy et al. 2003; USEPA 2001a). Application of soluble or solid phase phosphate (such as hydroxyapatite , HAP) amendments have been shown

  4. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sissay, Adonay [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Lopata, Kenneth, E-mail: klopata@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  5. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  6. Suppression of the Nonlinear Zeeman Effect and Heading Error in Earth-Field-Range Alkali-Vapor Magnetometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guzhi; Wickenbrock, Arne; Rochester, Simon; Zhang, Weiping; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-01-19

    The nonlinear Zeeman effect can induce splitting and asymmetries of magnetic-resonance lines in the geophysical magnetic-field range. This is a major source of "heading error" for scalar atomic magnetometers. We demonstrate a method to suppress the nonlinear Zeeman effect and heading error based on spin locking. In an all-optical synchronously pumped magnetometer with separate pump and probe beams, we apply a radio-frequency field which is in phase with the precessing magnetization. This results in the collapse of the multicomponent asymmetric magnetic-resonance line with ∼100  Hz width in the Earth-field range into a single peak with a width of 22 Hz, whose position is largely independent of the orientation of the sensor within a range of orientation angles. The technique is expected to be broadly applicable in practical magnetometry, potentially boosting the sensitivity and accuracy of Earth-surveying magnetometers by increasing the magnetic-resonance amplitude, decreasing its width, and removing the important and limiting heading-error systematic.

  7. Suppression of the Nonlinear Zeeman Effect and Heading Error in Earth-Field-Range Alkali-Vapor Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guzhi; Wickenbrock, Arne; Rochester, Simon; Zhang, Weiping; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear Zeeman effect can induce splitting and asymmetries of magnetic-resonance lines in the geophysical magnetic-field range. This is a major source of "heading error" for scalar atomic magnetometers. We demonstrate a method to suppress the nonlinear Zeeman effect and heading error based on spin locking. In an all-optical synchronously pumped magnetometer with separate pump and probe beams, we apply a radio-frequency field which is in phase with the precessing magnetization. This results in the collapse of the multicomponent asymmetric magnetic-resonance line with ˜100 Hz width in the Earth-field range into a single peak with a width of 22 Hz, whose position is largely independent of the orientation of the sensor within a range of orientation angles. The technique is expected to be broadly applicable in practical magnetometry, potentially boosting the sensitivity and accuracy of Earth-surveying magnetometers by increasing the magnetic-resonance amplitude, decreasing its width, and removing the important and limiting heading-error systematic.

  8. Influence of temperature on the critical in-plane field range for VBLs in the walls of hard domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, X.F.; Guo, G.X.; Xu, J.P.; Liu, S.P.; Wang, L.N.; Huo, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the critical in-plane field range for vertical Bloch lines in the walls of three kinds of hard domains is investigated experimentally. It is found that for each kind of three hard domains, there exists a critical in-plane field range, i. e. [H ip (1) (T),H ip (2) (T)], which depends on temperatures and in which vertical Bloch lines are unstable. Here, H ip (1) (T) is the initial critical in-plane field where VBLs in the walls of three kinds of hard domains are annihilated, and H ip (2) (T) is the lowest in-plane field where VBLs in their corresponding hard domains are annihilated completely. H ip (1) (T), H ip (2) (T) and [H ip (1) (T),H ip (2) (T)], all decrease as the temperature increase. Furthermore, H ip (1) (T) and H ip (2) (T) reach zero at T 0 1 and T 0 , respectively. In addition, there exists a relationship among them, when T is unchanged, H ip (1) (T) of the three kinds of hard domains (ordinary hard bubbles (OHB), first kind of dumbbell domain (ID) and second kind of dumbbell domains (IID)) decrease successively, and theirH ip (2) (T) are the same

  9. Effectiveness of commercial microbial products in enhancing oil degradation in Prince William Sound field plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venosa, A.D.; Haines, J.R.; Allen, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the spring of 1990, previously reported laboratory experiments were conducted on 10 commercial microbial products to test for enhanced biodegradation of weathered crude oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The laboratory tests measured the rate and extent of oil degradation in closed flasks. Weathered oil from the beaches in Alaska and seawater from Prince William Sound were used in the tests. Two of the 10 products were found to provide significantly greater alkane degradation than flasks supplemented with mineral nutrients alone. These two products were selected for further testing on a beach in Prince William Sound. A randomized complete block experiment was designed to compare the effectiveness of these two products in enhancing oil degradation compared to simple fertilizer alone. Four small plots consisting of a no nutrient control, a mineral nutrient plot, and two plots receiving mineral nutrients plus the two products, were laid out on a contaminated beach. These four plots comprised a 'block' of treatments, and this block was replicated four times on the same beach. Triplicate samples of beach sediment were collected at four equally spaced time intervals and analyzed for oil residue weight and alkane hydrocarbon profile changes with time. The objective was to determine if either of the two commercial microbiological products was able to enhance bioremediation of an oil-contaminated beach in Prince William Sound to an extent greater than that achievable by simple fertilizer application. Results indicated no significant differences among the four treatments in the 27-day period of the experiment

  10. Laboratory Validation and Field Assessment of Petroleum Laboratory Technicians' Dermal Exposure to Crude Oil Using a Wipe Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Karen S; Mueller, Will; Arfaj, Ayman M; Llamas, Jose L; Buick, Jennifer; Todd, David; McGonagle, Carolyn

    2018-05-21

    Crude oil may cause adverse dermal effects therefore dermal exposure is an exposure route of concern. Galea et al. (2014b) reported on a study comparing recovery (wipe) and interception (cotton glove) dermal sampling methods. The authors concluded that both methods were suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil but that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. We describe a study which aimed to further evaluate the wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to crude oil, with this assessment including extended sample storage periods and sampling efficiency tests being undertaken at environmental conditions to mimic those typical of outdoor conditions in Saudi Arabia. The wipe sampling method was then used to assess the laboratory technicians' actual exposure to crude oil during typical petroleum laboratory tasks. Overall, acceptable storage efficiencies up to 54 days were reported with results suggesting storage stability over time. Sampling efficiencies were also reported to be satisfactory at both ambient and elevated temperature and relative humidity environmental conditions for surrogate skin spiked with known masses of crude oil and left up to 4 h prior to wiping, though there was an indication of reduced sampling efficiency over time. Nineteen petroleum laboratory technicians provided a total of 35 pre- and 35 post-activity paired hand wipe samples. Ninety-three percent of the pre-exposure paired hand wipes were less than the analytical limit of detection (LOD), whereas 46% of the post-activity paired hand wipes were less than the LOD. The geometric mean paired post-activity wipe sample measurement was 3.09 µg cm-2 (range 1.76-35.4 µg cm-2). It was considered that dermal exposure most frequently occurred through direct contact with the crude oil (emission) or via deposition. The findings of this study suggest that the wipe sampling method is satisfactory in quantifying

  11. Production Characteristics and Reservoir Quality at the Ivanić Oil Field (Croatia) Predicted by Machine Learning System

    OpenAIRE

    Hernitz, Zvonimir; Đureković, Miro; Crnički, Josip

    1996-01-01

    At the Ivanić oil field, hydrocarbons are accumulated in fine tomedium grained litharenits of the Ivanić-Grad Formation (Iva-sandstones member) of Upper Miocene age. Reservoir rocks are dividedinlo eight depositional (production) units (i1- i8). Deposits of eachunit are characterized by their own reservoir quality parameters(porosity, horizontal permeability, net pay ... ). Production characteristicsof 30 wells have been studied by a simple slatistical method. Twomajor production well ca...

  12. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 86, quarter ending March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Summaries are presented for 37 enhanced oil recovery contracts being supported by the Department of Energy. The projects are grouped into gas displacement methods, thermal recovery methods, geoscience technology, reservoir characterization, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Each summary includes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress, as well as information on contract dates, size of award, principal investigator, and company or facility doing the research.

  13. Source rock evaluation and organic geochemistry of Belayim Marine Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abu Al-Atta

    2014-09-01

    In general, TOC analyses showed that the Nubia-A and B formation sediments are fairly immature compared to good source rocks with very high Hydrogen Index indicative of kerogen type II. The geochemical investigations of two oil samples indicate that the Upper Rudeis oil of Belayim Marine was derived from a marine carbonate rich source, which is relatively rich in algal organic matter and has moderate sulfur content. The maturity of the analyzed oils (about 0.75% R0 falls short from the stage of peak hydrocarbon generation which is known to be reached at about 0.85% R0.

  14. Oil spills in mangroves: A conceptual model based on long-term field observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, C.M.; Schaeffer-Novelli, Y. (Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil))

    1990-11-01

    A conceptual model is proposed for evaluating residence time of oil in mangrove environments. It assumes that, after oil has spread over a mangrove coastline, it remains in the environment by retention in the sediment. Removal is mainly in association with seaward particle export. Since detritus export depends on tidal flush, the area affected by an oil spill can be devided into sections parallel to the coastline having different removal rates increasing seaward (under little river flush and regular topography). 1 fig., 11 refs.

  15. Asian Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project: Draft Field Work Plan for the Asian Long-Range Tracer Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2007-08-01

    This report provides an experimental plan for a proposed Asian long-range tracer study as part of the international Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project. The TEAM partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the United States. Optimal times of year to conduct the study, meteorological measurements needed, proposed tracer release locations, proposed tracer sampling locations and the proposed durations of tracer releases and subsequent sampling are given. Also given are the activities necessary to prepare for the study and the schedule for completing the preparation activities leading to conducting the actual field operations. This report is intended to provide the TEAM members with the information necessary for planning and conducting the Asian long-range tracer study. The experimental plan is proposed, at this time, to describe the efforts necessary to conduct the Asian long-range tracer study, and the plan will undoubtedly be revised and refined as the planning goes forward over the next year.

  16. The Jinadriyah anticlines: a surface model for oil fields in eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMahmoud, Mohammed J; Khalil, Mesbah H; Moustafa, Adel R

    2009-01-01

    Mesozoic oil in Saudi Arabia exists in north/south-oriented anticlines. Such anticlines are usually studied using subsurface data. The present study introduces, for the first time in Saudi Arabia, a surface analog for these anticlines. The study covers two northerly oriented anticlines located in the Jinadriyah area at 15 km to the northeast of the Riyadh city. They are named herein the North and South Jinadriyah anticlines. The outcrops in both anticlines belong to the Lower Cretaceous Yamama Formation which consists of limestone in its lower part and limestone with shale in its upper part. The study included initially detailed interpretation of Google Earth and Landsat TM images to map the structural pattern of the anticlines. Detailed field mapping confirmed the satellite image interpretation and helped describe the geometry of the two anticlines in detail. The 3.5-km-long South Jinadriyah anticline is an open doubly plunging asymmetric anticline. The western flank is dissected by 13 minor reverse faults of north-south orientation. The North Jinadriyah anticline is about 5.5 km long and is relatively more complex than the South Jinadriyah anticline. It consists of northern, central, and southern segments that differ from each others in orientation and style. The anticline is dissected by 18 minor faults of different orientations and sense of displacement. Two perpendicular fracture sets with one being parallel to the anticline axes were recorded in the two anticlines. Both anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds that were formed during the Late Cretaceous first Alpine orogeny. The mid-Late Tertiary second Alpine orogeny and Late Tertiary eastward tilting of the Arabian Plate increased the degree of folding and faulting. (author)

  17. Review of WAG Field Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jes Reimer; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Skauge, A.

    2001-01-01

    well spacing is in the order of 1000 m. For the fields reviewed, a common trend for the successful injections is an increased oil recovery in the range of 5 to 10% of the oil initially in place (OIIP). Very few field trials have been reported as unsuccessful, but operational problems are often noted...

  18. Regulation of mature oil fields: a constitutional analysis; Regulacao de campos maduros de petroleo: uma analise a luz da Constituicao Federal de 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Mariana de; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil activities in Brazil had been started in an intensive way by the years 30 and 40. During approximately 40 years only one agent had been executed the oil activities in this country: the PETROBRAS. Many of the fields explored in the past are nowadays in decline. These fields, not interesting for the majors, would be interesting for the small and medium enterprises. The present research analyses the mature oil fields and its regulation in Brazil, looking to the 'Constituicao Federal de 1988' and to the idea of social and economic development. (author)

  19. Cooperative catalysis for the direct hydrodeoxygenation of vegetable oils into diesel-range alkanes over Pd/NbOPO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qineng; Zhuang, Xiaojing; Li, Molly Meng-Jung; Peng, Yung-Kang; Liu, Guoliang; Wu, Tai-Sing; Soo, Yun-Liang; Gong, Xue-Qing; Wang, Yanqin; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2016-04-14

    Near quantitative carbon yields of diesel-range alkanes were achieved from the hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides over Pd/NbOPO4 under mild conditions with no catalyst deactivation: catalyst characterization and theoretical calculations suggest that the high hydrodeoxygenation activity originated from the synergistic effect of Pd and strong Lewis acidity on the unique structure of NbOPO4.

  20. Simulation of polymer flooding in one of the Iranian oil fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad Salehi

    2017-06-01

    This study shows the optimum concentration of Nano clay could improve polymer properties. Results also show that the polymer flooding scenario has higher oil recovery in comparison to other displacement methods such as natural depletion and water flooding.

  1. Unique features of the development of multibed oil and gas fields in western Turkmeniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The anthology presents articles devoted to geological peculiarities and unique aspects of production estimation of formations, to optimizing their development under natural conditions, and to using modern methods to improve bed oil output.

  2. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain 8m3, a Thermophilic Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from the Dagang Oil Field (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltaraus, Andrey B; Sokolova, Diyana S; Grouzdev, Denis S; Ivanov, Timophey M; Malakho, Sophia G; Korshunova, Alena V; Rozanov, Aleksey S; Tourova, Tatiyana P; Nazina, Tamara N

    2016-06-09

    The draft genome sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus strain 8m3, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water from the Dagang high-temperature oil field, China, is presented here. The genome is annotated to provide insights into the genomic and phenotypic diversity of the genus Aeribacillus. Copyright © 2016 Poltaraus et al.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain 8m3, a Thermophilic Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from the Dagang Oil Field (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Poltaraus, Andrey B.; Sokolova, Diyana S.; Grouzdev, Denis S.; Ivanov, Timophey M.; Malakho, Sophia G.; Korshunova, Alena V.; Rozanov, Aleksey S.; Tourova, Tatiyana P.; Nazina, Tamara N.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus strain 8m3, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water from the Dagang high-temperature oil field, China, is presented here. The genome is annotated to provide insights into the genomic and phenotypic diversity of the genus Aeribacillus.

  5. Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower (NACHTT): Overview of a wintertime air chemistry field study in the front range urban corridor of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven S.; Thornton, Joel A.; Keene, William C.; Pszenny, Alexander A. P.; Sive, Barkley C.; Dubé, William P.; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Young, Cora J.; Riedel, Theran P.; Roberts, James M.; VandenBoer, Trevor C.; Bahreini, Roya; Öztürk, Fatma; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Kim, Saewung; Hübler, Gerhard; Wolfe, Daniel E.

    2013-07-01

    The Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower (NACHTT) field experiment took place during late winter, 2011, at a site 33 km north of Denver, Colorado. The study included fixed-height measurements of aerosols, soluble trace gases, and volatile organic compounds near surface level, as well as vertically resolved measurements of nitrogen oxides, aerosol composition, soluble gas-phase acids, and halogen species from 3 to 270 m above ground level. There were 1928 individual profiles during the three-week campaign to characterize trace gas and aerosol distributions in the lower levels of the boundary layer. Nitrate and ammonium dominated the ionic composition of aerosols and originated primarily from local or regional sources. Sulfate and organic matter were also significant and were associated primarily with longer-range transport to the region. Aerosol chloride was associated primarily with supermicron size fractions and was always present in excess of gas-phase chlorine compounds. The nighttime radical reservoirs, nitryl chloride, ClNO2, and nitrous acid, HONO, were both consistently present in nighttime urban air. Nitryl chloride was especially pronounced in plumes from large point sources sampled aloft at night. Nitrous acid was typically most concentrated near the ground surface and was the dominant contributor (80%) to diurnally averaged primary OH radical production in near-surface air. Large observed mixing ratios of light alkanes, both in near-surface air and aloft, were attributable to local emissions from oil and gas activities.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF PATCHOULI OIL (POGOSTEMON CABLIN, BENTH WITH STEAM DISTILLATION ASSISTED BY PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD VIA RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKARDI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the role of pulsed electric field (PEF treatment before hydro-distillation of the patchouli oil. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize PEF treatment (voltages, frequencies and times of distillation of patchouli oil from dried patchouli crops. The experimental design and analysis the result to obtain the optimal processing parameters was a Box-Behnken Design (BBD. Three variables were examined in this study: voltages (1,000-2,000 volt; frequencies (1,000-2,000 Hz; and distillation time (4-8 hours. The results showed that the voltage greatly affects the volume of patchouli oil obtained and optimum condition of PEF was voltages of 2,000 volts, frequencies of 1,874 Hz, and 8 hours distillation. The patchouli oil obtained is 8.037 ml of 300 g of dry material (±2.7%. The verification of the model shows that 96.6% (7.76±0.15 ml can adequately for reflecting the expected optimization.

  7. The Effective Dynamic Ranges for Glaucomatous Visual Field Progression With Standard Automated Perimetry and Stimulus Sizes III and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael; Zamba, Gideon K D; Artes, Paul H

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that threshold estimates below approximately 20 dB have little effect on the ability to detect visual field progression in glaucoma. We aimed to compare stimulus size V to stimulus size III, in areas of visual damage, to confirm these findings by using (1) a different dataset, (2) different techniques of progression analysis, and (3) an analysis to evaluate the effect of censoring on mean deviation (MD). In the Iowa Variability in Perimetry Study, 120 glaucoma subjects were tested every 6 months for 4 years with size III SITA Standard and size V Full Threshold. Progression was determined with three complementary techniques: pointwise linear regression (PLR), permutation of PLR, and linear regression of the MD index. All analyses were repeated on "censored'' datasets in which threshold estimates below a given criterion value were set to equal the criterion value. Our analyses confirmed previous observations that threshold estimates below 20 dB contribute much less to visual field progression than estimates above this range. These findings were broadly similar with stimulus sizes III and V. Censoring of threshold values < 20 dB has relatively little impact on the rates of visual field progression in patients with mild to moderate glaucoma. Size V, which has lower retest variability, performs at least as well as size III for longitudinal glaucoma progression analysis and appears to have a larger useful dynamic range owing to the upper sensitivity limit being higher.

  8. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama.

  9. The Kashagan Field: A Test Case for Kazakhstan's Governance of Its Oil and Gas Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campaner, N.; Yenikeyeff, S.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on the factors behind Kazakhstan's decision to renegotiate the terms of the existing Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) with International Oil Companies (IOCs), in the context of the development of the huge Kashagan oil field. The development of Kashagan, one of the largest and most recently discovered oil fields in Kazakhstan, is crucial for Kazakhstan's ambitions of becoming a global oil producer. Kazakhstan, which has the largest oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region, is the second largest regional producer after Russia in the former Soviet Union. The country's potential for oil exports is also strategically significant as a future source of non- OPEC supplies. Amongst the CIS states, Kazakhstan is considered one of the most open countries for foreign investments. International projects in the form of Joint Ventures, Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) or exploration/field concessions have brought foreign investments into the country's natural resources sector, particularly in the oil and gas industry. However, new developments have recently taken place, which have marked a shift in the Kazakh government's approach towards foreign investment in its energy sector. This study will therefore examine the following issues: - Kazakhstan's plans to abandon the practice of attracting foreign investments in its energy sector through new PSAs. - The recent entry of state-controlled KazMunaiGaz into the consortium operating over the Kashagan field and its impact on IOCs. - The impact of high oil prices on the negotiating power of producer states in the context of Kazakhstan's new stance on PSAs. Specifically, this study will focus on the following key factors, which will seek to further explain the changes in Kazakhstan's attitude toward the Kashagan PSA2: - Operational factors - management of the project, development strategy, cost estimates, levels of production and export markets. - Consortium factors - the

  10. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-12-31

    , multiwell productivity analysis, and reservoir simulation studies indicate that water injection continues to provide stable support to maintain production from wells in the western unitized area of the field and that the strong water drive present in the eastern area of the field is adequate to sustain production from this part of the field. Although the results from the microbial characterization and microbial core experiments are very promising, it is recommended that an immobilized enzyme technology project not be implemented in the Womack Hill Field Unit until live (freshly taken and properly preserved) cores from the Smackover reservoir in the field are acquired to confirm the microbial core experiments to date. From 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation, four areas in the Womack Hill Field were identified as prospective infill drilling sites to recover undrained oil from the field. It was determined that the two areas in the unit area probably can be effectively drained by perforating higher zones in the Smackover reservoir in currently producing wells. The two areas in the eastern (non-unitized) part of the field require the drilling of new wells. The successful drilling and testing of a well in 2003 by J. R. Pounds, Inc. has proven the oil potential of the easternmost site in the non-unitized part of the field. Pruet Production Co. acquired new 2-D seismic data to evaluate the oil potential of the westernmost site. Because of the effects of a fault shadow from the major fault bounding the southern border of the Womack Hill Field, it is difficult to evaluate conclusively this potential drill site. Pruet Production Co. has decided not to drill this new well at this time and to further evaluate the new 2-D seismic profiles after these data have been processed using a pre-stack migration technique. Pruet Production Co. has elected not to continue into Phase II of this project because they are not prepared to make a proposal to

  11. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Costal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-05-31

    , multiwell productivity analysis, and reservoir simulation studies indicate that water injection continues to provide stable support to maintain production from wells in the western unitized area of the field and that the strong water drive present in the eastern area of the field is adequate to sustain production from this part of the field. Although the results from the microbial characterization and microbial core experiments are very promising, it is recommended that an immobilized enzyme technology project not be implemented in the Womack Hill Field Unit until live (freshly taken and properly preserved) cores from the Smackover reservoir in the field are acquired to confirm the microbial core experiments to date. From 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation, four areas in the Womack Hill Field were identified as prospective infill drilling sites to recover undrained oil from the field. It was determined that the two areas in the unit area probably can be effectively drained by perforating higher zones in the Smackover reservoir in currently producing wells. The two areas in the eastern (non-unitized) part of the field require the drilling of new wells. The successful drilling and testing of a well in 2003 by J. R. Pounds, Inc. has proven the oil potential of the easternmost site in the non-unitized part of the field. Pruet Production Co. acquired new 2-D seismic data to evaluate the oil potential of the westernmost site. Because of the effects of a fault shadow from the major fault bounding the southern border of the Womack Hill Field, it is difficult to evaluate conclusively this potential drill site. Pruet Production Co. has decided not to drill this new well at this time and to further evaluate the new 2-D seismic profiles after these data have been processed using a pre-stack migration technique. Pruet Production Co. has elected not to continue into Phase II of this project because they are not prepared to make a proposal to

  12. Field study of alpha characterization of a D ampersand D site using long-range alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Koster, J.E.; MacArthur, D.W.; Sprouse, L.L.; Stout, D.; Vaccarella, J.A.; Vu, T.Q.

    1994-01-01

    A successful and cost-effective D ampersand D effort relies upon an accurate, real-time, in situ, and non-destructive method of characterization of contamination both before and after the decontamination process. Detector systems based on long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technology meet these criteria. Currently, LANL is in the process of investigating, designing, or building various surface monitors, various pipe monitors, and glove-box monitors. This paper describes the field studies conducted using detectors based on LRAD technology

  13. SAGD pilot project, wells MFB-772 (producer) / MFB-773 (injector), U1,3 MFB-53 reservoir, Bare Field. Orinoco oil belt. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Armas, F.; Vasquez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil and extra heavy oil fields, steam assisted gravity drainage is a thermal recovery method used to reduce oil viscosity and thus increase oil recovery. For SAGD to be successfully applied in deep reservoirs, drilling and completion of the producer and injector wells are critical. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) is currently assessing the feasibility of SAGD in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and this paper aims at presenting the methodology used to ensure optimal drilling and completion of the project. This method was divided in several stages: planning, drilling and completion of the producer, injector and then of the observer wells and cold information capture. It was found that the use of magnetic guidance tools, injection pipe pre-insulated and pressure and temperature sensors helps optimize the drilling and completion process. A methodology was presented to standardize operational procedures in the drilling and completion of SAGD projects in the Orinoco oil belt.

  14. Bioremediation of offshore oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, E.; Tedaldi, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    This research program was directed towards the enhancement of insitu biorestoration of open sea oil spills. Bacteria possessing petroleum degrading enzymes are capable of splitting even thick, viscous oils and tars into lighter fractions. This process will occur at the oil/bacterial interface and depends upon viscosity of the oil, bacterial species, availability of ancillary nutrients, residence times and extent of mixing/oxygenation. Through the enzymatic metabolism of bacteria, a wide range of petroleum oils can be converted almost completely into CO 2 , water, cell mass and harmless biological waste products, usually within 60 to 90 days under favorable conditions. Specifically, this research work focused on the selection and examination of a floating medium which enhances the biodegradation process through improvement of conditions necessary for the process to occur. An additional effort was made to update previous citations of the order of magnitude of oil biodegradation rates and to compare laboratory measurements of biodegradation rates with field or mesocosm measurements

  15. Dynamics of two methanogenic microbiomes incubated in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthenic acids, and oil field produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oko, Bonahis J; Tao, Yu; Stuckey, David C

    2017-01-01

    Oil field produced water (OFPW) is widely produced in large volumes around the world. Transforming the organic matter in OFPW into bioenergy, such as biomethane, is one promising way to sustainability. However, OFPW is difficult to biologically degrade because it contains complex compounds such as naphthenic acids (NAs), or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although active microbial communities have been found in many oil reservoirs, little is known about how an exotic microbiome, e.g. the one which originates from municipal wastewater treatment plants, would evolve when incubated with OFPW. In this study, we harvested methanogenic biomass from two sources: a full-scale anaerobic digester (AD) treating oil and gas processing wastewater (named O&G sludge), and from a full-scale AD reactor treating multiple fractions of municipal solid wastes (named MS, short for mixed sludge). Both were incubated in replicate microcosms fed with PAHs, NAs, or OFPW. The results showed that the PAHs, NAs, and OFPW feeds could rapidly alter the methanogenic microbiomes, even after 14 days, while the O&G sludge adapted faster than the mixed sludge in all the incubations. Two rarely reported microorganisms, a hydrogenotrophic methanogen Candidatus methanoregula and a saccharolytic fermenter Kosmotoga , were found to be prevalent in the PAHs and OFPW microcosms, and are likely to play an important role in the syntrophic degradation of PAHs and OFPW, cooperating with methanogens such as Methanoregula, Methanosarcina, or Methanobacterium . The dominant phyla varied in certain patterns during the incubations, depending on the biomass source, feed type, and variation in nutrients. The sludge that originated from the oil and gas processing wastewater treatment (O&G) reactor adapted faster than the one from municipal solid waste reactors, almost certainly because the O&G biomass had been "pre-selected" by the environment. This study reveals the importance of biomass selection for other

  16. Multi-Range Conditional Random Field for Classifying Railway Electrification System Objects Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Railways have been used as one of the most crucial means of transportation in public mobility and economic development. For safe railway operation, the electrification system in the railway infrastructure, which supplies electric power to trains, is an essential facility for stable train operation. Due to its important role, the electrification system needs to be rigorously and regularly inspected and managed. This paper presents a supervised learning method to classify Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS data into ten target classes representing overhead wires, movable brackets and poles, which are key objects in the electrification system. In general, the layout of the railway electrification system shows strong spatial regularity relations among object classes. The proposed classifier is developed based on Conditional Random Field (CRF, which characterizes not only labeling homogeneity at short range, but also the layout compatibility between different object classes at long range in the probabilistic graphical model. This multi-range CRF model consists of a unary term and three pairwise contextual terms. In order to gain computational efficiency, MLS point clouds are converted into a set of line segments to which the labeling process is applied. Support Vector Machine (SVM is used as a local classifier considering only node features for producing the unary potentials of the CRF model. As the short-range pairwise contextual term, the Potts model is applied to enforce a local smoothness in the short-range graph; while long-range pairwise potentials are designed to enhance the spatial regularities of both horizontal and vertical layouts among railway objects. We formulate two long-range pairwise potentials as the log posterior probability obtained by the naive Bayes classifier. The directional layout compatibilities are characterized in probability look-up tables, which represent the co-occurrence rate of spatial relations in the horizontal and vertical

  17. Simulation of permafrost changes due to technogenic influences of different ingeneering constructions used in nothern oil and gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, M. Yu; Vaganova, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    Significant amount of oil and gas is producted in Russian Federation on the territories with permafrost soils. Ice-saturated rocks thawing due to global warming or effects of various human activity will be accompanied by termocarst and others dangerous geological processes in permafrost. Design and construction of well pads in permafrost zones have some special features. The main objective is to minimize the influence of different heat sources (engineering objects) inserted into permafrost and accounting long-term forecast of development of permafrost degradation due to different factors in particular generated by human activity. In this work on the basis a mathematical model and numerical algorithms approved on 11 northern oil and gas fields some effects obtained by carrying out numerical simulations for various engineering systems are discussed.

  18. Integration of Seismic and Petrophysics to Characterize Reservoirs in “ALA” Oil Field, Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Alao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on “ALA” field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of −2,453 to −3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  19. Integration of seismic and petrophysics to characterize reservoirs in "ALA" oil field, Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, P A; Olabode, S O; Opeloye, S A

    2013-01-01

    In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential) reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on "ALA" field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of -2,453 to -3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  20. Modelling and simulation of compressible fluid flow in oil reservoir: a case study of the Jubilee Field, Tano Basin (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawusu, S.

    2015-07-01

    Oil extraction represents an important investment and the control of a rational exploitation of a field means mastering various scientific techniques including the understanding of the dynamics of fluids in place. This thesis presents a theoretical investigation of the dynamic behaviour of an oil reservoir during its exploitation. The study investigated the dynamics of fluid flow patterns in a homogeneous oil reservoir using the Radial Diffusivity Equation (RDE) as well as two phase oil-water flow equations. The RDE model was solved analytically and numerically for pressure using the Constant Terminal Rate Solution (CTRS) and the fully implicit Finite Difference Method (FDM) respectively. The mathematical derivations of the models and their solution procedures were presented to allow for easy utilization of the techniques for reservoir and engineering applications. The study predicted that the initial oil reservoir pressure will be able to do the extraction for a very long time before any other recovery method will be used to aid in the extraction process depending on the rate of production. Reservoir simulation describing a one dimensional radial flow of a compressible fluid in porous media may be adequately performed using ordinary laptop computers as revealed by the study. For the simulation of MATLAB, the case of the Jubilee Fields, Tano Basin was studied, an algorithm was developed for the simulation of pressure in the reservoir. It ensues from the analysis of the plots of pressure vrs time and space that the Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) was duly followed. The approximate solutions of the analytical and numerical solutions to the Radial Diffusivity Equation (RDE) were in excellent agreement, thus the reservoir simulation model developed can be used to describe typical pressure-time relationships that are used in conventional Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA). The study was extended to two phase oil-water flow in reservoirs. The flow of fluids in multi

  1. Eos modeling and reservoir simulation study of bakken gas injection improved oil recovery in the elm coulee field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Wanli

    The Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the most productive liquid-rich unconventional plays. The Bakken Formation is divided into three members, and the Middle Bakken Member is the primary target for horizontal wellbore landing and hydraulic fracturing because of its better rock properties. Even with this new technology, the primary recovery factor is believed to be only around 10%. This study is to evaluate various gas injection EOR methods to try to improve on that low recovery factor of 10%. In this study, the Elm Coulee Oil Field in the Williston Basin was selected as the area of interest. Static reservoir models featuring the rock property heterogeneity of the Middle Bakken Member were built, and fluid property models were built based on Bakken reservoir fluid sample PVT data. By employing both compositional model simulation and Todd-Longstaff solvent model simulation methods, miscible gas injections were simulated and the simulations speculated that oil recovery increased by 10% to 20% of OOIP in 30 years. The compositional simulations yielded lower oil recovery compared to the solvent model simulations. Compared to the homogeneous model, the reservoir model featuring rock property heterogeneity in the vertical direction resulted in slightly better oil recovery, but with earlier CO2 break-through and larger CO2 production, suggesting that rock property heterogeneity is an important property for modeling because it has a big effect on the simulation results. Long hydraulic fractures shortened CO2 break-through time greatly and increased CO 2 production. Water-alternating-gas injection schemes and injection-alternating-shut-in schemes can provide more options for gas injection EOR projects, especially for gas production management. Compared to CO2 injection, separator gas injection yielded slightly better oil recovery, meaning separator gas could be a good candidate for gas injection EOR; lean gas generated the worst results. Reservoir

  2. Floating production platforms and their applications in the development of oil and gas fields in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dagang; Chen, Yongjun; Zhang, Tianyu

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the current available options for floating production platforms in developing deepwater oil fields and the potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea. A detailed review of current deepwater platforms worldwide was performed through the examples of industry projects, and the pros and cons of each platform are discussed. Four types of platforms are currently used for the deepwater development: tension leg platform, Spar, semi-submersible platform, and the floating production system offloading. Among these, the TLP and Spar can be used for dry tree applications, and have gained popularity in recent years. The dry tree application enables the extension of the drilling application for fixed platforms into floating systems, and greatly reduces the cost and complexity of the subsea operation. Newly built wet tree semi-submersible production platforms for ultra deepwater are also getting their application, mainly due to the much needed payload for deepwater making the conversion of the old drilling semi-submersible platforms impossible. These platforms have been used in different fields around the world for different environments; each has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are many challenges with the successful use of these floating platforms. A lot of lessons have been learned and extensive experience accumulated through the many project applications. Key technologies are being reviewed for the successful use of floating platforms for field development, and potential future development needs are being discussed. Some of the technologies and experience of platform applications can be well used for the development of the South China Sea oil and gas field.

  3. Neurons are sensitive to the magnetic fields applied within the range of MR intensity used for diagnostic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azanza, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A very high number of data, obtained from molecular and cell biology experimental work, show that living beings are sensitive to either the static magnetic fields (SMF) or the electromagnetic fields in the extremely low frequency (ELF) range (1). Considering the question of the intensity range of the SMF applied for clinical diagnosis, we have made experiments by applying SMF (0,3-0,7 T) directly to neurons. We have shown that there exist a neuron magneto sensitivity explained as a result of the diamagnetism of the phospholipid and protein molecules of the lipid bilayer plasma membrane. This diamagnetism is working together with electric dipolar interactions (a mixed up interaction coined as super diamagnetism) and binded membrane Ca''2+ cooperative coulomb explosion, which in turn operate Ca''2+ -dependent-K''+ membrane channels (2,3). The specific intrinsic metabolic characteristics of the neurons populations explain two types of responses: either a variation in the firing frequency (increases or decreases) or a decrease in the spikes amplitude. This second effect is explained by the inhibition of the Na''+ -K''+-ATP-ase ionic pumps, inactivated by the same superdiamagnetims mechanism. We show in this paper the dependence of the frequency and amplitude changes, of the electrophysiological activity of the neurons, with the intensity of the applied SMF. (Author) 30 refs

  4. Measuring Relativistic effects in the field of the Earth with Laser Ranged Satellites and the LARASE research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Bassan, Massimo; Magnafico, Carmelo; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Stanga, Ruggero; Visco, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) research program is to obtain refined tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) by means of very precise measurements of the round-trip time among a number of ground stations of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) network and a set of geodetic satellites. These measurements are guaranteed by means of the powerful and precise Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technique. In particular, a big effort of LARASE is dedicated to improve the dynamical models of the LAGEOS, LAGEOS II and LARES satellites, with the objective to obtain a more precise and accurate determination of their orbit. These activities contribute to reach a final error budget that should be robust and reliable in the evaluation of the main systematic errors sources that come to play a major role in masking the relativistic precession on the orbit of these laser-ranged satellites. These error sources may be of gravitational and non-gravitational origin. It is important to stress that a more accurate and precise orbit determination, based on more reliable dynamical models, represents a fundamental prerequisite in order to reach a sub-mm precision in the root-mean-square of the SLR range residuals and, consequently, to gather benefits in the fields of geophysics and space geodesy, such as stations coordinates knowledge, geocenter determination and the realization of the Earth's reference frame. The results reached over the last year will be presented in terms of the improvements achieved in the dynamical model, in the orbit determination and, finally, in the measurement of the relativistic precessions that act on the orbit of the satellites considered.

  5. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations with the extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometer at high-energy mixed fields

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00406842; Bay, Aurelio; Silari, Marco; Aroua, Abbas

    The use of spectrometry to provide information for neutron radiation protection has become an increasingly important activity over recent years. The need for spectral data arises because neither area survey instruments nor personal dosimeters give the correct dose equivalent results at all neutron energies. It is important therefore to know the spectra of the fields in which these devices are used. One of the systems most commonly employed in neutron spectrometry and dosimetry is the Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS). The extended- range BSS that was used for this work, consists of 7 spheres with an overall response to neutrons up to 2 GeV. A 3He detector is used as a thermal counter in the centre of each sphere. In the context of this thesis the BSS was calibrated in monoenergetic neutron fields at low and intermediate energies. It was also used for measurements in several high energy mixed fields. These measurements have led to the calculation of neutron yields and spectral fluences from unshielded targets....

  6. Measurement of ²²⁶Ra in soil from oil field: advantages of γ-ray spectrometry and application to the IAEA-448 CRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccatelli, A; Katona, R; Kis-Benedek, G; Pitois, A

    2014-05-01

    The analytical performance of gamma-ray spectrometry for the measurement of (226)Ra in TENORM (Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) soil was investigated by the IAEA. Fast results were obtained for characterization and certification of a new TENORM Certified Reference Material (CRM), identified as IAEA-448 (soil from oil field). The combined standard uncertainty of the gamma-ray spectrometry results is of the order of 2-3% for massic activity measurement values ranging from 16500 Bq kg(-1) to 21500 Bq kg(-1). Methodologies used for the production and certification of the IAEA-448 CRM are presented. Analytical results were confirmed by alpha spectrometry. The "t" test showed agreement between alpha and gamma results at 95% confidence level. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Broadband photosensor with a tunable frequency range, built on the basis of nanoscale carbon structure with field localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakunin, Alexander N.; Akchurin, Garif G.; Aban'shin, Nikolay P.; Gorfinkel, Boris I.

    2014-03-01

    The work is devoted to the development of a new direction in creating of broadband photo sensors which distinctive feature is the possibility of dynamic adjustment of operating frequency range. The author's results of study of red threshold control of classic photoelectric effect were the basis for the work implementation. This effect was predicted theoretically and observed experimentally during irradiation of nanoscale carbon structure of planar-edge type by stream of low-energy photons. The variation of the accelerating voltage within a small range allows you to change photoelectric threshold for carbon in a wide range - from UV to IR. This is the consequence of the localization of electrostatic field at tip of the blade planar structure and of changes in the conditions of non-equilibrium electrons tunneling from the boundary surface of the cathode into the vacuum. The generation of nonequilibrium electrons in the carbon film thickness of 20 nm has a high speed which provides high performance of photodetector. The features of the use of nanoscale carbon structure photocurrent registration as in the prethreshold regime, and in the mode of field emission existence are discussed. The results of simulation and experimental examination of photosensor samples are given. It is shown that the observed effect is a single-photon tunneling. This in combination with the possibility of highspeed dynamic tuning determines the good perspectives for creation of new devices working in the mode of select multiple operating spectral bands for the signal recording. The architecture of such devices is expected to be significantly simpler than the conventional ones, based on the use of tunable filters.

  8. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  9. Natural gas in 1927: Petroleum in 1927: The oil and gas fields of Ontario. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1930-12-31

    This annual report presents figures for gas consumption in Ontario, gas wells and their production, and leakage. It includes licenses issued for the year and logs of wells. Information is also given on oil production in Ontario, petroleum refining and petroleum imported into Ontario.

  10. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  11. Stable carbon isotopic composition of petroleum condensate from the nile Delta and western Sinai fields and its correlation with crude oils and natural gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Samie, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty six of condensate samples from three provinces; Abu Madi (onshore NE Delta), Port Fouad (offshore) in the Mediterranean sea, and Abu Rudeis areas, were analyzed and correlated to the Nile Delta, Gulf of Suez and western desert crude oils. Different isotopic results were obtained specifying each group that reflects the depositional environment, temperature gradient and maturation level of organic matter in each area. The mean isotopic results (av. σ 13 C) of Abu Madi condensate samples reached about -26.41 close to the values of the western desert total oil, indicating thermal graded fluid and depositional environment very close to the western desert in hydrocarbon type (mainly of terrestrial sources), thermal condition and long time of deposition. The offshore Port Fouad condensate samples have relatively wide range of σ 13 C between -27.24 to -24.03% representing mixing between marine and terrestrial hydrocarbons migrated from the near shore areas of the Nile Delta to the Mediterranean sea sub-basins. Abu Rudeis condensate samples have the isotopic signature of σ 13 C = -30.09 to -29.05% close to the Gulf of Suez crude oil samples which reflect the deposition under mainly marine environment of the Red Sea basins. As petroleum condensates considered as moderate compounds between oils and gases, their isotopic contents refer to the produced oil or gas from the same sample. Though condensate samples are correlated with gases produced from the Nile Delta. Based on carbon isotopic values of methane and light gas fractions, the produced gases from the Nile Delta could be generated mainly from terrestrial sources enriched in σ 13 C of C 2 +. These gases are classified according to the thermogenic origin enriched in σ 13 C C H4 in the Nile Delta onshore fields in Abu Madi formation. In shallower formations (Kafr El Sheikh formation), isotopically light gases were found in the NE direction and appeared to be of biogenic source, whereas mixed gases were found in

  12. Characterization and performance of a field aligned ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna in Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukitch, S. J.; Garrett, M. L.; Ochoukov, R.; Terry, J. L.; Hubbard, A.; Labombard, B.; Lau, C.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Miller, D.; Reinke, M. L.; Whyte, D.; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2013-05-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating is expected to provide auxiliary heating for ITER and future fusion reactors where high Z metallic plasma facing components (PFCs) are being considered. Impurity contamination linked to ICRF antenna operation remains a major challenge particularly for devices with high Z metallic PFCs. Here, we report on an experimental investigation to test whether a field aligned (FA) antenna can reduce impurity contamination and impurity sources. We compare the modification of the scrape of layer (SOL) plasma potential of the FA antenna to a conventional, toroidally aligned (TA) antenna, in order to explore the underlying physics governing impurity contamination linked to ICRF heating. The FA antenna is a 4-strap ICRF antenna where the current straps and antenna enclosure sides are perpendicular to the total magnetic field while the Faraday screen rods are parallel to the total magnetic field. In principle, alignment with respect to the total magnetic field minimizes integrated E|| (electric field along a magnetic field line) via symmetry. A finite element method RF antenna model coupled to a cold plasma model verifies that the integrated E|| should be reduced for all antenna phases. Monopole phasing in particular is expected to have the lowest integrated E||. Consistent with expectations, we observed that the impurity contamination and impurity source at the FA antenna are reduced compared to the TA antenna. In both L and H-mode discharges, the radiated power is 20%-30% lower for a FA-antenna heated discharge than a discharge heated with the TA-antennas. However, inconsistent with expectations, we observe RF induced plasma potentials (via gas-puff imaging and emissive probes to be nearly identical for FA and TA antennas when operated in dipole phasing). Moreover, the highest levels of RF-induced plasma potentials are observed using monopole phasing with the FA antenna. Thus, while impurity contamination and sources are indeed

  13. Application of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priha, Outi; Nyyssönen, Mari; Bomberg, Malin; Laitila, Arja; Simell, Jaakko; Kapanen, Anu; Juvonen, Riikka

    2013-09-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 10(1) to 6 × 10(5) dsrB gene copies ml(-1). DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples.

  14. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  15. Simultaneous PLIF and PIV measurement of a near field turbulent immiscible buoyant oil jet fragmentation in water using liquid-liquid refractive index matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    Very little experimental data exits on the flow structure in the near field of a crude oil jet fragmenting in water because of inability to probe dense droplet cloud. Refractive index-matching is applied to overcome this challenge by using silicone oil and sugar water as a surrogate liquid pair. Their density ratio, viscosity ratio, and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Simultaneous PLIF and PIV measurements are conducted by fluorescently tagging the oil and seeding both phases with particles. With increasing jet Reynolds and Weber numbers, the oil plume breakup occurs closer to the nozzle, the spreading angle of the jet increases, and the droplet sizes decrease. The varying spread rate is attributed to differences in droplet size distributions. The location of primary oil breakup is consistent with the region of high strain rate fluctuations. What one may perceive as oil droplets in opaque fluids actually consists of multi-layers containing water droplets, which sometimes encapsulate smaller oil droplets, creating a ``Russian Doll'' like phenomenon. This system forms as ligaments of oil and water wrap around each other during entrainment. Results include profiles of mean velocity and turbulence parameters along with energy spectra. Gulf of Mexico Research Inititave.

  16. Utilization of solar energy in the photodegradation of gasoline in water and of oil-field-produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, José Ermírio F; Silva, Douglas N; Quina, Frank H; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto O

    2004-07-01

    The photo-Fenton process utilizes ferrous ions (Fe2+), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as a source of hydroxyl radicals for the oxidation of organic matter present in aqueous effluents. The cost associated with the use of artificial irradiation sources has hindered industrial application of this process. In this work, the applicability of solar radiation for the photodegradation of raw gasoline in water has been studied. The photo-Fenton process was also applied to a real effluent, i.e., oil-field-produced water, and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of employing solar irradiation to degrade this complex saturated-hydrocarbon-containing system.

  17. Study of the effect of injecting cold or hot water on the operation of an oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusein-Zade, M A; Kolosovskaya, A K; Lebedev, V V; Chicherov, L G

    1968-11-01

    Several Soviet reservoirs contain either highly paraffinic or viscous crude oils, where recovery by an ordinary waterflood is poor. Under such circumstances, hot water injection appears to be advantageous. Hot water injection is advisable when: (1) the reservoir is heterogeneous and contains low-permeability sections; (2) the oil is saturated with paraffin at reservoir temperature; and (3) reservoir pressure is only slightly higher than static pressure. In Uzen field, hot water injection should recover 1.5 times more oil than would be recovered with cold water. Various problems involved with hot water injection such as equipment and methods of heating the water, transportation of the water of the wellhead, heat losses in transport of hot water, and well equipment for handling hot water are discussed. Calculations indicate that it should be possible to transport 100/sup 0/C water through a 5 km pipeline with a 4/sup 0/ to 6/sup 0/C temperature drop; then deliver to the well bottom at a temperature of 90/sup 0/ to 92/sup 0/C.

  18. Numerical and Experimental Study of the Flow Field Structure Evolution in the Circular Recess of Oil Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The laminar radial flow in the oil cavity of heavy-duty computer numerical control (CNC machines is very complicated and has not been fully explored. Navier-Stokes equations have been applied through the whole flow region using finite volume approach to explore this complicated flow phenomenon, including the influences of the clearance height (h, inlet nozzle Reynolds number (Re, and geometrical aspect ratio (e on flow behaviors. A fluid dynamic experiment has been conducted to study the flow structure by using particle image velocimetry (PIV. Numerical simulation results have been compared with the experimental results, finding a good agreement with the studied cases. The results suggest that there are complex vortices in the oil cavity. Flow field structure of the oil cavity largely depends on h, Re, and e. Re and e have a great influence on the size and amount of vortices, and h has slight effects on the size of the vortices. The lengths of primary, secondary, and tertiary isolated vortices have a linear relationship with h. The lengths of the primary and secondary isolated vortices increase linearly with ascending e as e is small. But when Re and e are large enough, the size of the three vortices decreases.

  19. Successful field application of novel, non-silicone antifoam chemistries for high foaming heavy oil storage tanks in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Clariant Oil Services, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Heavy oil operators in northern Alberta have experienced production problems associated with foam formation in crude oil storage tanks. The foam could enter the transportation trucks and create separation problems in the process systems. Any antifoam used in the system could not contain silicone based polymers since these compounds affected the catalysts used in upgrading the crude oil and in the manufacture of asphalt. As such, there was a need to change the performance of the antifoam product. A phosphate ester and a salted amine were the previous incumbent antifoam products that did not perform well. Several chemistries were tested, including phosphate based products; ethoxylated and propoxylated esters; polyethylene glycol esters and oleates; alcohols, fatty alcohols and ethoxylated; and propoxylated alcohols. All products had to be freeze protected to -40 degrees C, which influenced the efficacy of antifoam chemicals. This paper described how laboratory testing has evolved to field wide implementation of a combined defoamer/antifoam chemistry. The laboratory tests revealed that foam induced in heavy, aged crude was very challenging and required the addition of heptane to create the foam. A potential follow-up may be to induce the foam without the addition of heptane by using a Seltzer cylinder in a semi-quantitative manner to rank performance of products against one another. The final selection of antifoam will depend on supply chain cost since the performance of the 2 blend products was essentially the same. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  20. LC/DAD/ESI/MS method for the determination of imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and spinosad in olives and olive oil after field treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Porcu, Luciano; Pirisi, Filippo

    2011-10-26

    The behavior in the field and the transfer from olives to olive oil during the technological process of imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and spinosad were studied. The extraction method used was effective in extracting the analytes of interest, and no interfering peaks were detected in the chromatogram. The residue levels found in olives after treatment were 0.14, 0.04, and 0.30 mg/kg for imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and spinosad, respectively, far below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set for these insecticides in EU. At the preharvest interval (PHI), no residue was detected for imidacloprid and thiacloprid, while spinosad showed a residue level of 0.04 mg/kg. The study of the effect of the technological process on pesticide transfer in olive oil showed that these insecticides tend to remain in the olive cake. The LC/DAD/ESI/MS method showed good performance with adequate recoveries ranging from 80 to 119% and good method limits of quantitation (LOQs) and of determination (LODs). No matrix effect was detected.

  1. Analysis of the orderly distribution of oil and gas fields in China based on the theory of co-control of source and heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongcheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking a hydrocarbon zone or a basin group as a unit, this paper analyzed the vertical hydrocarbon generation regularity of onshore and offshore oil and gas fields in China, based on the theory of co-control of source and heat. The results demonstrated that the hydrocarbon generation modes of oil and gas fields in China are orderly. First, the hydrocarbon zones in southeastern China offshore area, including the East and South China Sea basins, are dominated by single hydrocarbon generation mode, which displays as either single oil generation in the near shore or single gas generation in the offshore controlled by both source and heat. Second, the eastern hydrocarbon zones, including the Bohai Bay, Songliao and Jianghan basins and the North and South Yellow Sea basins, are dominated by a two-layer hydrocarbon generation mode, which performs as “upper oil and lower gas”. Third, the central hydrocarbon zones, including the Ordos, Sichuan and Chuxiong basins, are also dominated by the “upper oil and lower gas” two-layer hydrocarbon generation mode. In the Ordos Basin, gas is mainly generated in the Triassic, and oil is predominantly generated in the Paleozoic. In the Sichuan Basin, oil was discovered in the Jurassic, and gas was mostly discovered in the Sinian and Triassic. Fourth, the western hydrocarbon zones are dominated by a “sandwich” multi-layer mode, such as the Junggar, Tarim, Qaidam basins. In summary, the theory of co-control of source and heat will be widely applied to oil and gas exploration all over China. Oil targets should be focused on the near shore areas in the southeastern China sea, the upper strata in the eastern and middle hydrocarbon zones, and the Ordovician, Permian and Paleogene strata in the western hydrocarbon zone, while gas targets should be focused on the off-shore areas in the southeastern China sea, the Cambrian, Carboniferous, Jurassic, and Quaternary strata in the western hydrocarbon zone. A pattern of

  2. Toxicology of oil field wastes. Hazards to livestock associated with the petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W C

    1989-07-01

    In oil-producing states, the proximity of livestock to drilling operations and production sites often results in poisoning of animals from ingestion of crude oil, condensate, salt water, heavy metals, and caustic chemicals. The heavy metals encountered most frequently are lead from pipe joint compound and arsenicals and chromates used as corrosion inhibitors. Numerous toxic and caustic chemicals are used in drilling muds and fluids. Crude oil and salt water spills are common occurrences around production sites. Pipeline breaks may result in exposure of livestock to crude oil or refined petroleum hydrocarbons. Ingestion of petroleum hydrocarbons may result in sudden death from peracute bloat. The most common cause of illness or death following exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons is aspiration pneumonia, which may cause a chronic progressive deterioration of health, with death after several days or weeks. Cases in which livestock are exposed to oil, salt water, or caustic chemicals, but do not die acutely or from aspiration pneumonia are more frustrating to diagnose. In these cases, parasitism, poor nutrition, and other debilitating diseases must be considered. Anorexia, weight loss, and decreased rumen motility may be caused by a disruption of normal rumen function. Petroleum hydrocarbons, salt water, and caustic chemicals have the potential of altering rumen flora and enzymatic processes as well as damaging the ruminal and gastrointestinal epithelium. The toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons appears to be related more closely to the volatility and viscosity of the product than to other factors. The more volatile straight chain and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons have a greater potential for aspiration pneumonia and may produce an anesthetic-like action if absorbed systemically. The more volatile petroleum hydrocarbons also are more irritating to skin and mucous membranes and appear to be more damaging to rumen flora. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon ingestion is

  3. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, December 1990--February 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The Oil Implementation Task Force was appointed to implement the US DOE's new oil research program directed toward increasing domestic oil production by expanded research on near- or mid-term enhanced oil recovery methods. An added priority is to preserve access to reservoirs that have the largest potential for oil recovery, but that are threatened by the large number of wells abandoned each year. This report describes the progress of research activities in the following areas: chemical flooding; gas displacement; thermal recovery; resource assessment; microbial technology; geoscience technology; and environmental technology. (CK)

  4. Cadmium bioaccumulation and gastric bioaccessibility in cacao: A field study in areas impacted by oil activities in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraza, F.; Schreck, E.; Lévêque, T.; Uzu, G.; López, F.; Ruales, J.; Prunier, J.; Marquet, A.; Maurice, L.

    2017-01-01

    Cacao from South America is especially used to produce premium quality chocolate. Although the European Food Safety Authority has not established a limit for cadmium (Cd) in chocolate raw material, recent studies demonstrate that Cd concentrations in cacao beans can reach levels higher than the legal limits for dark chocolate (0.8 mg kg −1 , effective January 1st, 2019). Despite the fact that the presence of Cd in agricultural soils is related to contamination by fertilizers, other potential sources must be considered in Ecuador. This field study was conducted to investigate Cd content in soils and cacao cultivated on Ecuadorian farms in areas impacted by oil activities. Soils, cacao leaves, and pod husks were collected from 31 farms in the northern Amazon and Pacific coastal regions exposed to oil production and refining and compared to two control areas. Human gastric bioaccessibility was determined in raw cacao beans and cacao liquor samples in order to assess potential health risks involved. Our results show that topsoils (0–20 cm) have higher Cd concentrations than deeper layers, exceeding the Ecuadorian legislation limit in 39% of the sampling sites. Cacao leaves accumulate more Cd than pod husks or beans but, nevertheless, 50% of the sampled beans have Cd contents above 0.8 mg kg −1 . Root-to-cacao transfer seems to be the main pathway of Cd uptake, which is not only regulated by physico-chemical soil properties but also agricultural practices. Additionally, natural Cd enrichment by volcanic inputs must not be neglected. Finally, Cd in cacao trees cannot be considered as a tracer of oil activities. Assuming that total Cd content and its bioaccessible fraction (up to 90%) in cacao beans and liquor is directly linked to those in chocolate, the health risk associated with Cd exposure varies from low to moderate. - Highlights: • Cd in cacao beans is enriched 4 times compared to soils contents. • Cd bioaccumulates in beans mainly through root

  5. Wide-range and fast thermally-tunable silicon photonic microring resonators using the junction field effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Lentine, Anthony; DeRose, Christopher; Starbuck, Andrew L; Trotter, Douglas; Pomerene, Andrew; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-10-03

    Tunable silicon microring resonators with small, integrated micro-heaters which exhibit a junction field effect were made using a conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic foundry fabrication process. The design of the resistive tuning section in the microrings included a "pinched" p-n junction, which limited the current at higher voltages and inhibited damage even when driven by a pre-emphasized voltage waveform. Dual-ring filters were studied for both large (>4.9 THz) and small (850 GHz) free-spectral ranges. Thermal red-shifting was demonstrated with microsecond-scale time constants, e.g., a dual-ring filter was tuned over 25 nm in 0.6 μs 10%-90% transition time, and with efficiency of 3.2 μW/GHz.

  6. Higher Order Analysis of Turbulent Changes Found in the ELF Range Electric Field Plasma Before Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosciesza, M.; Blecki, J. S.; Parrot, M.

    2014-12-01

    We report the structure function analysis of changes found in electric field in the ELF range plasma turbulence registered in the ionosphere over epicenter region of major earthquakes with depth less than 40 km that took place during 6.5 years of the scientific mission of the DEMETER satellite. We compare the data for the earthquakes for which we found turbulence with events without any turbulent changes. The structure functions were calculated also for the Polar CUSP region and equatorial spread F region. Basic studies of the turbulent processes were conducted with use of higher order spectra and higher order statistics. The structure function analysis was performed to locate and check if there are intermittent behaviors in the ionospheres plasma over epicenter region of the earthquakes. These registrations are correlated with the plasma parameters measured onboard DEMETER satellite and with geomagnetic indices.

  7. Effect of crystalline electric fields and long-range magnetic order on superconductivity in rare earth alloys and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of rare earth ions in a superconducting matrix has been studied in two distinct regimes. First, the effects of crystal field splitting of the 4f levels of a magnetic rare earth ion in the alloy system (LaPr)Sn 3 were investigated in the limit of low Pr 3+ concentration. In this system the rare earth impurity ions occupy random La sites in the crystal lattice. Second, the interaction of long-range magnetic order and superconductivity was explored in the ternary rare earth molybdenum chalcogenide systems. In these compounds the rare earth ions occupy periodic lattice sites in contrast to the random distribution of magnetic ions in dilute impurity alloy systems such as (LaPr)Sn 3

  8. High-dynamic-range microscope imaging based on exposure bracketing in full-field optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Montgomery, Paul C; Serio, Bruno; Twardowski, Patrice; Uhring, Wilfried

    2016-04-01

    By applying the proposed high-dynamic-range (HDR) technique based on exposure bracketing, we demonstrate a meaningful reduction in the spatial noise in image frames acquired with a CCD camera so as to improve the fringe contrast in full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). This new signal processing method thus allows improved probing within transparent or semitransparent samples. The proposed method is demonstrated on 3 μm thick transparent polymer films of Mylar, which, due to their transparency, produce low contrast fringe patterns in white-light interference microscopy. High-resolution tomographic analysis is performed using the technique. After performing appropriate signal processing, resulting XZ sections are observed. Submicrometer-sized defects can be lost in the noise that is present in the CCD images. With the proposed method, we show that by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio of the images, submicrometer-sized defect structures can thus be detected.

  9. Development a method for producing vegetable oil from safflower seeds by pressing in the field of ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the prospects of production in agriculture safflower seeds for food and extract biologically active components. The physicochemical composition of safflower, which is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Safflower oil has a soothing and moisturizing effect, provides a barrier function of the skin, therefore, fatty oil is promising in terms of scientific evidence use in medical practice. In the article the task of developing a set of processes to extract oil from the seeds of safflower and effective use. The ways of processing safflower seed to obtain oil. It is the most productive and promising method for processing seeds of safflower scheme press extruder. Described compression step in the processing of safflower seeds scheme press extruder. Crucial processing technology safflower seeds have two fundamental rheological characteristics of viscosity and elasticity, which depend on the structure of the raw material, the molecular weight distribution, and processing conditions such as temperature, pressure and flow rate. The dependence of the density of its safflower cake moisture concluded that with humidity increase the particle density increases, due to the swelling of colloids grain. Furthermore, the dependence of shear stress and the effective viscosity versus shear rate, it is concluded that with increasing shear rate influence of temperature on the viscosity gradient weakens. The article shows the study of the prospects of the extrusion process in the presence of the ultrasound field and the creation of equipment that takes into account these properties. The use of ultrasound significantly reduces energy consumption and necessary to prevent the molding ion safflower seeds, improves product quality.

  10. High strength H2S resistant steels and alloys for oil field tubular products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straatmann, J.A.; Grobner, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    New sources of oil and natural gas are more frequently occurring at greater depths in hostile surface and underground environments. The materials utilized in drilling and completing the wells require higher strength along with improved resistance to corrosive/embrittling attack by contaminants present in the deep, high pressure-high temperature formations. Higher strength steels having yield strengths in excess of 690 MPa and possessing improved resistance to sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSC) have been developed and are currently being evaluated by the oil industry. The research to develop these new steels combined modifications of chemical compositions, heat treatment and processing variables. For most severe SSC environments and deep wells, it was necessary to provide even better alloys for tubular materials. The successful solution to the problem was found with the utilization of nickel-base alloys. These materials are being evaluated in commercial applications

  11. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: Field observations and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vethamony, P. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India)]. E-mail: mony@nio.org; Sudheesh, K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Babu, M.T. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Jayakumar, S. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Manimurali, R. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Saran, A.K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Sharma, L.H. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Rajan, B. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Srivastava, M. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India)

    2007-07-15

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur. - This is the first time model results have been compared with real oil spill observations along an Indian Coast.

  12. Pasture, multi-enzymes, benzoic acid and essential oils positively influence performance, intestinal organ weight and egg quality in free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Z; Roberts, J; Perez-Maldonado, R A; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Swick, R A; Ruhnke, I

    2018-04-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of range type, multi-enzyme applications, and a combination of benzoic acid (BA) and essential oils (EO) on the productive performance, organ weight and egg quality of free-range laying hens. 2. Three hundred laying hens were evaluated for the short-term (6 weeks) and long-term (12 weeks) effects of range type (G = no pasture, P = pasture) and feed additives (T1 = control; T2 = betaglucanase/pectinase/protease; T3 = BA/EO). Body weight, feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg production (EP), digestive organ weight, and egg quality (EQ) were evaluated. Data were analysed using SPSS 2.2 in a 2×2×3 factorial arrangement. 3. Hens that ranged on pasture were significantly heavier (2043 g vs. 1996 g; p ranged on gravel. Hens fed T2 were significantly heavier (2050 g) compared to hens fed T1 (2005 g) or T3 (2008 g). Organ weights (gizzard, liver and pancreas) were significantly heavier in hens ranged on pasture (16.8 g/kg BW, 22.3 g/kg BW and 1.89 g/kg BW, respectively) compared to hens ranged on gravel (14.2 g/kg BW, 21.7 g/kg BW and 1.83 g/kg BW, respectively). Over time, body weight (1970-2070 g; p < 0.001) and egg weight (59.5-62.8 g; p < 0.001) increased, FI (123-120 g; p = 0.024) was reduced and FCR (2.36-2.10; p = 0.002) improved 4. In conclusion, hens housed on pasture and fed multi-enzyme supplemented diets had significantly heavier body weight and produced heavier eggs with darker yolk colour. Pasture intake and enzyme supplementation increased digestive organ weight significantly.

  13. An algorithm for the calculation of 3-D ICRF [Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies] fields in tokamak geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithe, D.N.; Colestock, P.L.; Kashuba, R.J.; Kammash, T.

    1987-04-01

    A computational scheme is developed which permits tractable calculation of three-dimensional full-wave solutions to the Maxwell-Vlasov equations under typical Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) experimental conditions. The method is unique in that power deposition to the plasma is determined via the anti-Hermitian part of a truncated warm-plasma dielectric operator, rather than as the result of an assumed phenomenological collision frequency. The resulting computer code allows arbitrary variation of density, temperature, magnetic field, and minority concentration in the poloidal plane by performing a convolution of poloidal modes to produce a coupled system of differential equations in the radial variable. By assuming no inhomogeneity along the toroidal axis, an inverse transform over k/sub parallel/ is performed to yield the full three-dimensional field solutions. The application of the code to TFTR-like plasmas shows a mild resonance structure in antenna loading related to the changing number of wavelengths between antenna and the resonance layer. 48 figs

  14. Identification of Ganoderma Disease Resistance Loci Using Natural Field Infection of an Oil Palm Multiparental Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Tisné

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma, and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease.

  15. Evidence that the terms of petroleum contracts influence the rate of development of oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, M.B.; Russell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that the main determinant of the rate of development of Libya's crude oil upstream activities, from 1961 to 1999, was the terms of the petroleum contractual agreements, which existed between the state and the international oil industry during that period, and that US sanctions against the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya failed to affect this rate of development. In keeping with other Members of the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Libya has, over three decades, been a key player in helping to regulate global production levels of oil and gas. However, the economic and political strengths and weaknesses of individual Members of OPEC vary widely and it is inevitable that the stresses arising from adherence to OPEC policies will vary proportionately to these strengths and weaknesses. It is instructive, therefore, to analyse how successfully Libya has exploited its own petroleum resources. The results are thought-provoking and send signals to the superpowers of the futility of economic sanctions against countries whose political policies they find distasteful. Further, the analysis highlights the need for OPEC Members to be fully informed of the significance of the terms of the petroleum agreements they employ in their countries. (author)

  16. Identification of Ganoderma Disease Resistance Loci Using Natural Field Infection of an Oil Palm Multiparental Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, Sébastien; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Syahputra, Indra; Cochard, Benoît; Denis, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma, and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease. PMID:28592650

  17. Identification of Ganoderma Disease Resistance Loci Using Natural Field Infection of an Oil Palm Multiparental Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, Sébastien; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Syahputra, Indra; Cochard, Benoît; Denis, Marie

    2017-06-07

    Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma , and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease. Copyright © 2017 Tisné et al.

  18. Improved recovery potential in mature heavy oil fields by Alkali-surfactant flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, J.; Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Primary and secondary alkali surfactant (AS) chemical flooding techniques were optimized in this study. Core flooding experiments were conducted in order to investigate the formation of emulsions in bulk liquid system due to flow through rock pores. Cores were dried and then saturated with water or brine in order to measure permeability. The floods were then performed at various injection rates followed by the AS solution. Solutions were also injected without previous waterflooding. Individual oil and water mobilities were then calculated using the experimental data. Individual phase mobilities were calculated using the total pressure gradient measured across the core. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies were conducted in order to determine emulsion formation within porous media from in situ flooding tests at 4 different locations. Data from the NMR studies were used to calculate fluid distributions and measurements of in situ emulsification during the chemical floods. The study demonstrated that the use of the surfactants resulted in the in situ formation of oil-water and water-oil emulsions. Responses from de-ionized alkali and brine AS systems were similar. The recovery mechanism blocked off water channels and provided improved sweep efficiency in the core. It was concluded that injection rates and pressure gradients for chemical floods should be lowered in order to optimize their efficiency. 26 refs., 6 tabs., 15 figs.

  19. Phylogenetic fields through time: temporal dynamics of geographical co-occurrence and phylogenetic structure within species ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Fabricio; Carotenuto, Francesco; Raia, Pasquale; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F

    2016-04-05

    Species co-occur with different sets of other species across their geographical distribution, which can be either closely or distantly related. Such co-occurrence patterns and their phylogenetic structure within individual species ranges represent what we call the species phylogenetic fields (PFs). These PFs allow investigation of the role of historical processes--speciation, extinction and dispersal--in shaping species co-occurrence patterns, in both extinct and extant species. Here, we investigate PFs of large mammalian species during the last 3 Myr, and how these correlate with trends in diversification rates. Using the fossil record, we evaluate species' distributional and co-occurrence patterns along with their phylogenetic structure. We apply a novel Bayesian framework on fossil occurrences to estimate diversification rates through time. Our findings highlight the effect of evolutionary processes and past climatic changes on species' distributions and co-occurrences. From the Late Pliocene to the Recent, mammal species seem to have responded in an individualistic manner to climate changes and diversification dynamics, co-occurring with different sets of species from different lineages across their geographical ranges. These findings stress the difficulty of forecasting potential effects of future climate changes on biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Eliminating Glutamatergic Input onto Horizontal Cells Changes the Dynamic Range and Receptive Field Organization of Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströh, Sebastian; Puller, Christian; Swirski, Sebastian; Hölzel, Maj-Britt; van der Linde, Lea I S; Segelken, Jasmin; Schultz, Konrad; Block, Christoph; Monyer, Hannah; Willecke, Klaus; Weiler, Reto; Greschner, Martin; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Dedek, Karin

    2018-02-21

    In the mammalian retina, horizontal cells receive glutamatergic inputs from many rod and cone photoreceptors and return feedback signals to them, thereby changing photoreceptor glutamate release in a light-dependent manner. Horizontal cells also provide feedforward signals to bipolar cells. It is unclear, however, how horizontal cell signals also affect the temporal, spatial, and contrast tuning in retinal output neurons, the ganglion cells. To study this, we generated a genetically modified mouse line in which we eliminated the light dependency of feedback by deleting glutamate receptors from mouse horizontal cells. This genetic modification allowed us to investigate the impact of horizontal cells on ganglion cell signaling independent of the actual mode of feedback in the outer retina and without pharmacological manipulation of signal transmission. In control and genetically modified mice (both sexes), we recorded the light responses of transient OFF-α retinal ganglion cells in the intact retina. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were reduced and the cells were tuned to lower temporal frequencies and higher contrasts, presumably because photoreceptor output was attenuated. Moreover, receptive fields of recorded cells showed a significantly altered surround structure. Our data thus suggest that horizontal cells are responsible for adjusting the dynamic range of retinal ganglion cells and, together with amacrine cells, contribute to the center/surround organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in the mouse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Horizontal cells represent a major neuronal class in the mammalian retina and provide lateral feedback and feedforward signals to photoreceptors and bipolar cells, respectively. The mode of signal transmission remains controversial and, moreover, the contribution of horizontal cells to visual processing is still elusive. To address the question of how horizontal cells affect retinal output signals, we recorded the light

  1. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Legal Treatment Given the Oil leak in the Frade field . Case Study: (i Liability and signing of Conduct Adjustment Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ricardo Machado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to discuss how were treated  the legal and environmental consequen- ces caused by the large oil spill occurred in the FRADE FIELD, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil by the Company CHEVRON Brazil, in the face of brazilian authorities. On the text it will be discussed important decisions taken related to objective liability from the Company due to damages and the theories that have been taken into consideration for the extinction of two public civil actions filed by the Federal Public Ministry by an agre- ement called “Conduct Adjustment Term”. This study will make a chronological analysis of the facts that occurred on the two oil spills and how the company Chevron Brazil handled the incident, especially after be signed the undertaking between this Company, the Federal Public Ministry (MPF, National Agency Petroleum (ANP and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA solving the two public civil actions and proposals related to incidents in the Frade field in 2011 and 2012. The process also triggered imposition of financial penalties, already collected. On this comments shall be made considerations related to the incident and its “solution” for this legal formula and, given the severity of the accident, the indicated measures show hit or not the sectors involved.

  3. Multi-temporal environmental analysis of oil field activities in south-central Oklahoma using Landsat thematic mapper, aerial photography and GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janks, J.S.; Edwards, G.S.; Prelat, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental assessments of oil field activities, historical and present, were made using a combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper, aerial photographic and GIS information. Landsat data was used to assess vegetation health in and around the oil fields, and aerial photography was used to document historic changes. We found no evidence of vegetation damage from the oil field activities, even though many fields are located along anticlines and drain into major waterways. GIS technology, mapping roads, wells, rivers, ponds and environmentally-sensitive areas, was used to minimize environmental effects on the placement of shotpoints and receivers. When either shotpoints or receivers were found to interfere with sensitive areas, the points were moved to nearby roads or other open locations. The application of this technology resulted in minimal environmental damage and significant cost savings

  4. Methodologies, solutions, and lessons learned from heavy oil well testing with an ESP, offshore UK in the Bentley field, block 9/3b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Barny; Lucas-Clements, Charles; Kew, Steve [Xcite Energy Resources (United Kingdom); Shumakov, Yakov; Camilleri, Lawrence; Akuanyionwu, Obinna; Tonoglu, Ahmet [Schlumberger (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in hydrocarbon demand that led to the production of heavy oil fields in the United Kingdom continental shelf (UKCS). Most of the activity has been confined to exploration and appraisal drilling, the reason being the high uncertainty of the reservoir and fluid properties. Due to the operational complexity inherent to heavy oil, the use of conventional appraisal-well testing technology is limited. A novel technique developed to determine the most appropriate technology for testing wells with heavy oil using an electrical submersible pump (ESP) is presented in this paper. This technique was applied in the Bentley field. Some of the technical challenges include, maintaining fluid mobility using a surface-testing equipment, obtaining accurate flow measurements, a short weather window, and oil and gas separation for metering. Combining technologies such as dual-energy gamma ray venturi multiphase flowmeter, realtime monitoring, and ESP completion made it possible to execute the well test.

  5. Improving the clean-up efficiency of field soil contaminated with diesel oil by the application of stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon-Young; Roh, Hoon; Yang, Jae-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Fenton-like oxidation in the presence of stabilizers has been applied in batch and column reactors to treat field soils contaminated with diesel oil. Citrates, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), ethylene diamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and phosphates were assessed as stabilizers. The stability of hydrogen peroxide in the soil was evaluated by varying the concentration of each stabilizer and hydrogen peroxide. In a batch test, the residual concentration of hydrogen peroxide was shown to be directly related to the concentration of these stabilizers. Citrate showed the greatest stabilizing effect of the four stabilizers for hydrogen peroxide and 0.05 M was selected as the optimum dosage. In order to investigate the effect of stabilizer on the efficiency of removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in a column reactor, 30 mL of each stabilizer solution at pH 3 and containing 15% hydrogen peroxide was injected. The batch result confirmed that the greatest TPH removal took place in the presence of citrate in a column reactor. The order of TPH removal in the presence of stabilizers was: citrate > H3PO4 > EDDS > EDTA. TPH removal was affected by the concentration of stabilizer and the initial concentration of TPH. When 0.05 M citrate solution containing 15% hydrogen peroxide was applied to four field soils and an artificially contaminated soil, similar or better TPH removal was observed in the field soils compared to the artificially contaminated soil. This result suggests that Fenton-like oxidation with stabilizer can be effective in restoring field soils contaminated with diesel oil.

  6. Report of DSM Application in Daqing Oil Field%大庆油田DSM技术实施情况报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振良; 秦家坤; 李晓钢

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction to Daqing Oil Field electric network With 40 years' development of Daqing oil filed, the electric network has become the largest corporation electric network in China. In 1998, total electricity consumption added up to 10. 078 billions kwh. And network supply electricity is 6.233 billions kwh, which is 61.8% of total electricity. The self-generated electricity is 3.845 billions kwh, which is 38.2% of total electricity consumption.

  7. Effect of well network density on economic effectiveness of exploiting oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortunov, I V; Kats, A Ya

    1965-04-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of procedures and reasoning used by Soviet economists to determine the cost of producing a ton of oil. According to some authors the cost of production is at a minimum if less than 1% of the reserve is produced per year. This approach assumes a very large well spacing and that the wells flow. Other authors show that the cost of production does not continuously decrease as well spacing is increased. Data to support each argument are presented. No agreement is reached as to the best method of determining the most economic well spacing.

  8. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  9. Some problems in exploitation of deep-pumping wells in Tatarian oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishemguzhin, S B

    1970-01-01

    Difficulty has been experienced in pumping paraffinic oil with rod pumps. The rods have scrapers to remove paraffin from tubing walls, however this method does not work well. In an effort to improve pumping efficiency, gas anchors of various types were tried. Best results were obtained when the pumps, equipped with gas anchors, were placed about 300 m under the dynamic liquid level, and separated gas was steadily removed through the annulus. With this arrangement, more complete filling of the pump was achieved. Experience has shown that with separate production of gas from wells, the useful stroke of the pump plunger is increased as well as productivity of deep-pumping equipment.

  10. Response ofMeteorus leviventris, (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to mustard oils in field trapping experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnick, K A

    1993-09-01

    Trapping experiments were carried out near Saskatoon, Canada, from May through August 1990 to assess the response of the braconid wasp,Meteorus leviventris, to four selected mustard oils or isothiocyanates (IC) at a release rate of 4 mg/day, and for allyl IC only, at 40 mg/day. Only allyl IC at 4 mg/day was significantly attractive when trap captures were compared to the captures in the control traps. The others (n-propyl IC, 2-phenylethyl IC., and ethyl IC) were not attractive, nor was allyl IC at the higher dose, although trap captures with the latter bait were the second highest.

  11. A rapid compensation method for launch data of long-range rockets under influence of the Earth's disturbing gravity field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolin MA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the rapid compensation of the influence of the Earth’ s disturbing gravity field upon trajectory calculation, the key point lies in how to derive the analytical solutions to the partial derivatives of the state of burnout point with respect to the launch data. In view of this, this paper mainly expounds on two issues: one is based on the approximate analytical solution to the motion equation for the vacuum flight section of a long-range rocket, deriving the analytical solutions to the partial derivatives of the state of burnout point with respect to the changing rate of the final-stage pitch program; the other is based on the initial positioning and orientation error propagation mechanism, proposing the analytical calculation formula for the partial derivatives of the state of burnout point with respect to the launch azimuth. The calculation results of correction data are simulated and verified under different circumstances. The simulation results are as follows: (1 the accuracy of approximation between the analytical solutions and the results attained via the difference method is higher than 90%, and the ratio of calculation time between them is lower than 0.2%, thus demonstrating the accuracy of calculation of data corrections and advantages in calculation speed; (2 after the analytical solutions are compensated, the longitudinal landing deviation of the rocket is less than 20 m and the lateral landing deviation of the rocket is less than 10 m, demonstrating that the corrected data can meet the requirements for the hit accuracy of a long-range rocket.

  12. Global field synchronization in gamma range of the sleep EEG tracks sleep depth: Artifact introduced by a rectangular analysis window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusterholz, Thomas; Achermann, Peter; Dürr, Roland; Koenig, Thomas; Tarokh, Leila

    2017-06-01

    Investigating functional connectivity between brain networks has become an area of interest in neuroscience. Several methods for investigating connectivity have recently been developed, however, these techniques need to be applied with care. We demonstrate that global field synchronization (GFS), a global measure of phase alignment in the EEG as a function of frequency, must be applied considering signal processing principles in order to yield valid results. Multichannel EEG (27 derivations) was analyzed for GFS based on the complex spectrum derived by the fast Fourier transform (FFT). We examined the effect of window functions on GFS, in particular of non-rectangular windows. Applying a rectangular window when calculating the FFT revealed high GFS values for high frequencies (>15Hz) that were highly correlated (r=0.9) with spectral power in the lower frequency range (0.75-4.5Hz) and tracked the depth of sleep. This turned out to be spurious synchronization. With a non-rectangular window (Tukey or Hanning window) these high frequency synchronization vanished. Both, GFS and power density spectra significantly differed for rectangular and non-rectangular windows. Previous papers using GFS typically did not specify the applied window and may have used a rectangular window function. However, the demonstrated impact of the window function raises the question of the validity of some previous findings at higher frequencies. We demonstrated that it is crucial to apply an appropriate window function for determining synchronization measures based on a spectral approach to avoid spurious synchronization in the beta/gamma range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact Of The Oil Trade On The Global Economy And The Role Of Giant Fields In Predicting Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Wayne; Bishop, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Confusion about global oil supply ('peak oil') is a distraction from the economic issue of massive wealth transfer associated with oil trading and its potential to destabilize the world economy. Without an accurate forecast of oil volumes (resources, reserves and supply), timing and cost, there is no reliable way to model the consequences of the oil trade on the global economy. This paper illustrates why it is imperative to improve our understanding of the oil trade on the global economy and proposes a method of forecasting oil supply for input into a credible global economic model.

  14. Certified Reference Material IAEA-448: Soil from Oil Field Contaminated with Technically Enhanced Radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    To ensure reliable evaluation of potential radiological hazards and proper decision making related to radiation protection measures, the IAEA, through the IAEA Environment Laboratories, supports Member State laboratories in their efforts to maintain readiness and to improve the quality of analytical results. It does so by producing reference materials, by developing standardized methods for sample collection and analysis, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for external quality control of analytical results. The problem of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) contamination is known to be widespread, occurring in oil and gas production facilities throughout the world. It has become a subject of attention in many IAEA Member States. In response to this radiological concern, facilities in many Member States have been characterizing the nature and extent of NORM in oil and gas installations and in the surrounding environment, evaluating the potential for exposure to workers and the public, and developing methods for properly managing these relatively high massic activity residues. Within this context, the IAEA Environment Laboratories, in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, an IAEA Collaborating Centre, have prepared a new certified reference material of soil contaminated with NORM, identified as IAEA-448, certified for the massic activity of 226Ra. This report presents the methodologies used for the production and certification of IAEA-448

  15. Evaluation of bird impacts on historical oil spill cases using the SIMAP oil spill model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, D.; Rowe, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of an oil spill on bird and other wildlife species can be estimated using the Spill Impact Model Application Package (SIMAP). SIMAP estimates exposure and impact on bird species and their habitat based on physical fate and biological effects models under a broad range of environmental conditions. This paper presented the evaluations of 14 spill case studies which compared model predictions of biological impacts with field observations after a spill. Most of the observational data on the biological impacts of spills was for oiled birds and other wildlife. The impact of an oil spill on fish and invertebrates was examined in one case study. Error analysis was not performed on the field-base estimates of impact. Biological abundances and impacts are highly variable in time and space and very difficult to measure and quantify. Model-predicted and field-based estimates of oiled wildlife were compared. Uncertainty in the model-predicted number of oil wildlife was most related to mapping of biological distributions, behaviour of individuals, and local population density at the time of spill. The greatest uncertainty was the pre-spill abundance. The number of animals oils was found to be directly proportional to the pre-spill abundance assumed in the model inputs. Relative impact can be inferred from the percentage of population oiled. The total number oiled by a spill can be extrapolated using trajectories of oiled birds and counts of oiled animals collected in the field. 54 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs

  16. Analysis of oil content and oil quality in oilseeds by low-field NMR; Analise do teor e da qualidade dos lipideos presentes em sementes de oleaginosas por RMN de baixo campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantino, Andre F.; Lacerda Junior, Valdemar; Santos, Reginaldo B. dos; Greco, Sandro J.; Silva, Renzo C.; Neto, Alvaro C.; Barbosa, Lucio L.; Castro, Eustaquio V.R. de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Freitas, Jair C.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    To choose among the variety of oleaginous plants for biodiesel production, the oil content of several matrices was determined through different low-field {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with varied pulse sequences, namely single-pulse, spin-echo, CPMG, and CWFP. The experiments that involved the first three sequences showed high correlation with each other and with the solvent extraction method. The quality of the vegetable oils was also evaluated on the basis of the existing correlation between the T{sub 2} values of the oils and their properties, such as viscosity, iodine index, and cetane index. These analyses were performed using HCA and PCA chemometric tools. The results were sufficiently significant to allow separation of the oleaginous matrices according to their quality. Thus, the low-field {sup 1}H NMR technique was confirmed as an important tool to aid in the selection of oleaginous matrices for biodiesel production. (author)

  17. Fracture density determination using a novel hybrid computational scheme: a case study on an Iranian Marun oil field reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri-Taleghani, Morteza; Mahmoudifar, Mehrzad; Shokrollahi, Amin; Tatar, Afshin; Karimi-Khaledi, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Most oil production all over the world is from carbonated reservoirs. Carbonate reservoirs are abundant in the Middle East, the Gulf of Mexico and in other major petroleum fields that are regarded as the main oil producers. Due to the nature of such reservoirs that are associated with low matrix permeability, the fracture is the key parameter that governs the fluid flow in porous media and consequently oil production. Conventional methods to determine the fracture density include utilizing core data and the image log family, which are both time consuming and costly processes. In addition, the cores are limited to certain intervals and there is no image log for the well drilled before the introduction of this tool. These limitations motivate petroleum engineers to try to find appropriate alternatives. Recently, intelligent systems on the basis of machine learning have been applied to various branches of science and engineering. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to predict the fracture density using full set log data as inputs based on a combination of three intelligent systems namely, the radial basis function neural network, the multilayer perceptron neural network and the least square supported vector machine. The developed committee machine intelligent system (CMIS) is the weighted average of the individual results of each expert. Proper corresponding weights are determined using a genetic algorithm (GA). The other important feature of the proposed model is its generalization capability. The ability of this model to predict data that have not been introduced during the training stage is very good. (paper)

  18. Cadmium bioaccumulation and gastric bioaccessibility in cacao: A field study in areas impacted by oil activities in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, F; Schreck, E; Lévêque, T; Uzu, G; López, F; Ruales, J; Prunier, J; Marquet, A; Maurice, L

    2017-10-01

    Cacao from South America is especially used to produce premium quality chocolate. Although the European Food Safety Authority has not established a limit for cadmium (Cd) in chocolate raw material, recent studies demonstrate that Cd concentrations in cacao beans can reach levels higher than the legal limits for dark chocolate (0.8 mg kg -1 , effective January 1st, 2019). Despite the fact that the presence of Cd in agricultural soils is related to contamination by fertilizers, other potential sources must be considered in Ecuador. This field study was conducted to investigate Cd content in soils and cacao cultivated on Ecuadorian farms in areas impacted by oil activities. Soils, cacao leaves, and pod husks were collected from 31 farms in the northern Amazon and Pacific coastal regions exposed to oil production and refining and compared to two control areas. Human gastric bioaccessibility was determined in raw cacao beans and cacao liquor samples in order to assess potential health risks involved. Our results show that topsoils (0-20 cm) have higher Cd concentrations than deeper layers, exceeding the Ecuadorian legislation limit in 39% of the sampling sites. Cacao leaves accumulate more Cd than pod husks or beans but, nevertheless, 50% of the sampled beans have Cd contents above 0.8 mg kg -1 . Root-to-cacao transfer seems to be the main pathway of Cd uptake, which is not only regulated by physico-chemical soil properties but also agricultural practices. Additionally, natural Cd enrichment by volcanic inputs must not be neglected. Finally, Cd in cacao trees cannot be considered as a tracer of oil activities. Assuming that total Cd content and its bioaccessible fraction (up to 90%) in cacao beans and liquor is directly linked to those in chocolate, the health risk associated with Cd exposure varies from low to moderate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Usher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation. Keywords: Plant metabolic engineering, GM field trials, Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, Fish oils, Camelina, Oilseeds

  20. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  1. Shiningbank energy, Rodney, Ontario : natural channel realignment for protection of an oil field battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Rodney Unit 1 battery in Ontario has produced Devonian crude oil with some hydrogen sulfide since 1948. Waterflooding was initiated in 1968, and continues today using recycled produced water as a flushing agent. This presentation provided details of recent upgrades which included replacement of all storage tanks and production lines as well as new lines under the Fleming Creek drain. Upgrades of waterflooding injection systems and the reconstruction of a battery tank farm were also conducted, and old infrastructure and tanks were removed. An environmental conditions investigation revealed oil seepage from Fleming Drain Creek bank, as well as creek erosion which threatened the unit battery. Remediation options required addressing environmental issues due to regulations. Experts hired during the investigation included a hydrogeologist; a fluvial geomorphologist; a fisheries biologist and a restoration contractor. The aim of the project was to extract contaminants from the soil and provide site stability through a realignment of the creek. The site was also revegetated following construction. Various design options were outlined and a construction sequence was presented. A post-construction inspection showed that the Rodney Unit 1 Battery was remediated in accordance with Ontario standards. Soil and groundwater quality now meets Ministry of the Environment standards for the site. The realignment of Fleming Creek Drain in the vicinity of the battery has improved functionality of the drain, and reduced the erosive impact on the battery site as well as enhancing the aquatic habitat in the area. It was concluded that industry applications of ecosystem design solutions have improved pipeline crossings, temporary road impacts and erosion threats. Site decommissioning is also expected to be less costly and time-consuming due to the remediation methods used. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Map showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of the Gulf of Mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Christopher D.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This map was created as part of a worldwide series of geologic maps for the U.S. Geological Survey's World Energy Project. These products are available on CD-ROM and the Internet. The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world. Two previously published digital geologic data sets (U.S. and Caribbean) were clipped to the map extent, while the dataset for Mexico was digitized for this project. Original attributes for all data layers were maintained, and in some cases, graphically merged with common symbology for presentation purposes. The world has been divided into geologic provinces that are used for allocation and prioritization of oil and gas assessments. For the World Energy Project, a subset of those provinces is shown on this map. Each province has a set of geologic characteristics that distinguish it from surrounding provinces. These characteristics may include dominant lithologies, the age of the strata, and/or structural type. The World Geographic Coordinate System of 1984 is used for data storage, and the data are presented in a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection on the OFR 97-470-L map product. Other details about the map compilation and data sources are provided in metadata documents in the data section on this CD-ROM. Several software packages were used to create this map including: Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) ArcGIS 8.3, ArcInfo software, Adobe Photoshop CS, Illustrator CS, and Acrobat 6.0.

  3. Experimental use of emulsion solution on an oil base in the North Togap field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperskiy, B V; Chumakov, V M; Satvaldyyev, Yu S; Shishkov, S N

    1981-01-01

    In drilling well 5 of northern Togap of the production association ''Kirgizneft''' in the productive seam (interval 1100-1200 m) represented by argillaceous-sandy Paleogene deposits, an oilbase emulsion solution (OBES) was tested. For fabrication for preparation of the OBES, standard drilling equipment of the unit BU-75 installed on the well was used. In addition to the intake vessel of the pump, a hydraulic disperser designed by the VNIIKRneft' with diameter of the attachments 18 mm was used. A calculated quantity of diesel fuel and oil was added to the intake vessel of the drilling pump. A solution of gossypol resin was added to it and it was carefully mixed by hydromonitors. At the same time a limestone-salt slurry was prepared in the clay mixture. It was then added on channels into the intake vessel with hydrocarbon base. The mixtures were mixed by hydromonitors until an emulsion was obtained which was sent in two cycles through the stream disperser under pressure 4.0-4.5 MPa. After this a calculated quantity of dissolvane was added to the emulsion and it was increased in weight until the assigned density. The additive of dissolvane, not causing a considerable rise in viscosity, promotes the production of a thixotropic solution with fairly high static shear stress. In drilling well 5, because of the advantage of drilling on the bit, the productive seam was stripped in one crushing instead of two as in drilling well 4, where an argillaceous solution on a water base was used. The average well output of well 5 was 6.2 T/day of oil versus 3.8 T/day for well 4.

  4. Effects of adding bulking agent, inorganic nutrient and microbial inocula on biopile treatment for oil-field drilling waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Yang, Yongqi; Dai, Xiaoli; Chen, Yetong; Deng, Hanmei; Zhou, Huijun; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2016-05-01

    Contamination from oil-field drilling waste is a worldwide environmental problem. This study investigated the performance of four bench-scale biopiles in treating drilling waste: 1) direct biopile (DW), 2) biopile plus oil-degrading microbial consortium (DW + M), 3) biopile plus microbial consortium and bulking agents (saw dust) (DW + M + BA), 4) biopile plus microbial consortium, bulking agents, and inorganic nutrients (Urea and K2HPO4) (DW + M + BA + N). Ninety days of biopiling removed 41.0%, 44.0%, 55.7% and 87.4% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the pile "DW", "DW + M", "DW + M + BA", and "DW + M + BA + N" respectively. Addition of inorganic nutrient and bulking agents resulted in a 56.9% and 26.6% increase in TPH removal efficiency respectively. In contrast, inoculation of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms only slightly enhanced the contaminant removal (increased 7.3%). The biopile with stronger contaminant removal also had higher pile temperature and lower pile pH (e.g., in "DW + M + BA + N"). GC-MS analysis shows that biopiling significantly reduced the total number of detected contaminants and changed the chemical composition. Overall, this study shows that biopiling is an effective remediation technology for drilling waste. Adding inorganic nutrients and bulking agents can significantly improve biopile performance while addition of microbial inocula had minimal positive impacts on contaminant removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic valuation of environmental liabilities, case report: liabilities from Cicuco-Boquete oil field, Mompos-Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno G Jaime Alberto; Ussa G Jaime Eddy

    2008-01-01

    Environmental management demands the incorporation of economic tools to make decisions. One crucial aspect is to establish the compensation values demandable under parameters of acceptable rationality considering at the same time the systemic and complexicity theory of ecosystemic relationships and transmission of impacts, where the definition of environmental passive is configured. This study intended to establish the value of the damage caused in time to human populations established in the influence area of the Cicuco-Boquete oil extraction field, located in Mompos island, department of Bolivar, Colombia. The research included developing and applying a methodology to appraise the value of damages derived from oil extraction activities on the fish production potential on the nearby area. Environmental changes on hidric resources directly impacted the area's fishing potential; consequently, there was an irreversible diminishing on the main productive activity of the regions inhabitants. The study was carried out from May to December 1999 by request of the Procuraduria Delegada para Asuntos Agrarios y Ambientales and the municipalities of Talaiga Nuevo and Cicuco in Bolivar's Department, with the participation of the Departamento Nacional de Planeacion -DNP- and the Contraloria General de la Republica - CGR.

  6. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last 6 months (July 2004-December 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the US: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico.

  7. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

  8. Value of NMR logging for heavy oil characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.; Chen, J.; Georgi, D. [Baker Hughes, Calgary, AB (Canada); Sun, B. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Non-conventional, heavy oil fields are becoming increasingly important to the security of energy supplies and are becoming economically profitable to produce. Heavy oil reservoirs are difficult to evaluate since they are typically shallow and the connate waters are very fresh. Other heavy oil reservoirs are oil-wet where the resistivities are not indicative of saturation. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detects molecular level interactions. As such, it responds distinctively to different hydrocarbon molecules, thereby opening a new avenue for constituent analysis. This feature makes NMR a more powerful technique than bulk oil density or viscosity measurements for characterizing oils, and is the basis for detecting gas in heavy oil fields. NMR logging, which measures fluid in pore space directly, is capable of separating oil from water. It is possible to discern movable from bound water by analyzing NMR logs. The oil viscosity can be also quantified from NMR logs, NMR relaxation time and diffusivity estimates. The unique challenges for heavy oil reservoir characterization for the NMR technique were discussed with reference to the extra-fast decay of the NMR signal in response to extra-heavy oil/tars, and the lack of sensitivity in measuring very slow diffusion of heavy oil molecules. This paper presented various methods for analyzing heavy oil reservoirs in different viscosity ranges. Heavy oil fields in Venezuela, Kazakhstan, Canada, Alaska and the Middle East were analyzed using different data interpretation approaches based on the reservoir formation characteristics and the heavy oil type. NMR direct fluid typing was adequate for clean sands and carbonate reservoirs while integrated approaches were used to interpret extra heavy oils and tars. It was concluded that NMR logs can provide quantitative measures for heavy oil saturation, identify sweet spots or tar streaks, and quantify heavy oil viscosity within reasonable accuracy. 14 refs., 16 figs.

  9. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  10. Automated operation and management of the oil fields in Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guernault, P.; Valleur, M.

    1979-11-01

    In October 1978, Technip signed a contract worth 850 mf with the Soviet central purchasing organization, Mashinoimport, for the design and construction of 2 large complexes intended to improve the production of the Soviet Samotlor and Fyodorovsk fields. These fields are located in West Siberia near the towns of Nijnivartovsk and Surgut, in the OB Valley, approximately 600 km south of the Arctic Circle. They are among the largest in the Soviet Union. The present output of the Samotlor field exceeds 100 mt/yr; the 2 fields taken together comprise 2400 wells in the final stage, spread over an area of 2000 sq km. The