Rangeland health assessment provides qualitative information on ecosystem attributes. Successional management is a conceptual framework that allows managers to link information gathered in rangeland health assessment to ecological processes that need to be repaired to allow vegetation to change in ...
As the science related to soil and rangeland health evolves, so do their protocols and assessment methodologies. Rangeland health assessments consist of evaluating how well ecological processes such as the water cycle, energy flow and nutrient cycling are functioning at a site. Soil health is the ca...
Qualitative Rangeland Health Assessments are extremely useful because they provide a relative indication of resource problems on rangelands. Additionally, theSuccessional Management framework identifies three primary causes of plantcommunity change, ecological processes, and factors that modify thes...
During the past several decades, scientists and land managers in North America have increasingly recognized the importance of rangeland assessment relative to ecological potential based on soil and climate. The adoption of the site potential based “ecological site” system was recently formalized in ...
Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner
Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of
Ridd, M. K.; Price, K. P.; Douglass, G. E.
The feasibility of using LANDSAT MSS (multispectral scanner) data to identify and map cover types for rangeland, and to determine comparative condition of the ecotypes was assessed. A supporting objective is to assess the utility of various forms of aerial photography in the process. If rangelands can be efficiently mapped with Landsat data, as supported by appropriate aerial photography and field data, then uniform standards of cover classification and condition may be applied across the rangelands of the state. Further, a foundation may be established for long-term monitoring of range trend, using the same satellite system over time.
Maggie G. Toone; Sara Goeking
Typical indicators of rangeland health are used to describe health and functionality of a variety of rangeland ecosystems. Similar indicators may be applied to forested locations to examine ecological health at a local forest level. Four rangeland health indicators were adapted and applied to data compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky...
Wind erosion is a major resource concern for rangeland managers because it can impact soil health, ecosystem structure and function, hydrologic processes, agricultural production and air quality. Despite its significance, little is known about which landscapes are eroding, by how much, and when. T...
Webb, Nicholas P.; Van Zee, Justin W.; Karl, Jason W.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Courtright, Ericha M.; Billings, Benjamin J.; Boyd, Robert C.; Chappell, Adrian; Duniway, Michael C.; Derner, Justin D.; Hand, Jenny L.; Kachergis, Emily; McCord, Sarah E.; Newingham, Beth A.; Pierson, Frederick B.; Steiner, Jean L.; Tatarko, John; Tedela, Negussie H.; Toledo, David; Van Pelt, R. Scott
On the GroundWind erosion is a major resource concern for rangeland managers because it can impact soil health, ecosystem structure and function, hydrologic processes, agricultural production, and air quality.Despite its significance, little is known about which landscapes are eroding, by how much, and when.The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 to develop tools for monitoring and assessing wind erosion and dust emissions across the United States.The Network, currently consisting of 13 sites, creates opportunities to enhance existing rangeland soil, vegetation, and air quality monitoring programs.Decision-support tools developed by the Network will improve the prediction and management of wind erosion across rangeland ecosystems.
Alkemade, R.; Reid, R.S.; Berg, van den M.; Leeuw, de J.; Jeuken, M.
Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock
Soil health is defined as the capacity of soil to function and provide ecosystem services to society. The importance of managing for the improvement and maintenance of soil health transcends political boundaries, generations, societies and languages. The challenge of communicating soil health conc...
Renee A. O' Brien; Curtis M. Johnson; Andrea M. Wilson; Van C. Elsbernd
Rangelands comprise about 42 percent of the land area of the United States and provide vital land functions such as watershed, multiple-use, recreation, and other amenities. Currently, we do not know the status and trends of many of our nation's rangelands, and consistent protocols for describing rangeland system dynamics across land management agencies are...
Alkemade, Rob; Reid, Robin S; van den Berg, Maurits; de Leeuw, Jan; Jeuken, Michel
Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock production on the global rangelands area and their biodiversity. First we formalized existing knowledge about livestock grazing impacts on biodiversity, expressed in mean species abundance (MSA) of the original rangeland native species assemblages, through metaanalysis of peer-reviewed literature. MSA values, ranging from 1 in natural rangelands to 0.3 in man-made grasslands, were entered in the IMAGE-GLOBIO model. This model was used to assess the impact of change in food demand and livestock production on future rangeland biodiversity. The model revealed remarkable regional variation in impact on rangeland area and MSA between two agricultural production scenarios. The area of used rangelands slightly increases globally between 2000 and 2050 in the baseline scenario and reduces under a scenario of enhanced uptake of resource-efficient production technologies increasing production [high levels of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology (high-AKST)], particularly in Africa. Both scenarios suggest a global decrease in MSA for rangelands until 2050. The contribution of livestock grazing to MSA loss is, however, expected to diminish after 2030, in particular in Africa under the high-AKST scenario. Policies fostering agricultural intensification can reduce the overall pressure on rangeland biodiversity, but additional measures, addressing factors such as climate change and infrastructural development, are necessary to totally halt biodiversity loss.
Tony Svejcar; Jeremy James; Stuart Hardegree; Roger Sheley
Rangeland management is largely focused on managing vegetation change. Objectives may include managing against change if the desired vegetation is in place, or attempting to create a shift in vegetation if the desired plant community is not present. There is a rich body of research documenting influences of disturbance and management on rangeland vegetation. However,...
Nearing, Mark; Pierson, Fred; Hernandez, Mariano; Al-Hamdan, Osama; Weltz, Mark; Spaeth, Ken; Wei, Haiyan; Stone, Jeff
Soil loss rates on rangelands are considered one of the few quantitative indicators for assessing rangeland health and conservation practice effectiveness. An erosion model to predict soil loss specific for rangeland applications has been needed for many years. Most erosion models were developed from croplands where the hydrologic and erosion processes are different, largely due to much higher levels of heterogeneity in soil and plant properties at the plot scale and the consolidated nature of the soils. The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) was designed to fill that need. RHEM is an event-based model that estimates runoff, erosion, and sediment delivery rates and volumes at the spatial scale of the hillslope and the temporal scale of a single rainfall event. It represents erosion processes under normal and fire-impacted rangeland conditions, it adopts a new splash erosion and thin sheet-flow transport equation developed from rangeland data, and it links the model hydrologic and erosion parameters with rangeland plant communities by providing a new system of parameter estimation equations based on 204 plots at 49 rangeland sites distributed across 15 western U.S. states. Recent work on the model is focused on representing intra-storm dynamics, using stream-power as the driver for detachment by flow, and deriving parameters for after-fire conditions.
Jonn E. Mitchell; Stan Hamiliton; Thomas Lustig; Kenneth Nelson; Tom Roberts; Brian Czech
Laws, institutions, and economic policies play a large role in determining the sustainability of rangelands. They provide the basic framework from which many lasting decisions about rangeland management are made. The SRR has identified 10 primary indicators to assess how this framework influences the long-term health and productivity of rangeland in this country. The...
Chen, Fang; Weber, Keith T.; Scbnase, John L.
Successful postfire reseeding efforts can aid rangeland ecosystem recovery by rapidly establishing a desired plant community and thereby reducing the likelihood of infestation by invasive plants. Although the success of postfire remediation is critical, few efforts have been made to leverage existing geospatial technologies to develop methodologies to assess reseeding success following a fire. In this study, Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data were used to improve the capacity to assess postfire reseeding rehabilitation efforts, with particular emphasis on the semiarid rangelands of Idaho. Analysis of MODIS data demonstrated a positive effect of reseeding on rangeland ecosystem recovery, as well as differences in vegetation between reseeded areas and burned areas where no reseeding had occurred (P,0.05). We conclude that MODIS provides useful data to assess the success of postfire reseeding.
Terefe, A.; Ebro, A.; Tessema, Z.K.
A study was undertaken in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the Southern Ethiopia with the objective to determine the condition of the rangelands for grazing animals as influenced by altitude and grazing types. The rangelands in each of the study districts were stratified based on altitude and
Mundava, C.; Schut, A.G.T.; Helmholtz, P.; Stovold, R.G.H.; Donald, G.; Lamb, D.W.
Current methods to measure aboveground biomass (AGB) do not deliver adequate results in relation to the extent and spatial variability that characterise rangelands. An optimised protocol for the assessment ofAGBis presented that enables calibration and validation of remote-sensing imagery or plant
Papanastasis, Vasilios P.; Bautista, Susana; Chouvardas, Dimitrios; Mantzanas, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Maria; Garcia Mayor, Angeles; Koukioumi, Polina; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Vallejo, Ramon V.
Several management actions are applied to restore ecosystem services in degraded Mediterranean rangelands, which range from adjusting the grazing pressure to the removal of grazers and pine plantations. Four such actions were assessed in Quercus coccifera L. shrublands in northern Greece: (i)
Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture
The Update to the 2010 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment summarizes findings about the status, trends, and projected future of forests, rangelands, wildlife, biodiversity, water, outdoor recreation, and urban forests, as well as the effects of climate change upon these resources. Varying assumptions about population and economic growth, land use change, and...
Terefe, A.; Ebro, A.; Tessema, Z.K.
A study was undertaken in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the Southern Ethiopia with the objective to determine the condition of the rangelands for grazing animals as influenced by altitude and grazing types. The rangelands in each of the study districts were stratified based on altitude and grazing types. In the study districts, a total of 32, 3, 2, 7 and 29 species of grasses, legumes, sedges, other herbaceous plants and woody species were identified, respectively. The common and/or dom...
Ramoelo, Abel; Cho, Moses; Mathieu, Renaud; Skidmore, Andrew K.
The European Space Agency (ESA) has embarked on the development of the Sentinel constellation. Sentinel-2 is intended to improve vegetation assessment at local to global scale. Rangeland quality assessment is crucial for planning and management of grazing areas. Well managed and improved grazing areas lead to higher livestock production, which is a pillar of the rural economy and livelihoods, especially in many parts of the African continent. Leaf nitrogen (N) is an indicator of rangeland quality, and is crucial for understanding ecosystem function and services. Today, estimation of leaf N is possible using field and imaging spectroscopy. However, a few studies based on commercially available multispectral imageries such as WorldView-2 and RapidEye have shown the potential of a red-edge band for accurately predicting and mapping leaf N at the broad landscape scale. Sentinel-2 has two red edge bands. The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of the spectral configuration of Sentinel-2 for estimating leaf N concentration in rangelands and savannas of Southern Africa. Grass canopy reflectance was measured using the FieldSpec 3, Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) in concert with leaf sample collections for leaf N chemical analysis. ASD reflectances were resampled to the spectral bands of Sentinel-2 using published spectral response functions. Random Forest (RF) technique was used to predict leaf N using all thirteen bands. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the RF model explained 90% of leaf N variation, with the root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.04 (6% of the mean). Interestingly, spectral bands centred at 705 nm (red edge) and two shortwave infrared centred at 2190 and 1610 nm were found to be the most important bands in predicting leaf N. These findings concur with previous studies based on spectroscopy, airborne hyperspectral or multispectral imagery, e.g. RapidEye, on the importance of shortwave infrared and red-edge reflectance in the
Describes the use of satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques in applying a localized range condition assessment methodology based on fence-line contrasts. The approach was to compute six dissimilarity indices for data on vegetation cover and composition from paired, site-specific surveys across farm boundaries.
Faisal Mueen Qamer
Full Text Available Rangelands in the Hindu Kush Karakoram region provide a resource base for nomadic livestock grazing, which is one of the major traditional livelihood practices in the area. The present study assessed the spatiotemporal patterns and trends of rangelands using satellite remote-sensing time-series data. Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data, collected at fortnightly intervals over 12 years (2001–2012, were used as a proxy for the vegetation conditions of the grasslands. The analysis revealed that rangeland productivity increased with increasing elevation up to the sub-alpine zone, which had a higher productivity than the moist temperate zone and humid sub-tropical zone. The high sub-alpine productivity was attributed to seasonal amplitude and the extended length of the growing season in the phenological cycle. In the temporal analysis of productivity, the majority of the area exhibited improvements in vegetation conditions, which were strongest in the humid sub-tropical zones and weakest in the alpine zones. The sub-alpine grasslands were found to be the most productive and heterogeneous habitat; however, the relatively strong negative temporal trend in productivity in this zone indicates ongoing degradation in these rangelands. Thus, special attention is needed for the sustainable management of rangelands in the sub-alpine zones of the Hindu Kush Karakoram region.
Soil properties are thought to affect rangeland ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity, hydrology), and thus soil variables that are consistently correlated with key ecosystem functions may be general indicators of rangeland health. We summarize results from several studies in mixed-grass...
Belay, Tamrat A; Moe, Stein R
The ecological impact of woody plant encroachment in rangeland ecosystems has traditionally been evaluated based on correlation studies between densities of dissimilar woody plants and various ecosystem properties. However, ecosystem properties respond differently to woody plant encroachment because of variations in adaptation of co-occurring woody plants. The objective of this study is to predict the impact of woody plant encroachment on understory herbaceous cover based on analysis of key traits of woody plants. We conducted a vegetation survey in 4 savanna sites in southwestern Ethiopia and compared 9 different key traits of 19 co-occurring woody plants with understory herbaceous cover. Our results show that low understory herbaceous cover is associated with evergreen leaf phenology, shrubby growth form, smaller relative crown-base height and larger relative crown diameter. However, the N2-fixing ability and density of woody plants did not influence the understory herbaceous cover. This shows that traits of individual woody plants can predict the impact of woody plant encroachment on understory herbaceous cover better than density does. The finding improves our ability to accurately predict the impact of woody plant encroachment on various ecosystem properties in highly diverse savanna systems. This plant trait-based approach could be also used as an important management exercise to assess and predict the impact of encroaching woody species in several rangeland ecosystems.
Linda A. Joyce; David D. Briske; Joel R. Brown; H. Wayne Polley; Bruce A. McCarl; Derek W. Bailey
Recent climatic trends and climate model projections indicate that climate change will modify rangeland ecosystem functions and the services and livelihoods that they provision. Recent history has demonstrated that climatic variability has a strong influence on both ecological and social components of rangeland systems and that these systems possess substantial...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mitigation of ecological damage caused by rangeland wildfires has historically been an issue restricted to the western United States. It has focused on conservation...
Ibáñez, Javier; Francisco Lavado-Contador, Joaquín; Schnabel, Susanne; Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Martínez Valderrama, Jaime
This work presents a model aimed at evaluating land degradation by water erosion in dehesas and montados of the Iberian Peninsula, that constitute valuable rangelands in the area. A multidisciplinary dynamic model was built including weather, biophysical and economic variables that reflect the main causes and processes affecting sheet erosion on hillsides of the study areas. The model has two main and two derived purposes: Purpose 1: Assessing the risk of degradation that a land-use system is running. Derived purpose 1: Early warning about land-use systems that are particularly threatened by degradation. Purpose 2: Assessing the degree to which different factors would hasten degradation if they changed from the typical values they show at present. Derived purpose 2: Evaluating the role of human activities on degradation. Model variables and parameters have been calibrated for a typical open woodland rangeland (dehesa or montado) defined along 22 working units selected from 10 representative farms and distributed throughout the Spanish region of Extremadura. The model is the basis for a straightforward assessment methodology which is summarized by the three following points: i) The risk of losing a given amount of soil before a given number of years was specifically estimated as the percentage of 1000 simulations where such a loss occurs, being the simulations run under randomly-generated scenarios of rainfall amount and intensity and meat and supplemental feed market prices; ii) Statistics about the length of time that a given amount of soil takes to be lost were calculated over 1000 stochastic simulations run until year 1000, thereby ensuring that such amount of soil has been lost in all of the simulations, i.e. the total risk is 100%; iii) Exogenous factors potentially affecting degradation, mainly climatic and economic, were ranked in order of importance by means of a sensitivity analysis. Particularly remarkable in terms of model performance is the major role
Briske, D D; Bestelmeyer, B T; Brown, J R; Brunson, M W; Thurow, T L; Tanaka, J A
The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was created in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget that the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS) document the societal benefits anticipated to accrue from a major increase in conservation funding authorized by the 2002 Farm Bill. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of rangeland conservation practices cost-shared with private landowners was unable to evaluate conservation benefits because outcomes were seldom documented. Four interrelated suppositions are presented to examine the causes underlying minimal documentation of conservations outcomes. These suppositions are (1) the benefits of conservation practices are considered a certainty so that documentation in not required, (2) there is minimal knowledge exchange between the USDA-NRCS and research organizations, (3) and a paucity of conservation-relevant science, as well as (4) inadequate technical support for land owners following implementation of conservation practices. We then follow with recommendations to overcome potential barriers to documentation of conservation outcomes identified for each supposition. Collectively, this assessment indicates that the existing conservation practice standards are insufficient to effectively administer large conservation investments on rangelands and that modification of these standards alone will not achieve the goals explicitly stated by CEAP. We recommend that USDA-NRCS modify its conservation programs around a more comprehensive and integrative platform that is capable of implementing evidence-based conservation. Collaborative monitoring organized around landowner-agency-scientist partnerships would represent the focal point of a Conservation Program Assessment Network (CPAN). The primary network objective would be to establish missing information feedback loops between conservation practices and their agricultural and environmental outcomes
The purpose of the salinity project is to improve the understanding of sources and transport mechanisms in rangeland catchments that deliver dissolved solids (salts) to streams within the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) through a review of relevant literature on what is known about the impact of r...
Wind erosion is a major resource concern for rangeland managers. Although wind erosion is a naturally occurring process in many drylands, land use activities, and land management in particular, can accelerate wind-driven soil loss – impacting ecosystem dynamics and agricultural production, air quali...
Herrick, J.E.; Whitford, W.G.; de Soyza, A. G.; Van Zee, J. W.; Havstad, K.M.; Seybold, C.A.; Walton, M.
Soil aggregate stability is widely recognized as a key indicator of soil quality and rangeland health. However, few standard methods exist for quantifying soil stability in the field. A stability kit is described which can be inexpensively and easily assembled with minimal tools. It permits up to 18 samples to be evaluated in less than 10 min and eliminates the need for transportation, minimizing damage to soil structure. The kit consists of two 21??10.5??3.5 cm plastic boxes divided into eighteen 3.5??3.5 cm sections, eighteen 2.5-cm diameter sieves with 1.5-mm distance openings and a small spatula used for soil sampling. Soil samples are rated on a scale from one to six based on a combination of ocular observations of slaking during the first 5 min following immersion in distilled water, and the percent remaining on a 1.5-mm sieve after five dipping cycles at the end of the 5-min period. A laboratory comparison yielded a correlation between the stability class and percent aggregate stability based on oven dry weight remaining after treatment using a mechanical sieve. We have applied the method in a wide variety of agricultural and natural ecosystems throughout western North America, including northern Mexico, and have found that it is highly sensitive to differences in management and plant community composition. Although the field kit cannot replace the careful laboratory-based measurements of soil aggregate stability, it can clearly provide valuable information when these more intensive procedures are not possible.
Robert Paul Breckenridge
Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be
Bowker, M.A.; Miller, M.E.; Belote, R.T.
Increasingly, dry rangelands are being valued for multiple services beyond their traditional value as a forage production system. Additional ecosystem services include the potential to store carbon in the soil and plant biomass. In addition, dust emissions from rangelands might be considered an ecosystem detriment, the opposite of an ecosystem service. Dust emitted may have far-reaching impacts, for example, reduction of local air quality, as well as altering regional water supplies through effects on snowpack. Using an extensive rangeland monitoring dataset in the greater Canyonlands region (Utah, USA), we developed a method to estimate indices of the provisioning of three ecosystem services (forage production, dust retention, C storage) and one ecosystem property (nativeness), taking into account both ecosystem type and alternative states within that ecosystem type. We also integrated these four indices into a multifunctionality index. Comparing the currently ungrazed Canyonlands National Park watersheds to the adjacent Dugout Ranch pastures, we found clearly higher multifunctionality was attained in the Park, and that this was primarily driven by greater C-storage and better dust retention. It is unlikely to maximize all benefits and minimize all detriments at the same time. Some goods and services may have synergistic interactions; for example, managing for carbon storage will increase plant and biocrust cover likely lowering dust emission. Likewise, some may have antagonistic interactions. For instance, if carbon is consumed as biomass for livestock production, then carbon storage may be reduced. Ultimately our goal should be to quantify the monetary consequences of specific land use practices for multiple ecosystem services and determine the best land use and adaptive management practices for attaining multiple ecosystem services, minimizing economic detriments, and maximizing economic benefits from multi-commodity rangelands. Our technique is the first step
William E. Fox; Daniel W. McCollum; John E. Mitchell; Louis E. Swanson; Urs P. Kreuter; John A. Tanaka; Gary R. Evans; H. Theodore Heintz; Robert P. Breckenridge; Paul H. Geissler
Currently, there is no standard method to assess the complex systems in rangeland ecosystems. Decision makers need baselines to create a common language of current rangeland conditions and standards for continued rangeland assessment. The Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable (SRR), a group of private and public organizations and agencies, has created a forum to discuss...
Herguido, Estela; Pulido, Manuel; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Schnabel, Susanne
the sampled plots, 16,747 trees were detected as recruited, while 47,058 and 12,803 were present in both dates and lost during the studied period, respectively. Based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC), all the data mining models considered showed a high fitness (MARS AUC= 0.86; TN AUC= 0.92; RF AUC= 0.95) and low misclassification rates. Correctly predicted test samples for absence and presence of tree recruitment accounted respectively to 78.3% and 76.8% when using MARS, 90.8% and 90.8% using TN and 88.9% and 89.1% using RF. The spatial patterns of the different models were similar. However, attending only the percentage of area prone to tree recruitment, outstanding differences were observed among models considering the total surface of rangelands (36.03% in MARS, 22.88% in TN and 6.72 % in RF). Despite these differences, when comparing the results with those of the afforested surfaces (31.73% in MARS, 20.70% in TN and 5.63 % in RF) the three algorithms pointed to similar conclusions, i.e. the afforestations performed in rangelands of Extremadura under UE First Afforestation Agricultural Land Program, barely discriminate between areas with or without natural regeneration. In conclusion, data mining technics are suitable to develop high-performance spatial models of vegetation dynamics. These models could be useful for policy and decision makers aimed at assessing the implementation of afforestation measures and the selection of more adequate locations.
D Richard Cameron
Full Text Available Land use change in rangeland ecosystems is pervasive throughout the western United States with widespread ecological, social and economic implications. In California, rangeland habitats have high biodiversity value, provide significant habitat connectivity and form the foundation for a number of ecosystem services. To comprehensively assess the conservation status of these habitats, we analyzed the extent and drivers of habitat loss and the degree of protection against future loss across a 13.5 M ha study area in California. We analyzed rangeland conversion between 1984 and 2008 using time series GIS data and classified resulting land uses with aerial imagery. In total, over 195,000 hectares of rangeland habitats were converted during this period. The majority of conversions were to residential and associated commercial development (49% of the area converted, but agricultural intensification was surprisingly extensive and diverse (40% across six categories. Voluntary enrollment in an agricultural tax incentive program provided widespread protection from residential and commercial conversions across 37% of the remaining rangeland habitat extent (7.5 M ha, though this program did not protect rangeland from conversion to more intensive agricultural uses. Additionally, 24% of the remaining rangeland was protected by private conservation organizations or public agencies through land or easement ownership while 38% had no protection status at all. By developing a spatial method to analyze the drivers of loss and patterns of protection, this study demonstrates a novel approach to prioritize conservation strategies and implementation locations to avert habitat conversion. We propose that this approach can be used in other ecosystem types, and can serve as a regional conservation baseline assessment to focus strategies to effect widespread, cost-effective conservation solutions.
John E. Mitchell
The concept of sustainable management encompasses ecological, economic, and social criteria and indicators (C&I) for monitoring and assessing the association between maintaining a healthy rangeland base and sustaining the well-being of communities and economies. During a series of meetings from 2001 to 2003, the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) developed...
Linda A. Joyce; William Fox; Paul Geissler; Rodney Heitschmidt; Lori Hidinger; Duncan Patten; John Spence; Laurence L. Strong; Robert Unnasch; Robert A. Washington-Allen
Five criteria were established by the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable to be used to assess rangeland sustainability on a national scale. One of those criteria is the conservation and maintenance of plant and animal resources. Within this criterion, 10 indicators were developed through the expert opinions of rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel...
Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.
Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explore how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass-succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 Ha). We identify vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area can be effectively controlled when bare ground cover is 100 cm in length is less than ~35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the development of
Webb, Nicholas P; Herrick, Jeffrey E; Duniway, Michael C
Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation, or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explored how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting, and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass–succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 ha). We identified vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area could be effectively controlled when bare ground cover was 100 cm in length was less than ∼35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the
In this study we present the improved Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM V2.3), a process-based erosion prediction tool specific for rangeland application. The article provides the mathematical formulation of the model and parameter estimation equations. Model performance is assessed agains...
Herguido Sevillano, Estela; Ibáñez, Javier; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne
Iberian open wooded rangelands (known as dehesas or montados) constitute valuable agro-silvo-pastoral systems traditionally considered as highly sustainable. Nevertheless, in the recent decades, those systems are undergoing changes of land use and management practices that compromise its sustainability. Some of those changes, as the rising construction of watering points and the high spatial fragmentation and livestock movement restriction associated to fencing, show an aggregated effect with livestock, producing an impact gradient over soil and vegetation. Soil compaction related to livestock pressure is higher around watering points, with bare soil halos and patches of scarce vegetation or nude soil developing with higher frequency in areas close to them. Using the freeware Dinamica EGO as environmental modeling platform, we have developed a theoretic spatial dynamic model that represents some of the processes of land degradation associated to livestock grazing in dehesa fenced enclosures. Spatial resolution is high since every cell in the model is a square unit area of 1 m2. We paid particular attention to the relationships between soil degradation by compaction (porosity), livestock pressure, rainfall, pasture growth and shrub cover and bare soil generation. The model considers pasture growth as related to soil compaction, measured by the pore space in the top 10 cm soil layer. Annual precipitation is randomly generated following a normal distribution. When annual precipitation and pore space increase, also does pasture growth. Besides, there is a feedback between pasture growth and pore space, given that pasture roots increases soil porosity. The cell utility for livestock function has been defined as an exponential function of the distance of a cell to watering points and the amount of pasture present in it. The closer the cell to a pond and the higher the amount of pasture, the higher is cell utility. The latter is modulated by a normal random variable to
Daniel W. McCollum; H. Theodore Jr. Heintz; Aaron J. Harp; John A. Tanaka; Gary R. Evans; David Radloff; Louis E. Swanson; William E. III Fox; Michael G. Sherm Karl; John E. Mitchell
Use and sustainability of rangelands are inherently linked to the health and sustainability of the land. They are also inherently linked to the social and economic infrastructures that complement and support those rangelands and rangeland uses. Ecological systems and processes provide the biological interactions underlying ecosystem health and viability. Social and...
Fox, W.E.; McCollum, D.W.; Mitchell, J.E.; Swanson, L.E.; Kreuter, U.P.; Tanaka, J.A.; Evans, G.R.; Theodore, Heintz H.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Geissler, P.H.
Currently, there is no standard method to assess the complex systems in rangeland ecosystems. Decision makers need baselines to create a common language of current rangeland conditions and standards for continued rangeland assessment. The Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable (SRR), a group of private and public organizations and agencies, has created a forum to discuss rangeland sustainability and assessment. The SRR has worked to integrate social, economic, and ecological disciplines related to rangelands and has identified a standard set of indicators that can be used to assess rangeland sustainability. As part of this process, SRR has developed a two-tiered conceptual framework from a systems perspective to study the validity of indicators and the relationships among them. The first tier categorizes rangeland characteristics into four states. The second tier defines processes affecting these states through time and space. The framework clearly shows that the processes affect and are affected by each other. ?? 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Tillman, Fred D; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Anning, David W.
In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) surface-water quality model for the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) relating dissolved-solids sources and transport in the 1991 water year to upstream catchment characteristics. The SPARROW model focused on geologic and agricultural sources of dissolved solids in the UCRB and was calibrated using water-year 1991 dissolved-solids loads from 218 monitoring sites. A new UCRB SPARROW model is planned that will update the investigation of dissolved-solids sources and transport in the basin to circa 2010 conditions and will improve upon the 2009 model by incorporating more detailed information about agricultural-irrigation and rangeland-management practices, among other improvements. Geospatial datasets relating to circa 2010 rangeland conditions are required for the new UCRB SPARROW modeling effort. This study compiled geospatial datasets for the UCRB that relate to the biotic alterations and rangeland conditions of grazing, fire and other land disturbance, and vegetation type and cover. Datasets representing abiotic alterations of access control (off-highway vehicles) and sediment generation and transport in general, were also compiled. These geospatial datasets may be tested in the upcoming SPARROW model to better understand the potential contribution of rangelands to dissolved-solids loading in UCRB streams.
Olexa, Edward M.; Lawrence, Rick L
Federal land management agencies provide stewardship over much of the rangelands in the arid andsemi-arid western United States, but they often lack data of the proper spatiotemporal resolution andextent needed to assess range conditions and monitor trends. Recent advances in the blending of com-plementary, remotely sensed data could provide public lands managers with the needed information.We applied the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) to five Landsat TMand concurrent Terra MODIS scenes, and used pixel-based regression and difference image analyses toevaluate the quality of synthetic reflectance and NDVI products associated with semi-arid rangeland. Pre-dicted red reflectance data consistently demonstrated higher accuracy, less bias, and stronger correlationwith observed data than did analogous near-infrared (NIR) data. The accuracy of both bands tended todecline as the lag between base and prediction dates increased; however, mean absolute errors (MAE)were typically ≤10%. The quality of area-wide NDVI estimates was less consistent than either spectra lband, although the MAE of estimates predicted using early season base pairs were ≤10% throughout the growing season. Correlation between known and predicted NDVI values and agreement with the 1:1regression line tended to decline as the prediction lag increased. Further analyses of NDVI predictions,based on a 22 June base pair and stratified by land cover/land use (LCLU), revealed accurate estimates through the growing season; however, inter-class performance varied. This work demonstrates the successful application of the STARFM algorithm to semi-arid rangeland; however, we encourage evaluation of STARFM’s performance on a per product basis, stratified by LCLU, with attention given to the influence of base pair selection and the impact of the time lag.
Byrd, K. B.; Flint, L. E.; Casey, C. F.; Alvarez, P.; Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T.
In California there are over 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley and the interior Coast Range, most of which are privately owned and managed for livestock production. Ranches provide extensive wildlife habitat and generate multiple ecosystem services that carry considerable market and non-market values. These rangelands are under pressure from urbanization and conversion to intensive agriculture, as well as from climate change that can alter the flow of these services. To understand the coupled and isolated impacts of land use and climate change on rangeland ecosystem services, we developed six spatially explicit (250 m) coupled climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for the Central Valley and oak woodland regions of California consistent with three IPCC emission scenarios - A2, A1B and B1. Three land use land cover (LULC) change scenarios were each integrated with two downscaled global climate models (GCMs) (a warm, wet future and a hot, dry future) and related hydrologic data. We used these scenarios to quantify wildlife habitat, water supply (recharge potential and streamflow) and carbon sequestration on rangelands and to conduct an economic analysis associated with changes in these benefits. The USGS FOREcasting SCEnarios of land-use change model (FORE-SCE), which runs dynamically with downscaled GCM outputs, was used to generate maps of yearly LULC change for each scenario from 2006 to 2100. We used the USGS Basin Characterization Model (BCM), a regional water balance model, to generate change in runoff, recharge, and stream discharge based on land use change and climate change. Metrics derived from model outputs were generated at the landscape scale and for six case-study watersheds. At the landscape scale, over a quarter of the million acres set aside for conservation in the B1 scenario would otherwise be converted to agriculture in the A2 scenario, where temperatures increase by up to 4.5 °C compared to 1.3 °C in the B1 scenario
into analyzing the costs and benefits associated with policies being proposed, or possibly already implemented. For example, with monetized values acting as a common metric, one could compare the 'benefits' of converting a rangeland ecosystem for commercial development (perhaps estimated at the market value of the developed land) with the foregone ecosystem service values (in addition to any land income lost) resulting from that land conversion. Similarly, ecosystem service values can be used to determine the level of return on an investment. rhis is a primary objective for private land conservation organizations who typically have very limited resources. Ecosystem service valuation can also have a role in damage assessments from incidents that require compensation such as oil spills. Additionally, valuation can be very informative when investigating regulatory programs that trade ecological assets such as wetland mitigation programs. Typically these programs are based simply on an 'acre for acre' criterion, and do not take into consideration varying welfare values associated with that ecosystem. Lastly, and most fundamental, ecosystem service valuation serves as a recognition tool for people of all backgrounds. Identifying and valuing ecosystem goods and services on rangelands brings to light the value these natural assets have to human welfare that often remain hidden do to their public and non-market attributes. This type of recognition is vital to the preservation of rangeland ecosystems in the future and the many ecological benefits they provide.
Droughts are common and occur regularly in Oklahoma. They’re the most costly natural hazard to the United States, and estimates show a $6-$8 billion annual loss to the nation’s farmers and rancher. With the current drought impacting Oklahoma, people managing rangelands are concerned with the short...
Byrd, Kristin; Alvarez, Pelayo; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan
The 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley of California provide multiple benefits or “ecosystem services” to people—including wildlife habitat, water supply, open space, recreation, and cultural resources. Most of this land is privately owned and managed for livestock production. These rangelands are vulnerable to land-use conversion and climate change. To help resource managers assess the impacts of land-use change and climate change, U.S. Geological Survey scientists and their cooperators developed scenarios to quantify and map changes to three main rangeland ecosystem services—wildlife habitat, water supply, and carbon sequestration. Project results will help prioritize strategies to conserve these rangelands and the ecosystem services that they provide.
Full Text Available Conversion of rangelands into cultivated land is one of the main challenges affecting the management of rangelands in Ethiopia. In order to inform policy makers about trends in land-use conversion, this study examined the drivers, trends, and impacts of land conversions in five locations selected in the Borana rangelands of Southern Ethiopia. This study integrated survey interviews from agro-pastoralists, participatory appraisals, rainfall data, and remotely sensed satellite data from Landsat images taken in 1985 and 2011. Results indicate that there is a marked increase in cultivated land in some of the study sites while in the other sites there is a slight reduction. The bare lands increased in some parts of the study sites though there was slight recovery of grassland in some of the degraded areas. Settlement areas with permanent housing increased. Woodland vegetation decreased except on mountain escarpments where there were slight gains. The results further show that, during this period, bushland decreased while at the same time grassland increased. Shrub/grassland with seasonally flooded areas increased in the bottomlands. Inhabitants interviewed in the study areas perceived land use and land cover changes to be driven by interplay of recurrent drought, loss of pasture, food insecurity, and decline in income. Changes in policies that govern natural resources have influence the land use change in this area and the expansion of cultivation. Expansion of cultivation practices upon rangelands has resulting in significant loss of vegetation biomass and soil erosion, thereby precipitating rangeland degradation. The results provide comprehensive insights regarding the influence of internal and external drivers of land conversion that should be considered when making decisions for land use planning.
Barry, Tom; Cunningham, Harry
Viewgraphs and discussion of onboard system health assessment are presented. Success of the space station program will be measured by how well it addresses the basic requirements for (1) maintaining the orbiting Space Station Freedom fully operational for its projected life of thirty years, and (2) the cost-effective execution of the overall space station program. Onboard system health assessment must provide complete and thorough testing capabilities along with effective associated redundancy/fault management.
Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin
Grassland ecosystem is one of the largest ecosystems, which naturally occurs on all continents excluding Antarctica and provides both ecological and economic functions. The deterioration of natural grassland has been attracting many grassland researchers to monitor the grassland condition and dynamics for decades. Remote sensing techniques, which are advanced in dealing with the scale constraints of ecological research and provide temporal information, become a powerful approach of grassland ecosystem monitoring. So far, grassland health monitoring studies have mostly focused on different areas, for example, productivity evaluation, classification, vegetation dynamics, livestock carrying capacity, grazing intensity, natural disaster detecting, fire, climate change, coverage assessment and soil erosion. However, the grassland ecosystem is a complex system which is formed by soil, vegetation, wildlife and atmosphere. Thus, it is time to consider the grassland ecosystem as an entity synthetically and establish an integrated grassland health monitoring system to combine different aspects of the complex grassland ecosystem. In this review, current grassland health monitoring methods, including rangeland health assessment, ecosystem health assessment and grassland monitoring by remote sensing from different aspects, are discussed along with the future directions of grassland health assessment.
Full Text Available Grassland ecosystem is one of the largest ecosystems, which naturally occurs on all continents excluding Antarctica and provides both ecological and economic functions. The deterioration of natural grassland has been attracting many grassland researchers to monitor the grassland condition and dynamics for decades. Remote sensing techniques, which are advanced in dealing with the scale constraints of ecological research and provide temporal information, become a powerful approach of grassland ecosystem monitoring. So far, grassland health monitoring studies have mostly focused on different areas, for example, productivity evaluation, classification, vegetation dynamics, livestock carrying capacity, grazing intensity, natural disaster detecting, fire, climate change, coverage assessment and soil erosion. However, the grassland ecosystem is a complex system which is formed by soil, vegetation, wildlife and atmosphere. Thus, it is time to consider the grassland ecosystem as an entity synthetically and establish an integrated grassland health monitoring system to combine different aspects of the complex grassland ecosystem. In this review, current grassland health monitoring methods, including rangeland health assessment, ecosystem health assessment and grassland monitoring by remote sensing from different aspects, are discussed along with the future directions of grassland health assessment.
John M. Pye; H. Michael Rauscher; Yasmeen Sands; Danny C. Lee; Jerome S. Beatty
In July 2006, more than 170 researchers and managers from the United States, Canada, and Mexico convened in Boulder, Colorado, to discuss the state of the science in environmental threat assessment. This two-volume general technical report compiles peer-reviewed papers that were among those presented during the 3-day conference. Papers are organized by four broad...
Defining rangelands as anthromes enabled Ellis and Ramankutty (2008) to conclude that more than three-quarters of Earth’s land is anthropogenic; without rangelands, this figure would have been less than half. They classified all lands grazed by domestic livestock as rangelands, provided that human p...
Rangeland science aims to create knowledge to sustain rangeland social-ecological systems over the long term. Range science has made substantial progress on understanding ecological dynamics of rangeland systems and the management practices that sustain them, and these findings have been systematica...
Kristie Maczko; Lorie Hidinger
The Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) recognizes the unique contributions rangeland resources make to the nation's wellbeing. To communicate the importance of these commodity and amenity values, SRR participants developed this primer on rangeland ecosystem goods and services. It summarizes the history of the nation's relationship with and reliance upon...
Povall, Susan L; Haigh, Fiona A; Abrahams, Debbie; Scott-Samuel, Alex
The World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health has called for 'health equity impact assessments' of all economic agreements, market regulation and public policies. We carried out an international study to clarify if existing health impact assessment (HIA) methods are adequate for the task of global health equity assessments. We triangulated data from a scoping review of the international literature, in-depth interviews with health equity and HIA experts and an international stakeholder workshop. We found that equity is not addressed adequately in HIAs for a variety of reasons, including inadequate guidance, absence of definitions, poor data and evidence, perceived lack of methods and tools and practitioner unwillingness or inability to address values like fairness and social justice. Current methods can address immediate, 'downstream' factors, but not the root causes of inequity. Extending HIAs to cover macro policy and global equity issues will require new tools to address macroeconomic policies, historical roots of inequities and upstream causes like power imbalances. More sensitive, participatory methods are also required. There is, however, no need for the development of a completely new methodology. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mannheimer, L N; Gulis, G; Lehto, J
BACKGROUND: Intersectoral Action for Health (IAH) and its Health Impact Assessment (HIA) tool are built on collaboration between actors and sectors, requiring multidimensional and horizontal way of working. The study aims to analyse the enablers and barriers when such a new way of working and tool...... used by which the actual problems, the governmental actions (or non-actions) (politics) and the understanding, implementation and evaluation of the initiative (policy) could be analysed. All actors involved, civil servants, politicians, representatives of the local public health institute...
Ibrahim A Bani
The findings of the assessment of the health needs of Jazan presented in this review could be utilized as a baseline and reference information for policy formulation, subsequent planning and cost effective intervention programs. It could also be utilized for the curriculum development or review for a community oriented medical schools.
Ecology and conservation status of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of Luwero and Nakasongola Districts were assessed between November 2002 and February 2003. Sixty plots measuring 50 x 50 m were laid at 50 m intervals along six 1,000 m transects, and the diameter at breast height (DBH), of Acacia .fellegal trees ...
Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth A. Bernhardt; Arnold Richard A.
We developed methods to assess the impacts of diseases and arthropods on sapling and mature rangeland oaks, and applied these methods at 18 sample plot locations in northern California. The impact of arthropod damage was generally rated as minor. Leafy mistletoe (Phoradendron villosum) was found on 5 percent of the rated trees. There was a slight...
The role of technology in the cost of health care is a primary issue in current debates concerning national health care reform. The broad scope of studies for understanding technological impacts is known as technology assessment. Technology policy makers can improve their decision making by becoming more aware, and taking greater advantage, of key trends in health care technology assessment (HCTA). HCTA is the systematic evaluation of the properties, impacts, and other attributes of health care technologies, including: technical performance; clinical safety and efficacy/effectiveness; cost-effectiveness and other economic attributes; appropriate circumstances/indications for use; and social, legal, ethical, and political impacts. The main purpose of HCTA is to inform technology-related policy making in health care. Among the important trends in HCTA are: (1) proliferation of HCTA groups in the public and private sectors; (2) higher standards for scientific evidence concerning technologies; (3) methodological development in cost analyses, health-related quality of life measurement, and consolidation of available scientific evidence (e.g., meta-analysis); (4) emphasis on improved data on how well technologies work in routine practice and for traditionally under-represented patient groups; (5) development of priority-setting methods; (6) greater reliance on medical informatics to support and disseminate HCTA findings.
Solomon, T B; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N
A survey was conducted in the Borana pastoral areas of southern Ethiopia to assess current livestock production systems, rangeland management practices and the perceptions of the pastoralists towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. Data were collected from a total of 20 villages that were identified from 5 peasant associations, namely Did Yabello, Moyatte, Did Harra, Dubuluk and Melbana. The average household size in the study area was 7.23. The majority of the pastoralists relied on both livestock and crop farming. The average livestock holding per household was 14 cattle, 10 goats, 6 sheep and 2 camels. Livestock holdings, with the exception of camels, has shown a declining trend over time. The two most important traditional rangeland management strategies adopted by the pastoralists included burning and mobility, but since 1974/75 burning has no longer been practised. With regard to mobility, the livestock herding falls in two categories, namely: home based and satellite herding. The former involves the herding of milking cows, calves and immature animals (2 years) further away from the encampments. Based on the pastoralists' perceptions, the major constraints on livestock production in descending order, were recurrent drought, feed and water scarcity, animal diseases, predators and communal land ownership. All the respondents considered the condition of the rangelands to have declined dramatically over time. In the past most development policies were based on equilibrium theories that opposed the communal use of the rangelands and traditional range management practices. The way in which the pastoral system affects the rangeland ecosystem functioning is contentious to this theory and the 'tragedy of the commons'. There was also a perceived problem of bush encroachment and the ban on traditional burning practices and recurrent droughts were seen as aggravating factors to this
Smith, Kirk R
Conceptual and methodological issues in calculating and comparing the health impacts from environmental risk factors in ways that are not only compatible across environmental hazards but also can be fairly compared to burdens from nonenvironmental risk factors, such as poor nutrition, unsafe sex, and smoking, are discussed. It is emphasized that a focus on environmental health burden does not always produce priorities that correspond to those related to environmental quality alone. The methods when applied to China's environmental and other risks using the Chinese burden of disease in terms of lost healthy life years as the metric are illustrated. Household environmental risks are still quite important in China, because of rural poverty, but have been exceeded by community environmental risks nationally. Global risks from climate are small at present, but have the potential to rise. Although not a major greenhouse gas emitter on a per capita basis compared to rich countries, China has already passed the threshold of imposing more global risk than it receives. The study ends with the suggestion that environmental risk assessment should use as a baseline estimates that are based on methods developed in international collaborative assessments, such as those in the WHO Comparative Risk Assessment, in order to foster comparability and policy and public confidence in the methods.
Mohammed Mussa Abdulahi
Full Text Available Rangeland degradation remains a serious impediment to improve pastoral livelihoods in the lowlands of Ethiopia. This review paper presents an overview of the extent of rangeland degradation, explores its drivers, discusses the potential impacts of rangeland degradation and also suggests alternative rangeland restoration techniques. It is intended to serve as an exploratory tool for ensuing more detailed quantitative analyses to support policy and investment programs to address rangeland degradation in Ethiopia. The extent of rangeland degradation increases with time, and the productivity of rangelands are losing if not given due attention. The major drivers leading to rangeland degradation includes climate change, overgrazing, bush encroachment, population pressure, drought, and government policy, encroachment of rain fed agriculture and decline of traditional resource management institution. Degradation of rangeland has resulted in substantial declines in rangeland condition, water potential, soil status, and animal performance, livestock holding at the household level and community become destitute. Another consequence of rangeland degradation is linked to food insecurity, poverty to the extent of food aid, expansion of aridity and the need for alternative livelihood and income diversification. Moreover, it has increasingly become a threat to the pastoral production systems, and has contributed towards increases in poverty and tribal conflicts over grazing land and water resources. In spite of these impacts, the adoption of alternative restoration techniques in the country is highly insufficient. To address rangeland degradation problems, there is a strong need to substantially increase the investments and strengthen the policy support for sustainable land management.
Aralova, Dildora; Toderich, Kristina; Jarihani, Ben; Gafurov, Dilshod; Gismatulina, Liliya; Osunmadewa, Babatunde A.; Rahamtallah Abualgasim, Majdaldin
The Central Asian (CA) rangelands is a part of the arid and semi-arid ecological zones and spatial extent of drylands in CA (Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan) is vast. Projections averaged across a suite of climate models, as measured between 1950-2012 by Standardised Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) estimated a progressively increasing drought risks across rangelands (Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) especially during late summer and autumn periods, another index: Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) indicated drought anomalies for Turkmenistan and partly in Uzbekistan (between 1950-2000). On this study, we have combined a several datasets of drought indices ( SPIE, PET, temperature_T°C and precipitation_P) for better estimation of resilience/non-resilience of the ecosystems after warming the temperature in the following five countries, meanwhile, warming of climate causing of increasing rating of degradations and extension of desertification in the lowland and foothill zones of the landscape and consequently surrounding experienced of a raising balance of evapotranspiration (ET0). The study concluded, increasing drought anomalies which is closely related with raising (ET0) in the lowland and foothill zones of CA indicated on decreasing of NDVI indices with occurred sandy and loamy soils it will resulting a loss of vegetation diversity (endangered species) and raising of wind speeds in lowlands of CA, but on regional level especially towards agricultural intensification (without rotation) it indicated no changes of greenness index. It was investigated to better interpret how vegetation feedback modifies the sensitivity of drought indices associated with raising tendency of air temperature and changes of cold and hot year seasons length in the territory of CA.
Full Text Available Rangeland condition assessment plays an important role in determining range health and applying appropriate management programs. This study aimed to evaluate the structure and function of a semi-steppe rangeland using Landscape Function Analysis technique (LFA in different land conditions in western Isfahan province, Iran. For this purpose, 4, 3 and 7 sites in different rangeland condition classes including very poor, poor, and moderate were selected respectively. In each site, a 30-meter transect was established and all kinds of patches and inter patches were identified and their lengths and widths were recorded. Also, in each ecological patch, 11 indicators of soil surface characteristics with three replications were measured, and their status was scored according to LFA method. The functionality indices of all the sites including soil stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling were measured. According to the statistical analysis results, most of the structural characteristics (number of patches, patch length, patch area index, landscape organization index and functional indices (infiltration, stability and nutrient cycling status varied significantly (α= 5% between rangeland sites with moderate and very poor condition. The changes of these structural and functional characteristics were not significant between range sites with moderate and poor, and also poor and very poor range conditions. According to the findings of this study, patch types' functionalities did not vary significantly in both rangeland sites with moderate and very poor conditions. The nutrient cycling index in patches formed by ‘forb, shrub and grass’ with poor range condition was significantly more than ‘forb’ and ‘grass’ patches. The study of range site functionality can assist managers in identifying possible ecological thresholds and prioritizing the sub-catchments and vegetation types for implementing range improvement practices.
Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Hart, Noelle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Twidwell, Dirac
Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that uses structured learning to reduce uncertainties for the improvement of management over time. The origins of adaptive management are linked to ideas of resilience theory and complex systems. Rangeland management is particularly well suited for the application of adaptive management, having sufficient controllability and reducible uncertainties. Adaptive management applies the tools of structured decision making and requires monitoring, evaluation, and adjustment of management. Adaptive governance, involving sharing of power and knowledge among relevant stakeholders, is often required to address conflict situations. Natural resource laws and regulations can present a barrier to adaptive management when requirements for legal certainty are met with environmental uncertainty. However, adaptive management is possible, as illustrated by two cases presented in this chapter. Despite challenges and limitations, when applied appropriately adaptive management leads to improved management through structured learning, and rangeland management is an area in which adaptive management shows promise and should be further explored.
Tagestad, Jerry D.; Downs, Janelle L.
In 2006, the BLM tasked PNNL to collaborate in research being conducted under the Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project to assess rangeland condition. The objective of this effort was to provide Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project with a sophisticated suite of data and tools to assist in evaluating the health and condition of the Owyhee Uplands study area. We focused on three technical areas. The first involved enhancing existing algorithms to estimate shrub canopy cover in the Lower Reynolds Creek Watershed. The second task involved developing and applying a strategy to assess and compare three vegetation map products for the Idaho portion of the Owyhee study area. The third task developed techniques and data that can be used to identify areas exhibiting anomalous rangeland conditions (for example exotic plants or excessive bare soil exposure). This report documents the methods used, results obtained, and conclusions drawn.
Full Text Available for the methodology is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1: Conceptual framework for the development of grass nutrient estimation models, using remote sensing at various scales Earth Observation for Rangeland Monitoring DR A RAMOELO, DR M CHO AND DR R MATHIEU CSIR... and canopy N conforms to the underlying geology (Figure 2). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology which contributed financially to this work through the grant ?Earth Observation Application Development...
Hernandez, Mariano; Nearing, Mark A.; Al-Hamdan, Osama Z.; Pierson, Frederick B.; Armendariz, Gerardo; Weltz, Mark A.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Williams, C. Jason; Nouwakpo, Sayjro K.; Goodrich, David C.; Unkrich, Carl L.; Nichols, Mary H.; Holifield Collins, Chandra D.
In this study, we present the improved Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM V2.3), a process-based erosion prediction tool specific for rangeland application. The article provides the mathematical formulation of the model and parameter estimation equations. Model performance is assessed against data collected from 23 runoff and sediment events in a shrub-dominated semiarid watershed in Arizona, USA. To evaluate the model, two sets of primary model parameters were determined using the RHEM V2.3 and RHEM V1.0 parameter estimation equations. Testing of the parameters indicated that RHEM V2.3 parameter estimation equations provided a 76% improvement over RHEM V1.0 parameter estimation equations. Second, the RHEM V2.3 model was calibrated to measurements from the watershed. The parameters estimated by the new equations were within the lowest and highest values of the calibrated parameter set. These results suggest that the new parameter estimation equations can be applied for this environment to predict sediment yield at the hillslope scale. Furthermore, we also applied the RHEM V2.3 to demonstrate the response of the model as a function of foliar cover and ground cover for 124 data points across Arizona and New Mexico. The dependence of average sediment yield on surface ground cover was moderately stronger than that on foliar cover. These results demonstrate that RHEM V2.3 predicts runoff volume, peak runoff, and sediment yield with sufficient accuracy for broad application to assess and manage rangeland systems.
Allred, B. W.; Naugle, D.; Donnelly, P.; Tack, J.; Jones, M. O.
In 2010, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) launched the Sage Grouse Initiative (SGI) to voluntarily reduce threats facing sage-grouse and rangelands on private lands. Over the past five years, SGI has matured into a primary catalyst for rangeland and wildlife conservation across the North American west, focusing on the shared vision of wildlife conservation through sustainable working landscapes and providing win-win solutions for producers, sage grouse, and 350 other sagebrush obligate species. SGI and its partners have invested a total of $750 million into rangeland and wildlife conservation. Moving forward, SGI continues to focus on rangeland conservation. Partnering with Google Earth Engine, SGI has developed outcome monitoring and conservation planning tools at continental scales. The SGI science team is currently developing assessment and monitoring algorithms of key conservation indicators. The SGI web application utilizes Google Earth Engine for user defined analysis and planning, putting the appropriate information directly into the hands of managers and conservationists.
Remote sensing techniques hold considerable promise for the inventory and monitoring of natural resources on rangelands. A significant lack of information concerning basic spectral characteristics of range vegetation and soils has resulted in a lack of rangeland applications. The parameters of interest for range condition ...
Data on livestock inventory, rangelands resources, and status of land degradation were integrated to produce a computerised resource information system for Swaziland, which will assist in decision making for monitoring and management of rangelands resources; its application is demonstrated. The resource information ...
Harold F. Heady
This manuscript discusses the initiation, execution, and outcome of an 11-year (1962-1972) rangeland rehabilitation program in southeastern Oregon. Res. Bull. PNW-RB-070 (1977) is updated with 1986 measurements and evaluations of vegetational conditions, wildlife, recreational use, livestock grazing, and management of public rangelands. The mix of multiple uses has...
Rangelands are natural areas with certain characteristics that make them unsuitable for agriculture. They include several types of vegetation such as deserts, grasslands, shrubs, forests, and riparian areas. Cattle ranching, along with the products and services it engenders, is a prime activity that rangelands have traditionally supported.
Facilitator training for communal rangeland management should include social skills, the social context of communal rangelands and novice facilitators should be supported by mentors. There is a need for greater financial support and law enforcement from the state in the area of communal grazing management. Keywords: ...
Richard B. Standiford; Richard E. Howitt
Low profitability of hardwood rangeland management, and oak tree harvesting for firewood markets and forage enhancement has led to concern about the long-term sustainability of the oak resource on rangelands. New markets for recreational hunting may give value to oaks for the habitat they provide for game species, and broaden the economic base for managers. A ranch...
Livestock production is one of many demands placed on today’s arid rangelands. Therefore, understanding plant and animal biology and their effects on biotic and abiotic landscape components is fundamental if rangelands are to remain ecologically sustainable. One limiting factor to accomplishing posi...
Michael G. (Sherm) Karl; Paul T. Tueller; Gerald E. Schuman; Mark R. Vinson; James L. Fogg; Ronald W. Shafer; David A. Pyke; D. Terrance Booth; Steven J. Borchard; William G. Ypsilantis; Richard H. Barrett
The Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) has explicitly included conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources as a criterion of rangeland sustainability. Within the soil/water criterion, 10 indicators Â five soil-based and five water-based - were developed through the expert opinions of rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel, non-...
Science-based grassland management requires an understanding of the current status of the land relative to its potential. Rangeland health assessments help increase the cost-effectiveness of management by identifying where a change in management may be required, and the types of ecological processes...
Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed
Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of
Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed
Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of
Adequate assessments of vast expanses of rangeland—a primary prerequisite to effective conservation planning—requires landscape-scale evaluations that accurately represent the resources (e.g., soil, vegetation, wildlife, water ), the structure and function of the resource-providing systems, and the ...
Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Hansen, Helle Ploug
Health systems are placing more and more emphasis on designing and delivering services that are focused on the patient, and there is a growing interest in patient aspects of health policy research and health technology assessment (HTA). Only a few HTA agencies use and invest in scientific methods...
The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has had astronomical effects to Great Basin rangelands. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent seed banks that take advantage of condi...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset describes rangeland monitoring results from the Hanksville, UT (USA) area. Monitoring results consist of canopy cover of plant species and functional...
The goal of this presentation is to explore how HIA can help inform hazardous waste permitting regulations and incorporate community vulnerability and cumulative impacts to their potential health risks into permitting decision making by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Presented the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) at the State of California Cumulative Impacts and Community Vulnerability Symposium on July 27 in Diamond Bar, CA.
Mäkelä, Marjukka; Roine, Risto P
Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency,...... findings. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program links the hospital districts to agree on introduction of technologies. The Ohtanen database provides Finnish-language summaries of major assessments made in other countries.......Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency......, with special responsibility in providing assessments to underpin national policies in screening. External evaluations enhanced the rapid growth. In the Finnish environment, decision making on health technologies is extremely decentralized, so Finohta has developed some practical tools for implementing HTA...
Rangelands are the most dominant land cover type in the United States (770 million acres) with approximately 53% of the nation’s rangelands owned and managed by the private sector, while approximately 43% are managed by the federal government. Information on the type, extent, and spatial location of...
Rangelands of the western Great Plains of North America are complex social-ecological systems where management objectives for livestock production, grassland bird conservation and vegetation structure and composition converge. The Collaborative Adaptive Rangeland Management (CARM) experiment is a 10...
Nathan F. Sayre
Full Text Available Defining rangelands as anthromes enabled Ellis and Ramankutty (2008 to conclude that more than three-quarters of Earth’s land is anthropogenic; without rangelands, this figure would have been less than half. They classified all lands grazed by domestic livestock as rangelands, provided that human population densities were low; similar areas without livestock were excluded and classified instead as ‘wildlands’. This paper examines the empirical basis and conceptual assumptions of defining and categorizing rangelands in this fashion. Empirically, we conclude that a large proportion of rangelands, although used to varying degrees by domesticated livestock, are not altered significantly by this use, especially in arid, highly variable environments and in settings with long evolutionary histories of herbivory by wild animals. Even where changes have occurred, the dynamics and components of many rangelands remain structurally and functionally equivalent to those that preceded domestic livestock grazing or would be found in its absence. In much of Africa and Asia, grazing is so longstanding as to be inextricable from ‘natural’ or reference conditions for those sites. Thus, the extent of anthropogenic biomes is significantly overstated. Conceptually, rangelands reveal the dependence of the anthromes thesis on outdated assumptions of ecological climax and equilibrium. Coming to terms with rangelands—how they can be classified, understood, and managed sustainably—thus offers important lessons for understanding anthromes and the Anthropocene as a whole. At the root of these lessons, we argue, is not the question of human impacts on ecosystems but property relations among humans.
John E. Mitchell; Daniel W. McCallum; Lewis E. Swanson; John Tanaka; Mark Brunson; Aaron Harp; L. Allen Torell; H. Theodore Heintz
Social and economic systems provide a context and rationale for rangeland management. Sustaining rangeland ecosystems requires attention to the social and economic conditions that accompany the functioning of those systems. We present and discuss economic and social indicators for rangeland sustainability that have possible relevance in the United States. A brief...
Accatino, F; Ward, D; Wiegand, K; De Michele, C
Assessing the carrying capacity is of primary importance in arid rangelands. This becomes even more important during droughts, when rangelands exhibit non-equilibrium dynamics, and the dynamics of livestock conditions and forage resource are decoupled. Carrying capacity is usually conceived as an equilibrium concept, that is, the consumer density that can co-exist in long-term equilibrium with the resource. As one of the first, here we address the concept of carrying capacity in systems, where there is no feedback between consumer and resource in a limited period of time. To this end, we developed an individual-based model describing the basic characteristics of a rangeland during a drought. The model represents a rangeland composed by a single water point and forage distributed all around, with livestock units moving from water to forage and vice versa, for eating and drinking. For each livestock unit we implemented an energy balance and we accounted for the gut-filling effect (i.e. only a limited amount of forage can be ingested per unit time). Our results showed that there is a temporal threshold above which livestock begin to experience energy deficit and burn fat reserves. We demonstrated that such a temporal threshold increases with the number of animals and decreases with the rangeland conditions (amount of forage). The temporal threshold corresponded to the time livestock take to consume all the forage within a certain distance from water, so that the livestock can return to water for drinking without spending more energy than they gain within a day. In this study, we highlight the importance of a time threshold in the assessment of carrying capacity in non-equilibrium conditions. Considering this time threshold could explain contrasting observations about the influence of livestock number on livestock conditions. In case of private rangelands, the herd size should be chosen so that the spatial threshold equals (or exceeds) the length of the drought.
Under adaptive management, goals and decisions for managing rangeland resources are shaped by requirements like the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Land Health Standards, which specify desired conditions. Without formalized, quantitative benchmarks for triggering management actions, adaptive man...
Quantification and assessment of soil health involves determining how well a soil is performing its biological, chemical, and physical functions relative to its inherent potential. Due to high cost, labor requirements, and soil disturbance, traditional laboratory analyses cannot provide high resolut...
Cuff, Patricia A
"Assessing health professional education is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine's Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore assessment of health...
New remote sensing methods to quantify terrestrial ecosystems have developed rapidly over the past 10 years. New platforms with improved aeronautical capabilities have become known as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). In addition to the new aircraft, sensors are becoming smaller and some can fit into limited payload bays. The miniaturization process is well underway, but much remains to be done. Rather than using a wide variety of sensors, a limited number of instruments is recommended. At the moment we fly 2-3 instruments (digital SLR camera, 6-band multispectral camera, and single video camera). Our flights are primarily over low population density western U.S. rangeland with objectives to assess rangeland health, active erosion, vegetation change, phenology, livestock movement, and vegetation type consumed by grazing animals. All of our UAS flights are made using a serpentine flight path with overlapping images at an altitude of 700 ft (215 m). This altitude allows hyperspatial imagery with a resolution of 5-15 cm depending upon the sensor being used, and it allows determination of vegetation type based on the plant structure and vegetation geometries, or by multispectral analysis. In addition to advances in aircraft and sensor technology, image processing software has become more sophisticated. Future development is necessary, and we can expect improvement in sensors, aircraft, data collection, and application to terrestrial ecosystems. Of 17 ARS research laboratories across the country four laboratories are interested in future UAS applications and another 13 already have at least one UAS. In 2015 the Federal Aviation Administration proposed a framework of recommendations that would allow routine use of certain small UAS (those weighing less than 55 lb (25 kg)). Although these new regulations will provide increased flexibility in how flights are made, other operations will still require the use of a Certificate of Authorization.
This is the final part of a three part series specifically addressing lessons learned concerning the management of rehabilitated cheatgrass-infested rangelands. Steve Novak and Richard Mack reported in 2003 that they found no evidence of outcrossing in 2,000 cheatgrass seedlings from 60 North Americ...
The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) onto millions of acres of Intermountain West rangelands has caused astronomical changes to numerous ecosystems and the multiple uses that depend on healthy and functional ecosystems. This is the first part, of a 3-part series ...
du Toit, Johan T.; Cross, Paul C.; Valeix, Marion
On rangelands the livestock–wildlife interface is mostly characterized by management actions aimed at controlling problems associated with competition, disease, and depredation. Wildlife communities (especially the large vertebrate species) are typically incompatible with agricultural development because the opportunity costs of wildlife conservation are unaffordable except in arid and semi-arid regions. Ecological factors including the provision of supplementary food and water for livestock, together with the persecution of large predators, result in livestock replacing wildlife at biomass densities far exceeding those of indigenous ungulates. Diseases are difficult to eradicate from free-ranging wildlife populations and so veterinary controls usually focus on separating commercial livestock herds from wildlife. Persecution of large carnivores due to their depredation of livestock has caused the virtual eradication of apex predators from most rangelands. However, recent research points to a broad range of solutions to reduce conflict at the livestock–wildlife interface. Conserving wildlife bolsters the adaptive capacity of a rangeland by providing stakeholders with options for dealing with environmental change. This is contingent upon local communities being empowered to benefit directly from their wildlife resources within a management framework that integrates land-use sectors at the landscape scale. As rangelands undergo irreversible changes caused by species invasions and climate forcings, the future perspective favors a proactive shift in attitude towards the livestock–wildlife interface, from problem control to asset management.
Rangelands are severely degraded in Morocco. This has stimulated public interventions to reduce the pressure on natural resources and promote sustainable management. In Rhamna, a region traditionally used for transhumance, such efforts have met with limited success because they have not taken into consideration ...
Hardegree, Stuart P.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Brunson, Mark W.; Germino, Matthew; Hegewisch, Katherine C.; Moffet, Corey A.; Pilliod, David S.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Boehm, Alex R.; Meredith, Gwendwr R.
Invasive annual weeds negatively impact ecosystem services and pose a major conservation threat on semiarid rangelands throughout the western United States. Rehabilitation of these rangelands is challenging due to interannual climate and subseasonal weather variability that impacts seed germination, seedling survival and establishment, annual weed dynamics, wildfire frequency, and soil stability. Rehabilitation and restoration outcomes could be improved by adopting a weather-centric approach that uses the full spectrum of available site-specific weather information from historical observations, seasonal climate forecasts, and climate-change projections. Climate data can be used retrospectively to interpret success or failure of past seedings by describing seasonal and longer-term patterns of environmental variability subsequent to planting. A more detailed evaluation of weather impacts on site conditions may yield more flexible adaptive-management strategies for rangeland restoration and rehabilitation, as well as provide estimates of transition probabilities between desirable and undesirable vegetation states. Skillful seasonal climate forecasts could greatly improve the cost efficiency of management treatments by limiting revegetation activities to time periods where forecasts suggest higher probabilities of successful seedling establishment. Climate-change projections are key to the application of current environmental models for development of mitigation and adaptation strategies and for management practices that require a multidecadal planning horizon. Adoption of new weather technology will require collaboration between land managers and revegetation specialists and modifications to the way we currently plan and conduct rangeland rehabilitation and restoration in the Intermountain West.
The extreme drought that began in 2011 and persists throughout the central and western US presents a challenge to sustainable rangeland management. Wyoming ranchers manage half of this drought-prone state and are at the forefront of this challenge. We examined Wyoming ranchers’ drought management st...
Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Krenz, Juliane
The occurrence of severe erosion features in rangelands is often seen as a sign of high sediment delivery from those areas into nearby waterbodies. However, runoff, erosion and sediment transport are often patchy and discontinuous and thus assuming a direct link between erosion features and sediment delivery can lead to serious over predictions. So far, available data on the size of erosion features and the movement of sediment was limited by the resolution of Digital Elevation Models, soil and vegetation maps. Small UAVs offer the opportunity to quantify both the loss of surface material associated with erosion features, such as rills, gullies and badlands, as well as an estimate of the volume of depositional features between the site of erosion and nearby waterbodies. This study presents the acquisition and use of UAV-derived topographic information aimed at assessing the relevance of badland-type features in rangeland catchments of the Great Karoo region in South Africa. In particular, the feasility to assess volumes of erosion and sediment deposits, as well as the potential pathways from source to sink area, and the change of connectivity over time, are discussed.
Cleemput, I; Kesteloot, K
The Belgian healthcare system has a Bismarck-type compulsory health insurance, covering almost the entire population, combined with private provision of care. Providers are public health services, independent pharmacists, independent ambulatory care professionals, and hospitals and geriatric care facilities. Healthcare responsibilities are shared between the national Ministries of Public Health and Social Affairs, and the Dutch-, French-, and German-speaking Community Ministries of Health. The national ministries are responsible for sickness and disability insurance, financing, determination of accreditation criteria for hospitals and heavy medical care units, and construction of new hospitals. The six sickness and disability insurance funds are responsible for reimbursing health service benefits and paying disability benefits. The system's strength is that care is highly accessible and responsive to patients. However, the healthcare system's size remained relatively uncontrolled until recently, there is an excess supply of certain types of care, and there is a large number of small hospitals. The national government created a legal framework to modernize the insurance system to control budgetary deficits. Measures for reducing healthcare expenditures include regulating healthcare supply, healthcare evaluation, medical practice organization, and hospital budgets. The need to control healthcare facilities and quality of care in hospitals led to formal procedures for opening hospitals, acquiring expensive medical equipment, and developing highly specialized services. Reforms in payment and regulation are being considered. Health technology assessment (HTA) has played little part in the reforms so far. Belgium has no formal national program for HTA. The future of HTA in Belgium depends on a changing perception by providers and policy makers that health care needs a stronger scientific base.
Fehr, Rainer; Alexanderson, Kristina; Favaretti, Carlo; de Jong, Judith; La Torre, Giuseppe; Lim, Tek-Ang; Martin-Olmedo, Piedad; Mekel, Odile C L; Michelsen, Kai; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Verschuuren, Marieke; de Waure, Chiara; Zeegers Paget, Dineke
For better supporting the science-governance interface, the potential of health assessments appears underrated. To identify what various types of health assessment have in common; how they differ; which assessment(s) to apply for which purpose; and what needs and options there are for future joint development. This review is based on five types of health assessment: monitoring/surveillance/reporting, assessment of health impact, of health technology, of health systems performance, health-related economic assessment. The approach is exploratory and includes: applying an agreed set of comparative criteria; circulating and supplementing synoptic tables; and interpreting the results. Two of the assessments deal with the question 'Where do we stand?', two others with variants of 'What if' questions. Economic Assessment can take place in combination with any of the others. The assessments involve both overall 'procedures' and a variety of 'methods' which inescapably reflect some subjective assumptions and decisions, e.g. on issue framing. Resources and assistance exist for all these assessments. The paper indicates which type of assessment is appropriate for what purpose. Although scientific soundness of health assessments is not trivial to secure, existing types of health assessment can be interpreted as a useful 'toolkit' for supporting governance. If current traces of 'silo' thinking can be overcome, the attainability of a more unified culture of health assessments increases and such assessments might more widely be recognized as a prime, 'tried and tested' way to voice Public Health knowledge and to support rational governance and policy-making.
Farrié, B; Jouven, M; Launay, F; Moreau, J-C; Moulin, C-H; Piquet, M; Taverne, M; Tchakérian, E; Thénard, V; Martin, G
Rangeland-based livestock systems have to deal with the significant instability and uncertainty of the agricultural context (policy changes, volatility of input prices, etc.), and especially of the climatic context. Thus, they are particularly concerned by adaptive management strategies. To support the development of such strategies, we developed a board game including a computer model called "Rangeland Rummy". It is to be used by groups of farmers and agricultural consultants in the context of short workshops (about 3 h). Rangeland Rummy builds upon five types of material object: (i) a game board; (ii) a calendar stick indicating the starting date of the game board; (iii) sticks marked with the feed resources available for combinations of vegetation types and their management practices; (iv) cards to define animal groups and their feeding requirements throughout the year; (v) cards related to types of feed that can be attributed to animal groups throughout the year. Using these material objects, farmers collectively design a rangeland-based livestock system. This system is immediately evaluated using a computer model, i.e. a spreadsheet providing graphs and indicators providing information on, among other things, the extent to which quantitative and qualitative animal feeding requirements are covered across the year. Playing the game thus consists in collectively and iteratively designing and evaluating rangeland-based livestock systems, while confronting the players with new contextual challenges (e.g. interannual variability of weather, volatility of input prices) or new farmers' objectives (e.g. being self-sufficient for animal feeding). An example of application of Rangeland Rummy with 3 farmers in southern France is reported. Applications show that it tends to develop farmers' adaptive capacity by stimulating their discussions and the exchange of locally-relevant knowledge on management strategies and practices in rangeland-based livestock systems. Copyright
Zhengchao, Ren; Huazhong, Zhu; Shi, Hua; Xiaoni, Liu
Rangeland systems play an important role in ecological stabilization and the terrestrial carbon cycle in arid and semiarid regions. However, little is known about the vegetative carbon dynamics and climatic and topographical factors that affect vegetative carbon stock in these rangelands. Our goal was to assess vegetative carbon stock by examining meteorological data in conjunction with NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series datasets from 2001–2012. An improved CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model was then applied to simulate the spatiotemporal dynamic variation of vegetative carbon stock, and analyze its response to climatic and topographical factors. We estimated the vegetative carbon stock of rangeland in Gansu province, China to be 4.4× 1014 gC, increasing linearly at an annual rate of 9.8×1011 gC. The mean vegetative carbon density of the whole rangeland was 136.5 gC m-2. Vegetative carbon density and total carbon varied temporally and spatially and were highly associated with temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. Vegetative carbon density reached the maximal value on elevation at 2500–3500 m, a slope of >30°and easterly aspect. The effect of precipitation, temperature and solar radiation on the vegetative carbon density of five rangeland types (desert and salinized meadow, steppe, alpine meadow, shrub and tussock, and marginal grassland in the forest) depends on the acquired quantity of water and heat for rangeland plants at all spatial scales. The results of this study provide new evidence for explaining spatiotemporal heterogeneity in vegetative carbon dynamics and responses to global change for rangeland vegetative carbon stock, and offer a theoretical and practical basis for grassland agriculture management in arid and semiarid regions.
Ngugi, Keziah; Ertsen, Maurits
Lack of water over expansive regions in Greater Horn of Africa created the rangelands and rangelands created pastoralism. Pastoralism involve keeping of large livestock herds and movement in search of resources, mainly water, pasture, medicine and wild foods. Several studies have been done in the last century and findings pointed at pastoralism being primitive and unsustainable. It has been predicted it would die in the last century but in the rangelands, pastoralism lives on and it is resilient. This study is based in Mandera, a pastoralism county in Kenya that neighbors Ethiopia to the North and Somalia to the East. The study sought to investigate contribution of milk to pastoralism resilience. Interviews were conducted in the field among the pastoralists, women groups, transporters, traders, government officials and consumers of milk. These information was corroborated with actual field investigations in the expansive rangelands of Mandera County. Pastoralists rarely slaughter or sell their livestock even when the animals waste away during droughts. This is because they have been through such cycles before and observed livestock make tremendous recovery when the right conditions were restored. Rangelands lack infrastructure, there are no roads, schools, telephone or hospitals. Pastoralists diet is comprised of rice, wheat and milk. It was established milk was the main source of income among pastoralists in Mandera County. From milk, the pastoralists make income that is used to purchase the other foodstuffs. Milk is available on daily basis in large quantities owing to the large number of livestock. Unfortunately, every pastoralist household produce copious amounts of milk, thus no local demand and transport infrastructure is nonexistent, making sale of milk a near impossible task. The findings showed the pastoralists have established unique routes through which milk reach the markets in urban centers where demand is high. Urbanization sustain pastoralism. These
Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Hazbavi, Zeinab; Cerdà, Artemi
Land degradation is a worldwide issue that affects the Planet and the fate of the humankind (Cerdà et al., 2009; Choudhury et al., 2016; Fernández et al., 2016; Ferreira et al., 2016). Several processes affect the sustainability of the ecosystems, from soil erosion to soil compation, deforestation, Climate Change or water, soil and air pollution (Sadeghi et al., 2015a; 2015b; Gómez-Acanta et al., 2016; Mengistu et al., 2016; Mukai, 2016). Several ecosystem theories have been presented in the scientific literatures to monitor land degradation (Cerdà et al., 2016; Davudirad et al., 2016; Fava et al., 2016; Mahyou et al., 2016; Soulard et al., 2016). Besides the scientific tasks of improving the indication, the conviction of the potential users to change their concepts toward a higher consideration of ecosystem attributes, and toward a fruitful application of the health or integrity concepts, will be a main task of future activities. Reliability, resilience and vulnerability (R-R-V) indicators are often used in combination for quantifying risk and decision making in many systems. However, the use of hydrological series data for R-R-V computations has been rather limited. Toward this, the overall objective of this paper is to conduct a risk assessment analysis on stream flow discharge from Shazand Watershed located in the south western of Markazi Province in Iran for the period of 1972-2014 using R-R-V indicators. Based on the R-R-V analysis conducted in this study, the stream flow discharge of the study region followed a cyclic pattern with a decreasing trend. The results further showed a decreasing trend in reliability and resilience and an increasing trend in vulnerability in the Shazand Watershed. It may be concluded that the Shazand Watershed was in overall in unhealthy condition from view of stream flow discharge. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant no. 603498 (RECARE Project
Rosenkotter, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.
The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights...... into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [ health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could...... contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic...
William J. Elliot; Peter R. Robichaud; I. Sue Miller
In both forest and rangelands, fuel reduction operations are now common practices. Mechanical thinning followed by prescribed fire is common in forests, while fire is frequently applied to rangelands. Studies at different scales (50 sq m to 389 ha) measure the erosion from fuel management. This presentation compares runoff and erosion from these studies. Plot size has...
Many rangelands exist as dynamic systems where structural and functional diversity of the community is a function of several interacting factors. Understanding the effects of these factors in rangelands requires an understanding of component functioning at different scales. Integrating the range of levels from ecophysiology ...
The challenges that land owners and resource managers face when trying to attempt applications and practices when attempting to rehabilitate rangelands infested with cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) are over-whelming. Simply purchasing seed and spreading it throughout the rangelands is doomed for failu...
Management of rangelands for animal products can reduce, maintain or even increase biodiversity. Loss of biodiversity of plants and animals can lead to decreased productivity and income generation from rangelands or can exacerbate the effects of climatic variability and concomitant increased risks for subsistence and ...
Linda A. Joyce; Nadine A. Marshall
The management of rangelands has long involved adapting to climate variability to ensure that economic enterprises remain viable and ecosystems sustainable; climate change brings the potential for change that surpasses the experience of humans within rangeland systems. Adaptation will require an intentionality to address the effects of climate change. Knowledge of...
Deborah M. Finch; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Matt C. Reeves; Jeffrey E. Ott; Francis F. Kilkenny; Jack L. Butler; Jacqueline P. Ott; Jeremy R. Pinto; Paulette L. Ford; Justin B. Runyon; Mark A. Rumble; Stanley G. Kitchen
Drought can have severe impacts on rangeland ecosystems in North America. For the purposes of this chapter, rangelands include natural grasslands, savannas, shrublands, many deserts, tundras, alpine communities, marshes, meadows, and woodlands. Drought impacts vary depending on the severity, frequency, duration, and aerial extent of the drought(s); how the land is...
Productivity of rangelands in Kenya is affected by increasing crop farming especially in more fertile range areas. Among the key factors driving the encroachment of crops on rangelands are the changing opportunities brought about by markets. We hypothesize that the existing market inefficiencies characterizing livestock ...
Cuff, Patricia A.
"Assessing Health Professional Education" is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine's Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore assessment of health professional education. At the event, Forum members shared personal experiences and learned from patients, students, educators, and…
Terry, Nicolas P
Mobile health (mHealth) combines the decentralization of health care with patient centeredness. Mature mHealth applications (apps) and services could provide actionable information, coaching, or alerts at a fraction of the cost of conventional health care. Different categories of apps attract diverse safety and privacy regulation. It is too early to tell whether these apps can overcome questions about their use cases, business models, and regulation.
Interest in the art and science of rangeland management increased dramatically during the 20th century and it was out of this interest that the profession of rangeland management was born. As public interest in rangeland management grew, so did the number, breadth, and depth of rangeland management ...
Rangelands are the largest land cover type in the world. Degradation from mismanagement, desertification, and drought impact more than 50% of rangelands across the globe. The USDA Agricultural Research Service has been evaluating sustainability of rangeland for over 40-years by conducted rangeland r...
Daniel W. Mccollum; John A. Tanaka; Jack A. Morgan; John E. Mitchell; William E. Fox; Kristie A. Maczko; Lori Hidinger; Clifford S. Duke; Urs P. Kreuter
Uncertainty as to the extent and magnitude of changes in conditions that might occur due to climate change poses a problem for land and resource managers as they seek to adapt to changes and mitigate effects of climate variability. We illustrate using scenarios of projected future conditions on rangelands in the Northern Great Plains and Desert Southwest of the United...
Donoghue, A Michael; Coffey, Patrick S.
Objective: To describe contemporary air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment methodologies applied to alumina refineries and to summarize recent results. Methods: Air dispersion models using emission source and meteorological data have been used to assess ground-level concentrations (GLCs) of refinery emissions. Short-term (1-hour and 24-hour average) GLCs and annual average GLCs have been used to assess acute health, chronic health, and incremental carcinogenic risks. Results: The ...
Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.
Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.
Full Text Available Objective: Health Technology Assessment (HTA aims at informing healthcare policymakers, managers and practitioners of the "clinical consequences, but also the economic, ethical, and other social implications of the diffusion and use of a specific procedure or technique on medical practice". So considering the policy-oriented nature of HTA that calls for a close integration into the functioning and governance of health systems the present study focuses on executive processes and function of the HTA office of Iran.Materials and methods: Data of this review study were collected through documented sources and observations from 2007 to 2010.Results: Health Technology Assessment began its activities as a secretariat in the Deputy of Health in 2007 and it continues as a Health Technology Assessment Office at the Management of Health Technology Assessment, Standardization, and Tariff at the Deputy of curative affairs of MOHME in the beginning of 2010.14 Technology of modern medical equipment and 8 pharmaceutical medicine are assessed, Now many of measures for HTA establishment such as cooperation National Institute of Health Research (NIHR, Holding scientific committee meetings, Establishing the Master's degree of health technology assessment ,Building capacities for health technology assessment through education in major universities of the country.Conclusion: pay attention to health technology assessment, selection and application of proper technologies in the frameworks of policy-making and managerial strategies and make efforts to develop it with the support of the governmental in Iran is necessary.
We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.
Brit S. Schneider
Full Text Available The importance of the individual’s health behaviour for the health production process is beyond controversy. Health relevant behaviour can be viewed as a key variable in the health production process. Changes in the behaviour may influence individual’s assessment of health. Following this idea, we use German microdata to identify determinants of smoking, drinking, and obesity and their impact on health. Our empirical approach allows for the simultaneity of behaviours and self-reported health. In addition, we account for endogeneity of health behaviours and take aspects of reporting heterogeneity of self-reported health into account. We find that health behaviour is directly related to the socioeconomic status and observe gender-specific differences in the determinants of drinking, smoking, and heavy body weight in particular. The influence on health is also gender specific. While we do not find any impact of smoking, overweight is relevant only for males and no clear pattern for alcohol exists.
Assessment of health informatics competencies in undergraduate training of healthcare professionals in Rwanda. ... Furthermore, the establishment of continuous on-the-job training in health informatics for those who are already practicing is also essential. Keywords: Health informatics, competencies, undergraduate ...
Rosenkötter, N; Vondeling, H; Blancquaert, I; Mekel, O C L; Kristensen, F B; Brand, A
The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic medicine as an analytic framework. The selected assessment methodologies predominantly cover 2 to 4 phases within the T1-T4 system. HTA delivers the most complete set of methodologies when assessing health applications. HNA can be used to prioritize areas where genomic health applications are needed or to identify infrastructural needs. HIA delivers information on the impact of technologies in a wider scope and promotes informed decision making. HTA, HNA and HIA provide a partly overlapping and partly unique set of methodologies and infrastructure for the translation and assessment of genomic health applications. They are broad in scope and go beyond the continuum of T1-T4 translational research regarding policy translation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments
Full Text Available Communal area rangeland resource users are an important part of the rangeland ecosystem; rangeland management policies and practice should, therefore, accommodate their socio-cultural practices and knowledge. Indigenous knowledge (IK) is often...
Munson, Seth M.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johanson, Jamin K.
Managers of rangeland ecosystems require methods to track the condition of natural resources over large areas and long periods of time as they confront climate change and land use intensification. We demonstrate how rangeland monitoring results can be synthesized using ecological site concepts to understand how climate, site factors, and management actions affect long-term vegetation dynamics at the landscape-scale. Forty-six years of rangeland monitoring conducted by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on the Colorado Plateau reveals variable responses of plant species cover to cool-season precipitation, land type (ecological site groups), and grazing intensity. Dominant C3 perennial grasses (Achnatherum hymenoides, Hesperostipa comata), which are essential to support wildlife and livestock on the Colorado Plateau, had responses to cool-season precipitation that were at least twice as large as the dominant C4 perennial grass (Pleuraphis jamesii) and woody vegetation. However, these C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation were reduced by nearly one-third on grassland ecological sites with fine- rather than coarse-textured soils, and there were no detectable C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation on ecological sites dominated by a dense-growing shrub, Coleogyne ramosissima. Heavy grazing intensity further reduced the responses of C3 perennial grasses to cool-season precipitation on ecological sites with coarse-textured soils and surprisingly reduced the responses of shrubs as well. By using ecological site groups to assess rangeland condition, we were able to improve our understanding of the long-term relationships between vegetation change and climate, land use, and site characteristics, which has important implications for developing landscape-scale monitoring strategies.
Disturbed rangelands present significant challenges to resource managers and land owners. In the Great Basin, exotic annual grasses have truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native perennial species for limited moisture and nutrients. An integrated approach to successfully control such inv...
NASA frequently inspects launch vehicles, fuel tanks, and other components for structural damage. To perform quick evaluation and monitoring, the Agency pursues the development of structural health monitoring systems. In 2001, Acellent Technologies Inc., of Sunnyvale, California, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a hybrid Stanford Multi-Actuator Receiver Transduction (SMART) Layer for aerospace vehicles and structures. As a result, Acellent expanded the technology's capability and now sells it to aerospace and automotive companies; construction, energy, and utility companies; and the defense, space, transportation, and energy industries for structural condition monitoring, damage detection, crack growth monitoring, and other applications.
Donoghue, A Michael; Coffey, Patrick S
To describe contemporary air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment methodologies applied to alumina refineries and to summarize recent results. Air dispersion models using emission source and meteorological data have been used to assess ground-level concentrations (GLCs) of refinery emissions. Short-term (1-hour and 24-hour average) GLCs and annual average GLCs have been used to assess acute health, chronic health, and incremental carcinogenic risks. The acute hazard index can exceed 1 close to refineries, but it is typically less than 1 at neighboring residential locations. The chronic hazard index is typically substantially less than 1. The incremental carcinogenic risk is typically less than 10(-6). The risks of acute health effects are adequately controlled, and the risks of chronic health effects and incremental carcinogenic risks are negligible around referenced alumina refineries.
EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.
Seeley, M.R.; Tonner-Navarro, L.E.; Beck, B.D.; Deskin, R.; Feron, V.J.; Johanson, G.; Bolt, H.M.
This report compares cancer classification systems, health risk assessment approaches, and procedures used for establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs), in various European countries and scientific organizations. The objectives were to highlight and compare key aspects of these processes and
Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Ali, Seid Mohammed
Pastoralism is rarely viewed as a major future form of land use, because of well-documented cases of rangeland degradation, attributed to irrational overstocking, and the subsequent losses of ecosystem services. However, pastoralists were actually encouraged to settle and adopt such strategies, copied from rangelands with higher and more reliable rainfall. This curtailed mobility resulted in a shift from opportunistic and extensive land use to more intensive and settled forms of use, and promoted degradation of vegetation and soils and the ecosystem services they provided. However, pastoralists traditionally employed several techniques to manage rangeland resources. These practices, such as the use of seasonal grassland reserves and livestock mobility, influence vegetation composition, coverage and abundance in rangelands and preserved ecosystem services relevant for pastoralists. The traditional practices also offer tools for soil and vegetation protection and restoration, thereby contributing to the mitigation of climate change. However, various internal and external factors have curtailed traditional management practices and livestock mobility, breaking the co-evolved balance of vegetation, wildlife and land use, thus exposing rangeland to continued livestock pressure, which often leads to degradation. Rather than abandoning pastoralism as consequence of 20th century land degradation, the revitalisation of traditional practices and indigenous knowledge can be vital to secure sustainable livelihoods for millions of pastoralists and to maintain rangeland ecosystem services.
Continuous population growth, recent refugee movement and migration as well as boundary restrictions and their implications on the nomadic lifestyle are additive pressure on rangelands throughout the Middle East. In particular, overgrazing through increased livestock herds threatens the Jordanian ra...
Macatangay, Ariel V.
Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. In manned spacecraft, environmental health risks are mitigated by a multi-disciplinary effort, employing several measures including active and passive controls, by establishing environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits), and through environmental monitoring. Human Health and Performance (HHP) scientists and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. ECLS engineers use environmental monitoring data to monitor and confirm the health of ECLS systems, whereas HHP scientists use the data to manage the health of the human system. Because risks can vary between missions and change over time, environmental monitoring is critical. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in environmental health knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of the roadmap development and findings are presented in this paper.
Bosse, Jordon D; Nesteby, J Aleah; Randall, Carla E
The health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are traditionally overlooked by the health care community and are rendered invisible by most nursing school curricula. Initial contact with a nurse during a health history and assessment can have an impact on whether the person will feel comfortable disclosing his or her identity, returning for services, or following plans of care. Because the first interaction with a nurse can be critical, the health assessment course is an appropriate place in the curriculum to discuss the needs of the LGBT community. This article includes a discussion of unique health risks to the LGBT population, benefits, and challenges of incorporating these issues into the classroom and recommendations for including the care of this population into a health assessment nursing course. Specific communication techniques are provided that may be helpful during history taking and physical examination with a patient who is LGBT. Guidance regarding physical examination of the transgender patient is also included. These suggestions will be helpful to nurse faculty who teach health assessment, nursing students, educators who design and implement professional development and continuing education for established nurses, preceptors in the clinical setting, and any nurse who is unfamiliar with the needs and concerns specific to the LGBT population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Have, H.A.M.J. ten
This study analyses why ethical aspects play a minor role in health technology assessment (HTA) studies, even when comprehensive approaches of technology assessment are advocated. Technology is often regarded as a value-neutral tool. At the same time, bioethics is dominated by an engineering model.
Considerable evidence documents that certain changes in vegetation and soils result in irreversibly degraded rangeland ecosystems. We used Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)imagery to develop calibration patterns of change in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Ind...
Gomi, Sachiko; Starnino, Vincent R; Canda, Edward R
Mental health recovery-oriented and strengths model proponents recognize spirituality to be a key aspect of the recovery process. In order to incorporate spirituality in practice, practitioners need to know how to conduct spiritual assessment effectively. Although implicit and explicit spiritual assessment approaches have been identified as useful frameworks for conducting spiritual assessment, there is a gap in knowledge about what constitutes effective approaches and questions for addressing spirituality in the lives of people with psychiatric disabilities. To address this gap, focus group interviews were conducted with providers and consumers of mental health services in order to develop practical guidance for spiritual assessment. Focus group participants provided feedback about a list of sample spiritual assessment questions and then suggested principles and questions for practitioners to use. Collective insights from the focus groups formed the basis for recommendations for spiritual assessment.
Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel
standardised scientific methods to characterise the probability and magnitude of harm caused by a hazard, preferably in a quantitative manner. In turn, HIA is a process to assess future impacts of recent proposals and is dominated by qualitative evaluation. It makes a projection for a future scenario rather......The level and distribution of health risks in a society is substantially influenced by measures of various policies, programmes or projects. Risk assessment can evaluate the nature, likelihood and severity of an adverse effect. Health impact assessment (HIA) provides similar function when used...... their relationship. The experiences accumulated during the preparation of several case studies in a large scale international project (RAPID) are used for argumentation and formulation of recommendations on how risk assessment can be systematically integrated into the HIA process. Risk assessment uses well...
Full Text Available Vibration signals extracted from rotating parts of machinery carry a lot of useful information about the condition of operating machine. Due to the strong non-linear, complex and non-stationary characteristics of vibration signals from working bearings, an accurate and reliable health assessment method for bearing is necessary. This paper proposes to utilize the selected chaotic characteristics of vibration signal for health assessment of a bearing by using self-organizing map (SOM. Both Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm and Takens' theory are employed to calculate the characteristic vector which includes three chaotic characteristics, such as correlation dimension, largest Lyapunov exponent and Kolmogorov entropy. After that, SOM is used to map the three corresponding characteristics into a confidence value (CV which represents the health state of the bearing. Finally, a case study based on vibration datasets of a group of testing bearings was conducted to demonstrate that the proposed method can reliably assess the health state of bearing.
Jeger, Michael; Schans, Jan; Lövei, Gabor L.
With the establishment of the Plant Health Panel in 2006, EFSA became the body responsible for risk assessment in the plant health area for the European Union (EU). Since then more than 70 outputs have been produced dealing with the full range of organisms harmful to plant health across all crop...... environmental risk assessment and the evaluation of risk reducing options. Quantitative approaches have become increasingly important during this time. The Panel has developed such methods in climatic mapping (in association with the Joint Research Councils), application of spatial spread models, re......-evaluation of quantitative pathway analyses, and in statistical modelling of experimental data. A Plant Health Network has been established to facilitate interaction with EU Member States, especially in relation to data collection and co-ordination of risk assessment activities. At the current time a revision of the EU...
Petz, K.; Glenday, J.; Alkemade, J.R.M.
In South Africa, restoration and sustainable management of historically overgrazed and degraded rangelands are promoted to increase biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. This study evaluates different land management scenarios in terms of ecosystem services in a South African rangeland, the
Rangeland monitoring often includes repeat photographs as a basis for documentation and although photographic equipment and electronics have been evolving rapidly, basic rangeland photo monitoring methods have changed little over time. Ground based digital photography is underutilized, especially s...
Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W; Lauer, Johanna R
We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs' reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs' current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative.
Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W.; Lauer, Johanna R.
Objectives. We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Methods. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Results. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Conclusions. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs’ reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs’ current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative. PMID:25689182
Since the late 1990s health technology assessment (HTA) has gained influence as a research and evaluation approach supporting health care policy. The focus on this methodology is congruent with the growing importance of evidence-based health care. Although HTA is a multidisciplinary discipline from a theoretical point of view, practice shows that social, ethical and psychological aspects are seldom truly integrated into the assessment of health technology. HTA is still very much biased by the medical and pharmaceutical research traditions. This contribution focuses on the question of how qualitative research findings could be useful as an additional source of information or as 'evidence' in HTA. Medical and health care scientists are seldom acquainted with qualitative research or judge it as a less (or un-)reliable form of research. 'Qualitative dimensions' of health care are not considered 'real' evidence. This contribution argues that qualitative findings could be put higher in the hierarchy of evidence generating research in health care. First it can be realized by improving the knowledge of the nature of qualitative research. Second qualitative findings can become more trustworthy information, if researchers themselves respect methodological prerequisites and clarify their theoretical perspective, research aims and use of research methods. Some methodological characteristics of qualitative research and 'evidence' are discussed for their contribution to HTA and evidence-based health care.
Anstey, Matthew; Burgess, Paul; Angus, Lisa
Population-level assessment and planning has traditionally been the role of public health departments but in establishing Primary Health Networks (PHNs), the Australian Government has instituted a new mechanism for identifying community needs and commissioning services to meet those needs. If PHNs are to achieve the vision of nimble organisations capable of identifying and addressing local health needs via integrated health and social services, several things need to occur. First, PHN funding schedules must become more flexible. Second, the Federal health department must maintain an open dialogue with PHNs, permit waivers in funding schedules to suit local conditions and be prepared to back innovations with seed investment. Third, health data exchange and linkage must be accelerated to better inform community needs assessments and commissioning. Finally, PHNs must be encouraged and supported to develop collaborations both within and outside the health sector in order to identify and address a broad set of health issues and determinants. By following these principles, PHNs may become leading change agents in the Australian healthcare system.
Frederick B. Pierson; C. Jason Williams
Fire can dramatically influence rangeland hydrology and erosion by altering ecohydrologic relationships. This synthesis presents an ecohydrologic perspective on the effects of fire on rangeland runoff and erosion through a review of scientific literature spanning many decades. The objectives are: (1) to introduce rangeland hydrology and erosion concepts necessary for...
Donald J. Bedunah; E. Durant McArthur; Maria Fernandez-Gimenez
The 11 papers in this document address issues and needs in the development and stewardship of Central Asia rangelands, and identify directions for future work. With its vast rangelands and numerous pastoral populations, Central Asia is a region of increasing importance to rangeland scientists, managers, and pastoral development specialists. Five of the papers address...
Daniel W. McCollum; Louis E. Swanson; John A. Tanaka; Mark W. Brunson; Aaron J. Harp; L. Allen Torell; H. Theodore Heintz
Social and economic systems provide the context and rationale for rangeland management. Sustaining rangeland ecosystems requires attention to the social and economic conditions that accompany the functioning of those systems. We present and discuss economic and social indicators for rangeland sustainability. A brief conceptual basis for each indicator is offered,...
Comprising about 50% of the world’s land surface, rangelands are an important ecological and economic resource. Rangeland plant communities are changing. Even though the composition of plant communities in rangeland changes continually through the process of succession, in more recent years this c...
In France, the search for improved performance in the public sector, considered to reflect optimization of public services, has undergone various phases since the second World War. Public policy assessment has also considerably developed since the 1990s. The various reforms and resulting programmes have contributed to changing the French public administration from a means-based approach to a results-based approach, an essential step to improve performance according to the New Public Management paradigm. Other theories have also been proposed concerning performance assessment in the public sector, especially the medical care sector. The primary objective of this article is to propose a theoretical framework for the concept of performance and performance assessment in the health sector. The authors also propose a reading grid of the main theories concerning application of performance assessment in the health care sector.
This problems-based, half-day, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks f...
Behavioral (activity, diet, social interaction) and exposure (air pollution, traffic injury, and noise) related health impacts of land use and transportation investment decisions are becoming better understood and quantified. Research has shown relationships between density, mix, street connectivity, access to parks, shops, transit, presence of sidewalks and bikeways, and healthy food with physical activity, obesity, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and some mental health outcomes. This session demonstrates successful integration of health impact assessment into multiple scenario planning tool platforms. Detailed evidence on chronic disease and related costs associated with contrasting land use and transportation investments are built into a general-purpose module that can be accessed by multiple platforms. Funders, researchers, and end users of the tool will present a detailed description of the key elements of the approach, how it has been applied, and how will evolve. A critical focus will be placed on equity and social justice inherent within the assessment of health disparities that will be featured in the session. Health impacts of community design have significant cost benefit implications. Recent research is now extending relationships between community design features and chronic disease to health care costs. This session will demonstrate the recent application of this evidence on health impacts to the newly adopted Los Angeles Regional Transpo
Rice, J A
Hospitals face a paradigm shift: from planning service delivery to population-based community health planning. Comprehensive community health planning is a two-step process: assessment and action, in that order. Assessment identifies community problems and resources; action follows planning, which determines which of those problems should be addressed with which resources. This paper provides an overview of the community assessment process. The first challenge in launching a community health initiative is to identify and recruit partners drawn from the ranks of prominent community organizations, such as school boards, public health agencies, and elected officials. The best enlistment strategies are those that empower persons outside the hospital to take visible control. Defining the community is the first step in analyzing the community. It is important that everyone involved in the assessment process agree on the definition, which should take in those characteristics that make the community unique, including its social systems, environmental factors, and demographics. The next step in the process is developing a community health profile, a set of key community indicators or measures that will help you set priorities, document successes and failures, and monitor trends. There are a number of models available to consult in developing indicators, whether traditional, medically oriented determinants of health or broader parameters, such as housing and public safety. Criteria for selecting indicators include validity, stability and reliability, and responsiveness. Most indicators will be developed using secondary, or already existing, sources of data, such as census data, Medicare and Medicaid files, police records, and hospital admission and exit records. Conducting the community assessment involves putting together a list of problems to be solved and a list of available resources, both of which can be compiled using the same four-step process of gathering and
Janssen PJCM; Veen MP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; LBM
In January 1998 RIVM was asked to carry out a preliminary risk assessment on organic tin compounds (organotins) in textiles. Measurements carried out by the Dutch Health Protection Inspectorate had shown these potentially toxic compounds to be present in several consumer products, including items of
van Dijk, F. J.; de Kort, W. L.; Verbeek, J. H.
Interest in the quality of instruments for occupational health services is growing as a result of European legislation on preventive services stressing, for example, risk identification and assessment. The quality of the services can be enhanced when the quality of the applied instruments can be
Bers, Trudy H.; Head, Ronald B.
In this age of educational accountability, there is an increasing emphasis on assessment and institutional effectiveness, not only in the academic arena but also in other aspects of community college operation, such as fiscal health and stability, revenue generation, resource allocation, facilities, workforce development, and community enrichment…
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and... HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND... assessments and health effects studies. (a) ATSDR shall provide a report of the results of a health assessment...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects... HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES § 90.8 Conduct of health assessments and health effects...
Full Text Available The empirical and scientifically documents prove that misuse of natural resource causes degradation in it. So natural resources conservation is important in approaching sustainable development aims. In current study, Landsat Thematic Mapper images and grazing gradient method have been used to map the extent and degree of rangeland degradation. In during ground-based data measuring, factors such as vegetation cover, litter, plant diversity, bare soil, and stone & gravels were estimated as biophysical indicators of degradation. The next stage, after geometric correction and doing some necessary pre-processing practices on the study area’s images; the best and suitable vegetation index has been selected to map rangeland degradation among the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, and Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI. Then using suitable vegetation index and distance parameter was produced the rangelands degradation map. The results of ground-based data analysis reveal that there is a significant relation between increasing distance from critical points and plant diversity and also percentage of litter. Also there is significant relation between vegetation cover percent and distance from village, i.e. the vegetation cover percent increases by increasing distance from villages, while it wasn’t the same around the stock watering points. The result of analysis about bare soil and distance from critical point was the same to vegetation cover changes manner. Also there wasn’t significant relation between stones & gravels index and distance from critical points. The results of image processing show that, NDVI appears to be sensitive to vegetation changes along the grazing gradient and it can be suitable vegetation index to map rangeland degradation. The degradation map shows that there is high degradation around the critical points. These areas need urgent attention for soil conservation. Generally, it
Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Morgan, Jack; Fay, Philip; Polley, Wayne; Hatfield, Jerry L.
Projections of temperature and precipitation patterns across the United States during the next 50 years anticipate a 1.5 to 2°C warming and a slight increase in precipitation as a result of global climate change. There have been relatively few studies of climate change impacts on pasture and rangeland (grazingland) species compared to those on crop species, despite the economic and ecological importance of the former. Here we review the literature on pastureland and rangeland species to rising CO2 and climate change (temperature, and precipitation) and discuss plant and management factors likely to influence pastureland and rangeland responses to change (e.g., community composition, plant competition, perennial growth habit, seasonal productivity, and management methods). Overall, the response of pasture species to increased [CO2] is consistent with the general response of C3 and C4 type vegetation, although significant exceptions exist. Both pastureland and rangeland species should exhibit an acceleration of metabolism and development due to earlier onset of spring green-up and longer growing seasons. However, in the studies reviewed here, C3 pasture species increased their photosynthetic rates by up to 40% while C4 species exhibited no increase in photosynthesis. In general, it is expected that increases in [CO2] and precipitation would enhance rangeland net primary production (NPP) while increased air temperatures would either increase or decrease NPP. Much of this uncertainty in response is due to uncertain future projections of precipitation, both globally and regionally. For example, if annual precipitation changes little or declines, rangeland plant response to warming temperatures and rising [CO2] may be neutral or may decline due to increased water stress. This review reveals the need for comprehensive studies of climate change impacts on the pasture ecosystem including grazing regimes, mutualistic relationships (e.g., plant roots-nematodes; N
Romeu de Souza Werner
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Improper management of rangelands can cause land degradation and reduce the economic efficiency of livestock activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil properties and quantify plant biomass production in four natural rangeland management systems in the Santa Catarina Plateau (Planalto Catarinense of Brazil. The treatments, which included mowed natural rangeland (NR, burned natural rangeland (BR, natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after harrowing (IH, and natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after chisel plowing (IC, were evaluated in a Nitossolo Bruno (Nitisol. In the improved treatments, soil acidity was corrected, phosphate fertilizer was applied, and intercropped annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, velvet grass (Holcus lanatus, and white clover (Trifolium repens were sown. Management systems with harrowed or chisel plowed soil showed improved soil physical properties; however, the effect decreased over time and values approached those of burned and mowed natural rangelands. Natural rangeland systems in the establishment phase had little influence on soil organic C. The mowed natural rangeland and improved natural rangeland exhibited greater production of grazing material, while burning the field decreased production and increased the proportion of weeds. Improvement of the natural rangelands increased leguminous biomass for pasture.
Berner, Eta S; Dorsey, Amanda D; Garrie, Robert L; Qu, Haiyan
Informatics programs need assurance that their curricula prepare students for intended roles as well as ensuring that students have mastered the appropriate competencies. The objective of this study is to describe a method for using assessment data to identify areas for curriculum, student selection, and assessment improvement. A multiple-choice examination covering the content in the Commission for Health Accreditation of Informatics and Information Management Education curricular facets/elements was developed and administered to 2 cohorts of entering students prior to the beginning of the program and to the first cohort after completion of the first year's courses. The reliability of the examination was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Content validity was assessed by having 2 raters assess the match of the items to the Commission for Health Accreditation of Informatics and Information Management Education requirements. Construct validation included comparison of exam performance of instructed vs uninstructed students. Criterion-related validity was assessed by examining the relationship of background characteristics to exam performance and by comparing examination performance to graduate Grade Point Average (GPA). Reliability of the examination was 0.91 and 0.82 (Cohort 1 pre/post-tests) and 0.43 (Cohort 2 pretest). Both raters judged 76% of the test items as appropriate. There were statistically significant differences between the instructed (Cohort 1 post-test) and uninstructed (Cohort 2 pretest) students (t = 2.95 P Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg
The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure.
Bernal-Delgado, E; Christiansen, T; Bloor, K; Mateus, C; Yazbeck, A M; Munck, J; Bremner, J
Strengthening health-care effectiveness, increasing accessibility and improving resilience are key goals in the upcoming European Union health-care agenda. European Collaboration for Health-Care Optimization (ECHO), an international research project on health-care performance assessment funded by the seventh framework programme, has provided evidence and methodology to allow the attainment of those goals. This article aims at describing ECHO, analysing its main instruments and discussing some of the ECHO policy implications. Using patient-level administrative data, a series of observational studies (ecological and cross-section with associated time-series analyses) were conducted to analyze population and patients' exposure to health care. Operationally, several performance dimensions such as health-care inequalities, quality, safety and efficiency were analyzed using a set of validated indicators. The main instruments in ECHO were: (i) building a homogeneous data infrastructure; (ii) constructing coding crosswalks to allow comparisons between countries; (iii) making geographical units of analysis comparable; and (iv) allowing comparisons through the use of common benchmarks. ECHO has provided some innovations in international comparisons of health-care performance, mainly derived from the massive pooling of patient-level data and thus: (i) has expanded the usual approach based on average figures, providing insight into within and across country variation at various meaningful policy levels, (ii) the important effort made on data homogenization has increased comparability, increasing stakeholders' reliance on data and improving the acceptance of findings and (iii) has been able to provide more flexible and reliable benchmarking, allowing stakeholders to make critical use of the evidence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Kieckhefer, Gail M; Stevens, Anne; Frkonja, Jeff
Changes brought about by rapidly expanding information technology are affecting many aspects of life, including nursing education. Graduates must be comfortable and flexible with the use of information technology because they will be required to use it in their practice and continuing education activities. In this article, the authors describe their experience in implementing and refining the use of World Wide Web-based technology to teach pediatric health assessment to pediatric and family nurse practitioner students. The article includes reflections on preparation, implementation, and evaluation. The students' level of confidence in their ability to perform pediatric health assessment rose, as did their test scores, and faculty deemed the revision successful and timesaving for them.
Bjornsson, Bjarni Thor; Sigurdardottir, Gudlaug; Stefansson, Stefan Orri
The paper describes the security concerns related to Electronic Health Records (EHR) both in registration of data and integration of systems. A description of the current state of EHR systems in Iceland is provided, along with the Ministry of Health's future vision and plans. New legislation provides the opportunity for increased integration of EHRs and further collaboration between institutions. Integration of systems, along with greater availability and access to EHR data, requires increased security awareness since additional risks are introduced. The paper describes the core principles of information security as it applies to EHR systems and data. The concepts of confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and traceability are introduced and described. The paper discusses the legal requirements and importance of performing risk assessment for EHR data. Risk assessment methodology according to the ISO/IEC 27001 information security standard is described with examples on how it is applied to EHR systems.
Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)
Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.
Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley
Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of
Sacchini, Dario; Virdis, Andrea; Refolo, Pietro; Pennacchini, Maddalena; de Paula, Ignacio Carrasco
"HTA is a multidisciplinary process that summarizes information about the medical, social, economic and ethical issues related to the use of a health technology in a systematic, transparent, unbiased, robust manner. Its aim is to inform the formulation of safe, effective, health policies that are patient focused, and seek to achieve best value" (EUnetHTA 2007). Even though the assessment of ethical aspects of a health technology is listed as one of the objectives of a HTA process, in practice, the integration of these dimensions into reports remains limited. The article is focused on four points: 1. the HTA concept; 2. the difficult HTA-ethics relationship; 3. the ethical issues in HTA; 4. the methods for integrating ethical analysis into HTA.
Health assessment skills are vital to professional nursing practice. Health assessment has traditionally been taught using lecture, teacher-developed tests, practice and live demonstration, and interactive and computer-based learning materials. Rapid advances in information technology during the past decade have greatly expanded distance learning options in higher education. Although much nursing education now uses the Internet, there has been limited use of the Web to teach psychomotor and clinical skills. This article describes how online instruction can be integrated into a health assessment course to teach physical examination skills. The development of instructional videos that can be digitally streamed onto the Web for ready and repeated access can also enhance online learning of technical and clinical skills. Student evaluation of this Web-enhanced course revealed that online assignments enabled them to pace their learning, thereby promoting greater flexibility and independence. Students were able to master the technical skills of working online with minimal difficulty and reported that working online was no more stressful than attending class. The most helpful aspect of the online course was the instructor-developed video that was digitally streamed online.
El-Keblawy, Ali; El-Sheikh, Mohamed
Grazing and drought can adversely affect the ecology and management of rangeland ecosystems. Several management actions have been applied to restore species diversity and community structure in degraded rangelands of the unpredictable arid environment. Protection from grazing is considered as a proper approach for restoration of degraded rangelands, but this depends on substrate type and sometime is hindered with water deficiency (drought). In this study, the effect of protection from grazing animals on species diversity and plant community structure was assessed after a dry and wet periods in both sandy and gravelly substrates in the Dubai Desert Conservation reserve (DDCR), United Arab Emirates. Two sites were selected during November 2012 on the two substrate types (fixed sandy flat and gravel plain) in the arid DDCR. An enclosure was established in each site. Plant community attributes (plant cover, density, frequency, species composition, and diversity indices) were assessed in a number of permanent plots laid inside and outside each enclosure during November 2012, April 2014 and April 2016. The results showed that protection improved clay content, but decreased the organic matters. Interestingly, the protection reduced the concentrations of most estimated nutrients, which could be attributed to the high turnover rate of nutrients associated grazing and low decomposition of accumulated dry plants of non-protected sites. Protection significantly increased all plant community attributes, but the only significant effect was for plant density. Plant density was almost twice greater inside than outside the enclosures. During the dry period, protection resulted in significantly greater deterioration in cover, density and all diversity indices in gravel, compared to sandy sites. Most of the grasses and shrubby plants had died in the gravel plains. However, plant community of the gravel plains was significantly restored after receiving considerable rainfalls. The
Conley, Ashley M; Vagi, Sara; Horney, Jennifer A
A community health assessment (CHA) is a collaborative process of collecting and analyzing data to learn about the health status of a community. Community health assessments are also a requirement of public health accreditation for state and local health departments and of the Affordable Care Act for nonprofit hospitals. One element of a CHA is primary data collection. This article describes the use of the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) method for primary data collection to meet public health accreditation requirements in 2 case study communities--Nashua, New Hampshire, and Davidson County, North Carolina; CASPER is a flexible and efficient method for the collection of population-based primary data in an urban or rural setting.
Nelson S. Loftus; Joseph G. Massey; [Compilers
This research plan for the Southern Region is a companion publication to the National Program of Research for Forests and Associated Rangelands. While the national program reflects both regional and national priorities, this plan provides details on forestry research matters concerning the South. For the reader's convenience, background information on development...
Thalen, Derk Catharinus Peter
When grazing is the accepted land use, vegetation is the key resource. The present study deals with the desert shrub rangelands of lraq, which contain the major characteristics of such an area, having been under grazing for many centuries. Emphasis is given to the ecology and utilization of the
The magnitude of erosion from a hillslope is governed by the availability of sediment and connectivity of runoff and erosion processes. For undisturbed rangelands, sediment is primarily detached and transported by rainsplash and sheetflow (splash-sheet) processes in isolated bare batches, but sedime...
... Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent...-Toiyabe National Forest will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to authorize..., Little Fish Lake, Monitor Complex, Saulsbury and Stone Cabin allotments have active term grazing permits...
In terms of impacts from soil compaction, Abdel-Megid et al, (1987) reported reduced water infiltration and aeration, while Van der westhuizen et al., (1999) found poor plant respiration and soil seed germination unless the soil crust is broken. Soil compaction also enhanced encroachment in eastern rangelands of Ethiopia ...
Kristie A. Maczko; John A. Tanaka; Michael Smith; Cindy Garretson-Weibel; Stanley F. Hamilton; John E. Mitchell; Gene Fults; Charles Stanley; Dick Loper; Larry D. Bryant; J. K. (Rooter) Brite
Aligning a rancher's business plan goals with the capability of the ranch's rangeland resources improves the viability and sustainability of family ranches. Strategically monitoring the condition of soil, water, vegetation, wildlife, livestock production, and economics helps inform business plan goals. Business planning and resource monitoring help keep...
In this symposium, we consider the effects of fragmentation of rangelands and ensuing loss of biological complexity for a variety of processes including behaviour and performance of large herbivores, responses of plant communities to herbivory, and functioning of human social and economic systems. We invite posters that ...
Ecosystem services are the benefits that society receives from nature and they include the regulation of climate, the pollination of crops, the provisioning of intellectual inspiration and recreational environment, as well as many essential goods such as food, fiber, and wood. Rangeland ecosystem se...
This paper will review our current understanding of scale-related effects on livestock production in tropical rangelands and herbivore-plant interactions at patch to landscape scales. We use published information and results from recent empirical studies in northern Australia and elsewhere to elucidate scale-related effects ...
Karen E. Bagne; Deborah M. Finch; Megan M. Friggens
Many amphibian populations have declined drastically in recent years due to a large number of factors including the emerging threat of climate change (Wake 2007). Rangelands provide important habitat for amphibians. In addition to natural wetlands, stock tanks and other artificial water catchments provide habitat for many amphibian species (Euliss et al. 2004).
Livestock versus Wildlife Ranching in Kenyan Rangelands: A Case Study of Laikipia District Ranches. ... The results reveal a web of interactive factors involving land tenur, livestock development, disease control, marketing and environmental conservation that need to be considered if the newly emerging mixed -livestock ...
Wildfires can have significant impacts on rangeland productivity and functionality causing substantial economic losses to affected farmers. In August 2011, such wildfires swept through the North West province of South Africa, destroying large areas of grazing and farm infrastructure. There is little information available on ...
resolution of ecological problems such as biological conservation and natural ... agriculture, biology and pharmacy, this study set out to evaluate ..... Ghahreman, A (1979-1992).Colorful flora of Iran. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands,. Tehran (In Persian). Ghahreman, A (1994). Plant systematics: cormophytes of ...
Surface soil conditions on the communal rangeland had higher organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content. Following the analysis of satellite-derived vegetation indices, the commercial site had higher active green biomass (higher NDVI) and lower spatial diversity of near-infra red band (lower MSDI) than the ...
Research has been undertaken to develop process based models that predict soil erosion rate after disturbance on rangelands. In these models soil detachment is predicted as a combination of multiple erosion processes, rain splash and thin sheet flow (splash and sheet) detachment and concentrated flo...
Historically over 50 years of rainfall/runoff research using rainfall simulators has been conducted at various rangeland sites in the West, however these sites rarely have consecutive yearly measurements. This limits the understanding of dynamic annual conditions and the interactions of grazing, pla...
Session A4 Rangelands as dynamic systems Desertification: patterns and processes in Africa. M Timm Hoffman, Michael Darkoh. Abstract. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) makes special mention of the desertification problem in Africa. This session will provide an up to date overview of ...
Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Panagea, Ioanna S.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.; Grillakis, Manolis G.; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Hessel, Rudi; Mayor, Angeles G.; Ritsema, Coen J.
Understanding the Mediterranean rangelands degradation trends is a key element of mitigating their vulnerability and enhancing their resilience. Climate change and its inherent effects on mean temperature and the precipitation variability can regulate the magnitude, frequency and duration of
Bruce A. Roundy
Rangeland revegetation in the Western United States historically was applied at a large scale for soil conservation and forage production purposes. Principles of revegetation that have developed over years of research include matching site potential and plant materials adaption, use of appropriate seedbed preparation and sowing techniques, and development of large...
Melvin R. George; Neil K. McDougald; Kenneth W. Tate; Royce Larsen
From 1994 to 1998 we documented sediment transport dynamics and sources in a 137 ha grazed hardwood rangeland watershed on granitic soils at the San Joaquin Experimental Range in Madera County. Sediment transport for this watershed was determined by measuring total suspended solids, bedload and flow at an H-flume installed in 1994. Sediment movement as bedload is the...
D. M. Finch; K. E. Bagne; M. M. Friggens; D. M. Smith; K. M. Brodhead
We evaluated existing literature on predicted and known climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds. We asked the following questions: 1) How does climate change affect birds? 2) How will birds respond to climate change? 3) Are species already responding? 4) How will habitats be impacted?
The utility of monitoring and its guiding principles will only work effectively where good environmental governance is practiced by users and producers affecting rangeland ecosystems. Keywords: adaptive management, complex, environmental governance, human impacts, multi-scale, socio-ecological. African Journal of ...
This paper aims to contribute to the debates on communal rangelands and analyses the gendered dimension of land rights and land access in the rural areas of Namaqualand. The actual gender relations within rural communities and the emergence of strategies that are being pursued in communal land processes are ...
Considering their contribution to global warming, the sources and sinks of methane (CH4) should be accounted when undertaking a greenhouse gas inventory for grazed rangeland ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mitigation potential of current ecological management programs implement...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for requesting health assessments. 90.3... ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES § 90.3 Procedures for requesting health assessments. (a) ATSDR will...
Boone, Randall B; Conant, Richard T; Sircely, Jason; Thornton, Philip K; Herrero, Mario
Rangelands are Earth's dominant land cover and are important providers of ecosystem services. Reliance on rangelands is projected to grow, thus understanding the sensitivity of rangelands to future climates is essential. We used a new ecosystem model of moderate complexity that allows, for the first time, to quantify global changes expected in rangelands under future climates. The mean global annual net primary production (NPP) may decline by 10 g C m -2 year -1 in 2050 under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, but herbaceous NPP is projected to increase slightly (i.e., average of 3 g C m -2 year -1 ). Responses vary substantially from place-to-place, with large increases in annual productivity projected in northern regions (e.g., a 21% increase in productivity in the US and Canada) and large declines in western Africa (-46% in sub-Saharan western Africa) and Australia (-17%). Soil organic carbon is projected to increase in Australia (9%), the Middle East (14%), and central Asia (16%) and decline in many African savannas (e.g., -18% in sub-Saharan western Africa). Livestock are projected to decline 7.5 to 9.6%, an economic loss of from $9.7 to $12.6 billion. Our results suggest that forage production in Africa is sensitive to changes in climate, which will have substantial impacts on the livelihoods of the more than 180 million people who raise livestock on those rangelands. Our approach and the simulation tool presented here offer considerable potential for forecasting future conditions, highlight regions of concern, and support analyses where costs and benefits of adaptations and policies may be quantified. Otherwise, the technical options and policy and enabling environment that are needed to facilitate widespread adaptation may be very difficult to elucidate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jakubczyk, Michał; Wrona, Witold; Macioch, Tomasz; Golicki, Dominik; Niewada, Maciej; Hermanowski, Tomasz
In the health technology assessment it is crucial to define the perspective of the analysis. When the societal perspective is chosen it is necessary to include all the costs incurred by the society, also the costs of lost productivity resulting from absence of sick employees from work or their reduced efficiency at work. The aim of this article is to present the notion of indirect costs, their importance in health technology assessment and the methods of calculation. The economic literature has been reviewed for the state of knowledge on indirect costs. Three methods of calculation are described: human capital method, friction cost method or health state valuation. Indirect costs in Western European countries can amount to more than half of total costs attributed to the illness and its treatment. In the literature there is no consensus regarding the proper method of indirect costs calculation. It is necessary to conduct further theoretical and empirical research in the area of indirect costs and enhance discussion among Polish pharmacoeconomists.
Full Text Available Rangeland degradation results in declining functional capacity, increased poverty, and food insecurity. Major changes in rangeland surface morphology and soil characteristics have a drastic effect on the primary productivity of the rangeland...
To analyze evolution of the health technology assessment (HTA) at the national level in South Korea. Analysis of public documents, personal communication, and literative review. HTA in South Korea has been developed since 1990s, first introduced by academia and institutionalized within the National Health Insurance (NHI). Rapidly increasing expenditure had been a challenge of the NHI, which considered health technology management as a cost controlling measure. An amendment was made to the NHI Law in 2000, and provision was made to regulate the process of determining new insurance benefits including procedures, drugs, and equipment. This requirement made the NHI agencies to promote HTA approaches in connection with the government and professional organizations. Also the Healthcare Act was revised in October 2006 ruling that HTA focusing on safety and effectiveness be responsible for new health technologies. Currently, the HTA process is governed by a governmental committee comprising twenty members and technically supported by the HTA center created in the NHI structure. Institutionalized HTA in Korea has been driven mainly by the requirements of the NHI and manifested strengths as well as weaknesses. The government is establishing a new organization for HTA, independent from the NHI.
Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Aviles, Katia; Cummings, B J; Daniell, William; Erdmann, Jared; Garrison, Valerie
Health impact assessments (HIA) promote the consideration of health in a wide range of public decisions. Although each HIA is different, common pathways, evidence bases, and strategies for community engagement tend to emerge in certain sectors, such as urban redevelopment, natural resource extraction, or transportation planning. To date, a limited number of HIAs have been conducted on decisions affecting water resources and waterfronts. This review presents four recent HIAs of water-related decisions in the United States and Puerto Rico. Although the four cases are topically and geographically diverse, several common themes emerged from the consideration of health in water-related decisions. Water resource decisions are characterized by multiple competing uses, inter-institutional and inter-jurisdictional complexity, scientific uncertainty, long time scales for environmental change, diverse cultural and historical human values, and tradeoffs between private use and public access. These four case studies reveal challenges and opportunities of examining waterfront decisions through a "health lens". This review analyzes these cases, common themes, and lessons learned for the future practice of HIA in the waterfront zone and beyond.
Hanson, Andrea; Downs, Meghan; Kalogera, Kent; Buxton, Roxanne; Cooper, Tommy; Cooper, Alan; Cooper, Ross
Heart rate (HR) monitoring is a medical requirement during exercise on the International Space Station (ISS), fitness tests, and extravehicular activity (EVA); however, NASA does not currently have the technology to consistently and accurately monitor HR and other physiological data during these activities. Performance of currently available HR monitor technologies is dependent on uninterrupted contact with the torso and are prone to data drop-out and motion artifact. Here, we seek an alternative to the chest strap and electrode based sensors currently in use on ISS today. This project aims to develop a high performance, robust earbud based biosensor with focused efforts on improved HR data quality during exercise or EVA. A health risk assessment algorithm will further advance the goals of autonomous crew health care for exploration missions.
Areàn, Patricia A; Hoa Ly, Kien; Andersson, Gerhard
Assessment and outcome monitoring are critical for the effective detection and treatment of mental illness. Traditional methods of capturing social, functional, and behavioral data are limited to the information that patients report back to their health care provider at selected points in time. As a result, these data are not accurate accounts of day-to-day functioning, as they are often influenced by biases in self-report. Mobile technology (mobile applications on smartphones, activity bracelets) has the potential to overcome such problems with traditional assessment and provide information about patient symptoms, behavior, and functioning in real time. Although the use of sensors and apps are widespread, several questions remain in the field regarding the reliability of off-the-shelf apps and sensors, use of these tools by consumers, and provider use of these data in clinical decision-making.
Zavadil, Martin; Rogalewicz, Vladimír; Kubátová, Ivana; Matloňová, Veronika; Salačová, Kristýna
Hospital-based HTA (HB-HTA) consists in implementation of assessment activities "in" or "for" hospitals; hence, it covers processes and methods supporting organization and execution of health technology assessment (HTA) at the level of individual hospitals. This process is multidisciplinary, systematic and evidence-based.HB-HTA objectives and methods differ from the classic utilization of HTA at the national regulator level. Most experience and information concerning HB-HTA has originated in two large recent projects: activities of the HB-HTA Interest Group of the HTAi international association established in 2006, and the AdHopHTA European research project (20122015).This paper describes four basic organizational models of HB-HTA, their characteristics and utilization in various countries and hospital types. Results of the AdHopHTA project are analyzed, and recommendations for HB-HTA implementation in Czech hospitals are formulated.Key words: hospital-based HTA, medical device, implementation, hospital strategy.
Wronski, Torsten; Bariyanga, Jean Damascene; Sun, Ping; Plath, Martin; Apio, Ann
Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly be explained by the high tannin content largely protecting the species from being browsed, its tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as its general preference for anthropogenically disturbed habitats. The dispersal of L. camara is facilitated by birds and other animals consuming its drupes (endozoochory), and so both wild and domestic ungulates could contribute to its spread. In our study, we investigated the distribution of L. camara in the Mutara rangelands of north-eastern Rwanda, an area that faced dramatic landscape changes in recent decades. We assessed 23 ecological factors and factors related to land-use and conservation-political history. Major effects on the local abundance of L. camara were found in that the relative canopy cover of L. camara was negatively correlated with the occurrence of other shrubs (suggesting competition for space and nutrients), while encounter rates of houses, 'living fences' (Euphorbia tirucalli L.) and cattle tracks were positively correlated with L. camara cover. Hence, the spread of non-native L. camara in the Mutara rangelands appears to be linked to landscape alterations arising from the transformation of rangelands supporting traditional pastoralist communities to other agricultural land-use forms.
Wronski, Torsten; Bariyanga, Jean Damascene; Sun, Ping; Plath, Martin; Apio, Ann
Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly be explained by the high tannin content largely protecting the species from being browsed, its tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as its general preference for anthropogenically disturbed habitats. The dispersal of L. camara is facilitated by birds and other animals consuming its drupes (endozoochory), and so both wild and domestic ungulates could contribute to its spread. In our study, we investigated the distribution of L. camara in the Mutara rangelands of north-eastern Rwanda, an area that faced dramatic landscape changes in recent decades. We assessed 23 ecological factors and factors related to land-use and conservation-political history. Major effects on the local abundance of L. camara were found in that the relative canopy cover of L. camara was negatively correlated with the occurrence of other shrubs (suggesting competition for space and nutrients), while encounter rates of houses, ‘living fences’ (Euphorbia tirucalli L.) and cattle tracks were positively correlated with L. camara cover. Hence, the spread of non-native L. camara in the Mutara rangelands appears to be linked to landscape alterations arising from the transformation of rangelands supporting traditional pastoralist communities to other agricultural land-use forms. PMID:28498334
H. Zhang (Hao)
markdownabstractThis dissertation investigates the challenges faced by China around 2010 in two domains – population health and the health care system. Specifically, chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to health challenges, explaining the female health disadvantage in later life and assessing the effect
Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.
Elliott, Eva; Williams, Gareth
The renewed interest in 'public sociology' has sparked debate and discussion about forms of sociological work and their relationship to the State and civil society. Medical sociologists are accustomed to engaging with a range of publics and audiences inside and outside universities and are in a position to make an informed contribution to this debate. This paper describes how some of the debates about sociological work are played out through a 'health impact assessment' of a proposed housing renewal in a former coal mining community. We explore the dynamics of the health impact assessment process and relate it to wider debates, current in the social sciences, on the 'new knowledge spaces' within which contentious public issues are now being discussed, and the nature of different forms of expertise. The role of the 'public sociologist' in mediating the relationships between the accounts and interpretations of lay participants and the published 'evidence' is described as a process of mutual learning between publics, professionals and social scientists. It is argued that the continued existence and development of any meaningful 'professional sociology' requires an openness to a 'public sociology' which recognises and responds to new spaces of knowledge production.
Guzys, Diana; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Threlkeld, Guinever
Defining health literacy from a public health perspective places greater emphasis on the knowledge and skills required to prevent disease and for promoting health in everyday life. Addressing health literacy at the community level provides great potential for improving health knowledge, skills and behaviours resulting in better health outcomes. Yet there is a notable absence of discussion in the literature of what a health literate population looks like, or how this is best assessed. The emphasis in assessing health literacy has predominantly focused on the functional health literacy of individuals in clinical settings. This review examines currently available health literacy assessment tools to identify how well suited they are in addressing health literacy beyond clinical care settings and beyond the individual. Although public health literature appears to place greater emphasis on conceptualizing critical health literacy, the focus continues to remain on assessing individuals, rather than on health literacy within the context of families, communities and population groups. When a population approach is adopted, an aggregate of individual health literacy assessment is generally used. Aggregation of individual health literacy fails to capture the dynamic and often synergistic relationships within communities, and fails to reflect societal influences on health knowledge, beliefs and behaviours. We hypothesise that a different assessment framework is required to adequately address the complexities of community health literacy. We assert that a public health approach, founded on health promotion theories provides a useful scaffold to assess the critical health literacy of population groups. It is proposed that inclusion of community members in the research process is a necessary requirement to coproduce such an appropriate assessment framework. We contend that health literacy assessment and potential interventions need to shift to promoting the knowledge and skills
Macaskill, Ann; Denovan, Andrew
Balanced assessment of mental health involves assessing well-being and strengths as well as psychopathology. The character strengths of curiosity, gratitude, hope, optimism and forgiveness are assessed in 214 new undergraduates and their relationships to mental health, subjective well-being and self-esteem explored. Scoring the mental health scale…
... AGENCY Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act... Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 amends the Clean Water Act to better protect...
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance... guidance concerning Health Risk Assessment (HRAs). Section 4103 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (Pub. L. 111-148) requires that a health risk assessment be included in the annual wellness visit benefit...
... AGENCY Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act... Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 amends the Clean Water Act to better protect...
management information system at the district level ... Despite Malawi's introduction of a health management information system (HMIS) in 1999, the country's health sector still lacks accurate, reliable .... CHIP = Committee for Health Information Policy; HIMTC = Health Information Management Technical Committee; DHO =.
Behringer, Bruce A.; Omohundro, Ellen; Boswell, Derrick; Evans, Dwayne; Ferranti, Lori B.
Community health assessment is a core function of public health departments, a standard for accreditation of public health departments, and a core competency for public health professionals. The Tennessee Department of Health developed a statewide initiative to improve the processes for engaging county health departments in assessing their community’s health status through the collection and analysis of secondary data. One aim of the Tennessee Department of Health was to position county publi...
Pearson N.S. Mnkeni
Full Text Available Degradation of soil as a consequence of land use poses a threat to sustainable agriculture in South Africa, resulting in the need for a soil protection strategy and policy. Development of such a strategy and policy require cognisance of the extent and impact of soil degradation processes. One of the identified processes is the decline of soil organic matter, which also plays a central role in soil health or quality. The spatial variability of organic matter and the impact of grazing and burning under rangeland stock production are addressed in this first part of the review. Data from uncoordinated studies showed that South African soils have low organic matter levels. About 58% of soils contain less than 0.5% organic carbon and only 4% contain more than 2% organic carbon. Furthermore, there are large differences in organic matter content within and between soil forms, depending on climatic conditions, vegetative cover, topographical position and soil texture. A countrywide baseline study to quantify organic matter contents within and between soil forms is suggested for future reference. Degradation of rangeland because of overgrazing has resulted in significant losses of soil organic matter, mainly as a result of lower biomass production. The use of fire in rangeland management decreases soil organic matter because litter is destroyed by burning. Maintaining or increasing organic matter levels in degraded rangeland soils by preventing overgrazing and restricting burning could contribute to the restoration of degraded rangelands. This restoration is of the utmost importance because stock farming uses the majority of land in South Africa.
Panzarella, Karen Joanne
To test the success of integrated curricula in schools of health sciences, meaningful measurements of student performance are required to assess clinical competency. This research project analyzed a new performance assessment tool, the Integrated Standardized Patient Examination (ISPE), for assessing clinical competency: specifically, to assess Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students' clinical competence as the ability to integrate basic science knowledge with clinical communication skills. Thirty-four DPT students performed two ISPE cases, one of a patient who sustained a stroke and the other a patient with a herniated lumbar disc. Cases were portrayed by standardized patients (SPs) in a simulated clinical setting. Each case was scored by an expert evaluator in the exam room and then by one investigator and the students themselves via videotape. The SPs scored each student on an overall encounter rubric. Written feedback was obtained from all participants in the study. Acceptable reliability was demonstrated via inter-rater agreement as well as inter-rater correlations on items that used a dichotomous scale, whereas the items requiring the use of the 4-point rubric were somewhat less reliable. For the entire scale both cases had a significant correlation between the Expert-Investigator pair of raters, for the CVA case r = .547, p < .05 and for the HD case r = .700, p < .01. The SPs scored students higher than the other raters. Students' self-assessments were most closely aligned with the investigator. Effects were apparent due to case. Content validity was gathered in the process of developing cases and patient scenarios that were used in this study. Construct validity was obtained from the survey results analyzed from the experts and students. Future studies should examine the effect of rater training upon the reliability. Criterion or predictive validity could be further studied by comparing students' performances on the ISPE with other independent estimates
. USDA Forest Service.
The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (RPA) mandates a periodic assessment of the conditions and trends of the Nation's renewable resources on forests and rangelands. The RPA Assessment includes projections of resource conditions and trends 50 years into the future. The 2010 RPA Assessment used a set of future scenarios to provide a...
Full Text Available should simultaneously achieve synergies with socio-economic benefits, climate change adaptation and biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. National adaptation priorities, as identified in national adaptation programme of action (NAPAs) and national... to countries to enhance technical capacity and financial capacity is also highlighted. It is essential to integrate key sectors in the adaptation of forests and rangelands to climate change through the development of holistic programmes that benefit...
Full Text Available
Background: Health impact assessment (HIA prospectively judges the potential health impacts of pending decisions and feeds the assessment back into the decision making process. HIA is considered as a key tool for intersectoral collaboration. This article presents selected results of a mapping exercise on HIA in Europe. The mapping exercise is complemented by the presentation of a conceptual framework on the effectiveness of HIA and illustrative examples.
Method: Two methodologies are employed in this article: First, the use of HIA across Europe is based on a survey conducted by 21 teams in 19 countries. A semi standardized questionnaire was employed, using a wide variety of sources. Second, for the discussion on the effectiveness of HIA, a conceptual framework using four types of effectiveness was employed. Results: HIA is a common practice only in a handful of European countries. In most of Europe, HIA is at an early developmental stage. The mapping exercise, however, provides evidence that HIA can work across all sectors and at all political level, although there is currently a focus on the local level. HIA is conducted in different countries by different sets of actors and organizations, reflecting the existing setup. The evidence on the effectiveness of HIA is still inconclusive. However, single case studies and upcoming evidence suggests that HIA has the capacity to inform and influence the decision making process.
Conclusions: HIA can work and deliver. The variations in context across European countries have resulted in different forms of implementation and different dynamics of developing HIA.
Romero, Isabel; Carnero, María Carmen
The aim of this research is to design a multi-criteria model for environmental assessment of health care organizations. This is a model which guarantees the objectivity of the results obtained, is easy to apply, and incorporates a series of criteria, and their corresponding descriptors, relevant to the internal environmental auditing processes of the hospital. Furthermore, judgments were given by three experts from the areas of health, the environment, and multi-criteria decision techniques. From the values assigned, geometric means were calculated, giving weightings for the criteria of the model. This innovative model is intended for application within a continuous improvement process. A practical case from a Spanish hospital is included at the end. Information contained in the sustainability report provided the data needed to apply the model. The example contains all the criteria previously defined in the model. The results obtained show that the best-satisfied criteria are those related to energy consumption, generation of hazardous waste, legal matters, environmental sensitivity of staff, patients and others, and the environmental management of suppliers. On the other hand, those areas returning poor results are control of atmospheric emissions, increase in consumption of renewable energies, and the logistics of waste produced. It is recommended that steps be taken to correct these deficiencies, thus leading to an acceptable increase in the sustainability of the hospital.
Milano, Marianne; Chèvre, Nathalie; Reynard, Emmanuel
River conditions and welfare of aquatic ecosystems are threatened by anthropogenic and climatic changes. The release of personal-care products, pharmaceuticals and crop protection products is increasing and climate change is likely to cause significant changes in hydrological regimes affecting water resources' capacity to dissolve pollutants. Assessing river health, i.e. the ability of a river to support and maintain a balanced ecosystem close to the natural habitat, is thus of major concern to ensure the development of ecosystems and to provide enough clean useable water to users. Such studies involve physical, chemical and biological processes and characteristics. In Europe and Switzerland, standardized procedures have been developed to assess the hydromorphological, ecological and toxicological status of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive sets ecological requirements and chemical guidelines while the Swiss Modular Stepwise Procedure suggests methods to apprehend ecological deficits and promote water management plans. In this study, both procedures were applied and compared in order (i) to address their capacity to follow-up the spatial and temporal variability of the river's water quality and (ii) to identify challenges that still need to be addressed to assess river's health. Applied on the Boiron River (canton of Vaud, Switzerland) for a 11-year period (2005-2015), both frameworks highlight that no section of the river currently meets a good environmental state. This river flows through a diversified agricultural area causing a progressive deterioration of its chemical and biological quality. The two methods also identify two periods of time with significant changes of the river's water quality. The 2009-2011 period is characterized by a significant deterioration of the river's ecological and toxicological state due to severe low flows and an increased use of pesticides. However, since 2013, an improvement in water quality is identified in
Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Doede, Aubrey; Kennedy, Christine; Showalter, Shayna L
Health literacy is recognized as an integral component of high-quality health care. However, health literacy has been understudied in the context of cancer care delivery and surgical decision making. The goal of this article is to outline a process for implementation of a health literacy screening assessment within the routine practices of an academic breast surgical oncology clinic. The self-reported health literacy assessment is feasible, particularly with integration of the health literacy screen in the electronic health record. The authors' estimated clinic prevalence of low health literacy was 22%, which has numerous implications for communication and shared decision-making processes. .
Evans-Agnew, Robin; Reyes, David; Primomo, Janet; Meyer, Karen; Matlock-Hightower, Corrie
Conducting federally mandated community health needs assessments through academic-practice partnerships provides new opportunities for developing population health nursing competencies. The purpose of this article was to describe how a baccalaureate practicum experience within such an assessment process, involving health care system partners, re-affirms the importance of community and population health assessment in the development of future nursing leaders. Student evaluations indicated an emerging appreciation for the social determinants of health, the power of partnerships, and the importance of diversity. Integrating health care and public health system perspectives on assessment meets both public health and nursing accreditation standards and extends student leadership experiences. Such integration also improves regional capacity for improving population health. Federal mandates for community health needs assessments provide opportunities to advance leadership roles for nursing graduates throughout the health care system, and for confirming the importance of community assessment as an essential nursing competency. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sampson, Gretchen; Miner Gearin, Kim J; Boe, Mary
In mid-2012, the Polk County Health Department initiated a community health needs assessment process with the 3 medical centers serving this rural Wisconsin county of 45 000 residents. The collaborative process drew on primary and secondary data, including clinical data pooled from health care organizations, to assess population health. Community health assessment ultimately engaged more than 1800 county residents through coordinated surveys and community forums. Although the Polk County Health Department has a long history of collaboration with the local health care community, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, coupled with meaningful use requirements for health care providers, sharply increased engagement, contributed to shared priorities, and brought this relationship to a new level. Partners have now convened community-based workgroups around the top 3 health focus areas selected from the assessment process. Community health assessment emphasized the social determinants of health as a step toward a more "upstream" orientation to population health goals.
Mooy, J. M.; Gunning-Schepers, L. J.
Intersectoral health policy implies negotiations with politicians outside the health sector. Health politicians have a stronger position if they can quantify health impact. In this Dutch case-study we used a computer simulation approach to answer the following questions: Which anti-tobacco
Wise, Marilyn; Harris, Patrick; Harris-Roxas, Ben; Harris, Elizabeth
Within the discipline of health promotion there has been long-standing understanding of the social determinants of health and life expectancy.1-3 There is also long-standing evidence of the unfair, unjust distribution of these resources within and among societies. It has proven difficult to translate this evidence of the need for the fairer distribution of socially-distributed resources into powerful action by the range of sectors through whose policies and programs/services much of this inequitable distribution is created.4 Health promotion has proven effective in contributing to significant improvements in the health of populations. It is, now, based on well-developed theory and a comprehensive body of evidence. However, health promotion in particular and the health sector in general have found it difficult to work with other sectors to influence public policy to create the social, economic, environmental and cultural conditions necessary for health equity. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is outlined as an approach that offers the health sector a structured, transparent method and process to work with other sectors to predict the impact of policy proposals on the health of populations (and on the determinants of health), and to predict the distribution of these impacts in advance of adoption and implementation of the policy. Based on Australian experience of conducting HIAs, the paper outlines contributions that HIA can make to formulating and implementing of healthy public policy. It describes the steps in HIA and illustrates the use of these in practice.
Hernandez, Sarah Gabriella; Genkova, Ana; Castañeda, Yvette; Alexander, Simone; Hebert-Beirne, Jennifer
Qualitative methods such as focus groups and interviews are common methodologies employed in participatory approaches to community health assessment to develop effective community health improvement plans. Oral histories are a rarely used form of qualitative inquiry that can enhance community health assessment in multiple ways. Oral histories…
... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 53 RIN 1545-BL30 Community Health Needs Assessments for... organizations on the community health needs assessment (CHNA) requirements, and related excise tax and reporting... hospital organization to conduct a CHNA and adopt an implementation strategy to meet the community health...
Globally, 10-20% of arid and semi-arid rangelands have been classified as severely degraded (UNCCD 1994; MEA 2005), and in sub-Saharan Africa specifically, 70% of rangelands are considered moderately to severely degraded (Dregne 1992; UNCCD 1994). Given that these drylands make up 43% of Africa’s la...
The utility of Ecological Site Descriptions (ESDs) and State-and-Transition Models (STMs) concepts in guiding rangeland management hinges on their ability to accurately describe and predict community dynamics and the associated consequences. For many rangeland ecosystems, plant community dynamics ar...
Resilience of rangeland to erosion has largely been attributed to adequate plant cover; however, plant life/growth form, and individual species presence can have a dramatic effect on hydrologic and erosion dynamics on rangelands. Plant life/growth form refers to genetic tendency of a plant to grow i...
Rangelands comprise approximately 40% of the earth’s surface and are the largest land cover type in the world. Degradation from mismanagement, desertification, and drought impact more than 50% of rangelands across the globe. The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has been evaluating means of r...
Matt Reeves; Robert A. Washington-Allen; Jay Angerer; E. Raymond Hunt; Ranjani Wasantha Kulawardhana; Lalit Kumar; Tatiana Loboda; Thomas Loveland; Graciela Metternicht; R. Douglas. Ramsey
The term "rangeland" is rather nebulous, and there is no single definition of rangeland that is universally accepted by land managers, scientists, or international bodies (Lund, 2007; Reeves and Mitchell, 2011). Dozens and possibly hundreds (Lund, 2007) of definitions and ideologies exist because various stakeholders often have unique objectives...
Wildfires are an ecological and economic risk for many semi-arid rangelands which has resulted in increased pressure for pre-suppression management of fuels. In rangelands, fuel management treatment options are limited by costs. We evaluated winter grazing as a tool to manage fuels and alter fire ...
Rangelands in the Horn of Africa have been undergoing a rapid shift from herbaceous to woody plant dominance in the past decades, threatening subsistence livestock herding and pastoral food security. Despite of significant rangeland management implications, quantification of the spatial extent of en...
M. G. Meek; S. M. Cooper; M. K. Owens; R. M. Cooper; A. L. Wappel
Management of rangelands has changed substantially over the past few decades; today there is greater emphasis on wildlife management and increased interest in using natural disturbances such as fire to manage rangeland plant and animal communities. To determine the effect of prescribed fires on the distribution of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus...
Rangelands encompass 30-40 percent of Earth's land surface and support 1-2 billion people. Their predominant use is extensive livestock production by pastoralists and ranchers. But rangelands are characterized by ecological, economic, and political marginality, and higher-value, more intensive land ...
Pinyon and juniper woodlands have dramatically increased their range in the past 150 years and currently occupy more than 30 million ha of the western US. Range expansion has primarily occurred through encroachment into sagebrush rangelands. Woodland expansion and infill on western rangelands have a...
Gerald L. Horner; James H. Cothern
Changes in the availability, productivity and cost of hardwood rangeland affects the production and location of range-fed livestock. The California Range Livestock Model (CRLM) was developed to determine the effect of proposed policies and alternative economic conditions on the range-fed livestock industry generally and hardwood rangeland in particular. Three possible...
As part of the IX International Rangeland Congress held in Rosario, Argentina, a total of 70 posters from 17 countries were submitted to Section 2.3 (Rangeland Germplasm Resources). These posters documented research conducted in five major regions of the world: South America, North America, Africa...
Lassey, William R.; Lassey, Marie L.
The Geriatric Assessment Unit (GAU), which has proven successful in urban areas, may be a viable system for providing health care to the elderly in rural areas. GAUs engage in assessment, follow-up response to findings, education, and research. The assessment component includes, at minimum, physical health, functional ability in activities of…
J.L. Veerman (Lennert); J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. DESIGN: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health
Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials, addresses flat-plate and concentrator collector designs, and reviews system deployment in grid-connected, roof-mounted, residential and ground-mounted central-station applications. The PV life-cycle phases examined include silicon refinement and manufacture of PV collectors, system deployment, and decommissioning. The primary E,H and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.
Stone, Cynthia; Greene, Marion S.
Health Impact Assessments (HIAs) incorporate a combination of tools, methods, and procedures to evaluate the potential health effects of a proposed program, project, or policy. The university public health department, in collaboration with the county health department, and the local planning organization, developed a curriculum for a…
Hiernaux, Pierre; Mougin, Eric; Diarra, Lassine; Soumaguel, Nogmana; Lavenu, François; Tracol, Yann; Diawara, Mamadou
SummaryTwenty-five rangeland sites were monitored over two decades (1984-2006) first to assess the impact of the 1983-1984 droughts on fodder resources, then to better understand ecosystem functioning and dynamics. Sites are sampled along the south-north bioclimatic gradient in Gourma (Mali), within three main edaphic situations: sandy, loamy-clay and shallow soils. In addition, three levels of grazing pressure where systematically sampled within sandy soils. Located at the northern edge of the area reached by the West African monsoon, the Gourma gradient has recorded extremes in inter-annual variations of rainfall and resulting variations in vegetation growth. Following rainfall variability, inter-annual variability of herbaceous yield increases as climate gets dryer with latitudes at least on the sandy soils sites. Local redistribution of rainfall explains the high patchiness of herbaceous vegetation, especially on shallow soils. Yet spatial heterogeneity of the vegetation does not buffer between year yield variability that increases with spatial heterogeneity. At short term, livestock grazing during the wet season affects plant growth and thus yield in direction and proportions that vary with the timing and intensity of grazing. In the longer term, grazing also impinges upon species composition in many ways. Hence, long histories of heavy grazing promote either long cycle annuals refused by livestock or else short cycle good quality feed species. Primary production is maintained or even increased in the case of refusal such as Sida cordifolia, and is lessened in the case of short cycle species such as Zornia glochidiata. These behaviours explain that the yield anomalies calculated for the rangelands on sandy soils relative to the yield of site less grazed under similar climate tend to be negative in northern Sahel where the scenario of short cycle species dominates, while yield anomalies are close to nil in centre Sahel and slightly positive in South Sahel where
M.Cur. Occupational health nurses are qualified registered nurses with a post-graduate qualification in occupational health nursing as a specialised discipline, and provide the basic healthcare aspect of the occupational health programme. Their most important activity is to identify and assess the health hazard risks in the workplace. Health risk assessments are conducted by occupational health nurses to determine all the stresses, e.g. hazardous chemicals, vibration, insufficient lighting...
The health risk assessment described in this report estimated various health effects associated with O3 exposures as well as the reduced risks for one O3 season associated with just meeting the current O3 NAAQS.
Palmhøj Nielsen, Camilla; Sarriá Santamera, Antonio; Vondeling, Hindrik
Decision-makers throughout Europe have a common goal of raising health standards in order to improve the health status of the European population. Health service delivery is carried out under conditions of growing political and economic complexity – rapid technological change puts pressure on
Background Despite Malawi's introduction of a health management information system (HMIS) in 1999, the country's health sector still lacks accurate, reliable, complete, consistent and timely health data to inform effective planning and resource management. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted wherein ...
Bradway, Meghan; Carrión Ribas, Carme; Vallespin, Bárbara; Saadatfard, Omid; Puigdomènech, Elisa; Espallargues, Mireia; Kotzeva, Anna
Background The mass availability and use of mobile health (mHealth) technologies offers the potential for these technologies to support or substitute medical advice. However, it is worrisome that most assessment initiatives are still not able to successfully evaluate all aspects of mHealth solutions. As a result, multiple strategies to assess mHealth solutions are being proposed by medical regulatory bodies and similar organizations. Objective We aim to offer a collective description of a uni...
Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Machado, Lorenzo; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Klemens, Anne E; Martinez, Maria Elena; Bouton, Marcia E; Wilhelmson, Krista L; Weiss, Barry D
Individuals with limited health literacy have barriers to patient-physician communication. Problems in communication are known to contribute to malpractice litigation. Concern exists, however, about the feasibility and patient acceptance of a health literacy assessment. This study was performed to determine the feasibility of health literacy assessment in surgical practice and its effect on patient satisfaction. Every patient seen in a Breast Surgery Clinic during a 2-year period was asked to undergo a health literacy assessment with the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) as part of the routine history and physical examination. During the year before routine NVS assessments and during the 2-year study period, all patients were asked to rate their "overall satisfaction with clinic visit" on a 5-point scale. A total of 2,026 of 2,097 patients (96.6%) seen during the study were eligible for the health literacy assessment. Of those, no patients refused assessment, and only one patient was missed. Therefore, 2,025 of 2,026 eligible patients (99.9%) underwent the assessment. The average time for NVS assessment was 2:02 minutes. Only 19% of patients had adequate health literacy. Patient satisfaction ratings were slightly greater during the first year of the health literacy assessment (3.8 vs 3.7, P = .049) compared with the year prior to health literacy assessment and greater during the second year of health literacy assessment (4.1 vs 3.7, P < .0001). Routine health literacy assessment is feasible in surgical practice and results in no decrease in patient satisfaction. In fact, satisfaction was greater during the years when health literacy assessments were performed. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Information, history and background on the development and maintenance of nitrogen dioxide (health criteria) assessments. There is a separate site that has combined NOx/SOx ecological criteria assessment.
This memorandum revises the hierarchy of human health toxicity values generally recommended for use inr isk assessments, originally presented in Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I, Part A.
Full Text Available Soil quality, aggregate stability and erosion sensibility are affected by different range management practices. This research aimed to evaluate the relationships between soil organic carbon, mean weight diameter (MWD and aggregate size distribution in the surface soil layer (0- 20 cm of various range sites with different grazing intensities (non, slightly and heavily grazed in Bardasiab rangeland, Feridounshahr, Isfahan province. Stratified random sampling method was used to collect soil samples along the established transects. Some physical and chemical properties of soil samples such as texture, electrical conductivity (EC, organic carbon (OC, MWD and sodium absorption ratio (SAR were measured in the soil laboratory. Simple linear regression and One-way ANOVA followed by the Fisher’s LSD test were used to analyze the data. Results of regression analysis showed that MWD and OC of the soil samples were significantly correlated ( α =1%, R 2 = 61.3 %. The soil MWD values of range sites with various grazing intensities were significantly different ( α =5%. Organic carbon was increased and SAR was decreased in the sites located inside exclosures, which lead to higher soil MWD. Aggregate size distribution among various sites were significantly different ( α =5% only for the aggregate smaller than 0.25 mm. Soil aggregates sizes between non-grazed and heavily grazed sites were also significantly different only for the size ranges of 4- 8 mm α =5%, ( and less than 0.25 mm α=1% (. In addition, macro aggregates increased and micro aggregates decreased in range sites with no or slight grazing intensity, respectively as these sites experienced low trampling and increased litter and organic carbons. Soil aggregate stability can therefore be used as an appropriate indicator for monitoring the impact of different management practices on rangeland soil quality and health.
Chinchilla, Melissa; Arcaya, Mariana C
Health Impact Assessment (HIA) courses are teaching public health and urban planning students how to assess the likely health effects of proposed policies, plans, and projects. We suggest that public health and urban planning have complimentary frameworks for training practitioners to address the living conditions that affect health. Planning perspectives emphasize practical skills for impacting community change, while public health stresses professional purpose and ethics. Frameworks from both disciplines can enhance the HIA learning experience by helping students tackle questions related to community impact, engagement, social justice, and ethics. We also propose that HIA community engagement processes can be enriched through an empathetic practice that focuses on greater personal introspection.
A. M. Biblin
Full Text Available This review of publications presents the analysis of national scientific publications and methodological documents on health risks assessments under unfavorable external impacts. In available research publications, the hygienic risks assessment is most often considered in situations of chemicals impact, and such assessment has sufficient methodological providing. Comparison of publications and methodological documents allows determination of the possibility of methodological unity for health risk assessment in conditions of chemical and radiation impacts.
Sullivan, Marianne; Levine, Jack
Introduction: Community health assessment (CHA) is a useful tool for identifying health status disparities at the community level. Developing the skills of master's level public health students to conduct CHA addresses a number of the Association of Schools of Public Health Core competencies for graduate public health education. Teaching…
Lachlan McIver; Alistair Woodward; Seren Davies; Tebikau Tibwe; Steven Iddings
Kiribati—a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation—is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest prior...
Nicole K. Dalmer, BSc, MLIS, PhD Candidate
This narrative review examines assessments of the reliability of online health information retrieved through social media to ascertain whether health information accessed or disseminated through social media should be evaluated differently than other online health information. Several medical, library and information science, and interdisciplinary databases were searched using terms relating to social media, reliability, and health information. While social media?s increasing role in health i...
The potential health impacts of the proposed decision should be characterized based on the following criteria: Direction, Likelihood, Magnitude, Distribution, Severity, Permanence, Strength of Evidence.
For economic, social, political and organisational reasons a transition period will be necessary, which is likely to last more than a decade. However, important objectives such as access to health care and avoiding impoverishment due to direct health care payments should be recognised from the start so that steady progress ...
Nichols, Mary H.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Sayre, N.F.; Shaw, Jeremy R.
Control over water supply and distribution is critical for agriculture in drylands where manipulating surface runoff often serves the dual purpose of erosion control. However, little is known of the geomorphic impacts and legacy effects of rangeland water manipulation infrastructure, especially if not maintained. This study investigated the geomorphic impacts of structures such as earthen berms, water control gates, and stock tanks, in a semiarid rangeland in the southwestern USA that is responding to both regional channel incision that was initiated over a century ago, and a more recent land use change that involved cattle removal and abandonment of structures. The functional condition of remnant structures was inventoried, mapped, and assessed using aerial imagery and lidar data. Headcut initiation, scour, and channel incision associated with compromised lateral channel berms, concrete water control structures, floodplain water spreader berms, and stock tanks were identified as threats to floodplains and associated habitat. Almost half of 27 identified lateral channel berms (48%) have been breached and 15% have experienced lateral scour; 18% of 218 shorter water spreader berms have been breached and 17% have experienced lateral scour. A relatively small number of 117 stock tanks (6%) are identified as structurally compromised based on analysis of aerial imagery, although many currently do not provide consistent water supplies. In some cases, the onset of localized disturbance is recent enough that opportunities for mitigation can be identified to alter the potentially damaging erosion trajectories that are ultimately driven by regional geomorphic instability. Understanding the effects of prior land use and remnant structures on channel and floodplain morphologic condition is critical because both current land management and future land use options are constrained by inherited land use legacy effects.
Singh, Navinder J.
The papers of the thesis are not available in Munin: 1. Navinder J Singh, Nigel G Yoccoz, Nicolas Lecomte, Steeve D Côté and Joseph L Fox: «Scale and selection of habitat and resources: Tibetan argali in high altitude rangelands» (manuscript). Published version, Can. J. Zool. 88: 436-447 (2010), available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/Z10-015 2. Navinder J Singh, Christophe Bonenfant, Nigel G Yoccoz and Steeve D Côté: «Proximate and ultimate causes of sexual segregation in eurasian w...
As computer equipment can limit the use of the degradation gradient, easier alternative methods were investigated, and the accuracy of these methods was tested against the degradation gradient. The advantage of this technique lies in its simplicity and ease of use. Another advantage is that only the most important ...
Health systems in Africa have long faced a huge burden of disease, amidst pressing resource constraints. However, despite the constraints, the last three decades have seen the region make progress in tackling some of the most critical health challenges. Notably, many countries have registered
Brown, William; Yen, Po-Yin; Rojas, Marlene; Schnall, Rebecca
Over two decades of research has been conducted using mobile devices for health related behaviors yet many of these studies lack rigor. There are few evaluation frameworks for assessing the usability of mHealth, which is critical as the use of this technology proliferates. As the development of interventions using mobile technology increase, future work in this domain necessitates the use of a rigorous usability evaluation framework. We used two exemplars to assess the appropriateness of the Health IT Usability Evaluation Model (Health-ITUEM) for evaluating the usability of mHealth technology. In the first exemplar, we conducted 6 focus group sessions to explore adolescents' use of mobile technology for meeting their health Information needs. In the second exemplar, we conducted 4 focus group sessions following an Ecological Momentary Assessment study in which 60 adolescents were given a smartphone with pre-installed health-related applications (apps). We coded the focus group data using the 9 concepts of the Health-ITUEM: Error prevention, Completeness, Memorability, Information needs, Flexibility/Customizability, Learnability, Performance speed, Competency, Other outcomes. To develop a finer granularity of analysis, the nine concepts were broken into positive, negative, and neutral codes. A total of 27 codes were created. Two raters (R1 and R2) initially coded all text and a third rater (R3) reconciled coding discordance between raters R1 and R2. A total of 133 codes were applied to Exemplar 1. In Exemplar 2 there were a total of 286 codes applied to 195 excerpts. Performance speed, Other outcomes, and Information needs were among the most frequently occurring codes. Our two exemplars demonstrated the appropriateness and usefulness of the Health-ITUEM in evaluating mobile health technology. Further assessment of this framework with other study populations should consider whether Memorability and Error prevention are necessary to include when evaluating mHealth
Lobo Pacheco, Lubin; Jonzon, Robert; Hurtig, Anna-Karin
Swedish law entitles asylum seekers to a voluntary health assessment and to "health care that cannot be postponed". The last expression suggests, however, restrictions on the entitlement, and what it may or may not include remains ultimately a decision for health professionals in the specific case. Indeed, the health assessment constitutes the sole active effort from Swedish authorities to fulfill this right. This study was therefore aimed at assessing how the information, procedures and services related to the health assessment are accessible and acceptable to fulfill the right to health of asylum seekers, from their own perspective. The study has a cross-sectional design. A questionnaire was administrated in 16 language schools for immigrants, in four counties of Sweden. Three hundred eighty-six individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The frequency of their answers was tabulated to estimate how the information, procedures and services related to the health assessment correspond to the criteria for accessibility and acceptability regarding the right to health. Forty-eight (12.4%) respondents did not undergo the health assessment. Thirty-one of them did not even receive the invitation letter. They said they lost the opportunity to know their health status, to obtain treatment for or advice about their health problems. Additionally, 55.2% of those who attended the health assessment indicated that their needs were overlooked, particularly when these were of a psychological nature. Two in three participants also considered the health assessment to be a communicable disease control, rather than an effort to take care of their health needs. Nevertheless, the respondents had a positive attitude towards the health assessment as such. Although being an important contribution, the health assessment does not suffice to fulfill the right to health of asylum seekers because there are shortcomings regarding the accessibility and acceptability of the information
Lubin Lobo Pacheco
Full Text Available Swedish law entitles asylum seekers to a voluntary health assessment and to "health care that cannot be postponed". The last expression suggests, however, restrictions on the entitlement, and what it may or may not include remains ultimately a decision for health professionals in the specific case. Indeed, the health assessment constitutes the sole active effort from Swedish authorities to fulfill this right. This study was therefore aimed at assessing how the information, procedures and services related to the health assessment are accessible and acceptable to fulfill the right to health of asylum seekers, from their own perspective.The study has a cross-sectional design. A questionnaire was administrated in 16 language schools for immigrants, in four counties of Sweden. Three hundred eighty-six individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The frequency of their answers was tabulated to estimate how the information, procedures and services related to the health assessment correspond to the criteria for accessibility and acceptability regarding the right to health.Forty-eight (12.4% respondents did not undergo the health assessment. Thirty-one of them did not even receive the invitation letter. They said they lost the opportunity to know their health status, to obtain treatment for or advice about their health problems. Additionally, 55.2% of those who attended the health assessment indicated that their needs were overlooked, particularly when these were of a psychological nature. Two in three participants also considered the health assessment to be a communicable disease control, rather than an effort to take care of their health needs. Nevertheless, the respondents had a positive attitude towards the health assessment as such.Although being an important contribution, the health assessment does not suffice to fulfill the right to health of asylum seekers because there are shortcomings regarding the accessibility and acceptability of the
Sriring, Srinual; Erawan, Prawit; Sriwarom, Monoon
The objective of this research was to: 1) involved a survey of information relating to secondary school health, 2) involved the construction of a model of health assessment and a handbook for using the model in secondary school, 3) develop an assessment model for secondary school. The research included 3 phases. (1) involved a survey of…
Su, Meirong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Gengyuan; Xu, Linyu; Zhang, Lixiao; Yang, Zhifeng
The concept of ecosystem health is a way to assess the holistic operations and development potential of urban ecosystems. Accelerated by the practical need for integrated ecosystem management, assessment of urban ecosystem health has been greatly developed and extensively applied in urban planning and management. Development is aimed at comprehensively evaluating the performance of urban ecosystems, identifying the limiting factors, and providing suggestions for urban regulation. The time has come for reviewing and establishing an instructional framework for urban ecosystem health assessment to shed light on certain essential issues of urban ecosystem health. Based on literature reviews and series of practice, a holistic framework of urban ecosystem health assessment is proposed. The framework covers the essential elements of urban ecosystem health and integrates three dimensions: theoretical foundation, assessment method, and practical application. Concrete assessment methods are also established, focusing on both external performance and internal metabolic processes. The practice of urban ecosystem health assessment in China is illustrated to briefly demonstrate the application of the established framework and methods. Some prospects are discussed for urban ecosystem health assessment and its application in urban planning and management.
Since the Sahelian population livelihood relies mainly on agropastoral activities, accurate information on biomass productivity dynamics and the underlying drivers are needed to manage a wide range of issues such as food security. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of these drivers in rangeland and cropland, both at the Sahel and local scales (an agropastoral site in South-West Niger). At the Sahel scale, the MODIS Land Cover product was used to extract cropland and rangeland pixels. By analyzing MODIS NDVI trends together with TRMM3B43 annual rainfall (2000-2010), we developed a new classification scheme allowing to identify areas of persistent decline/improvement in biomass productivity and to separate rainfall-driven dynamics from other factors. The results showed an overall increase of productivity in the rangeland, and both an improvement and a degradation in the cropland. We found strong evidence that the increase in biomass productivity was generally linked to increasing rainfall, while the decrease could be attributed chiefly to other factors exclusively or to a combination of both climate- and human-induced factors (see the attached Figure). At the Niger site scale, biomass trends have been put in relation with a set of potential drivers via a RandomForest model, to define which were the explanatory factors of the observed trends. The factor set covered 5 categories: climate, natural constraints, demography, physical accessibility and land cover changes. We highlighted that tiger bushes areas were particularly prone to pressure due to overgrazing and overexploitation of wood, while positive trends were mainly observed near rivers and in fossil valleys where new agricultural practices might have been promoted. The approach developped here could help to delineate areas with decrease in crop and grassland production and thus to assess the vulnerability of the population, but also to target zones with good potential for planning long
Fehr, Rainer; Hurley, Fintan; Mekel, Odile Cecile; Mackenbach, Johan P
Over the past years, application of health impact assessment has increased substantially, and there has been a strong growth of tools that allow quantification of health impacts for a range of health relevant policies. We review these developments, and conclude that further tool development is no longer a main priority, although several aspects need to be further developed, such as methods to assess impacts on health inequalities and to assess uncertainties. The main new challenges are, first, to conduct a comparative evaluation of different tools, and, second, to ensure the maintenance and continued availability of the toolkits including their data contents.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the action of rangeland-depended livestock holders regarding rangeland conservation, including protection and rehabilitation activities and to analyse relevant influencing factors, using a mixed method of survey and case study. The data were collected through analysing existing documents, focus groups, semi-structured and structured interviews using questionnaires submitted to 204 rural livestock holders in the Mahneshan Township. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS and AMOS software. According to the results farmers’ knowledge regarding the role, importance and factors affecting rangeland degradation was relatively high, however they had a low level of knowledge and action about mechanical conservation techniques. The action of livestock holders in terms of biological conservation activities and grazing management showed a positive and signifincat corrletaion with variables such as implementing of rangeland projects, their interaction with external institutions, participating in extension training courses, education level and irrigated and rainfed agricultural land size. Moreover, based on a path analysis, 37% of the variance of the farmers’ actions regarding the rangeland conservation was explained by the variables such as rangeland rehabilitation actions, farmers’ conservation knowledge, farmers’ interaction with natural resources experts, beekeeping, and participating in extension training courses. Promotional and extension activities and farmers’ interaction with experts have a positive effect in enhancing farmers’ knowledge and actions for sustainable rangeland use and conservation.
Fosbrook, Susan Curro
Beginning nursing students enter a rapidly moving and changing health care climate. Multiple stimulations can frighten and overwhelm the student's ability to find order of essential patient information. Students need to know how to collect, process, and manage important health data accurately and efficiently in the clinical setting. An integrative method for teaching nursing students to walk into the patient's room and construct a patterned sequence of focused assessments assists students in creating an organized plan for health assessment. The Mental Snapshots Method includes three components for health assessment: (a) sequential assessment steps of the patient; (b) color-coded visual images of the patient representing a bodily condition; and (c) focused assessment questions of primary health complaint(s) with a plan for nursing care. This mental snapshots strategy employs an information processing model of sensory, memory, and motor functioning, which enable students to maintain patient quality and safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
den Broeder, Lea; Staatsen, Brigit; Kemm, John
This chapter discusses the development of health impact assessment (HIA) in The Netherlands. HIA in The Netherlands began in the early 1990s and developed along two different lines: one shaped by the public health approach and the other stemming from the environmental field. Public health-based HIA
Full Text Available Assessment of health risk level is the major methodological approach for hygienic monitoring planning, for cause-effect basis of interrelation between environmental pollution and health. Pollution with heavy metals (cadmium, nickel of Zavodskoy district in Saratov results in increasing risk and this requires development of health protection ways and approaches
AJRH Managing Editor
Esan & Fatusi. Performance of maternal health services. African Journal of Reproductive Health June 2014; 18(2): 105. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Performance Needs Assessment of Maternal and Newborn Health. Service Delivery in Urban and Rural areas of Osun State, South-. West, Nigeria. Oluwaseun T. Esan*.
Grisso, Thomas; Vincent, Gina M
This article introduces a special issue of Law and Human Behavior, including five articles describing the limits of forensic mental health assessments of (a) risk of violence in female adolescents, (b) sexually violent predators, (c) dangerousness in capital murder cases, (d) child sexual abuse, and (e) PTSD litigants. Knowing the limits of forensic mental health assessment methods is essential in order to recognize their strengths, increase the credibility of forensic mental health assessment, and drive research that will enhance the value of assessments for the courts.
Esnaola, Santiago; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Sanz, Elvira; Aldasoro, Elena; Calderón, Carlos; Zuazagoitia, Juan; Cambra, Koldo
Health impact assessment is a predictive tool to support decisions in policy-making. Current experience shows that health impact assessment could play an important role in the development of the Health in All Policies strategy. This strategy has been extensively used in other European countries and in a wide range of policy and administrative sectors. Health impact assessment is hardly ever mandatory and is frequently carried out separately from other impact assessments. The use of this process in Spain is relatively new, limited and fundamentally based on local level experiences and the screening of regional interventions. The current normative and organizational reform of public health in Spain provides an excellent opportunity to promote the development of health impact assessment. Some of the barriers to the development of this process are related to the biomedical model of health prevailing among health professionals, politicians, and the general population, political disaffection, lack of assessment culture, underdevelopment of community participation processes, and insufficient intersectoral work. Health impact assessment provides an opportunity to move toward improving the population's health and reducing inequalities in health. Consequently, political commitment, as well as investment in education and research, is needed to introduce and develop health impact assessment in all administrative settings and policy sectors. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...
Cuff, Patricia A
... professional education. At the event, Forum members shared personal experiences and learned from patients, students, educators, and practicing health care and prevention professionals about the role each could play...
Dong, Shikui; Lassoie, James; Shrestha, K K; Yan, Zhaoli; Sharma, Ekalabya; Pariya, D
Rangelands represent one of the most important natural resources in mountainous regions of northern Nepal. However, a poor understanding of the social dimensions of rangeland use has limited their proper management and sustainable development, which represent major challenges for Nepal's resource managers. Institutional development is thought to be a viable solution to this problem and may ultimately lead to improved rangeland management in Nepal. Based on this hypothesis, a study was conduced in the Rasuwa district of northern Nepal to examine the effectiveness of institutional development at the local and national levels in mitigating the problems facing sustainable rangeland management by using an institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework. The information and data were mainly collected from different stakeholders, farmers, professionals and practitioners using a toolkit of participatory rural appraisal (PRA), workshops and literature review. It can be concluded from this case study that a number of institutional development efforts are needed to promote sustainable rangeland management in this region. First, local herders represent a repository of rich indigenous knowledge essential to sustaining sound rangeland management practices; hence, indigenous practices need to be integrated into modern technologies. Second, public services and technical support are currently unavailable or inaccessible to local herders; hence, research, development and extension interventions need to be initiated for marginalized pastoral communities. Third, rangeland institutions are incomplete and ill-organized, so institutional development of various organizations is necessary for promoting sustainable rangeland management. Fourth, the policies and governance necessary for promoting rangeland management are not well-designed; hence, governance reform and policy development need to be formulated through internal and external agencies and organizations.
Guerschman, J. P.; Held, A. A.; Donohue, R. J.; Renzullo, L. J.; Sims, N.; Kerblat, F.; Grundy, M.
Rangelands and pastures cover about a third of the world's land area and support livestock production which represents ~40% of global agricultural gross domestic product. The global consumption of animal protein shows a clear increasing trend, driven by both total population and per capita income increases, putting a growing pressure on the sustainability of grazing lands worldwide. Despite their relevance, rangelands have received less attention than croplands regarding global monitoring of the resource productivity and condition. The Rangelands and Pasture Productivity (RaPP) activity is a component within the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative established under the Group on Earth Observations (GEOGLAM) in 2013. GEOGLAM RaPP is aimed at providing the global community with the means to monitor the world's rangelands and pastures on a routine basis, and the capacity to produce animal protein in real-time, at global, regional and national levels. Since its launch two years ago GEOGLAM RAPP has made progress in the four implementation elements. These include: 1- the establishment of community of practice; 2- the development of a global monitoring system for rangeland condition; 3- the establishment of pilot sites in main rangeland systems for satellite data products validation and model testing; and 4- integration with livestock production models. Three international workshops have been held building the community of practice. A prototype monitoring system that provides global visualisations and querying capability of vegetation cover data and anomalies has been established. Pilot sites, mostly in areas with long records of field measurements of rangeland condition and productivity have been proposed for nine countries. The link to global livestock models, including physical and economic components, have been established. Future challenges for GEOGLAM RaPP have also been identified and include: better representation of the areas occupied by rangelands
Kisen, N. M.; Hepner, G.; Hadley, H.
Grazing is the predominant land use activity in the rangelands of the Inter-Mountain West. Vegetation phenology affects the impact of grazing; new plant growth is especially palatable to grazing animals. Over time, preferential grazing gives less palatable plants an advantage in rooting depth and may alter the composition of plant species and lead to soil erosion. The benefits of using remote spectral imagery to predict the onset and advancement of the phenologic phases for expansive and/or inaccessible areas is recognized, however, the practical application of this technology has been limited. A time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) vegetation indices was analyzed to identify the temporal profile of the growing season for surface vegetation in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). Drivers to which the progression of phenologic transition dates are most responsive were explored. Using phenological parameters defined from the MODIS time series and relationships of the phenological transition dates to the drivers, a predictive phenological model specific to the environmental parameters of the UCRB was developed. This model can be implemented at various spatial extents and temporal windows as part of a rangeland management strategy.
Full Text Available Increasing forage productivity in the Sierra foothill rangelands would help sustain the livestock industry as land availability shrinks and lease rates rise, but hardly any studies have been done on forage selections. From 2009 to 2014, in one of the first long-term and replicated studies of seeding Northern California's Mediterranean annual rangeland, we compared the cover of 22 diverse forages to determine their establishment and survivability over time. Among the annual herbs, forage brassica (Brassica napus L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus L. proved viable options. Among the annual grasses, soft brome (Bromus hordeaceus and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum performed well. However, these species will likely require frequent reseeding to maintain dominance. Long-term goals of sustained dominant cover (> 3 years are best achieved with perennial grasses. Perennial grasses that persisted with greater than 50% cover were Berber orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, Flecha tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum and several varieties of hardinggrass (Phalaris aquatica L., Perla koleagrass, Holdfast, Advanced AT. In 2014, these successful perennials produced over three times more dry matter (pounds per acre than the unseeded control and also suppressed annual grasses and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L. cover.
Tedesche, Molly E.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Meiman, Paul J.
In high elevation semi-arid rangelands, sagebrush and other shrubs can affect transport and deposition of wind-blown snow, enabling the formation of snowdrifts. Datasets from three field experiments were used to investigate the scales of spatial variability of snow depth around big mountain sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at a high elevation plateau rangeland in North Park, Colorado, during the winters of 2002, 2003, and 2008. Data were collected at multiple resolutions (0.05 to 25 m) and extents (2 to 1000 m). Finer scale data were collected specifically for this study to examine the correlation between snow depth, sagebrush microtopography, the ground surface, and the snow surface, as well as the temporal consistency of snow depth patterns. Variograms were used to identify the spatial structure and the Moran's I statistic was used to determine the spatial correlation. Results show some temporal consistency in snow depth at several scales. Plot scale snow depth variability is partly a function of the nature of individual shrubs, as there is some correlation between the spatial structure of snow depth and sagebrush, as well as between the ground and snow depth. The optimal sampling resolution appears to be 25-cm, but over a large area, this would require a multitude of samples, and thus a random stratified approach is recommended with a fine measurement resolution of 5-cm.
Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Lee, Jennifer Y
To assess health literacy in an adult tertiary care otolaryngology clinic population and to explore potential determinants of inadequate health literacy. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary care otolaryngology clinic. The study population included all adult patients treated at 3 of Stanford University's adult otolaryngology clinic sites between March 1 and 11, 2016. Data were collected via an anonymous questionnaire. Health literacy was assessed with the Brief Health Literacy Screen. Ten percent of patients had inadequate health literacy. White race (odds ratio [OR], 0.23) and having English as the primary language (OR, 0.12) were associated with adequate health literacy, while high school or lower level of education (OR, 3.2) was associated with inadequate health literacy. Age, sex, and Hispanic ethnicity were not associated with health literacy. Our study highlights the need for health literacy screening in the otolaryngology clinic setting and identifies sociodemographic risk factors for inadequate health literacy. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of health literacy on patient outcomes and to test specific interventions to address health literacy and health outcomes. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.
For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long
Pennel, Cara L; Burdine, James N; Prochaska, John D; McLeroy, Kenneth R
Community health assessment and community health improvement planning are continuous, systematic processes for assessing and addressing health needs in a community. Since there are different models to guide assessment and planning, as well as a variety of organizations and agencies that carry out these activities, there may be confusion in choosing among approaches. By examining the various components of the different assessment and planning models, we are able to identify areas for coordination, ways to maximize collaboration, and strategies to further improve community health. We identified 11 common assessment and planning components across 18 models and requirements, with a particular focus on health department, health system, and hospital models and requirements. These common components included preplanning; developing partnerships; developing vision and scope; collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data; identifying community assets; identifying priorities; developing and implementing an intervention plan; developing and implementing an evaluation plan; communicating and receiving feedback on the assessment findings and/or the plan; planning for sustainability; and celebrating success. Within several of these components, we discuss characteristics that are critical to improving community health. Practice implications include better understanding of different models and requirements by health departments, hospitals, and others involved in assessment and planning to improve cross-sector collaboration, collective impact, and community health. In addition, federal and state policy and accreditation requirements may be revised or implemented to better facilitate assessment and planning collaboration between health departments, hospitals, and others for the purpose of improving community health.
Berg, B. van den; Grievink, L.; Gutschmidt, K.; Lang, T.; Palmer, S.; Ruijten, M.; Stumpel, R.; Yzermans, J.
A broad range of health problems are related to disasters. Insight into these health problems is needed for targeted disaster management. Disaster health outcome assessment can provide insight into the health effects of disasters. During the 15th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine in
eight-year-old James Phipps with Cow Pox. When the boy later proved to be immune to Small Pox humanity was on its way to taming the microbe. Between...33 Anjum Hajat, Carol K. Brown and Michael R. Frazer , Local Public Health Agency Infrastructure : A Chartbook., 2001 ed...Care, Housing & Human Services and 42 George W. Bush, Homeland Security Presidential Directive
however, that “Declining federal support for preparedness activities is translating to shuttering of 60 programs and staff layoffs at state/local health...a more humanistic management. Journal of Buisness Ethics , 445–462. Rollins, J., & Connors, T. (2007). State fusion center processes and procedures
Rothman, David J; Blackwood, Kristy L; Adair, Whitney; Rothman, Sheila M
To evaluate the Washington State Health Technology Assessment Program (WHTAP). Washington State Health Technology Assessment Program proceedings in Seattle, Washington. We assessed the program through observation of its proceedings over a 5-year period, 2009-2014. We conducted detailed analyses of the documents it produced and reviewed relevant literature. Washington State Health Technology Assessment Program is unique compared to other state and federal programs. It has successfully applied evidence-based medicine to health care decision making, limited by the strength of available data. It claims cost savings, but they are not substantiated. Washington State Health Technology Assessment Program is a useful model for other states considering implementation of technology assessment programs. We provide key lessons for improving WHTAP's process. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Fox, Ann; Chenhall, Cathy; Traynor, Marie; Scythes, Cindy; Bellman, Jane
Renewed focus on public health has brought about considerable interest in workforce development among public health nutrition professionals in Canada. The present article describes a situational assessment of public health nutrition practice in Canada that will be used to guide future workforce development efforts. A situational assessment is a planning approach that considers strengths and opportunities as well as needs and challenges, and emphasizes stakeholder participation. This situational assessment consisted of four components: a systematic review of literature on public health nutrition workforce issues; key informant interviews; a PEEST (political, economic, environmental, social, technological) factor analysis; and a consensus meeting. Information gathered from these sources identified key nutrition and health concerns of the population; the need to define public health nutrition practice, roles and functions; demand for increased training, education and leadership opportunities; inconsistent qualification requirements across the country; and the desire for a common vision among practitioners. Findings of the situational assessment were used to create a three-year public health nutrition workforce development strategy. Specific objectives of the strategy are to define public health nutrition practice in Canada, develop competencies, collaborate with other disciplines, and begin to establish a new professional group or leadership structure to promote and enhance public health nutrition practice. The process of conducting the situational assessment not only provided valuable information for planning purposes, but also served as an effective mechanism for engaging stakeholders and building consensus.
Rosenköttera, N.; Vondeling, Hindrik; Blancquaert, I.; Mekel, O.C.L.; Kristensen, F.B.; Brand, A.
The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the
Hangelbroek, Roland W.J.
Prolonged lifespan and decreased fertility will lead to an increased proportion of older adults in the world population (population aging). An important strategy to deal with population aging has been to promote healthy aging; not only to prevent mounting health care costs, but also to maintain
Borup, Ina K.
Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiental learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialogue, school health nurse......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiental learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialogue, school health nurse...
Borup, Ina K.
Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialouge, school health nurse......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialouge, school health nurse...
Dalmer, Nicole K
This narrative review examines assessments of the reliability of online health information retrieved through social media to ascertain whether health information accessed or disseminated through social media should be evaluated differently than other online health information. Several medical, library and information science, and interdisciplinary databases were searched using terms relating to social media, reliability, and health information. While social media's increasing role in health information consumption is recognized, studies are dominated by investigations of traditional (i.e., non-social media) sites. To more richly assess constructions of reliability when using social media for health information, future research must focus on health consumers' unique contexts, virtual relationships, and degrees of trust within their social networks.
Nicole K. Dalmer, BSc, MLIS, PhD Candidate
Full Text Available This narrative review examines assessments of the reliability of online health information retrieved through social media to ascertain whether health information accessed or disseminated through social media should be evaluated differently than other online health information. Several medical, library and information science, and interdisciplinary databases were searched using terms relating to social media, reliability, and health information. While social media’s increasing role in health information consumption is recognized, studies are dominated by investigations of traditional (i.e., non-social media sites. To more richly assess constructions of reliability when using social media for health information, future research must focus on health consumers’ unique contexts, virtual relationships, and degrees of trust within their social networks.
Harting, Janneke; van Assema, Patricia; van der Molen, Henk T.; Ambergen, Ton; de Vries, Nanne K.
Quality assessments of interventions are seen as essential in optimizing their implementation, interpreting their effectiveness, and illuminating their underlying processes. In Hartslag Limburg, a cardiovascular prevention project, the quality of a health counseling intervention was assessed as part
application for Tele-medicine (MAST). An introductory literature review identified stroke, heart failure (HF) and COPD as prototypes of IHC. Pre-existing evidence has been complemented by additional trials and surveys. Results: 1. Definition/organization of IHC: (1) Is carried out by a multidisciplinary team......-analysis of the effect on all-cause readmissions concludes OR=0.60 (CI95%: 0.40-0.92) COPD: 3 RCT (N=381) demonstrate each a significant reduction in readmissions. A meta-analysis of readmissions concludes (OR=0.5; CI: 0.25-0.80). 3. Health economic evaluation: For each selected condition the first year benefit...... satisfaction: Focus group interviews confirm literature findings of very good satisfaction by IHC both among patients/carers and health professionals. Discussion: The calculated net savings by IHC are not supposed to materialize in ‘cool’- cash but should enable local negotiation of adapted solutions...
Banta, David; Jonsson, Egon; Childs, Paul
The International Society for Technology Assessment in Health Care (ISTAHC) was formed in 1985. It grew out of the increasing awareness of the international dimensions of health technology assessment (HTA) and the need for new communication methods at the international level. The main function of ISTAHC was to present an annual conference, which gradually grew in size, and also to generally improve in quality from to year. ISTAHC overextended itself financially early in the first decade of the 2000s and had to cease its existence. A new society, Health Technology Assessment international (HTAi), based on many of the same ideas and people, grew up beginning in the year 2003. The two societies have played a large role in making the field of HTA visible to people around the world and providing a forum for discussion on the methods and role of HTA.
Dehnavieh, Reza; Mirshekari, Nadia; Ghasemi, Sara; Goudarzi, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Moshkani, Zahra; Noori Hekmat, Somayeh
Background: Every year millions of dollars are expended to equip and maintain the hospital sterilization centers, and our country is not an exception of this matter. According to this, it is important to use more effective technologies and methods in health system in order to reach more effectiveness and saving in costs. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the technology of regional sterilization centers. Methods: This study was done in four steps. At the first step, safety an...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rangelands account for almost half of Nebraska's 24 million acres. Much of these expansive natural resource areas are in the semi-arid climatic region of Nebraska...
The management of rangeland landscapes involves broad spatial extents, mixed land ownership, and multiple resource objectives. Management outcomes depend on biophysical heterogeneity, highly variable weather conditions, land use legacies, and spatial processes such as wildlife movement, hydrological...
Wessels, Konrad J
Full Text Available According to the nonequilibrium theory, livestock grazing has a limited effect on long-term vegetation productivity of semiarid rangelands, which is largely determined by rainfall. The communal lands in northeastern South Africa contain extensive...
Ikeda, Chiseko; Saeki, Kazuko; Hirano, Michiyo
Stress assessments are due to be conducted in December 2015. It is expected that there will be an increase in the number of private health agencies that provide stress assessment services and mental health care. This study aimed to clarify the current situation of and the factors related to stress assessments conducted by nurses in occupational health agencies. Nurses working full time were randomly selected from 60 organizations that were members of the National Federation of Industrial Health Organization. Self-administered questionnaires were sent out between November 2013 and January 2014. The questionnaire included the personal attributes of the participants, training programs, job contents, and how practical mental health care, including stress assessment, is. The study was approved by the ethics committees in the respective organizations. Out of the 162 questionnaires that were distributed, 89 (54.9%) were returned and 85 (53.1%) were valid for analysis. Stress assessments were conducted by 38.8% of the participants. With reference to their confidence in conducting stress assessments, "confidence and" 70.6%, respectively. The groups that conducted and did not conduct the stress assessments did not show any differences in the findings or other attributes. Further, the implementation of stress assessment was not associated with occupational health nurse (OHN) training, education, position, age, years of experience, attendance of lectures on mental health, etc. However, the confidence in conducting the assessment was related to age when dealing with cases on confidence stress assessment consultation in follow-up to the implementation of screening, such as stress, persons at high risk, and so on. Approximately 40% of the nurses were already conducting stress assessments, but most of them conducted such assessments about once a year and were not deeply involved in them. Approximately 70% of the nurses were confident in implementing stress assessments. Further
The World Health Organization's International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have developed a collaborative partnership to foster integration; of assessment approa...
The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
McCarthy, Mark; Ravelli, Robert J; Sinclair-Williams, Mike
Transport is a structural determinant of health. We have assessed the potential of transport plans for the 2012 London Olympic Games to achieve the sustainability commitment of 'encouraging healthy living...
Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Cole-Hunter, Tom; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dons, Evi; Gerike, Regine; Götschi, Thomas; Int Panis, Luc; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
...). However, risks of injury from exposure to motorized traffic and their emissions (i.e. air pollution) exist. The objective was to systematically review studies conducting health impact assessment...
The compilation includes tools and resources related to the HIA process and can be used to collect and analyze data, establish a baseline profile, assess potential health impacts, and establish benchmarks and indicators for monitoring and evaluation.
Abooee, P; Mobinizadeh, M; SH Emami; A Olyaeemanesh; SH Doaee; Nejati, M; GS Zolani
Background: To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA) in Iran since 2007, and to facilitate further development of HTA and its integration into policy making. Methods: Data of this study were collected through key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation) and analyzed by experts of opinion in form of qualitative methods. Results: Health technology assessment entered to the political agenda in Iran only in 2007 with a strong impet...
Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety
The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) requests the Norwegian Committee for Food Safety (VKM) to perform a risk assessment of plant health and manure from slaughterhouses. NFSA asks VKM to assess to what extent feces from livestock and manure from slaughterhouses poses a risk of introduction and spread of pests and weeds when dispersed on untreated agricultural soil. VKM has received a preliminary request from NFSA. The VKM Panel on Plant Health will be res...
Haruna, Hussein; Mtoroki, Majaliwa; Gerendasy, Dan D; Detlefsen, Ellen G
The intention of the Government of Tanzania is to establish more health information resource canters in all health facilities. With this regard, health information science personnel are needed to provide adequate and accurate health information services. However, availability of these personnel remains to be a challenge because of their non-existence. To identify the current status and local impact of health sciences libraries and user perception of these libraries, as a prerequisite to the development of a competence-based curriculum for health information science training in Tanzania. A needs assessment was carried out using a convenience sample of local respondents, including librarians, trainers, academicians, students, health care providers, and patients and families, drawn from national, referral, regional, district hospitals, health training institutions, and universities from both government and nongovernment entities in Tanzania. A focus group approach was used to gather data from respondents. Results from this assessment revealed that health science libraries in Tanzania are faced with the challenges of insufficient infrastructure, old technology, limited facilities and furniture, inadequate and incompetent library staff, lack of health sciences librarians, outdated and insufficient resources, and low knowledge and use of information technologies by library clients. Most respondents would prefer to have both physical and electronic libraries, as well as librarians with specialized health information science skills, to cope with changing nature of the medical field. The findings obtained from this assessment are strong enough to guide the development of a curriculum and training strategy and an operational plan and training packages for health information professionals. The development of a training curriculum for health information science professionals will mean better health information service delivery for Tanzania. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of
Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin
months. Positive attitudes towards dental care were found in all age groups; 67% of adolescents brushed their teeth at least twice a day and 48% of the students used fluoridated toothpaste. Only 26% of the students visited a dentist during the previous 12 months. In all, 6% of the adolescents had tried...... cluster sampling and covered three age groups: 11, 13, and 15 years. Data on dental and general health were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Self-assessment of dental health of Chinese adolescents was generally good, only 12% of the students answered that their teeth were "poor" or "very...... poor", and 9% claimed having "poor" or "very poor" gums. Eleven percent of participants said that other students made fun of their teeth; 24% of the respondents were dissatisfied with the appearance of their teeth, and 41% claimed that they had experienced toothache or symptoms during the previous 12...
Gwinn, Maureen R; Axelrad, Daniel A; Bahadori, Tina; Bussard, David; Cascio, Wayne E; Deener, Kacee; Dix, David; Thomas, Russell S; Kavlock, Robert J; Burke, Thomas A
Preventing adverse health effects of environmental chemical exposure is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and effects of environmentally induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Considering these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease.
john frimpong manso
Full Text Available Ghana Public Health Sector runs a three-tier system of managing health commodities. Suppliers, the Central Medical Store, The Regional Medical Store, Service Delivery Points and the transportation system form the supply chain. Ghana Health Service logistics system is centralized and the health care delivery system is decentralized. Logistics management in the health system is crucial. This is because there are instances where medicines and health commodities are not available at the Central Medical Stores and the Regional Medical Stores. Consequently, there is no commodity security at the service delivery points. Upon this backdrop the study seeks to assess the logistics management system in order to bring efficiency in the system. The study adopts a multi-case study approach to assess the practices of logistics management, the causes of inadequacy of logistics and the strengths and weaknesses in Ghana Health Service logistics system. Two categories of participants that is, the key players of health logistics management and end-users were involved in the study. Four variables; finance for procurement of health commodities, evenly distribution of health commodities, effective supervision and constant monitoring and evaluation were found crucial in effective and efficient logistics management. Moreover, it was found that poor procurement planning and budgeting, lack of financial resources for procurement, poor quantification and forecasting, delay in procurement process and order processing, and delay in receiving insurance claims are some of the causes of inadequacy of logistics in the health systems. It is recommended that Ghana Health Service logistics or supply system must receive constant monitoring and evaluation. Further, Ghana Health Service must ensure that there is effective top-down supervision in the system to bring up efficiency. Again, Ghana Health Service and Ministry of Health must ensure enough funds are secured from the
Full Text Available Pastoralists' knowledge of adaptive rangeland management in Iran has long been only selectively analyzed and documented. This study attempts to rectify that by outlining the indigenous ecological knowledge of the pastoralists of Nariyan village in the Taleghan region of northern Iran, and by evaluating the influence of such knowledge on rangeland management. Local herd owners operate according to traditional herding practices; their knowledge of rangeland plants and principles of sustainable rangeland management is indigenous and is based on centuries of experience and observation. Their in-depth knowledge covers the medicinal properties of various local plant species and the palatability of the most salient forage species in terms of sustaining the sheep and goats that are their livelihood. This study investigates some of the traditional strategies of rangeland management used in the Taleghan region, the rationale and timing of livestock rotation in the rangelands, local landscape classification, and local know-how in animal husbandry, all of which are indispensable in contributing to the pastoralists' survival and maintenance of the local environment.
Borup, Ina K.
Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC), health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC), health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children...
Schnabel, S.; Lavado Contador, J. F.; Gómez Gutiérrez, Á.
The paper presents a review on soil degradation studies carried out since 1990 in wooded rangelands in Extremadura. In the semiarid and subhumid parts of the south-western Iberian Peninsula open evergreen woodlands dominated by Quercus species are widespread (dehesas and montados). They are composed of grasslands with a varying degree of tree cover, ranging from treeless to more than 80 individuals per hectare. In some areas shrubs form a third component of the vegetation. Dehesas are subject to a complex exploitation system with agro-silvo-pastoral land use. The dominant soil degradation phenomena include different forms of water erosion and physical and biological degradation. Regarding soil erosion and surface hydrology, research has been carried out at different spatial scales. Sheetwash and overland flow were investigated along hillslopes and in microplots, whereas gully erosion and runoff production were monitored in small experimental catchments. Recently, physical and biological degradation has been studied in a large number of farms, representing the most important types of rangelands in the region of Extremadura. This included a rapid appraisal of degradation features, the determination of soil properties and a study on the distribution and activity of gullies. Soil degradation varies strongly with regard to the natural factors, but also with respect to land use and management. Sheetwash (interrill erosion) is the dominant process on hillslopes, with a mean soil loss rate of 0.63 t ha-1. However rainfall variation and land management, especially livestock density, produce changes in soil cover. With low to moderate livestock densities and during prolonged periods with low rainfall (droughts), the vegetation cover may be strongly reduced, provoking high soil losses, whereas during normal or humid periods interrill erosion is low. Excessive stocking rates may exacerbate sheetwash, producing severe soil degradation, regardless of rainfall conditions. In
Assessment of soil health involves determining how well a soil is performing its biological, chemical, and physical functions relative to its inherent potential. Due to high costs, labor requirements, and soil disturbance, traditional laboratory analyses cannot provide high resolution soil health da...
Oratie uitgesproken op 1 februari 2013 door Prof.dr.mr. Silvia MAA Evers, Maastricht University, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht ter aanvaarding van haar bijzonder hoogleraarschap met als titel "Public Health Technology Assessment: niet horen, niet zien en zwijgen!"
However, the wetland health assessment tools used in South Africa are highly technical, rendering them largely inaccessible to non-specialists. Recently, Kotze (2015) developed a tool which seeks to address this gap by involving the wider community in monitoring the health of wetlands in South Africa. The aim of the ...
Fehr, Rainer, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Fakultaet fuer Gesundheitswissenschaften, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Mekel, Odile C.L., E-mail: email@example.com [Gesundheitsdaten und analysen, Versorgungsstrukturen, Landeszentrum Gesundheit Nordrhein-Westfalen (LZG.NRW), Westerfeldstr. 35-37, 33611 Bielefeld (Germany); Fintan Hurley, J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mackenbach, Johan P., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Integrating human health into prospective impact assessments is known to be challenging. This is true for both approaches: dedicated health impact assessments (HIA) as well as inclusion of health into more general impact assessments. Acknowledging the full range of participatory, qualitative, and quantitative approaches, this study focuses on the latter, especially on computational tools for quantitative health modelling. We conducted a survey among tool developers concerning the status quo of development and availability of such tools; experiences made with model usage in real-life situations; and priorities for further development. Responding toolmaker groups described 17 such tools, most of them being maintained and reported as ready for use and covering a wide range of topics, including risk & protective factors, exposures, policies, and health outcomes. In recent years, existing models have been improved and were applied in new ways, and completely new models emerged. There was high agreement among respondents on the need to further develop methods for assessment of inequalities and uncertainty. The contribution of quantitative modeling to health foresight would benefit from building joint strategies of further tool development, improving the visibility of quantitative tools and methods, and engaging continuously with actual and potential users. - Highlights: • A survey investigated computational tools for health impact quantification. • Formal evaluation of such tools has been rare. • Handling inequalities and uncertainties are priority areas for further development. • Health foresight would benefit from tool developers and users forming a community. • Joint development strategies across computational tools are needed.
The paper assessed the health and safety culture perceptions of management and field personnel of eight (8) construction firms located in Asokoro district of Abuja. Data on the perceptions of management and field personnel on construction health and safety culture were collated to test the hypothesis which states that ...
1School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Original article. Assessing communication on sexual and reproductive health issues among high school students with their parents, Bullen. Woreda, Benishangul Gumuz Region, North West Ethiopia. Desalegn Gebre Yesus1, Mesganaw Fantahun1.
An assessment of the health and social economc implications of satchet water in Ibadan, Nigeria: A public health challenge. ... The objective of the study was to find out the quality of such pure water. Stratified, simple random sampling procedures were used to select 78 samples from 20 brands of sachet water from important ...
Assessing Health, Economic, and Social Equity Impacts of Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Products in Vietnam. Tobacco use is a leading cause of death in Vietnam. In June 2012, the country's National Assembly enacted a comprehensive Law on Prevention and Control of Tobacco Harms, which then entered into ...
Thöns, S.; Faber, Michael Havbro
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems are designed for assisting owners and operators with information and forecasts concerning the fitness for purpose of structures and building systems. The benefit associated with the implementation of SHM may in some cases be intuitively anticipated...... of the structure over its life-cycle as well as the costs associated with monitoring and possible remedial actions. The suggested approach is illustrated through two case studies concerning the monitoring of welded details in steel structures subjected to fatigue loading. The case studies address the effect...... of the uncertainty associated with the performance of SHM on the value of SHM. Moreover, in order to illustrate the potential of the application of approach for monitoring of structural systems an optimal strategy for SHM is determined for a system comprised of three welded details. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group...
Mielke, Howard W
In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: "Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century". We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson's statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention.
Rodriguez, Hector P; Glenn, Beth A; Olmos, Tanya T; Krist, Alex H; Shimada, Stephanie L; Kessler, Rodger; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Bastani, Roshan
Assessing patient-reported health behaviors is a critical first step in prioritizing prevention in primary care. We assessed the feasibility of point-of-care behavioral health assessment in 9 diverse primary care practices, including 4 federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), 4 practice-based research network practices, and a Department of Veterans Affairs practice. In this prospective mixed-methods study, practices were asked to integrate a standardized paper-based health behavior and mental health assessment into their workflow for ≥50 patients. We used 3 data sources to examine the implementation process: (1) patient responses to the health assessment, (2) patient feedback surveys about how assessments were used during encounters, and (3) postimplementation interviews. Most nonurgent patients (71%) visiting the participating practices during the implementation period completed the health assessment, but reach varied by practice (range, 59% to 88%). Unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress were the most common patient problems, with similar frequencies observed across practices. The median number of "positive screens" per patient was similar among FQHCs (3.7 positives; standard deviation [SD], 1.8), practice-based research network practices (3.8 positives; SD, 1.9), and the Veterans Affairs clinic (4.1 positives; SD, 2.0). Primary care clinicians discussed assessment results with patients about half of the time (54%), with considerable variation between practices (range, 13% to 66%; lowest use among FQHC clinicians). Although clinicians were interested in routinely implementing assessments, many reported not feeling confident of having resources or support to address all patients' behavioral health needs. Primary care practices will need to revamp their patient-reported data collection processes to integrate routine health behavior assessments. Implementation support will be required if health assessments are to be actively used as part of routine
Rodriguez, Hector P.; Glenn, Beth A.; Olmos, Tanya; Krist, Alex H.; Shimada, Stephanie L.; Kessler, Rodger; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Bastani, Roshan
Background Assessing patient-reported health behaviors is a critical first step to prioritizing prevention in primary care. We assessed the feasibility of point-of-care behavioral health assessment in nine diverse primary care practices, including four federally-qualified health centers (FQHCs), four Practice-based Research Network (PBRN) practices, and a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) practice. Methods In this prospective mixed-methods study, practices were asked to integrate a standardized paper-based health behavior and mental health assessment into their workflow for 50 or more patients. We used three data sources to examine the implementation process: 1) patient responses to the health assessment, 2) patient feedback surveys about how assessments were used during encounters, and 3) post-implementation interviews. Results Most (71%) non-urgent patients visiting the participating practices during the implementation period completed the health assessment, but reach varied by practice (range: 59-88%). Unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress were the most common patient problems with similar frequencies observed across practices. The median number of “positive screens” per patient was similar across FQHCs (3.7-positives, SD=1.8), PBRN practices (3.8-positives, SD=1.9), and the VA clinic (4.1-positives, SD=2.0). Primary care clinicians discussed assessment results with patients about half of the time (54%), with considerable between practice variation (range: 13%-66% with lowest use among FQHC clinicians). Although clinicians were interested in routinely implementing assessments, many reported not feeling confident of having resources or support to address all patients’ behavioral health needs. Conclusions Primary care practices will need to revamp their patient-reported data collection processes in order to integrate routine health behavior assessments. Implementation support will be required if health assessments are to be actively used as part
Michelle Del Rio; Hargrove, William L.; Joe Tomaka; Marcelo Korc
This Health Impact Assessment (HIA) informed the decision of expanding public transportation services to rural, low income communities of southern Doña Ana County, New Mexico on the U.S./Mexico border. The HIA focused on impacts of access to health care services, education, and economic development opportunities. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from surveys of community members, key informant interviews, a focus group with community health workers, and passenger surveys durin...
Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un
This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia's current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions' regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia's plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health services' safety and quality, and meeting its Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) obligations to facilitate trade in health care services. The assessment used a mixed methods approach including: A desktop review of key laws, plans, reports and other documents relating to the regulation of the health professions in Cambodia (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, nursing and pharmacy); Key informant interviews with stakeholders in Cambodia (The term "stakeholders" refers to government officials, people working on health professional regulation, people working for the various health worker training institutions and health workers at the national and provincial level); Surveys and questionnaires to assess Cambodian stakeholder knowledge of regulation; Self-assessments by members of the five Cambodian regulatory councils regarding key capacities and activities of high-performing regulatory bodies; and A rapid literature review to identify: The key functions of health professional regulation; The key issues affecting the Cambodian health sector (including relevant developments in the wider ASEAN region); and "Smart" health profession regulation practices of possible relevance to Cambodia. We found that the current regulatory system only partially meets Cambodia's needs. A number of key regulatory functions are being performed, but overall, the current system was not designed with Cambodia's specific needs in mind. The existing system is also overly complex, with considerable duplication and
Marrying scientific and health research with natural resource management should be a straightforward process. However, differences in purpose, goals, language, levels of detail and implementation authority between the scientists who conduct research and resource managers who plan and implement projects make it difficult for resource managers to include information not specific to the problem at hand. One method to overcome this barrier is a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) or process that uses scientific data, health expertise and public input to factor public health considerations into the decision-making process. An HIA informs decision makers and stakeholders of the potential health effects of a proposed program, policy, project or plan through a systematic investigation of impacts to health and health determinants and deliberative engagement of community members and other stakeholders throughout the HIA process. USEPA will be conducting an HIA on the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources’ sediment remediation and habitat restoration project at Kingsbury Bay and Grassy Point. This poster outlines the HIA process, illustrates how technical and stakeholder committees inform the process, and presents the determinants of health that will be explored in the HIA. This poster will illustrate how a Health Impact Assessment, a process that uses scientific data, health expertise and public input to factor public health considerations into the decision-making proces
Leslie M. Roche
Full Text Available Grazinglands support the livelihoods of millions of people around the world, as well as supply critical ecosystem services. Communities reliant on rain-fed rangelands are potentially the most vulnerable to increasing climate variability given their dependence on highly climate-sensitive resources. Droughts, which are gradual natural hazards, pose substantial and recurrent economic and ecological stresses to these systems. This study examined management decision-making based on survey responses of 479 California ranchers to: (1 identify the types of drought strategies in-place across California’s rangelands and the operation variables driving strategy selection; and (2 examine how individual drought adaptation is enhanced by decision-making factors. Four types of in-place drought strategies were identified and ordered along a gradient of increasing intensity (number of practices used. Significant background variables driving strategy selection were operation experience with drought, type of livestock operation, grazing system, and land ownership types. Information resource networks, goal setting for sustainable natural resources, and management capacity all acted to enhance individual drought adaptation—defined here by active drought planning and the number of both reactive and proactive drought practices used. Overall, analyses revealed that flexibility in management is a key component of adapting to and coping with drought. Climate policy planning should take into account the diversity of strategies that have been developed by ranchers for multiple generations and within the context of their unique operations, as well as support these working landscapes via a range of adaptation and mitigation options to reduce vulnerability across all types of operations.
Liu, H.; Jin, Y.; Dahlgren, R. A.; O'Geen, A. T.; Roche, L. M.; Smith, A. M.; Flavell, D.
Pastures and rangeland cover more than 10 million hectares in California's coastal and inland foothill regions, providing feeds to livestock and important ecosystem services. Forage production in California has a large year-to-year variation due to large inter-annual and seasonal variabilities in precipitation and temperature. It also varies spatially due to the variability in climate and soils. Our goal is to develop a robust and cost-effective tool to map the near-real-time and historical forage productivity in California using remote sensing observations from Landsat and MODIS satellites. We used a Monteith's eco-physiological plant growth theory: the aboveground net primary production (ANPP) is determined by (i) the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and the (ii) light use efficiency (LUE): ANPP = APAR * LUEmax * f(T) * f(SM), where LUEmax is the maximum LUE, and f(T) and f(SM) are the temperature and soil moisture constrains on LUE. APAR was estimated with Landsat and MODIS vegetation index (VI), and LUE was calibrated with a statewide point dataset of peak forage production measurements at 75 annual rangeland sites. A non-linear optimization was performed to derive maximum LUE and the parameters for temperature and soil moisture regulation on LUE by minimizing the differences between the estimated and measured ANPP. Our results showed the satellite-derived annual forage production estimates correlated well withcontemporaneous in-situ forage measurements and captured both the spatial and temporal productivity patterns of forage productivity well. This remote sensing algorithm can be further improved as new field measurements become available. This tool will have a great importance in maintaining a sustainable range industry by providing key knowledge for ranchers and the stakeholders to make managerial decisions.
Bradway, Meghan; Carrion, Carme; Vallespin, Bárbara; Saadatfard, Omid; Puigdomènech, Elisa; Espallargues, Mireia; Kotzeva, Anna
The mass availability and use of mobile health (mHealth) technologies offers the potential for these technologies to support or substitute medical advice. However, it is worrisome that most assessment initiatives are still not able to successfully evaluate all aspects of mHealth solutions. As a result, multiple strategies to assess mHealth solutions are being proposed by medical regulatory bodies and similar organizations. We aim to offer a collective description of a universally applicable description of mHealth assessment initiatives, given their current and, as we see it, potential impact. In doing so, we recommend a common foundation for the development or update of assessment initiatives by addressing the multistakeholder issues that mHealth technology adds to the traditional medical environment. Organized by the Mobile World Capital Barcelona Foundation, we represent a workgroup consisting of patient associations, developers, and health authority representatives, including medical practitioners, within Europe. Contributions from each group's diverse competencies has allowed us to create an overview of the complex yet similar approaches to mHealth evaluation that are being developed today, including common gaps in concepts and perspectives. In response, we summarize commonalities of existing initiatives and exemplify additional characteristics that we believe will strengthen and unify these efforts. As opposed to a universal standard or protocol in evaluating mHealth solutions, assessment frameworks should respect the needs and capacity of each medical system or country. Therefore, we expect that the medical system will specify the content, resources, and workflow of assessment protocols in order to ensure a sustainable plan for mHealth solutions within their respective countries. A common framework for all mHealth initiatives around the world will be useful in order to assess whatever mHealth solution is desirable in different areas, adapting it to the
Friedman, Daniel J
This report assesses the potential of national strategies for electronic health records for population health monitoring and research. This study: (1) Reviewed national strategies for electronic health records in Australia, Canada, England, and New Zealand, through written materials available before January 2006. (2) Identified the potential of national strategies for electronic health records for population health monitoring and research through interviews with 96 experts in the U.S., Australia, Canada, England, and New Zealand. (3) Delineated fundamental issues that must be confronted to maximize the contribution of national strategies for electronic health records to population health monitoring and research. National strategies for electronic health records reflect the political, healthcare, and market systems of individual countries. National strategies also reflect technical decisions and political judgments. National strategies are evolving, and passing through stages of conceptualization, design, pilot testing, and implementation. Only England has moved to implementation. Population health monitoring and research are secondary to the primary uses of clinical care and management in all national strategies for electronic health records. Only England has conceptualized, designed, and is implementing the use of electronic health records for population health monitoring and research. Canada's strategy includes communicable disease surveillance, but not broader population health monitoring for developing health statistics. This study identifies definitional, numerator, denominator, and overarching issues that must be evaluated in assessing the potential of national strategies for electronic health records for population health monitoring and research. It delineates success factors that increase the potential for those national strategies to contribute to population health monitoring and research. Finally, this study assesses barriers that must be overcome if
Macatangay, Ariel V.
Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. Environmental monitoring coupled with other measures including active and passive controls and the implementation of environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits) are used to ensure environmental health in manned spacecraft. NASA scientists and engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. Environmental monitoring data confirms the health of ECLS systems, in addition to contributing to the management of the health of human systems. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of Exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of this assessment and findings are presented in this paper.
Public health and medical professionals are expected to be well prepared for emergencies, as they assume an integral role in any response. They need to be aware of planning issues, be able to identify their roles in emergency situations, and show functional competence. However, media perceptions and non-empirical publications often lack an evidence base when addressing this topic. This study attempted to assess the competencies of various health professionals by obtaining quantitative data on the state of bioterrorism preparedness and response competencies in Australia using an extensive set of competencies developed by Kristine Gebbie from the Columbia University School of Nursing Center for Health Policy with funding from the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. These competencies reflect the knowledge, capabilities, and skills that are necessary for best practice in public health. Sufficient data were collected to enable comparison between public health leaders, communicable disease specialists, clinicians (with and without medical degrees), and environmental health professionals. All health professionals performed well. However, the primary finding of this study was that clinicians consistently self-assessed themselves as lower in competence, and clinicians with medical degrees self-assessed themselves as the lowest in bioterrorism competence. This has important implications for health professional training, national benchmarks, standards, and competencies for the public health workforce.
Pyone, Thidar; Smith, Helen; van den Broek, Nynke
Governance of the health system is a relatively new concept and there are gaps in understanding what health system governance is and how it could be assessed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to describe the concept of governance and the theories underpinning as applied to health systems; and to identify which frameworks are available and have been applied to assess health systems governance. Frameworks were reviewed to understand how the principles of governance might be operationalized at different levels of a health system. Electronic databases and web portals of international institutions concerned with governance were searched for publications in English for the period January 1994 to February 2016. Sixteen frameworks developed to assess governance in the health system were identified and are described. Of these, six frameworks were developed based on theories from new institutional economics; three are primarily informed by political science and public management disciplines; three arise from the development literature and four use multidisciplinary approaches. Only five of the identified frameworks have been applied. These used the principal-agent theory, theory of common pool resources, North's institutional analysis and the cybernetics theory. Governance is a practice, dependent on arrangements set at political or national level, but which needs to be operationalized by individuals at lower levels in the health system; multi-level frameworks acknowledge this. Three frameworks were used to assess governance at all levels of the health system. Health system governance is complex and difficult to assess; the concept of governance originates from different disciplines and is multidimensional. There is a need to validate and apply existing frameworks and share lessons learnt regarding which frameworks work well in which settings. A comprehensive assessment of governance could enable policy makers to prioritize solutions for problems identified
Over the past 30 years, public health Practitioners worldwide have increasingly relied on Health Impact Assessments (HIAs) as a tool for informing decision makers of the potential health impacts of proposed policies, programs, and planning decisions. Adoption of the HIA is significantly less common in the United States than in international…
Full Text Available Assessment of the health status of the population is the foundation for troubleshooting health of the community. For this first step in solving the problems of health need to have adequate data. The basis for the registration of medical information is medical documentation. The aim is to assess the role and place of assessment of the health status of the community according to the literature in this field. We analyzed the available literature in the field of social medicine and health statistics, enlightened assessment of health in the community. The data necessary for determining the state of health can be related to many characteristics. The data can be accessed: review of available medical records and life statistics. Data analysis is performed with respect to the individual, family, group or the entire community. Based on the analysis and evaluation of health status can begin activities in the planning of preventive measures that should be implemented. To evaluate prevention plan is necessary to select and collect the appropriate data for the evaluation. The analysis and evaluation of individuals involved in cooperation with a team of health care health center for the level of Rakovica. Based on the good judgment of health condition can make appropriate plans of action to protect the health of the community.
Bello, Aminu K; Levin, Adeera; Tonelli, Marcello; Okpechi, Ikechi G; Feehally, John; Harris, David; Jindal, Kailash; Salako, Babatunde L; Rateb, Ahmed; Osman, Mohamed A; Qarni, Bilal; Saad, Syed; Lunney, Meaghan; Wiebe, Natasha; Ye, Feng; Johnson, David W
Kidney disease is a substantial worldwide clinical and public health problem, but information about available care is limited. To collect information on the current state of readiness, capacity, and competence for the delivery of kidney care across countries and regions of the world. Questionnaire survey administered from May to September 2016 by the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) to 130 ISN-affiliated countries with sampling of key stakeholders (national nephrology society leadership, policy makers, and patient organization representatives) identified by the country and regional nephrology leadership through the ISN. Core areas of country capacity and response for kidney care. Responses were received from 125 of 130 countries (96%), including 289 of 337 individuals (85.8%, with a median of 2 respondents [interquartile range, 1-3]), representing an estimated 93% (6.8 billion) of the world's population of 7.3 billion. There was wide variation in country readiness, capacity, and response in terms of service delivery, financing, workforce, information systems, and leadership and governance. Overall, 119 (95%), 95 (76%), and 94 (75%) countries had facilities for hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation, respectively. In contrast, 33 (94%), 16 (45%), and 12 (34%) countries in Africa had facilities for hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation, respectively. For chronic kidney disease (CKD) monitoring in primary care, serum creatinine with estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria measurements were reported as always available in only 21 (18%) and 9 (8%) countries, respectively. Hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and transplantation services were funded publicly and free at the point of care delivery in 50 (42%), 48 (51%), and 46 (49%) countries, respectively. The number of nephrologists was variable and was low (<10 per million population) in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and Oceania and South East
Combalbert, Nicolas; Andronikof, Anne; Armand, Marine; Robin, Cécile; Bazex, Hélène
The quality of forensic mental health assessment has been a growing concern in various countries on both sides of the Atlantic, but the legal systems are not always comparable and some aspects of forensic assessment are specific to a given country. This paper describes the legal context of forensic psychological assessment in France (i.e. pre-trial investigation phase entrusted to a judge, with mental health assessment performed by preselected professionals called "experts" in French), its advantages and its pitfalls. Forensic psychiatric or psychological assessment is often an essential and decisive element in criminal cases, but since a judiciary scandal which was made public in 2005 (the Outreau case) there has been increasing criticism from the public and the legal profession regarding the reliability of clinical conclusions. Several academic studies and a parliamentary report have highlighted various faulty aspects in both the judiciary process and the mental health assessments. The heterogeneity of expert practices in France appears to be mainly related to a lack of consensus on several core notions such as mental health diagnosis or assessment methods, poor working conditions, lack of specialized training, and insufficient familiarity with the Code of Ethics. In this article we describe and analyze the French practice of forensic psychologists and psychiatrists in criminal cases and propose steps that could be taken to improve its quality, such as setting up specialized training courses, enforcing the Code of Ethics for psychologists, and calling for consensus on diagnostic and assessment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... tool for growth monitoring and the assessment of health among children from birth to five years of age, was introduced in South Africa in February 2011. Objectives. The study assessed the implementation of growth monitoring and promotion, immunisation, vitamin A supplementation, and deworming sections of the RtHB.
The purpose of this study was to determine the use and perceived usefulness of outcomes assessment methods in health information management programs. Additional characteristics of the outcomes assessment practices were recognized. The findings were evaluated for significant differences in results based on age of the program, type of institution,…
Draminsky Petersen, Hans; Christensen, Maria Elisabeth; Kastrup, Marianne
General health assessment of refugees claiming to have been previously exposed to torture takes place in a psychological atmosphere affected by the difficult situation of the refugee. Thirty-one refugees, mainly from the Middle East and Africa, were assessed as regards their physical and mental...
Assessment of soil health involves determining how well a soil is performing its biological, chemical, and physical functions relative to its inherent potential. Within the Central Claypan Region of Missouri, the Salt River Basin was selected as a benchmark watershed to assess long-term effects of c...
van den Heuvel, WJA; Wieringh, R; van den Heuvel, LPM
Objective: To assess the contribution of medical technology assessment (MTA) to health policy decision making, the question has to be answered whether MTA is actually being used in decision-making processes and what factors are related to its utilisation. Design: We investigated recent Dutch policy
Gilo, Bikila Negasa; Kelkay, Tessema Zewdu
.... Sampling through random allocation of quadrats within replicated sample plots was undertaken in communally grazed areas, grazing enclosures and rangelands managed by prescribed fire for five years...
Full Text Available Property rights and management regimes for high-elevation rangelands in Bhutan have evolved over centuries in response to environmental, cultural, and political imperatives. The 2007 Land Act of Bhutan aims to redress historical inequities in property rights by redistributing grazing leases to local livestock owners in a process known as rangeland nationalization. This study explored 3 related issues: property rights and management regimes in 3 distinct high-elevation rangeland systems, herders' and government officials' perceptions of the proposed rangeland nationalization process, and the implications of rangeland nationalization for herder livelihoods and sustainable development. Qualitative research methods were adopted to capture the lived experiences of 151 livestock farmers, seminomadic herders, and government officials, including 40 individual interviews and 9 focus group discussions. The research revealed that herding in these high-elevation rangelands is governed by a complex combination of private, communal, and mixed property use rights regimes. Management regimes varied according to traditional rules, but development was limited because of lack of management rights. The rangeland nationalization process is expected to promote sustainable management of high-elevation rangelands by incentivizing provisioning and maintenance activities. However, the lack of clear implementation guidelines and a coherent replacement for traditional practices have created confusion and anxiety in herder communities. Providing tenure security and management rights in an equitable manner will be vital for fostering sustainable development for herder communities living in the high-elevation rangelands of Bhutan.
Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K
Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases in working-aged populations and occupational exposures are important causal agents. Our aims were to evaluate the best methods to assess occurrence, public health impact, and burden to society related to occupational or work-related asthma and to achieve comparable estimates for different populations. We addressed three central questions: 1: What is the best method to assess the occurrence of occupational asthma? We evaluated: 1) assessment of the occurrence of occupational asthma per se, and 2) assessment of adult-onset asthma and the population attributable fractions due to specific occupational exposures. 2: What are the best methods to assess public health impact and burden to society related to occupational or work-related asthma? We evaluated methods based on assessment of excess burden of disease due to specific occupational exposures. 3: How to achieve comparable estimates for different populations? We evaluated comparability of estimates of occurrence and burden attributable to occupational asthma based on different methods. Assessment of the occurrence of occupational asthma per se can be used in countries with good coverage of the identification system for occupational asthma, i.e. countries with well-functioning occupational health services. Assessment based on adult-onset asthma and population attributable fractions due to specific occupational exposures is a good approach to estimate the occurrence of occupational asthma at the population level. For assessment of public health impact from work-related asthma we recommend assessing excess burden of disease due to specific occupational exposures, including excess incidence of asthma complemented by an assessment of disability from it. International comparability of estimates can be best achieved by methods based on population attributable fractions. Public health impact assessment for occupational asthma is central in prevention and health policy planning
McIver, Lachlan; Woodward, Alistair; Davies, Seren; Tibwe, Tebikau; Iddings, Steven
Kiribati-a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation-is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health.
Full Text Available Kiribati—a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation—is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health.
Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery
While health impact assessment (HIA) has typically been applied to projects, plans or policies, it has significant potential with regard to strategic considerations of major health issues facing society such as climate change. Given the complexity of climate change, assessing health impacts presents new challenges that may require different approaches compared to traditional applications of HIA. This research focuses on the development of health consequence scales suited to assessing and comparing health effects associated with climate change and applied within a HIA framework. This assists in setting priorities for adaptation plans to minimize the public health impacts of climate change. The scales presented in this paper were initially developed for a HIA of climate change in Perth in 2050, but they can be applied across spatial and temporal scales. The design is based on a health effects pyramid with health measures expressed in orders of magnitude and linked to baseline population and health data. The health consequence measures are combined with a measure of likelihood to determine the level of risk associated with each health potential health impact. In addition, a simple visual framework that can be used to collate, compare and communicate the level of health risks associated with climate change has been developed.
Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery
While health impact assessment (HIA) has typically been applied to projects, plans or policies, it has significant potential with regard to strategic considerations of major health issues facing society such as climate change. Given the complexity of climate change, assessing health impacts presents new challenges that may require different approaches compared to traditional applications of HIA. This research focuses on the development of health consequence scales suited to assessing and comparing health effects associated with climate change and applied within a HIA framework. This assists in setting priorities for adaptation plans to minimize the public health impacts of climate change. The scales presented in this paper were initially developed for a HIA of climate change in Perth in 2050, but they can be applied across spatial and temporal scales. The design is based on a health effects pyramid with health measures expressed in orders of magnitude and linked to baseline population and health data. The health consequence measures are combined with a measure of likelihood to determine the level of risk associated with each health potential health impact. In addition, a simple visual framework that can be used to collate, compare and communicate the level of health risks associated with climate change has been developed. PMID:25229697
Currie Leanne M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low health literacy has a detrimental effect on health outcomes, as well as ability to use online health resources. Good health literacy assessment tools must be brief to be adopted in practice; test development from the perspective of item-response theory requires pretesting on large participant populations. Our objective was to develop a novel classification method for developing brief assessment instruments that does not require pretesting on large numbers of research participants, and that would be suitable for computerized adaptive testing. Methods We present a new algorithm that uses principles of measurement decision theory (MDT and Shannon's information theory. As a demonstration, we applied it to a secondary analysis of data sets from two assessment tests: a study that measured patients' familiarity with health terms (52 participants, 60 items and a study that assessed health numeracy (165 participants, 8 items. Results In the familiarity data set, the method correctly classified 88.5% of the subjects, and the average length of test was reduced by about 50%. In the numeracy data set, for a two-class classification scheme, 96.9% of the subjects were correctly classified with a more modest reduction in test length of 35.7%; a three-class scheme correctly classified 93.8% with a 17.7% reduction in test length. Conclusions MDT-based approaches are a promising alternative to approaches based on item-response theory, and are well-suited for computerized adaptive testing in the health domain.
McGorry, Patrick D; Goldstone, Sherilyn
Mental ill-health is a key health issue facing young Australians today. While the physical health of young people has improved in recent decades, their mental health appears to have worsened. Mental health and substance use disorders now account for over 50% of the burden of disease in the 15-25 years age group, and 75% of mental health disorders that will affect people across the lifespan will have emerged for the first time by the age of 25 years. This article provides the general practitioner with key factors in assessing the young person with a mental illness: when to worry and what the early stages of mental illness look like; and provides guidance and tips for effective treatment. Mental ill-health in young people is all too often accepted as a 'normal' feature of adolescence. However, the short and long term consequences of mental illness include impaired social functioning, poor educational achievement, substance abuse, self harm, suicide and violence. Distinguishing between what represents transitory and normative changes in behaviour and disturbances that may represent the early signs of the onset of a potentially serious mental illness is difficult, particularly in young people, where emotional disturbance and distress is such a common experience. The primary goal of initial assessment is not to make a definitive diagnosis but rather to assess risk and the need for clinical care. The GP has an important role to play in longitudinal assessment and ongoing review, and facilitating access to treatment and mobilising support networks.
Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)
This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.
This paper describes the health effects of concern associated with electricity generation, information from which health effects can be estimated, and how the boundaries of analysis are determined. It also describes advances, new approaches, and trends in the risk assessment process. It discusses the application of these advances to comparative risk studies. Trends in the risk assessment process include more explicit characterization of quantitative uncertainty, the broader application and acceptance of Monte Carlo analysis and other numerical methods to the propagation of uncertainties through the analysis, greater realism in risk assessment, and the application of greatly increased computational capabilities.
Henshall, Chris; Schuller, Tara
Identifying treatments that offer value and value for money is becoming increasingly important, with interest in how health technology assessment (HTA) and decision makers can take appropriate account of what is of value to patients and to society, and in the relationship between innovation and assessments of value. This study summarizes points from an Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Policy Forum discussion, drawing on presentations, discussions among attendees, and background papers. Various perspectives on value were considered; most place patient health at the core of value. Wider elements of value comprise other benefits for: patients; caregivers; the health and social care systems; and society. Most decision-making systems seek to take account of similar elements of value, although they are assessed and combined in different ways. Judgment in decisions remains important and cannot be replaced by mathematical approaches. There was discussion of the value of innovation and of the effects of value assessments on innovation. Discussion also included moving toward "progressive health system decision making," an ongoing process whereby evidence-based decisions on use would be made at various stages in the technology lifecycle. Five actions are identified: (i) development of a general framework for the definition and assessment of value; development by HTA/coverage bodies and regulators of (ii) disease-specific guidance and (iii) further joint scientific advice for industry on demonstrating value; (iv) development of a framework for progressive licensing, usage, and reimbursement; and (v) promoting work to better adapt HTA, coverage, and procurement approaches to medical devices.
Grace, Sandra; Coutts, Rosanne
Effective interprofessional learning (IPL) in multisectoral collaborations such as those linking health services within communities can provide an authentic experience for students and also appears to be the most effective way to achieve health changes in targeted population groups. The aim of this study was to facilitate the IPL of students at a rural university in a multisectoral health assessment programme and to promote health in players of rural amateur sport. Two rural rugby league teams took part in three pre-season health assessments conducted by general medical practitioners, practice nurses, and nursing, osteopathy, and exercise science students. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale questionnaire and a series of focus groups were used to evaluate participants' experiences of the programme. Results indicated that students saw the benefits for patients and 93% valued the opportunity to improve interprofessional communication, problem-solving and team skills. Some students felt they needed to learn more about their own professional role before learning about others, and instances of stereotyping were identified. The programme also enabled early detection of potential health risks and referral for medical care, management of musculoskeletal conditions, and health promotion. These health assessments would be readily transferred to other multisectoral sporting settings.
Ramukumba, Tendani S; Mathikhi, Makwena S
Taxi driving seems to be a strenuous occupation. There was evidence-based paucity of literature on health assessment of taxi drivers. Meanwhile taxi drivers of South Africa were burdened by communicable and non-communicable diseases including high-level exposure to injuries and criminal attacks. Health assessment of this cohort group enables mitigation to engage in appropriation of relevant interventions related to the occupational needs of taxi drivers. The objective of the study was to conduct health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane to identify health risk factors. An exploratory, descriptive and quantitative survey was conducted and anthropometric measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference were monitored and recorded on a convenience sample of 69 taxi drivers in Tshwane Municipality. Consent was sought from individual taxi drivers who participated in the study, while taxi rank queue marshals assisted with smooth running of the process. Data were gathered using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using statistical STATA II with the assistance of a statistician. The study found that taxi drivers were obese, hypertensive, had type II diabetes-related risk factors, including unhealthy life style practices. The results indicate that the general health of taxi drivers impacts their occupation. The findings implicate that the health status of taxi operators in Tshwane was a serious concern and urgent concerted effort is needed to engage in lifestyle modification of taxi drivers. The need for health promotion and formalised occupational health services was recommended.
Cogliano, Vincent James
Health risk assessments generally involve many extrapolations: for example, from animals to humans or from high doses to lower doses. Health risk assessments for PCBs involve all the usual uncertainties, plus additional uncertainties due to the nature of PCBs as a dynamic, complex mixture. Environmental processes alter PCB mixtures after release into the environment, so that people are exposed to mixtures that might not resemble the mixtures where there are toxicity data. This paper discusses the evolution of understanding in assessments of the cancer and noncancer effects of PCBs. It identifies where a lack of data in the past contributed to significant uncertainty and where new data subsequently altered the prevailing understanding of the toxicity of PCB mixtures, either qualitatively or quantitatively. Finally, the paper identifies some uncertainties remaining for current PCB health assessments, particularly those that result from a lack of data on exposure through nursing or on effects from inhalation of PCBs.
Teague, Richard; Provenza, Fred; Kreuter, Urs; Steffens, Tim; Barnes, Matt
Maintaining or enhancing the productive capacity and resilience of rangeland ecosystems is critical for the continued support of people who depend on them for their livelihoods, especially in the face of climatic change. This is also necessary for the continued delivery of ecosystem services derived from rangelands for the broader benefit of societies around the world. Multi-paddock grazing management has been recommended since the mid-20th century as an important tool to adaptively manage rangelands ecosystems to sustain productivity and improve animal management. Moreover, there is much anecdotal evidence from producers that, if applied appropriately, multi-paddock grazing can improve forage and livestock production. By contrast, recent reviews of published rangeland-based grazing systems studies have concluded that, in general, field trials show no superiority of vegetation or animal production in multi-paddock grazing relative to continuous yearlong stocking of single-paddock livestock production systems. Our goal is to provide a framework for rangeland management decisions that support the productivity and resiliency of rangelands and then to identify why different perceptions exist among rangeland managers who have effectively used multi-paddock grazing systems and research scientists who have studied them. First, we discuss the ecology of grazed ecosystems under free-ranging herbivores and under single-paddock fenced conditions. Second, we identify five principles underpinning the adaptive management actions used by successful grazing managers and the ecological, physiological, and behavioral framework they use to achieve desired conservation, production, and financial goals. Third, we examine adaptive management principles needed to successfully manage rangelands subjected to varying environmental conditions. Fourth, we describe the differences between the interpretation of results of grazing systems research reported in the scientific literature and the
Sand-Jecklin, Kari; Coyle, Sue
Although health literacy limitations are common among patient populations, no efficient yet comprehensive health literacy assessment tool is available to nurses for use in busy health care settings. This study presents beginning evidence for the validity and reliability of a new health literacy assessment tool, the Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS). One hundred patients attending four primary care clinics completed the BHLS and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) short form and answered questions about the health literacy tools. Findings indicated significant correlations between BHLS and shortened version of the TOFHLA (S-TOFHLA) scores, with higher correlations between BHLS items addressing written health literacy and the S-TOFHLA. Comparative discrimination findings were significant at BHLS cut point of 18 and S-TOFHLA cut point less than 23. Patients rated the BHLS significantly less difficult to complete than the S-TOFHLA. Results of preliminary testing indicate the BHLS is a potentially efficient, effective, and patient-friendly screening tool for health literacy. © The Author(s) 2013.
Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu
Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.
Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment is defined as ‘the combination of procedures, methods and tools through which it is possible to evaluate a policy, a program or a development plan concerning possible effects on public health and their distribution in the general population’. In a constructive debate this definition points out some interesting observations: - health is not the result of health policies alone, but it is often defined by the attention given to it in other contexts; - health is however the result of policies and it therefore must deserve the attention of Decision Makers; - health must not be taken into consideration without taking into account an evaluation of its distribution and its determinants within a population. Particular attention must therefore be paid into inequalities; - following the Council of the European Union recent conclusions on Health in All Policies we have to consider that everyday environments such as day-care centers, schools,workplaces,neighborhoods and the commute between them have significant effects on health and that health, in turn, has an effect on the economy by enabling active and productive participation in working life. In the past 20 years huge progress has been achieved in the epidemiological contest to define risks. Nowadays, it is known that a low cultural level lowers the capacity to respond to prevention, that elevated pollution levels do represent a health risk, and that the scarce social relationships that elderly people have in our society have strong consequences on their health and their quality of life.
Crimmins, A. R.; Balbus, J. M.
As noted by the new report from the US GCRP, the Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment, climate change is a significant threat to the health of the American people. Despite a growing awareness of the significance of climate change in general among Americans, however, recognition of the health significance of climate change is lacking. Not only are the general public and many climate scientists relatively uninformed about the myriad health implications of climate change; health professionals, including physicians and nurses, are in need of enhanced climate literacy. This presentation will provide an overview of the new GCRP Climate Health Assessment, introducing the audience to the systems thinking that underlies the assessment of health impacts, and reviewing frameworks that tie climate and earth systems phenomena to human vulnerability and health. The impacts on health through changes in temperature, precipitation, severity of weather extremes and climate variability, and alteration of ecosystems and phenology will be explored. The process of developing the assessment report will be discussed in the context of raising climate and health literacy within the federal government.
Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita
Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity). © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.
Bugajski, Andrew; Lengerich, Alex; McCowan, Denise; Merritt, Sharon; Moe, Krista; Hall, Brittany; Nelson, Debbie; Brockopp, Dorothy
Assessing high risk for falling among psychiatric inpatients is particularly challenging in that assessments with strong sensitivity and specificity are not available. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio of the Baptist Health High Risk Falls Assessment (BHHRFA), a medical-surgical fall risk assessment, in a psychiatric inpatient population. Data collected on 5910 psychiatric inpatients using the BHHRFA showed acceptable sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (0.68/0.70/4.964).
... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability... availability of EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration review of chlorpyrifos and... comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all chlorpyrifos uses. After reviewing comments...
... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document... for the chlorpyrifos reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established in...
Belnap, Jayne; Ludwig, John A.; Wilcox, Bradford P.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dean, W. Richard J.; Hoffmann, Benjamin D.; Milton, Sue J.
Globally, new combinations of introduced and native plant and animal species have changed rangelands into novel ecosystems. Whereas many rangeland stakeholders (people who use or have an interest in rangelands) view intentional species introductions to improve forage and control erosion as beneficial, others focus on unintended costs, such as increased fire risk, loss of rangeland biodiversity, and threats to conservation efforts, specifically in nature reserves and parks. These conflicting views challenge all rangeland stakeholders, especially those making decisions on how best to manage novel ecosystems. To formulate a conceptual framework for decision making, we examined a wide range of novel ecosystems, created by intentional and unintentional introductions of nonnative species and land-use–facilitated spread of native ones. This framework simply divides decision making into two types: 1) straightforward–certain, and 2) complex–uncertain. We argue that management decisions to retain novel ecosystems are certain when goods and services provided by the system far outweigh the costs of restoration, for example in the case of intensively managed Cenchrus pastures. Decisions to return novel ecosystems to natural systems are also certain when the value of the system is low and restoration is easy and inexpensive as in the case of biocontrol of Opuntia infestations. In contrast, decisions whether to retain or restore novel ecosystems become complex and uncertain in cases where benefits are low and costs of control are high as, for example, in the case of stopping the expansion of Prosopis and Juniperus into semiarid rangelands. Decisions to retain or restore novel ecosystems are also complex and uncertain when, for example, nonnative Eucalyptus trees expand along natural streams, negatively affecting biodiversity, but also providing timber and honey. When decision making is complex and uncertain, we suggest that rangeland managers utilize cost–benefit analyses
Silver, W. L.; Ryals, R.; DeLonge, M. S.; Owen, J. J.
The majority of soil-related climate change research has focused on describing the problem - estimating rates of carbon (C) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from natural and managed ecosystems. More research is needed to explore potential solutions to climate change through mitigation and adaptation. Here we report on an integrated set of studies aimed at critically evaluating the biogeochemical potential of rangeland soils to help mitigate climate change, while improving the sustainability and productivity of food production systems. We explored direct effects through enhanced net primary production (NPP) and soil C sequestration, and indirect effects through diversion of high emitting sources to lower emitting organic matter dynamics. We used a combination of long- and short-term field experiments, modeling, laboratory assays, life cycle assessment (LCA), and meta-analyses in consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from both the private and public sectors. We found that organic matter amendments held particularly strong potential. Compost amendments increased soil C storage by 0.5-1.0 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in surface soils over 5 y, and increased NPP and water holding capacity. We measured 1.0 Mg of new C ha-1 y-1 over 3 y. Long-term amendment of cattle manure increased surface soil C by 19.0±7.3 Mg C ha-1 relative to unmanured fields. However, field and modeling experiments suggested that manure amendments lead to large nitrous oxide emissions that eventually eliminated CO2e benefits, whereas compost amendments continued to benefit climate for decades longer. An LCA identified a broader range of climate impacts. When scaled to an area of 25% of California's rangelands, new C sequestered following compost amendments (21 million Mg CO2e) exceeded emissions from cattle (15 million Mg CO2e); diverting organics from waste streams to amendments led to additional GHG savings. In collaboration with our partners, our research contributed to the development of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Publichealth care providers, stakeholders and policy makers request a rapid insight into health status and needs of the affected population after disasters. To our knowledge, there is no standardized rapid assessment tool for European countries. The aim of this article is to describe existing tools used internationally and analyze them for the development of a workable rapid assessment. Methods A review was conducted, including original studies concerning a rapid health and/or needs assessment. The studies used were published between 1980 and 2009. The electronic databasesof Medline, Embase, SciSearch and Psychinfo were used. Results Thirty-three studies were included for this review. The majority of the studies was of US origin and in most cases related to natural disasters, especially concerning the weather. In eighteen studies an assessment was conducted using a structured questionnaire, eleven studies used registries and four used both methods. Questionnaires were primarily used to asses the health needs, while data records were used to assess the health status of disaster victims. Conclusions Methods most commonly used were face to face interviews and data extracted from existing registries. Ideally, a rapid assessment tool is needed which does not add to the burden of disaster victims. In this perspective, the use of existing medical registries in combination with a brief questionnaire in the aftermath of disasters is the most promising. Since there is an increasing need for such a tool this approach needs further examination.
Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; Rafique, R.; West, T. O.; Ogle, S. M.
Rangelands play an important role in providing ecosystem services such as food, forage, and fuels in many parts of the world. The net primary productivity (NPP), a difference between CO2 fixed by plants and CO2 lost to autotrophic respiration, is a good indicator of the productivity of rangeland ecosystems, and their contribution to the cycling of carbon in the Earth system. In this study, we estimated the NPP of global rangelands, the consumption thereof by grazing livestock, and associated uncertainties, to better understand and quantify the contribution of rangelands to land-based carbon storage. We estimated rangeland NPP using mean annual precipitation data from Climate Research Unit (CRU), and a regression model based on global observations (Del Grosso et al., 2008). Spatial distributions of annual livestock consumption of rangeland NPP (Wolf et al., 2015) were combined with gridded annual rangeland NPP for the years 2000 - 2011. The uncertainty analysis of these estimates was conducted using a Monte Carlo approach. The rangeland NPP estimates with associated uncertainties were also compared with the total modeled GPP estimates obtained from vegetation dynamic model simulations. Our results showed that mean above-ground NPP of rangelands is 1017.5 MgC/km2, while mean below-ground NPP is 847.6 MgC/km2. The total rangeland NPP represents a significant portion of the total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystem. The livestock area requirements used to geographically distribute livestock spatially are based on optimal pasturage and are low relative to area requirements on less productive land. Even so, ca. 90% of annual livestock consumption of rangeland NPP were met with no adjustment of livestock distributions. Moreover, the results of this study allowed us to explicitly quantify the temporal and spatial variations of rangeland NPP under different climatic conditions. Uncertainty analysis was helpful in identifying the strength and weakness of the methods used to
Ferrer, Rebecca A; Lipkus, Isaac M; Cerully, Jennifer L; McBride, Colleen M; Shepperd, James A; Klein, William M P
Regulatory focus (i.e., focus on motivation to achieve gains or avoid losses and non-gains) is used to tailor health behavior change interventions, improving efficacy, but is currently assessed by scales that are not health-specific and may capture a version of the construct that is not ideally matched to the rationale for tailoring. We developed and validated a Health Regulatory Focus Scale (HRFS), which assesses tendencies to avoid negative health consequences (prevention focus) or achieve positive health outcomes (promotion focus). Across four studies (and a scale development study in supplementary online materials), we established convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity for the HRFS. In studies examining predictive validity, main outcome measures were health behavior intentions, including intentions to reduce alcohol use, quit smoking, eat a healthy diet, exercise, be screened for cancer, and engage in general cancer preventive behaviors. The promotion and prevention sub-scales performed well in confirmatory factor analyses. Single-factor models had significantly poorer fit than models delineating promotion and prevention. The sub-scales were differentially (and only modestly) correlated with related constructs (anxiety, optimism, information avoidance, ambiguity/fatalism). Higher HRFS-Promotion focus generally corresponded with greater health behavior intentions. Conversely, higher HRFS-Prevention focus corresponded with lower health behavior intentions. Associations were largely maintained even when controlling for established regulatory focus measures, supporting the assertion that the HRFS would predict unique variance in health behavior intentions. The HRFS has the potential to improve the precision with which framed health messages change behavior, as it may assess a version of regulatory focus that is more ideally matched to rationale for tailoring interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Courtemanche, Charles; Marton, James; Ukert, Benjamin; Yelowitz, Aaron; Zapata, Daniela
The goal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was to achieve nearly universal health insurance coverage through a combination of mandates, subsidies, marketplaces, and Medicaid expansions, most of which took effect in 2014. We use data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the impacts of the ACA on health care access, risky health behaviors, and self-assessed health after two years. We estimate difference-in-difference-in-differences models that exploit variation in treat...
Climate change is expected to impact runoff and soil erosion on rangelands in the southwestern United States. This study was done to evaluate the potential impacts of precipitation changes on soil erosion and surface runoff in southeastern Arizona using seven GCM models with three emission scenarios...
Spickett, Jeff; Batmunkh, Tsetsegsaikhan; Jones, Sarah
Many developing countries have limited capacity to adequately assess and manage health impacts associated with environmental change. In Mongolia, methodologies to introduce health impact assessment (HIA) as part of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process have been investigated, and a mechanism to incorporate HIA into the current EIA process is proposed. Some challenges to the implementation of HIA are discussed. The country is now in a position to incorporate HIA as part of the approvals process for development projects. Given the recent growth in population, industrial development, and urbanization together with the interest from international mining companies in the resources of the country, it is important for Mongolia to have such tools in place in order to take advantage of economic growth while improving health and well-being outcomes for the population. © 2012 APJPH.
Gadeberg, A. K.; Montgomery, Edith; Frederiksen, H. W.
Background: It is estimated that children below 18 years constitute 50% of the refugee population worldwide, which is the highest figure in a decade. Due to conflicts like the Syrian crises, children are continuously exposed to traumatic events. Trauma exposure can cause mental health problems...... of the validated screening and measurement tools available for assessment of trauma and mental health among refugee children and youth. Methods: We systematically searched the databases PubMed, PsycINFO and PILOTS. The search yielded 913 articles and 97 were retained for further investigation. In accordance...... with the PRISMA guidelines two authors performed the eligibility assessment. The full text of 23 articles was assessed and 9 met the eligibility criteria. Results: Only nine studies had validated trauma and mental health tools in refugee children and youth populations. A serious lack of validated tools...
Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela; Dawydzik, Lech T
The economic analysis of efficiency of investment in health care and health at large by means of cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness techniques is the subject of implementation work in a number of countries. Poland's integration with the countries of the European Union justifies the need to understand and to use economic analyses. Unfortunately, these activities encounter many methodological and executive barriers. The investments in workers' health are not only investments in health care and the improvement of working conditions, but also in compensations, including financial ones, resulting from adverse effects of factors influencing the health of working population. The financial reporting system that exists in Poland does not ensure the possibility of full presentation of the aggregated data on the financing of activities for workers' health and diminishing of the adverse effects of factors present in the work environment. The information on the outcome of the investments in workers' health come from different sources, which means that it applies to different groups subjected to the analysis. The problem lies not only in the assessment of profitability of health investments but also in the social problem of the division of the resultant costs and benefits among various branches of the national economy. Therefore, the analyses involving mutual relations between individual sectors that invest in workers' health and those that bear consequences is essential in the terms of economic analyses. The authors present the determinants of economic evaluation in regard to health of working population in Poland.
Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory
Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Doaee, Shila; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza; Nedjati, Mina; Aboee, Parisa; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan
Various decisions have been made on technology application at all levels of the health system in different countries around the world. Health technology assessment is considered as one of the best scientific tools at the service of policy- makers. This study attempts to investigate the current challenges of Iran's health technology assessment and provide appropriate strategies to establish and institutionalize this program. This study was carried out in two independent phases. In the first, electronic databases such as Medline (via Pub Med) and Scientific Information Database (SID) were searched to provide a list of challenges of Iran's health technology assessment. The views and opinions of the experts and practitioners on HTA challenges were studied through a questionnaire in the second phase which was then analyzed by SPSS Software version 16. This has been an observational and analytical study with a thematic analysis. In the first phase, seven papers were retrieved; from which, twenty- two HTA challenges in Iran were extracted by the researchers; and they were used as the base for designing a structured questionnaire of the second phase. The views of the experts on the challenges of health technology assessment were categorized as follows: organizational culture, stewardship, stakeholders, health system management, infrastructures and external pressures which were mentioned in more than 60% of the cases and were also common in the views. The identification and prioritization of HTA challenges which were approved by those experts involved in the strategic planning of the Department of Health Technology Assessment will be a step forward in the promotion of an evidence- based policy- making and in the production of comprehensive scientific evidence.
This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the... quality in animal studies. The Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT), Division of the... evaluations to address issues of importance in environmental health sciences. OHAT assessments are published...
MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa
Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation . This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human right...
Altin, Sibel Vildan; Finke, Isabelle; Kautz-Freimuth, Sibylle; Stock, Stephanie
Health literacy (HL) is seen as an increasingly relevant issue for global public health and requires a reliable and comprehensive operationalization. By now, there is limited evidence on how the development of tools measuring HL proceeded in recent years and if scholars considered existing methodological guidance when developing an instrument. We performed a systematic review of generic measurement tools developed to assess HL by searching PubMed, ERIC, CINAHL and Web of Knowledge (2009 forward). Two reviewers independently reviewed abstracts/ full text articles for inclusion according to predefined criteria. Additionally we conducted a reporting quality appraisal according to the survey reporting guideline SURGE. We identified 17 articles reporting on the development and validation of 17 instruments measuring health literacy. More than two thirds of all instruments are based on a multidimensional construct of health literacy. Moreover, there is a trend towards a mixed measurement (self-report and direct test) of health literacy with 41% of instruments applying it, though results strongly indicate a weakness of coherence between the underlying constructs measured. Overall, almost every third instrument is based on assessment formats modeled on already existing functional literacy screeners such as the REALM or the TOFHLA and 30% of the included articles do not report on significant reporting features specified in the SURGE guideline. Scholars recently developing instruments that measure health literacy mainly comply with recommendations of the academic circle by applying multidimensional constructs and mixing up measurement approaches to capture health literacy comprehensively. Nonetheless, there is still a dependence on assessment formats, rooted in functional literacy measurement contradicting the widespread call for new instruments. All things considered, there is no clear "consensus" on HL measurement but a convergence to more comprehensive tools. Giving
Full Text Available Abstract Background The reduction of health inequalities is a focus of many national and international health organisations. The need for pragmatic evidence-based approaches has led to the development of a number of evidence-based equity initiatives. This paper describes a new program that focuses upon evidence- based tools, which are useful for policy initiatives that reduce inequities. Methods This paper is based on a presentation that was given at the "Regional Consultation on Policy Tools: Equity in Population Health Reports," held in Toronto, Canada in June 2002. Results Five assessment tools were presented. 1. A database of systematic reviews on the effects of educational, legal, social, and health interventions to reduce unfair inequalities is being established through the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. 2 Decision aids and shared decision making can be facilitated in disadvantaged groups by 'health coaches' to help people become better decision makers, negotiators, and navigators of the health system; a pilot study in Chile has provided proof of this concept. 3. The CIET Cycle: Combining adapted cluster survey techniques with qualitative methods, CIET's population based applications support evidence-based decision making at local and national levels. The CIET map generates maps directly from survey or routine institutional data, to be used as evidence-based decisions aids. Complex data can be displayed attractively, providing an important tool for studying and comparing health indicators among and between different populations. 4. The Ottawa Equity Gauge is applying the Global Equity Gauge Alliance framework to an industrialised country setting. 5 The Needs-Based Health Assessment Toolkit, established to assemble information on which clinical and health policy decisions can be based, is being expanded to ensure a focus on distribution and average health indicators. Conclusion Evidence-based planning tools have much to offer the
Serrano, Elena; Larrañaga, Isabel; Morteruel, Maite; Baixas de Ros, María Dolores; Basterrechea, Mikel; Martinez, Dolores; Aldasoro, Elena; Bacigalupe, Amaia
An important health issue in urban areas is how changes arising from the regeneration of city-areas affect social determinants of health and equity. This paper examines the impacts attributable to a new fish market and to delays in the regeneration of a port area in a deteriorated region of the Bay of Pasaia (Spain). Potential differential impacts on local residents and socially vulnerable groups were evaluated to determine health inequalities. An in-depth, prospective and concurrent Health-Impact-Assessment (HIA) focused on equity was conducted by the regional Public Health Department, following the Merseyside guidelines. Data from different sources was triangulated and impacts were identified using qualitative and quantitative methods. The intervention area is characterised by poor social, environmental, and health indicators. The distinctness of the two projects generates contrasting health and inequality impacts: generally positive for the new fish market and negative for the port area. The former creates recreational spaces and improves urban quality and social cohesion. By contrast, inaction and stagnation of the project in the port area perpetuates deterioration, a lack of safety, and poor health, as well as increased social frustration. In addition to assessing the health impacts of both projects this HIA promoted intersectoral partnerships, boosted a holistic and positive view of health and incorporated health and equity into the political discourse. Community-level participatory action enabled public health institutions to respond to new urban planning challenges and responsibilities in a more democratic manner.
Schnall, Rebecca; Cho, Hwayoung; Liu, Jianfang
Mobile technology has become a ubiquitous technology and can be particularly useful in the delivery of health interventions. This technology can allow us to deliver interventions to scale, cover broad geographic areas, and deliver technologies in highly tailored ways based on the preferences or characteristics of users. The broad use of mobile technologies supports the need for usability assessments of these tools. Although there have been a number of usability assessment instruments developed, none have been validated for use with mobile technologies. The goal of this work was to validate the Health Information Technology Usability Evaluation Scale (Health-ITUES), a customizable usability assessment instrument in a sample of community-dwelling adults who were testing the use of a new mobile health (mHealth) technology. A sample of 92 community-dwelling adults living with HIV used a new mobile app for symptom self-management and completed the Health-ITUES to assess the usability of the app. They also completed the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ), a widely used and well-validated usability assessment tool. Correlations between these scales and each of the subscales were assessed. The subscales of the Health-ITUES showed high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach alpha=.85-.92). Each of the Health-ITUES subscales and the overall scale was moderately to strongly correlated with the PSSUQ scales (r=.46-.70), demonstrating the criterion validity of the Health-ITUES. The Health-ITUES has demonstrated reliability and validity for use in assessing the usability of mHealth technologies in community-dwelling adults living with a chronic illness.
Adjorlolo, C.; Botha, J. O.; Mhangara, P.; Mutanga, O.; Odindi, J.
Woody vegetation encroachment into grasslands or bush thickening, a global phenomenon, is transforming the Southern African grassland systems into savanna-like landscapes. Estimation of woody vegetation is important to rangeland scientists and land managers for assessing its impact on grass production and calculating its grazing and browsing capacity. Assessment of grazing and browsing components is often challenging because agro-ecological landscapes of this region are largely characterized by small scale and heterogeneous land-use-land-cover patterns. In this study, we investigated the utility of high spatial resolution remotely sensing data for modelling grazing and browsing capacity at landscape level. Woody tree density or Tree Equivalents (TE) and Total Leaf Mass (LMASS) data were derived using the Biomass Estimation for Canopy Volume (BECVOL) program. The Random Forest (RF) regression algorithm was assessed to establish relationships between these variables and vegetation indices (Simple Ratio and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), calculated using the red and near infrared bands of SPOT5. The RF analysis predicted LMASS with R2 = 0.63 and a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 1256 kg/ha compared to a mean of 2291kg/ha. TE was predicted with R2 = 0.55 and a RMSE = 1614 TE/ha compared to a mean of 3746 TE/ha. Next, spatial distribution maps of LMASS/ha and TE/ha were derived using separate RF regression models. The resultant maps were then used as input data into conventional grazing and browsing capacity models to calculate grazing and browsing capacity maps for the study area. This study provides a sound platform for integrating currently available and future remote sensing satellite data into rangeland carrying capacity modelling and monitoring.
In this paper a novel health assessment system is proposed by which a more straight forward and accurate assessment of the battery health in terms of capacity and energy can be performed. The proposed system consists to use one or some battery string(s, which can be safely disconnected via the PCDU (Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit from the battery for a dedicated capacity measurement while the main part of the battery continues to operate normally. In this paper, the viability of the proposed system is demonstrated and the implications on the battery and the power system are discussed.
Turchetti, Giuseppe; Spadoni, Enza; Geisler, Eliezer Elie
This article describes health technology assessment (HTA) as an evaluation tool that applies systematic methods of inquiry to the generation and use of health technologies and new products. The focus of this article is on the contributions of HTA to the management of the new product development effort in the biomedical organization. Critical success factors (CSFs) are listed, and their role in assessing success is defined and explained. One of the conclusions of this article is that HTA is a powerful tool for managers in the biomedical sector, allowing them to better manage their innovation effort in their continuing struggle for competitiveness and survival.
Wu, Z J; Xu, B; Jiang, H; Zheng, M; Zhang, M; Zhao, W J; Cheng, J
Objective: To investigate the application of United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) inhalation risk assessment model, Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model, and occupational hazards risk assessment index method in occupational health risk in enterprises using dimethylformamide (DMF) in a certain area in Jiangsu, China, and to put forward related risk control measures. Methods: The industries involving DMF exposure in Jiangsu province were chosen as the evaluation objects in 2013 and three risk assessment models were used in the evaluation. EPA inhalation risk assessment model: HQ=EC/RfC; Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model: Risk= (HR×ER) 1/2; Occupational hazards risk assessment index=2Health effect level×2exposure ratio×Operation condition level. Results: The results of hazard quotient (HQ>1) from EPA inhalation risk assessment model suggested that all the workshops (dry method, wet method and printing) and work positions (pasting, burdening, unreeling, rolling, assisting) were high risk. The results of Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model indicated that the workshop risk level of dry method, wet method and printing were 3.5 (high) , 3.5 (high) and 2.8 (general) , and position risk level of pasting, burdening, unreeling, rolling, assisting were 4 (high) , 4 (high) , 2.8 (general) , 2.8 (general) and 2.8 (general) . The results of occupational hazards risk assessment index method demonstrated that the position risk index of pasting, burdening, unreeling, rolling, assisting were 42 (high) , 33 (high) , 23 (middle) , 21 (middle) and 22 (middle) . The results of Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model and occupational hazards risk assessment index method were similar, while EPA inhalation risk assessment model indicated all the workshops and positions were high risk. Conclusion: The occupational hazards risk assessment index method fully considers health effects, exposure, and operating conditions and
Reyes, J. J.; Liu, M.; Tague, C.; Choate, J. S.; Evans, R. D.; Johnson, K. A.; Adam, J. C.
Rangelands provide an opportunity to investigate the coupled feedbacks between human activities and natural ecosystems. These areas comprise at least one-third of the Earth's surface and provide ecological support for birds, insects, wildlife and agricultural animals including grazing lands for livestock. Capturing the interactions among water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles within the context of regional scale patterns of climate and management is important to understand interactions, responses, and feedbacks between rangeland systems and humans, as well as provide relevant information to stakeholders and policymakers. The overarching objective of this research is to understand the full consequences, intended and unintended, of human activities and climate over time in rangelands by incorporating dynamics related to rangeland management into an eco-hydrologic model that also incorporates biogeochemical and soil processes. Here we evaluate our model over ungrazed and grazed sites for different rangeland ecosystems. The Regional Hydro-ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) is a process-based, watershed-scale model that couples water with carbon and nitrogen cycles. Climate, soil, vegetation, and management effects within the watershed are represented in a nested landscape hierarchy to account for heterogeneity and the lateral movement of water and nutrients. We incorporated a daily time-series of plant biomass loss from rangeland to represent grazing. The TRY Plant Trait Database was used to parameterize genera of shrubs and grasses in different rangeland types, such as tallgrass prairie, Intermountain West cold desert, and shortgrass steppe. In addition, other model parameters captured the reallocation of carbon and nutrients after grass defoliation. Initial simulations were conducted at the Curlew Valley site in northern Utah, a former International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Desert Biome site. We found that grasses were most sensitive to model parameters affecting
Kraemer, Stella R. J.; Nikolajsen, Louise Theilgaard; Gulis, Gabriel
Aims: Implementation of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Danish municipalities has been analyzed using the Roger's Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Municipalities were chosen from among those who presented their health policies on websites according to the status of inclusion of HIA into health...... policy. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted in 6 municipalities (3 with HIA inducted in their health policy and 3 without it) gathering information on knowledge and attitudes to HIA, barriers to its implementation, social system and communication channels used or expected to be used...... for implementation of HIA. Results: No significant differences were found among analyzed municipalities by status of HIA inclusion into health policy. Among barriers, a lack of tools with general validity, a lack of intersectoral working culture, balance between centralized versus participatory way of working...
Kent, Renee M.; Murphy, Dennis A.
The subject of sensor-based structural health monitoring is very diverse and encompasses a wide range of activities including initiatives and innovations involving the development of advanced sensor, signal processing, data analysis, and actuation and control technologies. In addition, it embraces the consideration of the availability of low-cost, high-quality contributing technologies, computational utilities, and hardware and software resources that enable the operational realization of robust health monitoring technologies. This report presents a detailed analysis of the cost benefit and other logistics and operational considerations associated with the implementation and utilization of sensor-based technologies for use in aerospace structure health monitoring. The scope of this volume is to assess the economic impact, from an end-user perspective, implementation health monitoring technologies on three structures. It specifically focuses on evaluating the impact on maintaining and supporting these structures with and without health monitoring capability.
Wickramasinghe, Nilmini S; Fadlalla, Adam M A; Geisler, Elie; Schaffer, Jonathan L
Whilst healthcare is the biggest service industry on the globe, it has yet to realise the full potential of the e-business revolution in the form of e-health. This is due to many reasons including the fact that the healthcare industry is faced with many complex challenges in trying to deliver cost-effective, high-value, accessible healthcare and has traditionally been slow to embrace new business techniques and technologies. Given that e-health, to a great extent, is a macro level concern that has far reaching micro level implications, this paper firstly develops a framework to assess a country's preparedness with respect to embracing e-health (the application of e-commerce to healthcare) and from this an e-health preparedness grid to facilitate the assessment of any e-health initiative. Taken together, the integrative framework and preparedness grid provide useful and necessary tools to enable successful e-health initiatives to ensue by helping country and/or an organisation within a country to identify and thus address areas that require further attention in order for it to undertake a successful e-health initiative.
Nelson, J C; Raskind-Hood, C; Galvin, V G; Essien, J D; Levine, L M
Public health organizations are redefining their roles and aligning their structures with other components of the evolving American health system. Health departments must proactively and strategically plan how to position themselves for the coming years. Prior to implementing changes in functioning, structure, and/or future strategies, an organization should assess its internal readiness to commit to creating these substantial alterations. Using a diagnostic tool developed by study investigators, employees of the Cobb and Douglas Counties Boards of Health were surveyed in order to assess their organizational readiness to enter into a strategic partnership with Promina Northwest, a not-for-profit hospital network in the Atlanta, Georgia area. Frequency distributions were conducted for each categorical variable and data were analyzed in aggregate and by job category. The 122 analyzed questionnaires revealed some significant trends. Respondents ranked the six factors having the greatest impact on an organization's ability to change in the following order: leadership, planning, teamwork, mission, information and operations. Interestingly, this rank ordering parallels the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the health departments as determined by the frequency of the most positive responses. Cobb and Douglas Counties Boards of Health have taken many key steps to prepare the organizations for significant proactive changes. Survey results emphasized the need for open channels of communication within the organizations and with the external environment so that effective planning can guide the strategic alignment of the health departments with community partners.
Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Cole-Hunter, Tom; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dons, Evi; Gerike, Regine; Götschi, Thomas; Int Panis, Luc; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
Walking and cycling for transportation (i.e. active transportation, AT), provide substantial health benefits from increased physical activity (PA). However, risks of injury from exposure to motorized traffic and their emissions (i.e. air pollution) exist. The objective was to systematically review studies conducting health impact assessment (HIA) of a mode shift to AT on grounds of associated health benefits and risks. Systematic database searches of MEDLINE, Web of Science and Transportation Research International Documentation were performed by two independent researchers, augmented by bibliographic review, internet searches and expert consultation to identify peer-reviewed studies from inception to December 2014. Thirty studies were included, originating predominantly from Europe, but also the United States, Australia and New Zealand. They compromised of mostly HIA approaches of comparative risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. Estimated health benefit-risk or benefit-cost ratios of a mode shift to AT ranged between -2 and 360 (median=9). Effects of increased PA contributed the most to estimated health benefits, which strongly outweighed detrimental effects of traffic incidents and air pollution exposure on health. Despite different HIA methodologies being applied with distinctive assumptions on key parameters, AT can provide substantial net health benefits, irrespective of geographical context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction Self-assessed health (SAH) is a frequently used measure of individuals’ health status. It is also prone to reporting heterogeneity. To control for reporting heterogeneity objective measures of true health need to be included in an analysis. The topic becomes even more complex for cross-country comparisons, as many key variables tend to vary strongly across countries, influenced by cultural and institutional differences. This study aims at exploring the key drivers for reporting heterogeneity in SAH in an international context. To this end, country specific effects are accounted for and the objective health measure is concretized, distinguishing effects of mental and physical health conditions. Methods We use panel data from the SHARE-project which provides a rich dataset on the elderly European population. To obtain distinct indicators for physical and mental health conditions two indices are constructed. Finally, to identify potential reporting heterogeneity in SAH a generalized ordered probit model is estimated. Results We find evidence that in addition to health behaviour, health care utilization, mental and physical health condition as well as country characteristics affect reporting behaviour. We conclude that observed and unobserved heterogeneity play an important role when analysing SAH and have to be taken into account. PMID:23036352
Pfarr, Christian; Schmid, Andreas; Schneider, Udo
Self-assessed health (SAH) is a frequently used measure of individuals' health status. It is also prone to reporting heterogeneity. To control for reporting heterogeneity objective measures of true health need to be included in an analysis. The topic becomes even more complex for cross-country comparisons, as many key variables tend to vary strongly across countries, influenced by cultural and institutional differences. This study aims at exploring the key drivers for reporting heterogeneity in SAH in an international context. To this end, country specific effects are accounted for and the objective health measure is concretized, distinguishing effects of mental and physical health conditions. We use panel data from the SHARE-project which provides a rich dataset on the elderly European population. To obtain distinct indicators for physical and mental health conditions two indices are constructed. Finally, to identify potential reporting heterogeneity in SAH a generalized ordered probit model is estimated. We find evidence that in addition to health behaviour, health care utilization, mental and physical health condition as well as country characteristics affect reporting behaviour. We conclude that observed and unobserved heterogeneity play an important role when analysing SAH and have to be taken into account.
Loeb, Susan J
Men experience greater health risks, poorer health, and shorter life expectancy than women.(1) However, a systematic literature review revealed no measure to assess the health practices and beliefs of elderly men. In response, the Older Men's Health Program and Screening Inventory (OMHPSI) was developed. Nursing practice experience and a review of literature informed instrument development. Subsequent to an expert panel survey and pilot-testing, the OMHPSI was completed by 135 community-dwelling older men and found to be an informative baseline assessment tool congruent with the Healthy People 2010 goal of increasing elders' participation in organized health promotion activities.(2) Furthermore, several statistically significant correlations were found between items on the OMHPSI and demographic variables. Of particular note, the younger participants in this study experienced more barriers to health-promoting behaviors (P healthy lifestyles (P older counterparts.
Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N
This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sayjro K. Nouwakpo
Full Text Available Concentrated flow erosion processes are distinguished from splash and sheetflow processes in their enhanced ability to mobilize and transport large amounts of soil, water and dissolved elements. On rangelands, soil, nutrients and water are scarce and only narrow margins of resource losses are tolerable before crossing the sustainability threshold. In these ecosystems, concentrated flow processes are perceived as indicators of degradation and often warrant the implementation of mitigation strategies. Nevertheless, this negative perception of concentrated flow processes may conflict with the need to improve understanding of the role of these transport vessels in redistributing water, soil and nutrients along the rangeland hillslope. Vegetation influences the development and erosion of concentrated flowpaths and has been the primary factor used to control and mitigate erosion on rangelands. At the ecohydrologic level, vegetation and concentrated flow pathways are engaged in a feedback relationship, the understanding of which might help improve rangeland management and restoration strategies. In this paper, we review published literature on experimental and conceptual research pertaining to concentrated flow processes on rangelands to: (1 present the fundamental science underpinning concentrated flow erosion modeling in these landscapes, (2 discuss the influence of vegetation on these erosion processes, (3 evaluate the contribution of concentrated flow erosion to overall sediment budget and (4 identify knowledge gaps.
Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G
As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated.
Sue Miller; Matt Reeves; Karen Bagne; John Tanaka
Cattle production capacity on western rangelands is potentially vulnerable to climate change through impacts on the amount of forage, changes in vegetation type, heat stress, and year-to-year forage variability. The researchers in this study projected climate change effects to rangelands through 2100 and compared them to a present-day baseline to estimate vulnerability...
Runoff and erosion estimates are needed for rangeland management decisions and evaluation of ecosystem services derived from rangeland conservation practices. The information on the effect of scale on the runoff and erosion, and on the choice of runoff and erosion predictors, remains scarce. The obj...
W. A. Laycock; Dale Bartos; Keith Klement
Recent conservation biology and environmental literature contains claims that livestock grazing has caused and continues to cause reduction in species diversity on Western rangelands, especially public rangelands. This paper present quantitative data on species richness (number of species) inside and outside 24 long-term exclosures; 8 exclosures in aspen vegetation in...
Barratt, Barnaby B.; Rand, Marsha A.
The importance of including sexual health assessment (SHA) within the biopsychosocial evaluations of mental health and medical practice is discussed, and various protocols available in the extant literature are reviewed. Six principles for SHA are presented as well as a model protocol consisting of six basic lines of questioning with specific…
Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.
Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…
Malone, J.; Perez, M. Marza; Friberg, E.G.; Prokop, M.; Jung, S.E.; Griebel, J.; Ebdon-Jackson, S.
An international expert consultation was convened by the World Health Organization (WHO). The purpose of the meeting was to review the use of CT in examining asymptomatic people. This is often referred to as individual health assessment (IHA). IHA was identified as a global phenomenon
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America’s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...
S.K. Lhachimi (Stefan)
textabstractHealth Impact Assessment (HIA) – the evaluation policies, projects, or proposals concerning their effects on human health – becomes increasingly common practice at the local, national, and EU-level. So far, no standard tool exists to aid the quantification step in HIA. This thesis
Wu, B; Zhang, Y L; Chen, Y Q
Objective: To evaluate the applicability of quantitative grading method (GBZ/T 229.1-2010) and occupational hazard risk index method in coal dust occupational health risk assessment. Methods: Taking 4 coal mines as the research object of risk assessment and making occupational health field testing and investigation. Based on two risk assessment methods, we analysed the health risk levels of 20 occupations which were exposed to coal dust in workplaces. Results: Coal dust working post had different risk levels in 4 coal mines, the post of higher risk level were mainly concentrated in the underground workplace of coal mine, especially the post of coal mining and tunneling system. The two risk assessment results showed that the risk levels of coal-mining machine drivers and tunneling machine drivers were the highest. The risk levels of coal dust working post used by two risk assessment methods had no significant difference (P>0.05) and were highly correlated (r=0.821, Prisk assessment methods were supported by the field investigation and literatures. Conclusion: The two risk assessment methods can be used in coal dust occupational health risk assessment.
Tendani S. Ramukumba
Full Text Available Background: Taxi driving seems to be a strenuous occupation. There was evidence-based paucity of literature on health assessment of taxi drivers. Meanwhile taxi drivers of South Africa were burdened by communicable and non-communicable diseases including high-level exposure to injuries and criminal attacks. Health assessment of this cohort group enables mitigation to engage in appropriation of relevant interventions related to the occupational needs of taxi drivers.Objectives: The objective of the study was to conduct health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane to identify health risk factors.Method: An exploratory, descriptive and quantitative survey was conducted and anthropometric measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference were monitored and recorded on a convenience sample of 69 taxi drivers in Tshwane Municipality. Consent was sought from individual taxi drivers who participated in the study, while taxi rank queue marshals assisted with smooth running of the process. Data were gathered using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using statistical STATA II with the assistance of a statistician.Results: The study found that taxi drivers were obese, hypertensive, had type II diabetes-related risk factors, including unhealthy life style practices. The results indicate that the general health of taxi drivers impacts their occupation.Conclusion: The findings implicate that the health status of taxi operators in Tshwane was a serious concern and urgent concerted effort is needed to engage in lifestyle modification of taxi drivers. The need for health promotion and formalised occupational health services was recommended.
Fu, Shiwan; Turner, Angus; Tan, Irene; Muir, Josephine
To identify and assess strategies for evaluating the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes. Systematic literature review. Worldwide. Peer-reviewed journal articles that included the use of a mobile eye health unit. Journal articles were included if outcome measures reflected an assessment of the impact of a mobile eye health unit on health outcomes. Six studies were identified with mobile services offering diabetic retinopathy screening (three studies), optometric services (two studies) and orthoptic services (one study). This review identified and assessed strategies in existing literature used to evaluate the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes. Studies included in this review used patient outcomes (i.e. disease detection, vision impairment, treatment compliance) and/or service delivery outcomes (i.e. cost per attendance, hospital transport use, inappropriate referrals, time from diabetic retinopathy photography to treatment) to evaluate the impact of mobile eye health units. Limitations include difficulty proving causation of specific outcome measures and the overall shortage of impact evaluation studies. Variation in geographical location, service population and nature of eye care providers limits broad application. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Harris-Roxas, Ben; Haigh, Fiona; Travaglia, Joanne; Kemp, Lynn
Health impact assessment has been identified internationally as a mechanism to ensure potential health impacts and health equity impacts of proposals are considered before implementation. This paper looks at the impact of three equity focused health impact assessments (EFHIAs) of health service plans on subsequent decision-making and implementation, and then utilises these findings to test and refine an existing conceptual framework for evaluating the impact and effectiveness of health impact assessments for use in relation to EFHIAs. Case study analysis of three EFHIAs conducted on health sector plans in New South Wales, Australia. Data was drawn from 14 semi-structured interviews and the analysis of seven related documents (draft plans and EFHIA reports). The case studies showed that the EFHIAs all had some impact on the decision-making about the plans and their implementation, most clearly in relation to participants' understandings of equity and in the development of options for modifying service plans to ensure this was addressed. The timing of the EFHIA and individual responses to the EFHIA process and its recommendations were identified as critical factors influencing the impact of the EFHIAs. Several modifications to the conceptual framework are identified, principally adding factors to recognise the role individuals play in influencing the impact and effectiveness of EFHIAs. EFHIA has the potential to improve the consideration of health equity in health service planning processes, though a number of contextual and individual factors affect this. Current approaches can be strengthened by taking into account personal and organisational responses to the EFHIA process.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Reproductive health of puberty is very important in the cycle of Life. Adolescence is a very important period of time in cycle of life and it is followed by physical, psychological and social changes. Therefore the aim of this study was needs assessment of reproductive health for adolescence as a first and principal step in curriculum planning for health services. Methods: This study was qualitative like the most needs assessments and the method was content analysis. Data gathering was done by semi structured interview. We used two focus groups (7and 10persons for needs assessment of reproductive health between girls, and personal interview with 10 boys. We did content analysis and then extracted the main themes and sub themes. Results: Adolescent girls had diverse needs in four groups: experiences related to menstruation and hygiene, social needs, sexual needs and psychological needs. Also adolescent boys had three groups of needs like physical changes, psychological and sexual needs. In physical needs group they had some needs like no knowledge of symptoms of adolescence, no knowledge of hygiene related to puberty. In psychological needs group they had some needs like feeling depression and in sexual needs group they had some needs like tendency to make contacts with girls, no knowledge of communication with people with different sex. Conclusion: Education and the systematic planning in reproductive health matters are necessary for parents, teachers and adolescents, and they are known as the prior needs.
Thokala, Praveen; Duenas, Alejandra
Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been suggested by some researchers as a method to capture the benefits beyond quality adjusted life-years in a transparent and consistent manner. The objectives of this article were to analyze the possible application of MCDA approaches in health technology assessment and to describe their relative advantages and disadvantages. This article begins with an introduction to the most common types of MCDA models and a critical review of state-of-the-art methods for incorporating multiple criteria in health technology assessment. An overview of MCDA is provided and is compared against the current UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence health technology appraisal process. A generic MCDA modeling approach is described, and the different MCDA modeling approaches are applied to a hypothetical case study. A comparison of the different MCDA approaches is provided, and the generic issues that need consideration before the application of MCDA in health technology assessment are examined. There are general practical issues that might arise from using an MCDA approach, and it is suggested that appropriate care be taken to ensure the success of MCDA techniques in the appraisal process. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One component of the biomass burning inventory, crop residue burning, has been poorly characterized in the National Emissions Inventory. In the 2011 NEI, Wildland fires, prescribed fires, and crop residue burning collectively were the largest source of PM2.5 This paper summarizes our 2014 NEI method to estimate crop residue burning emissions and grass/pasture burning emissions using remote sensing data and field information and literature-based, crop-specific emission factors. We will focus on both the post-harvest and pre-harvest burning that takes place with bluegrass, corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, sugarcane and wheat. Estimates for 2014 indicate that over the continental United States (CONUS), crop residue burning including all areas identified as Pasture/Grass, Grassland Herbaceous, and Pasture/Hay produced 64,994 short tons of PM2.5. This estimate compares with the 2011 NEI and 2008 NEI as follows: 2008: 49,653 short tons and 2011: 141,184 short tons. Note that in the previous two NEI’s rangeland burning was not well-defined and so the comparison is not exact. In addition, the entire database used to estimate this sector of emissions is available on EPA’s Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors (CHIEF http://www3.epa.gov/ttn/chief/index.html The National Emissions Inventory is developed on
The aim of this study was to determine if the fish health assessment index (HAI) developed in the USA and associated parasite index (PI), when applied to Clarias gariepinus at two localities in the upper and middle Vaal River system, could distinguish between localities on the grounds of water quality. Elevated HAI values ...
Sep 3, 2014 ... of the Olifants River (Flag Boshielo Dam and the Phalaborwa Barrage) were measured, and a human health risk assessment following .... samples were stored at −80°C prior to analysis at an accredited laboratory (ISO/IEC ... methodology of the US Environmental Protection Agency. (US-EPA, 2000) as ...
This five-year study will develop and test the Community Health Assessment Program's effectiveness in decreasing the incidence of diabetes in rural communities in the Zamboanga Peninsula of the Philippines. The goal is to improve the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Research that saves lives This ...
Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Lemmens, Karin; Vrijhoef, Bert
Purpose of review: To provide a critical opinion on the extent to which asthma disease management programs currently improve the effectiveness and efficiency of care and directions for future policy and research. Recent findings: The methodological quality of health technology assessment of asthma
Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Platon, Birgitta; Widén, Annette; Wallner, Ingegerd; Karlsson, Ove
In healthcare, pain assessment is a key factor in effectively treating postoperative pain and reducing the risk of developing chronic pain. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether a mobile phone support system can be used as a basis to continuously document patients’ health information in real time and provide conditions for optimal, individual pain management after cholecystectomy and hysterectomy procedures.
Primary eye care is at the frontline in the elimina on of the avoidable causes of blindness. Proficiency in the basic ophthalmic skills is a cri cal factor in the effec ve delivery of eye care services at the primary level of care. The aim of the study was to assess the ability of the primary health care workers to provide basic.
The broad objective of the study was to assess farmers' awareness and practice of health safety measures in the use of agrochemicals in Niger state , Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic and demographic features of the farmers, identify the common agrochemicals being used by the farmers ...
Background: Nosocomial infections increase mortality and morbidity although adherence to simple hand washing procedures is suggested to reduce these. Purpose: To assess knowledge of hand washing among health care providers in Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH) in South Sudan and establish associations with ...
M. Drummond (Michael); B. Jönsson (Bengt); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); T. Stargardt (Tom)
textabstractReference pricing and health technology assessment are policies commonly applied in order to obtain more value for money from pharmaceuticals. This study focussed on decisions about the initial price and reimbursement status of innovative drugs and discussed the consequences for market
Oortwijn, W.; Broos, P.; Vondeling, Hindrik; Banta, D.; Todorova, L.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and apply an instrument to map the level of health technology assessment (HTA) development at country level in selected countries. We examined middle-income countries (Argentina, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, and Russia) and countries
Mandryk, R.L.; Birk, M.V.; Lobel, A.M.; Rooij, M.M.J.W. van; Granic, I.; Abeele, V. vanden
The community for research on video games for assessment and intervention for mental health spans multiple disciplines, from cognitive sciences, computer science, and interaction design, to psychology, neurobiology, and medicine. The goal of this workshop is to bring together an international group
Lepetit, Daniel; Cichocki, Wladyslaw
Presents the results of a needs assessment study carried out with university students who were preparing to work as health professionals. Questionnaire data gauged the students' expectations for language courses intended specifically for their areas of specialization. Analysis follows a multidimensional approach and examines profiles of the…
18 déc. 2009 ... This book represents the best modern innovative thinking on the topic and symbolizes an important turning point in the history of wastewater use in irrigation ... It presents the state-of-the-art on quantitative risk assessment and low-cost options for health risk reduction, from treatment to on-farm and off-farm ...
Assessment of demographic, health and nutrition related factors to a school performance among school children in Arb-Gebeya Town, Tach-Gaynt Woreda, South Gondar, Ethiopia. ... The prevalence of underweight (BMI value below the 5th percentile) in the area was 30(5%) in all age groups.The mean of the students' ...
Objective. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 534 farmers in the largest vegetable –producing area in the northern part of the Philippines. This study assessed the ergonomic risk factors, and occupational health and safety conditions of farmers' multi-pesticide exposures.Methods. Methods consisted of ...
The main objective of the session is to develop capacity on this decision-making tool during a mini-workshop on the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Bijelo Polje, Montenegro. The HIA is a combination of procedures, methods and tools that systematically judges the potential, and ...
McKee, Michael M; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Winters, Paul C; Fiscella, Kevin; Zazove, Philip; Sen, Ananda; Pearson, Thomas
Communication and language barriers isolate Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users from mass media, health care messages, and health care communication, which, when coupled with social marginalization, places them at a high risk for inadequate health literacy. Our objectives were to translate, adapt, and develop an accessible health literacy instrument in ASL and to assess the prevalence and correlates of inadequate health literacy among Deaf ASL users and hearing English speakers using a cross-sectional design. A total of 405 participants (166 Deaf and 239 hearing) were enrolled in the study. The Newest Vital Sign was adapted, translated, and developed into an ASL version (ASL-NVS). We found that 48% of Deaf participants had inadequate health literacy, and Deaf individuals were 6.9 times more likely than hearing participants to have inadequate health literacy. The new ASL-NVS, available on a self-administered computer platform, demonstrated good correlation with reading literacy. The prevalence of Deaf ASL users with inadequate health literacy is substantial, warranting further interventions and research.
Marrying scientific and health research with natural resource management should be a straightforward process. However, differences in purpose, goals, language, levels of detail and implementation authority between the scientists who conduct research and resource managers who plan and implement projects make it difficult for resource managers to include information not specific to the problem at hand. One method to overcome this barrier is a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) or process that uses scientific data, health expertise and public input to factor public health considerations into the decision-making process. An HIA informs decision makers and stakeholders of the potential health effects of a proposed program, policy, project or plan through a systematic investigation of impacts to health and health determinants and deliberative engagement of community members and other stakeholders throughout the HIA process. USEPA will be conducting an HIA on the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources’ sediment remediation and habitat restoration project at Kingsbury Bay and Grassy Point. This poster outlines the HIA process, illustrates how technical and stakeholder committees inform the process, and presents the determinants of health that will be explored in the HIA. not applicable
Downes, C; Gill, A; Doyle, L; Morrissey, J; Higgins, A
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Risk assessment and safety planning are a core aspect of the role of the mental health nurse. Conflicting views exist on the value of risk assessment tools. Few studies have examined mental health nurses' attitudes towards risk, including use of tools and the role of positive risk in recovery. WHAT THE PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Mental health nurses view risk assessment as a core dimension of their role and not merely an exercise to fulfil organizational clinical safety and governance obligations. The majority of nurses hold positive attitudes towards therapeutic or positive risk, and consider creative risk taking as vital to people's recovery. The majority of nurses believe that risk assessment tools facilitate professional decision making, however, some are concerned that tools may negatively impact upon therapeutic relationships. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Ongoing education on the use of risk assessment tools is required to minimize views that their use is incompatible with therapeutic engagement, and to enable nurses to develop confidence to engage with positive risk and to allow service users make decisions and take responsibility. Introduction Risk assessment and safety planning are considered core components of the role of the mental health nurse; however, little is known about nurses' attitudes towards risk assessment, use of tools to assess risk or therapeutic risk taking. Aim This study aimed to explore mental health nurses' attitudes towards completing risk assessments, use of tools as an aid, and therapeutic or positive risk. Method An anonymous survey which included 13 attitudinal statements, rated on a five-point Likert scale, was completed by 381 mental health nurses working in adult services in Ireland. Findings Findings indicate strong support for the practice of risk assessment in mental health practice. The vast majority of nurses believe that risk assessment tools facilitate professional
Argimon, Josep Maria
The origins of the health technology assessment (HTA) agencies date back to the 70s in the United States; in the European context, the current Agency for Quality and Health Assessment of Catalonia was among the pioneers in 1991. Epidemiological, social, technological and economic changes of recent years have led to the incorporation, by the agencies, of new functions, activities and projects that can offer better services (information and knowledge) to the various players in the healthcare system (patients, professionals, providers, insurers and policy-makers) in order to increase healthcare quality and preserve the sustainability of the health system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract There have been significant improvements in the design and management of humanitarian aid responses in the last decade. In particular, a significant body of knowledge has been accumulated about public health interventions in emergencies, following calls for developing the evidence base of humanitarian health interventions. Several factors have prompted this, such as the increased volume of humanitarian assistance with subsequent higher levels of scrutiny on aid spending, and greater pressure for improving humanitarian aid quality and performance. However, documentation of the ability of humanitarian interventions to alleviate suffering and curb mortality remains limited. This paper argues that epidemiological studies can potentially be a useful tool for measuring the impact of health interventions in humanitarian crises. Survey methods or surveillance systems are mainly used for early warning or needs assessment and their potential for assessing the impact of aid programmes is underutilised.
Doaee, Sh; Olyaeemanesh, A; Emami, Sh; Mobinizadeh, M; Abooee, P; Nejati, M; Zolani, Gs
To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA) in Iran since 2007, and to facilitate further development of HTA and its integration into policy making. Data of this study were collected through key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation) and analyzed by experts of opinion in form of qualitative methods. Health technology assessment entered to the political agenda in Iran only in 2007 with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement with the bellow objectives: Institutionalization of evidence-based decision making in Ministry of Health, Creating an localization for structural HTA in Health system of Iran, Setting up training courses in order to educate capable manpower to full up the capacity of the universities, Establishment of a new field in HTA subject in medical universities for MSc and PhD degree, International communication about HTA through national website and possible participation in international Congress. HTA has been established in the healthcare system of Iran but what is needed is a clear political will to push forward the objectives of HTA in Iran. Similar to other countries, advance the regulation on the adoption of new health technologies to improve not only technical or allocate efficiency, but also health equity.
Full Text Available Background: The integration of health promotion in the treatment of patients should be included in all academic curricula in primary training of health professionals. However, the extent to which health promotion is included in the various curricula at undergraduate level is not known.Objective: To assess the extent to which health promotion content is integrated in undergraduate physiotherapy training programmes in South Africa. Method: This was a qualitative and descriptive study, using in-depth interviews with representatives of physiotherapy academic departments.Results: All universities have some content of health promotion, with the weighting varying between 12% and 40%. Health promotion is taught at various levels of study, and health promotion training blocks are in both urban and rural settings and include communities, schools and old-age homes. The theories of advocacy, enabling and mediation are covered, but there is limited practical training on these elements. There are limited human resources trained in health promotion, as well as a lack of clear processes of developing and reviewing teaching and training materials.Conclusion: There is lack of consensus on the weighting of health promotion, the level at which it is taught and how it is evaluated across universities. Challenges to integrate health promotion in physiotherapy curricula include lack of frequent curricula reviews, inadequate training of lecturers and lack of conducive practical sites.The physiotherapy profession needs to reach a consensus on minimum standards for integration of health promotion in undergraduate training, and the physiotherapy professional board has the potential to provide the required leadership.
Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Saghaeiannejad, Sakineh; Karimi, Saeed; Ehteshami, Asghar; Kasaei, Mahtab
Health care managers and personnel should be aware and literate of health information system in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness in their organization. Since accurate, appropriate, precise, timely, valid information and interpretation of information is required and is the basis for policy planning and decision making in various levels of the organization. This study was conducted to assess the district health information system evolution in Iran according to WHO framework. This research is an applied, descriptive cross sectional study, in which a total of twelve urban and eight rural facilities, and the district health center at Falavarjan region were surveyed by using a questionnaire with 334 items. Content and constructive validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software and descriptive statistics were used to examine measures of WHO compliance. The analysis of data revealed that the mean score of compliance of district health information system framework was 35.75 percent. The maximum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to the data collection process (70 percent). The minimum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to information based decision making process with a score of 10 percent. District Health Information System Criteria in Isfahan province do not completely comply with WHO framework. Consequently, it seems that health system managers engaged with underlying policy and decision making processes at district health level should try to restructure and decentralize district health information system and develop training management programs for their managers.
Alexander, Jeffrey A; Hearld, Larry R; Shi, Yunfeng
The purpose of this article was to identify some common organizational features of multisector health care alliances (MHCAs) and the analytic challenges presented by those characteristics in assessing organizational change. Two rounds of an Internet-based survey of participants in 14 MHCAs. We highlight three analytic challenges that can arise when quantitatively studying the organizational characteristics of MHCAs-assessing change in MHCA organization, assessment of construct reliability, and aggregation of individual responses to reflect organizational characteristics. We illustrate these issues using a leadership effectiveness scale (12 items) validated in previous research and data from 14 MHCAs participating in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Aligning Forces for Quality (AF4Q) program. High levels of instability and turnover in MHCA membership create challenges in using survey data to study changes in key organizational characteristics of MHCAs. We offer several recommendations to diagnose the source and extent of these problems. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Mostafa Farah Bakhsh
Full Text Available Background and objectives : The goal of health information system is to provide necessary data for decision-making in all levels of health system. For proper use of data, the managers and other staff must have sufficient knowledge and skills about analysis and using data. This study was designed and carried out to assess health staff knowledge and skills about health data management. Material and Methods : This study was performed as a descriptive and cross sectional survey in East Azerbaijan province in 2006. Three groups of managers and district health centers experts, physicians and primary health care providers and district health centers information experts were selected for studying their knowledge and skills in health information management. Data were gathered with self-administered questionnaire. A total number of 32 managers, 260 district staff and 346 primary health care providers were assessed. The staff were selected with multistage sampling. Data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results : According to the results, 41% of descriptive statistics questions and 52% of health indicators calculation questions were answered correctly by managers. These figures were 34% and 43% in health experts group, respectively. None of the health centers staff knew descriptive statistics and 22% of them could calculate health indicators correctly. Results indicated that 73% and 71% of data experts had enough knowledge about descriptive statistics and health indicators, respectively. Conclusion : For using information in daily decision-making, having enough skills about data management such as; sampling, analysis, data distribution methods, knowledge management and evidence-based decisions is necessary.
Full Text Available Objective: Mental health is an important part of individual, social and occupational life. World Health Organization defines mental health as absolute ability of performing social, physical and mental roles. Inattention to mental health is one of the important factors that lowers efficacy, uses up human powers, causes physical and mental complications and job exhaustion, especially in professional services. As health personnel is major part of health services and their high job incentive is a necessity for their health insurance, this research was implemented to assess their mental health quality. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional, correlative study which is conducted on 190 health personnel. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Demographic characteristics and Goldenberg general health questionnaire-28 data analysis was performed by using SPSS and statistical methods were independent samples t-test, chi-square, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlative index. Results: Two-third of cases were female, mean age was 32.22. 76.3% were married, 49.5% had no child, and most of the others had one child. 32.2% of cases had mental disorders (score > 23. Conclusion: Mean score of cases was 21, this score comparing with the general population of Iran is high. Mental health of health personnel for many reasons is at risk. According to these findings, great stressors of such jobs are: Facing with unexpected situations, work turns, especially night turns, organizational and individual factors.
Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna; Gauld, Robin Dc; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline
Very few studies have assessed performance of Botswana public hospitals. We draw from a large research study assessing performance of the Botswana Ministry of Health (MoH) to evaluate the performance of public hospital system using the World Health Organization Health Systems Performance Assessment Framework (WHO HSPAF). We aimed to evaluate performance of Botswana public hospital system; relate findings of the assessment to the potential for improvements in hospital performance; and determine the usefulness of the WHO HSPAF in assessing performance of hospital systems in a developing country. This article is based on data collected from document analysis, 54 key informants comprising senior managers and staff of the MoH (N= 40) and senior officers from stakeholder organizations (N= 14), and surveys of 42 hospital managers and 389 health workers. Data from documents and transcripts were analyzed using content and thematic analysis while data analysis for surveys was descriptive determining proportions and percentages. The organizational structure of the Botswana's public hospital system, authority and decision-making are highly centralized. Overall physical access to health services is high. However, challenges in the distribution of facilities and inpatient beds create inequities and inefficiencies. Capacity of the hospitals to deliver services is limited by inadequate resources. There are significant challenges with the quality of care. While Botswana invested considerably in building hospitals around the country resulting in high physical access to services, the organization and governance of the hospital system, and inadequate resources limit service delivery. The ongoing efforts to decentralize management of hospitals to district level entities should be expedited. The WHO HSPAF enabled us to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the public hospital system. Though relatively new, this approach proved useful in this study.
Full Text Available Industrial Safety and Health Law (ISH Law of Japan requires abnormalities identifi ed in evaluations of worker health and working environments are reported to occupational physicians, and employers are advised of measures to ensure appropriate accommodations in working environments and work procedures. Since the 1980s, notions of a risk assessment and occupational safety and health management system were expected to further prevent industrial accidents. In 2005, ISH Law stipulated workplace risk assessment using the wording “employers shall endeavor.” Following the amendment, multiple documents and guidelines for risk assessment for different work procedures were developed. They require ISH Laws to be implemented fully and workplaces to plan and execute measures to reduce risks, ranking them from those addressing potential hazards to those requiring workers to wear protective articles. A governmental survey in 2005 found the performance of risk assessment was 20.4% and common reasons for not implementing risk assessments were lack of adequate personnel or knowledge. ISH Law specifi es criminal penalties for both individuals and organizations. Moreover, under the Labor Contract Law promulgated in 2007, employers are obliged to make reasonable efforts to ensure employee health for foreseeable and avoidable risks. Therefore, enterprises neglecting even the non-binding provisions of guidelines are likely to suffer signifi cant business impact if judged to be responsible for industrial accidents or occupational disease. To promote risk assessment, we must strengthen technical, fi nancial, and physical support from public-service organizations, encourage the dissemination of good practices to reduce risks, and consider additional employer incentives, including relaxed mandatory regulations.
Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman
The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.
Zapata, Belén Cruz; Hernández Niñirola, Antonio; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio
The huge increase in the number and use of smartphones and tablets has led health service providers to take an interest in mHealth. Popular mobile app markets like Apple App Store or Google Play contain thousands of health applications. Although mobile personal health records (mPHRs) have a number of benefits, important challenges appear in the form of adoption barriers. Security and privacy have been identified as part of these barriers and should be addressed. This paper analyzes and assesses a total of 24 free mPHRs for Android and iOS. Characteristics regarding privacy and security were extracted from the HIPAA. The results show important differences in both the mPHRs and the characteristics analyzed. A questionnaire containing six questions concerning privacy policies was defined. Our questionnaire may assist developers and stakeholders to evaluate the security and privacy of their mPHRs.
Marc, David T; Beattie, James; Herasevich, Vitaly; Gatewood, Laël; Zhang, Rui
The U.S. Federal Government developed HealthData.gov to disseminate healthcare datasets to the public. Metadata is provided for each datasets and is the sole source of information to find and retrieve data. This study employed automated quality assessments of the HealthData.gov metadata published from 2012 to 2014 to measure completeness, accuracy, and consistency of applying standards. The results demonstrated that metadata published in earlier years had lower completeness, accuracy, and consistency. Also, metadata that underwent modifications following their original creation were of higher quality. HealthData.gov did not uniformly apply Dublin Core Metadata Initiative to the metadata, which is a widely accepted metadata standard. These findings suggested that the HealthData.gov metadata suffered from quality issues, particularly related to information that wasn't frequently updated. The results supported the need for policies to standardize metadata and contributed to the development of automated measures of metadata quality.
Jones, Stephanie; Donelle, Lorie
Health information technology (HIT), and specifically electronic health records (EHR), are recognized as fundamental tools for collecting, storing, retrieving, and monitoring patient care and information. However, few schools of nursing have incorporated theoretical or practical aspects of HIT competencies within the educational curriculum. The purpose of this study was to conduct a usability assessment to explore undergraduate nursing student electronic health record documentation knowledge and skill, using a patient case scenario to inform the development of an informatics-based undergraduate nursing curriculum. Three themes were identified: "Being a Novice User/Practitioner," "Confidentiality and Security," and "Repetition and Practice." Integration of the EHR into nursing curriculum will allow students an EHR apprenticeship with the potential to enhance understanding and skill of nursing processes, documentation, and critical thinking. Findings will also guide teaching and learning strategies that will respond to rising expectations for competency with health information technology.
Studnicki, J; Steverson, B; Myers, B; Hevner, A R; Berndt, D J
A systematic method for assessing the health status of communities has been under development at the University of South Florida since 1991. The system, known as CATCH, draws 226 indicators from multiple sources and uses an innovative comparative framework and weighted evaluation criteria to produce a rank-ordered community problem list. The CATCH results from II Floridian counties have focused attention on high priority health problems and provided a framework for measuring the impact of health expenditures on community health status outcomes. The method and plans to create an automated data warehouse to support its expansion and enrichment are described.
Mograbi, Penelope J; Erasmus, Barend F N; Witkowski, E T F; Asner, Gregory P; Wessels, Konrad J; Mathieu, Renaud; Knapp, David E; Martin, Roberta E; Main, Russell
Woody biomass dynamics are an expression of ecosystem function, yet biomass estimates do not provide information on the spatial distribution of woody vegetation within the vertical vegetation subcanopy. We demonstrate the ability of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to measure aboveground biomass and subcanopy structure, as an explanatory tool to unravel vegetation dynamics in structurally heterogeneous landscapes. We sampled three communal rangelands in Bushbuckridge, South Africa, utilised by rural communities for fuelwood harvesting. Woody biomass estimates ranged between 9 Mg ha(-1) on gabbro geology sites to 27 Mg ha(-1) on granitic geology sites. Despite predictions of woodland depletion due to unsustainable fuelwood extraction in previous studies, biomass in all the communal rangelands increased between 2008 and 2012. Annual biomass productivity estimates (10-14% p.a.) were higher than previous estimates of 4% and likely a significant contributor to the previous underestimations of modelled biomass supply. We show that biomass increases are attributable to growth of vegetation wood extraction rangeland, 79% of the changes in the vertical vegetation subcanopy are gains in the 1-3 m height class. The higher the wood extraction pressure on the rangelands, the greater the biomass increases in the low height classes within the subcanopy, likely a strong resprouting response to intensive harvesting. Yet, fuelwood shortages are still occurring, as evidenced by the losses in the tall tree height class in the high extraction rangeland. Loss of large trees and gain in subcanopy shrubs could result in a structurally simple landscape with reduced functional capacity. This research demonstrates that intensive harvesting can, paradoxically, increase biomass and this has implications for the sustainability of ecosystem service provision. The structural implications of biomass increases in communal rangelands could be misinterpreted as woodland recovery in the
Penelope J Mograbi
Full Text Available Woody biomass dynamics are an expression of ecosystem function, yet biomass estimates do not provide information on the spatial distribution of woody vegetation within the vertical vegetation subcanopy. We demonstrate the ability of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR to measure aboveground biomass and subcanopy structure, as an explanatory tool to unravel vegetation dynamics in structurally heterogeneous landscapes. We sampled three communal rangelands in Bushbuckridge, South Africa, utilised by rural communities for fuelwood harvesting. Woody biomass estimates ranged between 9 Mg ha(-1 on gabbro geology sites to 27 Mg ha(-1 on granitic geology sites. Despite predictions of woodland depletion due to unsustainable fuelwood extraction in previous studies, biomass in all the communal rangelands increased between 2008 and 2012. Annual biomass productivity estimates (10-14% p.a. were higher than previous estimates of 4% and likely a significant contributor to the previous underestimations of modelled biomass supply. We show that biomass increases are attributable to growth of vegetation <5 m in height, and that, in the high wood extraction rangeland, 79% of the changes in the vertical vegetation subcanopy are gains in the 1-3 m height class. The higher the wood extraction pressure on the rangelands, the greater the biomass increases in the low height classes within the subcanopy, likely a strong resprouting response to intensive harvesting. Yet, fuelwood shortages are still occurring, as evidenced by the losses in the tall tree height class in the high extraction rangeland. Loss of large trees and gain in subcanopy shrubs could result in a structurally simple landscape with reduced functional capacity. This research demonstrates that intensive harvesting can, paradoxically, increase biomass and this has implications for the sustainability of ecosystem service provision. The structural implications of biomass increases in communal rangelands
Hopson, Rebecca; Meiman, Paul; Shannon, Graeme
Rapid human population growth and habitat modification in the western United States has led to the formation of urban and exurban rangelands. Many of these rangelands are also home to populations of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Our study aimed to compare the vegetation composition of an urban and exurban rangeland, and explore the role that prairie dogs play in these systems. The percent absolute canopy cover of graminoids (grasses and grass-likes), forbs, shrubs, litter, and bare ground were estimated at sampling areas located on and off prairie dog colonies at an urban and an exurban site. Herbaceous forage quality and quantity were determined on plant material collected from exclosure cages located on the colony during the entire growing season, while a relative estimate of prairie dog density was calculated using maximum counts. The exurban site had more litter and plant cover and less bare ground than the urban site. Graminoids were the dominant vegetation at the exurban plots. In contrast, mostly introduced forbs were found on the urban prairie dog colony. However, the forage quality and quantity tests demonstrated no difference between the two colonies. The relative prairie dog density was greater at the urban colony, which has the potential to drive greater vegetation utilization and reduced cover. Exurban rangeland showed lower levels of impact and retained all of the plant functional groups both on- and off-colony. These results suggest that activities of prairie dogs might further exacerbate the impacts of humans in fragmented urban rangeland habitats. Greater understanding of the drivers of these impacts and the spatial scales at which they occur are likely to prove valuable in the management and conservation of rangelands in and around urban areas.
Full Text Available Ecosystem health assessment (EHA is one of the most important aspects in ecosystem management. Nowadays, ecological environment of mining cities is facing various problems. In this study, through ecosystem health theory and remote sensing images in 2005, 2009 and 2013, landscape pattern analysis and Vigor-Organization-Resilience (VOR model were applied to set up an evaluation index system of ecosystem health of mining city to assess the healthy level of ecosystem in Panji District Huainan city. Results showed a temporal stable but high spatial heterogeneity landscape pattern during 2005–2013. According to the regional ecosystem health index, it experienced a rapid decline after a slight increase, and finally it maintained at an ordinary level. Among these areas, a significant distinction was presented in different towns. It indicates that the ecosystem health of Tianjijiedao town, the regional administrative centre, descended rapidly during the study period, and turned into the worst level in the study area. While the Hetuan Town, located in the northwestern suburb area of Panji District, stayed on a relatively better level than other towns. The impacts of coal mining collapse area, land reclamation on the landscape pattern and ecosystem health status of mining cities were also discussed. As a result of underground coal mining, land subsidence has become an inevitable problem in the study area. In addition, the coal mining subsidence area has brought about the destruction of the farmland, construction land and water bodies, which causing the change of the regional landscape pattern and making the evaluation of ecosystem health in mining area more difficult. Therefore, this study provided an ecosystem health approach for relevant departments to make scientific decisions.
Yu, W.; Liu, Y.; Lin, M.; Fang, F.; Xiao, R.
Ecosystem health assessment (EHA) is one of the most important aspects in ecosystem management. Nowadays, ecological environment of mining cities is facing various problems. In this study, through ecosystem health theory and remote sensing images in 2005, 2009 and 2013, landscape pattern analysis and Vigor-Organization-Resilience (VOR) model were applied to set up an evaluation index system of ecosystem health of mining city to assess the healthy level of ecosystem in Panji District Huainan city. Results showed a temporal stable but high spatial heterogeneity landscape pattern during 2005-2013. According to the regional ecosystem health index, it experienced a rapid decline after a slight increase, and finally it maintained at an ordinary level. Among these areas, a significant distinction was presented in different towns. It indicates that the ecosystem health of Tianjijiedao town, the regional administrative centre, descended rapidly during the study period, and turned into the worst level in the study area. While the Hetuan Town, located in the northwestern suburb area of Panji District, stayed on a relatively better level than other towns. The impacts of coal mining collapse area, land reclamation on the landscape pattern and ecosystem health status of mining cities were also discussed. As a result of underground coal mining, land subsidence has become an inevitable problem in the study area. In addition, the coal mining subsidence area has brought about the destruction of the farmland, construction land and water bodies, which causing the change of the regional landscape pattern and making the evaluation of ecosystem health in mining area more difficult. Therefore, this study provided an ecosystem health approach for relevant departments to make scientific decisions.
McCallum, Lindsay C; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary; Koppe, Bart; McFarland, Christine; Butler, Katherine; Ollson, Christopher A
The Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was conducted to evaluate the potential community health implications of a proposed oil drilling and production project in Hermosa Beach, California. The HIA considered 17 determinants of health that fell under 6 major categories (i.e., air quality, water and soil quality, upset conditions, noise and light emissions, traffic, and community livability). This paper attempts to address some of the gaps within the HIA practice by presenting the methodological approach and results of this transparent, comprehensive HIA; specifically, the evaluation matrix and decision-making framework that have been developed for this HIA and form the basis of the evaluation and allow for a clear conclusion to be reached in respect of any given health determinant (i.e., positive, negative, neutral). There is a number of aspects of the project that may positively influence health (e.g., increased education funding, ability to enhance green space), and at the same time there have been potential negative effects identified (e.g., odor, blowouts, property values). Except for upset conditions, the negative health outcomes have been largely nuisance-related (e.g., odor, aesthetics) without irreversible health impacts. The majority of the health determinants, that had been examined, have revealed that the project would have no substantial effect on the health of the community. Using the newly developed methodology and based on established mitigation measures and additional recommendations provided in the HIA, the authors have concluded that the project will have no substantial effect on community health. This approach and methodology will assist practitioners, stakeholders and decision-makers in advancing the HIA as a useful, reproducible, and informative tool. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Vatanpour, Shabnam; Hrudey, Steve E; Dinu, Irina
The risk assessment matrix is a widely accepted, semi-quantitative tool for assessing risks, and setting priorities in risk management. Although the method can be useful to promote discussion to distinguish high risks from low risks, a published critique described a problem when the frequency and severity of risks are negatively correlated. A theoretical analysis showed that risk predictions could be misleading. We evaluated a practical public health example because it provided experiential risk data that allowed us to assess the practical implications of the published concern that risk matrices would make predictions that are worse than random. We explored this predicted problem by constructing a risk assessment matrix using a public health risk scenario-Tainted blood transfusion infection risk-That provides negative correlation between harm frequency and severity. We estimated the risk from the experiential data and compared these estimates with those provided by the risk assessment matrix. Although we validated the theoretical concern, for these authentic experiential data, the practical scope of the problem was limited. The risk matrix has been widely used in risk assessment. This method should not be abandoned wholesale, but users must address the source of the problem, apply the risk matrix with a full understanding of this problem and use matrix predictions to inform, but not drive decision-making.
Several factors are expected to put a strain on health financing in Bhutan. In a predominantly public-financed healthcare, ensuring that the health system gains sufficient fiscal space to ensure the sustainability of its financing is a critical policy concern. This fiscal space assessment bases its analysis on national surveys and statistics, international databases and review of official documents and reports. Assuming that the government health spending will continue to respond in the same way to growth as in the period 2002-2012, Bhutan can expect to see a robust increase in government investments in health. If elasticity of health expenditure with respect to GDP does not change significantly, projections indicate that per-capita government spending for health could more than double in the period 2012 to 2019. This increase from Ngultrum 2632 in 2012 to Ngultrum 6724 in 2019 could correspond to government health spending from 2.65% of GDP to 3.98% of GDP in the respective years. The country, however, needs to closely monitor and ensure that government investment in healthcare keeps pace with the growth of the national economy. Along with this, supplementary resources for healthcare could be explored through earmarked taxes and by generating efficiency gains. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bong-min Yang, PhD (in economics), is Professor and former Dean of the School of Public Health at the Seoul National University, South Korea. Professor Yang has led research and written many papers in health economics and healthcare systems in Korea and Asia. His recent research and publications focus on the field of economic evaluation and outcomes research. He played a key role in the introduction of a formal health technology assessment system within Korean healthcare. He is currently serving as Executive Director, Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University. In addition to his research and publications, Professor Yang is Associate Editor for Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, is co-editor-in-chief for Value in Health Regional Issues, and is currently chair of the Management Advisory Board of Value in Health and a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Medical Economics. He has been a policy consultant to China, Japan, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand and India. He has also worked as a short-term consultant at the WHO, ADB, UNDP and the World Bank. For the Korean government, he served as Chairperson of the Health Insurance Reform Committee, and Chairperson of the Drug Pricing and Reimbursement Committee. He is currently serving as Chair of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research-Asia Consortium, and a member of the Board of Directors of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research.
Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health
A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)
Sieck, Cynthia J; Dembe, Allard E
This study examines the effect of taking a health risk assessment (HRA) on health care costs, utilization, and member health risks over a 3-year period. This retrospective cohort study examined changes utilization, costs, and health risks among a random sample of 500 employees completing an HRA compared with a matched group of 500 employees who did not complete an HRA. The HRA group accessed services more frequently and at a lower overall cost, was more likely to utilize primary care and preventive services after the HRA, and improved on seven out of eight health risk measures. This study demonstrates that significant and sustained improvement in health risks and lower health care costs may be achievable with efforts such as an HRA that seeks to engage employees in health improvement efforts.
Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi; Madaj, Barbara; Kumar, Shubha; Ameh, Charles; van den Broek, Nynke
Responding to increasing demands to demonstrate value-for-money (VfM) for maternal and newborn health interventions, and in the absence of VfM analysis in peer-reviewed literature, this paper reviews VfM components and methods, critiques their applicability, strengths and weakness and proposes how VfM assessments can be improved. VfM comprises four components: economy, efficiency, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Both 'economy' and 'efficiency' can be assessed with detailed cost analysis utilising costs obtained from programme accounting data or generic cost databases. Before-and-after studies, case-control studies or randomised controlled trials can be used to assess 'effectiveness'. To assess 'cost-effectiveness', cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), cost-utility analysis (CUA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) or social return on investment (SROI) analysis are applicable. Generally, costs can be obtained from programme accounting data or existing generic cost databases. As such 'economy' and 'efficiency' are relatively easy to assess. However, 'effectiveness' and 'cost-effectiveness' which require establishment of the counterfactual are more difficult to ascertain. Either a combination of CEA or CUA with tools for assessing other VfM components, or the independent use of CBA or SROI are alternative approaches proposed to strengthen VfM assessments. Cross-cutting themes such as equity, sustainability, scalability and cultural acceptability should also be assessed, as they provide critical contextual information for interpreting VfM assessments. To select an assessment approach, consideration should be given to the purpose, data availability, stakeholders requiring the findings and perspectives of programme beneficiaries. Implementers and researchers should work together to improve the quality of assessments. Standardisation around definitions, methodology and effectiveness measures to be assessed would help.
Klein, Julia A; Harte, John; Zhao, Xin-Quan
We investigated experimental warming and simulated grazing (clipping) effects on rangeland quality, as indicated by vegetation production and nutritive quality, in winter-grazed meadows and summer-grazed shrublands on the Tibetan Plateau, a rangeland system experiencing climatic and pastoral land use changes. Warming decreased total aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) by 40 g x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the meadow habitats and decreased palatable ANPP (total ANPP minus non-palatable forb ANPP) by 10 g x m(-2) x yr(-1) at both habitats. The decreased production of the medicinal forb Gentiana straminea and the increased production of the non-palatable forb Stellera chamaejasme with warming also reduced rangeland quality. At the shrubland habitats, warming resulted in less digestible shrubs, whose foliage contains 25% digestible dry matter (DDM), replacing more digestible graminoids, whose foliage contains 60% DDM. This shift from graminoids to shrubs not only results in lower-quality forage, but could also have important consequences for future domestic herd composition. Although warming extended the growing season in non-clipped plots, the reduced rangeland quality due to decreased vegetative production and nutritive quality will likely overwhelm the improved rangeland quality associated with an extended growing season. Grazing maintained or improved rangeland quality by increasing total ANPP by 20-40 g x m(-2) x yr(-1) with no effect on palatable ANPP. Grazing effects on forage nutritive quality, as measured by foliar nitrogen and carbon content and by shifts in plant group ANPP, resulted in improved forage quality. Grazing extended the growing season at both habitats, and it advanced the growing season at the meadows. Synergistic interactions between warming and grazing were present, such that grazing mediated the warming-induced declines in vegetation production and nutritive quality. Moreover, combined treatment effects were nonadditive, suggesting that we
Full Text Available Environmental health risk assessment deals with risks associated with manmade and natural environmental hazards. Environmental health risk assessment provides a means of estimating the probability of adverse health effects associated with hazards...
Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Brett, Anna; Pevehouse-Pfeiffer, Danielle; O'Neill, Elizabeth A; Ellis-Ordway, Nancy
Although research suggests an association between body image and mental health, with poor body image related to several mental illnesses, there is no research exploring mental health clinicians' body image screening practices. This study aims to fill this gap among a sample of community mental health providers (N = 216). Using a cross-sectional design, clinicians in Community Health Centers were recruited through email using purposeful and snowball sampling in a Midwest state. The majority of participants identified as women (88.4%) and White (88.4%). Additionally, the mean age of the sample was 36.66 years and participants reported working an average of 8.44 years as a mental health provider. We ran descriptive and Chi square analyses. Results suggest a relationship between viewing body image screening as important and level of preparedness as well as level of preparedness and actual assessment. Training and assessment tools may be warranted to increase clinician's preparedness. Additional clinical and policy recommendations are discussed.
Veluchamy, S; Alder, H C
Today's progressive hospital and health care system managers look to new ways to retain or augment their market share and to position themselves in their service areas. Since diffusion of new technologies into health care is market driven, informed decisions on the adoption of certain emerging patient care technologies can place a health care organization in a favorable financial position. There is a compelling need for hospital management and the governing board to collaborate with their medical staff on the development of an acceptable process to quickly identify and implement appropriate new technologies into the patient care environment. This joint effort is vital to ensure the integration of sound clinical values and objectives with planned institutional business strategies. Mount Carmel Health, a multifaceted health care corporation in central Ohio, has met the challenge of managing patient needs, physician interests, and limited hospital resources by forming a unique entity within the organization for the effective assessment and adoption of the latest medical technology. The division, which is called the Advanced Treatment and Bionics Institute (ATBI), is charged with assessing the latest clinical technologies and managing a hospital's adoption of the most appropriate ones. It serves to organize and streamline the identification, acquisition, adoption, and implementation of innovative treatment technologies at Mount Carmel hospitals.
Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha
Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a relatively new and rapidly emerging field in the U.S. An inventory of available HIA resources and tools was conducted, with a primary focus on resources developed in the U.S. The resources and tools available to HIA practitioners in the conduct of their work were identified through multiple methods and compiled into a comprehensive list. The compilation includes tools and resources related to the HIA process itself and those that can be used to collect and analyze data, establish a baseline profile, assess potential health impacts, and establish benchmarks and indicators for monitoring and evaluation. These resources include literature and evidence bases, data and statistics, guidelines, benchmarks, decision and economic analysis tools, scientific models, methods, frameworks, indices, mapping, and various data collection tools. Understanding the data, tools, models, methods, and other resources available to perform HIAs will help to advance the HIA community of practice in the U.S., improve the quality and rigor of assessments upon which stakeholder and policy decisions are based, and potentially improve the overall effectiveness of HIA to promote healthy and sustainable communities. The Health Impact Assessment (HIA) Resource and Tool Compilation is a comprehensive list of resources and tools that can be utilized by HIA practitioners with all levels of HIA experience to guide them throughout the HIA process. The HIA Resource
Rezai-Rad, M; Vaezi, R; Nattagh, F
Concept of e-readiness is used in many areas such as e-business, e-commerce, e-government, and e-banking. In terms of healthcare, e-readiness is a rather new concept, and is propounded under the title of E-healthcare. E-health readiness refers to the readiness of communities and healthcare institutions for the expected changes brought by programs related to Information and Communications Technology (lCT). The present research is conducted aiming at designing E-health Readiness Assessment Framework (EHRAF) in Iran. The e-health readiness assessment framework was designed based on reviewing literature on e-readiness assessment models and opinions of ICT and health experts. In the next step, Delphi method was used to develop and test the designed framework. Three questionnaires developed to test and modify the model while determining weights of the indices; afterward they were either sent to experts through email or delivered to them in face. The designed framework approved with 4 dimensions, 11 constituents and 58 indices. Technical readiness had the highest importance coefficient (0.256099), and the other dimensions were of the next levels of coefficient importance: core readiness (0.25520), social communication readiness (0.244658), and engagement readiness (0.244039). The framework presents the movement route and investment priorities in e-health in Iran. The proposed framework is a good instrument for measuring the e-readiness in health centers in Iran, and for identifying strengths and weaknesses of these centers to access ICT and its implementation for more effectiveness and for analyzing digital divide between them, as well.
Rezai-Rad, M; Vaezi, R; Nattagh, F
Background: Concept of e-readiness is used in many areas such as e-business, e-commerce, e-government, and e-banking. In terms of healthcare, e-readiness is a rather new concept, and is propounded under the title of E-healthcare. E-health readiness refers to the readiness of communities and healthcare institutions for the expected changes brought by programs related to Information and Communications Technology (lCT). The present research is conducted aiming at designing E-health Readiness Assessment Framework (EHRAF) in Iran. Methods: The e-health readiness assessment framework was designed based on reviewing literature on e-readiness assessment models and opinions of ICT and health experts. In the next step, Delphi method was used to develop and test the designed framework. Three questionnaires developed to test and modify the model while determining weights of the indices; afterward they were either sent to experts through email or delivered to them in face. Results: The designed framework approved with 4 dimensions, 11 constituents and 58 indices. Technical readiness had the highest importance coefficient (0.256099), and the other dimensions were of the next levels of coefficient importance: core readiness (0.25520), social communication readiness (0.244658), and engagement readiness (0.244039). Conclusion: The framework presents the movement route and investment priorities in e-health in Iran. The proposed framework is a good instrument for measuring the e-readiness in health centers in Iran, and for identifying strengths and weaknesses of these centers to access ICT and its implementation for more effectiveness and for analyzing digital divide between them, as well. PMID:23304661
Negev, Maya, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Hartog School of Government and Policy, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tel Aviv University, P.O.B. 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Davidovitch, Nadav, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, P.O.B. 653, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Garb, Yaakov, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Swiss Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer 84990 (Israel); Tal, Alon, E-mail: email@example.com [Mitrani Department of Dryland Ecology, Swiss Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer 84990 (Israel)
The literature on impact assessment (HIA) registers the importance of stakeholder participation in the assessment process, but still lacks a model for engaging stakeholders of diverse ethnic, professional and sectorial backgrounds. This paper suggests that the multicultural approach can contribute to HIA through a revision of the generic 5-step HIA model, and its implementation in a metropolitan plan in Southern Israel. The health issue scoped by the stakeholders in the HIA is related to land uses in the vicinity of the national hazardous industry and hazardous waste site. The stakeholders were representatives of the diverse populations at stake, including rural Bedouins and Jewish city dwellers, as well as representatives from the public sector, private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. The case study revealed that a multicultural stakeholder participation process helps to uncover health issues known to the community which were not addressed in the original plan, and provides local knowledge regarding health conditions that is especially valuable when scientific data is uncertain or absent. It enables diverse stakeholders to prioritize the health issues that will be assessed. The case study also reveals ways in which the model needs revisions and improvements such as in recruitment of diverse participants. This paper presents a multicultural model of HIA and discusses some of the challenges that are faced when HIA is implemented in the context of current decision-making culture. -- Highlights: • We revised the generic HIA model in light of the multicultural approach. • We tested the model in a case study of zoning a hazardous industry site. • Multicultural stakeholder participation uncovers health issues known to communities. • It enables community prioritization of health issues. • We present a model for multicultural stakeholder participation in HIA.