WorldWideScience

Sample records for rangeland assessment protocol

  1. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of

  2. Rangeland monitoring and assessment: a review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands provide vast landscapes for grazing and foraging for livestock and wildlife. Services of rangelands are diverse and generally provide food for millions of the world’s population, especially the rural and sometimes poor communities...

  3. Assessing the impacts of livestock production on biodiversity in rangeland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkemade, Rob; Reid, Robin S.; van den Berg, Maurits; de Leeuw, Jan; Jeuken, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock production on the global rangelands area and their biodiversity. First we formalized existing knowledge about livestock grazing impacts on biodiversity, expressed in mean species abundance (MSA) of the original rangeland native species assemblages, through metaanalysis of peer-reviewed literature. MSA values, ranging from 1 in natural rangelands to 0.3 in man-made grasslands, were entered in the IMAGE-GLOBIO model. This model was used to assess the impact of change in food demand and livestock production on future rangeland biodiversity. The model revealed remarkable regional variation in impact on rangeland area and MSA between two agricultural production scenarios. The area of used rangelands slightly increases globally between 2000 and 2050 in the baseline scenario and reduces under a scenario of enhanced uptake of resource-efficient production technologies increasing production [high levels of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology (high-AKST)], particularly in Africa. Both scenarios suggest a global decrease in MSA for rangelands until 2050. The contribution of livestock grazing to MSA loss is, however, expected to diminish after 2030, in particular in Africa under the high-AKST scenario. Policies fostering agricultural intensification can reduce the overall pressure on rangeland biodiversity, but additional measures, addressing factors such as climate change and infrastructural development, are necessary to totally halt biodiversity loss. PMID:22308313

  4. Rangeland resource trends in the United States: A technical document supporting the 2000 USDA Forest Service RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Mitchell

    2000-01-01

    This report documents trends in America's rangelands as required by the Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974. The Forest Service has conducted assessments of the rangeland situation for 30 years. Over this period, rangeland values and uses have gradually shifted from concentrating upon forage production and meeting increasing demand for red meat to a more...

  5. Remote sensing data in Rangeland assessment and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Amna Ahmed; Ali, Mohamed M.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to illustrate the potential of remote sensing data in the study and monitoring of environmental changes in western Sudan where considerable part of the area is under rangeland use. Data from NOAA satellite AVHRR sensor as well as thematic mapper Tm was used to assess the environment of the area during 1982-1997. The AVHRR data was processed into vegetation index (NDVI) images. Image analysis and classification was done using image display and analysis (IDA) GIS method to study vegetation condition in time series. The obtained information from field observations. The result showed high correlation between the information the work concluded the followings: NDVI images and thematic mapper data proved to be efficient in environment change analysis. NOAA AVHRR satellite data can provide an early-warning indicator of an approaching disaster. Remote sensing integrated into a GIS can contribute effectively to improve land management through better understanding of environment variability.(Author)

  6. Rangeland dynamics in South Omo Zone of Southern Ethiopia: Assessment of rangeland condition in relation to altitude and Grazing types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terefe, A.; Ebro, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the Southern Ethiopia with the objective to determine the condition of the rangelands for grazing animals as influenced by altitude and grazing types. The rangelands in each of the study districts were stratified based on altitude and

  7. A synoptic review of U.S. rangelands: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Clark Reeves; John E. Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 requires the USDA Forest Service to conduct assessments of resource conditions. This report fulfills that need and focuses on quantifying extent, productivity, and health of U.S. rangelands. Since 1982, the area of U.S. rangelands has decreased at an average rate of 350,000 acres per year owed mostly to conversion to...

  8. Multi-agency Oregon Pilot: Working towards a national inventory and assessment of rangelands using onsite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul L. Patterson; James Alegria; Leonard Jolley; Doug Powell; J. Jeffery Goebel; Gregg M. Riegel; Kurt H. Riitters; Craig. Ducey

    2014-01-01

    Rangelands are lands dominated by grasses, forbs, and shrubs and are managed as a natural ecosystem. Although these lands comprise approximately 40 percent of the landmass of the continental United States, there is no coordinated effort designed to inventory, monitor, or assess rangeland conditions at the national scale. A pilot project in central Oregon with the U.S....

  9. Comparative Assessment of Goods and Services Provided by Grazing Regulation and Reforestation in Degraded Mediterranean Rangelands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papanastasis, Vasilios P.; Bautista, Susana; Chouvardas, Dimitrios; Mantzanas, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Maria; Garcia Mayor, Angeles; Koukioumi, Polina; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Vallejo, Ramon V.

    2017-01-01

    Several management actions are applied to restore ecosystem services in degraded Mediterranean rangelands, which range from adjusting the grazing pressure to the removal of grazers and pine plantations. Four such actions were assessed in Quercus coccifera L. shrublands in northern Greece: (i)

  10. Assessing Rangeland Attributes On Semi-Arid Zone Of North Darfur State Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Almontasir A. M. Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was conducted over a two years period of 2012 and 2013 at three sites of Alfashir locality Ummarahik 25km north of Alfashir Fashar in eastern part of Alfashir about 5km and Berka 30km west of Alfashir Western Sudan in semi-arid zone. The aim of this study was to assess rangeland attributes. Measurements of plant density vegetation cover range production and carrying capacity were assessed. Results showed that total forage production was low and inadequate to satisfy requirements of livestock for inhabiting the area average range production all over the area was found to be 50.68 kgha and 59.21 kgha for the seasons 2012 and 2013 respectively. The average ground cover was about 34.71 and 42.41 for two seasons. The average plant density for the first season was 27.1 plantm2 while the average plant density for the second season was 29.4 plantm2. The study concluded that unwise utilization and exploitation of the rangelands particularly by man causes range deterioration and serious reduction in range production in both quantity and quality so the study suggested that improvement and rehabilitation such lands rangelands should be done. Further research work is needed to assess rangeland attributes across different ecological zones in North Darfur State.

  11. AERO: A Decision Support Tool for Wind Erosion Assessment in Rangelands and Croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloza, M.; Webb, N.; Herrick, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wind erosion is a key driver of global land degradation, with on- and off-site impacts on agricultural production, air quality, ecosystem services and climate. Measuring rates of wind erosion and dust emission across land use and land cover types is important for quantifying the impacts and identifying and testing practical management options. This process can be assisted by the application of predictive models, which can be a powerful tool for land management agencies. The Aeolian EROsion (AERO) model, a wind erosion and dust emission model interface provides access by non-expert land managers to a sophisticated wind erosion decision-support tool. AERO incorporates land surface processes and sediment transport equations from existing wind erosion models and was designed for application with available national long-term monitoring datasets (e.g. USDI BLM Assessment, Inventory and Monitoring, USDA NRCS Natural Resources Inventory) and monitoring protocols. Ongoing AERO model calibration and validation are supported by geographically diverse data on wind erosion rates and land surface conditions collected by the new National Wind Erosion Research Network. Here we present the new AERO interface, describe parameterization of the underpinning wind erosion model, and provide a summary of the model applications across agricultural lands and rangelands in the United States.

  12. Criterion III: Maintenance of rangeland productive capacity [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. R. Evans; R. A. Washmgton-Allen; R. D. Child; J. E. Mitchell; B. R. Bobowskl; R. V. Loper; B. H. Allen-Diaz; D. W. Thompson; G. R. Welling; T. B. Reuwsaat

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of rangeland productive capacity is one of five criteria established by the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) to monitor and assess rangeland sustainable management. Within this criterion, six indicators were developed through the Delphi Process and the expert opinions of academicians, rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel, non-...

  13. Earth observation for rangeland monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available .kashan.co.za] INTRODUCTION Grass nitrogen (N), as an indicator of rangeland quality, plays a crucial role in understanding the distribution, densities and feeding patterns of both wild herbivores and livestock. Zebras and livestock in the grazing and agricultural lands... ? How can grass nitrogen be mapped for assessing and monitoring of rangeland quality at wider or regional scales? ? Conventional point-based techniques for assessing rangeland quality proved to be expensive, laborious and time consuming...

  14. Integrating Science and Land Management for the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in Southwestern Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Heilman, P.; Nearing, M.; Speath, K.; Hernandez, M.; Wei, H.; Holifield-Collins, C.; Kautz, M.; Nichols, M.; Barlow, J.; Guertin, P.; Burns, S.; Stone, J. J.; Weltz, M.; Metz, L.; Norfleet, L.; Duriancik, L.; Johnson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Farm Bill legislation enacted by Congress in 2002 directed the U.S. Department of Agriculture to assess of the benefits and efficacy of conservation practices provided by a variety of USDA programs. Benefits include improved agricultural production, reduction of erosion and associated nutrient losses, improved water quality, improved soil resilience, and improved habitat among others. To conduct the assessment, the USDA initiated CEAP or the Conservation Effects Assessment Project in 2003, which included a national assessment complemented by small watershed studies. The national assessment started in eastern and midwestern cultivated croplands and has now progressed to western rangelands. This presentation will discuss the challenges of assessing the effects of rangeland conservation practices in a period of unusually hot and dry climatic conditions in the Cienega Creek Watershed (CCW) located southeast of Tucson, Arizona. As is common in the western U.S., the CCW consists of a patchwork of private and public lands in the west with much of the public lands leased for grazing cattle. The watershed also has high recreational value and provides many ecosystem services, including wildlife habitat qualities and flood protection to Tucson. A combination of monitoring, modeling, and remote sensing was utilized in the assessment. Conservation spending in the watershed ramped up in 1997. However, the 16-year period from 1997-2012 contains almost half of the 23 driest seasons (lowest 20 percentile) from the 117-year observed precipitation record. Initial results indicate that Landsat remotely sensed images can be effectively used to estimate both green and senescent canopy cover. This enabled detection of the impacts of drought and changes in canopy cover from practices such as prescribed fire and mechanical brush removal. Cienega Creek Watershed - Land Ownership

  15. Climate change and North American rangelands: Assessment of mitigation and adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; David D. Briske; Joel R. Brown; H. Wayne Polley; Bruce A. McCarl; Derek W. Bailey

    2013-01-01

    Recent climatic trends and climate model projections indicate that climate change will modify rangeland ecosystem functions and the services and livelihoods that they provision. Recent history has demonstrated that climatic variability has a strong influence on both ecological and social components of rangeland systems and that these systems possess substantial...

  16. Using a dynamic model to assess trends in land degradation by water erosion in Spanish Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Javier; Francisco Lavado-Contador, Joaquín; Schnabel, Susanne; Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Martínez Valderrama, Jaime

    2014-05-01

    This work presents a model aimed at evaluating land degradation by water erosion in dehesas and montados of the Iberian Peninsula, that constitute valuable rangelands in the area. A multidisciplinary dynamic model was built including weather, biophysical and economic variables that reflect the main causes and processes affecting sheet erosion on hillsides of the study areas. The model has two main and two derived purposes: Purpose 1: Assessing the risk of degradation that a land-use system is running. Derived purpose 1: Early warning about land-use systems that are particularly threatened by degradation. Purpose 2: Assessing the degree to which different factors would hasten degradation if they changed from the typical values they show at present. Derived purpose 2: Evaluating the role of human activities on degradation. Model variables and parameters have been calibrated for a typical open woodland rangeland (dehesa or montado) defined along 22 working units selected from 10 representative farms and distributed throughout the Spanish region of Extremadura. The model is the basis for a straightforward assessment methodology which is summarized by the three following points: i) The risk of losing a given amount of soil before a given number of years was specifically estimated as the percentage of 1000 simulations where such a loss occurs, being the simulations run under randomly-generated scenarios of rainfall amount and intensity and meat and supplemental feed market prices; ii) Statistics about the length of time that a given amount of soil takes to be lost were calculated over 1000 stochastic simulations run until year 1000, thereby ensuring that such amount of soil has been lost in all of the simulations, i.e. the total risk is 100%; iii) Exogenous factors potentially affecting degradation, mainly climatic and economic, were ranked in order of importance by means of a sensitivity analysis. Particularly remarkable in terms of model performance is the major role

  17. Salinity mobilization and transport from rangelands: assessment, recommendations, and knowledge gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the salinity project is to improve the understanding of sources and transport mechanisms in rangeland catchments that deliver dissolved solids (salts) to streams within the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) through a review of relevant literature on what is known about the impact of r...

  18. Multi-scale wind erosion monitoring and assessment for US rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a major resource concern for rangeland managers. Although wind erosion is a naturally occurring process in many drylands, land use activities, and land management in particular, can accelerate wind-driven soil loss – impacting ecosystem dynamics and agricultural production, air quali...

  19. Application of MODIS Land Products to Assessment of Land Degradation of Alpine Rangeland in Northern India with Limited Ground-Based Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tasumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation of alpine rangeland in Dachigam National Park, Northern India, was evaluated in this study using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land products. The park has been used by a variety of livestock holders. With increasing numbers of livestock, the managers and users of the park are apprehensive about degradation of the grazing land. However, owing to weak infrastructure for scientific and statistical data collection and sociopolitical restrictions in the region, a lack of quality ground-based weather, vegetation, and livestock statistical data had prevented scientific assessment. Under these circumstances, the present study aimed to assess the rangeland environment and its degradation using MODIS vegetation, snow, and evapotranspiration products as primary input data for assessment. The result of the analysis indicated that soil water content and the timing of snowmelt play an important role in grass production in the area. Additionally, the possibility of land degradation in heavily-grazed rangeland was indicated via a multiple regression analysis at a decadal timescale, whereas weather conditions, such as rainfall and snow cover, primarily explained year-by-year differences in grass production. Although statistical uncertainties remain in the results derived in this study, the satellite-based data and the analyses will promote understanding of the rangeland environment and suggest the potential for unsustainable land management based on statistical probability. This study provides an important initial evaluation of alpine rangeland, for which ground-based information is limited.

  20. Improving Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Integrating Remote Sensing, GIS, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Paul Breckenridge

    2007-05-01

    Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be

  1. An Integrated Social, Economic, and Ecologic Conceptual (ISEEC) framework for considering rangeland sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Fox; Daniel W. McCollum; John E. Mitchell; Louis E. Swanson; Urs P. Kreuter; John A. Tanaka; Gary R. Evans; H. Theodore Heintz; Robert P. Breckenridge; Paul H. Geissler

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard method to assess the complex systems in rangeland ecosystems. Decision makers need baselines to create a common language of current rangeland conditions and standards for continued rangeland assessment. The Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable (SRR), a group of private and public organizations and agencies, has created a forum to discuss...

  2. Assessing the Influence of Precipitation Variability on the Vegetation Dynamics of the Mediterranean Rangelands using NDVI and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Mitigating the vulnerability of Mediterranean rangelands against degradation is limited by our ability to understand and accurately characterize those impacts in space and time. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a radiometric measure of the photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation canopy chlorophyll and is therefore a good surrogate measure of vegetation dynamics. On the other hand, meteorological indices such as the drought assessing Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) are can be easily estimated from historical and projected datasets at the global scale. This work investigates the potential of driving Random Forest (RF) models with meteorological indices to approximate NDVI-based vegetation dynamics. A sufficiently large number of RF models are trained using random subsets of the dataset as predictors, in a bootstrapping approach to account for the uncertainty introduced by the subset selection. The updated E-OBS-v13.1 dataset of the ENSEMBLES EU FP6 program provides observed monthly meteorological input to estimate SPI over the Mediterranean rangelands. RF models are trained to depict vegetation dynamics using the latest version (3g.v1) of the third generation GIMMS NDVI generated from NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors. Analysis is conducted for the period 1981-2015 at a gridded spatial resolution of 25 km. Preliminary results demonstrate the potential of machine learning algorithms to effectively mimic the underlying physical relationship of drought and Earth Observation vegetation indices to provide estimates based on precipitation variability.

  3. Modelling tree dynamics to assess the implementation of EU policies related to afforestation in SW Spain rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herguido, Estela; Pulido, Manuel; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Schnabel, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    the sampled plots, 16,747 trees were detected as recruited, while 47,058 and 12,803 were present in both dates and lost during the studied period, respectively. Based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC), all the data mining models considered showed a high fitness (MARS AUC= 0.86; TN AUC= 0.92; RF AUC= 0.95) and low misclassification rates. Correctly predicted test samples for absence and presence of tree recruitment accounted respectively to 78.3% and 76.8% when using MARS, 90.8% and 90.8% using TN and 88.9% and 89.1% using RF. The spatial patterns of the different models were similar. However, attending only the percentage of area prone to tree recruitment, outstanding differences were observed among models considering the total surface of rangelands (36.03% in MARS, 22.88% in TN and 6.72 % in RF). Despite these differences, when comparing the results with those of the afforested surfaces (31.73% in MARS, 20.70% in TN and 5.63 % in RF) the three algorithms pointed to similar conclusions, i.e. the afforestations performed in rangelands of Extremadura under UE First Afforestation Agricultural Land Program, barely discriminate between areas with or without natural regeneration. In conclusion, data mining technics are suitable to develop high-performance spatial models of vegetation dynamics. These models could be useful for policy and decision makers aimed at assessing the implementation of afforestation measures and the selection of more adequate locations.

  4. Three-dimensional framework of vigor, organization, and resilience (VOR) for assessing rangeland health: a case study from the alpine meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-yuan; Dong, Shi-kui; Wen, Lu; Wang, Xue-xia; Wu, Yu

    2013-12-01

    Rangeland health assessments play an important role in providing qualitative and quantitative data about ecosystem attributes and rangeland management. The objective of this study is to test the feasible of a modified model and visualize the health in a three-dimensional model. A modified Costanza model was employed, and eight indicators, including the biomass, biodiversity, and carrying capacity [associated with the vigor, organization, and resilience (VOR)] were applied. An entropy method was also developed to calculate the weight of each indicator, and a three-dimensional framework was applied to visualize the indicators and health index. The conceptual model was demonstrated using data from a case study on the alpine rangeland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, one of the globally important grassland biomes being severely degraded by natural and human factors. The health indices of four grassland plots at different levels of degradation were calculated using a modified approach to measuring their VOR. The results indicated that the least disturbed plot was relatively healthy compared to the other plots. In addition, the health indices presented in the three-dimensional VOR framework decreased in a consistent manner across the four plots along the disturbance gradients. Such rangeland health assessments should be integrated with management efforts to insure their long-term sustainable use.

  5. Assessment of Landsat multispectral scanner spectral indexes for monitoring arid rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H. B.

    1984-01-01

    Correlations between spectral indices and vegetation parameters in south-central New Mexico were used to determine the utility of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral indices in arid rangeland monitoring. In addition, spectral index change for 1976-1980 was calculated from retrospective MSS data and compared with qualitative ground truth in order to evaluate vegetation change detection by means of spectral indices. Brightness index change consistently differentiated between cover increase and decrease, but index change appears to have been offset from true cover change; this may at least partly be attributed to the failure of the methods used to standardize MSS scenes for differences in sensor response. Green vegetation indices, by contrast to brightness indices, failed to consistently differentiate between cover increase and decrease.

  6. Ecological site-based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explore how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass-succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 Ha). We identify vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area can be effectively controlled when bare ground cover is 100 cm in length is less than ~35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the development of

  7. Ecological site‐based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P; Herrick, Jeffrey E; Duniway, Michael C

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation, or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explored how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting, and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass–succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 ha). We identified vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area could be effectively controlled when bare ground cover was 100 cm in length was less than ∼35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the

  8. The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model: A dynamic approach for predicting soil loss on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we present the improved Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM V2.3), a process-based erosion prediction tool specific for rangeland application. The article provides the mathematical formulation of the model and parameter estimation equations. Model performance is assessed agains...

  9. Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Welfare Quality assessment protocol voor leghennen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Gunnink, H.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the development of the integration of welfare assessment as scores per criteria as well as simplification of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Results are given from assessment of 122 farms.

  10. Assessment of water resource potential for common use of cow and goat by GIS (Case study: Boroujerd Rangeland, Sarab Sefid, Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariapour, A; Karami, K; Sadr, A

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important factors to sustainability utilization of natural potential by rangeland grazing suitability is water resources suitability. This study is a model for quantitative, qualitative and spatial distance assessment of water resource's propriety for goat and cow grazing based on geographic information systems (GIS) in Boroujerd Sarab Sefid rangeland, Lorestan province, Iran 2013. In this research from combining three factors such as quantity, quality and water resource's distances; the final model of degree of propriety of water resources for goat and cow grazing is characterized. Results showed that slope factor was the reason of limitation, and it is considered as a limiting factor in propriety of water resources, so in terms of access to water resources for goat grazing, 4856.4 ha (100%) located in S1 classes and for cow grazing, 4023.14 ha (68.6%) located in S1(suitability) classes, 1,187 ha (20.24%) in S2 classes and 654.8 ha (11.16%) located in S3 classes, respectively for both. So according to the results the rangelands in this region are most suitable for goat because of terrain and weather but this, in combination with, cow hasbandry will allow diversity of economic production and stability of incomes

  11. Robustness and management adaptability in tropical rangelands: a viability-based assessment under the non-equilibrium paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accatino, F; Sabatier, R; De Michele, C; Ward, D; Wiegand, K; Meyer, K M

    2014-08-01

    Rangelands provide the main forage resource for livestock in many parts of the world, but maintaining long-term productivity and providing sufficient income for the rancher remains a challenge. One key issue is to maintain the rangeland in conditions where the rancher has the greatest possibility to adapt his/her management choices to a highly fluctuating and uncertain environment. In this study, we address management robustness and adaptability, which increase the resilience of a rangeland. After reviewing how the concept of resilience evolved in parallel to modelling views on rangelands, we present a dynamic model of rangelands to which we applied the mathematical framework of viability theory to quantify the management adaptability of the system in a stochastic environment. This quantification is based on an index that combines the robustness of the system to rainfall variability and the ability of the rancher to adjust his/her management through time. We evaluated the adaptability for four possible scenarios combining two rainfall regimes (high or low) with two herding strategies (grazers only or mixed herd). Results show that pure grazing is viable only for high-rainfall regimes, and that the use of mixed-feeder herds increases the adaptability of the management. The management is the most adaptive with mixed herds and in rangelands composed of an intermediate density of trees and grasses. In such situations, grass provides high quantities of biomass and woody plants ensure robustness to droughts. Beyond the implications for management, our results illustrate the relevance of viability theory for addressing the issue of robustness and adaptability in non-equilibrium environments.

  12. A spatial dynamic model to assess piospheric land degradation processes of SW Iberian rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herguido Sevillano, Estela; Ibáñez, Javier; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Iberian open wooded rangelands (known as dehesas or montados) constitute valuable agro-silvo-pastoral systems traditionally considered as highly sustainable. Nevertheless, in the recent decades, those systems are undergoing changes of land use and management practices that compromise its sustainability. Some of those changes, as the rising construction of watering points and the high spatial fragmentation and livestock movement restriction associated to fencing, show an aggregated effect with livestock, producing an impact gradient over soil and vegetation. Soil compaction related to livestock pressure is higher around watering points, with bare soil halos and patches of scarce vegetation or nude soil developing with higher frequency in areas close to them. Using the freeware Dinamica EGO as environmental modeling platform, we have developed a theoretic spatial dynamic model that represents some of the processes of land degradation associated to livestock grazing in dehesa fenced enclosures. Spatial resolution is high since every cell in the model is a square unit area of 1 m2. We paid particular attention to the relationships between soil degradation by compaction (porosity), livestock pressure, rainfall, pasture growth and shrub cover and bare soil generation. The model considers pasture growth as related to soil compaction, measured by the pore space in the top 10 cm soil layer. Annual precipitation is randomly generated following a normal distribution. When annual precipitation and pore space increase, also does pasture growth. Besides, there is a feedback between pasture growth and pore space, given that pasture roots increases soil porosity. The cell utility for livestock function has been defined as an exponential function of the distance of a cell to watering points and the amount of pasture present in it. The closer the cell to a pond and the higher the amount of pasture, the higher is cell utility. The latter is modulated by a normal random variable to

  13. National projections of forest and rangeland condition indicators: a supporting technical document for the 1999 RPA assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hof; Curtis Flather; Tony Baltic; Stephen. Davies

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 forest and rangeland condition indicator model is a set of independent econometric production functions for environmental outputs (measured with condition indicators) at the national scale. This report documents the development of the database and the statistical estimation required by this particular production structure with emphasis on two special...

  14. Performance and effects of land cover type on synthetic surface reflectance data and NDVI estimates for assessment and monitoring of semi-arid rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Lawrence, Rick L

    2014-01-01

    Federal land management agencies provide stewardship over much of the rangelands in the arid andsemi-arid western United States, but they often lack data of the proper spatiotemporal resolution andextent needed to assess range conditions and monitor trends. Recent advances in the blending of com-plementary, remotely sensed data could provide public lands managers with the needed information.We applied the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) to five Landsat TMand concurrent Terra MODIS scenes, and used pixel-based regression and difference image analyses toevaluate the quality of synthetic reflectance and NDVI products associated with semi-arid rangeland. Pre-dicted red reflectance data consistently demonstrated higher accuracy, less bias, and stronger correlationwith observed data than did analogous near-infrared (NIR) data. The accuracy of both bands tended todecline as the lag between base and prediction dates increased; however, mean absolute errors (MAE)were typically ≤10%. The quality of area-wide NDVI estimates was less consistent than either spectra lband, although the MAE of estimates predicted using early season base pairs were ≤10% throughout the growing season. Correlation between known and predicted NDVI values and agreement with the 1:1regression line tended to decline as the prediction lag increased. Further analyses of NDVI predictions,based on a 22 June base pair and stratified by land cover/land use (LCLU), revealed accurate estimates through the growing season; however, inter-class performance varied. This work demonstrates the successful application of the STARFM algorithm to semi-arid rangeland; however, we encourage evaluation of STARFM’s performance on a per product basis, stratified by LCLU, with attention given to the influence of base pair selection and the impact of the time lag.

  15. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into

  16. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolster, A.A.; Waddington, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera's computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author)

  17. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolster, A.A. [West Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Physics; Waddington, W.A. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-12-31

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera`s computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author).

  18. Rangeland and water resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Session B3 Management for sustainable use — Rangeland and water resources. ... The theme of optimsing integrated catchment management will be treated ... land system, catchment, basin), with a focus on law, policy and implementation.

  19. Valuation of rangeland ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    into analyzing the costs and benefits associated with policies being proposed, or possibly already implemented. For example, with monetized values acting as a common metric, one could compare the 'benefits' of converting a rangeland ecosystem for commercial development (perhaps estimated at the market value of the developed land) with the foregone ecosystem service values (in addition to any land income lost) resulting from that land conversion. Similarly, ecosystem service values can be used to determine the level of return on an investment. rhis is a primary objective for private land conservation organizations who typically have very limited resources. Ecosystem service valuation can also have a role in damage assessments from incidents that require compensation such as oil spills. Additionally, valuation can be very informative when investigating regulatory programs that trade ecological assets such as wetland mitigation programs. Typically these programs are based simply on an 'acre for acre' criterion, and do not take into consideration varying welfare values associated with that ecosystem. Lastly, and most fundamental, ecosystem service valuation serves as a recognition tool for people of all backgrounds. Identifying and valuing ecosystem goods and services on rangelands brings to light the value these natural assets have to human welfare that often remain hidden do to their public and non-market attributes. This type of recognition is vital to the preservation of rangeland ecosystems in the future and the many ecological benefits they provide.

  20. Ecological evaluation of rangeland quality in dry subtropics of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanova, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The results of ecological evaluation of soil-landscape complexes of winter rangelands of Gobustan with the use of energy criteria are discussed. The diagnostic characteristics of soil fertility and correction coefficients for the thickness of texture of soil horizons, soil salinization, soil erosion, and microelemental composition of soils have been used to separate the soils of winter rangelands into several quality groups. A larger part of the soils belongs to the medium quality group with the mean weighted quality factor (bonitet) of 52. Special assessment scales have been suggested for the differential ecological assessment and monitoring of the rangelands. In the past 40 years, the area of steppe landscapes has decreased from 22.7 to 12%, whereas the area of semideserts has increased up to 64%. The area of best-quality soils within the studied rangelands had decreased by three times, and their average quality factor has decreased from 92 to 86.

  1. Future scenarios of impacts to ecosystem services on California rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin; Alvarez, Pelayo; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley of California provide multiple benefits or “ecosystem services” to people—including wildlife habitat, water supply, open space, recreation, and cultural resources. Most of this land is privately owned and managed for livestock production. These rangelands are vulnerable to land-use conversion and climate change. To help resource managers assess the impacts of land-use change and climate change, U.S. Geological Survey scientists and their cooperators developed scenarios to quantify and map changes to three main rangeland ecosystem services—wildlife habitat, water supply, and carbon sequestration. Project results will help prioritize strategies to conserve these rangelands and the ecosystem services that they provide.

  2. A RANGELAND GRASSHOPPER INSURANCE PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Skold, Melvin D.; Davis, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of benefits and costs from controlling rangeland grasshoppers on public grazing lands poses problems of economic efficiency and distributional equity. Public grasshopper control programs operate like public disaster assistance. However, grasshopper infestations are an insurable risk. This article proposes a rangeland grasshopper insurance program which reduces the economic inefficiencies and distributional inequities of the existing program.

  3. Tools for Performance Assessment of OLSR Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ikeda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate the performance of Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR protocol by experimental and simulation results. The experiments are carried out by using our implemented testbed and the simulations by using ns-2 simulator. We also designed and implemented a new interface for the ad-hoc network testbed in order to make more easier the experiments. The comparison between experimental and simulation results shows that for the same parameters set, in the simulation we did not notice any packet loss. On the other hand, in the experiments we experienced packet loss because of the environment effects and traffic interference.

  4. A Protocol for Advanced Psychometric Assessment of Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E.; Hayduk, Leslie; Hutchinson, Alison M.; Cranley, Lisa A.; Gierl, Mark; Cummings, Greta G.; Norton, Peter G.; Estabrooks, Carole A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose. In this paper, we present a protocol for advanced psychometric assessments of surveys based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. We use the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) as an exemplar survey to which this protocol can be applied. Methods. Data mapping, acceptability, reliability, and validity are addressed. Acceptability is assessed with missing data frequencies and the time required to complete the survey. Reliability is assessed with internal consistency coefficients and information functions. A unitary approach to validity consisting of accumulating evidence based on instrument content, response processes, internal structure, and relations to other variables is taken. We also address assessing performance of survey data when aggregated to higher levels (e.g., nursing unit). Discussion. In this paper we present a protocol for advanced psychometric assessment of survey data using the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) as an exemplar survey; application of the protocol to the ACT survey is underway. Psychometric assessment of any survey is essential to obtaining reliable and valid research findings. This protocol can be adapted for use with any nursing survey. PMID:23401759

  5. Conserving biodiversity on native rangelands: Symposium proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Greg L. Schenbeck; James T. O' Rourke

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings are the result of a symposium, "Conserving biodiversity on native rangelands" held on August 17, 1995 in Fort Robinson State Park, NE. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a forum to discuss how elements of rangeland biodiversity are being conserved today. We asked, "How resilient and sustainable are rangeland systems to the...

  6. Carbon fluxes on North American rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Svejcar; Raymond Angell; James A. Bradford; William Dugas; William Emmerich; Albert B. Frank; Tagir Gilmanov; Marshall Haferkamp; Douglas A. Johnson; Herman Mayeux; Pat Mielnick; Jack Morgan; Nicanor Z. Saliendra; Gerald E. Schuman; Phillip L. Sims; Kereith Snyder

    2008-01-01

    Rangelands account for almost half of the earth's land surface and may play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle. We studied net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of C on eight North American rangeland sites over a 6-yr period. Management practices and disturbance regimes can influence NEE; for consistency, we compared ungrazed and undisturbed rangelands...

  7. Using generalizability theory to develop clinical assessment protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Richard A

    2013-04-01

    Clinical assessment protocols must produce data that are reliable, with a clinically attainable minimal detectable change (MDC). In a reliability study, generalizability theory has 2 advantages over classical test theory. These advantages provide information that allows assessment protocols to be adjusted to match individual patient profiles. First, generalizability theory allows the user to simultaneously consider multiple sources of measurement error variance (facets). Second, it allows the user to generalize the findings of the main study across the different study facets and to recalculate the reliability and MDC based on different combinations of facet conditions. In doing so, clinical assessment protocols can be chosen based on minimizing the number of measures that must be taken to achieve a realistic MDC, using repeated measures to minimize the MDC, or simply based on the combination that best allows the clinician to monitor an individual patient's progress over a specified period of time.

  8. Harmonization of international risk assessment protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyofuku, Hajime . E-mail toyofuku@nihs.go.jp

    2006-01-01

    For over centuries developments in food production and new food safety management systems in most developed countries have been perceived by many to be efficient in the prevention of food-borne disease. Nevertheless a number of problems remain dominant, one of these being the high level of food-borne microbiological disease which seems, for some pathogens, to have increased over the last decades. The development of an interdisciplinary approach with direct interaction between surveillance and risk analysis systems is described as a potential basis for improved prevention of food-borne disease. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment is a relatively new scientific approach, able to link data from food within the entire food chain and the various data on human disease to provide a clear estimation of risk. Today food safety is one of the WHOs top eleven priorities; the Organization calls for more systematic and aggressive steps to be taken to reduce significantly the risk of microbiological food-borne diseases. Dealing with this challenge is one of the major challenges for the 21st century in regard to food safety, implying a significant re-direction of food microbiology efforts in many parts of the world

  9. Systematic Review Protocol for the IRIS Chloroform Assessment (Inhalation) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January 2018, EPA released the Systematic Review Protocol for the IRIS Chloroform Assessment (Inhalation). As part of developing a draft IRIS assessment, EPA presents a methods document, referred to as the protocol, for conducting a chemical-specific systematic revie...

  10. Livestock-rangeland management practices and community perceptions towards rangeland degradation in South Omo zone of Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admasu, T.; Abule, E.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the South Omo zone of Ethiopia, with the objectives of assessing the range-livestock management practices and perceptions of the different pastoral groups (Hamer, Benna, and Tsemay) towards rangeland degradation. This information is

  11. Comparison of LANDSAT-2 and field spectrometer reflectance signatures of south Texas rangeland plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. J.; Escobar, D. E.; Gausman, H. W.; Everitt, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The accuracy was assessed for an atmospheric correction method that depends on clear water bodies to infer solar and atmospheric parameters for radiative transfer equations by measuring the reflectance signature of four prominent south Texas rangeland plants with the LANDSAT satellite multispectral scanner (MSS) and a ground based spectroradiometer. The rangeland plant reflectances produced by the two sensors were correlated with no significant deviation of the slope from unity or of the intercept from zero. These results indicated that the atmospheric correction produced LANDSAT MSS estimates of rangeland plant reflectances that are as accurate as the ground based spectroradiometer.

  12. RANGELAND DEGRADATION: EXTENT, IMPACTS, AND ALTERNATIVE RESTORATION TECHNIQUES IN THE RANGELANDS OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mussa Abdulahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland degradation remains a serious impediment to improve pastoral livelihoods in the lowlands of Ethiopia. This review paper presents an overview of the extent of rangeland degradation, explores its drivers, discusses the potential impacts of rangeland degradation and also suggests alternative rangeland restoration techniques. It is intended to serve as an exploratory tool for ensuing more detailed quantitative analyses to support policy and investment programs to address rangeland degradation in Ethiopia. The extent of rangeland degradation increases with time, and the productivity of rangelands are losing if not given due attention. The major drivers leading to rangeland degradation includes climate change, overgrazing, bush encroachment, population pressure, drought, and government policy, encroachment of rain fed agriculture and decline of traditional resource management institution. Degradation of rangeland has resulted in substantial declines in rangeland condition, water potential, soil status, and animal performance, livestock holding at the household level and community become destitute. Another consequence of rangeland degradation is linked to food insecurity, poverty to the extent of food aid, expansion of aridity and the need for alternative livelihood and income diversification. Moreover, it has increasingly become a threat to the pastoral production systems, and has contributed towards increases in poverty and tribal conflicts over grazing land and water resources. In spite of these impacts, the adoption of alternative restoration techniques in the country is highly insufficient. To address rangeland degradation problems, there is a strong need to substantially increase the investments and strengthen the policy support for sustainable land management.

  13. A proposed protocol for remote control of automated assessment devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissock, P.S.; Pritchard, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Systems and devices that are controlled remotely are becoming more common in security systems in the US Air Force and other government agencies to provide protection of valuable assets. These systems reduce the number of needed personnel while still providing a high level of protection. However, each remotely controlled device usually has its own communication protocol. This limits the ability to change devices without changing the system that provides the communications control to the device. Sandia is pursuing a standard protocol that can be used to communicate with the different devices currently in use, or may be used in the future, in the US Air Force and other government agencies throughout the security community. Devices to be controlled include intelligent pan/tilt mounts, day/night video cameras, thermal imaging cameras, and remote data processors. Important features of this protocol include the ability to send messages of varying length, identify the sender, and more importantly, control remote data processors. This paper describes the proposed public domain protocol, features, and examples of use. The authors hope to elicit comments from security technology developers regarding format and use of remotely controlled automated assessment devices

  14. A Dynamic Model of California's Hardwood Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Standiford; Richard E. Howitt

    1991-01-01

    Low profitability of hardwood rangeland management, and oak tree harvesting for firewood markets and forage enhancement has led to concern about the long-term sustainability of the oak resource on rangelands. New markets for recreational hunting may give value to oaks for the habitat they provide for game species, and broaden the economic base for managers. A ranch...

  15. Current situation of rangelands in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia Melgoza-Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Rangelands are natural areas with certain characteristics that make them unsuitable for agriculture. They include several types of vegetation such as deserts, grasslands, shrubs, forests, and riparian areas. Cattle ranching, along with the products and services it engenders, is a prime activity that rangelands have traditionally supported.

  16. Weather-centric rangeland revegetation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid rangelands in the western United States have been or are being invaded by introduced annual weeds that negatively impact ecosystem services and pose a major conservation threat. Rehabilitation and restoration of these rangelands are challenging due to inter-annual climate and sub-seasonal ...

  17. Meeting wild bees' needs on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some arid rangeland regions, notably those with warm dry climates of the temperate zones, host great diversities of native bees, primarily non-social species among which are many floral specialists. Rangeland bee faunas are threatened indirectly by invasive exotic weeds wherever these displace nat...

  18. Remote sensing applications for monitoring rangeland vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote sensing techniques hold considerable promise for the inventory and monitoring of natural resources on rangelands. A significant lack of information concerning basic spectral characteristics of range vegetation and soils has resulted in a lack of rangeland applications. The parameters of interest for range condition ...

  19. A novel cognitive palatability assessment protocol for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W

    2004-07-01

    Assessment of canine palatability is important for both the pet food and pharmaceutical industries; however, the current palatability assessment protocols are limited in their utility. The most common technique, the two-pan test, does not control for the satiating effects of food and may not be useful for long-term palatability analysis because nutritional or caloric characteristics of the diets may interfere with the results. Furthermore, the large quantities of foods consumed may be detrimental to the health of animals that do not self-limit their food intake. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a cognitive protocol could be used to determine food palatability in dogs. Five beagle dogs were trained on a three-choice object-discrimination learning task. After establishing object preferences, the preferred object was associated with no reward, a second object was associated with the dog's normal laboratory diet (Purina Agribrands Canine Lab Chow No. 5006; Agribrands Purina Canada, Inc., Woodstock, ON, Canada), and the third object was associated with a commercial (Hill's P/D; Hill's Pet Nutrition Inc., Topeka, KS) diet. In the discrimination-training phase, dogs were trained until they learned to avoid the no-reward object. They were subsequently given an additional 20 test sessions, which were used to determine food preference. In the reversal phase, which involved reversal learning, the object-food associations were modified, such that the object that was previously associated with Hill's P/D diet was now associated with the normal laboratory diet and vice versa. Once the dogs learned to avoid the no-reward object, they were tested for an additional 20 sessions. All subjects learned to avoid the no-reward object during the initial learning, and the number of choices to the object associated with the Hill's P/D diet was greater than the number of choices to the objects associated with the dry laboratory diet (P food-choice associations were reversed

  20. Measuring ecological function on California's rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzig, E.

    2016-12-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of ecosystem processes on rangelands and how management decisions influence these processes on scales that are both ecologically and socially relevant. Point Blue Conservation Science's Rangeland Monitoring Network is a coordinated effort to collect standardized data on birds, vegetation, and soils on rangelands throughout California. We work with partners, including private landowners, land trusts, state and federal agencies, and others, to measure bird and plant abundance and diversity and three soil dynamic properties (water infiltration, bulk density, and organic carbon). Here, we present data from our first two years of monitoring on over 50 ranches in 17 counties. By collecting data on the scope and scale of variation in ecological function across rangelands and the relationship with management practices, we aim to advance rangeland management, restoration, and conservation.

  1. Protocol for physical assessment in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Michele R; Moro, Claudia M C; Vosgerau, Dilmeire S R

    2014-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic disease that causes pain and fatigue, presenting a negative impact on quality of life. Exercise helps maintaining physical fitness and influences directly on the improvement of quality of life. Develop a protocol for health-related physical fitness assessment of patients with FMS with tests that are feasible and appropriate for this population. An exploratory and analytical literature review was performed, seeking to determine the tests used by the scientific community. With this in mind, we performed a literature revision through the use of virtual libraries databases: PubMed, Bireme, Banco de Teses e Dissertações da Capes and Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações, published in between 1992-2012. A variety of tests was found; the following, by number of citations, stood out: Body Mass Index (BMI) and bioimpedance; 6-minute walk; handgrip strength (dynamometer, 1RM [Repetition Maximum]); Sit and reach and Shoulder flexibility; Foot Up and Go, and Flamingo balance. These are the tests that should make up the protocol for the physical evaluation of FMS patients, emphasizing their ease of use.

  2. An Assessment Protocol for Selective Mutism: Analogue Assessment Using Parents as Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Melissa T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assesses protocol for conducting a functional analysis of maintaining variables for children with selective mutism. A parent was trained in and later applied various behavior strategies designed to increase speech in an eight-year-old girl with selective mutism. Parent and child ratings of treatment were positive. Presents implications for future…

  3. Management of Collective Rangelands in Rhamna (Morocco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Management of Collective Rangelands in Rhamna (Morocco) ... reduce the pressure on natural resources and promote sustainable management. ... Project status ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows ... and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  4. [Multidisciplinary protocol for computed tomography imaging and angiographic embolization of splenic injury due to trauma: assessment of pre-protocol and post-protocol outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, M; Sabaté, A; Magalló, P; García, M A; Domínguez, J; de Lama, M E; López, S

    2011-11-01

    To assess conservative treatment of splenic injury due to trauma, following a protocol for computed tomography (CT) and angiographic embolization. To quantify the predictive value of CT for detecting bleeding and need for embolization. The care protocol developed by the multidisciplinary team consisted of angiography with embolization of lesions revealed by contrast extravasation under CT as well as embolization of grade III-V injuries observed, or grade I-II injuries causing hemodynamic instability and/or need for blood transfusion. We collected data on demographic variables, injury severity score (ISS), angiographic findings, and injuries revealed by CT. Pre-protocol and post-protocol outcomes were compared. The sensitivity and specificity of CT findings were calculated for all patients who required angiographic embolization. Forty-four and 30 angiographies were performed in the pre- and post-protocol periods, respectively. The mean (SD) ISSs in the two periods were 25 (11) and 26 (12), respectively. A total of 24 (54%) embolizations were performed in the pre-protocol period and 28 (98%) after implementation of the protocol. Two and 7 embolizations involved the spleen in the 2 periods, respectively; abdominal laparotomies numbered 32 and 25, respectively, and 10 (31%) vs 4 (16%) splenectomies were performed. The specificity and sensitivity values for contrast extravasation found on CT and followed by embolization were 77.7% and 79.5%. The implementation of this multidisciplinary protocol using CT imaging and angiographic embolization led to a decrease in the number of splenectomies. The protocol allows us to take a more conservative treatment approach.

  5. Water conservation for semi-arid rangelands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    Water deficiency is most often the cause for low forage production on rangelands in semi-arid and arid regions. Water conservation methods have been developed but additional research is needed to develop the best management practices for various climatic regions. Poor management is another major cause of low rangeland production. Better management, including the application of research findings, depends on attitudes, policies, adaptability of findings, resources for implementation and a good understanding of the governing biotic and abiotic factors. (author)

  6. Preclinical experimental stress studies: protocols, assessment and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-01-05

    Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis during which a variety of adaptive processes are activated to produce physiological and behavioral changes. Preclinical models are pivotal for understanding these physiological or pathophysiological changes in the body in response to stress. Furthermore, these models are also important for the development of novel pharmacological agents for stress management. The well described preclinical stress models include immobilization, restraint, electric foot shock and social isolation stress. Stress assessment in animals is done at the behavioral level using open field, social interaction, hole board test; at the biochemical level by measuring plasma corticosterone and ACTH; at the physiological level by measuring food intake, body weight, adrenal gland weight and gastric ulceration. Furthermore the comparison between different stressors including electric foot shock, immobilization and cold stressor is described in terms of intensity, hormonal release, protein changes in brain, adaptation and sleep pattern. This present review describes these preclinical stress protocols, and stress assessment at different levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterizing College Science Assessments: The Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Sonia M.; Matz, Rebecca L.; Posey, Lynmarie A.; Carmel, Justin H.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Fata-Hartley, Cori L.; Ebert-May, Diane; Jardeleza, Sarah E.; Cooper, Melanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Many calls to improve science education in college and university settings have focused on improving instructor pedagogy. Meanwhile, science education at the K-12 level is undergoing significant changes as a result of the emphasis on scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. This framework of “three-dimensional learning” is based on the literature about how people learn science and how we can help students put their knowledge to use. Recently, similar changes are underway in higher education by incorporating three-dimensional learning into college science courses. As these transformations move forward, it will become important to assess three-dimensional learning both to align assessments with the learning environment, and to assess the extent of the transformations. In this paper we introduce the Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol (3D-LAP), which is designed to characterize and support the development of assessment tasks in biology, chemistry, and physics that align with transformation efforts. We describe the development process used by our interdisciplinary team, discuss the validity and reliability of the protocol, and provide evidence that the protocol can distinguish between assessments that have the potential to elicit evidence of three-dimensional learning and those that do not. PMID:27606671

  8. Characterizing College Science Assessments: The Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, James T; Underwood, Sonia M; Matz, Rebecca L; Posey, Lynmarie A; Carmel, Justin H; Caballero, Marcos D; Fata-Hartley, Cori L; Ebert-May, Diane; Jardeleza, Sarah E; Cooper, Melanie M

    2016-01-01

    Many calls to improve science education in college and university settings have focused on improving instructor pedagogy. Meanwhile, science education at the K-12 level is undergoing significant changes as a result of the emphasis on scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. This framework of "three-dimensional learning" is based on the literature about how people learn science and how we can help students put their knowledge to use. Recently, similar changes are underway in higher education by incorporating three-dimensional learning into college science courses. As these transformations move forward, it will become important to assess three-dimensional learning both to align assessments with the learning environment, and to assess the extent of the transformations. In this paper we introduce the Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol (3D-LAP), which is designed to characterize and support the development of assessment tasks in biology, chemistry, and physics that align with transformation efforts. We describe the development process used by our interdisciplinary team, discuss the validity and reliability of the protocol, and provide evidence that the protocol can distinguish between assessments that have the potential to elicit evidence of three-dimensional learning and those that do not.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF RIP-V1 AND OSPF-V2 PROTOCOL WITH CONSIDERATION OF CONVERGENCE CRITERIA AND SENDING PROTOCOLS TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Jelodar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Routing Protocols are underlying principles in networks like internet, transport and mobile. Routing Protocols include a series of rules and algorithms that consider routing metric and select the best way for sending healthy data packets from origin to destination. Dynamic routing protocol compatible to topology has a changeable state. RIP and OSPF are dynamic routing protocol that we consider criteria like convergence and sending protocols traffic assessment RIP first version and OSPF second version. By the test we have done on OPNET stimulation we understood that the OSPF protocol was more efficient than RIP protocol.

  10. USDA internet tool to estimate runoff and soil loss on rangelands: rangelands hydrology and erosion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands are the most dominant land cover type in the United States (770 million acres) with approximately 53% of the nation’s rangelands owned and managed by the private sector, while approximately 43% are managed by the federal government. Information on the type, extent, and spatial location of...

  11. Conserving rangeland resources. | Mentis | African Journal of Range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... goal-attainment, (5) try to correct departures, and (6) align individual and societal interests by manipulating market-forces. Keywords: altruism; conservation; Conservation implementation; Conservation properties; human activity; Human values; philosophy; Range resources; rangeland; Rangelands; Science philosophy

  12. Rangelands: Where Anthromes Meet Their Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan F. Sayre

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Defining rangelands as anthromes enabled Ellis and Ramankutty (2008 to conclude that more than three-quarters of Earth’s land is anthropogenic; without rangelands, this figure would have been less than half. They classified all lands grazed by domestic livestock as rangelands, provided that human population densities were low; similar areas without livestock were excluded and classified instead as ‘wildlands’. This paper examines the empirical basis and conceptual assumptions of defining and categorizing rangelands in this fashion. Empirically, we conclude that a large proportion of rangelands, although used to varying degrees by domesticated livestock, are not altered significantly by this use, especially in arid, highly variable environments and in settings with long evolutionary histories of herbivory by wild animals. Even where changes have occurred, the dynamics and components of many rangelands remain structurally and functionally equivalent to those that preceded domestic livestock grazing or would be found in its absence. In much of Africa and Asia, grazing is so longstanding as to be inextricable from ‘natural’ or reference conditions for those sites. Thus, the extent of anthropogenic biomes is significantly overstated. Conceptually, rangelands reveal the dependence of the anthromes thesis on outdated assumptions of ecological climax and equilibrium. Coming to terms with rangelands—how they can be classified, understood, and managed sustainably—thus offers important lessons for understanding anthromes and the Anthropocene as a whole. At the root of these lessons, we argue, is not the question of human impacts on ecosystems but property relations among humans.

  13. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest... Rangeland Project area. The analysis will determine if a change in management direction for livestock grazing is needed to move existing resource conditions within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area...

  14. A systematic review of US rangeland social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland science aims to create knowledge to sustain rangeland social-ecological systems over the long term. Range science has made substantial progress on understanding ecological dynamics of rangeland systems and the management practices that sustain them, and these findings have been systematica...

  15. Using remotely sensed imagery to monitor savanna rangeland deterioration through woody plant proliferation: a case study from communal and biodiversity conservation rangeland sites in Mokopane, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Munyati, C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available rangeland, whereas the communal rangelands were getting more opened up by livestock trampling. Rangeland management practices of fire utilisation, stocking levels and stock concentration account for the differing trends. Lightly grazed and heavily grazed...

  16. DEVELOPMENTS IN MONITORING RANGELANDS USING REMOTELY-SENSED CROSS-FENCE COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kilpatrick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for the use of earth-observation images to assess relative land condition over broad regions, using a cross-fence comparison methodology. It controls for natural spatial and temporal variables (e.g. rainfall, temperature soils, ecosystem so that we can objectively monitor rangelands and other areas for the effects of management. The method has been tested with small and large scale theoretical models, as well as a case study in South Australian rangelands. This method can also be applied in other systems and experiments such as field trials of crop varieties as a robust spatial statistic.

  17. Comparison of a new whole-body continuous-table-movement protocol versus a standard whole-body MR protocol for the assessment of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckbach, S.; Michaely, H.J.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Dinter, D.J.; Stemmer, A.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a whole body (WB) continuous-table-movement (CTM) MR protocol for the assessment of multiple myeloma (MM) in comparison to a step-by-step WB protocol. Eighteen patients with MM were examined at 1.5T using a WB CTM protocol (axial T2-w fs BLADE, T1-w GRE sequence) and a step-by-step WB protocol including coronal/sagittal T1-w SE and STIR sequences as reference. Protocol time was assessed. Image quality, artefacts, liver/spleen assessability, and the ability to depict bone marrow lesions less than or greater than 1 cm as well as diffuse infiltration and soft tissue lesions were rated. Potential changes in the Durie and Salmon Plus stage and the detectability of complications were assessed. Mean protocol time was 6:38 min (CTM) compared to 24:32 min (standard). Image quality was comparable. Artefacts were more prominent using the CTM protocol (P = 0.0039). Organ assessability was better using the CTM protocol (P < 0.001). Depiction of bone marrow and soft tissue lesions was identical without a staging shift. Vertebral fractures were not detected using the CTM protocol. The new protocol allows a higher patient throughput and facilitates the depiction of extramedullary lesions. However, as long as vertebral fractures are not detectable, the protocol cannot be safely used for clinical routine without the acquisition of an additional sagittal sequence. (orig.)

  18. PERSPECTIVES ON RANGELAND ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Heady, Harold F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews changes in rangeland ecology and management in the U.S.A. over the last 65 years and speculates on future changes. Emphasis has shifted from livestock management to ecological and environmental concerns, hence "rangeland ecology." The term "range management" may have outlived its usefulness and may also be detrimental to our image. The vision that we have of ourselves is not the same as others have of us. Many members of the Society for Range Management (SRM) and most of ou...

  19. A shortened protocol for assessing cognitive bias in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Nichola M; Hall, Lynsey

    2017-07-15

    Reliable measurement of affective state in animals is a significant goal of animal welfare. Such measurements would also improve the validity of pre-clinical mental health research which relies on animal models. However, at present, affective states in animals are inaccessible to direct measurement. In humans, changes in cognitive processing can give reliable indications of emotional state. Therefore, similar techniques are increasingly being used to gain proxy measures of affective states in animals. In particular, the 'cognitive bias' assay has gained popularity in recent years. Major disadvantages of this technique include length of time taken for animals to acquire the task (typically several weeks), negative experiences associated with task training, and issues of motivation. Here we present a shortened cognitive bias protocol using only positive reinforcers which must actively be responded to. The protocol took an average of 4days to complete, and produced similar results to previous, longer methods (minimum 30days). Specifically, rats housed in standard laboratory conditions demonstrated negative cognitive biases when presented with ambiguous stimuli, and took longer to make a decision when faced with an ambiguous stimulus. Compared to previous methods, this protocol is significantly shorter (average 4days vs. minimum 30days), utilises only positive reinforcers to avoid inducing negative affective states, and requires active responses to all cues, avoiding potential confounds of motivational state. We have successfully developed a shortened cognitive bias protocol, suitable for use with laboratory rats. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Settleability assessment protocol for anaerobic granular sludge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The re revealed that the protocol was sufficiently sensitive to define the settleability of the sludge samples and to accurately determ their allowable upflow velocities, resultant organic loading rates, and recycling ratios according to the settleability of the gran bed. Also, a series of graphical procedures with settling tests which ...

  1. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, David; Yudkin, John S; de Courten, Maximilian

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol...... for the gathering of other data through site visits, discussions, and document reviews....

  2. Applying a dryland degradation framework for rangelands: the case of Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamsranjav, C; Reid, R S; Fernández-Giménez, M E; Tsevlee, A; Yadamsuren, B; Heiner, M

    2018-04-01

    Livestock-caused rangeland degradation remains a major policy concern globally and the subject of widespread scientific study. This concern persists in part because it is difficult to isolate the effects of livestock from climate and other factors that influence ecosystem conditions. Further, degradation studies seldom use multiple plant and soil indicators linked to a clear definition of and ecologically grounded framework for degradation assessment that distinguishes different levels of degradation. Here, we integrate two globally applicable rangeland degradation frameworks and apply them to a broad-scale empirical data set for the country of Mongolia. We compare our assessment results with two other recent national rangeland degradation assessments in Mongolia to gauge consistency of findings across assessments and evaluate the utility of our framework. We measured livestock-use impacts across Mongolia's major ecological zones: mountain and forest steppe, eastern steppe, steppe, and desert steppe. At 143 sites in 36 counties, we measured livestock-use and degradation indicators at increasing distances from livestock corrals in winter-grazed pastures. At each site, we measured multiple indicators linked to our degradation framework, including plant cover, standing biomass, palatability, species richness, forage quality, vegetation gaps, and soil surface characteristics. Livestock use had no effect on soils, plant species richness, or standing crop biomass in any ecological zone, but subtly affected plant cover and palatable plant abundance. Livestock effects were strongest in the steppe zone, moderate in the desert steppe, and limited in the mountain/forest and eastern steppes. Our results aligned closely with those of two other recent country-wide assessments, suggesting that our framework may have widespread application. All three assessments found that very severe and irreversible degradation is rare in Mongolia (1-18% of land area), with most rangelands

  3. Assessment of Grade of Dysphonia and Correlation With Quality of Life Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Ana Lúcia; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of this study is to check the correlation between vocal self-assessment and results of the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) protocol, and whether there is a correlation between perceptual vocal assessment made by voice therapists and the results from the V-RQOL protocol. The study included 245 subjects with vocal complaints. This was a prospective analytical clinical study. Vocal perceptual assessment of each subject with dysphonia was made by three voice therapists, followed by self-assessment made by the subjects themselves, and the application of the V-RQOL protocol. The results have shown poor level of agreement between vocal assessment made by the voice therapists and self-assessment made by the subjects. The statistical analysis indicated that the results of V-RQOL protocol showed significant correlation with the vocal assessment made by the voice therapists and the self-assessment by the subjects. The agreement between the assessments was low and variable; age, gender, professional voice use, and clinical laryngoscopic diagnosis did not influence the agreement level. Protocol V-RQOL is sensitive to vocal assessment made by the voice therapists and self-assessment made by the patient. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Weather-centric rangeland revegetation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree, Stuart P.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Brunson, Mark W.; Germino, Matthew; Hegewisch, Katherine C.; Moffet, Corey A.; Pilliod, David S.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Boehm, Alex R.; Meredith, Gwendwr R.

    2018-01-01

    Invasive annual weeds negatively impact ecosystem services and pose a major conservation threat on semiarid rangelands throughout the western United States. Rehabilitation of these rangelands is challenging due to interannual climate and subseasonal weather variability that impacts seed germination, seedling survival and establishment, annual weed dynamics, wildfire frequency, and soil stability. Rehabilitation and restoration outcomes could be improved by adopting a weather-centric approach that uses the full spectrum of available site-specific weather information from historical observations, seasonal climate forecasts, and climate-change projections. Climate data can be used retrospectively to interpret success or failure of past seedings by describing seasonal and longer-term patterns of environmental variability subsequent to planting. A more detailed evaluation of weather impacts on site conditions may yield more flexible adaptive-management strategies for rangeland restoration and rehabilitation, as well as provide estimates of transition probabilities between desirable and undesirable vegetation states. Skillful seasonal climate forecasts could greatly improve the cost efficiency of management treatments by limiting revegetation activities to time periods where forecasts suggest higher probabilities of successful seedling establishment. Climate-change projections are key to the application of current environmental models for development of mitigation and adaptation strategies and for management practices that require a multidecadal planning horizon. Adoption of new weather technology will require collaboration between land managers and revegetation specialists and modifications to the way we currently plan and conduct rangeland rehabilitation and restoration in the Intermountain West.

  5. Managing the livestock– Wildlife interface on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Johan T.; Cross, Paul C.; Valeix, Marion

    2017-01-01

    On rangelands the livestock–wildlife interface is mostly characterized by management actions aimed at controlling problems associated with competition, disease, and depredation. Wildlife communities (especially the large vertebrate species) are typically incompatible with agricultural development because the opportunity costs of wildlife conservation are unaffordable except in arid and semi-arid regions. Ecological factors including the provision of supplementary food and water for livestock, together with the persecution of large predators, result in livestock replacing wildlife at biomass densities far exceeding those of indigenous ungulates. Diseases are difficult to eradicate from free-ranging wildlife populations and so veterinary controls usually focus on separating commercial livestock herds from wildlife. Persecution of large carnivores due to their depredation of livestock has caused the virtual eradication of apex predators from most rangelands. However, recent research points to a broad range of solutions to reduce conflict at the livestock–wildlife interface. Conserving wildlife bolsters the adaptive capacity of a rangeland by providing stakeholders with options for dealing with environmental change. This is contingent upon local communities being empowered to benefit directly from their wildlife resources within a management framework that integrates land-use sectors at the landscape scale. As rangelands undergo irreversible changes caused by species invasions and climate forcings, the future perspective favors a proactive shift in attitude towards the livestock–wildlife interface, from problem control to asset management.

  6. Invasive Plants on Rangelands: a Global Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species are spreading and invading rangelands at an unprecedented rate costing ranchers billions of dollars to control invasive plants each year. In its simplest form, the invasion process has four primary stages, including introduction, establishment, spread and colonization. Th...

  7. Rangelands Vegetation under Different Management Systems and Growth Stages in North Darfur State, Sudan (Range Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed AAMA Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at Um Kaddada, North Darfur State, Sudan, at two sites (closed and open for two consecutive seasons 2008 and 2009 during flowering and seed setting stages to evaluate range attributes at the locality. A split plot design was used to study vegetation attributes. Factors studied were management systems (closed and open and growth stages (flowering and seed setting. Vegetation cover, plant density, carrying capacity, and biomass production were assessed. Chemical analyses were done for selected plants to determine their nutritive values. The results showed high significant differences in vegetation attributes (density, cover and biomass production between closed and open areas. Closed areas had higher carrying capacity compared to open rangelands. Crude protein (CP and ash contents of range vegetation were found to decrease while Crude fiber (CF and Dry matter yield (DM had increased with growth. The study concluded that closed rangelands are better than open rangelands because it fenced and protected. Erosion index and vegetation degradation rate were very high. Future research work is needed to assess rangelands characteristics and habitat condition across different ecological zones in North Darfur State, Sudan.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11093 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 332-343

  8. Developing a guiding protocol for the moderation of summative assessments.

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, W.; Raaper, R.

    2016-01-01

    According to literature, assessment moderation is a process for assuring ‘valid, fair and reliable’ assessment outcomes but also consistency of applied marking criteria. While being an important area in assessment, moderation is often referred as an ‘under researched area of higher education’. The School of Education in the University of Glasgow, like many other academic units in the UK and internationally, adopts a range of approaches to moderating assessment within any one programme and acr...

  9. Dual-Task Assessment Protocols in Concussion Assessment: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Michelle; Wong, Lynne; Dubé, Alexandra; Wnuk, Katie; Hunter, Susan W; Graham, Laura J

    2018-02-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Background When assessed in isolation, balance and neurocognitive testing may not be sufficiently responsive to capture changes that occur with concussion. Normal daily activities require simultaneous cognitive and physical demands. Therefore, a dual-task assessment paradigm should be considered to identify performance deficits. Objectives To evaluate the literature and to identify dual-task testing protocols associated with changes in gait after concussion. Methods A systematic review of articles of individuals with concussion who underwent dual-task testing with a combination of motor and cognitive tasks was conducted. The AMED, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases and gray literature were searched from inception to January 29, 2017. Title and abstract, full-text, and quality review and data abstraction were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Results Twenty-four articles met the inclusion criteria. Eleven articles reported decreased gait velocity and increased medial-lateral displacement for individuals with concussion during dual-task conditions. Overall, included articles were of poor to moderate methodological quality. Fifteen articles used the same participants and data sets, creating a threat to validity and limiting the ability to make conclusions. Conclusion A deterioration in gait performance during dual-task testing is present among people with concussion. Specific recommendations for the use of a dual-task protocol to assess individuals with suspected concussion injury in a clinical setting have yet to be determined. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(2):87-103. Epub 7 Nov 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7432.

  10. Pastoral Decision-Making: An Empirical Investigation of Rangeland Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPeak, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent research in range ecology suggests that the process of resource degradation in African arid and semi-arid rangelands may be less reliant on how many animals are kept on the rangeland than on where these animals are kept. Analysis of pastoralist land use decisions indicated that rangeland condition influences livestock keeping. However, it was found that food and income production strategies, herd characteristics play critical roles in livestock keeping decisions

  11. Soils as a Solution: The Potential of Rangelands to Contribute to Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, W. L.; Ryals, R.; DeLonge, M. S.; Owen, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of soil-related climate change research has focused on describing the problem - estimating rates of carbon (C) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from natural and managed ecosystems. More research is needed to explore potential solutions to climate change through mitigation and adaptation. Here we report on an integrated set of studies aimed at critically evaluating the biogeochemical potential of rangeland soils to help mitigate climate change, while improving the sustainability and productivity of food production systems. We explored direct effects through enhanced net primary production (NPP) and soil C sequestration, and indirect effects through diversion of high emitting sources to lower emitting organic matter dynamics. We used a combination of long- and short-term field experiments, modeling, laboratory assays, life cycle assessment (LCA), and meta-analyses in consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from both the private and public sectors. We found that organic matter amendments held particularly strong potential. Compost amendments increased soil C storage by 0.5-1.0 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in surface soils over 5 y, and increased NPP and water holding capacity. We measured 1.0 Mg of new C ha-1 y-1 over 3 y. Long-term amendment of cattle manure increased surface soil C by 19.0±7.3 Mg C ha-1 relative to unmanured fields. However, field and modeling experiments suggested that manure amendments lead to large nitrous oxide emissions that eventually eliminated CO2e benefits, whereas compost amendments continued to benefit climate for decades longer. An LCA identified a broader range of climate impacts. When scaled to an area of 25% of California's rangelands, new C sequestered following compost amendments (21 million Mg CO2e) exceeded emissions from cattle (15 million Mg CO2e); diverting organics from waste streams to amendments led to additional GHG savings. In collaboration with our partners, our research contributed to the development of

  12. Development of pig welfare assessment protocol integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renggaman, Anriansyah; Choi, Hong L; Sudiarto, Sartika Ia; Alasaarela, Laura; Nam, Ok S

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased interest in animal welfare, there is now a need for a comprehensive assessment protocol to be used in intensive pig farming systems. There are two current welfare assessment protocols for pigs: Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocols (applicable in the Europe Union), that mostly focuses on animal-based measures, and the Swine Welfare Assurance Program (applicable in the United States), that mostly focuses on management- and environment-based measures. In certain cases, however, animal-based measures might not be adequate for properly assessing pig welfare status. Similarly, welfare assessment that relies only on environment- and management-based measures might not represent the actual welfare status of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to develop a new welfare protocol by integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures. The background for selection of certain welfare criteria and modification of the scoring systems from existing welfare assessment protocols are described. The developed pig welfare assessment protocol consists of 17 criteria that are related to four main principles of welfare (good feeding, good housing, good health, and appropriate behavior). Good feeding, good housing, and good health were assessed using a 3-point scale: 0 (good welfare), 1 (moderate welfare), and 2 (poor welfare). In certain cases, only a 2-point scale was used: 0 (certain condition is present) or 2 (certain condition is absent). Appropriate behavior was assessed by scan sampling of positive and negative social behaviors based on qualitative behavior assessment and human-animal relationship tests. Modification of the body condition score into a 3-point scale revealed pigs with a moderate body condition (score 1). Moreover, additional criteria such as feed quality confirmed that farms had moderate (score 1) or poor feed quality (score 2), especially those farms located in a high relative humidity region. The developed protocol can be

  13. The California Multimedia Risk Assessment Protocol for Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, T.; Ginn, T. R.; McKone, T. E.; Rice, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Any new fuel in California requires approval by the state agencies overseeing human and environmental health. In order to provide a systematic evaluation of new fuel impacts, California now requires a multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for fuel approval. The fuel MMRA involves all relevant state agencies including: the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), the Office of Environmental Health Hazards Assessment (OEHHA), and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) overseen by the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA). The lead agency for MMRAs is the CARB. The original law requiring a multimedia assessment is California Health and Safety Code 43830.8. In addition, the low carbon fuel standard (LCFS), the Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), and the Verified Diesel Emission Control Strategy (VDECS) have provisions that can require a multimedia assessment. In this presentation, I give an overview of the California multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for new fuels that has been recently developed and applied to several alternative fuels. The objective of the California MMRA is to assess risk of potential impacts of new fuels to multiple environmental media including: air, water, and soil. Attainment of this objective involves many challenges, including varying levels of uncertainty, relative comparison of incommensurate risk factors, and differing levels of priority assigned to risk factors. The MMRA is based on a strategy of relative risk assessment and flexible accommodation of distinct and diverse fuel formulations. The approach is tiered by design, in order to allow for sequentially more sophisticated investigations as knowledge gaps are identified and re-prioritized by the ongoing research. The assessment also involves peer review in order to provide coupling between risk assessment and stakeholder investment, as well as constructive or confrontational feedback. The multimedia assessment

  14. Toward Fairness in Assessing Student Groupwork: A Protocol for Peer Evaluation of Individual Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenz, Martin R.

    2006-01-01

    A key challenge for management instructors using graded groupwork with students is to find ways to maximize student learning from group projects while ensuring fair and accurate assessment methods. This article presents the Groupwork Peer-Evaluation Protocol (GPEP) that enables the assessment of individual contributions to graded student…

  15. Energy and Process Assessment Protocol for Industrial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    condenser surfaces of fouling 6.31 Raise evaporator or lower condenser water temperature 6.2 Optimize chiller sequencing 6.33 Use two-speed or...F increase in CHW supply setpoint the chiller compression motor load will DECREASE 1.5 percent. This is a zero cost ECO. 3.5 Decrease Conden. CTW...energy assessments, universities conducting energy assessment, and Energy Service Performance Contractors) perform Industrial and Energy Optimization

  16. Protocol to assess covering products for roofing slates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Horra, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Spain is a world-wide leader in roofing slate production, quarriying more than 600,000 tons of slate of great quality and generating around 300 euros million in sales each year. However, an enormous quantity of slate plates is considered as a low quality product or discarded every year as waste. The application of protective products on roofing slate tiles helps to commercialise slate with higher oxidation rates, reducing wastes and environmental problems. The present protocol serves to evaluate the new protective products that are now used by slate producers. A combination of three technological tests is proposed here, along with a visual questionnaire to grant quality indices. Each test is oriented to clarify critical properties for the future use of the roofing slate, as follows: (i Thermal cycles were used to determine the oxidation rate of iron sulphides; (ii Slate behaviour in acid urban atmospheres was interpreted by exposition of slate tiles to SO2 gas; (iii Effectiveness of the protective layer under saline corrosion and solar radiation was obtained by exposition to saline fog and UV-irradiation. Physico-chemical tests have been performed in the Technological Centre of the Slate (Orense, Spain whereas the chemical-structural characterizations of natural, impregnated and altered slate plates were carried out by X-ray diffraction and optical and electronic microscopy in the University of Santiago de Compostela (NW Spain. The quantitative analyses of the alteration grades have been determined using a freeware program (IMAGEJ on the scanned images of roofing slate tiles. The protocol here presented has been experienced with the more important protective slate products nowadays, i.e., siloxanes, organic resins and polyurethanes.España es líder mundial en producción de pizarras de techar; la producción supera las 600.000 toneladas de pizarra de gran calidad, suponiendo mas de 300 millones euros. La aplicación de la pizarra con productos

  17. Simplifying the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for broiler chicken welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, I C; Hindle, V A; Butterworth, A; Engel, B; Ferrari, P; Gunnink, H; Perez Moya, T; Tuyttens, F A M; van Reenen, C G

    2016-01-01

    Welfare Quality(®) (WQ) assessment protocols place the emphasis on animal-based measures as an indicator for animal welfare. Stakeholders, however, emphasize that a reduction in the time taken to complete the protocol is essential to improve practical applicability. We studied the potential for reduction in time to complete the WQ broiler assessment protocol and present some modifications to the protocol correcting a few errors in the original calculations. Data was used from 180 flocks assessed on-farm and 150 flocks assessed at the slaughter plant. Correlations between variables were calculated, and where correlation was moderate, meaningful and promising (in terms of time reduction), simplification was considered using one variable predicted from another variable. Correlation analysis revealed a promising correlation between severe hock burn and gait scores on-farm. Therefore, prediction of gait scores using hock burn scores was studied further as a possible simplification strategy (strategy 1). Measurements of footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait score on-farm correlated moderately to highly with slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and/or hock burn, supporting substitution of on-farm measurements with slaughter plant data. A simplification analysis was performed using footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait scores measured on-farm predicted from slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and hock burn (strategy 2). Simplification strategies were compared with the full assessment protocol. Close agreement was found between the full protocol and both simplification strategies although large confidence intervals were found for specificity of the simplified models. It is concluded that the proposed simplification strategies are encouraging; strategy 1 can reduce the time to complete the on-farm assessment by ~1 h (25% to 33% reduction) and strategy 2 can reduce on-farm assessment time by ~2 h (50% to 67% reduction

  18. Toward an HRD Auditing Protocol: Assessing HRD Risk Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Even though HRD-related programs and activities carry risks that should be monitored and assessed, there is little literature on how auditing applies to the HRD function; the existing literature on the topic defines HRD auditing in widely different ways. The nature of risk for organizational process is discussed, followed by a review of the…

  19. OCONUS Compliance Assessment Protocols - Qatar (Army Version) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krooks, David A

    2004-01-01

    ...: 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 578 KB. ABSTRACT: This environmental compliance assessment manual is based on the Final Governing Standards for Environmental Security of United States Forces in the State of Qatar, 21 May 1999, and the Overseas...

  20. Multiscale sagebrush rangeland habitat modeling in southwest Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Meyer, Debra K.; Coan, Michael J.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2009-01-01

    Sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in North America have experienced dramatic elimination and degradation since European settlement. As a result, sagebrush-steppe dependent species have experienced drastic range contractions and population declines. Coordinated ecosystem-wide research, integrated with monitoring and management activities, would improve the ability to maintain existing sagebrush habitats. However, current data only identify resource availability locally, with rigorous spatial tools and models that accurately model and map sagebrush habitats over large areas still unavailable. Here we report on an effort to produce a rigorous large-area sagebrush-habitat classification and inventory with statistically validated products and estimates of precision in the State of Wyoming. This research employs a combination of significant new tools, including (1) modeling sagebrush rangeland as a series of independent continuous field components that can be combined and customized by any user at multiple spatial scales; (2) collecting ground-measured plot data on 2.4-meter imagery in the same season the satellite imagery is acquired; (3) effective modeling of ground-measured data on 2.4-meter imagery to maximize subsequent extrapolation; (4) acquiring multiple seasons (spring, summer, and fall) of an additional two spatial scales of imagery (30 meter and 56 meter) for optimal large-area modeling; (5) using regression tree classification technology that optimizes data mining of multiple image dates, ratios, and bands with ancillary data to extrapolate ground training data to coarser resolution sensors; and (6) employing rigorous accuracy assessment of model predictions to enable users to understand the inherent uncertainties. First-phase results modeled eight rangeland components (four primary targets and four secondary targets) as continuous field predictions. The primary targets included percent bare ground, percent herbaceousness, percent shrub, and percent litter. The

  1. Sustaining working rangelands: Insights from rancher decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazed rangeland ecosystems encompass diverse global land resources, and are complex social-ecological systems from which society demands both goods (e.g., livestock and forage production) and services (e.g., abundant and high quality water). In the dialogue on rangeland conservation and sustainable...

  2. Developing an operational rangeland water requirement satisfaction index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Rowland, James

    2011-01-01

    Developing an operational water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) for rangeland monitoring is an important goal of the famine early warning systems network. An operational WRSI has been developed for crop monitoring, but until recently a comparable WRSI for rangeland was not successful because of the extremely poor performance of the index when based on published crop coefficients (K c) for rangelands. To improve the rangeland WRSI, we developed a simple calibration technique that adjusts the K c values for rangeland monitoring using long-term rainfall distribution and reference evapotranspiration data. The premise for adjusting the K c values is based on the assumption that a viable rangeland should exhibit above-average WRSI (values >80%) during a normal year. The normal year was represented by a median dekadal rainfall distribution (satellite rainfall estimate from 1996 to 2006). Similarly, a long-term average for potential evapotranspiration was used as input to the famine early warning systems network WRSI model in combination with soil-water-holding capacity data. A dekadal rangeland WRSI has been operational for east and west Africa since 2005. User feedback has been encouraging, especially with regard to the end-of-season WRSI anomaly products that compare the index's performance to ‘normal’ years. Currently, rangeland WRSI products are generated on a dekadal basis and posted for free distribution on the US Geological Survey early warning website at http://earlywarning.usgs.gov/adds/

  3. Managing climate change risks in rangeland systems [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; Nadine A. Marshall

    2017-01-01

    The management of rangelands has long involved adapting to climate variability to ensure that economic enterprises remain viable and ecosystems sustainable; climate change brings the potential for change that surpasses the experience of humans within rangeland systems. Adaptation will require an intentionality to address the effects of climate change. Knowledge of...

  4. Adaptive management for complex communal rangelands in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many of the intransigent problems facing the world arise in complex systems. In this paper, I propose that communal rangelands in South Africa be recognised as complex social–ecological systems and that one of the reasons that development initiatives have had little impact on improving livelihoods and rangeland ...

  5. A description of rangeland on commercial and communal land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of a Landsat TM image from a rangeland near Peddie, Eastern Cape, revealed differences in two vegetation indices (normalised difference vegetation index, NDVI, and moving standard deviation index, MSDI) between communal and commercial rangeland. It was suggested that the difference in the MSDI reflected ...

  6. Meeting wild bees' needs on Western US rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Cane

    2011-01-01

    Rangelands are areas that are too arid, or with soils too shallow, to support either forests or cultivated agriculture, but that nonetheless produce enough vegetation for livestock grazing. Some arid rangeland regions, notably those with warm, dry climates in temperate zones (e.g., the warm deserts of the United States and adjacent Mexico, parts of Australia, South...

  7. New Tools to Estimate Runoff, Soil Erosion, and Sustainability of Rangeland Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands are the largest land cover type in the world. Degradation from mismanagement, desertification, and drought impact more than 50% of rangelands across the globe. The USDA Agricultural Research Service has been evaluating sustainability of rangeland for over 40-years by conducted rangeland r...

  8. Sustainable rangeland management, economic growth, and a cautious role for the SRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in the art and science of rangeland management increased dramatically during the 20th century and it was out of this interest that the profession of rangeland management was born. As public interest in rangeland management grew, so did the number, breadth, and depth of rangeland management ...

  9. Climate change effects on rangelands and rangeland management: Affirming the need for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Mccollum; John A. Tanaka; Jack A. Morgan; John E. Mitchell; William E. Fox; Kristie A. Maczko; Lori Hidinger; Clifford S. Duke; Urs P. Kreuter

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainty as to the extent and magnitude of changes in conditions that might occur due to climate change poses a problem for land and resource managers as they seek to adapt to changes and mitigate effects of climate variability. We illustrate using scenarios of projected future conditions on rangelands in the Northern Great Plains and Desert Southwest of the United...

  10. Maintaining ecosystem services through continued livestock production on California rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, S.; Becchetti, T.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 40% of California is rangeland comprising the largest land type in California and providing forage for livestock, primarily beef cattle. In addition to forage, rangelands provide a host of ecosystem systems services, including habitat for common and endangered species, fire fuels management, pollination services, clean water, viewsheds, and carbon sequestration. Published research has documented that most of these ecosystem services are positively impacted by managed livestock grazing and rancher stewardship. Ranchers typically do not receive any monetary reimbursement for their stewardship in providing these ecosystem services to the public. Markets have been difficult to establish with limited ability to adequately monitor and measure services provided. At the same time, rangelands have been experiencing rapid conversion to urbanization and more profitable and intensive forms of agriculture such as almond and walnut orchards. To prevent further conversion of rangelands and the loss of the services they provide, there needs to be a mechanism to identify and compensate landowners for the value of all products and services being received from rangelands. This paper considers two methods (opportunity cost and avoided cost) to determine the value of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for rangelands. PES can raise the value of rangelands, making them more competitive financially. Real estate values and University of California Cooperative Extension Cost Studies, were used to demonstrate the difference in value (lost opportunity cost) between the primary products of rangelands (livestock production) and the products of the converted rangelands (almond and walnut orchards). Avoided costs for vegetation management and habitat creation and maintenance were used to establish the value of managed grazing. If conversion is to be slowed or stopped and managed grazing promoted to protect the ecosystem services rangelands provide, this value could be compensated through

  11. A protocol for the health and fitness assessment of NBA players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, A; Rask, B

    1993-04-01

    The assessment of the health and fitness of elite basketball players should be a multidisciplinary process. We have described an organized, efficient, and comprehensive protocol for preseason physical evaluations that could be used at the university as well as professional level.

  12. Reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol for working technique assessments in cash register work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Peter; Josephson, Malin; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Kjellberg, Katarina

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the intra- and inter-observer reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol, developed in an iterative process involving practicing ergonomists, for assessment of working technique during cash register work for the purpose of preventing upper extremity symptoms. Two ergonomists independently assessed 17 15-min videos of cash register work on two occasions each, as a basis for examining reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing these assessments with meticulous video-based analyses by researchers. Intra-observer reliability was acceptable (i.e. proportional agreement >0.7 and kappa >0.4) for 10/10 questions. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable for only 3/10 questions. An acceptable inter-observer reliability combined with an acceptable criterion validity was obtained only for one working technique aspect, 'Quality of movements'. Thus, major elements of the cashiers' working technique could not be assessed with an acceptable accuracy from short periods of observations by one observer, such as often desired by practitioners. Practitioner Summary: We examined an observation protocol for assessing working technique in cash register work. It was feasible in use, but inter-observer reliability and criterion validity were generally not acceptable when working technique aspects were assessed from short periods of work. We recommend the protocol to be used for educational purposes only.

  13. On-FarmWelfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Battini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats’ welfareon the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype includinganimal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up.The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing theprototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptabilityamong stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status,based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to thefirst contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment, with no or minimalhandling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfareAnimals 2015, 5 935problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individualevaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws, supported byan effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goatapp. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfareconditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol maybe a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrumentfor farmers.

  14. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate beha...... mink production seasons: Winter, spring, and autumn, in order to cover the life cycle of mink and proved feasible for a one-day visit.......European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...

  15. Rangeland Brush Estimation Toolbox (RaBET): An Approach for Evaluating Brush Management Conservation Efforts in Western Grazing Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holifield Collins, C.; Kautz, M. A.; Skirvin, S. M.; Metz, L. J.

    2016-12-01

    There are over 180 million hectares of rangelands and grazed forests in the central and western United States. Due to the loss of perennial grasses and subsequent increased runoff and erosion that can degrade the system, woody cover species cannot be allowed to proliferate unchecked. The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has allocated extensive resources to employ brush management (removal) as a conservation practice to control woody species encroachment. The Rangeland-Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) has been tasked with determining how effective the practice has been, however their land managers lack a cost-effective means to conduct these assessments at the necessary scale. An ArcGIS toolbox for generating large-scale, Landsat-based, spatial maps of woody cover on grazing lands in the western United States was developed through a collaboration with NRCS Rangeland-CEAP. The toolbox contains two main components of operation, image generation and temporal analysis, and utilizes simple interfaces requiring minimum user inputs. The image generation tool utilizes geographically specific algorithms developed from combining moderate-resolution (30-m) Landsat imagery and high-resolution (1-m) National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial photography to produce the woody cover scenes at the Major Land Resource (MLRA) scale. The temporal analysis tool can be used on these scenes to assess treatment effectiveness and monitor woody cover reemergence. RaBET provides rangeland managers an operational, inexpensive decision support tool to aid in the application of brush removal treatments and assessing their effectiveness.

  16. Implementation of the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol – final report : overview of outcome-based measurement of broiler welfare and a general discussion on the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Gunnink, H.; Hindle, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, two topics related to our study on the implementation of the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol are discussed. First, animal-based measures for broiler welfare, currently included in the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol, are discussed with respect to

  17. Assessment of CREAMS [Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems] and ERHYM-II [Ekalaka Rangeland Hydrology and Yield Model] computer models for simulating soil water movement on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundre, J.W.

    1990-05-01

    The major goal of radioactive waste management is long-term containment of radioactive waste. Long-term containment is dependent on understanding water movement on, into, and through trench caps. Several computer simulation models are available for predicting water movement. Of the several computer models available, CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems) and ERHYM-II (Ekalaka Rangeland Hydrology and Yield Model) were tested for use on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The models were calibrated, tested for sensitivity, and used to evaluate some basic trench cap designs. Each model was used to postdict soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff of two watersheds for which such data were already available. Sensitivity of the models was tested by adjusting various input parameters from high to low values and then comparing model outputs to those generated from average values. Ten input parameters of the CREAMS model were tested for sensitivity. 17 refs., 23 figs., 20 tabs

  18. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Courten Maximilian

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for the gathering of other data through site visits, discussions, and document reviews. Methods The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access draws on the principles of Rapid Assessment Protocols which have been developed and implemented in several different areas. This protocol was adapted through a thorough literature review on diabetes, chronic condition management and medicine supply in developing countries. A visit to three countries in sub-Saharan Africa and meetings with different experts in the field of diabetes helped refine the questionnaires. Following the development of the questionnaires these were tested with various people familiar with diabetes and/or healthcare in developing countries. The Protocol was piloted in Mozambique then refined and had two further iterations in Zambia and Mali. Translations of questionnaires were made into local languages when necessary, with back translation to ensure precision. Results In each country the protocol was implemented in 3 areas – the capital city, a large urban centre and a predominantly rural area and their respective surroundings. Interviews were carried out by local teams trained on how to use the tool. Data was then collected and entered into a database for analysis. Conclusion The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access was developed to provide a situational analysis of Type 1 diabetes, in order to make recommendations to the national Ministries of Health and Diabetes Associations. It provided valuable information on patients' access to insulin, syringes, monitoring and care. It was thus able to sketch a picture of the health care system with regards to its ability to

  19. Biosafety assessment protocols for new organisms in New Zealand: Can they apply internationally to emerging technologies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barratt, B.I.P.; Moeed, A.; Malone, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of established biosafety protocols for release into the environment of exotic plants and biological control agents for weeds and arthropod pests has been carried out to determine whether such protocols can be applied to relatively new and emerging technologies intended for the primary production industries, such as transgenic plants. Example case studies are described to indicate the scope of issues considered by regulators who make decisions on new organism releases. No transgenic plants have been released to date in New Zealand, but two field test approvals are described as examples. An analysis of the biosafety protocols has shown that, while many of the risk criteria considered for decision-making by regulators are similar for all new organisms, a case-by-case examination of risks and potential impacts is required in order to fully assess risk. The value of post-release monitoring and validation of decisions made by regulators is emphasised

  20. Protocols for the Investigation of Information Processing in Human Assessment of Fundamental Movement Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brodie J; Thornton, Ashleigh; Lay, Brendan; Rosenberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental movement skill (FMS) assessment remains an important tool in classifying individuals' level of FMS proficiency. The collection of FMS performances for assessment and monitoring has remained unchanged over the last few decades, but new motion capture technologies offer opportunities to automate this process. To achieve this, a greater understanding of the human process of movement skill assessment is required. The authors present the rationale and protocols of a project in which they aim to investigate the visual search patterns and information extraction employed by human assessors during FMS assessment, as well as the implementation of the Kinect system for FMS capture.

  1. Importance of Standardized DXA Protocol for Assessing Physique Changes in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Alisa; Slater, Gary J; Hopkins, Will G; Halson, Shona L; Martin, David T; West, Nicholas P; Burke, Louise M

    2016-06-01

    The implications of undertaking DXA scans using best practice protocols (subjects fasted and rested) or a less precise but more practical protocol in assessing chronic changes in body composition following training and a specialized recovery technique were investigated. Twenty-one male cyclists completed an overload training program, in which they were randomized to four sessions per week of either cold water immersion therapy or control groups. Whole-body DXA scans were undertaken with best practice protocol (Best) or random activity protocol (Random) at baseline, after 3 weeks of overload training, and after a 2-week taper. Magnitudes of changes in total, lean and fat mass from baseline-overload, overload-taper and baseline-taper were assessed by standardization (Δmean/SD). The standard deviations of change scores for total and fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST) from Random scans (2-3%) were approximately double those observed in the Best (1-2%), owing to extra random errors associated with Random scans at baseline. There was little difference in change scores for fat mass. The effect of cold water immersion therapy on baseline-taper changes in FFST was possibly harmful (-0.7%; 90% confidence limits ±1.2%) with Best scans but unclear with Random scans (0.9%; ±2.0%). Both protocols gave similar possibly harmful effects of cold water immersion therapy on changes in fat mass (6.9%; ±13.5% and 5.5%; ±14.3%, respectively). An interesting effect of cold water immersion therapy on training-induced changes in body composition might have been missed with a less precise scanning protocol. DXA scans should be undertaken with Best.

  2. Management of communal rangelands - the dialogue between science and indigenous knowledge: the case of the Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Communal area rangeland resource users are an important part of the rangeland ecosystem; rangeland management policies and practice should, therefore, accommodate their socio-cultural practices and knowledge. Indigenous knowledge (IK) is often...

  3. Non-invasive Assessments of Subjective and Objective Recovery Characteristics Following an Exhaustive Jump Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Fast recovery after strenuous exercise is important in sports and is often studied via cryotherapy applications. Cryotherapy has a significant vasoconstrictive effect, which seems to be the leading factor in its effectiveness. The resulting enhanced recovery can be measured by using both objective and subjective parameters. Two commonly measured subjective characteristics of recovery are delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Two important objective recovery characteristics are countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and peak power output (PPO). Here, we provide a detailed protocol to induce muscular exhaustion of the frontal thighs with a self-paced, 3 x 30 countermovement jump protocol (30-s rest between each set). This randomized controlled trial protocol explains how to perform local cryotherapy cuff application (+ 8 °C for 20 min) and thermoneutral cuff application (+ 32 °C for 20 min) on both thighs as two possible post-exercise recovery modalities. Finally, we provide a non-invasive protocol to measure the effects of these two recovery modalities on subjective (i.e., DOMS of both frontal thighs and RPE) and objective recovery (i.e., CMJ and PPO) characteristics 24, 48, and 72 h post-application. The advantage of this method is that it provides a tool for researchers or coaches to induce muscular exhaustion, without using any expensive devices; to implement local cooling strategies; and to measure both subjective and objective recovery, without using invasive methods. Limitations of this protocol are that the 30 s rest period between sets is very short, and the cardiovascular demand is very high. Future studies may find the assessment of maximum voluntary contractions to be a more sensitive assessment of muscular exhaustion compared to CMJs. PMID:28654037

  4. Rivers rapid assessment protocols and insertion of society in monitoring of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of water resources has been detected and changes both institutional and in the legislation have been demanded. The careless use of rivers has ecological changes as direct consequence, causing serious modifications in the landscape and fluvial regime, besides altering the availability of habitats and the trophic composition of the aquatic environment. Pressed by this scenario, scientists have been developing assessment methods that are efficient both for the evaluation itself and for supporting decision taking in the environmental management processes. In this perspective, the objective of this study is to present the Rapid River Assessment Protocols (RAPs and to emphasize how these protocols can promote the community participation in water resources monitoring. The RAPs can used to evaluate in an integrated form the characteristics of a river section according to the conservation or degradation condition of the fluvial environment and it is characterized by its economic viability and easy applicability. In regions with poor financial resources and serious problems of water quality, the RAPs can be used in environmental management programs. By using these protocols, the integration of the community in water resources monitoring generates data which represent the quality of fluvial ecosystems throughout time, without requesting high costs or specialized professionals. The RAPs in a simplified but not simplistic tool, which can be used in activities that aim at promoting a quick and reliable assessment of the “health” of a river.

  5. Botanical Criteria of Baharkish Rangeland in Quchan, Khorasan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    University of Mashhad International Campus, Mashhad, I.R of IRAN ... ABSTRACT: Rangelands are natural ecosystems containing a range of resources of genetic ..... Ecology of world vegetation. .... Science Journal of Islamic Azad University,.

  6. A comparison of the effects of different rangeland management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of the effects of different rangeland management systems on ... Three management systems exploit these areas: commercial livestock ranching, communal livestock ranching and game ranching. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Forests, rangelands and climate change in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the implications of climate change for forests and rangelands in southern Africa. The extent of the resources and their economic and social functions and drivers of change is outlined. The vulnerability...

  8. Effect of management on rangeland phytomass, cover and condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    similarity of management effects on rangeland condition and forage provision across major dryland biomes. Taking a macro-ecological perspective, we analysed if management effects differed between South Africa's central grassland and ...

  9. Rangeland degradation in two watersheds of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T; Faour, G.

    2008-01-01

    A complex and rugged nature characterizes the Lebanese mountains.The climatic pattern prevailing in the country, deforestation and man made erosion caused increased rangeland degradation. The purpose of this study was to monitor two contrasting watersheds, representing the Lebanese agro-ecological zones, to analyze the vegetation dynamics and trace the state of rangeland degradation. The Kfarselouane (205 km2) and Aarsal (316.7 km2) watersheds are located in the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountain chain and characterized by sub humid and semi-arid climate respectively.Using multitemporal spot vegetation images between 1999 and 2005 to analyze the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) revealed some improvement of the vegetation cover over recent years in Kfaselouane with a steady state in Aarsal. The NDVI trend curve inclines in spring and declines in summer and fall. Judging by the time scale amplitude change and highest magnitude between the peak and lower NDVI level in Aarsal, an increased vulnerability to drought is observed in the dry Lebanese areas. Comparing land cover/use in Aarsal area between 1962 and 2000 using aerial photos and large resolution Indian satellite images (IRS) showed wood fragmentation and slight increase of the degenerated forest cover from 1108 ha to 1168 ha. Landuse change was accompanied by a simultaneous increase of cultivated lands (mostly fruit trees) from 932 ha to 4878 ha with absence of soil conservation and water harvesting practices. On the contrary, grasslands decreased from 29581 ha to 25000 ha. In Kfarselouane, the area of grassland was invaded by forestland where rangeland decreased from 8073 ha to 3568 ha and woodland increased from 5766 ha to 11800 ha. Forest expansion occurred even at the account of unproductive land which decreased from 2668 ha to 248 ha, while cultivated lands did not reveal any substantial change. Based on animals' seasonal feeding pattern, a mismatch between land carrying capacity and grazing

  10. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  11. Restoring Degraded Rangelands in Jordan: Optimizing Mechanized Micro-Water Harvesting Technique Using Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous population growth, recent refugee movement and migration as well as boundary restrictions and their implications on the nomadic lifestyle are additive pressure on rangelands throughout the Middle East. In particular, overgrazing through increased livestock herds threatens the Jordanian ra...

  12. Principles of optimizing animal production from rangeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbendieck, J.; Waller, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    Increasing world population is one of the dominant factors escalating demands for the world's natural resources. Range and forage resources, which are used primarily for food and fibre, could be more efficiently used if management techniques were improved. The principles of managing forage resources are directly associated with both the growth and development of plants and the actions and needs of the grazing animal. An understanding of the effects of environmental factors and herbage removal (frequency, intensity and season of defoliation) on growth and regrowth of plants is the first step towards optimizing animal productivity from rangelands. Most potential changes will fit into three categories: (1) increase the quantity of forage, (2) improve the quality of forage, and (3) improve use of forage. The principles of grazing management can be separated into four intricately related categories: (1) proper degree of grazing, (2) proper season of grazing, (3) proper kind of livestock, and (4) proper distribution of grazing. Grazing management is affected by the manner in which both improvements and manipulation of vegetation affect forage yield and quality. The adaptation and application of existing knowledge to individual locations will be one step towards optimizing animal production from rangeland. Some of the problems may be solved through better dissemination of present knowledge through existing educational programmes, while others will require expanded programmes of information dissemination. A third group of problems may also be solved with present technology, but the solutions are not currently economical. Some of the problems will be solved only through expanded research. These research efforts need to be directed towards grazing or browsing animals, plant resources and the interaction between plants and animals. Application of nuclear techniques will be an integral part of this research. (author)

  13. The Kyoto protocol: assessment and perspectives. Towards a new regime up to the climate stake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia

    2012-01-01

    This report proposes an analysis within the context of transition of the climate regime from the 'before-2012' regime to the 'post-2020' regime. It first gives an overview of international stakes and context (lack of ambition for climate policy, perspective of an international agreement from 2020). Then, the authors recall the history and achievements of the Kyoto protocol which is the basis of the present climate policy regime. They propose an assessment of actions performed by countries during the first period of the protocol, and focus on the present climate regime elements which are to be safeguarded. They analyse the weaknesses of the present regime, and propose possible improvements for the future post-2020 climate regime

  14. Systematic Review Protocol to Assess the Effectiveness of Usability Questionnaires in mHealth App Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Leming; Bao, Jie; Parmanto, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    Usability questionnaires have a wide use in mobile health (mHealth) app usability studies. However, no systematic review has been conducted for assessing the effectiveness of these questionnaires. This paper describes a protocol for conducting a systematic review of published questionnaire-based mHealth app usability studies. In this systematic review, we will select recently published (2008-2017) articles from peer-reviewed journals and conferences that describe mHealth app usability studies and implement at least one usability questionnaire. The search strategy will include terms such as "mobile app" and "usability." Multiple databases such as PubMed, CINAHL, IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, and INSPEC will be searched. There will be 2 independent reviewers in charge of screening titles and abstracts as well as determining those articles that should be included for a full-text review. The third reviewer will act as a mediator between the other 2 reviewers. Moreover, a data extraction form will be created and used during the full article data analysis. Notably, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines will be followed in reporting this protocol. A preliminary search produced 1271 articles, 40 of which are duplicate records. The inclusion-exclusion criteria are being strictly followed in performing the ongoing study selection. Usability questionnaires are an important tool in mHealth app usability studies. This review will summarize the usability questionnaires used in published research articles while assessing the efficacy of these questionnaires in determining the usability of mHealth apps. ©Leming Zhou, Jie Bao, Bambang Parmanto. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 01.08.2017.

  15. A protocol for lifetime energy and environmental impact assessment of building insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Som S.; Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre O.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist, which provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different building insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines. - Highlights: • We proposed a protocol to evaluate the environmental impacts of insulation materials. • The protocol considers all life cycle stages of an insulation material. • Both the direct environmental impacts and the indirect impacts are defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided operational energy’ is defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided environmental impact’ is defined

  16. Development of low-dose protocols for thin-section CT assessment of cystic fibrosis in pediatric patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-12-01

    To develop low-dose thin-section computed tomographic (CT) protocols for assessment of cystic fibrosis (CF) in pediatric patients and determine the clinical usefulness thereof compared with chest radiography.

  17. The interconnectedness between landowner knowledge, value, belief, attitude, and willingness to act: policy implications for carbon sequestration on private rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Seth L; Ma, Zhao

    2014-02-15

    Rangelands can be managed to increase soil carbon and help mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide. This study assessed Utah rangeland owner's environmental values, beliefs about climate change, and awareness of and attitudes towards carbon sequestration, as well as their perceptions of potential policy strategies for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and a statewide survey of Utah rangeland owners, and were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics. Over two-thirds of respondents reported some level of awareness of carbon sequestration and a generally positive attitude towards it, contrasting to their lack of interest in participating in a relevant program in the future. Having a positive attitude was statistically significantly associated with having more "biocentric" environmental values, believing the climate had been changing over the past 30 years, and having a stronger belief of human activities influencing the climate. Respondents valued the potential ecological benefits of carbon sequestration more than the potential financial or climate change benefits. Additionally, respondents indicated a preference for educational approaches over financial incentives. They also preferred to work with a private agricultural entity over a non-profit or government entity on improving land management practices to sequester carbon. These results suggest potential challenges for developing technically sound and socially acceptable policies and programs for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Potential strategies for overcoming these challenges include emphasizing the ecological benefits associated with sequestering carbon to appeal to landowners with ecologically oriented management objectives, enhancing the cooperation between private agricultural organizations and government agencies, and funneling resources for promoting carbon sequestration into existing land management and

  18. Very High Resolution Panoramic Photography to Improve Conventional Rangeland Monitoring 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland monitoring often includes repeat photographs as a basis for documentation and although photographic equipment and electronics have been evolving rapidly, basic rangeland photo monitoring methods have changed little over time. Ground based digital photography is underutilized, especially s...

  19. A protocol for comprehensive assessment of bulbar dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R; Wang, Jun; Pattee, Gary; Zinman, Lorne

    2011-02-21

    Improved methods for assessing bulbar impairment are necessary for expediting diagnosis of bulbar dysfunction in ALS, for predicting disease progression across speech subsystems, and for addressing the critical need for sensitive outcome measures for ongoing experimental treatment trials. To address this need, we are obtaining longitudinal profiles of bulbar impairment in 100 individuals based on a comprehensive instrumentation-based assessment that yield objective measures. Using instrumental approaches to quantify speech-related behaviors is very important in a field that has primarily relied on subjective, auditory-perceptual forms of speech assessment(1). Our assessment protocol measures performance across all of the speech subsystems, which include respiratory, phonatory (laryngeal), resonatory (velopharyngeal), and articulatory. The articulatory subsystem is divided into the facial components (jaw and lip), and the tongue. Prior research has suggested that each speech subsystem responds differently to neurological diseases such as ALS. The current protocol is designed to test the performance of each speech subsystem as independently from other subsystems as possible. The speech subsystems are evaluated in the context of more global changes to speech performance. These speech system level variables include speaking rate and intelligibility of speech. The protocol requires specialized instrumentation, and commercial and custom software. The respiratory, phonatory, and resonatory subsystems are evaluated using pressure-flow (aerodynamic) and acoustic methods. The articulatory subsystem is assessed using 3D motion tracking techniques. The objective measures that are used to quantify bulbar impairment have been well established in the speech literature and show sensitivity to changes in bulbar function with disease progression. The result of the assessment is a comprehensive, across-subsystem performance profile for each participant. The profile, when compared to

  20. Accuracy assessment of and 111In quantification protocol using Monte Carlo simulated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo Lopez, J.; Coca, M. A.; Torres, L. A.; Gomez Facenda, A.

    2013-01-01

    The analyzed protocol showed a tendency to overestimate activity, revealed in the mean difference of -0.3MBq. Still, determined activity was never separated more than 10% from simulated one. Differences between calculated and simulated activity followed a Lorentzian distribution with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. The graphical interface exhibited an average difference of 0.001MBq with a standard deviation of 0.5MBq in relation to reference software. It was implemented and evaluated a methodology to perform quantitative calculations of 1 11In activity using whole body studies. Its application with a proposed graphical interface was also assessed. (Author)

  1. A clinical protocol to increase chewing and assess mastication in children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M; Peterson, Kathryn M; Zeleny, Jason R; Piazza, Cathleen C

    2014-09-01

    Children with feeding disorders often cannot or do not chew when presented with table food. Children with chewing deficits also often swallow the bite before masticating it appropriately, which we will refer to as early swallowing. In the current study, we evaluated a clinical protocol to increase chews per bite, assess mastication, and eliminate early swallowing with three children with feeding disorders. The current study adds to a small body of literature on chewing and mastication of children with feeding disorders. Suggestions for future research are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The development and evaluation of an internal workplace violence risk assessment protocol: one organization's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitt, Michael C; Tamburo, Melissa Back

    2005-01-01

    The creation and development of a Risk Assessment Team at a large urban university is presented as a case study, with particular focus on the role the Employee Assistance Program (EAP) plays in the multidisciplinary team. The structure of the team and differing roles and responsibilities of members will be discussed. A specific protocol for addressing incidents will be introduced, along with changes in the team ' response over time. Major lessons learned will be presented, as well as the challenges the team faces today, and discussion of areas for future research and evaluation.

  3. Regional Standards for Rangeland Health and Guidelines for Livestock Grazing Management ... A Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    In August 1995, new BLM regulations for rangeland administration went into effect. The new regulations require BLM to establish regional standards for rangeland health and guidelines for grazing management. This publication is a report on the alternatives being considered for the Montana/Dakotas Rangeland Health Standards and Guidelines process.

  4. State-and-transition model archetypes: a global taxonomy of rangeland change

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and transition models (STMs) synthesize science-based and local knowledge to formally represent the dynamics of rangeland and other ecosystems. Mental models or concepts of ecosystem dynamics implicitly underlie all management decisions in rangelands and thus how people influence rangeland sus...

  5. Criterion IV: Social and economic indicators of rangeland sustainability (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. McCollum; Louis E. Swanson; John A. Tanaka; Mark W. Brunson; Aaron J. Harp; L. Allen Torell; H. Theodore Heintz

    2010-01-01

    Social and economic systems provide the context and rationale for rangeland management. Sustaining rangeland ecosystems requires attention to the social and economic conditions that accompany the functioning of those systems. We present and discuss economic and social indicators for rangeland sustainability. A brief conceptual basis for each indicator is offered,...

  6. Ecohydrologic impacts of rangeland fire on runoff and erosion: A literature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick B. Pierson; C. Jason Williams

    2016-01-01

    Fire can dramatically influence rangeland hydrology and erosion by altering ecohydrologic relationships. This synthesis presents an ecohydrologic perspective on the effects of fire on rangeland runoff and erosion through a review of scientific literature spanning many decades. The objectives are: (1) to introduce rangeland hydrology and erosion concepts necessary for...

  7. Ecologic, Economic, and Social Considerations for Rangeland Sustainability: An Integrated Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. McCollum; H. Theodore Jr. Heintz; Aaron J. Harp; John A. Tanaka; Gary R. Evans; David Radloff; Louis E. Swanson; William E. III Fox; Michael G. Sherm Karl; John E. Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    Use and sustainability of rangelands are inherently linked to the health and sustainability of the land. They are also inherently linked to the social and economic infrastructures that complement and support those rangelands and rangeland uses. Ecological systems and processes provide the biological interactions underlying ecosystem health and viability. Social and...

  8. Adapting a rapid assessment protocol to environmentally assess palm swamp (Veredas) springs in the Cerrado biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ariane; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-10-30

    The exploitation and degradation of natural environments exert intense pressure on important ecosystems worldwide. Thus, it is necessary developing or adapting assessment methods to monitor environmental changes and to generate results to be applied to environmental management programs. The Brazilian Veredas (phytophysiognomies typical to the Cerrado biome) are threatened by several human activities; thus, the aim of the present study is to adapt a rapid assessment protocol (RAP) to be applied to Veredas springs, by using the upper course of the Vai-e-Vem stream watershed (Ipameri County, Goiás State, Brazil). Therefore, several springs in the study site were visited and 11 of them were considered Veredas springs. After the RAP was adapted, the instrument was validated and used to environmentally assess the springs in order to demonstrate its applicability. The present study has provided an instrument of option to monitor Veredas springs.

  9. Preoperative vestibular assessment protocol of cochlear implant surgery: an analytical descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Sato, Eduardo Setsuo; Ribeiro, Douglas Jósimo Silva; Tsuji, Robinson Koji

    Cochlear implants are undeniably an effective method for the recovery of hearing function in patients with hearing loss. To describe the preoperative vestibular assessment protocol in subjects who will be submitted to cochlear implants. Our institutional protocol provides the vestibular diagnosis through six simple tests: Romberg and Fukuda tests, assessment for spontaneous nystagmus, Head Impulse Test, evaluation for Head Shaking Nystagmus and caloric test. 21 patients were evaluated with a mean age of 42.75±14.38 years. Only 28% of the sample had all normal test results. The presence of asymmetric vestibular information was documented through the caloric test in 32% of the sample and spontaneous nystagmus was an important clue for the diagnosis. Bilateral vestibular areflexia was present in four subjects, unilateral arreflexia in three and bilateral hyporeflexia in two. The Head Impulse Test was a significant indicator for the diagnosis of areflexia in the tested ear (p=0.0001). The sensitized Romberg test using a foam pad was able to diagnose severe vestibular function impairment (p=0.003). The six clinical tests were able to identify the presence or absence of vestibular function and function asymmetry between the ears of the same individual. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental protocol to assess the tourism vehicles accessibility based on heart rate and access time measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcala Fazio, E.; Alvarez Fernandez, N.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the Project is to define an experimental protocol for the accessibility assessment of the transport vehicles, by analysing the evolution of the effort and time variables consumed by a target group –Persons of Reduced Mobility (PMRs). This protocol consisted in tests of accessibility on a sample of 6 passenger cars (class M1) by 8 elderly people carrying a heart rate monitor, and whose access manoeuvres were recorded by video cameras. Based on the Hilloskorpi et al. [1] model and by developing a method of truncation of the heart rate (HR) tests records - eliminating the component of the work biologically needed by the organism to keep its basal metabolic rate from the work each person performed – it was possible to evaluate how much energy each individual invested in each access manoeuver. Immediately after each test, and after the whole round of vehicles, each participant was surveyed for a subjective assessment of the difficulty of accessing to the cars. According to each of the above results, the HR objective measurements and the subjective opinion about the ease of access experienced by each individual, the vehicles were ranked by order of accessibility to the front and rear seats. The result of both rankings showed the orders of the similar vehicles, the potential of the method and a fair closeness between its results and the subjective, but real and unequivocal, judgments of the participants. (Author)

  11. Rangeland monitoring using remote sensing: comparison of cover estimates from field measurements and image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon Boswell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland monitoring is important for evaluating and assessing semi-arid plant communities. Remote sensing provides an effective tool for rapidly and accurately assessing rangeland vegetation and other surface attributes such as bare soil and rock. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of remote sensing as a surrogate for field-based sampling techniques in detecting ground cover features (i.e., trees, shrubs, herbaceous cover, litter, surface, and comparing results with field-based measurements collected by the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Range Trent Program. In the field, five 152 m long transects were used to sample plant, litter, rock, and bare-ground cover using the Daubenmire ocular estimate method. At the same location of each field plot, a 4-band (R,G,B,NIR, 25 cm pixel resolution, remotely sensed image was taken from a fixed-wing aircraft. Each image was spectrally classified producing 4 cover classes (tree, shrub, herbaceous, surface. No significant differences were detected between canopy cover collected remotely and in the field for tree (P = 0.652, shrub (P = 0.800, and herbaceous vegetation (P = 0.258. Surface cover was higher in field plots (P < 0.001, likely in response to the methods used to sample surface features by field crews. Accurately classifying vegetation and other features from remote sensed information can improve the efficiency of collecting vegetation and surface data. This information can also be used to improve data collection frequency for rangeland monitoring and to efficiently quantify ecological succession patterns.

  12. A potential to monitor nutrients as an indicator of rangeland quality using space borne remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramoelo, A; Madonsela, S; Mathieu, R; Van der Korchove, R; Kaszta, Z; Wolf, E; Cho, M A

    2014-01-01

    Global change consisting of land use and climate change could have huge impacts on food security and the health of various ecosystems. Leaf nitrogen (N) is one of the key factors limiting agricultural production and ecosystem functioning. Leaf N can be used as an indicator of rangeland quality which could provide information for the farmers, decision makers, land planners and managers. Leaf N plays a crucial role in understanding the feeding patterns and distribution of wildlife and livestock. Assessment of this vegetation parameter using conventional methods at landscape scale level is time consuming and tedious. Remote sensing provides a synoptic view of the landscape, which engenders an opportunity to assess leaf N over wider rangeland areas from protected to communal areas. Estimation of leaf N has been successful during peak productivity or high biomass and limited studies estimated leaf N in dry season. The objective of this study is to monitor leaf N as an indicator of rangeland quality using WorldView 2 satellite images in the north-eastern part of South Africa. Series of field work to collect samples for leaf N were undertaken in the beginning of May (end of wet season) and July (dry season). Several conventional and red edge based vegetation indices were computed. Simple regression was used to develop prediction model for leaf N. Using bootstrapping, indicator of precision and accuracy were analyzed to select a best model for the combined data sets (May and July). The may model for red edge based simple ratio explained over 90% of leaf N variations. The model developed from the combined data sets with normalized difference vegetation index explained 62% of leaf N variation, and this is a model used to estimate and map leaf N for two seasons. The study demonstrated that leaf N could be monitored using high spatial resolution with the red edge band capability

  13. An assessment of the economic and environmental implications for Canada of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The National Climate Change Process was launched in April 1998 to examine the feasibility and implications of Canada's commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. The Analysis Modelling Group (AMG) was designated to assess the economic and environmental consequences for Canada in achieving the target. This report summarizes the analytical approach, the assumptions, the results and the main findings of the AMG's efforts to analyse the macro-/micro-economic, social, health and environmental implications of the Kyoto Protocol. The role of the AMG was to provide policymakers with guidance on some issues such as the economic implications of different broad policy approaches, the potential costs of greater access to the Kyoto flexibility mechanisms, the sectoral and regional distributions of emissions reductions, and the degree to which Canada's competitive position could be affected by the achievement of the Protocol. The relative importance of greenhouse gas reduction was also discussed along with a review of actions that offer significant potential for emissions reductions. The AMG examined five policy packages or Paths which are differentiated by different degrees of reliance on specific measures and tradable permit systems and by the imposition of sectoral versus national targets. It was concluded that at the national level, attainment of the target results in sustained, long-term negative economic impacts. In the long run, the reduction in gross domestic product (GDP) relative to the business-as-usual case, ranges from 0 to 3 per cent depending on the path-scenario combination. It was emphasized that it is important to provide perspective on these estimates. 37 refs., 64 figs

  14. EVALUATION AND MAPPING OF RANGELANDS DEGRADATION USING REMOTELY SENSED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ajorlo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The empirical and scientifically documents prove that misuse of natural resource causes degradation in it. So natural resources conservation is important in approaching sustainable development aims. In current study, Landsat Thematic Mapper images and grazing gradient method have been used to map the extent and degree of rangeland degradation. In during ground-based data measuring, factors such as vegetation cover, litter, plant diversity, bare soil, and stone & gravels were estimated as biophysical indicators of degradation. The next stage, after geometric correction and doing some necessary pre-processing practices on the study area’s images; the best and suitable vegetation index has been selected to map rangeland degradation among the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, and Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI. Then using suitable vegetation index and distance parameter was produced the rangelands degradation map. The results of ground-based data analysis reveal that there is a significant relation between increasing distance from critical points and plant diversity and also percentage of litter. Also there is significant relation between vegetation cover percent and distance from village, i.e. the vegetation cover percent increases by increasing distance from villages, while it wasn’t the same around the stock watering points. The result of analysis about bare soil and distance from critical point was the same to vegetation cover changes manner. Also there wasn’t significant relation between stones & gravels index and distance from critical points. The results of image processing show that, NDVI appears to be sensitive to vegetation changes along the grazing gradient and it can be suitable vegetation index to map rangeland degradation. The degradation map shows that there is high degradation around the critical points. These areas need urgent attention for soil conservation. Generally, it

  15. Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for forage and rangeland production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Morgan, Jack; Fay, Philip; Polley, Wayne; Hatfield, Jerry L.

    2011-04-19

    Projections of temperature and precipitation patterns across the United States during the next 50 years anticipate a 1.5 to 2°C warming and a slight increase in precipitation as a result of global climate change. There have been relatively few studies of climate change impacts on pasture and rangeland (grazingland) species compared to those on crop species, despite the economic and ecological importance of the former. Here we review the literature on pastureland and rangeland species to rising CO2 and climate change (temperature, and precipitation) and discuss plant and management factors likely to influence pastureland and rangeland responses to change (e.g., community composition, plant competition, perennial growth habit, seasonal productivity, and management methods). Overall, the response of pasture species to increased [CO2] is consistent with the general response of C3 and C4 type vegetation, although significant exceptions exist. Both pastureland and rangeland species should exhibit an acceleration of metabolism and development due to earlier onset of spring green-up and longer growing seasons. However, in the studies reviewed here, C3 pasture species increased their photosynthetic rates by up to 40% while C4 species exhibited no increase in photosynthesis. In general, it is expected that increases in [CO2] and precipitation would enhance rangeland net primary production (NPP) while increased air temperatures would either increase or decrease NPP. Much of this uncertainty in response is due to uncertain future projections of precipitation, both globally and regionally. For example, if annual precipitation changes little or declines, rangeland plant response to warming temperatures and rising [CO2] may be neutral or may decline due to increased water stress. This review reveals the need for comprehensive studies of climate change impacts on the pasture ecosystem including grazing regimes, mutualistic relationships (e.g., plant roots-nematodes; N

  16. Soil Properties and Plant Biomass Production in Natural Rangeland Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu de Souza Werner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Improper management of rangelands can cause land degradation and reduce the economic efficiency of livestock activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil properties and quantify plant biomass production in four natural rangeland management systems in the Santa Catarina Plateau (Planalto Catarinense of Brazil. The treatments, which included mowed natural rangeland (NR, burned natural rangeland (BR, natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after harrowing (IH, and natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after chisel plowing (IC, were evaluated in a Nitossolo Bruno (Nitisol. In the improved treatments, soil acidity was corrected, phosphate fertilizer was applied, and intercropped annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, velvet grass (Holcus lanatus, and white clover (Trifolium repens were sown. Management systems with harrowed or chisel plowed soil showed improved soil physical properties; however, the effect decreased over time and values approached those of burned and mowed natural rangelands. Natural rangeland systems in the establishment phase had little influence on soil organic C. The mowed natural rangeland and improved natural rangeland exhibited greater production of grazing material, while burning the field decreased production and increased the proportion of weeds. Improvement of the natural rangelands increased leguminous biomass for pasture.

  17. A CAD system and quality assurance protocol for bone age assessment utilizing digital hand atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertych, Arakadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Ferrara, Benjamin; Liu, Brent J.

    2007-03-01

    Determination of bone age assessment (BAA) in pediatric radiology is a task based on detailed analysis of patient's left hand X-ray. The current standard utilized in clinical practice relies on a subjective comparison of the hand with patterns in the book atlas. The computerized approach to BAA (CBAA) utilizes automatic analysis of the regions of interest in the hand image. This procedure is followed by extraction of quantitative features sensitive to skeletal development that are further converted to a bone age value utilizing knowledge from the digital hand atlas (DHA). This also allows providing BAA results resembling current clinical approach. All developed methodologies have been combined into one CAD module with a graphical user interface (GUI). CBAA can also improve the statistical and analytical accuracy based on a clinical work-flow analysis. For this purpose a quality assurance protocol (QAP) has been developed. Implementation of the QAP helped to make the CAD more robust and find images that cannot meet conditions required by DHA standards. Moreover, the entire CAD-DHA system may gain further benefits if clinical acquisition protocol is modified. The goal of this study is to present the performance improvement of the overall CAD-DHA system with QAP and the comparison of the CAD results with chronological age of 1390 normal subjects from the DHA. The CAD workstation can process images from local image database or from a PACS server.

  18. A real-time, quantitative PCR protocol for assessing the relative parasitemia of Leucocytozoon in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew M.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Apelgren, Chloe; Ramey, Andy M.

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic examination of blood smears can be effective at diagnosing and quantifying hematozoa infections. However, this method requires highly trained observers, is time consuming, and may be inaccurate for detection of infections at low levels of parasitemia. To develop a molecular methodology for identifying and quantifying Leucocytozoon parasite infection in wild waterfowl (Anseriformes), we designed a real-time, quantitative PCR protocol to amplify Leucocytozoon mitochondrial DNA using TaqMan fluorogenic probes and validated our methodology using blood samples collected from waterfowl in interior Alaska during late summer and autumn (n = 105). By comparing our qPCR results to those derived from a widely used nested PCR protocol, we determined that our assay showed high levels of sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%) in detecting Leucocytozoon DNA from host blood samples. Additionally, results of a linear regression revealed significant correlation between the raw measure of parasitemia produced by our qPCR assay (Ct values) and numbers of parasites observed on blood smears (R2 = 0.694, P = 0.003), indicating that our assay can reliably determine the relative parasitemia levels among samples. This methodology provides a powerful new tool for studies assessing effects of haemosporidian infection in wild avian species.

  19. MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: Overview and development of a protocol for neuropsychological assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Sánchez-Joya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The last decades have brought great advances in the understanding of child neurodevelopment and knowledge of cognitive processes that occur in the brain from an early age. As a result and thanks to the large number of standardized and scientifically guaranteed neuropsychological tests that are available today, we can assess and diagnose with high specificity, deficits or delays in the acquisition of cognitive functions. Besides, it allows knowing the strengths or normality points of children with various pathologies. Objective: To present the concepts and a neuropsychological assessment protocol for mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation. Development: First, the authors present a general model of neuropsychological assessment in childhood. Second, he concept, classification and aetiology of mental retardation is revised and it is proposed a neuropsychological profile. Finally, the paradigms of pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation are shown. Conclusion: Based on standardized and validated test for child neuropsychological assessment, children cognitive disorders can be accurately identified to plan each child's cognitive stimulation, and thus optimize the results of the therapy.

  20. Assessing the Efficacy of an App-Based Method of Family Planning: The Dot Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Rebecca G; Shattuck, Dominick C; Jennings, Victoria H

    2017-01-18

    assess pregnancy status over time. This paper outlines the protocol for this efficacy trial, following the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Intervention Trials checklist, to provide an overview of the rationale, methodology, and analysis plan. Participants will be asked to provide daily sexual history data and periodically answer surveys administered through a call center or directly on their phone. Funding for the study was provided in 2013 under the United States Agency for International Development Fertility Awareness for Community Transformation project. Recruitment for the study will begin in January of 2017. The study is expected to last approximately 18 months, depending on recruitment. Findings on the study's primary outcomes are expected to be finalized by September 2018. Reproducibility and transparency, important aspects of all research, are particularly critical in developing new approaches to research design. This protocol outlines the first study to prospectively test both the efficacy (correct use) and effectiveness (actual use) of a pregnancy prevention app. This protocol and the processes it describes reflect the dynamic integration of mobile technologies, a call center, and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study procedures. Future fertility app studies can build on our approaches to develop methodologies that can contribute to the evidence base around app-based methods of contraception. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02833922; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02833922 (Archived be WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6nDkr0e76). ©Rebecca G Simmons, Dominick C Shattuck, Victoria H Jennings. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 18.01.2017.

  1. A protocol to assess cell cycle and apoptosis in human and mouse pluripotent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryonic stem cells (ESC and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs present a great opportunity to treat and model human disease as a cell replacement therapy. There is a growing pressure to understand better the signal transduction pathways regulating pluripotency and self-renewal of these special cells in order to deliver a safe and reliable cell based therapy in the near future. Many signal transduction pathways converge on two major cell functions associated with self-renewal and pluripotency: control of the cell cycle and apoptosis, although a standard method is lacking across the field. Here we present a detailed protocol to assess the cell cycle and apoptosis of ESC and iPSCs as a single reference point offering an easy to use standard approach across the field.

  2. Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N

    2013-01-01

    a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein...... conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all...... protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows...

  3. Assessment of auditory skills in 140 cochlear implant children using the EARS protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Manuel; Skarzynski, Henryk; Allum, John H J; Helms, Jan; Rivas, Adriana; Martin, Jane; Zorowka, Patrick Georg; Phillips, Lucy; Delauney, Joseph; Brockmeyer, Steffi Johanna; Kompis, Martin; Korolewa, Inna; Albegger, Klaus; Zwirner, Petra; Van De Heyning, Paul; D'Haese, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Auditory performance of cochlear implant (CI) children was assessed with the Listening Progress Profile (LiP) and the Monosyllabic-Trochee-Polysyllabic-Word Test (MTP) following the EARS protocol. Additionally, the 'initial drop' phenomenon, a recently reported decrease of auditory performance occurring immediately after first fitting, was investigated. Patients were 140 prelingually deafened children from various clinics and centers worldwide implanted with a MEDEL COMBI 40/40+. Analysis of LiP data showed a significant increase after 1 month of CI use compared to preoperative scores (p < 0.01). No initial decrease was observed with this test. Analysis of MTP data revealed a significant improvement of word recognition after 6 months (p < 0.01), with a significant temporary decrease after initial fitting (p < 0.01). With both tests, children's auditory skills improved up to 2 years. Amount of improvement was negatively correlated with age at implantation. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Infection of Melanoplus sanguinipes Grasshoppers following Ingestion of Rangeland Plant Species Harboring Vesicular Stomatitis Virus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Barbara S.; Stuart, Melissa A.; Derner, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the many mechanisms of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) transmission is critical for understanding of the epidemiology of sporadic disease outbreaks in the western United States. Migratory grasshoppers [Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius)] have been implicated as reservoirs and mechanical vectors of VSV. The grasshopper-cattle-grasshopper transmission cycle is based on the assumptions that (i) virus shed from clinically infected animals would contaminate pasture plants and remain infectious on plant surfaces and (ii) grasshoppers would become infected by eating the virus-contaminated plants. Our objectives were to determine the stability of VSV on common plant species of U.S. Northern Plains rangelands and to assess the potential of these plant species as a source of virus for grasshoppers. Fourteen plant species were exposed to VSV and assayed for infectious virus over time (0 to 24 h). The frequency of viable virus recovery at 24 h postexposure was as high as 73%. The two most common plant species in Northern Plains rangelands (western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii] and needle and thread [Hesperostipa comata]) were fed to groups of grasshoppers. At 3 weeks postfeeding, the grasshopper infection rate was 44 to 50%. Exposure of VSV to a commonly used grasshopper pesticide resulted in complete viral inactivation. This is the first report demonstrating the stability of VSV on rangeland plant surfaces, and it suggests that a significant window of opportunity exists for grasshoppers to ingest VSV from contaminated plants. The use of grasshopper pesticides on pastures would decrease the incidence of a virus-amplifying mechanical vector and might also decontaminate pastures, thereby decreasing the inter- and intraherd spread of VSV. PMID:19286779

  5. Infection of Melanoplus sanguinipes grasshoppers following ingestion of rangeland plant species harboring vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Barbara S; Stuart, Melissa A; Derner, Justin D

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the many mechanisms of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) transmission is critical for understanding of the epidemiology of sporadic disease outbreaks in the western United States. Migratory grasshoppers [Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius)] have been implicated as reservoirs and mechanical vectors of VSV. The grasshopper-cattle-grasshopper transmission cycle is based on the assumptions that (i) virus shed from clinically infected animals would contaminate pasture plants and remain infectious on plant surfaces and (ii) grasshoppers would become infected by eating the virus-contaminated plants. Our objectives were to determine the stability of VSV on common plant species of U.S. Northern Plains rangelands and to assess the potential of these plant species as a source of virus for grasshoppers. Fourteen plant species were exposed to VSV and assayed for infectious virus over time (0 to 24 h). The frequency of viable virus recovery at 24 h postexposure was as high as 73%. The two most common plant species in Northern Plains rangelands (western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii] and needle and thread [Hesperostipa comata]) were fed to groups of grasshoppers. At 3 weeks postfeeding, the grasshopper infection rate was 44 to 50%. Exposure of VSV to a commonly used grasshopper pesticide resulted in complete viral inactivation. This is the first report demonstrating the stability of VSV on rangeland plant surfaces, and it suggests that a significant window of opportunity exists for grasshoppers to ingest VSV from contaminated plants. The use of grasshopper pesticides on pastures would decrease the incidence of a virus-amplifying mechanical vector and might also decontaminate pastures, thereby decreasing the inter- and intraherd spread of VSV.

  6. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  7. Selective effects of different fatigue protocols on the function of upper body muscles assessed through the force-velocity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Torrejón, Alejandro; Feriche, Belén; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Padial, Paulino; Jaric, Slobodan

    2018-02-01

    This study explored the feasibility of the force-velocity relationship (F-V) to detect the acute effects of different fatigue protocols on the selective changes of the maximal capacities of upper body muscles to produce force, velocity, and power. After determining the bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM), participants' F-V relationships were assessed during the bench press throw exercise on five separate sessions after performing one of the following fatiguing protocols: 60%1RM failure, 60%1RM non-failure, 80%1RM failure, 80%1RM non-failure, and no-fatigue. In the non-failure protocols, participants performed half the maximum number of repetitions than in their respective failure protocols. The main findings revealed that (1) all F-V relationships were highly linear (median r = 0.997 and r = 0.982 for averaged across participants and individual data, respectively), (2) the fatiguing protocols were ranked based on the magnitude of power loss as follows: 60%1RM failure > 80%1RM failure > 60%1RM non-failure > 80%1RM non-failure, while (3) the assessed maximum force and velocity outputs showed a particularly prominent reduction in the protocols based on the lowest and highest levels of fatigue (i.e., 80%1RM non-failure and 60%1RM failure), respectively. The results support the use of F-V to assess the effects of fatigue on the distinctive capacities of the muscles to produce force, velocity, and power output while performing multi-joint tasks, while the assessed maximum force and velocity capacities showed a particularly prominent reduction in the protocols based on the lowest and highest levels of fatigue (i.e., 80%1RM non-failure and 60%1RM failure), respectively.

  8. Grazing exclusion, substrate type, and drought frequency affect plant community structure in rangelands of the arid unpredictable Arabian Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Keblawy, Ali; El-Sheikh, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Grazing and drought can adversely affect the ecology and management of rangeland ecosystems. Several management actions have been applied to restore species diversity and community structure in degraded rangelands of the unpredictable arid environment. Protection from grazing is considered as a proper approach for restoration of degraded rangelands, but this depends on substrate type and sometime is hindered with water deficiency (drought). In this study, the effect of protection from grazing animals on species diversity and plant community structure was assessed after a dry and wet periods in both sandy and gravelly substrates in the Dubai Desert Conservation reserve (DDCR), United Arab Emirates. Two sites were selected during November 2012 on the two substrate types (fixed sandy flat and gravel plain) in the arid DDCR. An enclosure was established in each site. Plant community attributes (plant cover, density, frequency, species composition, and diversity indices) were assessed in a number of permanent plots laid inside and outside each enclosure during November 2012, April 2014 and April 2016. The results showed that protection improved clay content, but decreased the organic matters. Interestingly, the protection reduced the concentrations of most estimated nutrients, which could be attributed to the high turnover rate of nutrients associated grazing and low decomposition of accumulated dry plants of non-protected sites. Protection significantly increased all plant community attributes, but the only significant effect was for plant density. Plant density was almost twice greater inside than outside the enclosures. During the dry period, protection resulted in significantly greater deterioration in cover, density and all diversity indices in gravel, compared to sandy sites. Most of the grasses and shrubby plants had died in the gravel plains. However, plant community of the gravel plains was significantly restored after receiving considerable rainfalls. The

  9. Interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czycholl, I; Kniese, C; Büttner, K; Beilage, E Grosse; Schrader, L; Krieter, J

    2016-01-01

    The present paper focuses on evaluating the interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'. The protocol for growing pigs mainly consists of a Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA), direct behaviour observations (BO) carried out by instantaneous scan sampling and checks for different individual parameters (IP), e.g. presence of tail biting, wounds and bursitis. Three trained observers collected the data by performing 29 combined assessments, which were done at the same time and on the same animals; but they were carried out completely independent of each other. The findings were compared by the calculation of Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients (RS), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Smallest Detectable Changes (SDC) and Limits of Agreements (LoA). There was no agreement found concerning the adjectives belonging to the QBA (e.g. active: RS: 0.50, ICC: 0.30, SDC: 0.38, LoA: -0.05 to 0.45; fearful: RS: 0.06, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.26, LoA: -0.20 to 0.30). In contrast, the BO showed good agreement (e.g. social behaviour: RS: 0.45, ICC: 0.50, SDC: 0.09, LoA: -0.09 to 0.03 use of enrichment material: RS: 0.75, ICC: 0.68, SDC: 0.06, LoA: -0.03 to 0.03). Overall, observers agreed well in the IP, e.g. tail biting (RS: 0.52, ICC: 0.88; SDC: 0.05, LoA: -0.01 to 0.02) and wounds (RS: 0.43, ICC: 0.59, SDC: 0.10, LoA: -0.09 to 0.10). The parameter bursitis showed great differences (RS: 0.10, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.35, LoA: -0.37 to 0.40), which can be explained by difficulties in the assessment when the animals moved around quickly or their legs were soiled. In conclusion, the interobserver reliability was good in the BO and most IP, but not for the parameter bursitis and the QBA.

  10. Advances in modeling soil erosion after disturbance on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research has been undertaken to develop process based models that predict soil erosion rate after disturbance on rangelands. In these models soil detachment is predicted as a combination of multiple erosion processes, rain splash and thin sheet flow (splash and sheet) detachment and concentrated flo...

  11. Session B1 Management for sustainable use — Rangeland auditing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We need to monitor the capacity of healthy rangeland to support a broad suite of ecosystem services for a wide range of stakeholders — in a fair, objective and representative way. ... A hybrid session structure will be utilised: distilling wisdom from relevant posters; formal presentations; and stimulating structured debate.

  12. Rangeland restoration for Hirola, the world's most endangered antelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland restoration can improve habitat for threatened species such as the hirola antelope (Beatragus hunteri) that inhabit savannas of eastern Kenya. However, restoration success likely varies across soil types and target restoration species, as well as according to restoration approach. We teste...

  13. A conceptual tool for improving rangeland management decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the LLM concept should be seen as a continuous and evolving learning process that will be updated over the long term through decision support to include several other components essential to implement effective and sustainable rangeland management practices by local land users. Keywords: desertification; indicators ...

  14. Yield Response of Mediterranean Rangelands under a Changing Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Panagea, Ioanna S.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.; Grillakis, Manolis G.; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Hessel, Rudi; Mayor, Angeles G.; Ritsema, Coen J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the Mediterranean rangelands degradation trends is a key element of mitigating their vulnerability and enhancing their resilience. Climate change and its inherent effects on mean temperature and the precipitation variability can regulate the magnitude, frequency and duration of

  15. Runoff and soil erosion from two rangeland sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically over 50 years of rainfall/runoff research using rainfall simulators has been conducted at various rangeland sites in the West, however these sites rarely have consecutive yearly measurements. This limits the understanding of dynamic annual conditions and the interactions of grazing, pla...

  16. Session B1 Management for sustainable use — Rangeland auditing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social, economic and cultural needs, values and expectations will be examined together with the biophysical technologies and approaches which underlie auditing in rangeland science. Adaptive frameworks which enhance sustainable strategic responses, and the state of art in scale dilemmas will be addressed. A hybrid ...

  17. Presidential address - 1999 Towards a national rangeland policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are some problems with the publication of the journal, but Council hopes to have our ... The first is that all agencies funded through DACST will be reviewed ... to improve our understanding of management issues in communal rangeland. ... All current programmes to rehabilitate degraded land contain budgets for the ...

  18. Ecology and Conservation of Acacia senegal in the Rangelands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecology and Conservation of Acacia senegal in the Rangelands ofLuwero and Nakasongola Districts. Jacob Godfrey Agea, Joseph Obua, Sara Namirembe, Mukadasi Buyinza, Daniel Waiswa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  19. Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero and Nakasongola districts. Jacob Godfrey Agea, Joseph Obua, Sara Namirembe, Mukadasi Buyinza, Daniel Waiswa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Impact of Rangeland Degradation on Soil Physical, Chemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    major threats to enhance a sustainable pastoral-livestock production in Ethiopia. ... overall negative impact on the soil physical and chemical characteristics, demanding ... chemical properties (Gemedo et al., 2006) as well as the rangeland .... parameters such as life forms (annuals and perennials), plant forms (woody plant,.

  1. A review of climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. M. Finch; K. E. Bagne; M. M. Friggens; D. M. Smith; K. M. Brodhead

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated existing literature on predicted and known climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds. We asked the following questions: 1) How does climate change affect birds? 2) How will birds respond to climate change? 3) Are species already responding? 4) How will habitats be impacted?

  2. The challenge of integrated rangeland monitoring: synthesis address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utility of monitoring and its guiding principles will only work effectively where good environmental governance is practiced by users and producers affecting rangeland ecosystems. Keywords: adaptive management, complex, environmental governance, human impacts, multi-scale, socio-ecological. African Journal of ...

  3. Ranch business planning and resource monitoring for rangeland sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristie A. Maczko; John A. Tanaka; Michael Smith; Cindy Garretson-Weibel; Stanley F. Hamilton; John E. Mitchell; Gene Fults; Charles Stanley; Dick Loper; Larry D. Bryant; J. K. (Rooter) Brite

    2012-01-01

    Aligning a rancher's business plan goals with the capability of the ranch's rangeland resources improves the viability and sustainability of family ranches. Strategically monitoring the condition of soil, water, vegetation, wildlife, livestock production, and economics helps inform business plan goals. Business planning and resource monitoring help keep...

  4. Determining termite diversity in arid Namibian rangelands – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three methods of sampling termite diversity in arid rangelands were tested in Namibia during the wet (March) and dry (October) seasons of 1998. Six sites were chosen: one pair on each of three farms representing a gradient of land use intensity. At each site, two adjacent plots of 1 ha each were sampled: one plot by a ...

  5. Session A6 Rangelands as dynamic systems — Fragmentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological complexity in rangelands arises from spatially-linked ecological states and processes. Herbivores, humans and other agents integrate distinct spatial units into complex systems by moving among and exploiting these units. Spatial heterogeneity plays a central role in the structure and function of grazed ...

  6. Parameterization of erodibility in the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The magnitude of erosion from a hillslope is governed by the availability of sediment and connectivity of runoff and erosion processes. For undisturbed rangelands, sediment is primarily detached and transported by rainsplash and sheetflow (splash-sheet) processes in isolated bare batches, but sedime...

  7. Ecology and utilization of desert shrub rangelands in Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, Derk Catharinus Peter

    1979-01-01

    When grazing is the accepted land use, vegetation is the key resource. The present study deals with the desert shrub rangelands of lraq, which contain the major characteristics of such an area, having been under grazing for many centuries. Emphasis is given to the ecology and utilization of the

  8. Vulnerability of amphibians to climate change: implications for rangeland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Bagne; Deborah M. Finch; Megan M. Friggens

    2011-01-01

    Many amphibian populations have declined drastically in recent years due to a large number of factors including the emerging threat of climate change (Wake 2007). Rangelands provide important habitat for amphibians. In addition to natural wetlands, stock tanks and other artificial water catchments provide habitat for many amphibian species (Euliss et al. 2004).

  9. Exploring the invasion of rangelands by Acacia mearnsii (black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing A. mearnsii canopy could promote grass production while encouraging carbon sequestration. Given the high AGB and clearing costs, it may be prudent to adopt the 'novel ecosystems' approach in managing infested landscapes. Keywords: grassland, invasive plants, landscape ecology, rangeland condition ...

  10. Rangeland Ecosystem Services: Nature's Supply and Humans' Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that society receives from nature and they include the regulation of climate, the pollination of crops, the provisioning of intellectual inspiration and recreational environment, as well as many essential goods such as food, fiber, and wood. Rangeland ecosystem se...

  11. Development of a waste management protocol based on assessment of knowledge and practice of healthcare personnel in surgical departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Gehan M A; Shazly, Mona M; Sherief, Wafaa I

    2009-01-01

    Good healthcare waste management in a hospital depends on a dedicated waste management team, good administration, careful planning, sound organization, underpinning legislation, adequate financing, and full participation by trained staff. Hence, waste management protocols must be convenient and sensible. To assess the knowledge and practice related to waste management among doctors, nurses, and housekeepers in the surgical departments at Al-Mansoura University Hospital, and to design and validate a waste management protocol for the health team in these settings. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the eight surgical departments at Al-Mansoura University Hospital. All health care personnel and their assistants were included: 38 doctors, 106 nurses, and 56 housekeepers. Two groups of jury were included for experts' opinions validation of the developed protocol, one from academia (30 members) and the other from service providers (30 members). Data were collected using a self-administered knowledge questionnaire for nurses and doctors, and an interview questionnaire for housekeepers. Observation checklists were used for assessment of performance. The researchers developed the first draft of the waste management protocol according to the results of the analysis of the data collected in the assessment phase. Then, the protocol was presented to the jury group for validation, and then was implemented. Only 27.4% of the nurses, 32.1% of the housekeepers, and 36.8% of the doctors had satisfactory knowledge. Concerning practice, 18.9% of the nurses, 7.1% of the housekeepers, and none of the doctors had adequate practice. Nurses' knowledge score had a statistically significant weak positive correlation with the attendance of training courses (r=0.23, pwaste management. The knowledge among nurses is positively affected by attendance of training programs. Based on the findings, a protocol for healthcare waste management was developed and validated. It is recommended to

  12. Adapting a rapid river assessment protocols to be used by elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to adapt a rapid river assessment protocols (RAP to be used by elementary school children. The study was conducted in Ipameri, GO and the RAP was adapted for the evaluation of streams in the Cerrado biome. Based on two protocol models, the developed RAP included: physical parameters that affect the functioning of streams, language adapted to the educational level of elementary school and the presence of drawings that could facilitate the field application of RAP by the students. For consolidation of the adapted instrument, it was offered a monitoring workshop to 95 students from two public education institutions, and developed an analysis and interpretation of the pattern of responses obtained during the practical step of the workshop. The Bartlett and Levene tests revealed no statistical differences between the response patterns of the students, allowing to infer that the developed RAP was understandable by the evaluators. The application of the RAP was fast (20 to 40 minutes and the students reported that the developed instrument helped them to familiarize with environmental issues. In addition, the monitoring workshop helped them to understand the instrument and the available illustrations facilitated the field evaluation. In addition, the students concluded that they have become aware of the issues related to the water resource preservation and also that participation in the environmental monitoring workshop allowed the appropriation of knowledge about the river system functioning. It was concluded that adapted RAP has been proved to be a useful and interesting tool for using in environmental education projects and programs.

  13. Evaluation of Quality Assessment Protocols for High Throughput Genome Resequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Matteo; Pavesi, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale initiatives aiming to recover the complete sequence of thousands of human genomes are currently being undertaken worldwide, concurring to the generation of a comprehensive catalog of human genetic variation. The ultimate and most ambitious goal of human population scale genomics is the characterization of the so-called human "variome," through the identification of causal mutations or haplotypes. Several research institutions worldwide currently use genotyping assays based on Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for diagnostics and clinical screenings, and the widespread application of such technologies promises major revolutions in medical science. Bioinformatic analysis of human resequencing data is one of the main factors limiting the effectiveness and general applicability of NGS for clinical studies. The requirement for multiple tools, to be combined in dedicated protocols in order to accommodate different types of data (gene panels, exomes, or whole genomes) and the high variability of the data makes difficult the establishment of a ultimate strategy of general use. While there already exist several studies comparing sensitivity and accuracy of bioinformatic pipelines for the identification of single nucleotide variants from resequencing data, little is known about the impact of quality assessment and reads pre-processing strategies. In this work we discuss major strengths and limitations of the various genome resequencing protocols are currently used in molecular diagnostics and for the discovery of novel disease-causing mutations. By taking advantage of publicly available data we devise and suggest a series of best practices for the pre-processing of the data that consistently improve the outcome of genotyping with minimal impacts on computational costs.

  14. Study protocol: Mother and Infant Nutritional Assessment (MINA) cohort study in Qatar and Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Yunis, Khaled; Clinton, Michael; Nassar, Anwar; Farhat Jarrar, Sara; Moghames, Patricia; Ghazeeri, Ghina; Rahman, Sajjad; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Sadoun, Eman; Lubbad, Nibal; Bashwar, Zelaikha; Bawadi, Hiba; Hwalla, Nahla

    2016-05-04

    The Middle East and North Africa region harbors significant proportions of stunting and wasting coupled with surging rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Recent evidence identified nutrition during the first 1000 days of life as a common denominator not only for optimal growth but also for curbing the risk of NCDs later in life. The main objective of this manuscript is to describe the protocol of the first cohort in the region to investigate the association of nutrition imbalances early in life with birth outcomes, growth patterns, as well as early determinants of non-communicable diseases. More specifically the cohort aims to 1) examine the effects of maternal and early child nutrition and lifestyle characteristics on birth outcomes and growth patterns and 2) develop evidence-based nutrition and lifestyle guidelines for pregnant women and young children. A multidisciplinary team of researchers was established from governmental and private academic and health sectors in Lebanon and Qatar to launch the Mother and Infant Nutritional Assessment 3-year cohort study. Pregnant women (n = 250 from Beirut, n = 250 from Doha) in their first trimester are recruited from healthcare centers in Beirut, Lebanon and Doha, Qatar. Participants are interviewed three times during pregnancy (once every trimester) and seven times at and after delivery (when the child is 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months old). Delivery and birth data is obtained from hospital records. Data collection includes maternal socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and household food security data. For biochemical assessment of various indicators of nutritional status, a blood sample is obtained from women during their first trimester. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, dietary intake, as well as anthropometric measurements of children are also examined. The Delphi technique will be used for the development of the nutrition and lifestyle

  15. Vegetation restoration on degraded rangelands through the use of microcatchment and brush packs in the communal areas of the Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lesoli, MS

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland degradation results in declining functional capacity, increased poverty, and food insecurity. Major changes in rangeland surface morphology and soil characteristics have a drastic effect on the primary productivity of the rangeland...

  16. Relationships of Functional Tests Following ACL Reconstruction: Exploratory Factor Analyses of the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFabio, Melissa; Slater, Lindsay V; Norte, Grant; Goetschius, John; Hart, Joseph M; Hertel, Jay

    2018-03-01

    After ACL reconstruction (ACLR), deficits are often assessed using a variety of functional tests, which can be time consuming. It is unknown whether these tests provide redundant or unique information. To explore relationships between components of a battery of functional tests, the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol (LEAP) was created to aid in developing the most informative, concise battery of tests for evaluating ACLR patients. Descriptive, cross-sectional. Laboratory. 76 ACLR patients (6.86±3.07 months postoperative) and 54 healthy participants. Isokinetic knee flexion and extension at 90 and 180 degrees/second, maximal voluntary isometric contraction for knee extension and flexion, single leg balance, 4 hopping tasks (single, triple, crossover, and 6-meter timed hop), and a bilateral drop vertical jump that was scored with the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Peak torque, average torque, average power, total work, fatigue indices, center of pressure area and velocity, hop distance and time, and LESS score. A series of factor analyses were conducted to assess grouping of functional tests on the LEAP for each limb in the ACLR and healthy groups and limb symmetry indices (LSI) for both groups. Correlations were run between measures that loaded on retained factors. Isokinetic and isometric strength tests for knee flexion and extension, hopping, balance, and fatigue index were identified as unique factors for all limbs. The LESS score loaded with various factors across the different limbs. The healthy group LSI analysis produced more factors than the ACLR LSI analysis. Individual measures within each factor had moderate to strong correlations. Isokinetic and isometric strength, hopping, balance, and fatigue index provided unique information. Within each category of measures, not all tests may need to be included for a comprehensive functional assessment of ACLR patients due to the high amount of shared variance between them.

  17. The Promises and Challenges of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Schizophrenia: Development of an Initial Experimental Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon A. Gaudiano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and other psychotic-spectrum disorders, are a major cause of disability worldwide. Although efficacious pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have been developed for treating patients with schizophrenia, relapse rates are high and long-term recovery remains elusive for many individuals. Furthermore, little is still known about the underlying mechanisms of these illnesses. Thus, there is an urgent need to better understand the contextual factors that contribute to psychosis so that they can be better targeted in future interventions. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA is a dynamic procedure that permits the measurement of variables in natural settings in real-time through the use of brief assessments delivered via mobile electronic devices (i.e., smartphones. One advantage of EMA is that it is less subject to retrospective memory biases and highly sensitive to fluctuating environmental factors. In the current article, we describe the research-to-date using EMA to better understand fluctuating symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and potential applications to treatment. In addition, we describe a novel EMA protocol that we have been employing to study the outcomes of patients with schizophrenia following a hospital discharge. We also report the lessons we have learned thus far using EMA methods in this challenging clinical population.

  18. Assessing older drivers: a primary care protocol to evaluate driving safety risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murden, Robert A; Unroe, Kathleen

    2005-08-01

    Most articles on elder drivers offer either general advice, or review testing protocols that divide drivers into two distinct groups: safe or unsafe. We believe it is unreasonable to expect any testing to fully separate drivers into just these two mutually exclusive groups, so we offer a protocol for a more practical approach. This protocol can be applied by primary care physicians. We review the justification for the many steps of this protocol, which have branches that lead to identifying drivers as low risk, high risk (for accidents) or needing further evaluation. Options for further evaluation are provided.

  19. Halitose: proposta de um protocolo de avaliação Halitosis: an assessment protocol proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Coelho Dal Rio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Halitose é um sintoma constrangedor com significativo impacto social. Ela afeta milhões de pessoas ao redor do mundo e muitos recursos são investidos em produtos para a melhora do hálito, sem sucesso. O estudo da halitose com uma abordagem científica se justifica, uma vez que a halitose é causa de restrição social, diminui a qualidade de vida e pode ser indicativo da presença de doenças mais graves. OBJETIVO: Elaborar um protocolo de avaliação da halitose com o objetivo de minimizar custos, evitar exames desnecessários e orientar o diagnóstico causal. MÉTODO: O protocolo foi elaborado baseado na literatura e na experiência pessoal dos autores, adotando uma anamnese baseada em evidências. RESULTADO: Existem muitas causas da halitose e a maioria delas está relacionada com a cavidade oral, outras estão relacionadas com doenças otorrinolaringológicas e respiratórias. Doenças gastrointestinais, alterações das funções renais e hepáticas e outras síndromes metabólicas são causas menos freqüentes, porém importantes de halitose. CONCLUSÃO: Existem custos importantes envolvidos no diagnóstico e tratamento da halitose, incluindo consultas ambulatoriais, avaliação de especialistas e exames complementares. Estes custos poderiam ser minimizados adotando uma anamnese baseada em evidências e um organograma para uma investigação clínica racional.Halitosis is an embarrassing symptom with a significant social impact. Halitosis affects millions of people worldwide and many resources are spent annually in products to improve halitus, unsuccessfully. The study of halitosis in a scientific basis is justified once halitosis causes social restriction, decreases life quality and may be an indication of serious diseases. AIM: To elaborate a protocol for halitosis assessment in order to minimize costs, avoid unnecessary tests and provide a guideline for diagnosis. METHODS: The protocol was created based on the literature and on

  20. A Novel Protocol to Assess Acclimation Rate in Bos taurus Heifers during Yard Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Monk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The speed with which animals acclimate to a new environment could be an important measure of ability to cope with management induced stress. This study developed a measure of acclimation rate in a group of 50 Bos taurus heifers during yard weaning over nine days. We recorded the time and order in which heifers moved through a novel funnel structure into a feeding yard daily. We hypothesised that addition of an obstacle at the entrance would increase the time it took heifers to move through the funnel, but that they would acclimate to the obstacle over a three-day period. The change in latency to move through could then be used as a measure of acclimation rate. We hypothesised that individuals which acclimated to obstacles at a faster rate might display favourable temperament as assessed by flight time. All heifers took longer to move through the funnel after a novel object was introduced, then latency decreased over the following two days while the object was present. This indicates the protocol could be useful for measuring acclimation rate at a group level. Individual acclimation rate variables, measured as change in times and orders of heifers between test days, did not appear to have any consistent relationships with flight time or weight change during or post-weaning (p > 0.05. We concluded that the protocol was inappropriate for assessing acclimation rate at an individual level, due to social effects while testing heifers as a group. Heifers which were consistently one of the first 20 to move through the funnel had a significantly greater average weight 5 and 10 months post-weaning (345 ± 9 kg and 518 ± 10 kg respectively than heifers which were consistently one of the last 20 through the funnel (311 ± 8 kg and 484 ± 8 kg respectively; p < 0.001. This may indicate order of movement through the funnel was related to feeding motivation or another aspect of temperament not reflected by flight time.

  1. Clinical applicability and cutoff values for an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for older adults with low formal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Bertola, Laiss; Ávila, Rafaela Teixeira; Moreira, Lafaiete; Coutinho, Gabriel; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargos; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The neuropsychological exam plays a central role in the assessment of elderly patients with cognitive complaints. It is particularly relevant to differentiate patients with mild dementia from those subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Formal education is a critical factor in neuropsychological performance; however, there are few studies that evaluated the psychometric properties, especially criterion related validity, neuropsychological tests for patients with low formal education. The present study aims to investigate the validity of an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for this population and develop cutoff values for clinical use. A protocol composed by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Category and Letter Fluency, Stick Design Test, Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, Token Test and TN-LIN was administered to 274 older adults (96 normal aging, 85 mild cognitive impairment and 93 mild Alzheimer`s disease) with predominantly low formal education. Factor analysis showed a four factor structure related to Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory and Visuospatial Abilities, accounting for 65% of explained variance. Most of the tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the diagnostic groups. The neuropsychological protocol showed a significant ecological validity as 3 of the cognitive factors explained 31% of the variance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The study presents evidence of the construct, criteria and ecological validity for this protocol. The neuropsychological tests and the proposed cutoff values might be used for the clinical assessment of older adults with low formal education.

  2. Protocol to assess the neurophysiology associated with multi-segmental postural coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomond, Karen V; Henry, Sharon M; Jacobs, Jesse V; Hitt, Juvena R; Horak, Fay B; Cohen, Rajal G; Schwartz, Daniel; Dumas, Julie A; Naylor, Magdalena R; Watts, Richard; DeSarno, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) stabilize potential disturbances to posture caused by movement. Impaired APAs are common with disease and injury. Brain functions associated with generating APAs remain uncertain due to a lack of paired tasks that require similar limb motion from similar postural orientations, but differ in eliciting an APA while also being compatible with brain imaging techniques (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI). This study developed fMRI-compatible tasks differentiated by the presence or absence of APAs during leg movement. Eighteen healthy subjects performed two leg movement tasks, supported leg raise (SLR) and unsupported leg raise (ULR), to elicit isolated limb motion (no APA) versus multi-segmental coordination patterns (including APA), respectively. Ground reaction forces under the feet and electromyographic activation amplitudes were assessed to determine the coordination strategy elicited for each task. Results demonstrated that the ULR task elicited a multi-segmental coordination that was either minimized or absent in the SLR task, indicating that it would serve as an adequate control task for fMRI protocols. A pilot study with a single subject performing each task in an MRI scanner demonstrated minimal head movement in both tasks and brain activation patterns consistent with an isolated limb movement for the SLR task versus multi-segmental postural coordination for the ULR task. (note)

  3. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  4. Improvement of isometric dorsiflexion protocol for assessment of tibialis anterior muscle strength☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P.; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    It is important to accurately estimate the electromyogram (EMG)/force relationship of triceps surae (TS) muscle for detecting strength deficit of tibalis anterior (TA) muscle. In literature, the protocol for recording EMG and force of dorsiflexion have been described, and the necessity for immobilizing the ankle has been explained. However, there is a significant variability of the results among researchers even though they report the fixation of the ankle. We have determined that toe extension can cause significant variation in the dorsiflexion force and EMG of TS and this can occur despite following the current guidelines which require immobilizing the ankle. The results also show that there was a large increase in the variability of the force and the RMS of EMG of TS when the toes were not strapped compared with when they were strapped. Thus, with the current guidelines, where there are no instructions regarding the necessity of strapping the toes, the EMG/force relationship of TS could be incorrect and give an inaccurate assessment of the dorsiflexor TA strength. In summary, • Current methodology to estimate the dorsiflexor TA strength with respect to the TS activity, emphasizing on ankle immobilization is insufficient to prevent large variability in the measurements. • Toe extension during dorsiflexion was found to be one source of variability in estimating the TA strength. • It is recommended that guidelines for recording force and EMG from TA and TS muscles should require the strapping of the toes along with the need for immobilizing the ankle. PMID:26150978

  5. Improvement of isometric dorsiflexion protocol for assessment of tibialis anterior muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    It is important to accurately estimate the electromyogram (EMG)/force relationship of triceps surae (TS) muscle for detecting strength deficit of tibalis anterior (TA) muscle. In literature, the protocol for recording EMG and force of dorsiflexion have been described, and the necessity for immobilizing the ankle has been explained. However, there is a significant variability of the results among researchers even though they report the fixation of the ankle. We have determined that toe extension can cause significant variation in the dorsiflexion force and EMG of TS and this can occur despite following the current guidelines which require immobilizing the ankle. The results also show that there was a large increase in the variability of the force and the RMS of EMG of TS when the toes were not strapped compared with when they were strapped. Thus, with the current guidelines, where there are no instructions regarding the necessity of strapping the toes, the EMG/force relationship of TS could be incorrect and give an inaccurate assessment of the dorsiflexor TA strength. In summary, •Current methodology to estimate the dorsiflexor TA strength with respect to the TS activity, emphasizing on ankle immobilization is insufficient to prevent large variability in the measurements.•Toe extension during dorsiflexion was found to be one source of variability in estimating the TA strength.•It is recommended that guidelines for recording force and EMG from TA and TS muscles should require the strapping of the toes along with the need for immobilizing the ankle.

  6. Improving dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) simulation of western U.S. rangelands vegetation seasonal phenology and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, B. K.; Kim, J. B.; Day, M. A.; Pitts, B.; Drapek, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem process models are increasingly being used in regional assessments to explore potential changes in future vegetation and NPP due to climate change. We use the dynamic global vegetation model MAPSS-Century 2 (MC2) as one line of evidence for regional climate change vulnerability assessments for the US Forest Service, focusing our fine tuning model calibration from observational sources related to forest vegetation. However, there is much interest in understanding projected changes for arid rangelands in the western US such as grasslands, shrublands, and woodlands. Rangelands provide many ecosystem service benefits and local rural human community sustainability, habitat for threatened and endangered species, and are threatened by annual grass invasion. Past work suggested MC2 performance related to arid rangeland plant functional types (PFT's) was poor, and the model has difficulty distinguishing annual versus perennial grasslands. Our objectives are to increase the model performance for rangeland simulations and explore the potential for splitting the grass plant functional type into annual and perennial. We used the tri-state Blue Mountain Ecoregion as our study area and maps of potential vegetation from interpolated ground data, the National Land Cover Data Database, and ancillary NPP data derived from the MODIS satellite. MC2 historical simulations for the area overestimated woodland occurrence and underestimated shrubland and grassland PFT's. The spatial location of the rangeland PFT's also often did not align well with observational data. While some disagreement may be due to differences in the respective classification rules, the errors are largely linked to MC2's tree and grass biogeography and physiology algorithms. Presently, only grass and forest productivity measures and carbon stocks are used to distinguish PFT's. MC2 grass and tree productivity simulation is problematic, in particular grass seasonal phenology in relation to seasonal patterns

  7. Patient-reported outcome (PRO assessment in clinical trials: a systematic review of guidance for trial protocol writers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Calvert

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests there are inconsistencies in patient-reported outcome (PRO assessment and reporting in clinical trials, which may limit the use of these data to inform patient care. For trials with a PRO endpoint, routine inclusion of key PRO information in the protocol may help improve trial conduct and the reporting and appraisal of PRO results; however, it is currently unclear exactly what PRO-specific information should be included. The aim of this review was to summarize the current PRO-specific guidance for clinical trial protocol developers.We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and Cochrane Library databases (inception to February 2013 for PRO-specific guidance regarding trial protocol development. Further guidance documents were identified via Google, Google scholar, requests to members of the UK Clinical Research Collaboration registered clinical trials units and international experts. Two independent investigators undertook title/abstract screening, full text review and data extraction, with a third involved in the event of disagreement. 21,175 citations were screened and 54 met the inclusion criteria. Guidance documents were difficult to access: electronic database searches identified just 8 documents, with the remaining 46 sourced elsewhere (5 from citation tracking, 27 from hand searching, 7 from the grey literature review and 7 from experts. 162 unique PRO-specific protocol recommendations were extracted from included documents. A further 10 PRO recommendations were identified relating to supporting trial documentation. Only 5/162 (3% recommendations appeared in ≥50% of guidance documents reviewed, indicating a lack of consistency.PRO-specific protocol guidelines were difficult to access, lacked consistency and may be challenging to implement in practice. There is a need to develop easily accessible consensus-driven PRO protocol guidance. Guidance should be aimed at ensuring key PRO information is routinely included in

  8. An Experimental Protocol for Assessing the Performance of New Ultrasound Probes Based on CMUT Technology in Application to Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrone, Giulia; Ramalli, Alessandro; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Quaglia, Fabio; Castellazzi, Gloria; Morbini, Patrizia; Piastra, Marco

    2017-09-24

    The possibility to perform an early and repeatable assessment of imaging performance is fundamental in the design and development process of new ultrasound (US) probes. Particularly, a more realistic analysis with application-specific imaging targets can be extremely valuable to assess the expected performance of US probes in their potential clinical field of application. The experimental protocol presented in this work was purposely designed to provide an application-specific assessment procedure for newly-developed US probe prototypes based on Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) technology in relation to brain imaging. The protocol combines the use of a bovine brain fixed in formalin as the imaging target, which ensures both realism and repeatability of the described procedures, and of neuronavigation techniques borrowed from neurosurgery. The US probe is in fact connected to a motion tracking system which acquires position data and enables the superposition of US images to reference Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of the brain. This provides a means for human experts to perform a visual qualitative assessment of the US probe imaging performance and to compare acquisitions made with different probes. Moreover, the protocol relies on the use of a complete and open research and development system for US image acquisition, i.e. the Ultrasound Advanced Open Platform (ULA-OP) scanner. The manuscript describes in detail the instruments and procedures involved in the protocol, in particular for the calibration, image acquisition and registration of US and MR images. The obtained results prove the effectiveness of the overall protocol presented, which is entirely open (within the limits of the instrumentation involved), repeatable, and covers the entire set of acquisition and processing activities for US images.

  9. Receptive and expressive English language assessments used for young children: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Laureen J; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Bidonde, Julia; Boden, Catherine; Doi, Carolyn

    2017-04-04

    The majority of a child's language development occurs in the first 5 years of life when brain development is most rapid. There are significant long-term benefits to supporting all children's language and literacy development such as maximizing their developmental potential (i.e., cognitive, linguistic, social-emotional), when children are experiencing a critical period of development (i.e., early childhood to 9 years of age). A variety of people play a significant role in supporting children's language development, including parents, guardians, family members, educators, and/or speech-language pathologists. Speech-language pathologists and educators are the professionals who predominantly support children's language development in order for them to become effective communicators and lay the foundation for later developing literacy skills (i.e., reading and writing skills). Therefore, these professionals need formal and informal assessments that provide them information on a child's understanding and/or use of the increasingly complex aspects of language in order to identify and support the receptive and expressive language learning needs of diverse children during their early learning experiences (i.e., aged 1.5 to 9 years). However, evidence on what methods and tools are being used is lacking. The authors will carry out a scoping review of the literature to identify studies and map the receptive and expressive English language assessment methods and tools that have been published and used since 1980. Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) six-stage approach to conducting a scoping review was drawn upon to design the protocol for this investigation: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies; (3) study selection; (4) charting the data; (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results; and (6) consultation. This information will help these professionals identify and select appropriate assessment methods or tools that can be used to support

  10. Comparison of low- and ultralow-dose computed tomography protocols for quantitative lung and airway assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Emily; Sloan, Chelsea; Newell, John D; Sieren, Jered P; Saylor, Melissa; Vidal, Craig; Hogue, Shayna; De Stefano, Frank; Sieren, Alexa; Hoffman, Eric A; Sieren, Jessica C

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures are increasingly being developed and used to characterize lung disease. With recent advances in CT technologies, we sought to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of lung imaging at low- and ultralow-radiation doses with the use of iterative reconstruction (IR), tube current modulation (TCM), and spectral shaping. We investigated the effect of five independent CT protocols reconstructed with IR on quantitative airway measures and global lung measures using an in vivo large animal model as a human subject surrogate. A control protocol was chosen (NIH-SPIROMICS + TCM) and five independent protocols investigating TCM, low- and ultralow-radiation dose, and spectral shaping. For all scans, quantitative global parenchymal measurements (mean, median and standard deviation of the parenchymal HU, along with measures of emphysema) and global airway measurements (number of segmented airways and pi10) were generated. In addition, selected individual airway measurements (minor and major inner diameter, wall thickness, inner and outer area, inner and outer perimeter, wall area fraction, and inner equivalent circle diameter) were evaluated. Comparisons were made between control and target protocols using difference and repeatability measures. Estimated CT volume dose index (CTDIvol) across all protocols ranged from 7.32 mGy to 0.32 mGy. Low- and ultralow-dose protocols required more manual editing and resolved fewer airway branches; yet, comparable pi10 whole lung measures were observed across all protocols. Similar trends in acquired parenchymal and airway measurements were observed across all protocols, with increased measurement differences using the ultralow-dose protocols. However, for small airways (1.9 ± 0.2 mm) and medium airways (5.7 ± 0.4 mm), the measurement differences across all protocols were comparable to the control protocol repeatability across breath holds. Diameters, wall thickness, wall area fraction

  11. Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Assessment: Literature Review and Laboratory Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R. Scott; Reid, Douglas J.; Hoffman, Michael G.; Sullivan, Greg; Blanchard, Jeremy

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of NILM technologies, a literature review was conducted to identify any test protocols or standardized testing approaches currently in use. The literature review indicated that no consistent conventions were currently in place for measuring the accuracy of these technologies. Consequently, PNNL developed a testing protocol and metrics to provide the basis for quantifying and analyzing the accuracy of commercially available NILM technologies. This report discusses the results of the literature review and the proposed test protocol and metrics in more detail.

  12. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  13. Voice Over Internet Protocol Testbed Design for Non-Intrusive, Objective Voice Quality Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manka, David L

    2007-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is an emerging technology with the potential to assist the United States Marine Corps in solving communication challenges stemming from modern operational concepts...

  14. Evaluating Structural and Functional Characteristics of Various Ecological Patches in Different Range Conditions (Case Study: Semi -Steppe Rangeland of Aghche-Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jafari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland condition assessment plays an important role in determining range health and applying appropriate management programs. This study aimed to evaluate the structure and function of a semi-steppe rangeland using Landscape Function Analysis technique (LFA in different land conditions in western Isfahan province, Iran. For this purpose, 4, 3 and 7 sites in different rangeland condition classes including very poor, poor, and moderate were selected respectively. In each site, a 30-meter transect was established and all kinds of patches and inter patches were identified and their lengths and widths were recorded. Also, in each ecological patch, 11 indicators of soil surface characteristics with three replications were measured, and their status was scored according to LFA method. The functionality indices of all the sites including soil stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling were measured. According to the statistical analysis results, most of the structural characteristics (number of patches, patch length, patch area index, landscape organization index and functional indices (infiltration, stability and nutrient cycling status varied significantly (α= 5% between rangeland sites with moderate and very poor condition. The changes of these structural and functional characteristics were not significant between range sites with moderate and poor, and also poor and very poor range conditions. According to the findings of this study, patch types' functionalities did not vary significantly in both rangeland sites with moderate and very poor conditions. The nutrient cycling index in patches formed by ‘forb, shrub and grass’ with poor range condition was significantly more than ‘forb’ and ‘grass’ patches. The study of range site functionality can assist managers in identifying possible ecological thresholds and prioritizing the sub-catchments and vegetation types for implementing range improvement practices.

  15. Using Think Aloud Protocols to Assess E-Prescribing in Community Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilola K. Odukoya, BPharm, MS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Think aloud protocol has rarely been used as a method of data collection in community pharmacies.Purpose: The aim of the report is to describe how think aloud protocols were used to identify issues that arise when using e-prescribing technology in pharmacies. In this paper, we report on the benefits and challenges of using think aloud protocols in pharmacies to examine the use of e-prescribing systems.Methods: Sixteen pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were recruited from seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Data were collected using direct observation alongside think aloud protocol. Direct observations and think aloud protocols took place between January-February, 2011. Participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they process electronic prescriptions.Results: Participants identified weaknesses in e-prescribing that they had previously not conceived. This created heightened awareness for vigilance when processing e-prescriptions. The main challenge with using think aloud protocols was due to interruptions in the pharmacies. Also, a few participants found it challenging to remember to continue verbalizing their thought process during think aloud sessions.Conclusion: The use of think aloud protocols as method of data collection is a new way for understanding the issues related to technology use in community pharmacy practice. Think aloud protocol was beneficial in providing objective information on e-prescribing use not solely based on pharmacist’s or technician’s opinion of the technology. This method provided detailed information on a wide variety of real time challenges with e-prescribing technology use in community pharmacies. Using this data collection method can help identify potential patient safety issues when using e-prescribing and suggestions for redesign.

  16. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Cabrera

    Full Text Available A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol. The feeding protocol was used to deliver molecules such as hormone analogs or plasmids. Mites fed with Tebufenozide, an ecdysone analog, had higher transcript levels of shade than untreated or solvent treated mites. In order to extend this feeding protocol, cultured insect cells were incorporated to a final ratio of 1 part cells and 2 parts hemolymph. Although supplementation with Bombyx mori Bm5 cells increased the amount of hemolymph consumed per mite, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of mites that fed and survived. On the other hand, Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells reduced significantly the percentage of mites that fed and survived as well as the amount of hemolymph consumed. The feeding protocol provides a dynamic platform with which to challenge the Varroa mite to establish efficacy of control agents for this devastating honey bee pest.

  17. Future scenarios: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    . USDA Forest Service.

    2012-01-01

    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (RPA) mandates a periodic assessment of the conditions and trends of the Nation's renewable resources on forests and rangelands. The RPA Assessment includes projections of resource conditions and trends 50 years into the future. The 2010 RPA Assessment used a set of future scenarios to provide a...

  18. Vegetation - Herbivory Dynamics in Rangeland Ecosystems: Geospatial Modeling for Savanna and Wildlife Conservation in California and Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Tsalyuk, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Rangelands cover about half of Earth's land surface, encompass considerable biodiversity, and provide pivotal ecosystem services. However, rangelands across the globe face degradation due to changes in climate, land use, and management. Moreover, since herbivory is fundamental to rangeland ecosystem dynamics, shifts in the distribution of herbivores lead to overgrazing and desertification. To better understand, predict, and prevent changes on rangelands it is important to monitor these landsc...

  19. A Systematic Review to Uncover a Universal Protocol for Accuracy Assessment of 3-Dimensional Virtually Planned Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Ramy M; Shaheen, Eman; Falter, Bart; Araya, Sebastian; Politis, Constantinus; Swennen, Gwen R J; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review methods used for assessing the accuracy of 3-dimensional virtually planned orthognathic surgery in an attempt to reach an objective assessment protocol that could be universally used. A systematic review of the currently available literature, published until September 12, 2016, was conducted using PubMed as the primary search engine. We performed secondary searches using the Cochrane Database, clinical trial registries, Google Scholar, and Embase, as well as a bibliography search. Included articles were required to have stated clearly that 3-dimensional virtual planning was used and accuracy assessment performed, along with validation of the planning and/or assessment method. Descriptive statistics and quality assessment of included articles were performed. The initial search yielded 1,461 studies. Only 7 studies were included in our review. An important variability was found regarding methods used for 1) accuracy assessment of virtually planned orthognathic surgery or 2) validation of the tools used. Included studies were of moderate quality; reviewers' agreement regarding quality was calculated to be 0.5 using the Cohen κ test. On the basis of the findings of this review, it is evident that the literature lacks consensus regarding accuracy assessment. Hence, a protocol is suggested for accuracy assessment of virtually planned orthognathic surgery with the lowest margin of error. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of a sequential extraction protocol by examining solution chemistry and mineralogical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubec, Nicolas; Pauwels, Hélène; Noël, Hervé; Bourrat, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of heavy metals, such as copper and zinc in sediments, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. The mobility of these metals, which may be harmful to the environment, depends directly on their concentration and speciation , which in turn depend on physico-chemical parameters such as mineralogy of the sediment fraction, pH, redox potential, salinity etc ... (Anderson et al., 2000; Sterckeman et al., 2004; Van Oort et al., 2008). Several methods based on chemical extractions are currently applied to assess the behavior of heavy metals in soils and sediments. Among them, sequential extraction procedure is widely used in soil and sediment science and provides details about the origin, biological and physicochemical availability, mobilization and transports of trace metals elements. It is based on the use of a series of extracting reagents to extract selectively heavy metals according to their association within the solid phase (Cornu and Clozel, 2000) including the following different fraction : exchangeable, bound to carbonates, associated to oxides (reducible fraction), linked to organic matter and sulfides (oxidizable fraction) as well as silicate minerals so called residual fraction (Hickey and Kittrick, 1984; Tessier et al., 1979). Consequently sequential extraction method is expected to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions (Arey et al., 1999; Brannon and Patrick, 1987; Hickey and Kittrick, 1984; La Force et al., 1999; Tessier et al., 1979). For three decades, a large number of protocols has been proposed, characterized by specific reagents and experimental conditions (concentrations, number of steps, extraction orders and solid/solution ratio) (Das et al., 1995; Gomez Ariza et al., 2000; Quevauviller et al., 1994; Rauret, 1998; Tack and Verloo, 1995), but it appeared that several of them suffer from a lack of selectivity of applied reagents: besides target ones, some

  1. Assessment of cerebrospinal fluid system dynamics : novel infusion protocol, mathematical modelling and parameter estimation for hydrocephalus investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Kennet

    2011-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) have a disturbance in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system. The treatment is neurosurgical – a shunt is placed in the CSF system. The infusion test is used to assess CSF system dynamics and to aid in the selection of patients that will benefit from shunt surgery. The infusion test can be divided into three parts: a mathematical model, an infusion protocol and a parameter estimation method. A non-linear differential equation is used...

  2. Using Brain Activation (nir-HEG/Q-EEG) and Execution Measures (CPTs) in a ADHD Assessment Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areces, Debora; Cueli, Marisol; García, Trinidad; González-Castro, Paloma; Rodríguez, Celestino

    2018-04-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a problem that impacts academic performance and has serious consequences that result in difficulties in scholastic, social and familial contexts. One of the most common problems in the identification of this disorder relates to the apparent over diagnosis of the disorder due to the absence of global protocols for assessment. The research group of School Learning, Difficulties and Academic Performance (ADIR) from the University of Oviedo, has developed a complete protocol that suggests the existence of certain patterns of cortical activation and executive control for identifying ADHD more objectively. This protocol takes into consideration some of the hypothetical determinants of ADHD, including the relationship between activation of selected areas of the brain, and differences in performance on various aspects of executive functioning such as omissions, commissions or response times, using innovative tools of Continuous Performance Testing (based on Virtual Reality CPT and Traditional CPT) and brain activation measures (two different tools, based on Hemoencephalography- nirHEG; and Quantified Electroencephalography --Q-EEG, respectively). This model of assessment aims to provide an effective assessment of ADHD symptomatology in order to design an accurate intervention and make appropriate recommendations for parents and teachers.

  3. Bush encroachment dynamics and rangeland management implications in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands in the Horn of Africa have been undergoing a rapid shift from herbaceous to woody plant dominance in the past decades, threatening subsistence livestock herding and pastoral food security. Despite of significant rangeland management implications, quantification of the spatial extent of en...

  4. Rehabilitation of community-owned, mixed-use rangelands: Lessons from the Ewaso ecosystem in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, 10-20% of arid and semi-arid rangelands have been classified as severely degraded (UNCCD 1994; MEA 2005), and in sub-Saharan Africa specifically, 70% of rangelands are considered moderately to severely degraded (Dregne 1992; UNCCD 1994). Given that these drylands make up 43% of Africa’s la...

  5. Bayesian estimation of shrubs diversity in rangelands under two management systems in northern Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niane, A.A.; Singh, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of shrubs in rangelands of northern Syria is affected by the grazing management systems restricted by the increase in human and livestock populations. To describe and estimate diversity and compare the rangeland grazing management treatments, two popular indices for diversity, the

  6. Heat dosage and oviposition depth influence egg mortality of two common rangeland grasshopper species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland fire is a common naturally occurring event and management tool, with the amount and structure of biomass controlling transfer of heat belowground. Temperatures grasshopper eggs are exposed to during rangeland fires are mediated by species specific oviposition traits. This experiment examin...

  7. Discussion of submitted posters for Section 2.3 (Rangeland Germplasm Resources)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the IX International Rangeland Congress held in Rosario, Argentina, a total of 70 posters from 17 countries were submitted to Section 2.3 (Rangeland Germplasm Resources). These posters documented research conducted in five major regions of the world: South America, North America, Africa...

  8. Recovery of rangelands : the functioning of soil seed banks in a semi-arid African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema, Z.K.

    2011-01-01

    Rangelands in Africa provide important forage resources for herbivores; particularly perennial grasses provide grazing for domestic and wild herbivores. However, semi-arid African rangelands experience severe vegetation and soil degradation due to heavy grazing, causing negative impacts

  9. Effects of climate change on rangeland vegetation in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt C. Reeves; Mary E. Manning; Jeff P. DiBenedetto; Kyle A. Palmquist; William K. Lauenroth; John B. Bradford; Daniel R. Schlaepfer

    2018-01-01

    Rangelands are dominated by grass, forb, or shrub species, but are usually not modified by using agronomic improvements such as fertilization or irrigation (Lund 2007; Reeves and Mitchell 2011) as these lands would normally be considered pastures. Rangeland includes grassland, shrubland, and desert ecosystems, alpine areas, and some woodlands (box 7.1). This chapter...

  10. Earth stewardship on rangelands: Coping with ecological, economic, and political marginality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands encompass 30-40 percent of Earth's land surface and support 1-2 billion people. Their predominant use is extensive livestock production by pastoralists and ranchers. But rangelands are characterized by ecological, economic, and political marginality, and higher-value, more intensive land ...

  11. Global view of remote sensing of rangelands: Evolution, applications, future pathways [Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Reeves; Robert A. Washington-Allen; Jay Angerer; E. Raymond Hunt; Ranjani Wasantha Kulawardhana; Lalit Kumar; Tatiana Loboda; Thomas Loveland; Graciela Metternicht; R. Douglas. Ramsey

    2015-01-01

    The term "rangeland" is rather nebulous, and there is no single definition of rangeland that is universally accepted by land managers, scientists, or international bodies (Lund, 2007; Reeves and Mitchell, 2011). Dozens and possibly hundreds (Lund, 2007) of definitions and ideologies exist because various stakeholders often have unique objectives...

  12. China's Rangelands under Stress : A comparative study of pasture commons in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, P.P.S.

    2000-01-01

    China's economic reforms have exacerbated the problems of over-grazing and desertification in the country's pastoral areas. In order to deal with rangeland degradation, the Chinese government has resorted to nationalization, or semi-privatization. Since the implementation of rangeland policy has

  13. Hydrologic ramifications of an increased role of wildland fire across the rangeland-dry forest continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased role of wildland fire across the rangeland-dry forest continuum in the western United States (US) presents landscape-scale consequences relative runoff and erosion. Much of the Intermountain West now exists in a state in which rangeland and woodland wildfires stimulated by invasive che...

  14. Integrating the Indigenous Knowledge of Borana Pastoralists into Rangeland Management Strategies in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Pastoralists' indigenous knowledge (IK) about ecology and social organization led to rangeland-management strategies appropriate to deal with the erratic rainfall in African drylands. Herd mobility was traditionally practiced as the key strategy to make use of the scattered rangeland resources on a large scale.

  15. Book title: Rangelands systems: Processes, management and challenges - Chapter title: Invasive plant species and novel ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands represent the dominant land use systems in many countries of the world and provide sociological and cultural benefits to millions of people in both rural and urban areas. The undesirable impacts of rangeland weeds have been recognized for well over 100 years and infest between 41 and 51 ...

  16. Agricultural, Runoff, Erosion and Salinity (ARES) Database to Better Evaluate Rangeland State and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands comprise approximately 40% of the earth’s surface and are the largest land cover type in the world. Degradation from mismanagement, desertification, and drought impact more than 50% of rangelands across the globe. The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has been evaluating means of r...

  17. Plant/life form considerations in the rangeland hydrology and erosion model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience of rangeland to erosion has largely been attributed to adequate plant cover; however, plant life/growth form, and individual species presence can have a dramatic effect on hydrologic and erosion dynamics on rangelands. Plant life/growth form refers to genetic tendency of a plant to grow i...

  18. Application of the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model to Ecological Site Descriptions and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of Ecological Site Descriptions (ESDs) and State-and-Transition Models (STMs) concepts in guiding rangeland management hinges on their ability to accurately describe and predict community dynamics and the associated consequences. For many rangeland ecosystems, plant community dynamics ar...

  19. Control protocol: large scale implementation at the CERN PS complex - a first assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abie, H.; Benincasa, G.; Coudert, G.; Davydenko, Y.; Dehavay, C.; Gavaggio, R.; Gelato, G.; Heinze, W.; Legras, M.; Lustig, H.; Merard, L.; Pearson, T.; Strubin, P.; Tedesco, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Control Protocol is a model-based, uniform access procedure from a control system to accelerator equipment. It was proposed at CERN about 5 years ago and prototypes were developed in the following years. More recently, this procedure has been finalized and implemented at a large scale in the PS Complex. More than 300 pieces of equipment are now using this protocol in normal operation and another 300 are under implementation. These include power converters, vacuum systems, beam instrumentation devices, RF equipment, etc. This paper describes how the single general procedure is applied to the different kinds of equipment. The advantages obtained are also discussed. ((orig.))

  20. Rangeland -- Plant response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    An experiment is being designed to examine the influence of elevating CO2 levels on tallgrass prairie rangeland. Changes in biomass production, photosynthesis rates, and species composition (C3 versus C4) over time are to be examined. This report covers the period from August 15, 1988 to January 1, 1989. During this period the authors have had planning meetings in Manhattan, KS, and Washington, DC, with various investigators of the measurement and modeling groups within the elevated CO{sub 2} program. During this period detailed discussions with regard to the methodology were carried out. In addition, short-term experiments and prototype constructions were completed to assess design and materials. Because of changes in the methodology and, to a certain degree, the scope, they are requesting changes in the funding cycle to implement the project at the beginning of the growing cycle of the tallgrass prairie.

  1. Evaluation of environmental change in rangelands of Uzbekistan with application of nuclear techniques approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasyrov, M.G.; Safarov, A.N.; Osmanov, B.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Desertification and land degradation are a problem of major importance in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Deterioration of soil and plant cover has adversely affected nearly 50% of land areas as a result of extended droughts and human mismanagement of cultivated and rangelands. Due to several factors such as soil erosion, overgrazing, collection of plants and other anthropogenic activities the most part of these biomes are under degradation. The problem of assessments of current status of rangelands becomes very important days after days. Therefore, it needs to work out and implement new time and labor saving methods of assessment of current status of natural biomes. Soil erosion is a natural process caused by water, wind, and ice that have affected the earth's surface since the beginning if time. Man's activities often accelerate soil erosion. Soil erosion and its off-site, downstream damages are major concerns around the world causing losses in soil productivity, degradation of landscape, degradation of water quality, and loss of soil organic carbon. Current techniques for assessing soil erosion are (1) long-term soil erosion plot monitoring, (2) field surveys, and (3) soil erosion models (Evans, 1995). Each of this techniques has strengths and weaknesses. Over the last 30 years, research has shown the potential of using radioactive fallout 137 Cs to provide timely and quantitative estimates of soil erosion and redeposition at point, field, and reconnaissance scales. Applications of 137 Cs o provide an independent measurement of soil erosion rates, patterns, and redepositions are well-documented (Ritchie and McHenry, 1990). The unique advantages of the 137 Cs technique to study soil erosion rates and patterns are that it (a) requires only one trip to the field; (b) provides results quickly; (c) allows retrospective assessment of soil erosion rates; (d) provides average losses for 35 to 40 year period thus is less influenced by extreme

  2. Assessment of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in humans: protocol for accurate and reproducible levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobierajski, Julia; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B; Luedike, Peter; Stock, Pia; Rammos, Christos; Meyer, Christian; Kraemer, Sandra; Stoppe, Christian; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2013-10-01

    The analytical validation of a possible biomarker is the first step in the long translational process from basic science to clinical routine. Although the chemokine-like cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been investigated intensively in experimental approaches to various disease conditions, its transition into clinical research is just at the very beginning. Because of its presence in preformed storage pools, MIF is the first cytokine to be released under various stimulation conditions. In the first proof-of-concept studies, MIF levels correlated with the severity and outcome of various disease states. In a recent small study with acute coronary syndrome patients, elevation of MIF was described as a new factor for risk assessment. When these studies are compared, not only MIF levels in diseased patients differ, but also MIF levels in healthy control groups are inconsistent. Blood MIF concentrations in control groups vary between 0.56 and 95.6 ng/ml, corresponding to a 170-fold difference. MIF concentrations in blood were analyzed by ELISA. Other than the influence of this approach due to method-based variations, the impact of preanalytical processing on MIF concentrations is unclear and has not been systematically studied yet. Before large randomized studies are performed to determine the impact of circulating MIF on prognosis and outcome and before MIF is characterized as a diagnostic marker, an accurate protocol for the determination of reproducible MIF levels needs to be validated. In this study, the measurement of MIF in the blood of healthy volunteers was investigated focusing on the potential influence of critical preanalytical factors such as anticoagulants, storage conditions, freeze/thaw stability, hemolysis, and dilution. We show how to avoid pitfalls in the measurement of MIF and that MIF concentrations are highly susceptible to preanalytical factors. MIF serum concentrations are higher than plasma concentrations and show broader

  3. A routine PET/CT protocol with simple calculations for assessing cardiac amyloid using 18F-Florbetapir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Ryan Osborne

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiac amyloidosis is a rare condition characterized by the deposition of well-structured protein fibrils, proteoglycans, and serum proteins as amyloid. Recent work has shown that it may be possible to use 18F-Florbetapir to image cardiac amyloidosis. Current methods for assessment include invasive biopsy techniques. This work enhances foundational work by Dorbala et al. by developing a routine imaging and analysis protocol using 18F-Florbetapir for cardiac amyloid assessment.Methods: Ten patients, 3 healthy controls and 7 amyloid positive patients, were imaged using 18F-Florbetapir to assess cardiac amyloid burden. Four of the patients also were imaged using 82Rb-Chloride to evaluate possible 18F-Florbetapir retention because of reduced myocardial blood flow. Quantitative methods using modeling, SUVs and SUV ratios were used to define a new streamlined clinical imaging protocol that could be used routinely and provide patient stratification.Results: Quantitative analysis of 18F-Florbetapir cardiac amyloid data were compiled from a 20 minute listmode protocol with data histogrammed into two static images at 0-5 minutes and, 10-15 min or 15-20 min. Data analysis indicated the use of SUVs or ratios of SUVs calculated from regions draw in the septal wall were adequate in identification of all healthy controls from amyloid positive patients in this small cohort. Additionally, we found that it may be possible to use this method to differentiate patients suffering from AL vs. TTR amyloid.Conclusions: This work builds on the seminal work by Dorbala et Al. by describing a short 18F-Florbetapir imaging protocol that is suitable for routine clinical use and uses a simple method for quantitative analysis of cardiac amyloid disease.

  4. Protocol Analysis of Group Problem Solving in Mathematics: A Cognitive-Metacognitive Framework for Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Alice F.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    The roles of cognition and metacognition were examined in the mathematical problem-solving behaviors of students as they worked in small groups. As an outcome, a framework that links the literature of cognitive science and mathematical problem solving was developed for protocol analysis of mathematical problem solving. Within this framework, each…

  5. Assessment of neuromuscular function after different strength training protocols using tensiomyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Á; Harms, Nico; Raeder, Christian; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze tensiomyography (TMG) sensitivity to changes in muscle force and neuromuscular function of the muscle rectus femoris (RF) using TMG muscle properties after 5 different lower-limb strength training protocols (multiple sets; DS = drop sets; eccentric overload; FW = flywheel; PL = plyometrics). After baseline measurements, 14 male strength trained athletes completed 1 squat training protocol per week over a 5-week period in a randomized controlled order. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), TMG measurements of maximal radial displacement of the muscle belly (Dm), contraction time between 10 and 90% of Dm (Tc), and mean muscle contraction velocities from the beginning until 10% (V10) and 90% of Dm (V90) were analyzed up to 0.5 (post-train), 24 (post-24), and 48 hours (post-48) after the training interventions. Significant analysis of variance main effects for measurement points were found for all TMG contractile properties and MVIC (p TMG muscle properties are sensitive to changes in muscle force, and different lower-limb strength training protocols lead to changes in neuromuscular function of RF. In addition, those protocols involving high and eccentric load and a high total time under tension may induce higher changes in TMG muscle properties.

  6. The Copenhagen Standardised MRI protocol to assess the pubic symphysis and adductor regions of athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Bech, Birthe Højlund

    2015-01-01

    radiologists developed an 11-element MRI evaluation protocol defined according to precise criteria and illustrated in a pictorial atlas. Eighty-six male athletes (soccer players and non-soccer players) underwent standardised 3 Tesla MRI of the pelvis. Two external musculoskeletal radiologists were trained...

  7. Radiation dosimetry assessment of routine CT scanning protocols used in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorin, Rachael E; Forsyth, Rene; Gibson, David J; Fox, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Technical data on local CT practice in Western Australia were collected for five major CT providers using a self-completed questionnaire. The CTDIvol DLP and effective dose for each protocol were obtained and providers were ranked according to radiation burden for each clinical scenario. The mean, median, 75th percentile and standard deviation were calculated for both effective dose and DLP for each scenario and these values were compared with published data. CT utilisation data were used to estimate the attributable radiation dose to the WA population and the potential change in population annual effective dose according to the protocol used was estimated. We found that wide variations in technique and radiation dose exist across providers for similar examinations, producing a higher radiation burden than reported internationally. As expected, the CT protocol used dramatically affects the radiation dose received, and this has a significant effect on annual population dose. This study highlights the need for recognition and understanding of both the degree of variation in radiation dose across providers and the relatively high radiation burden afforded by protocols in use in Western Australia so that necessary dialogue can be launched for practitioner consensus on appropriate diagnostic reference levels in CT scanning. (paper)

  8. Progress towards more uniform assessment and reporting of soil disturbance for operations, research, and sustainability protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Curran; Richard E. Miller; Steven W. Howes; Douglas G. Maynard; Thomas A. Terry; Ronald L. Heninger; Thomas Niemann; Ken van Rees; Robert F. Powers; Stephen H. Schoenholtz

    2005-01-01

    International protocols, such as those of the Montreal Process (MP), specify desired outcomes without specifying the process and components required to attain those outcomes. We suggest that the process and its components are critical to achieve desired outcomes. We discuss recent progress in northwestern North America, on three topics that will facilitate development...

  9. Agricultural Soil Spectral Response and Properties Assessment: Effects of Measurement Protocol and Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil spectroscopy has shown to be a fast, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, non-destructive, reproducible and repeatable analytical technique. Soil components, as well as types of instruments, protocols, sampling methods, sample preparation, spectral acquisition techniques and analytical algorithms have a combined influence on the final performance. Therefore, it is important to characterize these differences and to introduce an effective approach in order to minimize the technical factors that alter reflectance spectra and consequent prediction. To quantify this alteration, a joint project between Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS and Tel-Aviv University (TAU was conducted to estimate Cox, pH-H2O, pH-KCl and selected forms of Fe and Mn. Two different soil spectral measurement protocols and two data mining techniques were used to examine seventy-eight soil samples from five agricultural areas in different parts of the Czech Republic. Spectral measurements at both laboratories were made using different ASD spectroradiometers. The CULS protocol was based on employing a contact probe (CP spectral measurement scheme, while the TAU protocol was carried out using a CP measurement method, accompanied with the internal soil standard (ISS procedure. Two spectral datasets, acquired from different protocols, were both analyzed using partial least square regression (PLSR technique as well as the PARACUDA II®, a new data mining engine for optimizing PLSR models. The results showed that spectra based on the CULS setup (non-ISS demonstrated significantly higher albedo intensity and reflectance values relative to the TAU setup with ISS. However, the majority of statistics using the TAU protocol was not noticeably better than the CULS spectra. The paper also highlighted that under both measurement protocols, the PARACUDA II® engine proved to be a powerful tool for providing better results than PLSR. Such initiative is not only a way to

  10. A Comparison of ectoparasite infestation by chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) on resident and migratory birds in Chiapas, Mexico illustrating a rapid visual assessment protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas V. Dietsch

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a protocol developed to rapidly assess ectoparasite prevalence and intensity. Using this protocol during a mist-netting project in two different coffee agroecosystems in Chiapas, Mexico, data were collected on ectoparasitic chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) found on resident and migratory birds. Surprisingly high infestation rates were...

  11. The utility of fecal corticosterone metabolites and animal welfare assessment protocols as predictive parameters of tumor development and animal welfare in a murine xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Jørgensen, Pernille Schønning; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2013-01-01

    consumption, and an animal welfare assessment (AWA) protocol revealed marked differences between control and cancer lines as the size of the tumor increased. However, only the AWA protocol was effective in predicting the tumor size and the level of fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM). FCM levels were...

  12. A stepwise protocol for drug permeation assessment that combines heat-separated porcine ear epidermis and vertical diffusion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After decades long absence of an official consensus on the most appropriate evaluation method for in vitro skin performance of topical semisolid drugs, United States Pharmacopoeia (USP 39 finally suggested three types of testing equipment; however, all these provide data on drug release using inert synthetic membranes. Considering the need for a readily available membrane that would be more structurally similar to human skin, this paper provides a detailed protocol of a method for drug permeation assessment that uses heat-separated porcine ear epidermis and modified Franz diffusion cells. Phases that were shown to be critical for variability of the results are identified (e.g., membrane preparation, and process parameters optimized. Applicability of the method was tested on four cream samples loaded with aceclofenac as a model drug. Sample compositions were designed in such a way to provide „large“ variations (variation of the main stabilizer: natural-origin versus synthetic emulsifier and relatively „minor“ variations (co-solvent variation: none/isopropanol/glycerol. The developed protocol is a straightforward and reliable in vitro test for the evaluation of rate and extent of drug delivery into/through the skin. Moreover, this protocol may be routinely applied even in averagely equipped laboratories during formulation development or preliminary bioequivalence assessment of generic topical semisolids. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR34031

  13. Unified Protocol for psychiatric and psychological assessment of candidates for transplantation of organs and tissues, PSI-CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel Kinori, Sara Guila; Alcántara Tadeo, Antonio; Castan Campanera, Esther; Costa Requena, Gemma; Diez Quevedo, Crisanto; Lligoña Garreta, Anna; Lopez Lazcano, Ana; Martínez del Pozo, Montserrat; Rangil Muñoz, Teresa; Peri Nogués, Josep María

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation is the treatment option that offers improved survival and quality of life as compared to organ failure. Psychiatric and psychological aspects of transplant candidates are important, especially in the pre-assessment stage, as the influence of these factors can hinder post-surgical outcome in both the implanted organ survival and the quality of life of the transplanted person. Of particular importance, are the factors related to pathology due to substance use, psychopathology, and psychosocial support. There are currently few guidelines on the correct evaluation of patients eligible for these complex procedures. Nineteen psychiatrists and clinical psychologists from six public hospitals in Catalonia conducted a systematic consensus to determine the design of a Unified Protocol psychological and psychiatric evaluation. An annual work plan was implemented, during which; the objectives were defined, a literature review was conducted, the inclusion and exclusion criteria were discussed, questionnaires were selected, and a structured interview was developed. With the implementation of the work plan, the Assessment Protocol presented in this article was designed. systematic work and improving cooperation between psychiatrists and clinical psychologists, has led to homogeneity and consensus on a unified evaluation protocol. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Videofluoroscopic assessment of dysphagia: A questionnaire survey of protocols, roles and responsibilities of radiology and speech and language therapy personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, Maxine; Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Kasthuri, Ram S.; Nicholson, David A.; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2006-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy (VF) is the 'gold standard' assessment for oropharyngeal dysphagia and radiographers are beginning to direct this examination independently, yet little is known about the roles and responsibilities of the core professions of radiology and speech and language therapy and their practice in this examination. Aim: To evaluate VF practice and identify the roles and responsibilities of radiology and speech and language therapy personnel. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was developed and distributed to speech and language therapists (SALT) and radiologists via national special interest networks. Information regarding protocols, test materials, supervision, radiation protection and training was obtained. Results: One hundred and thirteen questionnaires were completed, 83% of respondents had more than 5 years service. Most were carrying out VF on an 'ad hoc' basis with only 32% participating in more than 6 assessments per month. There was no consensus on protocol and 41% chose to thicken barium solutions by adding more barium sulphate powder, potentially predisposing patients to complications. Over 50% of SALTs had received one day post-graduate training in VF, whereas, only one radiologist had specific VF training. Conclusion: Despite its importance in determining the feeding route for patients, VF is carried out infrequently by most clinicians and protocols vary widely. Moreover, intra- and inter-disciplinary training and supervision is minimal. More work is needed to develop standard guidelines, to improve the quality of the examination and its reproducibility

  15. Large-scale hydrological simulations using the soil water assessment tool, protocol development, and application in the danube basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliero, Liliana; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Willems, Patrick; Diels, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive of the European Union requires member states to achieve good ecological status of all water bodies. A harmonized pan-European assessment of water resources availability and quality, as affected by various management options, is necessary for a successful implementation of European environmental legislation. In this context, we developed a methodology to predict surface water flow at the pan-European scale using available datasets. Among the hydrological models available, the Soil Water Assessment Tool was selected because its characteristics make it suitable for large-scale applications with limited data requirements. This paper presents the results for the Danube pilot basin. The Danube Basin is one of the largest European watersheds, covering approximately 803,000 km and portions of 14 countries. The modeling data used included land use and management information, a detailed soil parameters map, and high-resolution climate data. The Danube Basin was divided into 4663 subwatersheds of an average size of 179 km. A modeling protocol is proposed to cope with the problems of hydrological regionalization from gauged to ungauged watersheds and overparameterization and identifiability, which are usually present during calibration. The protocol involves a cluster analysis for the determination of hydrological regions and multiobjective calibration using a combination of manual and automated calibration. The proposed protocol was successfully implemented, with the modeled discharges capturing well the overall hydrological behavior of the basin. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Assessment of Active Video Gaming Using Adapted Controllers by Individuals With Physical Disabilities: A Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Laurie A; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; McCroskey, Justin; Thirumalai, Mohanraj

    2017-06-16

    Individuals with disabilities are typically more sedentary and less fit compared to their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, engaging in physical activity can be extremely challenging due to physical impairments associated with disability and fewer opportunities to participate. One option for increasing physical activity is playing active video games (AVG), a category of video games that requires much more body movement for successful play than conventional push-button or joystick actions. However, many current AVGs are inaccessible or offer limited play options for individuals who are unable to stand, have balance issues, poor motor control, or cannot use their lower body to perform game activities. Making AVGs accessible to people with disabilities offers an innovative approach to overcoming various barriers to participation in physical activity. Our aim was to compare the effect of off-the-shelf and adapted game controllers on quality of game play, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video gaming in persons with physical disabilities, specifically those with mobility impairments (ie, unable to stand, balance issues, poor motor control, unable to use lower extremity for gameplay). The gaming controllers to be evaluated include off-the-shelf and adapted versions of the Wii Fit balance board and gaming mat. Participants (10-60 years old) came to the laboratory a total of three times. During the first visit, participants completed a functional assessment and became familiar with the equipment and games to be played. For the functional assessment, participants performed 18 functional movement tasks from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. They also answered a series of questions from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions measurement tools, to provide a personal perspective regarding their own functional ability. For Visit 2, metabolic data were

  17. The geomorphic legacy of water and erosion control structures in a semiarid rangeland watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mary H.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Sayre, N.F.; Shaw, Jeremy R.

    2018-01-01

    Control over water supply and distribution is critical for agriculture in drylands where manipulating surface runoff often serves the dual purpose of erosion control. However, little is known of the geomorphic impacts and legacy effects of rangeland water manipulation infrastructure, especially if not maintained. This study investigated the geomorphic impacts of structures such as earthen berms, water control gates, and stock tanks, in a semiarid rangeland in the southwestern USA that is responding to both regional channel incision that was initiated over a century ago, and a more recent land use change that involved cattle removal and abandonment of structures. The functional condition of remnant structures was inventoried, mapped, and assessed using aerial imagery and lidar data. Headcut initiation, scour, and channel incision associated with compromised lateral channel berms, concrete water control structures, floodplain water spreader berms, and stock tanks were identified as threats to floodplains and associated habitat. Almost half of 27 identified lateral channel berms (48%) have been breached and 15% have experienced lateral scour; 18% of 218 shorter water spreader berms have been breached and 17% have experienced lateral scour. A relatively small number of 117 stock tanks (6%) are identified as structurally compromised based on analysis of aerial imagery, although many currently do not provide consistent water supplies. In some cases, the onset of localized disturbance is recent enough that opportunities for mitigation can be identified to alter the potentially damaging erosion trajectories that are ultimately driven by regional geomorphic instability. Understanding the effects of prior land use and remnant structures on channel and floodplain morphologic condition is critical because both current land management and future land use options are constrained by inherited land use legacy effects.

  18. Caries risk assessment tool and prevention protocol for public health nurses in mother and child health centers, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natapov, Lena; Dekel-Markovich, Dan; Granit-Palmon, Hadas; Aflalo, Efrat; Zusman, Shlomo Paul

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease in children. Caries risk assessment tools enable the dentists, physicians, and nondental health care providers to assess the individual's risk. Intervention by nurses in primary care settings can contribute to the establishment of oral health habits and prevention of dental disease. In Israel, Mother and Child Health Centers provide free preventive services for pregnant women and children by public health nurses. A caries prevention program in health centers started in 2015. Nurses underwent special training regarding caries prevention. A customized Caries Risk Assessment tool and Prevention Protocol for nurses, based on the AAPD tool, was introduced. A two-step evaluation was conducted which included a questionnaire and in-depth phone interviews. Twenty-eight (out of 46) health centers returned a completed questionnaire. Most nurses believed that oral health preventive services should be incorporated into their daily work. In the in-depth phone interviews, nurses stated that the integration of the program into their busy daily schedule was realistic and appropriate. The lack of specific dental module for computer program was mentioned as an implementation difficulty. The wide use of our tool by nurses supports its simplicity and feasibility which enables quick calculation and informed decision making. The nurses readily embraced the tool and it became an integral part of their toolkit. We provide public health nurses with a caries risk assessment tool and prevention protocol thus integrating oral health into general health of infants and toddlers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness using submaximal protocol in older adults with mood disorder and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Alves de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence has shown benefits for mental health through aerobic training oriented in percentage of VO2max, indicating the importance of this variable for clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To validate a method for estimating VO2max using a submaximal protocol in elderly patients with clinically diagnosis as major depressive disorder (MDD and Parkinson's disease (PD. METHODS: The sample comprised 18 patients (64.22 ± 9.92 years with MDD (n = 7 and with PD (n = 11. Three evaluations were performed: I disease staging, II direct measurement of VO2max and III submaximal exercise test. Linear regression was performed to verify the accuracy of estimation in VO2max established in ergospirometry and the predicted VO2max from the submaximal test measurement. We also analyzed the correlation between the Bland-Altman procedures. RESULTS: The regression analysis showed that VO2max values estimated by submaximal protocol associated with the VO2max measured, both in absolute values (R² = 0.65; SEE = 0.26; p < 0.001 and the relative (R² = 0.56; SEE = 3.70; p < 0.001. The Bland-Altman plots for analysis of agreement of showed a good correlation between the two measures. DISCUSSION: The VO2max predicted by submaximal protocol demonstrated satisfactory criterion validity and simple execution compared to ergospirometry.

  20. Hydrologic Impacts Associated with the Increased Role of Wildland Fire Across the Rangeland-Xeric Forest Continuum of the Great Basin and Intermountain West, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J.; Pierson, F. B.; Robichaud, P. R.; Boll, J.; Al-Hamdan, O. Z.

    2011-12-01

    important surface soils may be critically damaging for rangelands given inherent slow soil formation rates. This study presents a summary of fire effects on runoff and erosion across the rangeland-xeric forest continuum of the western US and highlights how that knowledge addresses post-fire hydrologic modeling needs. Further, we present a conceptual framework for advancing post-fire hydrologic vulnerability assessment and identify key areas for future research.

  1. Assessment tools for the measurement of the self-efficacy of drug users: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Selene Cordeiro; Frazão, Iracema da Silva; Sougey, Everton Botelho; Souza, Sandra Lopes de; Silva, Tatiana de Paula Santana da; Lima, Murilo Duarte da Costa

    2018-03-14

    The abuse of alcohol and other drugs is a worldwide problem, the treatment of which poses a challenge to healthcare workers. This study presents a proposal for a systematic review to analyse the psychometric properties of assessment tools developed to measure the self-efficacy of drug users with regard to resisting the urge to take drugs in high-risk situations. The guiding question was based on PICOS (Population Intervention Comparator Outcome Setting), and the report of the methods of review protocol was written in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). Searches will be performed in the PsycINFO, Cochrane, Pubmed, Web of Science, SCOPUS and CINAHL databases, followed by the use of the 'snowball' strategy. The inclusion criteria for the articles will be (1) assessment tool validation studies; (2) assessment tools developed to measure self-efficacy; (3) quantitative measures; (4) measures designed for use on adults; (5) data from self-reports of the participants; (6) studies involving a description of psychometric properties of the measures; and (7) studies that explain how the level of self-efficacy is scored. The search, selection and analysis will be performed by two independent reviewers. In cases of a divergence of opinion, a third reviewer will be consulted. The COSMIN checklist will be used for the appraisal of the methodological quality of the assessment tools and the certainty of the evidence in the articles (risk of bias) will be analysed using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. This protocol does not require ethical approval. However, this protocol is part of the thesis entitled Drug-Taking Confidence Questionnaire for use in Brazil, presented for obtaining a doctorate in neuropsychiatry and behavioural sciences from the Federal University of Pernambuco, and has received approval from the human research ethics committee of the Federal

  2. A novel staining protocol for multiparameter assessment of cell heterogeneity in Phormidium populations (cyanobacteria employing fluorescent dyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Tashyreva

    Full Text Available Bacterial populations display high heterogeneity in viability and physiological activity at the single-cell level, especially under stressful conditions. We demonstrate a novel staining protocol for multiparameter assessment of individual cells in physiologically heterogeneous populations of cyanobacteria. The protocol employs fluorescent probes, i.e., redox dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, 'dead cell' nucleic acid stain SYTOX Green, and DNA-specific fluorochrome 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, combined with microscopy image analysis. Our method allows simultaneous estimates of cellular respiration activity, membrane and nucleoid integrity, and allows the detection of photosynthetic pigments fluorescence along with morphological observations. The staining protocol has been adjusted for, both, laboratory and natural populations of the genus Phormidium (Oscillatoriales, and tested on 4 field-collected samples and 12 laboratory strains of cyanobacteria. Based on the mentioned cellular functions we suggest classification of cells in cyanobacterial populations into four categories: (i active and intact; (ii injured but active; (iii metabolically inactive but intact; (iv inactive and injured, or dead.

  3. The Role of Rural Communities in Conservation of Rangelands in Mahneshan Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Karimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the action of rangeland-depended livestock holders regarding rangeland conservation, including protection and rehabilitation activities and to analyse relevant influencing factors, using a mixed method of survey and case study. The data were collected through analysing existing documents, focus groups, semi-structured and structured interviews using questionnaires submitted to 204 rural livestock holders in the Mahneshan Township. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS and AMOS software. According to the results farmers’ knowledge regarding the role, importance and factors affecting rangeland degradation was relatively high, however they had a low level of knowledge and action about mechanical conservation techniques. The action of livestock holders in terms of biological conservation activities and grazing management showed a positive and signifincat corrletaion with variables such as implementing of rangeland projects, their interaction with external institutions, participating in extension training courses, education level and irrigated and rainfed agricultural land size. Moreover, based on a path analysis, 37% of the variance of the farmers’ actions regarding the rangeland conservation was explained by the variables such as rangeland rehabilitation actions, farmers’ conservation knowledge, farmers’ interaction with natural resources experts, beekeeping, and participating in extension training courses. Promotional and extension activities and farmers’ interaction with experts have a positive effect in enhancing farmers’ knowledge and actions for sustainable rangeland use and conservation.

  4. Diagnosing subtle palatal anomalies: Validation of video-analysis and assessment protocol for diagnosing occult submucous cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, Ryan; Weinberg, Seth M; Marazita, Mary L; Jabbour, Noel

    2017-09-01

    Submucous cleft palate (SMCP) classically involves bifid uvula, zona pellucida, and notched hard palate. However, patients may present with more subtle anatomic abnormalities. The ability to detect these abnormalities is important for surgeons managing velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) or considering adenoidectomy. Validate an assessment protocol for diagnosis of occult submucous cleft palate (OSMCP) and identify physical examination features present in patients with OSMCP in the relaxed and activated palate positions. Study participants included patients referred to a pediatric VPD clinic with concern for hypernasality or SMCP. Using an appropriately encrypted iPod touch, transoral video was obtained for each patient with the palate in the relaxed and activated positions. The videos were reviewed by two otolaryngologists in normal speed and slow-motion, as needed, and a questionnaire was completed by each reviewer pertaining to the anatomy and function of the palate. 47 patients, with an average age of 4.6 years, were included in the study over a one-year period. Four videos were unusable due to incomplete view of the palate. The most common palatal abnormality noted was OSMCP, diagnosed by each reviewer in 26/43 and 30/43 patients respectively. Using the assessment protocol, agreement on palatal diagnosis was 83.7% (kappa = 0.68), indicating substantial agreement, with the most prevalent anatomic features being vaulted palate elevation (96%) and visible notching of hard palate (75%). The diagnosis of subtle palatal anomalies is difficult and can be subjective. Using the proposed video-analysis method and assessment protocol may improve reliability of diagnosis of OSMCP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  6. The GEOGLAM Rangelands and Pasture Productivity Activity: Recent Progress and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerschman, J. P.; Held, A. A.; Donohue, R. J.; Renzullo, L. J.; Sims, N.; Kerblat, F.; Grundy, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rangelands and pastures cover about a third of the world's land area and support livestock production which represents ~40% of global agricultural gross domestic product. The global consumption of animal protein shows a clear increasing trend, driven by both total population and per capita income increases, putting a growing pressure on the sustainability of grazing lands worldwide. Despite their relevance, rangelands have received less attention than croplands regarding global monitoring of the resource productivity and condition. The Rangelands and Pasture Productivity (RaPP) activity is a component within the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative established under the Group on Earth Observations (GEOGLAM) in 2013. GEOGLAM RaPP is aimed at providing the global community with the means to monitor the world's rangelands and pastures on a routine basis, and the capacity to produce animal protein in real-time, at global, regional and national levels. Since its launch two years ago GEOGLAM RAPP has made progress in the four implementation elements. These include: 1- the establishment of community of practice; 2- the development of a global monitoring system for rangeland condition; 3- the establishment of pilot sites in main rangeland systems for satellite data products validation and model testing; and 4- integration with livestock production models. Three international workshops have been held building the community of practice. A prototype monitoring system that provides global visualisations and querying capability of vegetation cover data and anomalies has been established. Pilot sites, mostly in areas with long records of field measurements of rangeland condition and productivity have been proposed for nine countries. The link to global livestock models, including physical and economic components, have been established. Future challenges for GEOGLAM RaPP have also been identified and include: better representation of the areas occupied by rangelands

  7. Assessing Self-Regulation as a Cyclical, Context-Specific Phenomenon: Overview and Analysis of SRL Microanalytic Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Cleary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to review relevant research related to the use of an assessment technique, called Self-Regulated Learning (SRL Microanalysis. This structured interview is grounded in social-cognitive theory and research and thus seeks to evaluate students' regulatory processes as they engage in well-defined academic or nonacademic tasks and activities. We illustrate the essential features of this contextualized assessment approach and detail a simple five-step process that researchers can use to apply this approach to their work. Example questions and administration procedures for five key self-regulation subprocesses (i.e., including goal-setting, strategic planning, monitoring, self-evaluation, and attributions are highlighted, with particular emphasis placed on causal attributions. The psychometric properties of SRL microanalytic assessment protocols and potential areas of future research are presented.

  8. Aligning research assessment in the Humanities to the national Standard Evaluation Protocol Challenges and developments in the Dutch research landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prins, A.; Spaapen, J.; Van Vree, F

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this session is a debate about innovation in comprehensive methods for the assessment of humanities research. Input will come from preliminary outcomes of an ongoing project in the Netherlands to find adequate indicators for humanities research that will fit in the national Standard Evaluation Protocol. The project includes processes of ‘bottom up’ data collection (that is, with input coming from the research community) and discussion with Humanities researchers, investigating the specific characteristics of publication and communication cultures in the Humanities, and the prospects for the use of quantitative and qualitative indicators. (Author)

  9. Assessment of Adverse Events in Protocols, Clinical Study Reports, and Published Papers of Trials of Orlistat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Penninga, Elisabeth I; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how adverse events are summarised and reported in trials, as detailed information is usually considered confidential. We have acquired clinical study reports (CSRs) from the European Medicines Agency through the Freedom of Information Act. The CSRs describe......Med and adverse event data were extracted from this source as well. All three sources were compared. Individual adverse events from one trial were summed and compared to the totals in the summary report. None of the protocols or CSRs contained instructions for investigators on how to question participants about...

  10. Pilot study: Assessing the effect of continual position monitoring technology on compliance with patient turning protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Schutt, Suann Cirigliano; Tarver, Christine; Pezzani, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim The study aim was to evaluate if continual patient position monitoring, taking into account self‐turns and clinician‐assisted turns, would increase the percentage of time a patient's position changed at least every 2 hr. Background While patient turning has clinical benefits, current models to help staff remember to turn patients, such as “turn clocks” and timers, have not resulted in high compliance with turning protocols. In addition, reminders are based on arbitrary 2‐hr windo...

  11. Forage seeding in rangelands increases production and prevents weed invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Davy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing forage productivity in the Sierra foothill rangelands would help sustain the livestock industry as land availability shrinks and lease rates rise, but hardly any studies have been done on forage selections. From 2009 to 2014, in one of the first long-term and replicated studies of seeding Northern California's Mediterranean annual rangeland, we compared the cover of 22 diverse forages to determine their establishment and survivability over time. Among the annual herbs, forage brassica (Brassica napus L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus L. proved viable options. Among the annual grasses, soft brome (Bromus hordeaceus and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum performed well. However, these species will likely require frequent reseeding to maintain dominance. Long-term goals of sustained dominant cover (> 3 years are best achieved with perennial grasses. Perennial grasses that persisted with greater than 50% cover were Berber orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, Flecha tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum and several varieties of hardinggrass (Phalaris aquatica L., Perla koleagrass, Holdfast, Advanced AT. In 2014, these successful perennials produced over three times more dry matter (pounds per acre than the unseeded control and also suppressed annual grasses and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L. cover.

  12. Analysis reveals potential rangeland impacts if Williamson Act eliminated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Wetzel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available California budget cuts have resulted in dramatic reductions in state funding for the Williamson Act, a land protection program that reduces property taxes for the owners of 15 million acres of California farms and rangeland. With state reimbursements to counties eliminated, the decision to continue Williamson Act contracts lies with individual counties. We investigated the consequences of eliminating the Williamson Act, using a geospatial analysis and a mail questionnaire asking ranchers for plans under a hypothetical elimination scenario. The geospatial analysis revealed that 72% of rangeland parcels enrolled in Williamson Act contracts contained habitat important for statewide conservation goals. Presented with the elimination scenario, survey respondents reported an intention to sell 20% of their total 496,889 acres. The tendency of survey participants to respond that they would sell land was highest among full-time ranchers with low household incomes and without off-ranch employment. A majority (76% of the ranchers who reported that they would sell land predicted that the buyers would develop it for nonagricultural uses, suggesting substantial changes to California's landscape in a future without the Williamson Act.

  13. Use of biosolids to enhance rangeland forage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael J; Vasquez, Issaak Romero; Vutran, MaiAnh; Schmitz, Mark; Brobst, Robert B

    2010-05-01

    Biosolids land application was demonstrated to be a potentially cost-effective means for restoring forage productivity and enhancing soil-moisture-holding capacity on disturbed rangelands. By land-applying aerobically digested, anaerobically digested, composted, and lime-stabilized biosolids on rangeland test plots at rates of up to 20 times (20X) the estimated nitrogen-based agronomic rate, forage yields were found to increase from 132.8 kg/ha (118.2 lb/ac) (control plots) to 1182.3 kg/ha (1052.8 lb/ac). Despite the environmental benefits associated with increased forage yield (e.g., reduced soil erosion, improved drainage, and enhanced terrestrial carbon sequestration), the type of forage generated both before and after biosolids land application was found to be dominated by invasive weeds, all of which were characterized as having fair to poor nutritional value. Opportunistic and shallow rooting invasive weeds not only have marginal nutritional value, they also limit the establishment of native perennial grasses and thus biodiversity. Many of the identified invasive species (e.g., Cheatgrass) mature early, a characteristic that significantly increases the fuel loads that support the increased frequency and extent of western wildfires.

  14. Scales of snow depth variability in high elevation rangeland sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesche, Molly E.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Meiman, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    In high elevation semi-arid rangelands, sagebrush and other shrubs can affect transport and deposition of wind-blown snow, enabling the formation of snowdrifts. Datasets from three field experiments were used to investigate the scales of spatial variability of snow depth around big mountain sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at a high elevation plateau rangeland in North Park, Colorado, during the winters of 2002, 2003, and 2008. Data were collected at multiple resolutions (0.05 to 25 m) and extents (2 to 1000 m). Finer scale data were collected specifically for this study to examine the correlation between snow depth, sagebrush microtopography, the ground surface, and the snow surface, as well as the temporal consistency of snow depth patterns. Variograms were used to identify the spatial structure and the Moran's I statistic was used to determine the spatial correlation. Results show some temporal consistency in snow depth at several scales. Plot scale snow depth variability is partly a function of the nature of individual shrubs, as there is some correlation between the spatial structure of snow depth and sagebrush, as well as between the ground and snow depth. The optimal sampling resolution appears to be 25-cm, but over a large area, this would require a multitude of samples, and thus a random stratified approach is recommended with a fine measurement resolution of 5-cm.

  15. The value of milk in rangelands in Mandera County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Keziah; Ertsen, Maurits

    2015-04-01

    Lack of water over expansive regions in Greater Horn of Africa created the rangelands and rangelands created pastoralism. Pastoralism involve keeping of large livestock herds and movement in search of resources, mainly water, pasture, medicine and wild foods. Several studies have been done in the last century and findings pointed at pastoralism being primitive and unsustainable. It has been predicted it would die in the last century but in the rangelands, pastoralism lives on and it is resilient. This study is based in Mandera, a pastoralism county in Kenya that neighbors Ethiopia to the North and Somalia to the East. The study sought to investigate contribution of milk to pastoralism resilience. Interviews were conducted in the field among the pastoralists, women groups, transporters, traders, government officials and consumers of milk. These information was corroborated with actual field investigations in the expansive rangelands of Mandera County. Pastoralists rarely slaughter or sell their livestock even when the animals waste away during droughts. This is because they have been through such cycles before and observed livestock make tremendous recovery when the right conditions were restored. Rangelands lack infrastructure, there are no roads, schools, telephone or hospitals. Pastoralists diet is comprised of rice, wheat and milk. It was established milk was the main source of income among pastoralists in Mandera County. From milk, the pastoralists make income that is used to purchase the other foodstuffs. Milk is available on daily basis in large quantities owing to the large number of livestock. Unfortunately, every pastoralist household produce copious amounts of milk, thus no local demand and transport infrastructure is nonexistent, making sale of milk a near impossible task. The findings showed the pastoralists have established unique routes through which milk reach the markets in urban centers where demand is high. Urbanization sustain pastoralism. These

  16. Pilot study: Assessing the effect of continual position monitoring technology on compliance with patient turning protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, Suann Cirigliano; Tarver, Christine; Pezzani, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    The study aim was to evaluate if continual patient position monitoring, taking into account self-turns and clinician-assisted turns, would increase the percentage of time a patient's position changed at least every 2 hr. While patient turning has clinical benefits, current models to help staff remember to turn patients, such as "turn clocks" and timers, have not resulted in high compliance with turning protocols. In addition, reminders are based on arbitrary 2-hr windows (such as turning on "even" hours) rather than on individual patient activity, including self-turns. This is a first inpatient, non-randomized, pre-/postintervention study. Data collection occurred from May 2013-February 2014 on a 39-bed medical unit in a community hospital. Baseline patient turning data were recorded by a sensor; however, the patient data were not displayed at the nurses' station to establish compliance with the hospital's turning protocol. Postintervention, patient position information was wirelessly displayed on nurses' station computer monitors in real time. A Student t test was used to compare baseline to postintervention "mean time in compliance." Data from 138 patients ( N  =   7,854 hr of monitoring) were collected. The baseline phase yielded 4,322 hr of position monitoring data and the postintervention phase yielded 3,532 hr of data. Statistically significant improvement was demonstrated in the percentage of time a patient's position changed at least every 2 hr from baseline to postintervention.

  17. Hypersensitivity and desensitization to antineoplastic agents: outcomes of 189 procedures with a new short protocol and novel diagnostic tools assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Burgaleta, R; Berges-Gimeno, M P; Angel-Pereira, D; Ferreiro-Monteagudo, R; Guillen-Ponce, C; Pueyo, C; Gomez de Salazar, E; Alvarez-Cuesta, E

    2013-07-01

    Desensitization to antineoplastic agents is becoming a standard of care. Efforts to establish and improve these techniques are being made at many institutions. Our aims are to evaluate a new rapid desensitization protocol designed to be shorter (approximately 4 h) and safer (reducing hazardous drugs exposure risks) and to assess the oxaliplatin-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) as a novel diagnostic tool. Prospective, observational, longitudinal study with patients who, for a 1-year period, suffered reactions to antineoplastic agents and were referred to the Desensitization Program at Ramon y Cajal University Hospital (RCUH). Patients were included or excluded as desensitization candidates after anamnesis, skin testing, risk assessment, and graded challenge. Specific IgE was determined in oxaliplatin-reactive patients. Candidate patients were desensitized using the new RCUH rapid desensitization protocol. Of 189 intravenous rapid desensitizations, 188 were successfully accomplished in the 23 patients who met inclusion criteria for desensitization (of 58 referred patients). No breakthrough reactions occurred in 94% of desensitizations, and most breakthrough reactions were mild. In 10 oxaliplatin-reactive patients, 38 desensitizations were successfully accomplished. Sensitivity for oxaliplatin-specific IgE was 38% (0.35UI/l cutoff point) and 54% (0.10UI/l cutoff point); specificity was 100% for both cutoff points. In the hands of a Desensitization Program, managed by drug desensitization experts, this new protocol has proven an effective therapeutic tool for hypersensitivity to several antineoplastic agents (oxaliplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab); moreover, it improves safety handling of hazardous drugs. We report the first large series of oxaliplatin desensitizations. Oxaliplatin-specific IgE determination could be helpful. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Assessment of Military Multitasking Performance: Validation of a Dual-Task and Multitask Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    multitasks using healthy control and SM with diagnosed mTBI. Approach: Inter-rater reliability and assessment of training requirements for expert...developers piloted the revised multitask assessment in a healthy population to assess IRR. Given the an- ticipated variability in task performance between...1 AD_________________ Award Number: Contract W81XWH-12-2-0070 TITLE: Annual Report: The Assessment of Military Multitasking

  19. Using a clinical protocol for orthognathic surgery and assessing a 3-dimensional virtual approach: current therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Luis A; Ruiz, Jessica V; Quevedo, Cristobal A

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons who perform orthognathic surgery face major changes in their practices, and these challenges will increase in the near future, because the extraordinary advances in technology applied to our profession are not only amazing but are becoming the standard of care as they promote improved outcomes for our patients. Orthognathic surgery is one of the favorite areas of practicing within the scope of practice of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Our own practice in orthognathic surgery has completed over 1,000 surgeries of this type. Success is directly related to the consistency and capability of the surgical-orthodontic team to achieve predictable, stable results, and our hypothesis is that a successful result is directly related to the way we take our records and perform diagnosis and treatment planning following basic general principles. Now that we have the opportunity to plan and treat 3-dimensional (3D) problems with 3D technology, we should enter into this new era with appropriate standards to ensure better results, instead of simply enjoying these new tools, which will clearly show not only us but everyone what we do when we perform orthognathic surgery. Appropriate principles need to be taken into account when implementing this new technology. In other words, new technology is welcome, but we do not have to reinvent the wheel. The purpose of this article is to review the current protocol that we use for orthognathic surgery and compare it with published protocols that incorporate new 3D and virtual technology. This report also describes our approach to this new technology. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Adverse Events in Protocols, Clinical Study Reports, and Published Papers of Trials of Orlistat: A Document Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Bennekou Schroll

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how adverse events are summarised and reported in trials, as detailed information is usually considered confidential. We have acquired clinical study reports (CSRs from the European Medicines Agency through the Freedom of Information Act. The CSRs describe the results of studies conducted as part of the application for marketing authorisation for the slimming pill orlistat. The purpose of this study was to study how adverse events were summarised and reported in study protocols, CSRs, and published papers of orlistat trials.We received the CSRs from seven randomised placebo controlled orlistat trials (4,225 participants submitted by Roche. The CSRs consisted of 8,716 pages and included protocols. Two researchers independently extracted data on adverse events from protocols and CSRs. Corresponding published papers were identified on PubMed and adverse event data were extracted from this source as well. All three sources were compared. Individual adverse events from one trial were summed and compared to the totals in the summary report. None of the protocols or CSRs contained instructions for investigators on how to question participants about adverse events. In CSRs, gastrointestinal adverse events were only coded if the participant reported that they were "bothersome," a condition that was not specified in the protocol for two of the trials. Serious adverse events were assessed for relationship to the drug by the sponsor, and all adverse events were coded by the sponsor using a glossary that could be updated by the sponsor. The criteria for withdrawal due to adverse events were in one case related to efficacy (high fasting glucose led to withdrawal, which meant that one trial had more withdrawals due to adverse events in the placebo group. Finally, only between 3% and 33% of the total number of investigator-reported adverse events from the trials were reported in the publications because of post hoc filters, though six of

  1. Reality of rangeland degradation mapping with remote sensing: the South African experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally there is an urgent need for standardized, quantitative measures rangeland degradation. Over the past 10 years in South Africa (SA), significant research efforts have been directed at this challenge, using diverse methods and data...

  2. Human-modified landscapes: patterns of fine-scale woody vegetation structure in communal savannah rangelands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fisher, T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available structure in five communal rangelands around 12 settlements in Bushbuckridge, a municipality in the Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve (South Africa). The importance of underlying abiotic factors was evaluated by measuring size class distributions across...

  3. Success of seeding native compared with introduced perennial vegetation for revegetating medusahead-invaded sagebrush rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of hectares of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle &Young) rangeland have been invaded by medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski), an exotic annual grass that degrades wildlife habitat, reduces forage production, and decreases biodiversity....

  4. Separating the cows from the trees: toward development of national definitions of forest and rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Gyde Lund

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces issues surrounding the need for national definitions of forest and rangeland, and it review types of definitions in use, reviews past agreements and their status, and finally gives recommendations as to what should be done next.

  5. Comparative of three sampling protocols for water quality assessment using macro invertebrates; Comparacion de tres protocolos de muestreo de macroinvertebrados para determinar la calidad del agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puertolas Domenech, L.; Rieradevall Sant, M.; Prat Fornells, N.

    2007-07-01

    The implementation of the Water Framework directive (WFD, Directive 2000/60/CE) requires the establishment of standardized sampling protocols for the assessment of benthic fauna. In this paper, a comparative study of several sampling protocols that are used currently in Spain and Europe (AQEM, EPA and Guadalmed) has been carried out. Evaluating the three protocols with a list of 12 criteria, Guadalmed fits better to the most of them. therefore it appears as an efficient tool in the determination of Ecological Status. (Author)

  6. Automation in an Addiction Treatment Research Clinic: Computerized Contingency Management, Ecological Momentary Assessment, and a Protocol Workflow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2009-01-01

    Issues A challenge in treatment research is the necessity of adhering to protocol and regulatory strictures while maintaining flexibility to meet patients’ treatment needs and accommodate variations among protocols. Another challenge is the acquisition of large amounts of data in an occasionally hectic environment, along with provision of seamless methods for exporting, mining, and querying the data. Approach We have automated several major functions of our outpatient treatment research clinic for studies in drug abuse and dependence. Here we describe three such specialized applications: the Automated Contingency Management (ACM) system for delivery of behavioral interventions, the Transactional Electronic Diary (TED) system for management of behavioral assessments, and the Protocol Workflow System (PWS) for computerized workflow automation and guidance of each participant’s daily clinic activities. These modules are integrated into our larger information system to enable data sharing in real time among authorized staff. Key Findings ACM and TED have each permitted us to conduct research that was not previously possible. In addition, the time to data analysis at the end of each study is substantially shorter. With the implementation of the PWS, we have been able to manage a research clinic with an 80-patient capacity having an annual average of 18,000 patient-visits and 7,300 urine collections with a research staff of five. Finally, automated data management has considerably enhanced our ability to monitor and summarize participant-safety data for research oversight. Implications and conclusion When developed in consultation with end users, automation in treatment-research clinics can enable more efficient operations, better communication among staff, and expansions in research methods. PMID:19320669

  7. Automation in an addiction treatment research clinic: computerised contingency management, ecological momentary assessment and a protocol workflow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L

    2009-01-01

    A challenge in treatment research is the necessity of adhering to protocol and regulatory strictures while maintaining flexibility to meet patients' treatment needs and to accommodate variations among protocols. Another challenge is the acquisition of large amounts of data in an occasionally hectic environment, along with the provision of seamless methods for exporting, mining and querying the data. We have automated several major functions of our outpatient treatment research clinic for studies in drug abuse and dependence. Here we describe three such specialised applications: the Automated Contingency Management (ACM) system for the delivery of behavioural interventions, the transactional electronic diary (TED) system for the management of behavioural assessments and the Protocol Workflow System (PWS) for computerised workflow automation and guidance of each participant's daily clinic activities. These modules are integrated into our larger information system to enable data sharing in real time among authorised staff. ACM and the TED have each permitted us to conduct research that was not previously possible. In addition, the time to data analysis at the end of each study is substantially shorter. With the implementation of the PWS, we have been able to manage a research clinic with an 80 patient capacity, having an annual average of 18,000 patient visits and 7300 urine collections with a research staff of five. Finally, automated data management has considerably enhanced our ability to monitor and summarise participant safety data for research oversight. When developed in consultation with end users, automation in treatment research clinics can enable more efficient operations, better communication among staff and expansions in research methods.

  8. Protocol and quality assurance for carotid imaging in 100,000 participants of UK Biobank: development and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Sean; Lewandowski, Adam J; Garratt, Steve; Meijer, Rudy; Lynum, Steven; Bedi, Ram; Paterson, James; Yaqub, Mohammad; Noble, J Alison; Neubauer, Stefan; Petersen, Steffen E; Allen, Naomi; Sudlow, Cathie; Collins, Rory; Matthews, Paul M; Leeson, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Background Ultrasound imaging is able to quantify carotid arterial wall structure for the assessment of cerebral and cardiovascular disease risks. We describe a protocol and quality assurance process to enable carotid imaging at large scale that has been developed for the UK Biobank Imaging Enhancement Study of 100,000 individuals. Design An imaging protocol was developed to allow measurement of carotid intima-media thickness from the far wall of both common carotid arteries. Six quality assurance criteria were defined and a web-based interface (Intelligent Ultrasound) was developed to facilitate rapid assessment of images against each criterion. Results and conclusions Excellent inter and intra-observer agreements were obtained for image quality evaluations on a test dataset from 100 individuals. The image quality criteria then were applied in the UK Biobank Imaging Enhancement Study. Data from 2560 participants were evaluated. Feedback of results to the imaging team led to improvement in quality assurance, with quality assurance failures falling from 16.2% in the first two-month period examined to 6.4% in the last. Eighty per cent had all carotid intima-media thickness images graded as of acceptable quality, with at least one image acceptable for 98% of participants. Carotid intima-media thickness measures showed expected associations with increasing age and gender. Carotid imaging can be performed consistently, with semi-automated quality assurance of all scans, in a limited timeframe within a large scale multimodality imaging assessment. Routine feedback of quality control metrics to operators can improve the quality of the data collection.

  9. Rangeland Use Rights Privatisation Based on the Tragedy of the Commons: A Case Study from Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonten Nyima Yundannima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland use rights privatisation based on a tragedy of the commons assumption has been the backbone of state policy on rangeland management and pastoralism in China. Through an empirical case study from Pelgon county, Tibet Autonomous Region in China, this paper provides an empirical analysis of rangeland use rights privatisation. It shows that the tragedy of the commons is not the correct model to apply to Tibetan pastoralism because pasture use in Tibet has never been an open-access institution. Thus, when the tragedy of the commons model is applied as a rationale for rangeland use rights privatisation, the result is not what is intended by the policy, but rather a misfit to features of pastoralism and thus disruption of the essence of pastoralism, i.e. mobility and flexibility. The paper further shows that a hybrid institution combining household rangeland tenure with community-based use with user fees is a restoration of the pastoralist institution. This demonstrates the capacity of pastoralists to create adaptive new institutions congruent with the interdependent and integrated nature of pastoralism consisting of three components: pastoralists, livestock, and rangeland.

  10. Uptake and release protocol for assessing membrane binding and permeation by way of isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamaloukas, Alekos D; Keller, Sandro; Heerklotz, Heiko

    2007-01-01

    The activity of many biomolecules and drugs crucially depends on whether they bind to biological membranes and whether they translocate to the opposite lipid leaflet and trans aqueous compartment. A general strategy to measure membrane binding and permeation is the uptake and release assay, which compares two apparent equilibrium situations established either by the addition or by the extraction of the solute of interest. Only solutes that permeate the membrane sufficiently fast do not show any dependence on the history of sample preparation. This strategy can be pursued for virtually all membrane-binding solutes, using any method suitable for detecting binding. Here, we present in detail one example that is particularly well developed, namely the nonspecific membrane partitioning and flip-flop of small, nonionic solutes as characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry. A complete set of experiments, including all sample preparation procedures, can typically be accomplished within 2 days. Analogous protocols for studying charged solutes, virtually water-insoluble, hydrophobic compounds or specific ligands are also considered.

  11. Monitoring Forage Production of California Rangeland Using Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Jin, Y.; Dahlgren, R. A.; O'Geen, A. T.; Roche, L. M.; Smith, A. M.; Flavell, D.

    2016-12-01

    Pastures and rangeland cover more than 10 million hectares in California's coastal and inland foothill regions, providing feeds to livestock and important ecosystem services. Forage production in California has a large year-to-year variation due to large inter-annual and seasonal variabilities in precipitation and temperature. It also varies spatially due to the variability in climate and soils. Our goal is to develop a robust and cost-effective tool to map the near-real-time and historical forage productivity in California using remote sensing observations from Landsat and MODIS satellites. We used a Monteith's eco-physiological plant growth theory: the aboveground net primary production (ANPP) is determined by (i) the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and the (ii) light use efficiency (LUE): ANPP = APAR * LUEmax * f(T) * f(SM), where LUEmax is the maximum LUE, and f(T) and f(SM) are the temperature and soil moisture constrains on LUE. APAR was estimated with Landsat and MODIS vegetation index (VI), and LUE was calibrated with a statewide point dataset of peak forage production measurements at 75 annual rangeland sites. A non-linear optimization was performed to derive maximum LUE and the parameters for temperature and soil moisture regulation on LUE by minimizing the differences between the estimated and measured ANPP. Our results showed the satellite-derived annual forage production estimates correlated well withcontemporaneous in-situ forage measurements and captured both the spatial and temporal productivity patterns of forage productivity well. This remote sensing algorithm can be further improved as new field measurements become available. This tool will have a great importance in maintaining a sustainable range industry by providing key knowledge for ranchers and the stakeholders to make managerial decisions.

  12. Preview of the Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP): Assessing Risk and Opportunity in Complex Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberts, Christopher; Dorofee, Audrey; Marino, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    .... A MAAP assessment provides a systematic, in-depth analysis of the potential for success in distributed, complex, and uncertain environments and can be applied across the life cycle and throughout the supply chain...

  13. OCONUS Compliance Assessment Protocols (OCAP) - Saudi Arabia (Army Version) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krooks, David A; Schell, Donna J

    2004-01-01

    ...: 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 670 KB. ABSTRACT: This environmental compliance assessment manual is based on the Final Governing Standards for Environmental Security by United States Forces in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (FGS-SA...

  14. Resource analysis of the Chinese society 1980-2002 based on exergy-Part 4: Fishery and rangeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.; Chen, G.Q.

    2007-01-01

    This fourth part is the continuation of the third part on agricultural products. The major fishery and rangeland products entering the Chinese society from 1980 to 2002 are calculated and analyzed in detail in this paper. The aquatic production, mainly relying on freshwater and seawater breeding, Enhancement policy of fishery resources, including closed fishing season system, construction of artificial fish reefs and ecological fish breeding, etc., is discussed in detail. The degradation of the major rangeland areas, hay yields and intake rangeland resources by the livestock, are also described associated with the strategic adjustment and comprehensive program to protect rangeland resources during the study period

  15. Union Gas assessment protocol for power generator air and noise emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complin, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlined a procedure for obtaining data to facilitate air and noise compliance assessments for emergency and other fuel-fired power generators. Facilities with the generators may contain additional sources of nitrogen oxides (NO x ). The assessments are required for each new or modified generator in order to ensure that regulatory requirements in the Air Pollution Local Air Quality Regulation and the Noise Pollution Control documents are met. The air emission assessments follow the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) report. The paper included a screening process to screen out generators with negligible emissions. A maximum power rating was calculated using AP-2 emission factors and a conservative heat rating assumption. Maximum power ratings for various types of generators were presented. The information requirements included a description of the type of engine used; sound power level data; octave band insertion loss data; and plan and section drawings of the generator room. 2 tabs.

  16. Using a risk assessment protocol to develop soil cleanup criteria for petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante-Duah, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum contaminated site may prose significant risks to the public because of potential health and environmental effects, and to Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) because of financial liabilities that could result from such effects. The effective management of petroleum contaminated sites has therefore become an important environmental priority and will be a growing challenge for years to come. It has also become evident that the proper management of such sites poses great challenges. Risk assessment seems to be one of the fastest evolving tools for developing appropriate management decisions, including those relating to the levels of cleanup warranty under specific scenarios. This paper reports that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recognizes the use of risk assessment to facilitate decisions on whether or not remedial actions are needed to abate site-related risks, and also in the enforcement of regulatory standards. Risk assessment techniques have been used in various regulatory programs employed by federal, state, and local agencies

  17. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moorhead, Anne

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  18. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Kathy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  19. Quality assessment in in vivo NMR spectroscopy: V. Multicentre evaluation of prototype test objects and protocols for performance assessment in small bore MRS equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, F.A.; Canese, R; Podo, F

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the results of multicentre studies aimed at designing, constructing, and evaluating prototype test objects for performance assessment in small-bore MRS systems, by utilizing the test protocols already proposed by the EEC COMAC-BME Concerted Action for clinical MRS equipment...... using ISIS as volume localization sequence in 31P MRS. The results suggested the interest of adopting some of these prototypes for improving the comparison of spectroscopy data obtained from different sites, for providing useful means of quality assurance in experimental MRS, and facilitating....... Three classes of test objects were considered: (1) a multicompartment test object for 31P MRS measurements performed with slice-selective sequences; (2) a two-compartment test object for volume-selection 1H MRS; and (3) two-compartment test objects for assessing the performance of experimental systems...

  20. Feasibility of an intracranial EEG-fMRI protocol at 3T: risk assessment and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucousis, Shannon M; Beers, Craig A; Cunningham, Cameron J B; Gaxiola-Valdez, Ismael; Pittman, Daniel J; Goodyear, Bradley G; Federico, Paolo

    2012-11-15

    Integrating intracranial EEG (iEEG) with functional MRI (iEEG-fMRI) may help elucidate mechanisms underlying the generation of seizures. However, the introduction of iEEG electrodes in the MR environment has inherent risk and data quality implications that require consideration prior to clinical use. Previous studies of subdural and depth electrodes have confirmed low risk under specific circumstances at 1.5T and 3T. However, no studies have assessed risk and image quality related to the feasibility of a full iEEG-fMRI protocol. To this end, commercially available platinum subdural grid/strip electrodes (4×5 grid or 1×8 strip) and 4 or 6-contact depth electrodes were secured to the surface of a custom-made phantom mimicking the conductivity of the human brain. Electrode displacement, temperature increase of electrodes and surrounding phantom material, and voltage fluctuations in electrode contacts were measured in a GE Discovery MR750 3T MR scanner during a variety of imaging sequences, typical of an iEEG-fMRI protocol. An electrode grid was also used to quantify the spatial extent of susceptibility artifact. The spatial extent of susceptibility artifact in the presence of an electrode was also assessed for typical imaging parameters that maximize BOLD sensitivity at 3T (TR=1500 ms; TE=30 ms; slice thickness=4mm; matrix=64×64; field-of-view=24 cm). Under standard conditions, all electrodes exhibited no measurable displacement and no clinically significant temperature increase (2.0°C) that in some cases exceeded 10°C. Induced voltages in the frequency range that could elicit neuronal stimulation (<10 kHz) were well below the threshold of 100 mV. fMRI signal intensity was significantly reduced within 20mm of the electrodes for the imaging parameters used in this study. Thus, for the conditions tested, a full iEEG-fMRI protocol poses a low risk at 3T; however, fMRI sensitivity may be reduced immediately adjacent to the electrodes. In addition, high SAR sequences

  1. Validity of partial protocols to assess the prevalence of periodontal outcomes and associated sociodemographic and behavior factors in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Marco A; Peres, Karen G; Cascaes, Andreia M; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio F; Hallal, Pedro C; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Menezes, Ana B

    2012-03-01

    Most studies comparing prevalence of periodontal disease and risk factors by using partial protocols were performed in adult populations, with several studies being conducted in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of partial protocols in estimating the prevalence of periodontal outcomes in adolescents and young adults from two population-based birth cohorts from Pelotas, Brazil, and to assess differences in the estimation and strength of the effect measures when partial protocols are adopted compared to full-mouth examination. Gingival bleeding at probing among adolescents (n = 339) and young adults (n = 720) and dental calculus and periodontal probing depth among young adults were assessed using full-mouth examinations and four partial protocols: Ramfjord teeth (RT), community periodontal index (CPI), and two random diagonal quadrants (1 and 3, 2 and 4). Socioeconomic, demographic, and periodontal health-related variables were also collected. Sensitivity, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratio for each periodontal outcome for the risk factors was estimated. Two diagonal quadrants showed better accuracy; RT had the worst, whereas CPI presented an intermediate pattern when compared to full-mouth examination. For bleeding assessment in adolescence, RT and CPI underestimated by 18.4% and 16.2%, respectively, the true outcome prevalence, whereas among young adults, all partial protocols underestimated the prevalence. All partial protocols presented similar magnitude of association measures for all investigated periodontal potential risk factors. Two diagonal quadrants protocol may be effective in identifying the risk factors for the most relevant periodontal outcomes in adolescence and in young adulthood.

  2. Toward a Best-Practice Protocol for Assessment of Sensory Features in ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Lane, Alison E.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory difficulties are a commonly occurring feature of autism spectrum disorders and are now included as one manifestation of the "restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities" diagnostic criteria of the DSM5 necessitating guidelines for comprehensive assessment of these features. To facilitate the development…

  3. Reliability and accuracy of a video analysis protocol to assess core ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Dawn A; Delgadillo, James Q; Fredericson, Michael; McConnell, Jennifer; Hodgins, Melissa; Besier, Thor F

    2011-03-01

    To develop and test a method to measure core ability in healthy athletes with 2-dimensional video analysis software (SiliconCOACH). Specific objectives were to: (1) develop a standardized exercise battery with progressions of increasing difficulty to evaluate areas of core ability in elite athletes; (2) develop an objective and quantitative grading rubric with the use of video analysis software; (3) assess the test-retest reliability of the exercise battery; (4) assess the interrater and intrarater reliability of the video analysis system; and (5) assess the accuracy of the assessment. Test-retest repeatability and accuracy. Testing was conducted in the Stanford Human Performance Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Nine female gymnasts currently training with the Stanford Varsity Women's Gymnastics Team participated in testing. Participants completed a test battery composed of planks, side planks, and leg bridges of increasing difficulty. Subjects completed two 20-minute testing sessions within a 4- to 10-day period. Two-dimensional sagittal-plane video was captured simultaneously with 3-dimensional motion capture. The main outcome measures were pelvic displacement and time that elapsed until failure occurred, as measured with SiliconCOACH video analysis software. Test-retest and interrater and intrarater reliability of the video analysis measures was assessed. Accuracy as compared with 3-dimensional motion capture also was assessed. Levels reached during the side planks and leg bridges had an excellent test-retest correlation (r(2) = 0.84, r(2) = 0.95). Pelvis displacements measured by examiner 1 and examiner 2 had an excellent correlation (r(2) = 0.86, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.92). Pelvis displacements measured by examiner 1 during independent grading sessions had an excellent correlation (r(2) = 0.92). Pelvis displacements from the plank and from a set of combined plank and side plank exercises both had an excellent correlation with 3

  4. An Indication of Reliability of the Two-Level Approach of the AWIN Welfare Assessment Protocol for Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Czycholl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance feasibility, the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN assessment protocol for horses consists of two levels: the first is a visual inspection of a sample of horses performed from a distance, the second a close-up inspection of all horses. The aim was to analyse whether information would be lost if only the first level were performed. In this study, 112 first and 112 second level assessments carried out on a subsequent day by one observer were compared by calculating the Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient (RS, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC, Smallest Detectable Changes (SDC and Limits of Agreements (LoA. Most indicators demonstrated sufficient reliability between the two levels. Exceptions were the Horse Grimace Scale, the Avoidance Distance Test and the Voluntary Human Approach Test (e.g., Voluntary Human Approach Test: RS: 0.38, ICC: 0.38, SDC: 0.21, LoA: −0.25–0.17, which could, however, be also interpreted as a lack of test-retest reliability. Further disagreement was found for the indicator consistency of manure (RS: 0.31, ICC: 0.38, SDC: 0.36, LoA: −0.38–0.36. For these indicators, an adaptation of the first level would be beneficial. Overall, in this study, the division into two levels was reliable and might therewith have the potential to enhance feasibility in other welfare assessment schemes.

  5. PErineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS: protocol for a matched pair cluster trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peter W

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Perineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS is a national clinical quality improvement initiative designed to improve the assessment and management of perineal trauma. Perineal trauma affects around 85% of women who have a vaginal birth in the UK each year and millions more world-wide. Continuous suturing techniques compared with traditional interrupted methods are more effective in reducing pain and postnatal morbidity, however they are not widely used by clinicians despite recommendations of evidence based national clinical guidelines. Perineal suturing skills and postnatal management of trauma remain highly variable within and between maternity units in the UK as well as worldwide. Implementation of a standardised training package to support effective perineal management practices could reduce perineal pain and other related postnatal morbidity for a substantial number of women. Methods/Design PEARLS is a matched pair cluster trial, which is being conducted in maternity units across the UK. Units within a matched pair will be randomised to implement the study intervention either early or late in the study period. The intervention will include the cascading of a multi-professional training package to enhance midwifery and obstetric skills in the assessment, repair and postnatal management of perineal trauma. Women who have had an episiotomy or second degree perineal tear will be eligible for recruitment. Prior to developing the intervention and deciding on study outcomes, a Delphi survey and a consensus conference were held to identify what women, who previously suffered perineal trauma during childbirth, considered to be important outcomes for them. Findings from this preliminary work (which will be reported elsewhere and other outcomes including women's experiences of perineal pain and pain on activity, breastfeeding uptake and duration and psychological well-being as assessed using the Edinburgh

  6. Evaluation of Animal-Based Indicators to Be Used in a Welfare Assessment Protocol for Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Susan E; Wemelsfelder, Francoise; de Heredia, Ina Beltran; Ruiz, Roberto; Canali, Elisabetta; Dwyer, Cathy M

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are managed under a variety of different environments (continually outdoors, partially outdoors with seasonal or diurnal variation, continuously indoors) and for different purposes, which makes assessing welfare challenging. This diversity means that resource-based indicators are not particularly useful and, thus, a welfare assessment scheme for sheep, focusing on animal-based indicators, was developed. We focus specifically on ewes, as the most numerous group of sheep present on farm, although many of the indicators may also have relevance to adult male sheep. Using the Welfare Quality ® framework of four Principles and 12 Criteria, we considered the validity, reliability, and feasibility of 46 putative animal-based indicators derived from the literature for these criteria. Where animal-based indicators were potentially unreliably or were not considered feasible, we also considered the resource-based indicators of access to water, stocking density, and floor slipperiness. With the exception of the criteria "Absence of prolonged thirst," we suggest at least one animal-based indicator for each welfare criterion. As a minimum, face validity was available for all indicators; however, for many, we found evidence of convergent validity and discriminant validity (e.g., lameness as measured by gait score, body condition score). The reliability of most of the physical and health measures has been tested in the field and found to be appropriate for use in welfare assessment. However, for the majority of the proposed behavioral indicators (lying synchrony, social withdrawal, postures associated with pain, vocalizations, stereotypy, vigilance, response to surprise, and human approach test), this still needs to be tested. In conclusion, the comprehensive assessment of sheep welfare through largely animal-based measures is supported by the literature through the use of indicators focusing on specific aspects of sheep biology. Further work is required for some indicators

  7. Measurement properties of instruments assessing permanent functional impairment of the spine: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Catherine M; Boden, Catherine; Bath, Brenna; Hendrick, Paul; Clay, Lynne; Zeng, Xiaoke; Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Permanent functional impairment (PFI) of the spine is a rating system used by compensation authorities, such as workers compensation boards, to establish an appropriate level of financial compensation for persistent loss of function. Determination of PFI of the spine is commonly based on the assessment of spinal movement combined with other measures of physical and functional impairments; however, the reliability and validity of the measurement instruments used for these evaluations have yet to be established. The aim of this study is to systematically review and synthesise the literature concerning measurement properties of the various and different instruments used for assessing PFI of the spine. Methods Three conceptual groups of terms (1) PFI, (2) spinal disorder and (3) measurement properties will be combined to search Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, PEDro, OTSeeker and Health and Safety Science Abstracts. We will examine peer-reviewed, full-text articles over the full available date range. Two reviewers will independently screen citations (title, abstract and full text) and perform data extraction. Included studies will be appraised as to their methodological quality using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments criteria. Findings will be summarised and presented descriptively, with meta-analysis pursued as appropriate. Ethics and dissemination This review will summarise the current level of evidence of measurement properties of instruments used for assessing PFI of the spine. Findings of this review may be applicable to clinicians, policy-makers, workers’ compensation boards, other insurers and health and safety organisations. The findings will likely provide a foundation and direction for future research priorities for assessing spinal PFI. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017060390. PMID:29374671

  8. Measurement properties of instruments assessing permanent functional impairment of the spine: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, Suelen Meira; Trask, Catherine M; Boden, Catherine; Bath, Brenna; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Hendrick, Paul; Clay, Lynne; Zeng, Xiaoke; Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2018-01-27

    Permanent functional impairment (PFI) of the spine is a rating system used by compensation authorities, such as workers compensation boards, to establish an appropriate level of financial compensation for persistent loss of function. Determination of PFI of the spine is commonly based on the assessment of spinal movement combined with other measures of physical and functional impairments; however, the reliability and validity of the measurement instruments used for these evaluations have yet to be established. The aim of this study is to systematically review and synthesise the literature concerning measurement properties of the various and different instruments used for assessing PFI of the spine. Three conceptual groups of terms (1) PFI, (2) spinal disorder and (3) measurement properties will be combined to search Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, PEDro, OTSeeker and Health and Safety Science Abstracts. We will examine peer-reviewed, full-text articles over the full available date range. Two reviewers will independently screen citations (title, abstract and full text) and perform data extraction. Included studies will be appraised as to their methodological quality using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments criteria. Findings will be summarised and presented descriptively, with meta-analysis pursued as appropriate. This review will summarise the current level of evidence of measurement properties of instruments used for assessing PFI of the spine. Findings of this review may be applicable to clinicians, policy-makers, workers' compensation boards, other insurers and health and safety organisations. The findings will likely provide a foundation and direction for future research priorities for assessing spinal PFI. CRD42017060390. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  9. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  10. Implementation outcome assessment instruments used in physical healthcare settings and their measurement properties: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoratou, Silia; Sevdalis, Nick; Hull, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 10 years, research into methods that promote the uptake, implementation and sustainability of evidence-based interventions has gathered pace. However, implementation outcomes are defined in different ways and assessed by different measures; the extent to which these measures are valid and reliable is unknown. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and appraise studies that assess the measurement properties of quantitative implementation outcome instruments used in physical healthcare settings, to advance the use of precise and accurate measures. Methods and analysis The following databases will be searched from inception to March 2017: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Grey literature will be sought via HMIC, OpenGrey, ProQuest for theses and Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science. Reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews will be hand searched. Three search strings will be combined to identify eligible studies: (1) implementation literature, (2) implementation outcomes and (3) measurement properties. Screening of titles, abstracts and full papers will be assessed for eligibility by two reviewers independently and any discrepancies resolved via consensus with the wider team. The methodological quality of the studies will be assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. A set of bespoke criteria to determine the quality of the instruments will be used, and the relationship between instrument usability and quality will be explored. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not necessary for systematic review protocols. Researchers and healthcare professionals can use the findings of this systematic review to guide the selection of implementation outcomes instruments, based on their psychometric quality, to assess the impact of their implementation efforts. The findings will also provide a useful guide for

  11. Introduced and invasive species in novel rangeland ecosystems: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Ludwig, John A.; Wilcox, Bradford P.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dean, W. Richard J.; Hoffmann, Benjamin D.; Milton, Sue J.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, new combinations of introduced and native plant and animal species have changed rangelands into novel ecosystems. Whereas many rangeland stakeholders (people who use or have an interest in rangelands) view intentional species introductions to improve forage and control erosion as beneficial, others focus on unintended costs, such as increased fire risk, loss of rangeland biodiversity, and threats to conservation efforts, specifically in nature reserves and parks. These conflicting views challenge all rangeland stakeholders, especially those making decisions on how best to manage novel ecosystems. To formulate a conceptual framework for decision making, we examined a wide range of novel ecosystems, created by intentional and unintentional introductions of nonnative species and land-use–facilitated spread of native ones. This framework simply divides decision making into two types: 1) straightforward–certain, and 2) complex–uncertain. We argue that management decisions to retain novel ecosystems are certain when goods and services provided by the system far outweigh the costs of restoration, for example in the case of intensively managed Cenchrus pastures. Decisions to return novel ecosystems to natural systems are also certain when the value of the system is low and restoration is easy and inexpensive as in the case of biocontrol of Opuntia infestations. In contrast, decisions whether to retain or restore novel ecosystems become complex and uncertain in cases where benefits are low and costs of control are high as, for example, in the case of stopping the expansion of Prosopis and Juniperus into semiarid rangelands. Decisions to retain or restore novel ecosystems are also complex and uncertain when, for example, nonnative Eucalyptus trees expand along natural streams, negatively affecting biodiversity, but also providing timber and honey. When decision making is complex and uncertain, we suggest that rangeland managers utilize cost–benefit analyses

  12. Combined effects of leaf litter and soil microsite on decomposition process in arid rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Analía Lorena; Bertiller, Mónica Beatriz

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the combined effects of leaf litter quality and soil properties on litter decomposition and soil nitrogen (N) mineralization at conserved (C) and disturbed by sheep grazing (D) vegetation states in arid rangelands of the Patagonian Monte. It was hypothesized that spatial differences in soil inorganic-N levels have larger impact on decomposition processes of non-recalcitrant than recalcitrant leaf litter (low and high concentration of secondary compounds, respectively). Leaf litter and upper soil were extracted from modal size plant patches (patch microsite) and the associated inter-patch area (inter-patch microsite) in C and D. Leaf litter was pooled per vegetation state and soil was pooled combining vegetation state and microsite. Concentrations of N and secondary compounds in leaf litter and total and inorganic-N in soil were assessed at each pooled sample. Leaf litter decay and soil N mineralization at microsites of C and D were estimated in 160 microcosms incubated at field capacity (16 month). C soils had higher total N than D soils (0.58 and 0.41 mg/g, respectively). Patch soil of C and inter-patch soil of D exhibited the highest values of inorganic-N (8.8 and 8.4 μg/g, respectively). Leaf litter of C was less recalcitrant and decomposed faster than that of D. Non-recalcitrant leaf litter decay and induced soil N mineralization had larger variation among microsites (coefficients of variation = 25 and 41%, respectively) than recalcitrant leaf litter (coefficients of variation = 12 and 32%, respectively). Changes in the canopy structure induced by grazing disturbance increased leaf litter recalcitrance, and reduced litter decay and soil N mineralization, independently of soil N levels. This highlights the importance of the combined effects of soil and leaf litter properties on N cycling probably with consequences for vegetation reestablishment and dynamics, rangeland resistance and resilience with implications

  13. Evaluating holistic needs assessment in outpatient cancer care--a randomised controlled trial: the study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Young, Jenny; White, Craig; Murray, Esther; Richard, Claude; Lussier, Marie-Therese; MacArthur, Ewan; Storey, Dawn; Schipani, Stefano; Wheatley, Duncan; McMahon, Jeremy; Ross, Elaine

    2015-05-11

    People living with and beyond cancer are vulnerable to a number of physical, functional and psychological issues. Undertaking a holistic needs assessment (HNA) is one way to support a structured discussion of patients' needs within a clinical consultation. However, there is little evidence on how HNA impacts on the dynamics of the clinical consultation. This study aims to establish (1) how HNA affects the type of conversation that goes on during a clinical consultation and (2) how these putative changes impact on shared decision-making and self-efficacy. The study is hosted by 10 outpatient oncology clinics in the West of Scotland and South West England. Participants are patients with a diagnosis of head and neck, breast, urological, gynaecological and colorectal cancer who have received treatment for their cancer. Patients are randomised to an intervention or control group. The control group entails standard care--routine consultation between the patient and clinician. In the intervention group, the patient completes a holistic needs assessment prior to consultation. The completed assessment is then given to the clinician where it informs a discussion based on the patient's needs and concerns as identified by them. The primary outcome measure is patient participation, as determined by dialogue ratio (DR) and preponderance of initiative (PI) within the consultation. The secondary outcome measures are shared decision-making and self-efficacy. It is hypothesised that HNA will be associated with greater patient participation within the consultation, and that shared decision-making and feelings of self-efficacy will increase as a function of the intervention. This study has been given a favourable opinion by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee and NHS Research & Development. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference attendance. Clinical Trials.gov NCT02274701. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  14. Protocol of the project pain & disasters: assessment of critical issues and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mipatrini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disasters cause almost 100 thousand deaths and affect 200 million people every year. Operators working in disaster zones reported problems in importing medications, in particular pain killers and narcotics, in areas of disasters. The importance of ensuring access to painkillers, including major analgesics, is pinpointed by the World Health Organization which through its “Access to Controlled Medications Programme” provides normative guidance, policy analysis and training of healthcare workers on this issue. Nevertheless the little evidence available on the assessment and treatment of pain in disasters suggests that the management of pain in disaster zones may be affected by several factors mainly due to the availability of drugs, the skills of health personnel and cultural issues. Aim:The main aims of this project are: evaluating whether pain is correctly assessed and treated in disaster zones, assessing which are the main limitations to its treatment and producing suggestions and reccomandations to improve its treatment. Materials & Methods: In order to achieve our aims we will adopt a combined approach made by: A systematic review of the evidence will be conducted in the scientific databases Medline and Scopus. A review of grey literature concerning the issue on the Web pages of international organizations and NGOs working in the field of humanitarian aid. A survey among healthcare workers who took part to the international humanitarian actions. A survey among expert of the humanitarian field not necessary involved in projects on the field e.g. lawyer expert in international law, international organizations representatives working in the headquarters etc. A technical table with European experts in the field of pain treatment and/or disaster reaponse.

  15. Automation of CT-based haemorrhagic stroke assessment for improved clinical outcomes: study protocol and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinda, Betty; Medvedev, George; Siu, William; Ester, Martin; Arab, Ali; Gu, Tao; Moreno, Sylvain; D'Arcy, Ryan C N; Song, Xiaowei

    2018-04-19

    Haemorrhagic stroke is of significant healthcare concern due to its association with high mortality and lasting impact on the survivors' quality of life. Treatment decisions and clinical outcomes depend strongly on the size, spread and location of the haematoma. Non-contrast CT (NCCT) is the primary neuroimaging modality for haematoma assessment in haemorrhagic stroke diagnosis. Current procedures do not allow convenient NCCT-based haemorrhage volume calculation in clinical settings, while research-based approaches are yet to be tested for clinical utility; there is a demonstrated need for developing effective solutions. The project under review investigates the development of an automatic NCCT-based haematoma computation tool in support of accurate quantification of haematoma volumes. Several existing research methods for haematoma volume estimation are studied. Selected methods are tested using NCCT images of patients diagnosed with acute haemorrhagic stroke. For inter-rater and intrarater reliability evaluation, different raters will analyse haemorrhage volumes independently. The efficiency with respect to time of haematoma volume assessments will be examined to compare with the results from routine clinical evaluations and planimetry assessment that are known to be more accurate. The project will target the development of an enhanced solution by adapting existing methods and integrating machine learning algorithms. NCCT-based information of brain haemorrhage (eg, size, volume, location) and other relevant information (eg, age, sex, risk factor, comorbidities) will be used in relation to clinical outcomes with future project development. Validity and reliability of the solution will be examined for potential clinical utility. The project including procedures for deidentification of NCCT data has been ethically approved. The study involves secondary use of existing data and does not require new consent of participation. The team consists of clinical neuroimaging

  16. Smart Home Communication Technologies and Applications: Wireless Protocol Assessment for Home Area Network Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago D. P. Mendes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Home Area Networks (HAN communication technologies for smart home and domestic application integration. The work is initiated by identifying the application areas that can benefit from this integration. A broad and inclusive home communication interface is analysed utilizing as a key piece a Gateway based on machine-to-machine (M2M communications that interacts with the surrounding environment. Then, the main wireless networks are thoroughly assessed, and later, their suitability to the requirements of HAN considering the application area is analysed. Finally, a qualitative analysis is portrayed.

  17. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Renske M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly. However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls aims to determine the effects and costs of helmet therapy compared to no helmet therapy in infants with moderate to severe skull deformation. Methods/design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT nested in a cohort study. The cohort study included infants with a positional preference and/or skull deformation at two to four months (first assessment. At 5 months of age, all children were assessed again and infants meeting the criteria for helmet therapy were asked to participate in the RCT. Participants were randomly allocated to either helmet therapy or no helmet therapy. Parents of eligible infants that do not agree with enrolment in the RCT were invited to stay enrolled for follow up in a non-randomisedrandomised controlled trial (nRCT; they were then free to make the decision to start helmet therapy or not. Follow-up assessments took place at 8, 12 and 24 months of age. The main outcome will be head shape at 24 months that is measured using plagiocephalometry. Secondary outcomes will be satisfaction of parents and professionals with the appearance of the child, parental concerns about the future, anxiety level and satisfaction with the treatment, motor development and quality of life of the infant. Finally, compliance and costs will also be determined. Discussion HEADS will be the first study presenting data from an RCT on the effectiveness of helmet therapy. Outcomes will be important for affected children and their parents, health care professionals and future treatment policies. Our findings are likely to influence the reimbursement policies of health insurance companies. Besides these health outcomes, we will be able to

  18. Assessment of lectin and HILIC based enrichment protocols for characterization of serum glycoproteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvano, Cosima D; Zambonin, Carlo G; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2008-01-01

    glycosylation profiles are associated with certain human ailments. Glycoprotein analysis by mass spectrometry of biological samples, such as blood serum, is hampered by sample complexity and the low concentration of the potentially informative glycopeptides and -proteins. We assessed the utility of lectin...... of 63 glycosylation sites in 38 proteins were identified by both methods, demonstrating distinct differences and complementarity. Serial application of custom-made microcolumns of mixed, immobilized lectins proved efficient for recovery and analysis of glycopeptides from serum samples of breast cancer...

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of Australian early childhood education and care experiences: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Tayler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, 61.5 % of children aged 3–4 attend Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC programs. Children’s experiences within these programs vary widely and impact directly on educational wellbeing and social development. Research has shown that higher quality programs enhance children’s learning and developmental outcomes, foster social participation and have long-lasting effects on their productivity as adults. Quality matters, yet we do not know what components of ECEC result in a quality program. Effective Early Educational Experiences (E4Kids is a 5-year longitudinal study designed to identify and assess the impact of mainstream ECEC programs and program components on children’s learning, development, social inclusion and well-being. E4Kids sets out to measure quality ECEC; identify components that add value and positively impact children’s outcomes; evaluate the effects of child, family, community and environment characteristics on programs; and provide evidence on how best to invest in ECEC. Methods/design E4Kids follows a sample of 2,494 children who have experienced a variety of approved care programs (long day care, kindergarten, family day care and occasional care, as well as 157 children who have not accessed such programs. Children are tracked to the first point of National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN testing at Year 3. The study presents a multi-level design in which ECEC programs were sampled from two states – Queensland and Victoria – then randomly sampled from two greater metropolitan regions and two regional and remote locations. Parents, centre directors, educators and carers complete questionnaires to provide information on demographics and children’s progress. Data collected also include the make-up and organisation of ECEC programs and schools children attended. The quality of adult-child interactions is directly assessed using the Classroom Assessment

  20. Assessing the effectiveness of Australian early childhood education and care experiences: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayler, Collette; Cloney, Daniel; Adams, Ray; Ishimine, Karin; Thorpe, Karen; Nguyen, Thi Kim Cuc

    2016-04-21

    In Australia, 61.5 % of children aged 3-4 attend Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) programs. Children's experiences within these programs vary widely and impact directly on educational wellbeing and social development. Research has shown that higher quality programs enhance children's learning and developmental outcomes, foster social participation and have long-lasting effects on their productivity as adults. Quality matters, yet we do not know what components of ECEC result in a quality program. Effective Early Educational Experiences (E4Kids) is a 5-year longitudinal study designed to identify and assess the impact of mainstream ECEC programs and program components on children's learning, development, social inclusion and well-being. E4Kids sets out to measure quality ECEC; identify components that add value and positively impact children's outcomes; evaluate the effects of child, family, community and environment characteristics on programs; and provide evidence on how best to invest in ECEC. E4Kids follows a sample of 2,494 children who have experienced a variety of approved care programs (long day care, kindergarten, family day care and occasional care), as well as 157 children who have not accessed such programs. Children are tracked to the first point of National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) testing at Year 3. The study presents a multi-level design in which ECEC programs were sampled from two states - Queensland and Victoria - then randomly sampled from two greater metropolitan regions and two regional and remote locations. Parents, centre directors, educators and carers complete questionnaires to provide information on demographics and children's progress. Data collected also include the make-up and organisation of ECEC programs and schools children attended. The quality of adult-child interactions is directly assessed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) and direct testing of children's cognitive abilities

  1. Dose-Response Assessment of Four Genotoxic Chemicals in a Combined Mouse and Rat Micronucleus and Comet Assay Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Leslie; Hobbs, Cheryl; Caspary, William; Witt, Kristine L.

    2012-01-01

    The in vivo micronucleus (MN) assay has proven to be an effective measure of genotoxicity potential. However, sampling a single tissue (bone marrow) for a single indicator of genetic damage using the MN assay provides a limited genotoxicity profile. The in vivo alkaline (pH>13) Comet assay, which detects a broad spectrum of DNA damage, can be applied to a variety of rodent tissues following administration of test agents. To determine if the Comet assay is a useful supplement to the in vivo MN assay, a combined test protocol (MN/Comet assay) was conducted in male B6C3F1 mice and F344/N rats using four model genotoxicants: ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), acrylamide (ACM), cyclophosphamide (CP), and vincristine sulfate (VS). Test compounds were administered on 4 consecutive days at 24-hour intervals (VS was administered to rats for 3 days); animals were euthanized 4 hours after the last administration. All compounds induced significant increases in micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) in the peripheral blood of mice, and all but ACM induced MN-RET in rats. EMS and ACM induced significant increases in DNA damage, measured by the Comet assay, in multiple tissues of mice and rats. CP-induced DNA damage was detected in leukocytes and duodenum cells. VS, a spindle fiber disrupting agent, was negative in the Comet assay. Based on these results, the MN/Comet assay holds promise for providing more comprehensive assessments of potential genotoxicants, and the National Toxicology Program is presently using this combined protocol in its overall evaluation of the genotoxicity of substances of public health concern. PMID:20371966

  2. Exploring a New Simulation Approach to Improve Clinical Reasoning Teaching and Assessment: Randomized Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennaforte, Thomas; Moussa, Ahmed; Loye, Nathalie; Charlin, Bernard; Audétat, Marie-Claude

    2016-02-17

    Helping trainees develop appropriate clinical reasoning abilities is a challenging goal in an environment where clinical situations are marked by high levels of complexity and unpredictability. The benefit of simulation-based education to assess clinical reasoning skills has rarely been reported. More specifically, it is unclear if clinical reasoning is better acquired if the instructor's input occurs entirely after or is integrated during the scenario. Based on educational principles of the dual-process theory of clinical reasoning, a new simulation approach called simulation with iterative discussions (SID) is introduced. The instructor interrupts the flow of the scenario at three key moments of the reasoning process (data gathering, integration, and confirmation). After each stop, the scenario is continued where it was interrupted. Finally, a brief general debriefing ends the session. System-1 process of clinical reasoning is assessed by verbalization during management of the case, and System-2 during the iterative discussions without providing feedback. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Simulation with Iterative Discussions versus the classical approach of simulation in developing reasoning skills of General Pediatrics and Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine residents. This will be a prospective exploratory, randomized study conducted at Sainte-Justine hospital in Montreal, Qc, between January and March 2016. All post-graduate year (PGY) 1 to 6 residents will be invited to complete one SID or classical simulation 30 minutes audio video-recorded complex high-fidelity simulations covering a similar neonatology topic. Pre- and post-simulation questionnaires will be completed and a semistructured interview will be conducted after each simulation. Data analyses will use SPSS and NVivo softwares. This study is in its preliminary stages and the results are expected to be made available by April, 2016. This will be the first study to explore a new

  3. The STROBE extensions: protocol for a qualitative assessment of content and a survey of endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Melissa K; Utrobičić, Ana; Gómez, Guadalupe; Cobo, Erik; Wager, Elizabeth; Hren, Darko

    2017-10-22

    The STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement was developed in response to inadequate reporting of observational studies. In recent years, several extensions to STROBE have been created to provide more nuanced field-specific guidance for authors. The content and the prevalence of extension endorsement have not yet been assessed. Accordingly, there are two aims: (1) to classify changes made in the extensions to identify strengths and weaknesses of the original STROBE checklist and (2) to determine the prevalence and typology of endorsement by journals in fields related to extensions. Two independent researchers will assess additions in each extension. Additions will be coded as 'field specific' (FS) or 'not field specific' (NFS). FS is defined as particularly relevant information for a single field and guidance provided generally cannot be extrapolated beyond that field. NFS is defined as information that reflects epidemiological or methodological tenets and can be generalised to most, if not all, types of observational research studies. Intraclass correlation will be calculated to measure reviewers' concordance. On disagreement, consensus will be sought. Individual additions will be grouped by STROBE checklist items to identify the frequency and distribution of changes.Journals in fields related to extensions will be identified through National Library of Medicine PubMed Broad Subject Terms, screened for eligibility and further distilled via Ovid MEDLINE® search strategies for observational studies. Text describing endorsement will be extracted from each journal's website. A classification scheme will be created for endorsement types and the prevalence of endorsement will be estimated. Analyses will use NVivo V.11 and SAS University Edition. This study does not require ethical approval as it does not involve human participants. This study has been preregistered on Open Science Framework. © Article author(s) (or their

  4. A bespoke mobile application for the longitudinal assessment of depression and mood during pregnancy: protocol of a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano Belisario, Jose Salvador; Doherty, Kevin; O'Donoghue, John; Ramchandani, Paul; Majeed, Azeem; Doherty, Gavin; Morrison, Cecily; Car, Josip

    2017-05-29

    Depression is a common mental health disorder during pregnancy, with important consequences for mothers and their children. Despite this, it goes undiagnosed and untreated in many women attending antenatal care. Smartphones could help support the prompt identification of antenatal depression in this setting. In addition, these devices enable the implementation of ecological momentary assessment techniques, which could be used to assess how mood is experienced during pregnancy. With this study, we will assess the feasibility of using a bespoke mobile application (app) running on participants' own handsets for the longitudinal (6 months) monitoring of antenatal mood and screening of depression. We will use a randomised controlled study design to compare two types of assessment strategies: retrospective + momentary (consisting of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale plus five momentary and two contextual questions), and retrospective (consisting of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale only). We will assess the impact that these strategies have on participant adherence to a prespecified sampling protocol, dropout rates and timeliness of data completion. We will evaluate differences in acceptance of the technology through a short quantitative survey and open-ended questions. We will also assess the potential effect that momentary assessments could have on retrospective data. We will attempt to identify any patterns in app usage through the analysis of log data. This study has been reviewed and approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee South East Coast-Surrey on 15 April 2016 as a notice of substantial amendment to the original submission (9 July 2015) under the Research Ethics Committee (REC) reference 15/LO/0977. This study is being sponsored by Imperial College London under the reference number 15IC2687 and has been included in the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio under the Central Portfolio Management System number 19280. The

  5. Bird biodiversity assessments in temperate forest: the value of point count versus acoustic monitoring protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Klingbeil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective monitoring programs for biodiversity are needed to assess trends in biodiversity and evaluate the consequences of management. This is particularly true for birds and faunas that occupy interior forest and other areas of low human population density, as these are frequently under-sampled compared to other habitats. For birds, Autonomous Recording Units (ARUs have been proposed as a supplement or alternative to point counts made by human observers to enhance monitoring efforts. We employed two strategies (i.e., simultaneous-collection and same-season to compare point count and ARU methods for quantifying species richness and composition of birds in temperate interior forests. The simultaneous-collection strategy compares surveys by ARUs and point counts, with methods matched in time, location, and survey duration such that the person and machine simultaneously collect data. The same-season strategy compares surveys from ARUs and point counts conducted at the same locations throughout the breeding season, but methods differ in the number, duration, and frequency of surveys. This second strategy more closely follows the ways in which monitoring programs are likely to be implemented. Site-specific estimates of richness (but not species composition differed between methods; however, the nature of the relationship was dependent on the assessment strategy. Estimates of richness from point counts were greater than estimates from ARUs in the simultaneous-collection strategy. Woodpeckers in particular, were less frequently identified from ARUs than point counts with this strategy. Conversely, estimates of richness were lower from point counts than ARUs in the same-season strategy. Moreover, in the same-season strategy, ARUs detected the occurrence of passerines at a higher frequency than did point counts. Differences between ARU and point count methods were only detected in site-level comparisons. Importantly, both methods provide similar

  6. Diagnosis and assessment of dilated cardiomyopathy: a guideline protocol from the British Society of Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mathew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a debilitating and life-threatening condition, with 5-year survival rate lower than breast or prostate cancer. It is the leading cause of hospital admission in over 65s, and these admissions are projected to rise by more than 50% over the next 25 years. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE is the first-line step in diagnosis in acute and chronic HF and provides immediate information on chamber volumes, ventricular systolic and diastolic function, wall thickness, valve function and the presence of pericardial effusion, while contributing to information on aetiology. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is the third most common cause of HF and is the most common cardiomyopathy. It is defined by the presence of left ventricular dilatation and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in the absence of abnormal loading conditions (hypertension and valve disease or coronary artery disease sufficient to cause global systolic impairment. This document provides a practical approach to diagnosis and assessment of dilated cardiomyopathy that is aimed at the practising sonographer.

  7. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and (c) suggestions for further research.

  8. Seasonal food habits of swift fox (Vulpes velox) in cropland and rangeland landscapes in western Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, M.A.; Roy, C.C.; Telesco, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Food habits of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) occupying two distinct landscapes (dominated by cropland versus rangeland) in western Kansas were determined by analysis of scats collected in 1993 and 1996. Frequencies of occurrence of prey items in scats were compared between cropland and rangeland areas by season. Overall, the most frequently occurring foods of swift foxes were mammals (92% of all scats) and arthropods (87%), followed by birds (24%), carrion (23%), plants (15%) and reptiles (4%). No differences were detected between landscapes for occurrence of mammals, arthropods or carrion in any season (P ≥ 0.100). Plants, specifically commercial sunflower seeds, were consumed more frequently in cropland than in rangeland in spring (P = 0.004) and fall (P = 0.001). Birds were more common in the swift fox diet in cropland than in rangeland during the fall (P = 0.008), whereas reptiles occurred more frequently in the diet in rangeland than in cropland during spring (P = 0.042). Variation in the diet of the swift fox between areas was most likely due to its opportunistic foraging behavior, resulting in a diet that closely links prey use with availability.

  9. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Scale effects on runoff and soil erosion in rangelands: observations and estimations with predictors of different availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff and erosion estimates are needed for rangeland management decisions and evaluation of ecosystem services derived from rangeland conservation practices. The information on the effect of scale on the runoff and erosion, and on the choice of runoff and erosion predictors, remains scarce. The obj...

  11. State and transition models: Theory, applications, and challenges. In: Briske, D.D. Rangeland Systems: Processes, Management and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and transition models (STMs) are used for communicating about ecosystem change in rangelands and other ecosystems, especially the implications for management. The fundamental premise that rangelands can exhibit multiple states is now widely accepted. The current application of STMs for managem...

  12. Protocol for assessing maternal, environmental and epigenetic risk factors for dental caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Surani; Speicher, David J; Bakr, Mahmoud M; Benton, Miles C; Lea, Rodney A; Scuffham, Paul A; Mihala, Gabor; Johnson, Newell W

    2015-12-29

    Expenditure on dental and oral health services in Australia is $3.4 billion AUD annually. This is the sixth highest health cost and accounts for 7 % of total national health expenditure. Approximately 49 % of Australian children aged 6 years have caries experience in their deciduous teeth and this is rising. The aetiology of dental caries involves a complex interplay of individual, behavioural, social, economic, political and environmental conditions, and there is increasing interest in genetic predisposition and epigenetic modification. The Oral Health Sub-study; a cross sectional study of a birth cohort began in November 2012 by examining mothers and their children who were six years old by the time of initiation of the study, which is ongoing. Data from detailed questionnaires of families from birth onwards and data on mothers' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards oral health collected at the time of clinical examination are used. Subjects' height, weight and mid-waist circumference are taken and Body Mass Index (BMI) computed, using an electronic Bio-Impedance balance. Dental caries experience is scored using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Saliva is collected for physiological measures. Salivary Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) is extracted for genetic studies including epigenetics using the SeqCap Epi Enrichment Kit. Targets of interest are being confirmed by pyrosequencing to identify potential epigenetic markers of caries risk. This study will examine a wide range of potential determinants for childhood dental caries and evaluate inter-relationships amongst them. The findings will provide an evidence base to plan and implement improved preventive strategies.

  13. Assessing Community Cancer care after insurance ExpanSionS (ACCESS study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Angier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is the second most common cause of mortality in the United States. Cancer screening and prevention services have contributed to improved overall cancer survival rates in the past 40 years. Vulnerable populations (i.e., uninsured, low-income, and racial/ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected by cancer, receive significantly fewer cancer prevention services, poorer healthcare, and subsequently lower survival rates than insured, white, non-Hispanic populations. The Affordable Care Act (ACA aims to provide health insurance to all low-income citizens and legal residents, including an expansion of Medicaid eligibility for those earning ≤138% of federal poverty level. As of 2012, Medicaid was expanded in 32 states and the District of Columbia, while 18 states did not expand, creating a ‘natural experiment’ to assess the impact of Medicaid expansion on cancer prevention and care. Methods: We will use electronic health record data from up to 990 community health centers available up to 24-months before and at least one year after Medicaid expansion. Primary outcomes include health insurance and coverage status, and type of insurance. Additional outcomes include healthcare delivery, number and types of encounters, and receipt of cancer prevention and screening for all patients and preventive care and screening services for cancer survivors. Discussion: Cancer morbidity and mortality is greatly reduced through screening and prevention, but uninsured patients are much less likely than insured patients to receive these services as recommended. This natural policy experiment will provide valuable information about cancer-related healthcare services as the US tackles the distribution of healthcare resources and future health reform. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrails.gov identifier NCT02936609. Keywords: Cancer, Medicaid, Affordable Care Act, Natural experiment, Screening, Preventive services

  14. Internal dose assessment of 238U contaminated soils based on in-vitro gastrointestinal protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perama, Yasmin Mohd Idris; Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Majid, Amran Ab.; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2017-01-01

    Human exposure to natural radioactive uranium has been a great interest as more industrial rapidly growing contributes to radiation risks. The aim of this case study was to determine the internal dose in humans incorporated with ingestion of 238U contaminated soils. A gastrointestinal analogue test was employed to simulate the human digestive tract. In-vitro approach via German DIN 19738 model was developed in order to estimate the internal exposure of 238U due to ingestion of different types of soils. Synthetic gastrointestinal fluids assay via in-vitro method were produced to determine the concentration of 238U in various soils using ICP-MS. Based on the results, concentration of 238U in BRIS, laterite, peat and alluvium soils were in ranged between (0.0061 ± 0.0057 - 0.0488 ± 0.0148) ppm and (0.0005 ± 0.0004 - 0.0046 ± 0.0007) ppm in gastric and gastrointestinal phase respectively. Types of soil compositions and pH medium were some of the factors that influence mobilization and solubility of 238U contaminanted soil into the digestive juices that resembles human gastrointestinal tract. For the purpose of internal dose assessment, the committed efective dose from 238U intake in soils ranged between 1.237 × 10-11 - 9.8993 × 10-11 Sv y-1 for gastric phase and 1.0184 × 10-12 - 9.3294 × 10-12 Sv y-1 for gastric-intestinal phase. The internal dose measurements from this study were much lower from the recommended values. Hence, ingestion of 238U contaminated soils would not be expected to pose major health risk to humans.

  15. Towards a rapid assessment protocol for identifying pit lakes worthy of restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, W J; Genthe, B; Hill, L; Oberholster, P J

    2018-01-15

    Before the introduction of reclamation legislation in South Africa, final cut lakes in mining areas were left without any restoration while the final excavation was not back filled. Characteristics of these lacustrine water bodies vary considerably, but they are often linear in shape, large (1-30 ha), deep (2-30 m) and have poorly developed littoral zones. With water tables often near the surface; a variety of vascular hydrophytes can colonize these bodies, thus establishing emerging wetland type ecosystems. These, man-made aquatic structures that are (unintentionally) created potentially offers some realistic and inexpensive mitigation options for some of the negative impacts associated with mining, i.e. these water bodies can become useful by yielding potentially valuable services. However, no method currently exists to compare and rank these water bodies according ecological integrity and the expected monetary value to be derived from them in order to select sites for restoration. To answer this need, we applied an index to determine the ability of these water bodies to provide useful services in their current state. The index was then used to derive estimates of the monetary value of potential services in order to allow comparison with the cost of restoring the water body in question or to compare with other pit lakes. We present a South African case study to illustrate the method. As far as could be established, this is the first attempt towards creating a rapid assessment tool as standardised way of comparing pit lakes that allows for the ranking and identification of those pit lakes worthy of restoration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A multi-laboratory evaluation of a common in vitro pepsin digestion assay protocol used in assessing the safety of novel proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, K.; Aalbers, M.; Bannon, G. A.; Bartels, M.; Dearman, R. J.; Esdaile, D. J.; Fu, T. J.; Glatt, C. M.; Hadfield, N.; Hatzos, C.; Hefle, S. L.; Heylings, J. R.; Goodman, R. E.; Henry, B.; Herouet, C.; Holsapple, M.; Ladics, G. S.; Landry, T. D.; MacIntosh, S. C.; Rice, E. A.; Privalle, L. S.; Steiner, H. Y.; Teshima, R.; van Ree, R.; Woolhiser, M.; Zawodny, J.

    2004-01-01

    Rationale. Evaluation of the potential allergenicity of proteins derived from genetically modified foods has involved a weight of evidence approach that incorporates an evaluation of protein digestibility in pepsin. Currently, there is no standardized protocol to assess the digestibility of proteins

  17. One- or Two-Legged Standing: What Is the More Suitable Protocol to Assess the Postural Effects of the Rigid Ankle Orthosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Patrice; Genthon, Nicolas; Gallois-Montbrun, Thibault; Brugiere, Steve; Bouvat, Eric

    2009-01-01

    To highlight the capacity of one- and two-legged standing protocols when assessing postural behavior induced by a rigid ankle orthosis, 14 healthy individuals stood upright barefoot and wore either an elastic stocking on the preferred leg or a rigid orthosis with or without additional taping in one- or two-legged (TL) conditions. Traditional…

  18. Tulsa 1000: a naturalistic study protocol for multilevel assessment and outcome prediction in a large psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Teresa A; Khalsa, Sahib S; Simmons, W Kyle; Feinstein, Justin S; Savitz, Jonathan; Aupperle, Robin L; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Bodurka, Jerzy; Paulus, Martin P

    2018-01-24

    Although neuroscience has made tremendous progress towards understanding the basic neural circuitry underlying important processes such as attention, memory and emotion, little progress has been made in applying these insights to psychiatric populations to make clinically meaningful treatment predictions. The overall aim of the Tulsa 1000 (T-1000) study is to use the NIMH Research Domain Criteria framework in order to establish a robust and reliable dimensional set of variables that quantifies the positive and negative valence, cognition and arousal domains, including interoception, to generate clinically useful treatment predictions. The T-1000 is a naturalistic study that will recruit, assess and longitudinally follow 1000 participants, including healthy controls and treatment-seeking individuals with mood, anxiety, substance use and eating disorders. Each participant will undergo interview, behavioural, biomarker and neuroimaging assessments over the course of 1 year. The study goal is to determine how disorders of affect, substance use and eating behaviour organise across different levels of analysis (molecules, genes, cells, neural circuits, physiology, behaviour and self-report) to predict symptom severity, treatment outcome and long-term prognosis. The data will be used to generate computational models based on Bayesian statistics. The final end point of this multilevel latent variable analysis will be standardised assessments that can be developed into clinical tools to help clinicians predict outcomes and select the best intervention for each individual, thereby reducing the burden of mental disorders, and taking psychiatry a step closer towards personalised medicine. Ethical approval was obtained from Western Institutional Review Board screening protocol #20101611. The dissemination plan includes informing health professionals of results for clinical practice, submitting results to journals for peer-reviewed publication, presenting results at national

  19. Assessment of equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Augustine D; Price, Jennifer; Hayen, Andrew; Irava, Wayne; Martins, Joao; Guinness, Lorna; Ataguba, John E; Limwattananon, Supon; Mills, Anne; Jan, Stephen; Wiseman, Virginia

    2014-12-02

    Equitable health financing remains a key health policy objective worldwide. In low and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is evidence that many people are unable to access the health services they need due to financial and other barriers. There are growing calls for fairer health financing systems that will protect people from catastrophic and impoverishing health payments in times of illness. This study aims to assess equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste in order to support government efforts to improve access to healthcare and move towards universal health coverage in the two countries. The study employs two standard measures of equity in health financing increasingly being applied in LMICs-benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and financing incidence analysis (FIA). In Fiji, we will use a combination of secondary and primary data including a Household Income and Expenditure Survey, National Health Accounts, and data from a cross-sectional household survey on healthcare utilisation. In Timor-Leste, the World Bank recently completed a health equity and financial protection analysis that incorporates BIA and FIA, and found that the distribution of benefits from healthcare financing is pro-rich. Building on this work, we will explore the factors that influence the pro-rich distribution. The study is approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of University of New South Wales, Australia (Approval number: HC13269); the Fiji National Health Research Committee (Approval # 201371); and the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health (Ref MS/UNSW/VI/218). Study outcomes will be disseminated through stakeholder meetings, targeted multidisciplinary seminars, peer-reviewed journal publications, policy briefs and the use of other web-based technologies including social media. A user-friendly toolkit on how to analyse healthcare financing equity will be developed for use by policymakers and development partners in the region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  20. Using a Double-Coil TMS Protocol to Assess Preparatory Inhibition Bilaterally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, Pierre; Grandjean, Julien; Derosiere, Gerard; de Wilde, Ysaline; Quemener, Louise; Duque, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the primary motor cortex (M1), elicits motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in contralateral limb muscles which are valuable indicators of corticospinal excitability (CSE) at the time of stimulation. So far, most studies have used single-coil TMS over one M1, yielding MEPs in muscles of a single limb-usually the hand. However, tracking CSE in the two hands simultaneously would be useful in many contexts. We recently showed that, in the resting state, double-coil stimulation of the two M1 with a 1 ms inter-pulse interval (double-coil 1 ms TMS) elicits MEPs in both hands that are comparable to MEPs obtained using single-coil TMS. To further evaluate this new technique, we considered the MEPs elicited by double-coil 1 ms TMS in an instructed-delay choice reaction time task where a prepared response has to be withheld until an imperative signal is displayed. Single-coil TMS studies have repetitively shown that in this type of task, the motor system is transiently inhibited during the delay period, as evident from the broad suppression of MEP amplitudes. Here, we aimed at investigating whether a comparable inhibitory effect can be observed with MEPs elicited using double-coil 1 ms TMS. To do so, we compared the amplitude as well as the coefficient of variation (CV) of MEPs produced by double-coil 1 ms or single-coil TMS during action preparation. We observed that MEPs were suppressed (smaller amplitude) and often less variable (smaller CV) during the delay period compared to baseline. Importantly, these effects were equivalent whether single-coil or double-coil 1 ms TMS was used. This suggests that double-coil 1 ms TMS is a reliable tool to assess CSE, not only when subjects are at rest, but also when they are involved in a task, opening new research horizons for scientists interested in the corticospinal correlates of human behavior.

  1. Development and validation of the Emergency Department Assessment of Chest pain Score and 2 h accelerated diagnostic protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Than, Martin; Flaws, Dylan; Sanders, Sharon; Doust, Jenny; Glasziou, Paul; Kline, Jeffery; Aldous, Sally; Troughton, Richard; Reid, Christopher; Parsonage, William A.; Frampton, Christopher; Greenslade, Jaimi H.; Deely, Joanne M.; Hess, Erik; Sadiq, Amr Bin; Singleton, Rose; Shopland, Rosie; Vercoe, Laura; Woolhouse-Williams, Morgana; Ardagh, Michael; Bossuyt, Patrick; Bannister, Laura; Cullen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Risk scores and accelerated diagnostic protocols can identify chest pain patients with low risk of major adverse cardiac event who could be discharged early from the ED, saving time and costs. We aimed to derive and validate a chest pain score and accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP) that could

  2. Proposal for a protocol on environmental impact assessment in the context of incineration with energy recovery from municipal solid waste in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Salas, Alvaro Enrique

    2015-01-01

    A proposal for a protocol is performed for the evaluation of environmental impact in the context of incineration with energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). An analysis of the related and current regulations is done at national and international level. The methodology of the Secretaria Tecnica Nacional Ambiental (SETENA) for environmental impact assessment has been exposed. Susceptible environmental factors and elements of the heat treatment of RSU that generate environmental impacts are identified. The air has been the environmental factor extensively addressed in the investigation. The aspects included in the protocol proposal are defined in order to generate conclusions and determinants recommendations on environmental viability of any work, activity or project [es

  3. Implementation outcome assessment instruments used in physical healthcare settings and their measurement properties: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Vitoratou, Silia; Sevdalis, Nick; Hull, Louise

    2017-10-08

    Over the past 10 years, research into methods that promote the uptake, implementation and sustainability of evidence-based interventions has gathered pace. However, implementation outcomes are defined in different ways and assessed by different measures; the extent to which these measures are valid and reliable is unknown. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and appraise studies that assess the measurement properties of quantitative implementation outcome instruments used in physical healthcare settings, to advance the use of precise and accurate measures. The following databases will be searched from inception to March 2017: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Grey literature will be sought via HMIC, OpenGrey, ProQuest for theses and Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science. Reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews will be hand searched. Three search strings will be combined to identify eligible studies: (1) implementation literature, (2) implementation outcomes and (3) measurement properties. Screening of titles, abstracts and full papers will be assessed for eligibility by two reviewers independently and any discrepancies resolved via consensus with the wider team. The methodological quality of the studies will be assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. A set of bespoke criteria to determine the quality of the instruments will be used, and the relationship between instrument usability and quality will be explored. Ethical approval is not necessary for systematic review protocols. Researchers and healthcare professionals can use the findings of this systematic review to guide the selection of implementation outcomes instruments, based on their psychometric quality, to assess the impact of their implementation efforts. The findings will also provide a useful guide for reviewers of papers and grants to determine the

  4. Differences in quantitative assessment of myocardial scar and gray zone by LGE-CMR imaging using established gray zone protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesubi, Olurotimi; Ego-Osuala, Kelechi; Jeudy, Jean; Purtilo, James; Synowski, Stephen; Abutaleb, Ameer; Niekoop, Michelle; Abdulghani, Mohammed; Asoglu, Ramazan; See, Vincent; Saliaris, Anastasios; Shorofsky, Stephen; Dickfeld, Timm

    2015-02-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) imaging is the gold standard for myocardial scar evaluation. Heterogeneous areas of scar ('gray zone'), may serve as arrhythmogenic substrate. Various gray zone protocols have been correlated to clinical outcomes and ventricular tachycardia channels. This study assessed the quantitative differences in gray zone and scar core sizes as defined by previously validated signal intensity (SI) threshold algorithms. High quality LGE-CMR images performed in 41 cardiomyopathy patients [ischemic (33) or non-ischemic (8)] were analyzed using previously validated SI threshold methods [Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), n-standard deviation (NSD) and modified-FWHM]. Myocardial scar was defined as scar core and gray zone using SI thresholds based on these methods. Scar core, gray zone and total scar sizes were then computed and compared among these models. The median gray zone mass was 2-3 times larger with FWHM (15 g, IQR: 8-26 g) compared to NSD or modified-FWHM (5 g, IQR: 3-9 g; and 8 g. IQR: 6-12 g respectively, p zone extent (percentage of total scar that was gray zone) also varied significantly among the three methods, 51 % (IQR: 42-61 %), 17 % (IQR: 11-21 %) versus 38 % (IQR: 33-43 %) for FWHM, NSD and modified-FWHM respectively (p zone and scar core. Infarct core and total myocardial scar mass also differ using these methods. Further evaluation of the most accurate quantification method is needed.

  5. WHY DO YOU NEED TO USE A CARIES RISK ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL TO PROVIDE AN EFFECTIVE CARIES PREVENTIVE REGIME?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuakwah, Charles; Welbury, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Clinical guidelines recommend an individual is given a caries risk status based on analysis of defined clinical and social criteria before implementing a tailored preventive plan. Improve documentation of caries risk assessment (CRA) in a general dental practice setting, using a systems-based approach to quality improvement methods. Investigate the impact of quality improvement efforts on subsequent design and delivery of preventive care. Identify barriers to delivery of CRA and provision of preventive care. Data for patients aged 0-16 years was collected over two cycles using standard audit methodology. The first cycle was a retrospective analysis (n = 400) using random sampling. The second cycle a prospective analysis (n = 513) using consecutive sampling over a 15-week period. Five staff meetings with feedback occurred between cycles. In cycle one, no specific CRA system was identified. CRA status was not stated widely, risk factors were not analysed and there was variation with respect to the prescription and delivery of preventive strategies. These discrepancies were demonstrable for all four participating dentists and at all ages. In cycle two, 100% recorded CRA. All risk factors were analysed and individual caries risk was correctly annotated. There was 100% compliance with the protocol for preventive plans. The use of CRA improved documentation of caries risk status. This has improved subsequent prescription of age specific evidence-based preventive care appropriate to the risk status of that individual. Barriers were identified to the delivery of CRA and the provision of comprehensive preventive care by the dentists and other healthcare professionals.

  6. Development of standardized bioassay protocols for the toxicity assessment of waste, manufactured products, and effluents in Latin America: Venezuela, a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriquez-Grau, J.

    1993-01-01

    The present status of the toxicity assessment of industrial products in Latin America is well below North America/EC standards. As an example, most of Latin America regulatory laws regarding effluent discharge are still based upon concentration limits of certain major pollutants, and BOD/COD measurements; no reference is made to the necessity of aquatic bioassay toxicity data. Aware of this imperative need, the Venezuelan Petroleum Industry (PDVSA), through its R ampersand D Corporative branch (INTEVEP) gave priority to the development of standardized acute/sublethal toxicity test protocols as sound means of evaluating their products and wastes. Throughout this presentation, the Venezuelan case will be studied, showing strategies undertaken to accelerate protocol development. Results will show the assessment of 14 different protocols encompassing a variety of species of aquatic/terrestrial organisms, and a series of toxicity test endpoints including mortality, reproductive, biological and immunological measurements, most of which are currently in use or being developed. These protocols have already yielded useful results in numerous cases where toxicity assessment was required, including evaluations of effluent, oil dispersants, drilling fluids, toxic wastes, fossil fuels and newly developed products. The Venezuelan case demonstrates that the integration of Industry, Academia and Government, which is an essential part of SETAC's philosophy, is absolutely necessary for the successful advancement of environmental scientific/regulatory issues

  7. Assessment of protocols in cone beam CT with symmetric and asymmetric beam using effective dose and Pka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, W. O.; Linhares de O, M. V.; Soares, M. R.; Maia, A. F.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2014-08-01

    The cone beam CT is an emerging technology in dental radiology with significant differences the point of view of design technology between the various manufacturers on the world market. This study aims to evaluate and compare protocols with similar purposes in a cone beam CT scanner using TLDs and air kerma - area product (P ka ) as kerma index. Measurements were performed on two protocols used to obtain the image the maxilla-mandible in equipment Gendex GXCB 500: Protocol [GX1] extended diameter and asymmetric beam (14 cm x 8.5 cm - maxilla / mandible) and protocol [GX2] symmetrical beam (8.5 cm x 8.5 cm - maxillary / mandible). Was used LiF dosimeters (TLD 100) inserted into a female anthropomorphic phantom manufactured by Radiology Support Devices. For all protocols evaluated the value of P ka using a meter Diamentor E2 and PTW system Radcal Rapidose. The results obtained for Effective Dose / P ka these measurements were separated by protocol image. Protocol [GX1]: 44.5 μSv/478 mGy cm 2 ; protocol [GX2]: 54.8 μSv/507 mGy cm 2 . These values indicate that the relationship between the diameter of the image acquired in the protocol [GX1] and the diameter of the image in the protocol [GX2] is equal to 1.65, the Effective Dose for the first protocol has lower value at 18%. P ka values reveal very similar results between the two protocols, although, common sense leads to the interpretation that imaging protocols with field of view (Fov) of large diameters imply high values of effective dose when compared to small diameters. However, in this particular case, this is not true due to the asymmetrical beam technology. Conclude that for the cases where the scanner uses asymmetric beam to obtain images with large diameters that cover the entire face there are advantages from the point of view of reducing the exposure of patients with respect to the use of symmetrical beam and / or to Fov images with a smaller diameter. (Author)

  8. Assessment of protocols in cone beam CT with symmetric and asymmetric beam using effective dose and P{sub ka}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, W. O.; Linhares de O, M. V. [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Rua Emidio dos Santos s/n, Barbalho, Salvador, 40301015 Bahia (Brazil); Soares, M. R.; Maia, A. F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria Prof. Jose Aloisio de Campos, Marechal Rondon s/n, Jardim Rosa Elze, 49-100000 Sao Cristovao, Sergipe (Brazil); Caldas, L. V. E., E-mail: wilsonottobatista@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The cone beam CT is an emerging technology in dental radiology with significant differences the point of view of design technology between the various manufacturers on the world market. This study aims to evaluate and compare protocols with similar purposes in a cone beam CT scanner using TLDs and air kerma - area product (P{sub ka}) as kerma index. Measurements were performed on two protocols used to obtain the image the maxilla-mandible in equipment Gendex GXCB 500: Protocol [GX1] extended diameter and asymmetric beam (14 cm x 8.5 cm - maxilla / mandible) and protocol [GX2] symmetrical beam (8.5 cm x 8.5 cm - maxillary / mandible). Was used LiF dosimeters (TLD 100) inserted into a female anthropomorphic phantom manufactured by Radiology Support Devices. For all protocols evaluated the value of P{sub ka} using a meter Diamentor E2 and PTW system Radcal Rapidose. The results obtained for Effective Dose / P{sub ka} these measurements were separated by protocol image. Protocol [GX1]: 44.5 μSv/478 mGy cm{sup 2}; protocol [GX2]: 54.8 μSv/507 mGy cm{sup 2}. These values indicate that the relationship between the diameter of the image acquired in the protocol [GX1] and the diameter of the image in the protocol [GX2] is equal to 1.65, the Effective Dose for the first protocol has lower value at 18%. P{sub ka} values reveal very similar results between the two protocols, although, common sense leads to the interpretation that imaging protocols with field of view (Fov) of large diameters imply high values of effective dose when compared to small diameters. However, in this particular case, this is not true due to the asymmetrical beam technology. Conclude that for the cases where the scanner uses asymmetric beam to obtain images with large diameters that cover the entire face there are advantages from the point of view of reducing the exposure of patients with respect to the use of symmetrical beam and / or to Fov images with a smaller diameter. (Author)

  9. Encouraging translation and assessing impact of the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement: rationale and protocol for a research impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shanthi; Reeves, Penny; Deeming, Simon; Bailie, Ross Stewart; Bailie, Jodie; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Cunningham, Frances; Doran, Christopher; McPhail Bell, Karen; Searles, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There is growing recognition among health researchers and funders that the wider benefits of research such as economic, social and health impacts ought to be assessed and valued alongside academic outputs such as peer-reviewed papers. Research translation needs to increase and the pathways to impact ought to be more transparent. These processes are particularly pertinent to the Indigenous health sector given continued concerns that Indigenous communities are over-researched with little corresponding improvement in health outcomes. This paper describes the research protocol of a mixed methods study to apply FAIT (Framework to Assess the Impact from Translational health research) to the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement (CRE-IQI). FAIT will be applied to five selected CRE-IQI Flagship projects to encourage research translation and assess the wider impact of that research. Methods and analysis Phase I will develop a modified programme logic model for each Flagship project including identifying process, output and impact metrics so progress can be monitored. A scoping review will inform potential benefits. In phase II, programme logic models will be updated to account for changes in the research pathways over time. Audit and feedback will be used to encourage research translation and collect evidence of achievement of any process, output and interim impacts. In phase III, three proven methodologies for measuring research impact—Payback, economic assessment and narratives—will be applied. Data on the application of FAIT will be collected and analysed to inform and improve FAIT’s performance. Ethics and dissemination This study is funded by a nationally competitive grant (ID 1078927) from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Newcastle’s Human Research Ethics Committee (ID: H-2017–0026). The results from the study will be presented in several

  10. Psychosocial Distress of Patients with Psoriasis: Protocol for an Assessment of Care Needs and the Development of a Supportive Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Jördis Maria; Dirmaier, Jörg; Augustin, Matthias; Dwinger, Sarah; Christalle, Eva; Härter, Martin; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2018-02-07

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is often associated with a number of somatic and mental comorbidity. Patients with psoriasis show an increased risk of depression and (social) anxiety. The aims of this study are 1) to explore the psychosocial distress of patients with psoriasis and to assess their care needs; and 2) to develop a supportive intervention based on the prior results. A multi-stage design with four phases combining quantitative and qualitative methodology will be used and conducted in two centers. 1) A scoping review and focus groups will be used to design a questionnaire to assess the psychosocial distress and care needs of the patients. 2) The questionnaire developed in phase 1 will be used in a cross-sectional survey to assess the extent of psychosocial distress and supportive care needs in 400 patients with psoriasis. 3) A systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted to identify psychosocial and psychoeducational interventions for patients with psoriasis and to describe their effectiveness. 4) Based on the results of the phases 2 and 3 a manualized supportive intervention will be developed and the feasibility and acceptance of the intervention will be assessed. Currently, phase 1 of the project has been completed and the recruitment for phase 2 has been started. The systematic review and meta-analysis of phase 3 are conducted simultaneously to phase 2 and results are expected soon. Phase 4 has not been started yet. The expected results of this study will show the extent of psychosocial distress of patients with psoriasis in Germany and supplement previous research with findings about the supportive care needs of this patient group. Moreover, the developed intervention will help to address the psychosocial support needs of patients with psoriasis. Research shows that psychosocial support is strongly needed. ©Jördis Maria Zill, Jörg Dirmaier, Matthias Augustin, Sarah Dwinger, Eva Christalle, Martin Härter, Ulrich Mrowietz

  11. Evaluating new SMAP soil moisture for drought monitoring in the rangelands of the US High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, Gabriel B.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Level 3 soil moisture datasets from the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite are evaluated for drought monitoring in rangelands.Validation of SMAP soil moisture (SSM) with in situ and modeled estimates showed high level of agreement.SSM showed the highest correlation with surface soil moisture (0-5 cm) and a strong correlation to depths up to 20 cm.SSM showed a reliable and expected response of capturing seasonal dynamics in relation to precipitation, land surface temperature, and evapotranspiration.Further evaluation using multi-year SMAP datasets is necessary to quantify the full benefits and limitations for drought monitoring in rangelands.

  12. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  13. The Climate-Population Nexus in the East African Horn: Emerging Degradation Trends in Rangeland and Pastoral Livelihood Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, N. G.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing climate variability and extreme weather conditions along with declining trends in both rainfall and temperature represent major risk factors affecting agricultural production and food security in many regions of the world. We identify regions where significant rainfall decrease from 1979-2011 over the entire continent of Africa couples with significant human population density increase. The rangelands of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia in the East African Horn remain one of the world's most food insecure regions, yet have significantly increasing human populations predominantly dependent on pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livelihoods. Vegetation in this region is characterized by a variable mosaic of land covers, generally dominated by grasslands necessary for agro-pastoralism, interspersed by woody vegetation. Recent assessments indicate that widespread degradation is occurring, adversely impacting fragile ecosystems and human livelihoods. Using two underutilized MODIS products, we observe significant changes in vegetation patterns and productivity over the last decade all across the East African Horn. We observe significant vegetation browning trends in areas experiencing drying precipitation trends in addition to increasing population pressures. We also found that the drying precipitation trends only partially statistically explain the vegetation browning trends, further indicating that other factors such as population pressures and land use changes are responsible for the observed declining vegetation health. Furthermore, we show that the general vegetation browning trends persist even during years with normal rainfall conditions such as 2012, indicating potential long-term degradation of rangelands on which approximately 10 million people depend. These findings have serious implications for current and future regional food security monitoring and forecasting as well as for mitigation and adaptation strategies in a region where population is expected

  14. Protocol of a feasibility study for cognitive assessment of an ageing cohort within the Southeast Asia Community Observatory (SEACO), Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Devi; Stephan, Blossom C M; Allotey, Pascale; Jagger, Carol; Pearce, Mark; Siervo, Mario; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2017-01-19

    There is a growing proportion of population aged 65 years and older in low-income and middle-income countries. In Malaysia, this proportion is predicted to increase from 5.1% in 2010 to more than 15.4% by 2050. Cognitive ageing and dementia are global health priorities. However, risk factors and disease associations in a multiethnic, middle-income country like Malaysia may not be consistent with those reported in other world regions. Knowing the burden of cognitive impairment and its risk factors in Malaysia is necessary for the development of management strategies and would provide valuable information for other transitional economies. This is a community-based feasibility study focused on the assessment of cognition, embedded in the longitudinal study of health and demographic surveillance site of the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO), in Malaysia. In total, 200 adults aged ≥50 years are selected for an in-depth health and cognitive assessment including the Mini Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, blood pressure, anthropometry, gait speed, hand grip strength, Depression Anxiety Stress Score and dried blood spots. The results will inform the feasibility, response rates and operational challenges for establishing an ageing study focused on cognitive function in similar middle-income country settings. Knowing the burden of cognitive impairment and dementia and risk factors for disease will inform local health priorities and management, and place these within the context of increasing life expectancy. The study protocol is approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee. Informed consent is obtained from all the participants. The project's analysed data and findings will be made available through publications and conference presentations and a data sharing archive. Reports on key findings will be made available as community briefs on the SEACO website. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  15. Ethical assessment of research protocols: the experience of the Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a review article on the origin of the ethical analysis ofresearch protocols, the Brazilian and International legislation,including the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital IsraelitaAlbert Einstein. Since 1997, when the Committee was validatedits role has been recognized as that of a consultant and educator,participating on local and national scientific events andcollaborating with researchers in order to improve their projectsand learn to recognize ethical dilemmas in their protocols.

  16. Prescribed Fire Effects on Runoff, Erosion, and Soil Water Repellency on Steeply-Sloped Sagebrush Rangeland over a Five Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J.; Pierson, F. B.; Al-Hamdan, O. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is an inherent component of sagebrush steppe rangelands in western North America and can dramatically affect runoff and erosion processes. Post-fire flooding and erosion events pose substantial threats to proximal resources, property, and human life. Yet, prescribed fire can serve as a tool to manage vegetation and fuels on sagebrush rangelands and to reduce the potential for large catastrophic fires and mass erosion events. The impact of burning on event hydrologic and erosion responses is strongly related to the degree to which burning alters vegetation, ground cover, and surface soils and the intensity and duration of precipitation. Fire impacts on hydrologic and erosion response may be intensified or reduced by inherent site characteristics such as topography and soil properties. Parameterization of these diverse conditions in predictive tools is often limited by a lack of data and/or understanding for the domain of interest. Furthermore, hydrologic and erosion functioning change as vegetation and ground cover recover in the years following burning and few studies track these changes over time. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of prescribed fire on vegetation, ground cover, soil water repellency, and hydrologic and erosion responses 1, 2, and 5 yr following burning of a mountain big sagebrush community on steep hillslopes with fine-textured soils. The study site is within the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, southwestern Idaho, USA. Vegetation, ground cover, and soil properties were measured over plot scales of 0.5 m2 to 9 m2. Rainfall simulations (0.5 m2) were used to assess the impacts of fire on soil water repellency, infiltration, runoff generation, and splash-sheet erosion. Overland flow experiments (9 m2) were used to assess the effects of fire-reduced ground cover on concentrated-flow runoff and erosion processes. The study results provide insight regarding fire impacts on runoff, erosion, and soil water repellency in the immediate and

  17. Fire impact on soil-water repellency and functioning of semi-arid croplands and rangelands: Implications for prescribed burnings and wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavi, Ilan; Barkai, Daniel; Knoll, Yaakov M.; Glion, Hiam Abu; Katra, Itzhak; Brook, Anna; Zaady, Eli

    2017-03-01

    An unintended fire outbreak during summer 2015 in the semi-arid Israeli Negev resulted in the burning of extensive croplands and rangelands. The rangelands have been managed over the long term for occasional grazing, while the croplands have been utilized for rainfed wheat cropping. Yet, during the studied year, the croplands were left fallow, allowing the growth of herbaceous vegetation, which was harvested and baled for hay before the fire outbreak. The study objectives were to investigate the impacts of fire, land-use, and soil depth on water-repellency and on the status and dynamics of some of the most important organic and mineral soil resources. Additionally, we aimed to assess the severity of this fire outbreak. The soil-water repellency was studied by measuring the soil's water drop penetration time (WDPT) and critical surface tension (CST). A significant effect of fire on soil hydrophobicity was recorded, with a slight increase in mean WDPT and a slight decrease in mean CST in the burnt sites than in the non-burnt sites. Yet, soil hydrophobicity in the burnt lands was rather moderate and remained within the water repellency's lowest class. A significant effect of land-use on the means of WDPT and CST was also recorded, being eleven-fold greater and 7% smaller, respectively, in the rangelands than in the croplands. This is consistent with the almost eightfold greater mean above-ground biomass recorded in the non-burnt rangelands than in the non-burnt post-harvest croplands, revealing the positive relations between available fuel load and soil-water repellency. The effect of soil depth was significant for CST but not for WDPT. Overall, the gathered data suggest that fire severity was low to moderate. Fire was also found to significantly affect the fire severity only slightly increased the soil water repellency, and at the same time, increased on-site availability of some important soil resources. Nevertheless, it is acknowledged that such fires could impose

  18. Development, appraisal, validation and implementation of a consensus protocol for the assessment of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in post-mortem brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Seth; Chalmers, Katy; Ince, Paul; Esiri, Margaret; Attems, Johannes; Jellinger, Kurt; Yamada, Masahito; McCarron, Mark; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona; Greenberg, Steven; Mann, David; Kehoe, Patrick Gavin

    2014-01-01

    In a collaboration involving 11 groups with research interests in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), we used a two-stage process to develop and in turn validate a new consensus protocol and scoring scheme for the assessment of CAA and associated vasculopathic abnormalities in post-mortem brain tissue. Stage one used an iterative Delphi-style survey to develop the consensus protocol. The resultant scoring scheme was tested on a series of digital images and paraffin sections that were circulated blind to a number of scorers. The scoring scheme and choice of staining methods were refined by open-forum discussion. The agreed protocol scored parenchymal and meningeal CAA on a 0-3 scale, capillary CAA as present/absent and vasculopathy on 0-2 scale, in the 4 cortical lobes that were scored separately. A further assessment involving three centres was then undertaken. Neuropathologists in three centres (Bristol, Oxford and Sheffield) independently scored sections from 75 cases (25 from each centre) and high inter-rater reliability was demonstrated. Stage two used the results of the three-centre assessment to validate the protocol by investigating previously described associations between APOE genotype (previously determined), and both CAA and vasculopathy. Association of capillary CAA with or without arteriolar CAA with APOE ε4 was confirmed. However APOE ε2 was also found to be a strong risk factor for the development of CAA, not only in AD but also in elderly non-demented controls. Further validation of this protocol and scoring scheme is encouraged, to aid its wider adoption to facilitate collaborative and replication studies of CAA. PMID:24754000

  19. Erratum: Development, appraisal, validation and implementation of a consensus protocol for the assessment of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in post-mortem brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Seth; Chalmers, Katy; Ince, Paul; Esiri, Margaret; Attems, Johannes; Kalaria, Raj; Jellinger, Kurt; Yamada, Masahito; McCarron, Mark; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona; Greenberg, Steven; Mann, David; Kehoe, Patrick Gavin

    2015-01-01

    In a collaboration involving 11 groups with research interests in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), we used a two-stage process to develop and in turn validate a new consensus protocol and scoring scheme for the assessment of CAA and associated vasculopathic abnormalities in post-mortem brain tissue. Stage one used an iterative Delphi-style survey to develop the consensus protocol. The resultant scoring scheme was tested on a series of digital images and paraffin sections that were circulated blind to a number of scorers. The scoring scheme and choice of staining methods were refined by open-forum discussion. The agreed protocol scored parenchymal and meningeal CAA on a 0-3 scale, capillary CAA as present/absent and vasculopathy on 0-2 scale, in the 4 cortical lobes that were scored separately. A further assessment involving three centres was then undertaken. Neuropathologists in three centres (Bristol, Oxford and Sheffield) independently scored sections from 75 cases (25 from each centre) and high inter-rater reliability was demonstrated. Stage two used the results of the three-centre assessment to validate the protocol by investigating previously described associations between APOE genotype (previously determined), and both CAA and vasculopathy. Association of capillary CAA with or without arteriolar CAA with APOE ε4 was confirmed. However APOE ε2 was also found to be a strong risk factor for the development of CAA, not only in AD but also in elderly non-demented controls. Further validation of this protocol and scoring scheme is encouraged, to aid its wider adoption to facilitate collaborative and replication studies of CAA.[This corrects the article on p. 19 in vol. 3, PMID: 24754000.].

  20. The influence of grazing intensity on soil properties and degradation processes in Mediterranean rangelands (Extremadura, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne; Francisco Lavado-Contador, Joaquín

    2014-05-01

    Rangelands cover vast extensions of land in Spain (>90,000 km2), where a total amount of 13 millions of domestic animals graze extensively their pastures. By clear-cutting shrubs, removing selected trees and by cultivation, these rangelands were created from former Mediterranean oak forests, mainly composed by holm oak and cork oak (Quercus ilex rotundifolia and Q. suber) as tree species, Nowadays this land system is exploited economically in large farms (>100 ha), most of them held on private ownership (80% of total) and dedicated to extensive ranching. Overgrazing is common and the excessive stocking rates may deteriorate soil quality, causing economic losses and environmental damage. Many studies have been developed on the effects of livestock grazing over soil properties and degradation processes, most of them by only comparing extreme cases (e.g. ungrazed vs. grazed or overgrazed areas). The main goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding on how animal grazing affects soil properties and degradation processes. The study is particularly focused on soil compaction and sheet erosion as related to the reduction of vegetation cover by defoliation. Soil properties were analysed from 119 environmental units selected from 56 farms distributed throughout the region of Extremadura (SW Spain). The units are representative of different rangeland types, i.e. scrublands of Retama sphaerocarpa, dehesas (wooded rangelands) and treeless grasslands. Soil surface cover was determined along transects in September 2010 (antecedent rainfall: 413-923 mm) considering the following classes: bare ground, grasses, mosses, litter, stones (<2 mm) and rock outcrops. Farmer interviews were also conducted in order to quantify stocking rates and to assess land management in 12 out of 56 farms. In the farms where transects and farmer interviews could not be carried out, bare soil surface and livestock densities were estimated. Bare soil surface was determined by classifying

  1. The ACT Alert: preliminary results of a novel protocol to assess geriatric head trauma patients on anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Katelyn; Rogers, Amelia; Clark, Elizabeth; Horst, Michael; Adams, William; Bupp, Katherine; Shertzer, Weston; Miller, Jo Ann; Chandler, Roxanne; Rogers, Frederick B

    2015-04-01

    In busy emergency departments (EDs), elderly patients on anticoagulation (AC) sustaining minor injuries who are triaged to a lower priority for evaluation are at risk for potentially serious consequences. We sought to determine if a novel ED protocol prioritizes workup and improves outcome. In a Pennsylvania-verified Level II trauma center, the ACT (AntiCoagulation and Trauma) Alert was implemented in March 2012. Triage parameters include: age 65 years or older, AC agents, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 13 or greater, and head trauma 24 hours or less. ACT Alerts are announced overhead in the ED and require assessment by an ED physician, nurse, and phlebotomist in 15 minutes or less. Furthermore, they necessitate Point of Care international normalized ratio (INR) 20 minutes or less and head computed tomography (CT) scan 30 minutes or less. Positive CT findings mandate trauma service consultation. ACT Alert patients from March to December 2012 were compared with ED patients 65 years or older, GCS 13 or greater, on AC with the same chief complaints as ACT Alerts from June 2011 to February 2012 (control). A P value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Of 752 study patients, 415 were ACT and 337 were controls. There were no significant differences between groups in age, elevated INR, or head bleeds. ACT patients had significantly shorter median times from ED arrival to INR (ACT 13 minutes vs control 80 minutes; P ACT 35 minutes vs control 65 minutes; P ACT had a significantly shorter median length of stay (LOS) (ACT 3.7 days vs control 5.0 days; P ACT Alert improves ED throughput and reduces hospital LOS while effectively identifying at-risk, mildly head injured geriatric patients on AC.

  2. 'PhysioDirect' telephone assessment and advice services for physiotherapy: protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper Cherida

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing timely access to physiotherapy has long been a problem for the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. In an attempt to improve access some physiotherapy services have introduced a new treatment pathway known as PhysioDirect. Physiotherapists offer initial assessment and advice by telephone, supported by computerised algorithms, and patients are sent written self-management and exercise advice by post. They are invited for face-to-face treatment only when necessary. Although several such services have been developed, there is no robust evidence regarding clinical and cost-effectiveness, nor the acceptability of PhysioDirect. Methods/Design This protocol describes a multi-centre pragmatic individually randomised trial, with nested qualitative research. The aim is to determine the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability of PhysioDirect compared with usual models of physiotherapy based on patients going onto a waiting list and receiving face-to-face care. PhysioDirect services will be established in four areas in England. Adult patients in these areas with musculoskeletal problems who refer themselves or are referred by a primary care practitioner for physiotherapy will be invited to participate in the trial. About 1875 consenting patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio to PhysioDirect or usual care. Data about outcome measures will be collected at baseline and 6 weeks and 6 months after randomisation. The primary outcome is clinical improvement at 6 months; secondary outcomes include cost, waiting times, time lost from work and usual activities, patient satisfaction and preference. The impact of PhysioDirect on patients in different age-groups and with different conditions will also be examined. Incremental cost-effectiveness will be assessed in terms of quality adjusted life years in relation to cost. Qualitative methods will be used to explore factors associated with the success or failure of

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of refractometer and Brix refractometer to assess failure of passive transfer in calves: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczinski, S; Fecteau, G; Chigerwe, M; Vandeweerd, J M

    2016-06-01

    Calves are highly dependent of colostrum (and antibody) intake because they are born agammaglobulinemic. The transfer of passive immunity in calves can be assessed directly by dosing immunoglobulin G (IgG) or by refractometry or Brix refractometry. The latter are easier to perform routinely in the field. This paper presents a protocol for a systematic review meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of refractometry or Brix refractometry versus dosage of IgG as a reference standard test. With this review protocol we aim to be able to report refractometer and Brix refractometer accuracy in terms of sensitivity and specificity as well as to quantify the impact of any study characteristic on test accuracy.

  4. Determining the Suitability of Materials for Disposal at Sea under the London Convention 1972 and London Protocol 1996: A Radiological Assessment Procedure. 2015 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides guidance on performing specific assessments of candidate materials for dumping at sea, to determine whether the materials are de minimis in the meaning of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972 (the London Convention 1972) and the related Protocol 1996 (the London Protocol 1996). It presents a detailed radiological procedure to assess doses to workers and members of the public and doses to marine flora and fauna related to the dumping of materials at sea. The procedures in this publication follow the requirements to protect the environment in the IAEA Safety Standards and in the recommendations by the International Commission of Radiological Protection. It is expected to be used by national regulatory authorities responsible for authorizing disposal at sea of candidate materials as well as by those companies and individuals applying to obtain permission to dispose these materials at sea

  5. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus) pooled tetraploid accessions for U.S. Intermountain rangeland reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford A. Young; Jason Vernon; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus [Scribn. & Merr.] A. Love) is an important perennial, hardy, long-lived, cool season C3 native grass of rangeland plant communities throughout much of western United States and Canada. All classes of livestock and wildlife, including large and small birds and mammals, utilise the grass year round for food and protection due to its 2-3...

  6. Analytical approaches to quality assurance and quality control in rangeland monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing quality data to support land management decisions is the goal of every rangeland monitoring program. However, the results of quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) efforts to improve data quality are rarely reported. The purpose of QA and QC is to prevent and describe non-sampling...

  7. Livestock systems and rangeland degradation in the new World Atlas of Desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Claudio; Reynolds, James F.; Cherlet, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Livestock systems and rangeland degradation in the new World Atlas of Desertification Land degradation and desertification (LDD), which are widespread in global rangelands, are complex processes. They are caused by multiple (but limited) number of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers that lead to an unbalance in the capacity of the land to sustainably produce ecosystem services and economic value. Converging evidence indicates that the key biophysical and socioeconomic drivers include agricultural or pastoral land use and management practices, population growth, societal demands (e.g., urbanization), and climate change (e.g., increasing aridity and drought). The new World Atlas of Desertification (WAD) describes these global issues, documents their spatial change, and highlights the importance of these drivers in relation to land degradation processes. The impacts of LDD on the atmosphere, on water and on biodiversity are also covered. The WAD spatially illustrates relevant types of livestock and rangeland management systems, related (over-under) use of resources, various management activities, and some of the common features and transitions that contribute to LDD. For example, livestock grazing in marginal areas is increasing due to competition with agricultural encroachment and, hence, vulnerable lands are under threat. The integration of stratified global data layers facilitates identifying areas where stress on the land system can be linked to underlying causal issues. One of the objectives of the new WAD is to provide synthesis and tools for scientists and stakeholders to design sustainable solutions for efficient land use in global rangelands.

  8. Dairy cattle on Norwegian alpine rangelands – grazing preferences and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sickel, H; Abrahamsen, R K; Eldegard, K; Lunnan, T; Norderhaug, A; Petersen, M.A.; Sickel, M.; Steenhuisen, F.; Ohlson, M.

    2014-01-01

    The results from the study ‘Effects of vegetation and grazing preferences on the quality of alpine dairy products’ will be presented. The main objective of the project was to investigate the connections bet - ween alpine rangeland vegetation, landscape use and grazing preferences of free ranging

  9. Vulnerability of cattle production to climate change on U.S. rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt C. Reeves; Karen E. Bagne

    2016-01-01

    We examined multiple climate change effects on cattle production for U.S. rangelands to estimate relative change and identify sources of vulnerability among seven regions. Climate change effects to 2100 were projected from published models for four elements: forage quantity, vegetation type trajectory, heat stress, and forage variability. Departure of projections from...

  10. Rangeland livestock production: Developing the concept of sustainability on the Santa Rita Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Ruyle

    2003-01-01

    The Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) was established in 1903 at the behest of concerned stockmen and researchers as the first facility in the United States set aside to study range livestock production. At the time, severe overgrazing of the public domain had seriously reduced carrying capacities of Southwestern rangelands. Researchers on the SRER developed and...

  11. Estimating climate change effects on net primary production of rangelands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew C. Reeves; Adam L. Moreno; Karen E. Bagne; Steven W. Running

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) of U.S. rangelands were evaluated using estimated climate regimes from the A1B, A2 and B2 global change scenarios imposed on the biogeochemical cycling model, Biome-BGC from 2001 to 2100. Temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit, day length, solar radiation, CO2 enrichment and nitrogen...

  12. Composted manure application promotes long-term invasion of semi-arid rangeland by Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composted organic matter derived from sewage treatment facilities or livestock manure from feedlots is often applied to rangelands of western North America to increase soil fertility, forage production, forage quality, and soil carbon (C) storage. This practice can have a number of undesirable side ...

  13. Contrasting watershed-scale trends in runoff and sediment yield complicate rangeland water resources planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Matthew D.; Marcantonio, Franco; Allison, Mead A.; McAlister, Jason; Wilcox, Bradford P.; Fox, William E.

    2016-06-01

    Rangelands cover a large portion of the earth's land surface and are undergoing dramatic landscape changes. At the same time, these ecosystems face increasing expectations to meet growing water supply needs. To address major gaps in our understanding of rangeland hydrologic function, we investigated historical watershed-scale runoff and sediment yield in a dynamic landscape in central Texas, USA. We quantified the relationship between precipitation and runoff and analyzed reservoir sediment cores dated using cesium-137 and lead-210 radioisotopes. Local rainfall and streamflow showed no directional trend over a period of 85 years, resulting in a rainfall-runoff ratio that has been resilient to watershed changes. Reservoir sedimentation rates generally were higher before 1963, but have been much lower and very stable since that time. Our findings suggest that (1) rangeland water yields may be stable over long periods despite dramatic landscape changes while (2) these same landscape changes influence sediment yields that impact downstream reservoir storage. Relying on rangelands to meet water needs demands an understanding of how these dynamic landscapes function and a quantification of the physical processes at work.

  14. Weight gain and behavior of Raramuri Criollo versus Corriente steers developed on Chihuahuan Desert rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchers that raise Criollo cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Raramuri Criollo (RC) steers are commonly raised for beef and finished on rangelands, while Corriente (CR) are often raised for rodeo sports. No data exist on weight gains and grazing behavior of ran...

  15. Movement and spatial proximity patterns of rangeland-raised Raramuri Criollo cow-calf pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare movement patterns of nursing vs. nonnursing mature cows and to characterize cow-calf proximity patterns in two herds of Raramuri Criollo cattle. Herds grazed rangeland pastures in southern New Mexico (4355 ha) and west-central Chihuahua, Mexico (633 ha)'' A...

  16. Mother-Offspring Interactions in Raramuri Criollo Cattle on New Mexico and Chihuahua (Mexico) Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland beef cows spend approximately six months of a typical year raising their calf. This endeavor is known to significantly alter a dam’s grazing behavior and spatial distribution patterns. The objective of this study was to characterize cow-calf contact events in two herds of Raramuri Criollo ...

  17. Weight gain and behavior of Raramuri Criollo versus crossbred steers developed on Chihuahuan Desert rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchers that raise Raramuri Criollo (RC) cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Growing and finishing RC or RC-crossbred steers on rangeland pastures is increasingly common; however, no data exist on their weight gains or grazing behavior. We tracked the weight a...

  18. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. tech. ed. Meehan

    1985-01-01

    Although many effects of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fisheries are difficult to measure, economic methods for the evaluation of costs and benefits can be helpful. Such methods can be used to address questions of equity as well as efficiency. Evaluations of equity can show who bears the costs and who captures the benefits of management actions, but...

  19. A planning support system for rangeland allocation in Iran : case of Chadegan sub-region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farahpour, M.

    2002-01-01

    Rangelands, like other natural resources are subject to many changes. In Iran, one of the changes is the land tenure reform, that may have significant effects on both the land and the land user. Land tenure changes not only affect the life of the present, but also that of next generations,

  20. A review of concentrated flow erosion processes on rangelands: fundamental understanding and knowledge gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrated flow erosion processes are distinguished from splash and sheetflow processes in their enhanced ability to mobilize and transport large amounts of soil, water and dissolved elements. On rangelands, soil, nutrients and water are scarce and only narrow margins of resource losses are tolera...

  1. The Role of Rangelands in Diversified Farming Systems: Innovations, Obstacles, and Opportunities in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan F. Sayre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of diversified farming systems (DFS rarely mention rangelands: the grasslands, shrublands, and savannas that make up roughly one-third of Earth's ice-free terrestrial area, including some 312 million ha of the United States. Although ranching has been criticized by environmentalists for decades, it is probably the most ecologically sustainable segment of the U.S. meat industry, and it exemplifies many of the defining characteristics of DFS: it relies on the functional diversity of natural ecological processes of plant and animal (reproduction at multiple scales, based on ecosystem services generated and regenerated on site rather than imported, often nonrenewable, inputs. Rangelands also provide other ecosystem services, including watershed, wildlife habitat, recreation, and tourism. Even where non-native or invasive plants have encroached on or replaced native species, rangelands retain unusually high levels of plant diversity compared with croplands or plantation forests. Innovations in management, marketing, incentives, and easement programs that augment ranch income, creative land tenure arrangements, and collaborations among ranchers all support diversification. Some obstacles include rapid landownership turnover, lack of accessible U.S. Department of Agriculture certified processing facilities, tenure uncertainty, fragmentation of rangelands, and low and variable income, especially relative to land costs. Taking advantage of rancher knowledge and stewardship, and aligning incentives with production of diverse goods and services, will support the sustainability of ranching and its associated public benefits. The creation of positive feedbacks between economic and ecological diversity should be the ultimate goal.

  2. Grazing management, resilience and the dynamics of a fire driven rangeland system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderies, J.M.; Janssen, M.A.; Walker, B.H.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a stylized mathematical model to explore the effects of physical, ecological, and economic factors on the resilience of a managed fire-driven rangeland system. Depending on grazing pressure, the model exhibits one of three distinct configurations: a fire-dominated, grazing-dominated, or

  3. Towards a remote sensing based indicator of rangeland ecosystem resistance and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding ecosystem resistance and resilience to disturbance and invasive species is critical to the sustainable management of rangeland systems. In this context, resistance refers to the inherent ability of an ecosystem to resist disturbance, while resilience refers to the capacity of an ecosys...

  4. Revolutionary land use change in the 21st century: Is (rangeland) science relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapidly increasing demand for food, fiber and fuel together with new technologies and the mobility of global capital are driving revolutionary changes in land use throughout the world. Efforts to increase land productivity include conversion of millions of hectares of rangelands to crop production, ...

  5. Session A5 Rangelands as dynamic systems Role of wildlife in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rangelands in southern Africa are increasingly being used for conservation, ecotourism, game farming and hunting. This impacts people's livelihoods and the state of natural resources. Complimentarity and competition between wildlife and domestic livestock can be explored. Theme: This session focuses on ecosystem ...

  6. Searls prairie clover (Dalea searlsiae) for rangeland revegetation: Phenotypic and genetic evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor Bhattarai; Shaun Bushman; Douglas A. Johnson; John G. Carman

    2011-01-01

    Few North American legumes are available for use in rangeland revegetation in the western USA, but Searls prairie clover [Dalea searlsiae (A. Gray) Barneby] is one that holds promise. Commercial-scale seed production of this species could address the issues of unreliable seed availability and high seed costs associated with its wildland seed collection. To evaluate its...

  7. Ecosystem water availability in juniper versus sagebrush snow-dominated rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Juniper (J. occidentalis Hook.) now dominates over 3.6 million ha of rangeland in the Intermountain Western US. Critical ecological relationships among snow distribution, water budgets, plant community transitions, and habitat requirements for wildlife, such as sage grouse, remain poorly und...

  8. Climate-change adaptation on rangelands: Linking regional exposure with diverse adaptive capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David D. Briske; Linda A. Joyce; H. Wayne Polley; Joel R. Brown; Klaus Wolter; Jack A. Morgan; Bruce A. McCarl; Derek W. Bailey

    2015-01-01

    The ecological consequences of climate change are predicted to vary greatly throughout US rangelands. Projections show warming and drying in the southern Great Plains and the Southwest, warmer and drier summers with reduced winter snowpack in the Northwest, and warmer and wetter conditions in the northern Great Plains. Primarily through their combined effects on soil...

  9. Deforestation of "degraded" rangelands: The Argentine Chaco enters the next stage of the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty years ago I completed my Master’s work in the Chaco forests of northern Argentina. The native forests are, in fact, rangelands. In addition to livestock grazing, there is timber extraction, wildlife harvest (think tegu lizard cowboy boots), and charcoal production. I took part in a project co...

  10. Bridging Drought – Resilience in Rangeland Management in Times of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Isele, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Organic livestock farming in semiarid regions greatly depends on the sustainable management of the natural rangeland as the resource for livestock sustenance. High stock density in combination with short grazing and long recovery periods achieve effective rainfall utilisation and considerably higher fodder production resulting in a high degree of resilience in drought situations.

  11. Mapping Erosion and Salinity Risk Categories Using GIS and the Rangeland Hydrology Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Up to fifteen percent of rangelands in the state of Utah in the United States are classified as being in severely eroding condition. Some of these degraded lands are located on saline, erodible soils of the Mancos Shale formation. This results in a disproportionate contribution of sediment, salinity...

  12. Temperament affects rangeland use patterns and reproductive performance of beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    • The American beef industry is paying more attention to cattle temperament, but studies examining relationships between temperaments and grazing behavior or animal performance on rangelands are limited. • We studied range beef cow temperaments using the behavioral syndromes framework. Cows classifi...

  13. Comparison of the cognitive palatability assessment protocol and the two-pan test for use in assessing palatability of two similar foods in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Joseph A; Studzinski, Christa M; Larson, Brian T; Milgram, Norton W

    2004-11-01

    To compare preferences of dogs for 2 similar foods by use of 2 distinct methods (the cognitive palatability assessment protocol [CPAP] and the 2-pan test). 13 Beagles. 6 dogs were trained in a 3-choice object-discrimination-learning task in which their nonpreferred objects were associated with a reward of a lamb-based or chicken-based food. The number of choices for each object was used to determine food preferences. Preference of the same foods was also assessed by use of a 2-pan test in which all 13 dogs were provided the 2 foods in identical bowls. The amount of each food consumed in 10 minutes was used to determine food preference. All dogs had a noticeable preference for the chicken-based food during the CPAP. Once established, preferences remained consistent and were not affected by satiety. The 2-pan test identified a preference for the chicken-based food in dogs with previous exposure to the food but only a weak and nonsignificant preference for the same food in dogs without previous exposure. Food preferences in the 2-pan test varied considerably. Total food consumption and the ability to detect a preference were reduced when dogs were fed prior to testing. The CPAP provides a reliable measure of food preference that requires few test subjects. The 2-pan test reveals similar preferences but with variability in data that requires larger numbers of subjects and is susceptible to effects from prior exposure and feeding of the test foods to the subjects.

  14. Histomorphometric assessment of bone necrosis produced by two cryosurgery protocols using liquid nitrogen: an experimental study on rat femurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Pessoa, Rosana Maria Andrade; Studart-Soares, Eduardo Costa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryosurgery on the femoral diaphysis of rats. The femoral diaphyses of 42 Wistar rats were exposed to three local and sequential applications of liquid nitrogen for 1 or 2 min, intercalated with periods of 5 min of passive thawing. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks and the specimens obtained were processed and analyzed histomorphometrically. The depth and extent of peak bone necrosis were 124.509 µm and 2087.094 µm for the 1-min protocol, respectively, and 436.424 µm and 12046.426 µm for the 2-min protocol. Peak necrosis was observed in the second experimental week with both cryotherapy protocols. The present results indicate that the 2-min protocol produced more marked bone necrosis than the 1-min protocol. Although our results cannot be entirely extrapolated to clinical practice, they contribute to the understanding of the behavior of bone tissue submitted to different cycles of liquid nitrogen freezing and may serve as a basis for new studies.

  15. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: improved methods for aquifer vulnerability assessments and protocols (AVAP) for producing vulnerability maps, taking into account information on soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available for Aquifer Vulnerability Assessments and Protocols (AVAP) for producing vulnerability maps, taking into account information on soils Groundwater resources are increas- ingly threatened by pollution. The AVAP project was initiated to develop improved... characteristics. Both intrinsic and specific vulnerability are taken into account. The approach used to determine the vulnerability of the in- termediate zone involved the descrip- tion and quantification of the factors that influence vulnerability (unsatu...

  16. Encouraging translation and assessing impact of the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement: rationale and protocol for a research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shanthi; Reeves, Penny; Deeming, Simon; Bailie, Ross Stewart; Bailie, Jodie; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Cunningham, Frances; Doran, Christopher; McPhail Bell, Karen; Searles, Andrew

    2017-12-04

    There is growing recognition among health researchers and funders that the wider benefits of research such as economic, social and health impacts ought to be assessed and valued alongside academic outputs such as peer-reviewed papers. Research translation needs to increase and the pathways to impact ought to be more transparent. These processes are particularly pertinent to the Indigenous health sector given continued concerns that Indigenous communities are over-researched with little corresponding improvement in health outcomes. This paper describes the research protocol of a mixed methods study to apply FAIT (Framework to Assess the Impact from Translational health research) to the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement (CRE-IQI). FAIT will be applied to five selected CRE-IQI Flagship projects to encourage research translation and assess the wider impact of that research. Phase I will develop a modified programme logic model for each Flagship project including identifying process, output and impact metrics so progress can be monitored. A scoping review will inform potential benefits. In phase II, programme logic models will be updated to account for changes in the research pathways over time. Audit and feedback will be used to encourage research translation and collect evidence of achievement of any process, output and interim impacts. In phase III, three proven methodologies for measuring research impact-Payback, economic assessment and narratives-will be applied. Data on the application of FAIT will be collected and analysed to inform and improve FAIT's performance. This study is funded by a nationally competitive grant (ID 1078927) from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Newcastle's Human Research Ethics Committee (ID: H-2017-0026). The results from the study will be presented in several peer-reviewed publications, through conference presentations and via

  17. Survey of Beaver-related Restoration Practices in Rangeland Streams of the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Rohde, Ashley T.; Charnley, Susan; Davee, Rachael R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Gosnell, Hannah; Grant, Gordon E.; Hausner, Mark B.; Huntington, Justin L.; Nash, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures mimicking the effects of beaver dams are restoration alternatives that have recently gained popularity because of their potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits. However, beaver dams and dam-like structures also harbor a history of social conflict. Hence, we identified a need to assess the use of beaver-related restoration projects in western rangelands to increase awareness and accountability, and identify gaps in scientific knowledge. We inventoried 97 projects implemented by 32 organizations, most in the last 10 years. We found that beaver-related stream restoration projects undertaken mostly involved the relocation of nuisance beavers. The most common goal was to store water, either with beaver dams or artificial structures. Beavers were often moved without regard to genetics, disease, or potential conflicts with nearby landowners. Few projects included post-implementation monitoring or planned for longer term issues, such as what happens when beavers abandon a site or when beaver dams or structures breach. Human dimensions were rarely considered and water rights and other issues were mostly unresolved or addressed through ad-hoc agreements. We conclude that the practice and implementation of beaver-related restoration has outpaced research on its efficacy and best practices. Further scientific research is necessary, especially research that informs the establishment of clear guidelines for best practices.

  18. Survey of beaver-related restoration practices in rangeland streams of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Rohde, Ashley T.; Charnley, Susan; Davee, Rachael R; Dunham, Jason B.; Gosnell, Hannah; Grant, Gordon E.; Hausner, Mark B.; Huntington, Justin L.; Nash, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures mimicking the effects of beaver dams are restoration alternatives that have recently gained popularity because of their potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits. However, beaver dams and dam-like structures also harbor a history of social conflict. Hence, we identified a need to assess the use of beaver-related restoration projects in western rangelands to increase awareness and accountability, and identify gaps in scientific knowledge. We inventoried 97 projects implemented by 32 organizations, most in the last 10 years. We found that beaver-related stream restoration projects undertaken mostly involved the relocation of nuisance beavers. The most common goal was to store water, either with beaver dams or artificial structures. Beavers were often moved without regard to genetics, disease, or potential conflicts with nearby landowners. Few projects included post-implementation monitoring or planned for longer term issues, such as what happens when beavers abandon a site or when beaver dams or structures breach. Human dimensions were rarely considered and water rights and other issues were mostly unresolved or addressed through ad-hoc agreements. We conclude that the practice and implementation of beaver-related restoration has outpaced research on its efficacy and best practices. Further scientific research is necessary, especially research that informs the establishment of clear guidelines for best practices.

  19. Influencing adaptation processes on the Australian rangelands for social and ecological resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine A. Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resource users require the capacity to cope and adapt to climate changes affecting resource condition if they, and their industries, are to remain viable. Understanding individual-scale responses to a changing climate will be an important component of designing well-targeted, broad-scale strategies and policies. Because of the interdependencies between people and ecosystems, understanding and supporting resilience of resource-dependent people may be as important an aspect of effective resource management as managing the resilience of ecological components. We refer to the northern Australian rangelands as an example of a system that is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and look for ways to enhance the resilience of the system. Vulnerability of the social system comprises elements of adaptive capacity and sensitivity to change (resource dependency as well as exposure, which is not examined here. We assessed the adaptive capacity of 240 cattle producers, using four established dimensions, and investigated the association between adaptive capacity and climate sensitivity (or resource dependency as measured through 14 established dimensions. We found that occupational identity, employability, networks, strategic approach, environmental awareness, dynamic resource use, and use of technology were all positively correlated with at least one dimension of adaptive capacity and that place attachment was negatively correlated with adaptive capacity. These results suggest that adaptation processes could be influenced by focusing on adaptive capacity and these aspects of climate sensitivity. Managing the resilience of individuals is critical to processes of adaptation at higher levels and needs greater attention if adaptation processes are to be shaped and influenced.

  20. Spatially explicit rangeland erosion monitoring using high-resolution digital aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Barger, Nichole N.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all of the ecosystem services supported by rangelands, including production of livestock forage, carbon sequestration, and provisioning of clean water, are negatively impacted by soil erosion. Accordingly, monitoring the severity, spatial extent, and rate of soil erosion is essential for long-term sustainable management. Traditional field-based methods of monitoring erosion (sediment traps, erosion pins, and bridges) can be labor intensive and therefore are generally limited in spatial intensity and/or extent. There is a growing effort to monitor natural resources at broad scales, which is driving the need for new soil erosion monitoring tools. One remote-sensing technique that can be used to monitor soil movement is a time series of digital elevation models (DEMs) created using aerial photogrammetry methods. By geographically coregistering the DEMs and subtracting one surface from the other, an estimate of soil elevation change can be created. Such analysis enables spatially explicit quantification and visualization of net soil movement including erosion, deposition, and redistribution. We constructed DEMs (12-cm ground sampling distance) on the basis of aerial photography immediately before and 1 year after a vegetation removal treatment on a 31-ha Piñon-Juniper woodland in southeastern Utah to evaluate the use of aerial photography in detecting soil surface change. On average, we were able to detect surface elevation change of ± 8−9cm and greater, which was sufficient for the large amount of soil movement exhibited on the study area. Detecting more subtle soil erosion could be achieved using the same technique with higher-resolution imagery from lower-flying aircraft such as unmanned aerial vehicles. DEM differencing and process-focused field methods provided complementary information and a more complete assessment of soil loss and movement than any single technique alone. Photogrammetric DEM differencing could be used as a technique to

  1. Inter-observer reliability of animal-based welfare indicators included in the Animal Welfare Indicators welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Battini, M; Can, E; Mattiello, S; Stilwell, G

    2018-01-08

    This study was conducted within the context of the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project and the underlying scientific motivation for the development of the study was the scarcity of data regarding inter-observer reliability (IOR) of welfare indicators, particularly given the importance of reliability as a further step for developing on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate IOR of animal-based indicators (at group and individual-level) of the AWIN welfare assessment protocol (prototype) for dairy goats. In the design of the study, two pairs of observers, one in Portugal and another in Italy, visited 10 farms each and applied the AWIN prototype protocol. Farms in both countries were visited between January and March 2014, and all the observers received the same training before the farm visits were initiated. Data collected during farm visits, and analysed in this study, include group-level and individual-level observations. The results of our study allow us to conclude that most of the group-level indicators presented the highest IOR level ('substantial', 0.85 to 0.99) in both field studies, pointing to a usable set of animal-based welfare indicators that were therefore included in the first level of the final AWIN welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats. Inter-observer reliability of individual-level indicators was lower, but the majority of them still reached 'fair to good' (0.41 to 0.75) and 'excellent' (0.76 to 1) levels. In the paper we explore reasons for the differences found in IOR between the group and individual-level indicators, including how the number of individual-level indicators to be assessed on each animal and the restraining method may have affected the results. Furthermore, we discuss the differences found in the IOR of individual-level indicators in both countries: the Portuguese pair of observers reached a higher level of IOR, when compared with the Italian observers. We argue how the

  2. Opportunities and obstacles for rangeland conservation in San Diego County, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Farley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Working landscapes such as rangelands are increasingly recognized as having high conservation value, providing a variety of ecosystem services, including food, fiber, habitat, recreation, open space, carbon storage, and water, in addition to a broad range of social benefits. However, conversion of rangelands to other land uses has been prevalent throughout the western United States, leading to greater attention in the conservation community to the importance of collaborating with private landowners. The level of interest in collaborative conservation among private landowners and the types of conservation programs they choose to participate in depend on the social, economic, and environmental context. We used GIS analysis and interviews with ranchers to evaluate rangeland conversion and participation in conservation programs among ranchers in San Diego County, California, USA, which is part of a biodiversity hotspot with high plant species richness and a large number of endemic and rare species. We found that > 25% of rangelands were converted to other uses, primarily urbanization, over the past 25 years while the area of public rangeland increased by 9%. Interviews revealed that ranchers in San Diego County have had limited involvement with most conservation programs, and a critical factor for nonparticipation was providing programs access to private land, along with other issues related to trust and social values. Among ranchers who had participated in conservation programs, the payment level and the agency or organization administering the program were key factors. Our results provide insight into factors influencing whether and when ranchers are likely to participate in conservation initiatives and illustrate that private and public land conservation are strongly linked and would be more effective if the two strategies were better integrated.

  3. Hepatitis C - Assessment to Treatment Trial (HepCATT) in primary care: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirsty; Macleod, John; Metcalfe, Chris; Simon, Joanne; Horwood, Jeremy; Hollingworth, William; Marlowe, Sharon; Gordon, Fiona H; Muir, Peter; Coleman, Barbara; Vickerman, Peter; Harrison, Graham I; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Irving, William; Hickman, Matthew

    2016-07-29

    Public Health England (PHE) estimates that there are upwards of 160,000 individuals in England and Wales with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but until now only around 100,000 laboratory diagnoses have been reported to PHE and of these 28,000 have been treated. Targeted case-finding in primary care is estimated to be cost-effective; however, there has been no robust randomised controlled trial evidence available of specific interventions. Therefore, this study aims to develop and conduct a complex intervention within primary care and to evaluate this approach using a cluster randomised controlled trial. A total of 46 general practices in South West England will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either a complex intervention comprising: educational training on HCV for the practice; poster and leaflet display in the practice waiting rooms to raise awareness and encourage opportunistic testing; a HCV risk prediction algorithm based on information on possible risk markers in the electronic patient record run using Audit + software (BMJ Informatica). The audit will then be used to recall and offer patients a HCV test. Control practices will follow usual care. The effectiveness of the intervention will be measured by comparing number and rates of HCV testing, the number and proportion of patients testing positive, onward referral, rates of specialist assessment and treatment in control and intervention practices. Intervention costs and health service utilisation will be recorded to estimate the NHS cost per new HCV diagnosis and new HCV patient initiating treatment. Longer-term cost-effectiveness of the intervention in improving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) will be extrapolated using a pre-existing dynamic health economic model. Patients' and health care workers' experiences and acceptability of the intervention will be explored through semi-structured qualitative interviews. This trial has the potential to make an important impact on patient

  4. Assessment of Environmental and Economic Consequences of Global Warming with Emphasis on the achievements of Kyoto Protocol Implementation in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, H.; Abbasi, F.; Kar Bakhshe Raveri, S.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important issues which has recently drawn attention is the preservation of the earth's ecosystems due to the events and environmental crises caused by industrial activities. The formation of more than a dozen conventions and protocols in different areas of environment also shows the importance of this issue. Given the implementation of the Convention and the Protocol, particularly the economic, social and environmental effects on all countries, especially developing countries with weak and vulnerable economy, in this article we Introduce environmental indices for Sustainable Development. In the case of carbon dioxide emissions, to examine emissions spectrum in the member states of Kyoto Protocol concurrent with the implementation of the first period, then climatic approaches were analyzed after the implementation of the first round. This research employs explanatory- analysis method. Examining indices shows that industrialized countries meet environmental requirements of the Kyoto Protocol and with regard to their own economic policy try to fulfill their obligations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions but we face the global trend of rising emissions. This trend can be observed in non-Annex countries, including the Islamic Republic of Iran that there is no obligation in the first round to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. SU-F-207-02: Use of Postmortem Subjects for Subjective Image Quality Assessment in Abdominal CT Protocols with Iterative Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mench, A; Lipnharski, I; Carranza, C; Lamoureux, R; Smajdor, L; Cormack, B; Mohammed, T; Rill, L; Arreola, M; Sinclair, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: New radiation dose reduction technologies are emerging constantly in the medical imaging field. The latest of these technologies, iterative reconstruction (IR) in CT, presents the ability to reduce dose significantly and hence provides great opportunity for CT protocol optimization. However, without effective analysis of image quality, the reduction in radiation exposure becomes irrelevant. This work explores the use of postmortem subjects as an image quality assessment medium for protocol optimizations in abdominal CT. Methods: Three female postmortem subjects were scanned using the Abdomen-Pelvis (AP) protocol at reduced minimum tube current and target noise index (SD) settings of 12.5, 17.5, 20.0, and 25.0. Images were reconstructed using two strengths of iterative reconstruction. Radiologists and radiology residents from several subspecialties were asked to evaluate 8 AP image sets including the current facility default scan protocol and 7 scans with the parameters varied as listed above. Images were viewed in the soft tissue window and scored on a 3-point scale as acceptable, borderline acceptable, and unacceptable for diagnosis. The facility default AP scan was identified to the reviewer while the 7 remaining AP scans were randomized and de-identified of acquisition and reconstruction details. The observers were also asked to comment on the subjective image quality criteria they used for scoring images. This included visibility of specific anatomical structures and tissue textures. Results: Radiologists scored images as acceptable or borderline acceptable for target noise index settings of up to 20. Due to the postmortem subjects’ close representation of living human anatomy, readers were able to evaluate images as they would those of actual patients. Conclusion: Postmortem subjects have already been proven useful for direct CT organ dose measurements. This work illustrates the validity of their use for the crucial evaluation of image quality

  6. SU-F-207-02: Use of Postmortem Subjects for Subjective Image Quality Assessment in Abdominal CT Protocols with Iterative Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mench, A [Salem Hospital, Salem, OR (United States); Lipnharski, I; Carranza, C; Lamoureux, R; Smajdor, L; Cormack, B; Mohammed, T; Rill, L; Arreola, M [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sinclair, L [Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: New radiation dose reduction technologies are emerging constantly in the medical imaging field. The latest of these technologies, iterative reconstruction (IR) in CT, presents the ability to reduce dose significantly and hence provides great opportunity for CT protocol optimization. However, without effective analysis of image quality, the reduction in radiation exposure becomes irrelevant. This work explores the use of postmortem subjects as an image quality assessment medium for protocol optimizations in abdominal CT. Methods: Three female postmortem subjects were scanned using the Abdomen-Pelvis (AP) protocol at reduced minimum tube current and target noise index (SD) settings of 12.5, 17.5, 20.0, and 25.0. Images were reconstructed using two strengths of iterative reconstruction. Radiologists and radiology residents from several subspecialties were asked to evaluate 8 AP image sets including the current facility default scan protocol and 7 scans with the parameters varied as listed above. Images were viewed in the soft tissue window and scored on a 3-point scale as acceptable, borderline acceptable, and unacceptable for diagnosis. The facility default AP scan was identified to the reviewer while the 7 remaining AP scans were randomized and de-identified of acquisition and reconstruction details. The observers were also asked to comment on the subjective image quality criteria they used for scoring images. This included visibility of specific anatomical structures and tissue textures. Results: Radiologists scored images as acceptable or borderline acceptable for target noise index settings of up to 20. Due to the postmortem subjects’ close representation of living human anatomy, readers were able to evaluate images as they would those of actual patients. Conclusion: Postmortem subjects have already been proven useful for direct CT organ dose measurements. This work illustrates the validity of their use for the crucial evaluation of image quality

  7. Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Bruening

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life. Methods The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month. University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks. Discussion Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

  8. Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Brewis, Alexandra; Laska, Melissa; Todd, Michael; Hruschka, Daniel; Schaefer, David R; Whisner, Corrie M; Dunton, Genevieve

    2016-08-30

    The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life. The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves) are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month). University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS) locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks. Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

  9. Development of the crop residue and rangeland burning in the 2014 National Emissions Inventory using information from multiple sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This workbook contains all the activity data, emission factor data, and ancillary data used to compute crop residue burning and rangeland emissions for the 2014 NEI...

  10. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  11. Building Yolŋu Skills, Knowledge, and Priorities into Early Childhood Assessment and Support: Protocol for a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Anne; Maypilama, Elaine Lawurrpa; Fasoli, Lyn; Gundjarranbuy, Rosemary; Godwin-Thompson, Jenine; Guyula, Abbey; Yunupiŋu, Megan; Armstrong, Emily; Garrutju, Jane; McEldowney, Rose

    2018-03-07

    Yolngu or Yolŋu are a group of indigenous Australian people inhabiting north-eastern Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia. Recent government policy addressing disparities in outcomes between Indigenous and other children in Australia has resulted in the rapid introduction of early childhood interventions in remote Aboriginal communities. This is despite minimal research into their appropriateness or effectiveness for these contexts. This research aims to privilege Aboriginal early childhood knowledge, priorities and practices and to strengthen the evidence base for culturally responsive and relevant assessment processes and support that distinguishes "difference" from "deficit" to facilitate optimal child development. This collaborative qualitative research employs video ethnography, participant observation and in-depth interviews, involving Aboriginal families and researchers in design, implementation, interpretation and dissemination using a locally developed, culturally responsive research approach. Longitudinal case studies are being conducted with 6 families over 5 years and emerging findings are being explored with a further 50 families and key community informants. Data from all sources are analyzed inductively using a collaborative and iterative process. The study findings, grounded in an in-depth understanding of the cultural context of the study but with relevance to policy and practice more widely, are informing the development of a Web-based educational resource and targeted knowledge exchange activities. This paper focuses only on the research approach used in this project. The findings will be reported in detail in future publications. In response to community concerns about lack of recognition of Aboriginal early childhood strengths, priorities and knowledge, this collaborative community-driven project strengthens the evidence base for developing culturally responsive and relevant early childhood services and assessment processes to

  12. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) community composition in the rangeland of the northern slopes of The Qilian Mountains in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T; Liu, Z Y; Qin, L P; Long, R J

    2015-01-01

    In order to describe grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) species composition, diversity, abundance, and density of four rangelands types, we compared the grasshopper community composition and dynamics in the rangeland of the northern slopes of the Qilian Mountains. In total, 55 grasshopper species were collected from 2007 to 2009, representing three families and six subfamilies. The subfamily Oedipodinae was dominant, followed by Gomphocerinae and Catantopinae. Species abundance varied among rangeland types (RTs). The greatest abundance of grasshoppers was found in mountain rangeland, while the lowest abundance of grasshoppers was caught in alpine shrublands. Three species (Chorthippus cf. brunneus (Thunberg) (Acrididae), Chorthippus Dubius (Zubovski), and Gomphocerus licenti (Chang) were broadly distributed in the four RTs and constituted 7.5% of all grasshoppers collected. Ch. dubius was very abundant in desert rangeland and alpine shrubland. Bryodema dolichoptera Yin et Feng Eremippus qilianshanensis Lian and Zheng, and Filchnerella qilianshanensis Xi and Zheng (Pamphagidae) were endemic to the region of the Qilian Mountains. Species similarity between RTs ranged from 17.8 to 51.6 based on the Renkonen index. Similarly, the Sörensen index indicated a wide separation in species composition among RTs. The abundance of the eight most common species showed obvious differences among RTs and years. On average, mountain rangeland had the highest density values in 2007 and 2008, and alpine shrubland supported the smallest density. The densities in desert and mountain rangeland in 2007 were significantly higher than in 2008, while alpine rangeland and shrublands did not present obvious differences among years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  13. Use of local pastoral species to increase fodder production of the saline rangelands in southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Abderrazak; Tarhouni, Mohamed; Cardà, Artemi; Neffati, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Climate changes associated with multiple destructive human activities accelerate the degradation process of the natural rangelands around the world and especially the vulnerable areas such as the dryland ecosystems (Anaya-Romero et al., 2015; Eskandari et al., 2016; Muños Rojas et al., 2016; Vicente-Serrano et al., 2016). The vegetation cover and the biomass production of these ecosystems are decreasing and this is resulting in land degradation due to the soil erosion and changes in soil quality due to the abuse and misuse of the soil resources (Cerdà et al., 2016; Prosdocimi et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016). To cope with such threats, it is necessary to develop some management techniques (restoration, plantation…) to enhance the biomass production and the carbon sequestration of the degraded rangelands (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016; Tarhouni et al., 2016). The valorization of saline water by planting pastoral halophyte species in salt-affected soils as well as the marginal areas are considered among the valuable tools to increase the rangeland production in dry areas. In this work, the ability of four plants (Atriplex halimus L. (Amaranthaceae), Atriplex mollis Desf. (Amaranthaceae), Lotus creticus L. (Fabaceae) and Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae)) to grow and to produce are tested under a field saline conditions (water and soil). Non-destructive method (Vegmeasure) is used to estimate the biomass production of these species. Chemical (crude protein, moisture and ash contents) and biochemical analyses (sugars, tannins and polyphenols contents) are also undertaken. Two years after plantation, the obtained results showed the ability of the four species to survive and to grow under high salinity degree. A strong positive correlation was obtained between the canopy cover and the dry biomass of the four studied species. Hence, the restoration of saline soils can be ensured by planting local halophytes. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has

  14. The "Interdisciplinary Orofacial Examination Protocol for Children and Adolescents": a resource for the interdisciplinary assessment of the stomatognatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Diana

    2012-11-01

    The Interdisciplinary Orofacial Examination Protocol for Children and Adolescents (Protocolo de exploración interdisciplinaria orofacial para niños y adolescents, Barcelona, 2008) is very useful in providing a fast, initial, expedient detection of possible morphological and functional disorders, and to guide the patient toward the appropriate professionals. With this tool it is possible to detect the risk factors which can negatively affect morphological and functional harmony and guide patients toward the necessary treatment as early as possible. This Protocol, developed by 4 orthodontists, 1 ENT and 3 speech language therapists, also contributes to the unification of concepts and nomenclature used by distinct specialists, thus making professional understanding easier and more dynamic.

  15. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the standardized ultrasound protocol for assessing subacromial structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs Kjær, Birgitte; Ellegaard, Karen; Wieland, Ina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: US-examinations related to shoulder impingement (SI) often vary due to methodological differences, examiner positions, transducers, and recording parameters. Reliable US protocols for examination of different structures related to shoulder impingement are therefore needed. OBJECTIVES...... of the supraspinatus tendon (SUPRA) and subacromial subdeltoid (SASD) bursa in two imaging positions, and the acromial humeral distance (AHD) in one position. Additionally, agreement on dynamic impingement (DI) examination was performed. The intra- and inter-rater reliability was carried out on the same day...

  16. Concurrent validation of a neurocognitive assessment protocol for clients with mental illness in job matching as shop sales in supported employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S S W; Lak, D C C; Lee, S C K; Ng, P P K

    2015-03-01

    Occupational therapists play a major role in the assessment and referral of clients with severe mental illness for supported employment. Nonetheless, there is scarce literature about the content and predictive validity of the process. In addition, the criteria of successful job matching have not been analysed and job supervisors have relied on experience rather than objective standards in recruitment. This study aimed to explore the profile of successful clients working in 'shop sales' in a supportive environment using a neurocognitive assessment protocol, and to validate the protocol against 'internal standards' of the job supervisors. This was a concurrent validation study of criterion-related scales for a single job type. The subjective ratings from the supervisors were concurrently validated against the results of neurocognitive assessment of intellectual function and work-related cognitive behaviour. A regression model was established for clients who succeeded and failed in employment using supervisor's ratings and a cutoff value of 10.5 for the Performance Fitness Rating Scale (R(2) = 0.918, F[41] = 3.794, p = 0.003). Classification And Regression Tree was also plotted to identify the profile of cases, with an overall accuracy of 0.861 (relative error, 0.26). Use of both inference statistics and data mining techniques enables the decision tree of neurocognitive assessments to be more readily applied by therapists in vocational rehabilitation, and thus directly improve the efficiency and efficacy of the process.

  17. Reliable Multihop Broadcast Protocol with a Low-Overhead Link Quality Assessment for ITS Based on VANETs in Highway Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Galaviz-Mosqueda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have been identified as a key technology to enable intelligent transport systems (ITS, which are aimed to radically improve the safety, comfort, and greenness of the vehicles in the road. However, in order to fully exploit VANETs potential, several issues must be addressed. Because of the high dynamic of VANETs and the impairments in the wireless channel, one key issue arising when working with VANETs is the multihop dissemination of broadcast packets for safety and infotainment applications. In this paper a reliable low-overhead multihop broadcast (RLMB protocol is proposed to address the well-known broadcast storm problem. The proposed RLMB takes advantage of the hello messages exchanged between the vehicles and it processes such information to intelligently select a relay set and reduce the redundant broadcast. Additionally, to reduce the hello messages rate dependency, RLMB uses a point-to-zone link evaluation approach. RLMB performance is compared with one of the leading multihop broadcast protocols existing to date. Performance metrics show that our RLMB solution outperforms the leading protocol in terms of important metrics such as packet dissemination ratio, overhead, and delay.

  18. The influence of different contrast medium concentrations and injection protocols on quantitative and clinical assessment of FDG–PET/CT in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A., E-mail: fverburg@ukaachen.de [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Kuhl, Christiane K. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Müllerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Palmowski, Moritz [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of two different contrast medium concentrations for use in computed X-ray tomography (CT) employing two different injection protocols on positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction in combined 2-{sup 18}F-desoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT in patients with a suspicion of lung cancer. Methods: 120 patients with a suspicion of lung cancer were enrolled prospectively. PET images were reconstructed with the non-enhanced and venous phase contrast CT obtained after injection of iopromide 300 mg/ml or 370 mg/ml using either a fixed-dose or a body surface area adapted injection protocol. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) and contrast enhancement (HU) were determined in the subclavian vein, ascending aorta, abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, portal vein, liver and kidney and in the suspicious lung lesion. PET data were evaluated visually for the presence of malignancy and image quality. Results: At none of the sites a significant difference in the extent of the contrast enhancement between the four different protocols was found. However, the variability of the contrast enhancement at several anatomical sites was significantly greater in the fixed dose groups than in the BSA groups for both contrast medium concentrations. At none of the sites a significant difference was found in the extent of the SUVmax and SUVmean increase as a result of the use of the venous phase contrast enhanced CT for attenuation. Visual clinical evaluation of lesions showed no differences between contrast and non-contrast PET/CT (P = 0.32). Conclusions: Contrast enhanced CT for attenuation correction in combined PET/CT in lung cancer affects neither the clinical assessment nor image quality of the PET-images. A body surface adapted contrast medium protocol reduces the interpatient variability in contrast enhancement.

  19. Validation of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS Protocol to Analyze EtG in Hair for Assessment of Chronic Excessive Alcohol Use in Thailand in Conjunction with AUDIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thananchai, Thiwaphorn; Junkuy, Anongphan; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk

    2016-06-01

    Hair analysis for chronic excessive alcohol (ethanol) use has focused on ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol. Preferred methods have involved high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in line with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. EtG analysis in hair has not yet been introduced to Thailand To validate an in-house HPLC-ESI-MS/MS hair analysis protocol for EtG and to apply it to a field sample of alcohol drinkers to assess different risk levels of alcohol consumption as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Validation procedures followed guidelines of the US Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency, and the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology. One hundred twenty subjects reported consuming alcohol during a 3-month period prior to enrollment. After taking the Thai-language version of AUDIT, subjects were divided on the basis of test scores into low, medium, and high-risk groups for chronic excessive alcohol use. The protocol satisfied the international standards for selectivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, and calibration curve. There was no significant matrix effect. Limits of detection and quantification (LOD/LOQ) were set at 15 pg of EtG per mg of hair. The protocol was not able to detect EtG in low-risk subjects (n = 38). Detection rates for medium-risk (n = 42) and high-risk subjects (n = 40) were 14.3% and 85%, respectively. The median of EtG concentration between these two groups were significantly different. Sensitivity and specificity were both more than 90% when EtG concentrations of high-risk subjects were compared with the 30 pg/mg cutoff recommended by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) for diagnosing chronic excessive alcohol consumption, based on an average ethanol daily intake greater than 60 g. The in-house protocol for EtG analysis in hair was validated according to international standards. The protocol is a

  20. Multiscale sagebrush rangeland habitat modeling in the Gunnison Basin of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Meyer, Debra K.; Schell, Spencer J.

    2013-01-01

    North American sagebrush-steppe ecosystems have decreased by about 50 percent since European settlement. As a result, sagebrush-steppe dependent species, such as the Gunnison sage-grouse, have experienced drastic range contractions and population declines. Coordinated ecosystem-wide research, integrated with monitoring and management activities, is needed to help maintain existing sagebrush habitats; however, products that accurately model and map sagebrush habitats in detail over the Gunnison Basin in Colorado are still unavailable. The goal of this project is to provide a rigorous large-area sagebrush habitat classification and inventory with statistically validated products and estimates of precision across the Gunnison Basin. This research employs a combination of methods, including (1) modeling sagebrush rangeland as a series of independent objective components that can be combined and customized by any user at multiple spatial scales; (2) collecting ground measured plot data on 2.4-meter QuickBird satellite imagery in the same season the imagery is acquired; (3) modeling of ground measured data on 2.4-meter imagery to maximize subsequent extrapolation; (4) acquiring multiple seasons (spring, summer, and fall) of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery (30-meter) for optimal modeling; (5) using regression tree classification technology that optimizes data mining of multiple image dates, ratios, and bands with ancillary data to extrapolate ground training data to coarser resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper; and 6) employing accuracy assessment of model predictions to enable users to understand their dependencies. Results include the prediction of four primary components including percent bare ground, percent herbaceous, percent shrub, and percent litter, and four secondary components including percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), percent big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), percent Wyoming sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis), and shrub height (centimeters

  1. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehn, J.

    1995-01-01

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations

  2. Transcending Landscapes: Working Across Scales and Levels in Pastoralist Rangeland Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W; Ontiri, Enoch; Alemu, Tsegaye; Moiko, Stephen S

    2017-08-01

    Landscape approaches can be subjected to mistakenly targeting a single "best" level of governance, and paying too little attention to the role that cross-scale and cross-level interactions play in governance. In rangeland settings, resources, patterns of use of those resources, and the institutions for managing the resources exist at multiple levels and scales. While the scholarship on commons offers some guidance on how to conceptualize governance in rangeland landscapes, some elements of commons scholarship-notably the "design principles" for effective governance of commons-do not seem to apply neatly to governance in pastoralist rangeland settings. This paper examines three cases where attempts have been made to foster effective landscape governance in such settings to consider how the materiality of commons influences the nature of cross-scale and cross-level interactions, and how these interactions affect governance. In all three cases, although external actors seemed to work appropriately and effectively at community and landscape levels, landscape governance mechanisms have been facing great challenges arising from relationships beyond the landscape, both vertically to higher levels of decision-making and horizontally to communities normally residing in other landscapes. The cases demonstrate that fostering effective landscape-level governance cannot be accomplished only through action at the landscape level; it is a task that must be pursued at multiple levels and in relation to the connections across scales and levels. The paper suggests elements of a conceptual framework for understanding cross-level and cross-scale elements of landscape governance, and offers suggestions for governance design in pastoralist rangeland settings.

  3. Phenomapping of rangelands in South Africa using time series of RapidEye data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parplies, André; Dubovyk, Olena; Tewes, Andreas; Mund, Jan-Peter; Schellberg, Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    Phenomapping is an approach which allows the derivation of spatial patterns of vegetation phenology and rangeland productivity based on time series of vegetation indices. In our study, we propose a new spatial mapping approach which combines phenometrics derived from high resolution (HR) satellite time series with spatial logistic regression modeling to discriminate land management systems in rangelands. From the RapidEye time series for selected rangelands in South Africa, we calculated bi-weekly noise reduced Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images. For the growing season of 2011⿿2012, we further derived principal phenology metrics such as start, end and length of growing season and related phenological variables such as amplitude, left derivative and small integral of the NDVI curve. We then mapped these phenometrics across two different tenure systems, communal and commercial, at the very detailed spatial resolution of 5 m. The result of a binary logistic regression (BLR) has shown that the amplitude and the left derivative of the NDVI curve were statistically significant. These indicators are useful to discriminate commercial from communal rangeland systems. We conclude that phenomapping combined with spatial modeling is a powerful tool that allows efficient aggregation of phenology and productivity metrics for spatially explicit analysis of the relationships of crop phenology with site conditions and management. This approach has particular potential for disaggregated and patchy environments such as in farming systems in semi-arid South Africa, where phenology varies considerably among and within years. Further, we see a strong perspective for phenomapping to support spatially explicit modelling of vegetation.

  4. Soil Moisture Variability and its Effects on Herbage Production in Semi-arid Rangelands of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Too, D.K.; Trlica, M.J.; Swift, D.M.; Musembi, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    Results obtained from recent studies focused on rangelands potential as influenced by human activity and climatic factors in the semi-arid and arid pastoral ecosystems of Northern Kenya indicated great temporal and spatial forage production variability. The objective of the studies was to document primary production in relation to water stress (drought), herbivory and direct human activities. Efforts also focused on finding possibilities of increasing productivity while conserving the finite resources for sustainable use. Laboratory, field and numerical methods were employed over several seasons and years. Forb and grass production was more variable than that of the browse (dwarf shrub) layer. Compared to forbs and dwarf shrubs, the grass layer contributed less to the total production in all seasons, indicating that the region had less potential for grazers compared to browsers. Spatial-temporal variation in rangeland carrying capacity reflected the great spatial heterogeneity in vegetation types and production. Similarly, seasonal differences were very evident, with highest estimates in the long rainy and the lowest during the dry and short rainy seasons, respectively. Factors limiting rangeland production potential were identified to be moisture deficiency, resource-use conflicts, an increasing and partially sedentarised nomadic population, overgrazing, tree felling, and land degradation (desert encroachment). Measures that can improve rangeland production potential and provide a better way of life for the inhabitants of the region include: (a) identification of land degradation (e.g. by means of bio-indicators and Geographical Information Systems, GIS); (b) technical interventions (i.e. soil and water conservation, restoration of degraded areas, fodder production); (c) social-economic interventions (i.e. resolution of resource-use conflicts, alleviation of poverty, infrastructure development improvement of livestock marketing channels etc.) and (d) continued

  5. Management applicability of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis across Mongolian rangeland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takehiro; Okubo, Satoru; Okayasu, Tomoo; Jamsran, Undarmaa; Ohkuro, Toshiya; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2009-03-01

    The current growing body of evidence for diversity-disturbance relationships suggests that the peaked pattern predicted by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) may not be the rule. Even if ecologists could quantify the diversity-disturbance relationship consistent with the IDH, the applicability of the IDH to land management has rarely been addressed. We examined two hypotheses related to the generality and management applicability of the IDH to Mongolian rangeland ecosystems: that the diversity-disturbance relationship varies as a function of landscape condition and that some intermediate scales of grazing can play an important role in terms of sustainable rangeland management through a grazing gradient approach. We quantified the landscape condition of each ecological site using an ordination technique and determined two types of landscape conditions: relatively benign and harsh environmental conditions. At the ecological sites characterized by relatively benign environmental conditions, diversity-disturbance relationships were generally consistent with the IDH, and maximum diversity was observed at some intermediate distance from the source of the grazing gradient. In contrast, the IDH was not supported at most (but not all) sites characterized by relatively harsh environmental conditions. The intermediate levels of grazing were generally located below the ecological threshold representing the points or zones at which disturbance should be limited to prevent drastic changes in ecological conditions, suggesting that there is little "conundrum" with regard to intermediate disturbance in the studied systems in terms of land management. We suggest that the landscape condition is one of the primary factors that cause inconsistencies in diversity-disturbance relationships. The ecological threshold can extend its utility in rangeland management because it also has the compatibility with the maintenance of species diversity. This study thus suggests that some

  6. Transcending Landscapes: Working Across Scales and Levels in Pastoralist Rangeland Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W.; Ontiri, Enoch; Alemu, Tsegaye; Moiko, Stephen S.

    2017-08-01

    Landscape approaches can be subjected to mistakenly targeting a single "best" level of governance, and paying too little attention to the role that cross-scale and cross-level interactions play in governance. In rangeland settings, resources, patterns of use of those resources, and the institutions for managing the resources exist at multiple levels and scales. While the scholarship on commons offers some guidance on how to conceptualize governance in rangeland landscapes, some elements of commons scholarship—notably the "design principles" for effective governance of commons—do not seem to apply neatly to governance in pastoralist rangeland settings. This paper examines three cases where attempts have been made to foster effective landscape governance in such settings to consider how the materiality of commons influences the nature of cross-scale and cross-level interactions, and how these interactions affect governance. In all three cases, although external actors seemed to work appropriately and effectively at community and landscape levels, landscape governance mechanisms have been facing great challenges arising from relationships beyond the landscape, both vertically to higher levels of decision-making and horizontally to communities normally residing in other landscapes. The cases demonstrate that fostering effective landscape-level governance cannot be accomplished only through action at the landscape level; it is a task that must be pursued at multiple levels and in relation to the connections across scales and levels. The paper suggests elements of a conceptual framework for understanding cross-level and cross-scale elements of landscape governance, and offers suggestions for governance design in pastoralist rangeland settings.

  7. Linking ecosystem services with state-and-transition models to evaluate rangeland management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, S.; Heilman, P.; deSteiguer, J. E.; Guertin, D. P.; Wissler, C.; McClaran, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying ecosystem services is a crucial topic for land management decision making. However, market prices are usually not able to capture all the ecosystem services and disservices. Ecosystem services from rangelands, that cover 70% of the world's land area, are even less well-understood since knowledge of rangelands is limited. This study generated a management framework for rangelands that uses remote sensing to generate state and transition models (STMs) for a large area and a linear programming (LP) model that uses ecosystem services to evaluate natural and/or management induced transitions as described in the STM. The LP optimization model determines the best management plan for a plot of semi-arid land in the Empire Ranch in southeastern Arizona. The model allocated land among management activities (do nothing, grazing, fire, and brush removal) to optimize net benefits and determined the impact of monetizing environmental services and disservices on net benefits, acreage allocation and production output. The ecosystem services under study were forage production (AUM/ac/yr), sediment (lbs/ac/yr), water runoff (inches/yr), soil loss (lbs/ac/yr) and recreation (thousands of number of visitors/ac/yr). The optimization model was run for three different scenarios - private rancher, public rancher including environmental services and excluding disservices, and public rancher including both services and disservices. The net benefit was the highest for the public rancher excluding the disservices. A result from the study is a constrained optimization model that incorporates ecosystem services to analyze investments on conservation and management activities. Rangeland managers can use this model to understand and explain, not prescribe, the tradeoffs of management investments.

  8. Effect of canopy cover and canopy background variables on spectral profiles of savanna rangeland bush encroachment species based on selected Acacia species (mellifera, tortilis, karroo) and Dichrostachys cinerea at Mokopane, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Munyati, C

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of woody plant species on savanna rangelands (i.e. bush encroachment) degrades rangeland quality, thereby threatening the biodiversity conservation effort as well as pastoral farming. Hyperspectral remote sensing offers...

  9. Fodder Biomass Monitoring in Sahelian Rangelands Using Phenological Metrics from FAPAR Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Aziz Diouf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Timely monitoring of plant biomass is critical for the management of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands. The estimation of annual biomass production in the Sahel is based on a simple relationship between satellite annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and in situ biomass data. This study proposes a new methodology using multi-linear models between phenological metrics from the SPOT-VEGETATION time series of Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR and in situ biomass. A model with three variables—large seasonal integral (LINTG, length of growing season, and end of season decreasing rate—performed best (MAE = 605 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.68 across Sahelian ecosystems in Senegal (data for the period 1999–2013. A model with annual maximum (PEAK and start date of season showed similar performances (MAE = 625 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.64, allowing a timely estimation of forage availability. The subdivision of the study area in ecoregions increased overall accuracy (MAE = 489.21 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.77, indicating that a relation between metrics and ecosystem properties exists. LINTG was the main explanatory variable for woody rangelands with high leaf biomass, whereas for areas dominated by herbaceous vegetation, it was the PEAK metric. The proposed approach outperformed the established biomass NDVI-based product (MAE = 818 kg·DM/ha and R2 = 0.51 and should improve the operational monitoring of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands.

  10. Introducing cattle grazing to a noxious weed-dominated rangeland shifts plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh S. Davy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive weed species in California's rangelands can reduce herbaceous diversity, forage quality and wildlife habitat. Small-scale studies (5 acres or fewer have shown reductions of medusahead and yellow starthistle using prescribed grazing on rangelands, but little is published on the effects of pasture-scale (greater than 80 acres prescribed grazing on weed control and plant community responses. We report the results of a 6-year collaborative study of manager-applied prescribed grazing implemented on rangeland that had not been grazed for 4 years. Grazing reduced medusahead but did not alter yellow starthistle cover. Medusahead reductions were only seen in years that did not have significant late spring rainfall, suggesting that it is able to recover from heavy grazing if soil moisture is present. Later season grazing appears to have the potential to suppress medusahead in all years. In practice, however, such grazing is constrained by livestock drinking water availability and forage quality, which were limited even in years with late spring rainfall. Thus, we expect that grazing treatments under real-world constraints would reduce medusahead only in years with little late spring rainfall. After 10 years of grazing exclusion, the ungrazed plant communities began to shift, replacing medusahead with species that have little value, such as ripgut and red brome.

  11. Current stage of the restoration of Chernozems in rangeland ecosystems of the steppe zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    The results of two rounds of soil and geobotanic surveys of rangeland ecosystems in the steppe zone are presented. The same sites with southern chernozems (Calcic Chernozems) under steppe plant communities at different stages of pasture degradation were investigated at the end of the 1980s, when they suffered maximum anthropogenic loads, and in 2011-2013, after a long period of relative rest. In the 1980s, degradation of soil physical properties in rangeland ecosystems under the impact of long-term unsustainable management was noted. At the same time, it was found that the major qualitative and quantitative properties of humus in the chernozems were preserved independently from the level of pasture degradation. The following period of moderate grazing pressure had a favorable effect on the soil properties. Owing to the good characteristics of the soil humus, the restoration of the physical properties of chernozems-including their structural state, water permeability, and bulk density-took place in a relatively short period. It is argued that the soil bulk density is a natural regulator of the species composition of steppe vegetation, because true grasses (Poaceae)-typical representatives of the steppe flora-have a fibrous root system requiring the soils with low density values. The improvement of the properties of chernozems is related to the development of secondary ecosystems with a higher portion of grasses in place of damaged rangelands and to the increase in the area of nominal virgin phytocenoses.

  12. Emerging issues and challenges in conservation of biodiversity in the rangelands of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Kideghesho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania rangelands are a stronghold for biodiversity harbouring a variety of animal and plant species of economic, ecological and socio-cultural importance. Efforts to protect these resources against destruction and loss have involved, among other things, setting aside some tracks of land as protected areas in the form of national parks, nature reserves, game reserves, game controlled and wildlife management areas. However, these areas and adjacent lands have long been subjected to a number of emerging issues and challenges, which complicate their management, thus putting the resources at risk of over exploitation and extinction. These issues and challenges include, among other things, government policies, failure of conservation (as a form of land use to compete effectively with alternative land uses, habitat degradation and blockage of wildlife corridors, overexploitation and illegal resource extraction, wildfires, human population growth, poverty, HIV/AIDS pandemic and human-wildlife conflicts. In this paper, we review the emerging issues and challenges in biodiversity conservation by drawing experience from different parts of Tanzania. The paper is based on the premise that, understanding of the issues and challenges underpinning the rangelands is a crucial step towards setting up of plausible objectives, strategies and plans that will improve and lead to effective management of these areas. We conclude by recommending some proactive measures that may enhance the sustainability of the rangeland resources for the benefit of the current and future generations.

  13. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    Rapid assessment of the nutritional quality of diets ingested by grazing animals is pivotal for successful cow-calf management in east Mediterranean rangelands, which receive unpredictable rainfall and are subject to hot-spells. Clipped vegetation samples are seldom representative of diets consumed, as cows locate and graze selectively. In contrast, faeces are easily sampled and their near-IR spectra contain information about nutrients and their utilization. However, a pre-requisite for successful faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS) is that the calibration database encompass the spectral variability of samples to be analyzed. Using confined beef cows in Northern and Southern Israel, we calibrated prediction equations based on individual pairs of known dietary attributes and the NIR spectra of associated faeces (n=125). Diets were composed of fresh-cut green fodder of monocots (wheat and barley), dicots (safflower and garden pea) and natural pasture collected at various phenological states over 2 consecutive years, and, optionally, supplements of barley grain and dried poultry litter. A total of 48 additional pairs of faeces and diets sourced from cows fed six complete mixed rations covering a wide range of energy and CP concentrations. Precision (linearity of calibration, R2cal, and of cross-validation, R2cv) and accuracy (standard error of cross-validation, SEcv) were criteria for calibration quality. The calibrations for dietary ash, CP, NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility yielded R2cal values >0.87, R2cv of 0.81 to 0.89 and SEcv values of 16, 13, 39 and 31 g/kg dry matter, respectively. Equations for nutrient intake were of low quality, with the exception of CP. Evaluation of FNIRS predictions was carried out with grazing animals supplemented or not with poultry litter, and implementation of the method in one herd over 2 years is presented. The potential usefulness of equations was also established by calculating the Mahalanobis (H

  14. Determining RUSLE P-factors for stonebunds and trenches in rangeland and cropland, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Gebeyehu; Poesen, Jean; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Van Wesemael, Bas; Tesfay, Samuel; Teka, Daniel; Nyssen, Jan; Deckers, Jozef; Haregeweyn, Nigussie

    2017-04-01

    The implementation of soil and water conservation (SWC) measures in the Ethiopian highlands is a top priority to reduce soil erosion rates and to enhance the sustainability of agroecosystem. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of many of these measures for different hillslope and land use conditions remains currently poorly understood. As a result, the overall effects of these measures at regional or catchment scale remain hard to quantify. This study addresses this knowledge gap by determining the cover-management (C) and support practice (P) factors of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), for commonly used SWC measures in semi-arid environments (i.e. stone bunds, trenches and a combination of both). Calculations were based on soil loss data collected with runoff plots in Tigray, northern Ethiopia (i.e. 21 runoff plots of 600 to 1000 m2, monitored during 2010, 2011 and 2012). The runoff plots were installed in rangeland and cropland sites corresponding to a gentle (5%), medium (12%) and steep (16%) slope gradients. The C and P factors of the RUSLE were calculated following the recommended standard procedures. Results show that the C-factor for rangeland ranges from 0.31 to 0.98 and from 0.06 to 0.39 for cropland. For rangeland, this large variability is due to variations in vegetation cover caused by grazing. In cropland, C-factors vary with tillage practices and crop types. The calculated P-factors ranged from 0.32 to 0.74 for stone bunds, from 0.07 to 0.65 for trenches and from 0.03 to 0.22 for a combination of both stone bunds and trenches. This variability is partly due to variations in the density of the implemented measures in relation to land use (cropland vs rangeland) and slope angles. However, also annual variations in P factor values are highly significant. Especially trenches showed a very significant decline of effectiveness over time, which is attributable to their reduced static storage capacity as a result of sediment deposition (e.g. for

  15. High resolution mapping of soil organic carbon stocks using remote sensing variables in the semi-arid rangelands of eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Waters, Cathy; Orgill, Susan; Gray, Jonathan; Cowie, Annette; Clark, Anthony; Liu, De Li

    2018-07-15

    Efficient and effective modelling methods to assess soil organic carbon (SOC) stock are central in understanding the global carbon cycle and informing related land management decisions. However, mapping SOC stocks in semi-arid rangelands is challenging due to the lack of data and poor spatial coverage. The use of remote sensing data to provide an indirect measurement of SOC to inform digital soil mapping has the potential to provide more reliable and cost-effective estimates of SOC compared with field-based, direct measurement. Despite this potential, the role of remote sensing data in improving the knowledge of soil information in semi-arid rangelands has not been fully explored. This study firstly investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (seasonal fractional cover data; SFC) together with elevation, lithology, climatic data and observed soil data to map the spatial distribution of SOC at two soil depths (0-5cm and 0-30cm) in semi-arid rangelands of eastern Australia. Overall, model performance statistics showed that random forest (RF) and boosted regression trees (BRT) models performed better than support vector machine (SVM). The models obtained moderate results with R 2 of 0.32 for SOC stock at 0-5cm and 0.44 at 0-30cm, RMSE of 3.51MgCha -1 at 0-5cm and 9.16MgCha -1 at 0-30cm without considering SFC covariates. In contrast, by including SFC, the model accuracy for predicting SOC stock improved by 7.4-12.7% at 0-5cm, and by 2.8-5.9% at 0-30cm, highlighting the importance of including SFC to enhance the performance of the three modelling techniques. Furthermore, our models produced a more accurate and higher resolution digital SOC stock map compared with other available mapping products for the region. The data and high-resolution maps from this study can be used for future soil carbon assessment and monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  17. Strategies for merging microbial fuel cell technologies in water desalination processes: Start-up protocol and desalination efficiency assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, Zulema; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Ortiz, Juan Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Microbial Desalination Cells constitute an innovative technology where microbial fuel cell and electrodialysis merge in the same device for obtaining fresh water from saline water with no energy-associated cost for the user. In this work, an anodic biofilm of the electroactive bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens was able to efficiently convert the acetate present in synthetic waste water into electric current (j = 0.32 mA cm-2) able to desalinate water. .Moreover, we implemented an efficient start-up protocol where desalination up to 90% occurred in a desalination cycle (water production:0.308 L m-2 h-1, initial salinity: 9 mS cm-1, final salinity: osmosis (RO) or reverse electrodialysis.

  18. The Cost of Compliance: A CGE Assessment of Canada's Policy Options under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph (Univ. of Oldenburg, Dept. of Economics, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)); Rutherford, Thomas F. (ETH Zuerich, Center for Energy Policy and Economy, CH-8032 Zuerich (Switzerland))

    2008-07-01

    Canada is committed under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 and 2012 to a level six percent below the 1990 reference value. To date, however, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions remain far above 1990 levels. Stringent short-term policy measures are needed if Canada is to meet this legally binding commitment. This paper uses a multi-region, multi-commodity static general equilibrium model to quantify the economic impacts of alternative compliance strategies for Canada in the context of climate policies undertaken by other Kyoto Parties. The numerical results confirm fears among Canadian policy makers of larger economic adjustment cost should Canada fulfill its Kyoto commitment solely through domestic action. Comprehensive use of flexible mechanisms - in particular the Clean Development Mechanism - could allow Canada to live up with its international climate policy commitment at a substantially lower economic cost

  19. Early Appropriate Care: A Protocol to Standardize Resuscitation Assessment and to Expedite Fracture Care Reduces Hospital Stay and Enhances Revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, Heather A; Dolenc, Andrea J; Moore, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesized that a standardized protocol for fracture care would enhance revenue by reducing complications and length of stay. Prospective consecutive series. Level 1 trauma center. Two hundread and fifty-three adult patients with a mean age of 40.7 years and mean Injury Severity Score of 26.0. Femur, pelvis, or spine fractures treated surgically. Hospital and professional charges and collections were analyzed. Fixation was defined as early (<36 hours) or delayed. Complications and hospital stay were recorded. Mean charges were US $180,145 with a mean of US $66,871 collected (37%). The revenue multiplier was US $59,882/$6989 (8.57), indicating hospital collection of US $8.57 for every professional dollar, less than half of which went to orthopaedic surgeons. Delayed fracture care was associated with more intensive care unit (4.5 vs. 9.4) and total hospital days (9.4 vs. 15.3), with mean loss of actual revenue US $6380/patient delayed (n = 47), because of the costs of longer length of stay. Complications were associated with the highest expenses: mean of US $291,846 charges and US $101,005 collections, with facility collections decreased by 5.1%. An uncomplicated course of care was associated with the most favorable total collections: (US $60,017/$158,454 = 38%) and the shortest mean stay (8.7 days). Facility collections were nearly 9 times more than professional collections. Delayed fixation was associated with more complications, and facility collections decreased 5% with a complication. Furthermore, delayed fixation was associated with longer hospital stay, accounting for US $300K more in actual costs during the study. A standardized protocol to expedite definitive fixation enhances the profitability of the trauma service line. Economic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in patients treated for leukaemia. Assessment of the need for a diagnostic protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil Pinel, J; Vila Vives, P; Salom Taverner, M

    To evaluate the incidence of avascular necrosis of the hip in leukaemia patients treated in our hospital with high doses of corticosteroids in order to evaluate the necessity for an early detection protocol. Observational-descriptive and retrospective study from 2005 to 2016 of 253 patients diagnosed with paediatric leukaemia. Patients with musculoskeletal pathology were identified and patients with avascular necrosis were analysed. A total of 26 patients (10%) had musculoskeletal symptoms. Three patients with avascular necrosis (1.2%) were analysed. One girl, 7 years old, was treated conservatively with traction - suspension and discharge. Two boys, an 11 and a 15.4 year-old,who developed graft-versus-host disease secondary to bone marrow transplantation, and whose treatment included high doses of corticosteroids, developed avascular necrosis of the hip. One was treated with bisphosphonates and forage and the other ended up with a total hip arthroplasty. The occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms during the treatment of leukaemia is different according to the bibliographic series (0.43 -12.6%). Some authors observe an increased risk in female patients between the ages of 10 and 17. A retrospective study reveals that there is a delay of 3.9 months in the diagnosis of CAP since the onset of pain. Other authors relate NAV to loading joints, age and high doses of corticosteroids. Based on the low incidence of avascular necrosis of the hip in our 14-year-old population treated for leukaemia, the creation of diagnostic protocols seems not to be necessary. However, close monitoring of patients with potential risk factors recognized in the literature, is advisable. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. A police education programme to integrate occupational safety and HIV prevention: protocol for a modified stepped-wedge study design with parallel prospective cohorts to assess behavioural outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Arredondo, Jaime; Rocha, Teresita; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Patiño Mandujano, Efrain; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Olivarria, Horcasitas Omar; Gaines, Tommi; Patterson, Thomas L; Beletsky, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Policing practices are key drivers of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). This paper describes the protocol for the first study to prospectively examine the impact of a police education programme (PEP) to align law enforcement and HIV prevention. PEPs incorporating HIV prevention (including harm reduction programmes like syringe exchange) have been successfully piloted in several countries but were limited to brief pre–post assessments; the impact of PEPs on policing behaviours and occupational safety is unknown. Objectives Proyecto ESCUDO (SHIELD) aims to evaluate the efficacy of the PEP on uptake of occupational safety procedures, as assessed through the incidence of needle stick injuries (NSIs) (primary outcome) and changes in knowledge of transmission, prevention and treatment of HIV and viral hepatitis; attitudes towards PWID, adverse behaviours that interfere with HIV prevention and protective behaviours (secondary outcomes). Methods/analysis ESCUDO is a hybrid type I design that simultaneously tests an intervention and an implementation strategy. Using a modified stepped-wedge design involving all active duty street-level police officers in Tijuana (N=∼1200), we will administer one 3 h PEP course to groups of 20–50 officers until the entire force is trained. NSI incidence and geocoded arrest data will be assessed from department-wide de-identified data. Of the consenting police officers, a subcohort (N=500) will be randomly sampled from each class to undergo pre-PEP and post-PEP surveys with a semiannual follow-up for 2 years to assess self-reported NSIs, attitudes and behaviour changes. The impact on PWIDs will be externally validated through a parallel cohort of Tijuana PWIDs. Ethics/dissemination Research ethics approval was obtained from the USA and Mexico. Findings will be disseminated through open access to protocol materials through the Law Enforcement and HIV Network. Trial registration number NCT02444403. PMID:26260350

  2. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Interpreting and Correcting Cross-scale Mismatches in Resilience Analysis: a Procedure and Examples from Australia's Rangelands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Ludwig

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Many rangelands around the globe are degraded because of mismatches between the goals and actions of managers operating at different spatial scales. In this paper, we focus on identifying, interpreting, and correcting cross-scale mismatches in rangeland management by building on an existing four-step resilience analysis procedure. Resilience analysis is an evaluation of the capacity of a system to persist in the face of disturbances. We provide three examples of cross-scale resilience analysis using a rangeland system located in northern Australia. The system was summarized in a diagram showing key interactions between three attributes (water quality, regional biodiversity, and beef quality, which can be used to indicate the degree of resilience of the system, and other components that affect these attributes at different scales. The strengths of cross-scale interactions were rated as strong or weak, and the likely causes of mismatches in strength were interpreted. Possible actions to correct cross-scale mismatches were suggested and evaluated. We found this four-step, cross-scale resilience analysis procedure very helpful because it reduced a complex problem down to manageable parts without losing sight of the larger-scale whole. To build rangeland resilience, many such cross-scale mismatches in management will need to be corrected, especially as the global use of rangelands increases over the coming decades.

  4. 25 CFR 166.307 - Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 166.307 Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not... trust or non-trust rangeland in common with the permitted land. Grazing capacity will be established... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze...

  5. Power and limitation of soil properties as predictors of rangeland health and ecosystem functioning in a Northern mixed-grass prairie[Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil properties are thought to affect rangeland ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity, hydrology), and thus soil variables that are consistently correlated with key ecosystem functions may be general indicators of rangeland health. We summarize results from several studies in mixed-grass...

  6. Quantitative assessment of inter-clinician variability of target volume delineation for medulloblastoma: quality assurance for the SIOP PNET 4 trial protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Charlotte E.; Hoole, Andrew C.F.; Harden, Susan V; Burnet, Neil G.; Twyman, Nicola; Taylor, Roger E.; Kortmann, Rolf D.; Williams, Michael V.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess inter-clinician variability amongst specialist paediatric radiation oncologists in delineating clinical target volumes for treating medulloblastoma as a quality assurance exercise prior to the introduction of the SIOP PNET 4 trial protocol of conformal radiotherapy to the posterior fossa and tumour bed. Patients and methods: Participants from 17 UK centres attended an educational meeting and then completed a clinical planning exercise to outline: (1) the whole posterior fossa and (2) the tumour bed. Quantitative analysis of the volumes, lengths, spatial positioning and axial planes for each individual was carried out and variation between individuals analysed. Results: Outlining of the posterior fossa was reasonably consistent, although most variation was seen in defining the superior border of the tentorium. A major difference was the decision whether or not to include the post-surgical meningocoele in the clinical target volume (CTV). The CTV for the tumour bed was under treated by all participants due to lack of inclusion of pre-operative tumour extent. Conclusions: This exercise demonstrated several ambiguities in the draft protocol and highlighted particular areas of inter-clinician variation. Consequently the protocol was revised and improved to take account of these findings. We recommend that planning exercises, in conjunction with education and training, should be implemented before the start of any new radiotherapy trial. In the future, the use of image transfer will allow prospective peer review of target volumes before treatment commences. These measures are essential to ensure that alterations in clinical practice are achieved in a uniform way

  7. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  8. Quality assessment program for EuroFlow protocols: summary results of four-year (2010-2013) quality assurance rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, Tomas; Flores-Montero, Juan; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Pedreira, Carlos E; van der Velden, Vincent H J; Novakova, Michaela; Mejstrikova, Ester; Hrusak, Ondrej; Böttcher, Sebastian; Karsch, Dennis; Sędek, Łukasz; Trinquand, Amelie; Boeckx, Nancy; Caetano, Joana; Asnafi, Vahid; Lucio, Paulo; Lima, Margarida; Helena Santos, Ana; Bonaccorso, Paola; van der Sluijs-Gelling, Alita J; Langerak, Anton W; Martin-Ayuso, Marta; Szczepański, Tomasz; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Flow cytometric immunophenotyping has become essential for accurate diagnosis, classification, and disease monitoring in hemato-oncology. The EuroFlow Consortium has established a fully standardized "all-in-one" pipeline consisting of standardized instrument settings, reagent panels, and sample preparation protocols and software for data analysis and disease classification. For its reproducible implementation, parallel development of a quality assurance (QA) program was required. Here, we report on the results of four consecutive annual rounds of the novel external QA EuroFlow program. The novel QA scheme aimed at monitoring the whole flow cytometric analysis process (cytometer setting, sample preparation, acquisition and analysis) by reading the median fluorescence intensities (MedFI) of defined lymphocytes' subsets. Each QA participant applied the predefined reagents' panel on blood cells of local healthy donors. A uniform gating strategy was applied to define lymphocyte subsets and to read MedFI values per marker. The MedFI values were compared with reference data and deviations from reference values were quantified using performance score metrics. In four annual QA rounds, we analyzed 123 blood samples from local healthy donors on 14 different instruments in 11 laboratories from nine European countries. The immunophenotype of defined cellular subsets appeared sufficiently standardized to permit unified (software) data analysis. The coefficient of variation of MedFI for 7 of 11 markers performed repeatedly below 30%, average MedFI in each QA round ranged from 86 to 125% from overall median. Calculation of performance scores was instrumental to pinpoint standardization failures and their causes. Overall, the new EuroFlow QA system for the first time allowed to quantify the technical variation that is introduced in the measurement of fluorescence intensities in a multicentric setting over an extended period of time. EuroFlow QA is a proficiency test specific for

  9. ZOOM or Non-ZOOM? Assessing Spinal Cord Diffusion Tensor Imaging Protocols for Multi-Centre Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Samson

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate two spinal cord (SC diffusion tensor imaging (DTI protocols, implemented at multiple sites (using scanners from two different manufacturers, one available on any clinical scanner, and one using more advanced options currently available in the research setting, and to use an automated processing method for unbiased quantification. DTI parameters are sensitive to changes in the diseased SC. However, imaging the cord can be technically challenging due to various factors including its small size, patient-related and physiological motion, and field inhomogeneities. Rapid acquisition sequences such as Echo Planar Imaging (EPI are desirable but may suffer from image distortions. We present a multi-centre comparison of two acquisition protocols implemented on scanners from two different vendors (Siemens and Philips, one using a reduced field-of-view (rFOV EPI sequence, and one only using options available on standard clinical scanners such as outer volume suppression (OVS. Automatic analysis was performed with the Spinal Cord Toolbox for unbiased and reproducible quantification of DTI metrics in the white matter. Images acquired using the rFOV sequence appear less distorted than those acquired using OVS alone. SC DTI parameter values obtained using both sequences at all sites were consistent with previous measurements made at 3T. For the same scanner manufacturer, DTI parameter inter-site SDs were smaller for the rFOV sequence compared to the OVS sequence. The higher inter-site reproducibility (for the same manufacturer and acquisition details, i.e. ZOOM data acquired at the two Philips sites of rFOV compared to the OVS sequence supports the idea that making research options such as rFOV more widely available would improve accuracy of measurements obtained in multi-centre clinical trials. Future multi-centre studies should also aim to match the rFOV technique and signal-to-noise ratios in all

  10. Multidetector computed tomography with triple-bolus contrast medium administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of potential living renal donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, Matthew K.; Rivers-Bowerman, Michael D.; Bardgett, Harry P.; Cowan, Nigel C.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with a triple-bolus contrast administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of living renal donors. Fifty-five potential living renal donors underwent MDCT of which 27 proceeded to donor nephrectomy. A triple-bolus contrast administration protocol was used for simultaneous acquisition of arterial, nephrographic, and excretory phases. MDCT images were independently reviewed in random order by two radiologists blinded to surgical anatomy findings. Diagnostic accuracy for anatomical variants was quantified by sensitivity and specificity. Differential renal function (DRF) was derived from MDCT for 54 patients and compared with technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid renography (Tc-99 m DMSA). All triple-bolus MDCT examinations were technically adequate. Accessory renal arteries and veins were identified at surgery in 33% (n = 9/27) and 22% (n = 6/27) of donor kidneys. The mean difference between MDCT-derived DRF and DMSA was 0.8% (95% CI 0.1-1.6) with 95% limits of agreement of -4.6% (95% CI -3.3 to -5.9) to 6.3% (95% CI 5.0-7.6). MDCT delivered a mean (SD, range) radiation dose of 9.5 (3.6, 3.6-17.3) mSv. MDCT with a triple-bolus contrast administration provides accurate anatomical and functional evaluation of living renal donors. (orig.)

  11. Multidetector computed tomography with triple-bolus contrast medium administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of potential living renal donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Matthew K. [University of Calgary, Faculty of Medicine, UME Office, Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Rivers-Bowerman, Michael D. [University of British Columbia, Faculty of Medicine, MD Undergraduate Program, Diamond Health Care Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bardgett, Harry P. [Bradford Teaching Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Bradford (United Kingdom); Cowan, Nigel C. [The Churchill Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with a triple-bolus contrast administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of living renal donors. Fifty-five potential living renal donors underwent MDCT of which 27 proceeded to donor nephrectomy. A triple-bolus contrast administration protocol was used for simultaneous acquisition of arterial, nephrographic, and excretory phases. MDCT images were independently reviewed in random order by two radiologists blinded to surgical anatomy findings. Diagnostic accuracy for anatomical variants was quantified by sensitivity and specificity. Differential renal function (DRF) was derived from MDCT for 54 patients and compared with technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid renography (Tc-99 m DMSA). All triple-bolus MDCT examinations were technically adequate. Accessory renal arteries and veins were identified at surgery in 33% (n = 9/27) and 22% (n = 6/27) of donor kidneys. The mean difference between MDCT-derived DRF and DMSA was 0.8% (95% CI 0.1-1.6) with 95% limits of agreement of -4.6% (95% CI -3.3 to -5.9) to 6.3% (95% CI 5.0-7.6). MDCT delivered a mean (SD, range) radiation dose of 9.5 (3.6, 3.6-17.3) mSv. MDCT with a triple-bolus contrast administration provides accurate anatomical and functional evaluation of living renal donors. (orig.)

  12. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 3. Paediatric dental care--prevention and management protocols using caries risk assessment for infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, F J; Crystal, Y O; Domejean, S; Featherstone, J D B

    2012-11-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children throughout the world highlight the need for a simple but effective infant oral care programme. This programme needs to include a medical disease prevention management model with an early establishment of a dental home and a treatment approach based on individual patient risk. This article presents an updated approach with practical forms and tools based on the principles of caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA. This method will aid the general practitioner to develop and maintain a comprehensive protocol adequate for infant and young children oral care visits. Perinatal oral health is vitally important in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) in young children. Providing dental treatment to expectant mothers and their young children in a 'dual parallel track' is an effective innovative strategy and an efficient practice builder. It promotes prevention rather than intervention, and this may be the best way to achieve long-lasting oral health for young patients. General dental practice can adopt easy protocols that will promote early preventive visits and anticipatory guidance/counselling rather than waiting for the need for restorative treatment.

  13. Assessing metacognitive activities: the in-depth comparison of a task-specific questionnaire with think-aloud protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellings, G.L.M.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.; Veenman, M.V.J.; Meijer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and assessing metacognitive activities are important educational objectives, and teachers are calling for efficient instruments. The advantages of questionnaires in measuring metacognitive activities are obvious, but serious validity issues appear. For example, correlations of questionnaire

  14. Study protocol on ecological momentary assessment of health-related quality of life using a smartphone application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mareva, Silvana; Thomson, David M; Marenco, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    recall and current mood state may undermine their validity and reliability. Retrospective tools can be further criticized for their lack of ecology, as individuals are usually assessed in less natural settings such as hospitals and health centers, and may be obliged to spend time and money traveling...... to receive assessment. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an alternative, as mobile assessment using mobile health (mHealth) technology has the potential to minimize biases and overcome many of these limitations. Employing an EMA methodology, we will use a smartphone application to collect data on real-time...... HRQoL, with an adapted version of the widely used WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. We aim to recruit a total of 450 healthy participants. Participants will be prompted by the application to report their real-time HRQoL over 2 weeks together with information on mood and current activities. At the end of 2...

  15. Monitoring to detect change on rangelands: physical, social and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    livestock grazing, prescribed burning) factors. ... Risk assessments, adaptive management analyses, or management by hypothesis require understanding linkages between environmental drivers and various management options on ecological ...

  16. Rapid assessment of visual impairment (RAVI in marine fishing communities in South India - study protocol and main findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madala Sreenivas R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable data are a pre-requisite for planning eye care services. Though conventional cross sectional studies provide reliable information, they are resource intensive. A novel rapid assessment method was used to investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and presbyopia in subjects aged 40 years and older. This paper describes the detailed methodology and study procedures of Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI project. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling in the coastal region of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh in India, predominantly inhabited by fishing communities. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity (VA was assessed using a Snellen chart at a distance of 6 meters. The VA was re-assessed using a pinhole, if VA was Results The data collection was completed in Conclusion There is a high prevalence of visual impairment in marine fishing communities in Prakasam district in India. The data from this rapid assessment survey can now be used as a baseline to start eye care services in this region. The rapid assessment methodology (RAVI reported in this paper is robust, quick and has the potential to be replicated in other areas.

  17. Study Protocol on Ecological Momentary Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life using a Smartphone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mareva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is a construct of increasing importance in modern healthcare, and has typically been assessed using retrospective instruments. While such measures have been shown to have predictive utility for clinical outcomes, several cognitive biases associated with human recall and current mood state may undermine their validity and reliability. Retrospective tools can be further criticized for their lack of ecology, as individuals are usually assessed in less natural settings such as hospitals and health centers, and may be obliged to spend time and money travelling to receive assessment. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA is an alternative, as mobile assessment using mobile health (mHealth technology has the potential to minimize biases and overcome many of these limitations. Employing an EMA methodology, we will use a smartphone application to collect data on real-time HRQoL, with an adapted version of the widely used WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. We aim to recruit a total of 420 students from seven different universities across Europe. Participants will be prompted by the application to report their real-time HRQoL over two weeks together with information on mood and current activities. At the end of two weeks, students will complete a retrospective assessment of their HRQoL and provide information about their sleep quality and perceived stress. The psychometric properties of real-time HRQoL will be assessed, including analysis of the factorial structure, reliability and validity of the measure, and compared with retrospective HRQoL responses for the same two-week testing period. Further, we aim to identify factors associated with real-time HRQoL (e.g. mood, activities, the feasibility of the application, and within- and between-person variability in real-time HRQoL. We expect real-time HRQoL to have adequate validity and reliability, and positive responses on the feasibility of using a smartphone application for

  18. Study Protocol on Ecological Momentary Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life Using a Smartphone Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareva, Silvana; Thomson, David; Marenco, Pietro; Estal Muñoz, Víctor; Ott, Caroline V; Schmidt, Barbara; Wingen, Tobias; Kassianos, Angelos P

    2016-01-01

    Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is a construct of increasing importance in modern healthcare, and has typically been assessed using retrospective instruments. While such measures have been shown to have predictive utility for clinical outcomes, several cognitive biases associated with human recall and current mood state may undermine their validity and reliability. Retrospective tools can be further criticized for their lack of ecology, as individuals are usually assessed in less natural settings such as hospitals and health centers, and may be obliged to spend time and money traveling to receive assessment. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an alternative, as mobile assessment using mobile health (mHealth) technology has the potential to minimize biases and overcome many of these limitations. Employing an EMA methodology, we will use a smartphone application to collect data on real-time HRQoL, with an adapted version of the widely used WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. We aim to recruit a total of 450 healthy participants. Participants will be prompted by the application to report their real-time HRQoL over 2 weeks together with information on mood and current activities. At the end of 2 weeks, they will complete a retrospective assessment of their HRQoL and they will provide information about their sleep quality and perceived stress. The psychometric properties of real-time HRQoL will be assessed, including analysis of the factorial structure, reliability and validity of the measure, and compared with retrospective HRQoL responses for the same 2-week testing period. Further, we aim to identify factors associated with real-time HRQoL (e.g., mood, activities), the feasibility of the application, and within- and between-person variability in real-time HRQoL. We expect real-time HRQoL to have adequate validity and reliability, and positive responses on the feasibility of using a smartphone application for routine HRQoL assessment. The direct comparison of real

  19. Effect of standardized training on the reliability of the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno R; Resta, Nina M; Beckett, Brooke; Israel-Stahre, Nicholas; Diaz, Alison; Johnston, Bradley C; Egger, Matthias; Jüni, Peter; Armijo-Olivo, Susan

    2014-12-13

    The Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool has been widely embraced by the systematic review community, but several studies have reported that its reliability is low. We aim to investigate whether training of raters, including objective and standardized instructions on how to assess risk of bias, can improve the reliability of this tool. We describe the methods that will be used in this investigation and present an intensive standardized training package for risk of bias assessment that could be used by contributors to the Cochrane Collaboration and other reviewers. This is a pilot study. We will first perform a systematic literature review to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that will be used for risk of bias assessment. Using the identified RCTs, we will then do a randomized experiment, where raters will be allocated to two different training schemes: minimal training and intensive standardized training. We will calculate the chance-corrected weighted Kappa with 95% confidence intervals to quantify within- and between-group Kappa agreement for each of the domains of the risk of bias tool. To calculate between-group Kappa agreement, we will use risk of bias assessments from pairs of raters after resolution of disagreements. Between-group Kappa agreement will quantify the agreement between the risk of bias assessment of raters in the training groups and the risk of bias assessment of experienced raters. To compare agreement of raters under different training conditions, we will calculate differences between Kappa values with 95% confidence intervals. This study will investigate whether the reliability of the risk of bias tool can be improved by training raters using standardized instructions for risk of bias assessment. One group of inexperienced raters will receive intensive training on risk of bias assessment and the other will receive minimal training. By including a control group with minimal training, we will attempt to mimic what many review authors

  20. Development and utilization of an ex vivo bromodeoxyuridine local lymph node assay protocol for assessing potential chemical sensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W C; Copeland, C; Boykin, E; Quell, S J; Lehmann, D M

    2015-01-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to a dermal sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has traditionally been measured by in vivo incorporation of [(3) H]methyl thymidine. A more recent non-isotopic variation of the assay utilizes bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in vivo. To further improve the utility of this assay, we developed an ex vivo BrdU labeling procedure eliminating the need for in vivo injections. The results of this assay correctly identified a strong sensitizer (i.e., trimellitic anhydride) as well as weak/moderate sensitizers (i.e., eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and hexylcinnaminic aldehyde). As anticipated, neither non-sensitizers isopropanol and lactic acid nor the false negative chemical nickel II sulfate hexahydrate induced a positive threshold response in the assay. The results of this assay are in close agreement with those of the in vivo LLNA:BrdU-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay labeling procedure. We also used the ex vivo BrdU LLNA procedure to evaluate ammonium hexachloroplatinate, ammonium tetrachloroplatinate and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) and the assay correctly identified them as sensitizers based on the calculation of EC2 values. We conclude that this ex vivo BrdU labeling method offers predictive capacity comparable to previously established LLNA protocols while eliminating animal injections and the use of radioisotope. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. A protocol for the development of a critical thinking assessment tool for nurses using a Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Elisabeth; Duffield, Christine; Jacob, Darren

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an assessment tool to measure the critical thinking ability of nurses. As an increasing number of complex patients are admitted to hospitals, the importance of nurses recognizing changes in health status and picking up on deterioration is more important. To detect early signs of complication requires critical thinking skills. Registered Nurses are expected to commence their clinical careers with the necessary critical thinking skills to ensure safe nursing practice. Currently, there is no published tool to assess critical thinking skills which is context specific to Australian nurses. A modified Delphi study will be used for the project. This study will develop a series of unfolding case scenarios using national health data with multiple-choice questions to assess critical thinking. Face validity of the scenarios will be determined by an expert reference group of clinical and academic nurses. A Delphi study will determine the answers to scenario questions. Panel members will be expert clinicians and educators from two states in Australia. Rasch analysis of the questionnaire will assess validity and reliability of the tool. Funding for the study and Research Ethics Committee approval were obtained in March and November 2016, respectively. Patient outcomes and safety are directly linked to nurses' critical thinking skills. This study will develop an assessment tool to provide a standardized method of measuring nurses' critical thinking skills across Australia. This will provide healthcare providers with greater confidence in the critical thinking level of graduate Registered Nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The economic impact of global climate change on Mediterranean rangeland ecosystems. A Space-for-Time approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, Aliza; Sternberg, Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    Global Climate Change (GCC) can bring about changes in ecosystems and consequently in their services value. Here we show that the urban population in Israel values the green landscape of rangelands in the mesic Mediterranean climate region and is willing to pay for preserving it in light of the expected increasing aridity conditions in this region. Their valuation of the landscape is higher than that of the grazing services these rangelands provide for livestock growers. These results stem from a Time-for-Space approach with which we were able to measure changes in biomass production and rainfall at four experimental sites along an aridity gradient. (author)

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 06: Dose assessment of cone beam CT imaging protocols as part of SPECT/CT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkopi, E; Ross, AA [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, CDHA (Canada); Department of Radiology, Dalhousie University (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To assess radiation dose from the cone beam CT (CBCT) component of SPECT/CT studies and to compare with other CT examinations performed in our institution. Methods: We used an anthropomorphic chest phantom and the 6 cc ion chamber to measure entrance breast dose for several CBCT and diagnostic CT acquisition protocols. The CBCT effective dose was calculated with ImPACT software; the CT effective dose was evaluated from the DLP value and conversion factor, dependent on the anatomic region. The RADAR medical procedure radiation dose calculator was used to assess the nuclear medicine component of exam dose. Results: The entrance dose to the breast measured with the anthropomorphic phantom was 0.48 mGy and 9.41 mGy for cardiac and chest CBCT scans; and 4.59 mGy for diagnostic thoracic CT. The effective doses were 0.2 mSv, 3.2 mSv and 2.8 mSv respectively. For a small patient represented by the anthropomorphic phantom, the dose from the diagnostic CT was lower than from the CBCT scan, as a result of the exposure reduction options available on modern CT scanners. The CBCT protocols used the same fixed scanning techniques. The diagnostic CT dose based on the patient data was 35% higher than the phantom dose. For most SPECT/CT studies the dose from the CBCT component was comparable with the dose from the radiopharmaceutical. Conclusions: The patient radiation dose from the cone beam CT scan can be higher than that from a diagnostic CT and should be taken into consideration in evaluating total SPECT/CT patient dose.

  4. Calf-raise senior: a new test for assessment of plantar flexor muscle strength in older adults: protocol, validity, and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Helô-Isa; Carnide, Filomena; Borja, Edgar; Ramalho, Fátima; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Veloso, António P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new field test protocol with a standardized measurement of strength and power in plantar flexor muscles targeted to functionally independent older adults, the calf-raise senior (CRS) test, and also evaluate its reliability and validity. Forty-one subjects aged 65 years and older of both sexes participated in five different cross-sectional studies: 1) pilot (n=12); 2) inter- and intrarater agreement (n=12); 3) construct (n=41); 4) criterion validity (n=33); and 5) test-retest reliability (n=41). Different motion parameters were compared in order to define a specifically designed protocol for seniors. Two raters evaluated each participant twice, and the results of the same individual were compared between raters and participants to assess the interrater and intrarater agreement. The validity and reliability studies involved three testing sessions that lasted 2 weeks, including a battery of functional fitness tests, CRS test in two occasions, accelerometry, and strength assessments in an isokinetic dynamometer. The CRS test presented an excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] =0.90, standard error of measurement =2.0) and interrater reliability (ICC =0.93-0.96), as well as a good intrarater agreement (ICC =0.79-0.84). Participants with better results in the CRS test were younger and presented higher levels of physical activity and functional fitness. A significant association between test results and all strength parameters (isometric, r =0.87, r 2 =0.75; isokinetic, r =0.86, r 2 =0.74; and rate of force development, r =0.77, r 2 =0.59) was shown. This study was successful in demonstrating that the CRS test can meet the scientific criteria of validity and reliability. The test can be a good indicator of ankle strength in older adults and proved to discriminate significantly between individuals with improved functionality and levels of physical activity.

  5. In vitro Assessment of Influence of Various Bleaching Protocols on the Strength of Ceramic Orthodontic Brackets bonded to Bleached Tooth Surface: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iska, Divya; Devanna, Raghu; Singh, Madhvi; Chitumalla, Rajkiran; Balasubramanian, Sai C Bala; Goutam, Manish

    2017-12-01

    Esthetics is one of the common issues because of which patients consult dental orthodontic treatment. Two ways of tooth bleaching are available these days, which includes in-office bleach and home bleach. Various bleaching protocols are available these days for treating the tooth surfaces. Hence, we planned the present study for investigating the impact of various intracoronal bleaching protocols on shear bond strength of ceramic brackets bonded to tooth surface after bleaching. The present study included assessment of 100 extracted maxillary central incisors with the integrated buccal surface. A resin block was made and individual teeth were embedded in each block. Root canal therapy procedure was performed in all the teeth, after which 2 mm short of tooth apex up to the level of cementoenamel junction, removal of the root canal filling was done. All the samples were broadly divided into four study groups with 25 samples in each group. Bleaching procedure was carried in all the samples intracoronally followed by testing of shear bond strength using universal force testing machine. Following the modified adhesive remnant index (AI), assessment of remaining adhesive on the brackets was done. All the results were compiled and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 17.0. In the control group, mean shear bond strength was found to be 17.9 MPa. While comparing the carbamide peroxide (CP) group with sodium perborate study group, we observed a statistically significant difference. Nonsignificant results were obtained while comparing the shear bond strength in between sodium perborate group and hydrogen peroxide (HP) group. Intracoronal bleaching does affect the shear bond strength of ceramic brackets. Sodium perborate bleaching influences shear bond strength more strongly than other bleaching agents such as CP and HP. In patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, HP is a preferred agent where bleaching has to be followed by

  6. Study protocol for a comparative effectiveness trial of two models of perinatal integrated psychosocial assessment: the PIPA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Nicole; Black, Emma; Chambers, Georgina M; Schmied, Virginia; Matthey, Stephen; Farrell, Josephine; Kingston, Dawn; Bisits, Andrew; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2017-07-20

    Studies examining psychosocial and depression assessment programs in maternity settings have not adequately considered the context in which psychosocial assessment occurs or how broader components of integrated care, including clinician decision-making aids, may optimise program delivery and its cost-effectiveness. There is also limited evidence relating to the diagnostic accuracy of symptom-based screening measures used in this context. The Perinatal Integrated Psychosocial Assessment (PIPA) Project was developed to address these knowledge gaps. The primary aims of the PIPA Project are to examine the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of two alternative models of integrated psychosocial care during pregnancy: 'care as usual' (the SAFE START model) and an alternative model (the PIPA model). The acceptability and perceived benefit of each model of care from the perspective of both pregnant women and their healthcare providers will also be assessed. Our secondary aim is to examine the psychometric properties of a number of symptom-based screening tools for depression and anxiety when used in pregnancy. This is a comparative-effectiveness study comparing 'care as usual' to an alternative model sequentially over two 12-month periods. Data will be collected from women at Time 1 (initial antenatal psychosocial assessment), Time 2 (2-weeks after Time 1) and from clinicians at Time 3 for each condition. Primary aims will be evaluated using a between-groups design, and the secondary aim using a within group design. The PIPA Project will provide evidence relating to the clinical- and cost- effectiveness of psychosocial assessment integrated with electronic clinician decision making prompts, and referral options that are tailored to the woman's psychosocial risk, in the maternity care setting. It will also address research recommendations from the Australian (2011) and NICE (2015) Clinical Practice Guidelines. ACTRN12617000932369.

  7. Stakeholder Theory and Rangeland Management: The Importance of Ranch Income Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, S.; Roche, L. M.; Elias, E.

    2016-12-01

    The California drought beginning in 2012 has been driven by reduced precipitation and record high temperatures. Hydrologic drought in the Southwest United States is projected to become the new climatology of the region. While ranchers are considered naturally adaptive, often adeptly altering management based upon conditions, the projected increased aridity may challenge rangeland management. Certain rancher characteristics are likely to impact how well ranchers adapt. Based on Stakeholder Theory (ST), we hypothesize that the extent to which ranchers are dependent on their ranches as a source of income would serve as a predictor of several key variables related to ranching adaptation and success. Data were obtained from 507 ranchers throughout the State of California via the Rangeland Decision-Making Survey implemented by University of California, Davis in 2010, just prior to the unprecedented California drought. Consistent with the ST urgency facet, results of linear regression analyses indicate the more dependent ranchers are on their ranches for their income, the more aware they are of USDA ranching initiatives (β = 0.19, p < .001) and state ranching initiatives (β = 0.10, p < .05). In addition, more dependent ranchers are more likely to use multiple and diverse sources of information about ranching (β = 0.18, p < .001), are more likely to realize the severity and extent of the most recent drought's impacts (β = 0.18, p < .001), and were more likely to have a drought management plan in place during the most recent drought (β = 0.18, p < .001). These findings are important in relation to both outreach/extension efforts and rangeland research. Outreach/extension efforts should take into account that people less dependent on their ranches are less aware of resources, as well as, less prepared to adapt to drought. Researchers should control for the extent to which ranchers are dependent on their ranches for income in order to ensure more accurate findings.

  8. Revolutionary land use change in the 21st century: Is (rangeland) science relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.E.; Brown, J.R.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Andrews, S.S.; Baldi, G.; Davies, J.; Duniway, M.; Havstad, K.M.; Karl, J.W.; Karlen, D.L.; Peters, Debra P.C.; Quinton, J.N.; Riginos, C.; Shaver, P.L.; Steinaker, D.; Twomlow, S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly increasing demand for food, fiber, and fuel together with new technologies and the mobility of global capital are driving revolutionary changes in land use throughout the world. Efforts to increase land productivity include conversion of millions of hectares of rangelands to crop production, including many marginal lands with low resistance and resilience to degradation. Sustaining the productivity of these lands requires careful land use planning and innovative management systems. Historically, this responsibility has been left to agronomists and others with expertise in crop production. In this article, we argue that the revolutionary land use changes necessary to support national and global food security potentially make rangeland science more relevant now than ever. Maintaining and increasing relevance will require a revolutionary change in range science from a discipline that focuses on a particular land use or land cover to one that addresses the challenge of managing all lands that, at one time, were considered to be marginal for crop production. We propose four strategies to increase the relevance of rangeland science to global land management: 1) expand our awareness and understanding of local to global economic, social, and technological trends in order to anticipate and identify drivers and patterns of conversion; 2) emphasize empirical studies and modeling that anticipate the biophysical (ecosystem services) and societal consequences of large-scale changes in land cover and use; 3) significantly increase communication and collaboration with the disciplines and sectors of society currently responsible for managing the new land uses; and 4) develop and adopt a dynamic and flexible resilience-based land classification system and data-supported conceptual models (e.g., state-and-transition models) that represent all lands, regardless of use and the consequences of land conversion to various uses instead of changes in state or condition that are

  9. Incorporating biodiversity into rangeland health: Plant species richness and diversity in great plains grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Jonas, Jayne L.

    2011-01-01

    Indicators of rangeland health generally do not include a measure of biodiversity. Increasing attention to maintaining biodiversity in rangelands suggests that this omission should be reconsidered, and plant species richness and diversity are two metrics that may be useful and appropriate. Ideally, their response to a variety of anthropogenic and natural drivers in the ecosystem of interest would be clearly understood, thereby providing a means to diagnose the cause of decline in an ecosystem. Conceptual ecological models based on ecological principles and hypotheses provide a framework for this understanding, but these models must be supported by empirical evidence if they are to be used for decision making. To that end, we synthesize results from published studies regarding the responses of plant species richness and diversity to drivers that are of management concern in Great Plains grasslands, one of North America's most imperiled ecosystems. In the published literature, moderate grazing generally has a positive effect on these metrics in tallgrass prairie and a neutral to negative effect in shortgrass prairie. The largest published effects on richness and diversity were caused by moderate grazing in tallgrass prairies and nitrogen fertilization in shortgrass prairies. Although weather is often cited as the reason for considerable annual fluctuations in richness and diversity, little information about the responses of these metrics to weather is available. Responses of the two metrics often diverged, reflecting differences in their sensitivity to different types of changes in the plant community. Although sufficient information has not yet been published for these metrics to meet all the criteria of a good indicator in Great Plains Grasslands, augmenting current methods of evaluating rangeland health with a measure of plant species richness would reduce these shortcomings and provide information critical to managing for biodiversity.

  10. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-03

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  11. Interviews for the assessment of long-term incapacity for work: a study on adherence to protocols and principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Wout E. L.; Wind, Haije; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Willems, Han H. B. M.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Social insurance assessments for long-term incapacity for work are performed by Social Insurance Physicians (SIPs) who rely on interviews with claimants as an important part of the process. These interviews, however, are susceptible to bias. For that reason, in the Netherlands

  12. An Extended Functional Analysis Protocol Assesses the Role of Stereotypy in Aggression in Two Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela; O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Kang, Soyeon; Muhich, Kimberly; Falcomata, Terry; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    Two children with autism who engaged in aggression and stereotypy were assessed using common analogue functional analysis procedures. Aggression was maintained by access to specific preferred items. Data on the rates of stereotypy and appropriate play were collected during an extended functional analysis tangible condition. These data reveal that…

  13. Towards a protocol for the assessment of site-specific human health risks for consumption of vegetables from contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes FA; Dirven-van Breemen EM; Otte PF; Beelen P van; Rikken MGJ; Tuinstra J; Spijker J; Lijzen JPA; LER

    2007-01-01

    RIVM has developed an approach which allows human health risks of vegetable consumption from contaminated sites to be assessed. A tiered approach was used to guarantee the scientific basis and efficient use in practice. The underlying principle is: simple when possible and complex when necessary. If

  14. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. Harray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP. These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality, dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  15. Assessing the consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus on offspring's cardiovascular health: MySweetHeart Cohort study protocol, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bernardo, Stefano; Mivelaz, Yvan; Epure, Adina Mihaela; Vial, Yvan; Simeoni, Umberto; Bovet, Pascal; Estoppey Younes, Sandrine; Chiolero, Arnaud; Sekarski, Nicole

    2017-11-14

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a state of glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy. GDM carries prenatal and perinatal risks as well as long-term risks for the mother and her child. GDM may be involved in the foetal programming of long-term cardiovascular health. However, evidence is sparse and the effect of GDM on cardiovascular health is unknown. To address these issues, we will conduct MySweetHeart Cohort study. The objectives are to assess the effect of GDM on offspring's cardiovascular health early in life by using surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. This is a cohort study of 100 offspring of women with GDM and 100 offspring of women without GDM. At inclusion, a baseline assessment of the mothers will be conducted through means of self-report questionnaires, a researcher-administrated interview, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and a maternal blood sampling. Between the 30th and 34th weeks of gestation, a foetal echography will be performed to assess the foetal cardiac structure and function, the fetomaternal circulation and the hepatic volume. At birth, maternal and neonatal characteristics will be assessed. An echocardiography will be performed to assess cardiac structure and function 2-7 days after birth; carotid intima-media thickness will be also measured to assess vascular structure. MySweetHeart Cohort is linked to MySweetHeart Trial (clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02890693), a randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of a multidimensional interdisciplinary lifestyle and psychosocial intervention to improve the cardiometabolic and mental health of women with GDM and their offspring. A long-term follow-up of children is planned. Ethical approval has been obtained through the state Human Research Ethics Committee of the Canton de Vaud (study number 2016-00745). We aim to disseminate the findings through regional, national and international conferences and through peer-reviewed journals

  16. Biomass increases go under cover: woody vegetation dynamics in South African rangelands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mograbi, PJ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available and ranging (LiDAR) data The communal rangelands were surveyed with airborne laser mapping as part of a Carnegie Airborne Observatory (http://cao.ciw.edu/) campaign in April 2008 and April 2012, concur- rently with the collected fieldwork data in 2012. Small... permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability Statement: All data necessary to replicate the results of this study are contained within the paper and its...

  17. Reactivity to smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of depressive symptoms (MoodMonitor: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter van Ballegooijen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA of mental health symptoms may influence the symptoms that it measures, i.e. assessment reactivity. In the field of depression, EMA reactivity has received little attention. We aim to investigate whether EMA of depressive symptoms induces assessment reactivity. Reactivity will be operationalised as an effect of EMA on depressive symptoms measured by a retrospective questionnaire, and, secondly, as a change in response rate and variance of the EMA ratings. Methods This study is a 12-week randomised controlled trial comprising three groups: group 1 carries out EMA of mood and completes a retrospective questionnaire, group 2 carries out EMA of how energetic they feel and completes a retrospective questionnaire, group 3 is the control group, which completes only the retrospective questionnaire. The retrospective questionnaire (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale; CES-D assesses depressive symptoms and is administered at baseline, 6 weeks after baseline and 12 weeks after baseline. We aim to recruit 160 participants who experience mild to moderate depressive symptoms, defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 score of 5 to 15. This study is powered to detect a small between-groups effect, where no clinically relevant effect is defined as the effect size margin −0.25< d <0.25. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate whether self-rated EMA of depressive symptoms could induce assessment reactivity among mildly depressed individuals. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR5803. Registered 12 April 2016. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5803 .

  18. Effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laan Eva K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits, smoking and high alcohol consumption are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Web-based health risk assessments with tailored feedback seem promising in promoting a healthy lifestyle. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour, conducted in a worksite setting. Methods/Design The web-based health risk assessment starts with a questionnaire covering socio-demographic variables, family and personal medical history, lifestyle behaviour and psychological variables. Prognostic models are used to estimate individual cardiovascular risks. In case of high risk further biometric and laboratory evaluation is advised. All participants receive individually-tailored feedback on their responses to the health risk assessment questionnaire. The study uses a quasi-experimental design with a waiting list control group. Data are collected at baseline (T0 and after six months (T1. Within each company, clusters of employees are allocated to either the intervention or the control group. Primary outcome is lifestyle behaviour, expressed as the sum of five indicators namely physical activity, nutrition, smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, and symptoms of burnout. Multilevel regression analysis will be used to answer the main research question and to correct for clustering effects. Baseline differences between the intervention and control group in the distribution of characteristics with a potential effect on lifestyle change will be taken into account in further analyses using propensity scores. Discussion This study will increase insight into the effectiveness of health risk assessments with tailored feedback and into conditions that may modify the effectiveness. This information can be used to design effective interventions for lifestyle behaviour change among employees. Trial

  19. Solving a methodological challenge in work stress evaluation with the Stress Assessment and Research Toolkit (StART): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Dina; Simbula, Silvia; Vignoli, Michela; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Tabanelli, Maria Carla; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2013-06-22

    Stress evaluation is a field of strong interest and challenging due to several methodological aspects in the evaluation process. The aim of this study is to propose a study protocol to test a new method (i.e., the Stress Assessment and Research Toolkit) to assess psychosocial risk factors at work. This method addresses several methodological issues (e.g., subjective vs. objective, qualitative vs quantitative data) by assessing work-related stressors using different kinds of data: i) organisational archival data (organisational indicators sheet); ii) qualitative data (focus group); iii) worker perception (questionnaire); and iv) observational data (observational checklist) using mixed methods research. In addition, it allows positive and negative aspects of work to be considered conjointly, using an approach that considers at the same time job demands and job resources. The integration of these sources of data can reduce the theoretical and methodological bias related to stress research in the work setting, allows researchers and professionals to obtain a reliable description of workers' stress, providing a more articulate vision of psychosocial risks, and allows a large amount of data to be collected. Finally, the implementation of the method ensures in the long term a primary prevention for psychosocial risk management in that it aims to reduce or modify the intensity, frequency or duration of organisational demands.

  20. Comfort in palliative sedation (Compas): a transdisciplinary mixed method study protocol for linking objective assessments to subjective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Stefaan; Laureys, Steven; Poelaert, Jan; Bilsen, Johan; Theuns, Peter; Deschepper, Reginald

    2018-04-18

    In case of untreatable suffering at the end of life, palliative sedation may be chosen to assure comfort by reducing the patient's level of consciousness. An important question here is whether such sedated patients are completely free of pain. Because these patients cannot communicate anymore, caregivers have to rely on observation to assess the patient's comfort. Recently however, more sophisticated techniques from the neurosciences have shown that sometimes consciousness and pain are undetectable with these traditional behavioral methods. The aim of this study is to better understand how unconscious palliative sedated patients experience the last days of their life and to find out if they are really free of pain. In this study we will observe 40 patients starting with initiation of palliative sedation until death. Assessment of comfort based on behavioral observations will be related with the results from a NeuroSense monitor, an EEG-based monitor used for evaluation of the adequacy of anesthesia and sedation in the operating room and an ECG-based Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI) monitor, which informs about comfort or discomfort condition, based on the parasympathetic tone. An innovative and challenging aspect of this study is its qualitative approach; "objective" and "subjective" data will be linked to achieve a holistic understanding of the study topic. The following data will be collected: assessment of pain/comfort by the patients themselves (if possible) by scoring a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); brain function monitoring; monitoring of parasympathetic tone; caregivers' assessment (pain, awareness, communication); relatives' perception of the quality of the dying process; assessment by 2 trained investigators using observational scales; video and audio registration. Measuring pain and awareness in non-communicative dying patients is both technically and ethically challenging. ANI and EEG have shown to be promising technologies to detect pain that otherwise

  1. Study protocol: using the Q-STEPS to assess and improve the quality of physical activity programmes for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ana I; Rosa, Maria J; Amorim, Marlene; Soares, Pedro; Oliveira-Tavares, António; Santos, Rute; Mota, Jorge; Carvalho, Joana

    2012-07-09

    Aging is one of the most important and obvious phenomenon observed in our society. In the past years, there has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people, because evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Accordingly, a growing body of literature points to the importance of a sound approach to planning and evaluation in order to improve the quality of PA programmes. However, while numerous PA programmes have been designed for the elderly in recent years, their evaluation has been scarce. Quality management processes and tools provide a practical way for organisations to assess, identify and shed light on the areas requiring improvement. The Quality Self-assessment Tool for Exercise Programmes for Seniors (Q-STEPS) seems to provide a framework tailored to evaluate PA programmes for the elderly. The primary purpose of this study is 1) to determine feasibility, acceptability and usability of the Q-STEPS. Secondary purposes of the study are: 2) to examine the quality of the PA programmes for elderly people developed by the Portuguese Local Administration over a three-year period of self-assessments in terms of: a) Enabler domains (Leadership, Policy and Strategy, People, Partnership and Resources, Processes); b) Result domains (Customer Results, People Results, Society Results and Key Performance Results); 3) to estimate the association between the use of Q-STEPS and some indicators relating to the elderly participants, during the three self-assessments, such as: attendance rates, physical fitness, health-related quality of life and the elderly's perceived quality of the programme. The study will be conducted in PA programmes for elderly adults from mainland Portuguese municipalities over a three-year period. The project will adopt a participative quality improvement approach that features annual learning cycles of: 1) self-assessment with the Q

  2. Better evidence for earlier assessment and surgical intervention for refractory epilepsy (The BEST study): a mixed methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Frances; Shih, Patti; Mitchell, Rebecca; Nikpour, Armin; Bleasel, Andrew; Herkes, Geoffrey; Vagholkar, Sanjyot; Mumford, Virginia

    2017-08-21

    One-third of patients with refractory epilepsy may be candidates for resective surgery, which can lead to positive clinical outcomes if efficiently managed. In Australia, there is currently between a 6-month and 2-year delay for patients who are candidates for respective epilepsy surgery from the point of referral for surgical assessment to the eventual surgical intervention. This is a major challenge for implementation of effective treatment for individuals who could potentially benefit from surgery. This study examines implications of delays following the point of eligibility for surgery, in the assessment and treatment of patients, and the factors causing treatment delays. Mixed methods design: Observations of qualitative consultations, patient and healthcare professional interviews, and health-related quality of life assessments for a group of 10 patients and six healthcare professionals (group 1); quantitative retrospective medical records' reviews examining longitudinal outcomes for 50 patients assessed for, or undergoing, resective surgery between 2014 and 2016 (group 2); retrospective epidemiological study of all individuals hospitalised with a diagnosis of epilepsy in New South Wales (NSW) in the last 5 years (2012-2016; approximately 11 000 hospitalisations per year, total 55 000), examining health services' use and treatment for individuals with epilepsy, including refractory surgery outcomes (group 3). Ethical approval has been granted by the North Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/17/HAWKE/22) and the NSW Population & Health Services Research Ethics Committee (HREC/16/CIPHS/1). Results will be disseminated through publications, reports and conference presentations to patients and families, health professionals and researchers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Ecological momentary assessment and smartphone application intervention in adolescents with substance use and comorbid severe psychiatric disorders: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Benarous

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs are highly prevalent among inpatient adolescents with psychiatric disorders. In this population, substance use and other psychiatric outcomes can reinforce one another. Despite the need for integrated interventions in youths with dual diagnoses, few specific instruments are available. App-based technologies have shown promising results to help reduce substance use in adolescents, but their applicability in youths with associated severe psychiatric disorders is poorly documented. We aim to evaluate the feasibility of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA intervention for all substance users, and of a smart-phone application for cannabis users (Stop-Cannabis, for outpatient treatment after hospital discharge. Methods and analysis: All inpatient adolescents with psychiatric disorders hospitalized between 2016 and 2018 in a university hospital will be systematically screened for SUD and, if positive, will be assessed by an independent specialist addiction team. Participants with confirmed SUDs will be invited and helped to download an EMA app and, if required, the Stop-Cannabis app the week preceding hospital discharge. Information about the acceptability and use of both apps and the validity of EMA data in comparison to clinical assessments will be assessed after 6 months and one year.Discussion: This research has been designed to raise specific issues for consideration regarding the sequence between substance use, contextual factors, and other psychiatric symptoms among adolescents with comorbid severe psychiatric disorders. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved will inform the development of integrated treatment for dual disorders at that age.Ethics and dissemination: The study has already been approved and granted. Dissemination will include presentations at international congresses as well as publications in peer-reviewed journals.Trial registration: European Clinical Trials Database: Number

  4. Can DNA-Based Ecosystem Assessments Quantify Species Abundance? Testing Primer Bias and Biomass--Sequence Relationships with an Innovative Metabarcoding Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Elbrecht

    Full Text Available Metabarcoding is an emerging genetic tool to rapidly assess biodiversity in ecosystems. It involves high-throughput sequencing of a standard gene from an environmental sample and comparison to a reference database. However, no consensus has emerged regarding laboratory pipelines to screen species diversity and infer species abundances from environmental samples. In particular, the effect of primer bias and the detection limit for specimens with a low biomass has not been systematically examined, when processing samples in bulk. We developed and tested a DNA metabarcoding protocol that utilises the standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI barcoding fragment to detect freshwater macroinvertebrate taxa. DNA was extracted in bulk, amplified in a single PCR step, and purified, and the libraries were directly sequenced in two independent MiSeq runs (300-bp paired-end reads. Specifically, we assessed the influence of specimen biomass on sequence read abundance by sequencing 31 specimens of a stonefly species with known haplotypes spanning three orders of magnitude in biomass (experiment I. Then, we tested the recovery of 52 different freshwater invertebrate taxa of similar biomass using the same standard barcoding primers (experiment II. Each experiment was replicated ten times to maximise statistical power. The results of both experiments were consistent across replicates. We found a distinct positive correlation between species biomass and resulting numbers of MiSeq reads. Furthermore, we reliably recovered 83% of the 52 taxa used to test primer bias. However, sequence abundance varied by four orders of magnitudes between taxa despite the use of similar amounts of biomass. Our metabarcoding approach yielded reliable results for high-throughput assessments. However, the results indicated that primer efficiency is highly species-specific, which would prevent straightforward assessments of species abundance and biomass in a sample. Thus, PCR

  5. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  6. Measurement properties of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke: a protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Júlia Caetano; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Nadeau, Sylvie; Scianni, Aline Alvim; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais

    2017-02-13

    Self-report physical activity assessment tools are commonly used for the evaluation of physical activity levels in individuals with stroke. A great variety of these tools have been developed and widely used in recent years, which justify the need to examine their measurement properties and clinical utility. Therefore, the main objectives of this systematic review are to examine the measurement properties and clinical utility of self-report measures of physical activity and discuss the strengths and limitations of the identified tools. A systematic review of studies that investigated the measurement properties and/or clinical utility of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in five databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), followed by hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies. Two independent reviewers will screen all retrieve titles, abstracts, and full texts, according to the inclusion criteria and will also extract the data. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreement. A descriptive summary of the included studies will contain the design, participants, as well as the characteristics, measurement properties, and clinical utility of the self-report tools. The methodological quality of the studies will be evaluated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and the clinical utility of the identified tools will be assessed considering predefined criteria. This systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. This systematic review will provide an extensive review of the measurement

  7. Measurement properties of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke: a protocol for a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Júlia Caetano; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Nadeau, Sylvie; Scianni, Aline Alvim; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Self-report physical activity assessment tools are commonly used for the evaluation of physical activity levels in individuals with stroke. A great variety of these tools have been developed and widely used in recent years, which justify the need to examine their measurement properties and clinical utility. Therefore, the main objectives of this systematic review are to examine the measurement properties and clinical utility of self-report measures of physical activity and discuss the strengths and limitations of the identified tools. Methods and analysis A systematic review of studies that investigated the measurement properties and/or clinical utility of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in five databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), followed by hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies. Two independent reviewers will screen all retrieve titles, abstracts, and full texts, according to the inclusion criteria and will also extract the data. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreement. A descriptive summary of the included studies will contain the design, participants, as well as the characteristics, measurement properties, and clinical utility of the self-report tools. The methodological quality of the studies will be evaluated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and the clinical utility of the identified tools will be assessed considering predefined criteria. This systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Discussion This systematic review will

  8. Field test of a new Australian method of rangeland monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Mayne; Neil West

    2001-01-01

    Managers need more efficient means of monitoring changes on the lands they manage. Accordingly, a new Australian approach was field tested and compared to the Daubenmire method of assessing plant cover, litter, and bare soil. The study area was a 2 mile wide by 30.15 mile long strip, mostly covered by salt desert shrub ecosystem types, centered along the SE boundary of...

  9. Defining function in rangelands of the Peddie district, Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the analysis of satellite-derived vegetation indices, the commercial site had higher active green biomass (higher NDVI) and lower spatial diversity of near-infra red band (lower MSDI) than the communal site. Keywords: soil surface assessment; nutrient content; degradation; fenceline contrasts; patches; fetches

  10. Improved assessment of mediastinal and pulmonary pathologies in combined staging CT examinations using a fast-speed acquisition dual-source CT protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Franziska M.; Holzner, Veronica; Meinel, Felix G.; Armbruster, Marco; Brandlhuber, Martina; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Sommer, Wieland H. [University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    To demonstrate the feasibility of fast Dual-Source CT (DSCT) and to evaluate the clinical utility in chest/abdomen/pelvis staging CT studies. 45 cancer patients with two follow-up combined chest/abdomen/pelvis staging CT examinations (maximally ±10 kV difference in tube potential) were included. The first scan had to be performed with our standard protocol (fixed pitch 0.6), the second one using a novel fast-speed DSCT protocol (fixed pitch 1.55). Effective doses (ED) were calculated, noise measurements performed. Scan times were compared, motion artefacts and the diagnostic confidence rated in consensus reading. ED for the standard and fast-speed scans was 9.1 (7.0-11.1) mSv and 9.2 (7.4-12.8) mSv, respectively (P = 0.075). Image noise was comparable (abdomen; all P > 0.05) or reduced for fast-speed CTs (trachea, P = 0.001; ascending aorta, P < 0.001). Motion artefacts of the heart/the ascending aorta (all P < 0.001) and breathing artefacts (P < 0.031) were reduced in fast DSCT. The diagnostic confidence for the evaluation of mediastinal (P < 0.001) and pulmonary (P = 0.008) pathologies was improved for fast DSCT. Fast DSCT for chest/abdomen/pelvis staging CT examinations is performed within 2 seconds scan time and eliminates relevant intrathoracic motion/breathing artefacts. Mediastinal/pulmonary pathologies can thus be assessed with high diagnostic confidence. Abdominal image quality remains excellent. (orig.)

  11. The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol: Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Langer, Chelsea Eastman; Bruchim, Revital; Kundi, Michael; Merletti, Franco; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Maslanyj, Myron; Sim, Malcolm R.; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Armstrong, Bruce; Milne, Elizabeth; Benke, Geza; Schattner, Rosa; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Woehrer, Adelheid; Krewski, Daniel; Mohipp, Charmaine; Momoli, Franco; Ritvo, Paul; Spinelli, John; Lacour, Brigitte; Delmas, Dominique; Remen, Thomas; Radon, Katja; Weinmann, Tobias; Klostermann, Swaantje; Heinrich, Sabine; Petridou, Eleni; Bouka, Evdoxia; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Dikshit, Rajesh; Nagrani, Rajini; Even-Nir, Hadas; Chetrit, Angela; Maule, Milena; Migliore, Enrica; Filippini, Graziella; Miligi, Lucia; Mattioli, Stefano; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Kojimahara, Noriko; Ha, Mina; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Mannetje, Andrea ’t; Eng, Amanda; Woodward, Alistair; Carretero, Gema; Alguacil, Juan; Aragones, Nuria; Suare-Varela, Maria Morales; Goedhart, Geertje; Schouten-van Meeteren, A. Antoinette Y. N.; Reedijk, A. Ardine M. J.; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case–control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10–24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: (1) the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; (2) investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age range; (3) conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; (4) investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and (5) assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people. PMID:25295243

  12. The MOBI-Kids study protocol: challenges in assessing childhood and adolescent exposure to electromagnetic fields from wireless telecommunication technologies and possible association with brain tumor risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegal eSadetzki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF, extremely low frequency (ELF electromagnetic fields (EMF. MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: 1 the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; 2 investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age-range. 3 conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; 4 investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and 5 assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.

  13. Protocol to assess the impact of tobacco-induced volatile organic compounds on cardiovascular risk in a cross- sectional cohort: Cardiovascular Injury due to Tobacco Use study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rachel J; Fetterman, Jessica L; Riggs, Daniel W; O'Toole, Timothy; Nystoriak, Jessica L; Holbrook, Monika; Lorkiewicz, Pawel; Bhatnagar, Aruni; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2018-03-30

    Tobacco use leads to increased mortality, the majority of which is attributed to cardiovascular disease. Despite this knowledge, the early cardiovascular impact of tobacco product use is not well understood. Tobacco use increases exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acrolein and crotonaldehyde, which may contribute to cardiovascular risk. The link between exposure patterns, risk profiles and demographic distribution of tobacco product users, particularly users of new and emerging products, are not well known. Therefore, we designed the Cardiovascular Injury due to Tobacco Use (CITU) study to assess population characteristics, demographic features, exposure patterns and cardiovascular risk in relation to tobacco. We present the design and methodology of the CITU study, a cross-sectional observational tobacco study conducted in Boston, Massachusetts and Louisville, Kentucky starting in 2014. Healthy participants 21-45 years of age who use tobacco products, including electronic nicotine devices, or who never used tobacco are being recruited. The study aims to recruit an evenly split cohort of African-Americans and Caucasians, that is, sex balanced for evaluation of self-reported tobacco exposure, VOC exposure and tobacco-induced injury profiling. Detailed information about participant's demographics, health status and lifestyle is also collected. The study protocol was approved institutional review boards at both participating universities. All study protocols will protect participant confidentiality. Results from the study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  15. Developing an holistic assessment protocol on a hospice inpatient ward: staff engagement and my role as a practice development facilitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lansdell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2014 I received the Richard Tompkins Nurse Development Scholarship, granted through the Foundation of Nursing Studies and including attendance at a five-day International Practice Development Collaborative practice development school, followed by a year’s mentorship. The scholarship aims to foster the delivery of person-centred care, which I hoped to achieve by enhancing holistic nursing assessment on a hospice inpatient ward. Aims: This article is a critical reflection on my learning through the scholarship, specifically related to staff engagement and my role as a practice development facilitator. Conclusions: While the project has not yet reached its conclusion, the learning has been invaluable. I have deepened my understanding of the need for collaboration, inclusion and participation to foster engagement and cultural change. More fundamentally, understanding how different aspects of my role enable change has proved both challenging and constructive, resulting in greater self-awareness and confidence. I remain committed to refining holistic nursing assessment to allow a greater degree of person-centred care in the hospice. Implications for practice: Practice development combines a variety of approaches to realise a shared vision; collaboration, inclusion and participation are central to fostering engagement Balancing different elements of a role (for instance, leader-manager-facilitator has the potential to be confusing and contradictory; awareness of how these elements interrelate promotes effectiveness when introducing change Individuals in a practice development role must ensure they have good sources of support

  16. Public preferences for engagement in Health Technology Assessment decision-making: protocol of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, Sally; Tong, Allison; Lancsar, Emily; Salkeld, Glenn; Howard, Kirsten

    2015-07-14

    Much attention in recent years has been given to the topic of public engagement in health technology assessment (HTA) decision-making. HTA organizations spend substantial resources and time on undertaking public engagement, and numerous studies have examined challenges and barriers to engagement in the decision-making process however uncertainty remains as to optimal methods to incorporate the views of the public in HTA decision-making. Little research has been done to ascertain whether current engagement processes align with public preferences and to what extent their desire for engagement is dependent on the question being asked by decision-makers or the characteristics of the decision. This study will examine public preferences for engagement in Australian HTA decision-making using an exploratory mixed methods design. The aims of this study are to: 1) identify characteristics about HTA decisions that are important to the public in determining whether public engagement should be undertaken on a particular topic, 2) determine which decision characteristics influence public preferences for the extent, or type of public engagement, and 3) describe reasons underpinning these preferences. Focus group participants from the general community, aged 18-70 years, will be purposively sampled from the Australian population to ensure a wide range of demographic groups. Each focus group will include a general discussion on public engagement as well as a ranking exercise using a modified nominal group technique (NGT). The NGT will inform the design of a discrete choice study to quantitatively assess public preferences for engagement in HTA decision-making. The proposed research seeks to investigate under what circumstances and how the public would like their views and preferences to be considered in health technology assessments. HTA organizations regularly make decisions about when and how public engagement should occur but without consideration of the public's preferences on

  17. Abandoned seasonal livestock migration reflected by plant functional traits: A case study in Kyrgyz rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Franziska; Zhusui Kyzy, Taalaigul; Usupbaev, Adilet; Schickoff, Udo

    2017-04-01

    At least 30% of Kyrgyz pasture areas are considered to be subject to vegetation and soil degradation. Since animal husbandry is the economic basis to sustain people's livelihoods, rangeland degradation presents a threat for the majority of the population. Recently, the usage of plant functional traits as a powerful tool for the characterization of vegetation dynamics in response to anthropogenic and natural disturbances has been put forward. Grazing is one of the most severe disturbances on vegetation, which concerns equally the loss of area and biomass. Because grazing is both depending on and affecting plant functional traits, important insights can be generated, based on this codependency. We hypothesized that the contrasting grazing intensity of summer and winter pastures is reflected by the chosen traits. We used traits such as plant height, flowering start, growth form as well as SLA (Specific Leaf Area) and LMA (Leaf Mass per Area). Based on former phytosociological classification of the main pasture types (summer and winter pastures), community structure and the traits of dominant plant species were analyzed. Our results showed that on winter pastures grazing decreased plant height and SLA and favored plants with an earlier flowering start as well as rosette plants and ascending plants. We conclude that the study of trait composition in relation to anthropogenic disturbances can provide important insights into the mechanism of plant response to grazing in high-altitude rangelands.

  18. Energy budgets and resistances to energy transport in sparsely vegetated rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    Partitioning available energy between plants and bare soil in sparsely vegetated rangelands will allow hydrologists and others to gain a greater understanding of water use by native vegetation, especially phreatophytes. Standard methods of conducting energy budget studies result in measurements of latent and sensible heat fluxes above the plant canopy which therefore include the energy fluxes from both the canopy and the soil. One-dimensional theoretical numerical models have been proposed recently for the partitioning of energy in sparse crops. Bowen ratio and other micrometeorological data collected over phreatophytes growing in areas of shallow ground water in central Nevada were used to evaluate the feasibility of using these models, which are based on surface and within-canopy aerodynamic resistances, to determine heat and water vapor transport in sparsely vegetated rangelands. The models appear to provide reasonably good estimates of sensible heat flux from the soil and latent heat flux from the canopy. Estimates of latent heat flux from the soil were less satisfactory. Sensible heat flux from the canopy was not well predicted by the present resistance formulations. Also, estimates of total above-canopy fluxes were not satisfactory when using a single value for above-canopy bulk aerodynamic resistance. ?? 1992.

  19. The usefullness of ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data for monitoring plant development in rangeland environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneggie, D. M.; Degloria, S. D.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery of annual and perennial rangeland in California yields the following observations: (1) Sufficient geomorphological detail can be resolved to differentiate upland and bottomland range sites in the foothill range areas. (2) Dry and green meadowland can be differentiated on MSS band 5. (3) Color composites prepared by NASA-Goddard were useful for locating perennial rangeland with varying amounts of herbaceous ground cover. (4) The ERTS-1 images received and interpreted cover nearly 50% of the state of California and show nearly two-thirds of the annual grassland type. (5) Satellite imagery obtained during the late summer season should be optimum for differentiating grassland from brushland and forested land. (6) The ERTS-1 imagery clearly shows areas which at one time were part of the annual grassland but which are now used for dry land farming (cropping of cereal grains). Similarly, the imagery show areas which have been converted from brushland to grassland.

  20. An overview of the rangelands atmosphere hydrosphere biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern Asia (RAISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Michiaki; Asanuma, Jun; Tsujimura, Maki; Mariko, Shigeru; Lu, Minjiao; Kimura, Fujio; Azzaya, Dolgorsuren; Adyasuren, Tsokhio

    2007-01-01

    SummaryIntensive observations, analysis and modeling within the framework of the rangelands atmosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern Asia (RAISE) project, have allowed investigations into the hydrologic cycle in the ecotone of forest-steppe, and its relation to atmosphere and ecosystem in the eastern part of Mongolia. In this region, changes in the climate have been reported and a market oriented economy was introduced recently, but their impact on the natural environment is still not well understood. In this RAISE special issue, the outcome is presented of the studies carried out by six groups within RAISE, namely: (1) Land-atmosphere interaction analysis, (2) ecosystem analysis and modeling, (3) hydrologic cycle analysis, (4) climatic modeling, (5) hydrologic modeling, and (6) integration. The results are organized in five relevant categories comprising (i) hydrologic cycle including precipitation, groundwater, and surface water, (ii) hydrologic cycle and ecosystem, (iii) surface-atmosphere interaction, (iv) effect of grazing activities on soils, plant ecosystem and surface fluxes, and (v) future prediction. Comparison with studies on rangelands in other parts of the world, and some future directions of studies still needed in this region are also summarized.