WorldWideScience

Sample records for range-velocity ambiguity mitigation

  1. Exploiting Network Topology Information to Mitigate Ambiguities in VMP Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2011-01-01

    We investigate an extension to the probabilistic model of a wireless sensor network (WSN) in the variational message passing localization algorithm. This extension exploits network topology information to mitigate ambiguities in WSN localization schemes. In a simulation case study we show...... that this extension in some cases improves the location estimates produced by the algorithm. The final version of the paper will present quantitative results from more extensive investigations that will document the extent of this improvement....

  2. The fog of fraud: Mitigating fraud by strategic ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Matthias; Wambach, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Most insurance companies publish few data on the occurrence and detection of insurance fraud. This stands in contrast to the previous literature on costly state verification, which has shown that it is optimal to commit to an auditing strategy, as the credible announcement of thoroughly auditing claim reports might act as a powerful deterrent. We show that uncertainty about fraud detection can be an effective strategy to deter ambiguity-averse agents from reporting false insurance claims. If,...

  3. Resolution function of nonsinusoidal radar signals. I - Range-velocity resolution with rectangular pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nasser J.

    1990-05-01

    A generalization of a previously published ambiguity function that applies to radar known as large-relative-bandwidth radar, carrier-free radar, impulse radar, or nonsinusoidal radar is discussed. This radar has recently attracted attention because of its ability to penetrate absorbing materials used in the stealth technology. Another good application is the detection of moving targets with a small radar cross section by a look-down radar, which calls for a thumbtack ambiguity function. Since a small radar cross section in this application is typically due to the small size of the target that is coated with absorbing material, the antistealth feature of the nonsinusoidal radar is implicitly being used. The principle is presented of a resolution function (tentatively called the range-velocity or the range-Doppler resolution function) based on processing a nonsinusoidal signal consisting of N characters with a time separation TD and each character consisting of a sequence of L binary pulses of duration T. It is shown that range-velocity resolution functions approaching the ideal thumbtack function are easy to obtain. The blind speeds of the pulse-Doppler radar with sinusoidal carrier do not inherently occur, and all velocities are observed as true velocities rather than as velocities modulo the first blind speed (velocity ambiguity).

  4. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...... and flat, “ambiguous walls” combine softness, tectonics and three-dimensionality. The paper considers a selection of luminious surfaces and reflects on the extent of their ambiguous qualities. Initial ideas for new directions for the wall will be essayed through the discussion....

  5. Semantic Ambiguity and Perceived Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Poesio, Massimo

    1995-01-01

    I explore some of the issues that arise when trying to establish a connection between the underspecification hypothesis pursued in the NLP literature and work on ambiguity in semantics and in the psychological literature. A theory of underspecification is developed `from the first principles', i.e., starting from a definition of what it means for a sentence to be semantically ambiguous and from what we know about the way humans deal with ambiguity. An underspecified language is specified as t...

  6. Ambiguous genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 575. White PC. Disorders of sexual development. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 233. Witchel SF, Lee PA. Ambiguous ...

  7. Ambiguous Genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a genetic female. Mutations in certain genes can influence fetal sex development and cause ambiguous genitalia. Chromosomal abnormalities, such as ... excess male hormones if the mother has a disease or condition that causes hormone ... Impaired testicle development . This may be due to genetic abnormalities or ...

  8. Range/velocity limitations for time-domain blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1993-01-01

    The traditional range/velocity limitation for blood velocity estimation systems using ultrasound is elucidated. It is stated that the equation is a property of the estimator used, not the actual physical measurement situation, as higher velocities can be estimated by the time domain cross...

  9. Ambiguous Belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Cecil Marie

    in Tanzania since the Independence, should be viewed not only as generating anxiety but also potentiality, I suggest that there is a need for new metaphors to think with in the examination of certain kinds of migrant minorities. Ambiguous Belongings denotes a way of being in the world. Throughout the thesis...... of borders and walls in the contemporary world leave no space for people whose life worlds are stretched across nation-states....

  10. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible...... and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  11. A General Range-Velocity Processing Scheme for Discontinuous Spectrum FMCW Signal in HFSWR Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengguan Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discontinuous spectrum signal which has separate subbands distributed over a wide spectrum band is a solution to synthesize a wideband waveform in a highly congested spectrum environment. In this paper, we present a general range-velocity processing scheme for the discontinuous spectrum-frequency modulated continuous wave (DS-FMCW signal specifically. In range domain, we propose a simple time rearrangement operation which converts the range transform problem of the DS-FMCW signal to a general spectral estimation problem of nonuniformly sampled data. Conventional periodogram results in a dirty range spectrum with high sidelobes which cannot be suppressed by traditional spectral weighting. In this paper, we introduce the iterative adaptive approach (IAA in the estimation of the range spectrum. IAA is shown to have the ability to provide a clean range spectrum. On the other hand, the discontinuity of the signal spectrum has little impact on the velocity processing. However, with the range resolution improved, the influence of the target motion becomes nonnegligible. We present a velocity compensation strategy which includes the intersweep compensation and in-sweep compensation. Our processing scheme with the velocity compensation is shown to provide an accurate and clean range-velocity image which benefits the following detection process.

  12. Image ambiguity and fluency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Jakesch

    Full Text Available Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the "processing fluency account", suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10 ms, 50 ms, 100 ms, 500 ms, 1000 ms and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest. As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a, but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b. Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500 ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50 ms to 1000 ms and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500 ms and 1000 ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3. Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process.

  13. The Ethics of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Domen MD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and embracing uncertainty are critical for effective teacher–learner relationships as well as for shared decision-making in the physician–patient relationship. However, ambiguity has not been given serious consideration in either the undergraduate or graduate medical curricula or in the role it plays in patient-centered care. In this article, the author examines the ethics of ambiguity and argues for a pedagogy that includes education in the importance of, and tolerance of, ambiguity that is inherent in medical education and practice. Common threads running through the ethics of ambiguity are the virtue of respect, and the development of a culture of respect is required for the successful understanding and implementation of a pedagogy of ambiguity.

  14. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  15. FrFT-CSWSF: Estimating cross-range velocities of ground moving targets using multistatic synthetic aperture radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chenlei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating cross-range velocity is a challenging task for space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR, which is important for ground moving target indication (GMTI. Because the velocity of a target is very small compared with that of the satellite, it is difficult to correctly estimate it using a conventional monostatic platform algorithm. To overcome this problem, a novel method employing multistatic SAR is presented in this letter. The proposed hybrid method, which is based on an extended space-time model (ESTIM of the azimuth signal, has two steps: first, a set of finite impulse response (FIR filter banks based on a fractional Fourier transform (FrFT is used to separate multiple targets within a range gate; second, a cross-correlation spectrum weighted subspace fitting (CSWSF algorithm is applied to each of the separated signals in order to estimate their respective parameters. As verified through computer simulation with the constellations of Cartwheel, Pendulum and Helix, this proposed time-frequency-subspace method effectively improves the estimation precision of the cross-range velocities of multiple targets.

  16. Exploring ambiguous realms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana

    2016-01-01

    In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities...... in their interactions, testing social roles and conventions. This article explores the vigilance and creative agency displayed by Hang'ombe children, in an environment spurring their acquisition of distinct social and discursive skills....

  17. Ontology: ambiguity and accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schiessl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity is a major obstacle to information retrieval. It is source of several researches in Information Science. Ontologies have been studied in order to solve problems related to ambiguities. Paradoxically, “ontology” term is also ambiguous and it is understood according to the use by the community. Philosophy and Computer Science seems to have the most accentuated difference related to the term sense. The former holds undisputed tradition and authority. The latter, in despite of being quite recent, holds an informal sense, but pragmatic. Information Science acts ranging from philosophical to computational approaches so as to get organized collections based on balance between users’ necessities and available information. The semantic web requires informational cycle automation and demands studies related to ontologies. Consequently, revisiting relevant approaches for the study of ontologies plays a relevant role as a way to provide useful ideas to researchers maintaining philosophical rigor, and convenience provided by computers.

  18. Lexical ambiguity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

  19. Confronting Ambiguity in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Katherine; Harlow, Danielle; Whitmer, Ali; Gaines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly confronted with environmental and science-related issues presented to them in newspapers, on television, or even in their own doctor's office. Often the information they use to inform their decisions on matters of science may be ambiguous and contradictory. This article presents an activity that investigates how students deal…

  20. Scope Ambiguity and Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    9) The yacht was often used for social and political events by several presidents until Carter disposed of it. and people don’t seem to have trouble...over an undergrad. 3. World knowledge. For example, one may use facts about the social rules of dating to infer that the most likely interpretation of (1...of equivalence clases , while the semantics of every should be based on pairs. A more illuminating solution would be to assume an ambiguity

  1. Ambiguity aversion is not universal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Lahno, Amrei; Trautmann, Stefan

    Assuming universal ambiguity aversion, an extensive theoretical literature studies how ambiguity can account for market anomalies from the perspective of expected utility-based theories. We provide a systematic experimental assessment of ambiguity attitudes in different likelihood ranges, and in the

  2. Constraints and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Biskjær, Michael Mose; Lundqvist, Caroline Emilie

    2017-01-01

    Developing creative abilities is an important part of 21st century skills, and yet remains challenging. In this paper we describe a study investigating small-scale creative strategies that groups of Scandinavian high school students use when collaboratively building LEGO models. We recorded thirty...... groups of students building three models each. We studied groups building with traditional plastic bricks and also using a digital environment. The building tasks students undertake, and our subsequent analysis, are informed by the role constraints and ambiguity play in creative processes. Based...... on the insights we gained, we present three strategies for designing tools and environments that support students as they develop creative skills. These strategies relate to: tools and materials, mutual learning, and reflection...

  3. An ambiguous relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Larsen, Lene; Hedegaard Larsen, Birte; Birkelund, Regner

    2013-01-01

    to qualitative data analysis. Results:  The qualitative meta-synthesis resulted in the heading An Ambiguous Relationship under which three core categories illustrate the hospitalized patients’ different interaction roles. The core categories were as follows: (i) the fellow patient experienced as an enforced......Aim:  The aim of this study was to provide a clear view of the existing knowledge regarding patients’ significance to fellow patients during hospitalization. Method:  Sandelowski and Barroso’s approach to qualitative meta-synthesis was selected and systematically used for collecting and assessing...... companion, (ii) the fellow patient experienced as an expert on illness and hospital life and (iii) the fellow patient experienced as a care provider. Each core category was elaborated through several subcategories. Social interaction among hospitalized patients embedded elements of both enforced...

  4. Ambiguity aversion in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available People generally prefer risky options, which have fully specified outcome probabilities, to ambiguous options, which have unspecified probabilities. This preference, formalized in economics, is strong enough that people will reliably prefer a risky option to an ambiguous option with a greater expected value. Explanations for ambiguity aversion often invoke uniquely human faculties like language, self-justification, or a desire to avoid public embarrassment. Challenging these ideas, here we demonstrate that a preference for unambiguous options is shared with rhesus macaques. We trained four monkeys to choose between pairs of options that both offered explicitly cued probabilities of large and small juice outcomes. We then introduced occasional trials where one of the options was obscured and examined their resulting preferences; we ran humans in a parallel experiment on a nearly identical task. We found that monkeys reliably preferred risky options to ambiguous ones, even when this bias was costly, closely matching the behavior of humans in the analogous task. Notably, ambiguity aversion varied parametrically with the extent of ambiguity. As expected, ambiguity aversion gradually declined as monkeys learned the underlying probability distribution of rewards. These data indicate that ambiguity aversion reflects fundamental cognitive biases shared with other animals rather than uniquely human factors guiding decisions.

  5. Ambiguity in urban belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Being a ‘stranger’ has become increasingly difficult on the European continent during the latest decades. Populist racism and anti-immigration attitudes have made life difficult, and Denmark has taken the position as one of the iconic cases of this development. But how is that reflected in the ci......Being a ‘stranger’ has become increasingly difficult on the European continent during the latest decades. Populist racism and anti-immigration attitudes have made life difficult, and Denmark has taken the position as one of the iconic cases of this development. But how is that reflected...... in the cities? Does the character of the city as ‘a world of strangers’ open up special possibilities of coexistence? These are the questions addressed in this paper using material from an interpretative analysis conducted among Copenhagen citizens of Pakistani origin. The analysis aims to construe an affective...... mapping of life as an ethnic minority in the city. It revolves around three issues. First, it focuses on the narrators’ experiences of exclusions and blockages in everyday life. This is followed by a focus on urban belonging emphasizing its differential character. Finally, the ambiguity of experiences...

  6. AmbiguityVis: Visualization of Ambiguity in Graph Layouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Shen, Qiaomu; Archambault, Daniel; Zhou, Zhiguang; Zhu, Min; Yang, Sixiao; Qu, Huamin

    2016-01-01

    Node-link diagrams provide an intuitive way to explore networks and have inspired a large number of automated graph layout strategies that optimize aesthetic criteria. However, any particular drawing approach cannot fully satisfy all these criteria simultaneously, producing drawings with visual ambiguities that can impede the understanding of network structure. To bring attention to these potentially problematic areas present in the drawing, this paper presents a technique that highlights common types of visual ambiguities: ambiguous spatial relationships between nodes and edges, visual overlap between community structures, and ambiguity in edge bundling and metanodes. Metrics, including newly proposed metrics for abnormal edge lengths, visual overlap in community structures and node/edge aggregation, are proposed to quantify areas of ambiguity in the drawing. These metrics and others are then displayed using a heatmap-based visualization that provides visual feedback to developers of graph drawing and visualization approaches, allowing them to quickly identify misleading areas. The novel metrics and the heatmap-based visualization allow a user to explore ambiguities in graph layouts from multiple perspectives in order to make reasonable graph layout choices. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated through case studies and expert reviews.

  7. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  8. Ambiguities analysis in SAR tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziwei; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Chao; Tang, Yixian; Zhang, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic aperture radar tomography (TomoSAR) is typically used to retrieve elevation, deformation, and other key information by separating scatters of the same slant range in multiple baseline SAR images. In this paper, we investigate two kinds of ambiguities for TomoSAR. Rank-1 ambiguity, as the first one we concerned, is due to the baseline distribution of the SAR image dataset which makes the steering matrix out of full rank. It will result in false alarms appearing in a permanent distance. However, an example using the TomoSAR imaging parameters shows this ambiguity makes no sense in most cases. The second ambiguity refers to the coherence of scatters contained in one pixel. In simulation experiment, the coherence will enhance the side lobes of the spectrum, even make the real peaks fused.

  9. The ambiguous challenge of intranets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    media, email and the web, partly in the perspective of media richness theory, partly compared with philosophical discussions of classical media. The fourth chapter presents an intranet in a global company, in which problems and challenges related to ambiguity have proven significant.......In this thesis I shall present the argument that intranets increase the role of ambiguity – confrontation between contradicting frames of interpretation – in organisational communication by encouraging processes across organisational borders. In the first chapter I discuss philosophical aspects...

  10. Symbol in View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad reza Yousefi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.  In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.  In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this

  11. Symbol in View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Rassoulian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.  In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.  In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or

  12. Crichton's phase-shift ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P.W.; Mehta, N.; Roo, M. de

    1973-01-01

    A re-examination of the SPD phase-shift ambiguity is made with a view to understanding certain singular features of the elastic unitarity constraint. An explicit solution of Crichton's equations is presented, and certain features of this solution are displayed graphically. In particular, it is shown

  13. Ambiguity Resolution in Lateralized Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayadre, Manar; Kurzon, Dennis; Peleg, Orna; Zohar, Eviatar

    2015-01-01

    We examined ambiguity resolution in reading in Arabic. Arabic is an abjad orthography and is morphologically similar to Hebrew. However, Arabic literacy occurs in a diglossic context, and its orthography is more visually complex than Hebrew. We therefore tested to see whether hemispheric differences will be similar or different from previous…

  14. Spectral Ambiguity of Allan Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the extent to which knowledge of Allan variance and other finite-difference variances determines the spectrum of a random process. The variance of first differences is known to determine the spectrum. We show that, in general, the Allan variance does not. A complete description of the ambiguity is given.

  15. Stimulus ambiguity elicits response conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmalec, Arnaud; Verbruggen, Frederick; Vandierendonck, André; De Baene, Wouter; Verguts, Tom; Notebaert, Wim

    2008-04-18

    Conflict monitoring theory [M.M. Botvinick, T. Braver, D. Barch, C. Carter, J.D. Cohen, Conflict monitoring and cognitive control, Psychol. Rev. 108 (2001) 625-652] assumes that perceptual ambiguity among choice stimuli elicits response conflict in choice reaction. It hence predicts that response conflict is also involved in elementary variants of choice reaction time (RT) tasks, i.e., those variants that, by contrast with the Stroop task or the Go/No-Go task for instance, are rarely associated with cognitive control. In order to test this prediction, an experiment was designed in which participants performed a simple RT task and a regular between-hand 2-choice RT task under three different levels of stimulus ambiguity. The data show that response conflict, as measured by the N2 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP), was elicited in the 2-choice RT task but not in the simple RT task and that the degree of response conflict in the 2-choice RT task was a function of stimulus ambiguity. These results show that response conflict is also present in a regular choice RT task which is traditionally not considered to be a measure of cognitive conflict.

  16. Generative Learning: Adults Learning within Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, Aliki

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which ambiguity can serve as a catalyst for adult learning. The purpose of this study is to understand learning that is generated when encountering ambiguity agitated by the complexity of liquid modernity. "Ambiguity," in this study, describes an encounter with an appearance of reality that is at first…

  17. Parse Forest Diagnostics with Dr. Ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.S. Basten (Bas); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); J. Saraiva; U. Aßmann; A.M. Sloane

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we propose and evaluate a method for locating causes of ambiguity in context-free grammars by automatic analysis of parse forests. A parse forest is the set of parse trees of an ambiguous sentence. % an output of a static ambiguity detection tool that has detected

  18. [Children born with ambiguous genitalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Trond H

    2008-02-28

    For 10 - 12 children born with ambiguous genitalia in Norway annually, the sex cannot be decided directly after birth. The condition is now termed "Disorders of Sex Development" (DSD). Severely undervirilised chromosomal and gonadal boys (46,XY DSD) represent the greatest challenge; the sex assignment has traditionally been female. This review focuses on challenges within diagnostics and treatment and provides an update on the scientific basis for sex assignment in 46,XY DSD children. The article is based on articles retrieved from Pub Med and own clinical experience. During the last decade the scientific basis for sex assignment in children born with ambiguous genitalia has been increasingly questioned. The traditional DSD management has been dominated by the belief that DSD children will develop into the assigned sex regardless of the underlying cause as long as the external genitalia are "normalised" before two years of age. The most severely undervirilised 46,XY DSD children were surgically assigned as females, based on an emphasis of the size and functionality of the phallus being important for later psychosexual development into men. New guidelines for DSD management are now being developed based on recent knowledge about prenatal cerebral exposure to critical sex chromosome genes and hormones that influence foetal brain predisposition for later psychosexual development. Assignment of a sex should be based on a precise diagnosis of the condition's underlying cause and thereby a best possible prediction of future gender identity.

  19. Deliberate ambiguity in slogans: recognition and appreciation

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerwerf, L.

    2002-01-01

    In slogans used in public information, politics, and advertising, and also in titles of books, documentaries, or articles, ambiguity is often employed to pique the interest of the reader in the message that is conveyed. According to several theories of text processing, this deliberate ambiguity may gain greater appreciation than slogans employing other rhetorical means. A special form of deliberate ambiguity is studied in this contribution: slogans that may be taken literally. The notion of s...

  20. Theory-Based Evaluation Meets Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    ambiguity as a fruitful perspective that helps TBE face current challenges. Literatures in organization theory and political theory are consulted in order to cultivate the concept of ambiguity. Janus variables (which work in two ways) and other ambiguous aspects of program theories are classified......As theory-based evaluation (TBE) engages in situations where multiple stakeholders help develop complex program theory about dynamic phenomena in politically contested settings, it becomes difficult to develop and use program theory without ambiguity. The purpose of this article is to explore...

  1. Effective ambiguity checking in biosequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giegerich Robert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambiguity is a problem in biosequence analysis that arises in various analysis tasks solved via dynamic programming, and in particular, in the modeling of families of RNA secondary structures with stochastic context free grammars. Several types of analysis are invalidated by the presence of ambiguity. As this problem inherits undecidability (as we show here from the namely problem for context free languages, there is no complete algorithmic solution to the problem of ambiguity checking. Results We explain frequently observed sources of ambiguity, and show how to avoid them. We suggest four testing procedures that may help to detect ambiguity when present, including a just-in-time test that permits to work safely with a potentially ambiguous grammar. We introduce, for the special case of stochastic context free grammars and RNA structure modeling, an automated partial procedure for proving non-ambiguity. It is used to demonstrate non-ambiguity for several relevant grammars. Conclusion Our mechanical proof procedure and our testing methods provide a powerful arsenal of methods to ensure non-ambiguity.

  2. Pileup Mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Roloff, Jennifer; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous proton-proton collisions, or pileup, at the LHC has a significant impact on jet reconstruction, requiring the use of advanced pileup mitigation techniques. Pileup mitigation may occur at several stages of the reconstruction process, and ATLAS uses a combination of schemes, including constituent reconstruction methods, constituent-level pileup-mitigation techniques, and jet-level pileup-mitigation algorithms. This talk describes the two constituent-reconstruction methods for jets used on ATLAS: TopoClustering and Particle Flow. This talk also has a first look at the performance of several constituent-level pileup mitigation techniques on ATLAS, including Constituent Subtraction, Voronoi Subtraction, SoftKiller, and the Cluster Vertex Fraction. Finally, other developments in tagging pileup jets is discussed, such as the forward jet vertex tagger (fJVT), which uses jet shapes and topological information to tag jets.

  3. The ambiguous meaning of irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    De Hemptinne, X

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism driving macroscopic systems toward their state of equilibrium is reconsidered. Ambiguities are detected in the semantics of a number of keywords (irreversibility, isolation etc...). They lead to questionable interpretations. Irreversible expansion of a gas in allegedly isolated (traditional definition) conditions is taken as an example. There are two steps in the global process. One is deterministic (mixing). This step does not alter the information about the initial conditions. It is iso-entropic. Its irreversible character is only apparent. The second step implies exchange with the surroundings where the information is dissipated. It does not occur in strictly isolated conditions. Relaxation is therefore impossible in strictly isolated systems. This latter step is fully irreversible and creates the expected entropy change.

  4. AMBIGUOUS JANUS OF MODERN DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the research is to analyze ambiguous concept of  democracy as a phenomenon of political and social formation based on political and instrumental approach. As a result, some deep fundamentals of  human social existence and values as social life basis are blurred. Task. The task of  this investigation is to reveal the concept of democracy in its invariative philosophical  meaning and find the consequences of global social transformations towards social entropy. Methods of investigation. To implement the task an activity approach has been used with further possibility to single out two approaches - politological and philosophical. The focus on democracy from philosophic point of view makes possible to anticipate negative entropic processes that lead  to future ambiguity. Subject matter. Chaotic social processes can result in  ruined family, spiritual, legal and moral formations. Regulatory and legal paradigms are becoming less effective and entail disintegration of spiritual and value constituents of worldview causing necessary conditions for social entropy. Originality and Findings. Possible threats for human freedom that hinder the way to targeted  prospects of mankind have been considered in the paper. Thus, taking into account all positive aspects of democracy, it is simultaneously becoming the tool of continuous differentiation of society into tiny autonomous communities similar to nomadic atomization of society. The concept based on moral substantial existence basis as in “axis time” by K. Jaspers that can prevent social entropy resulting in world anthropologic catastrophes has been grounded in the present research.

  5. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We ...

  6. Deliberate ambiguity in slogans: recognition and appreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwerf, L.

    2002-01-01

    In slogans used in public information, politics, and advertising, and also in titles of books, documentaries, or articles, ambiguity is often employed to pique the interest of the reader in the message that is conveyed. According to several theories of text processing, this deliberate ambiguity may

  7. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2007-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...

  8. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...

  9. Ambiguity and Volatility : Asset Pricing Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pataracchia, B.

    2011-01-01

    Using a simple dynamic consumption-based asset pricing model, this paper explores the implications of a representative investor with smooth ambiguity averse preferences [Klibano¤, Marinacci and Mukerji, Econometrica (2005)] and provides a comparative analysis of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion.

  10. Equity Trading under Heterogeneity in Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, Irasema; Prado, Mauricio

    We examine the potential importance of heterogeneity in consumers' ambiguity aversion for asset pricing, portfolio allocation, and the wealth distribution. A main focus is to explore a situation in which ambiguity aversion is \\above normal", such as when there has been a sudden inflow of market...... of analyzing such occurrences theoretically, especially when one allows the possibility that different consumers/traders have different amounts of ambiguity aversion. By considering a model with heterogeneity on ambiguity, we explain differences in portfolio allocation, which lead to non......-relevant, but hard-to-interpret information: a situation like that during the onset of the recent crisis in financial markets. During this episode, market participants appeared unsure of the values of a variety of assets, trading all but stopped. Ambiguity aversion, it appears to us, offers a tractable way...

  11. Ambiguities in 'killing' and 'letting die'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G M

    1983-05-01

    In a recent article Carla Kary (1980) attempts to show that there can be a significant moral difference between instances of killing and letting die. I shall maintain in Section I that Kary's argument is somewhat weakened by her failure to note an important ambiguity in the notion of killing a person. I shall also argue in Section II that a similar ambiguity affects the notion of letting someone die, and that failure to note this latter ambiguity also weakens the position developed by Robert Coburn (1980) with regard to defective newborns.

  12. An Effective Information Retrieval for Ambiguous Query

    OpenAIRE

    Roul, R. K.; Sahay, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Search engine returns thousands of web pages for a single user query, in which most of them are not relevant. In this context, effective information retrieval from the expanding web is a challenging task, in particular, if the query is ambiguous. The major question arises here is that how to get the relevant pages for an ambiguous query. We propose an approach for the effective result of an ambiguous query by forming community vector based on association concept of data minning using vector s...

  13. Ambiguity and violence in adolescent dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna; Stephenson, Pam Shockey

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about dyadic processes that lead to adolescent dating violence. The purpose of this study was to examine the phenomenon of relationship ambiguity in adolescent dating relationships to better understand how ambiguity contributes to violence and aggression between dating partners. Data were drawn from 88 narratives of young adults who had participated in a study on adolescent dating violence. Interpretive phenomenology was used to produce an in-depth description of the phenomenon of relationship ambiguity. Relationship ambiguity results in differing expectations between partners regarding closeness and intimacy, fidelity, and obligation. These differences lead to conflicts that set the stage for violence and aggression in adolescent dating relationships. A series of recommendations for clinicians working with adolescents are presented. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Risk Management and Insurance Decisions under Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Correa, Jimmy

    I study the impact of ambiguity on insurance decisions and the optimality of insurance contracts. My tractable approach allows me to study the interaction between risk and ambiguity attitudes. When insurance decisions are made independently of other assets, for a given increase in wealth, both risk...... portfolio theory that assumes Subjective Expected Utility theory; however, it provides hints to a possible solution of the under-diversification puzzle of households. I also identify conditions under which more risk or ambiguity aversion decreases the demand for coinsurance. Additionally, I show...... a counterexample to a classical result in insurance economics where an insurance contract with straight deductible is dominated by a coinsurance contract. Finally, I find that a modified Borch rule characterizes the optimal insurance contract with bilateral risk and ambiguity attitudes and heterogeneity in beliefs....

  15. Good luck, bad luck, and ambiguity aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Pulford, Briony D.; Poonam Gill

    2014-01-01

    We report a series of experiments investigating the influence of feeling lucky or unlucky on people's choice of known-risk or ambiguous options using the traditional Ellsberg Urns decision-making task. We induced a state of feeling lucky or unlucky in subjects by using a rigged wheel-of-fortune game, which just missed either the bankrupt or the jackpot outcome. In the first experiment a large reversal of the usual ambiguity aversion effect was shown, indicating that feeling ...

  16. Ambiguous invitations in the American communicative culture

    OpenAIRE

    Екатерина Борисовна Щелчкова

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with those features of the speech act of Invitation in the American communicative culture that often cause misunderstanding in cross-cultural communication. Based on an empirical research, it examines the use of the so-called «ambiguous» or «phony» invitations and discusses the criteria which can be used to distinguish ambiguous invitations from unambiguous ones.

  17. Ambiguous invitations in the American communicative culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Борисовна Щелчкова

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with those features of the speech act of Invitation in the American communicative culture that often cause misunderstanding in cross-cultural communication. Based on an empirical research, it examines the use of the so-called «ambiguous» or «phony» invitations and discusses the criteria which can be used to distinguish ambiguous invitations from unambiguous ones.

  18. Role ambiguity, employee gender, and workplace friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Mao, Hsiao-Yen; Hsieh, An-Tien

    2012-06-01

    The importance of workplace friendship is recognized by researchers and practitioners, but its antecedents with respect to work roles are not well understood. Employees' gender might moderate a relationship between work roles and friendships. Data from a survey of 221 international tourist hotel employees showed that a key aspect of job support, role ambiguity, was negatively related to having workplace friendships. However, employees' gender did not moderate this relationship. Role clarity (the opposite of role ambiguity) may facilitate workplace friendships.

  19. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  20. Ambiguity and Nominal Group Multiple Post modification in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    modification in the Written English of Some. Selected ... outcome of a linguistic study of the continuous writing - essays, letters and .... Some types are commonly identified by many contributors, and these are lexical ambiguity, syntactic ambiguity, phonological ambiguity and semantic ambiguity which are discussed below:.

  1. Phase-shift ambiguities for analytic amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Itzykson, C

    1973-01-01

    Ambiguities in reconstructing a unitary elastic amplitude at fixed energy are investigated given the differential cross-section when one assumes analyticity in the cos theta plane. Strong hints are given that not more than a twofold nontrivial ambiguity is present. This is demonstrated for genuine entire functions of finite order. Moreover it is found that within a class of amplitudes which includes polynomials as well as entire functions of order zero, (i) the difference between the two amplitudes with the same cross-section must be a polynomial, (ii) if the cross-section is smaller than 1.38 (4 pi /k/sup 2/) there is no ambiguity. Indications are given on directions for future work. (10 refs).

  2. RELATION OF COACHING BEHAVIOR AND ROLE AMBIGUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamousalidis G.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between coaching behavior and role ambiguity in defensive responsibilities using interdependent Greek sport teams. Athlete perceptions of role ambiguity (defense were assessed using a questionnaire developed by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys and Carron (2002 andcoaching behavior was assessed using the Coaching Behavior Questionnaire, (Williams, et. al., 2003. The sample consisted of 409 athletes of basketball, volleyball, handball and soccer. Confirmatory factor analysis provided the construct validity of the questionnaires and correlations among the scales confirmed construct validity. The implications of the results are discussed and future research should continue to investigate the multidimensional models of both coaching behavior and role ambiguity in sport settings.

  3. Clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the co-existence of clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory study using interpretive discourse analysis of interviews with employees at a corporate communication department to examine...... how they perceived the writing, reading and enactment of their organization’s new corporate communication strategy. Findings – The analysis reveals the presence of both clarity and ambiguity in the employees’ understanding of the strategy. Both in terms of formulation and implementation. For instance......, there is clarity on the main objectives of the strategy, but ambiguity in relation to how they should be achieved and the extent to which they represent a shift in focus or not. Though this co-presence might cause the members to feel a lack of ownership, it does not impede the department’s practices...

  4. Clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the co-existence of clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory study using interpretive discourse analysis of interviews with employees at a corporate communication department to examine...... how they perceived the writing, reading and enactment of their organization’s new corporate communication strategy. Findings – The analysis reveals the presence of both clarity and ambiguity in the employees’ understanding of the strategy. Both in terms of formulation and implementation. For instance......, there is clarity on the main objectives of the strategy, but ambiguity in relation to how they should be achieved and the extent to which they represent a shift in focus or not. Though this co-presence might cause the members to feel a lack of ownership, it does not impede the department’s practices...

  5. Gene name ambiguity of eukaryotic nomenclatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifeng; Liu, Hongfang; Friedman, Carol

    2005-01-15

    With more and more scientific literature published online, the effective management and reuse of this knowledge has become problematic. Natural language processing (NLP) may be a potential solution by extracting, structuring and organizing biomedical information in online literature in a timely manner. One essential task is to recognize and identify genomic entities in text. 'Recognition' can be accomplished using pattern matching and machine learning. But for 'identification' these techniques are not adequate. In order to identify genomic entities, NLP needs a comprehensive resource that specifies and classifies genomic entities as they occur in text and that associates them with normalized terms and also unique identifiers so that the extracted entities are well defined. Online organism databases are an excellent resource to create such a lexical resource. However, gene name ambiguity is a serious problem because it affects the appropriate identification of gene entities. In this paper, we explore the extent of the problem and suggest ways to address it. We obtained gene information from 21 organisms and quantified naming ambiguities within species, across species, with English words and with medical terms. When the case (of letters) was retained, official symbols displayed negligible intra-species ambiguity (0.02%) and modest ambiguities with general English words (0.57%) and medical terms (1.01%). In contrast, the across-species ambiguity was high (14.20%). The inclusion of gene synonyms increased intra-species ambiguity substantially and full names contributed greatly to gene-medical-term ambiguity. A comprehensive lexical resource that covers gene information for the 21 organisms was then created and used to identify gene names by using a straightforward string matching program to process 45,000 abstracts associated with the mouse model organism while ignoring case and gene names that were also English words. We found that 85.1% of correctly retrieved mouse

  6. Symbol in Point View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. R. Yousefi

    Full Text Available Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry; its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this complex world

  7. Discrete ambiguities in phase-shift analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, A.C.; Kok, L.P.; Roo, M. de

    1975-01-01

    In two practical examples (α-3He and α-α scattering) we investigate to what extent the elastic amplitude above the first inelastic threshold, determined from phase-shift analysis, is subject to ambiguity. We find that it is extremely difficult to determine the correct physical amplitude uniquely.

  8. Exploring Situated Ambiguity in Students' Entrepreneurial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubberød, Elin; Pettersen, Inger Beate

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Building on entrepreneurial learning research, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the students participating in foreign entrepreneurial education programmes can have realistic entrepreneurial learning experiences. This research addresses two specific questions: how situated ambiguity induced by a foreign culture may contribute to…

  9. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency: An Ambiguous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article analyses the further consequences of this conceptual clash between Western military culture and counterinsurgency in the reality of counterinsurgency warfare. It is explained that the contrast between both concepts leads to an ambiguous reality in which soldiers are aware of the specifics of counterinsurgency ...

  10. Measuring ambiguity in HLA typing methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Paunić

    Full Text Available In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor selection is based primarily on matching donor and patient HLA genes. These genes are highly polymorphic and their typing can result in exact allele assignment at each gene (the resolution at which patients and donors are matched, but it can also result in a set of ambiguous assignments, depending on the typing methodology used. To facilitate rapid identification of matched donors, registries employ statistical algorithms to infer HLA alleles from ambiguous genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium information encapsulated in haplotype frequencies is used to facilitate prediction of the most likely haplotype assignment. An HLA typing with less ambiguity produces fewer high-probability haplotypes and a more reliable prediction. We estimated ambiguity for several HLA typing methods across four continental populations using an information theory-based measure, Shannon's entropy. We used allele and haplotype frequencies to calculate entropy for different sets of 1,000 subjects with simulated HLA typing. Using allele frequencies we calculated an average entropy in Caucasians of 1.65 for serology, 1.06 for allele family level, 0.49 for a 2002-era SSO kit, and 0.076 for single-pass SBT. When using haplotype frequencies in entropy calculations, we found average entropies of 0.72 for serology, 0.73 for allele family level, 0.05 for SSO, and 0.002 for single-pass SBT. Application of haplotype frequencies further reduces HLA typing ambiguity. We also estimated expected confirmatory typing mismatch rates for simulated subjects. In a hypothetical registry with all donors typed using the same method, the entropy values based on haplotype frequencies correspond to confirmatory typing mismatch rates of 1.31% for SSO versus only 0.08% for SBT. Intermediate-resolution single-pass SBT contains the least ambiguity of the methods we evaluated and therefore the most certainty in allele prediction. The presented measure

  11. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  12. Ambiguity in the Acquisition of Lexical Information

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderwende, L

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the automatic identification of lexical information in on-line dictionaries. This approach uses bootstrapping techniques, specifically so that ambiguity in the dictionary text can be treated properly. This approach consists of processing an on-line dictionary multiple times, each time refining the lexical information previously acquired and identifying new lexical information. The strength of this approach is that lexical information can be acquired from definitions which are syntactically ambiguous, given that information acquired during the first pass can be used to improve the syntactic analysis of definitions in subsequent passes. In the context of a lexical knowledge base, the types of lexical information that need to be represented cannot be viewed as a fixed set, but rather as a set that will change given the resources of the lexical knowledge base and the requirements of analysis systems which access it.

  13. Learning, Teaching and Ambiguity in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Diane; Oliver, Martin; Burn, Andrew

    What might online communities and informal learning practices teach us about virtual world pedagogy? In this chapter we describe a research project in which learning practices in online worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second LifeTM (SL) were investigated. Working within an action research framework, we employed a range of methods to investigate how members of online communities define the worlds they encounter, negotiate the terms of participation, and manage the incremental complexity of game worlds. The implications of such practices for online pedagogy were then explored through teaching in SL. SL eludes simple definitions. Users, or "residents", of SL partake of a range of pleasures and activities - socialising, building, creating and exhibiting art, playing games, exploring, shopping, or running a business, for instance. We argue that the variable nature of SL gives rise to degrees of ambiguity. This ambiguity impacts on inworld social practices, and has significant implications for online teaching and learning.

  14. Evolution without evolution and without ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marletto, C.; Vedral, V.

    2017-02-01

    In quantum theory it is possible to explain time, and dynamics, in terms of entanglement. This is the timeless approach to time, which assumes that the universe is in a stationary state, where two noninteracting subsystems, the "clock" and the "rest," are entangled. As a consequence, by choosing a suitable observable of the clock, the relative state of the rest of the universe evolves unitarily with respect to the variable labeling the clock observable's eigenstates, which is then interpreted as time. This model for an "evolution without evolution" (Page and Wootters, 1983), albeit elegant, has never been developed further, because it was criticized for generating severe ambiguities in the dynamics of the rest of the universe. In this paper we show that there are no such ambiguities; we also update the model, making it amenable to possible new applications.

  15. Ambiguity in the Acquisition of Lexical Information

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderwende, Lucy

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the automatic identification of lexical information in on-line dictionaries. This approach uses bootstrapping techniques, specifically so that ambiguity in the dictionary text can be treated properly. This approach consists of processing an on-line dictionary multiple times, each time refining the lexical information previously acquired and identifying new lexical information. The strength of this approach is that lexical information can be acquired from de...

  16. Disambiguation of ambiguous figures in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    Disambiguation refers to the ability to interpret ambiguous information in a sensible way, which is important in an ever-changing external environment. Disambiguation occurs when prior knowledge is given before an ambiguous stimulus is presented. For example, labeling a series of meaningless blobs as a “human body” can change the observer's perception. The aim of this experiment was to study the neural circuitry underlying disambiguation caused by prior knowledge. We presented to participants a series of meaningless blobs with different contextual information. As participants performed this task, we used magnetoencephalography to map the brain areas that were activated when participants perceived blobs as a human body. The participants were presented identical sets of blob stimuli, and were instructed that a human body would appear more frequently in the “high body” condition than in the “low body” condition. We found the blob stimuli were more frequently perceived as the human body when they were presented in the “high body” condition. Such contextual modulation correlated with activity in the extrastriate body area (EBA) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Furthermore, we observed that IFG activation preceded EBA activation. These findings suggest that top-down processing in the IFG plays a role in disambiguating ambiguous information and modifying an individual's perceptions. PMID:24009570

  17. De morseir syndrome presenting as ambiguous genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Thukral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A 10-year-old boy presented with genital ambiguity, poor linear growth, and delayed milestones. The aim and to highlight that although rare but congenital, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may rarely present as ambiguity. Materials and Methods: The patient was found to have bilateral cryptorchidism with proximal penile hypospadias, microphallus with a proportionate dwarfism with mildly delayed bone age, and karyotype 46XY. Euthyroid with normal steroid axis, growth hormone insufficient as suggested by auxology, low IGF1, and poor response to clonidine stimulation. MRI brain shows hypoplastic corpus callosum, hypoplastic anterior pituitary, and ectopic posterior pituitary bright spot. Results: The patient underwent laparoscopic removal of right intrabdominal testis and orchidoplexy was performed on the left one. Testicular biopsy revealed no malignancy and growth hormone replacement was initiated. The patient awaits definitive repair of hypospadias. Conclusion: As a provisional diagnosis of combined growth hormone and gonadotropin deficiency, most probable diagnosis is septo-optic dysplasia or de moseir syndrome leading to genital ambiguity.

  18. Disambiguation of ambiguous figures in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro eIshizu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Disambiguation refers to the ability to interpret ambiguous information in a sensible way, which is important in an ever-changing external environment. Disambiguation occurs when prior knowledge is given before an ambiguous stimulus is presented. For example, labeling a series of meaningless blobs as the human body can change the observer’s perception. The aim of this experiment was to study the neural circuitry underlying disambiguation caused by prior knowledge. We presented to participants a series of meaningless blobs with different contextual information. As participants performed this task, we used magnetoencephalography to map the brain areas that were activated when participants perceived blobs as a human body. The participants were presented identical sets of blob stimuli, and were instructed that a human body would appear more frequently in the high body condition than in the low body condition. We found the blob stimuli were more frequently perceived as the human body when they were presented in the high body condition. Such contextual modulation correlated with activity in the extrastriate body area (EBA and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. Furthermore, we observed that IFG activation preceded EBA activation. These findings suggest that top-down processing in the IFG plays a role in disambiguating ambiguous information and modifying an individual’s perceptions.

  19. Ambiguity and Nominal Group Multiple Post modification in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ambiguity and Nominal Group Multiple Post modification in the Written English of Some Selected Nigerian Polytechnics. ... A syntacticsemantic analysis of the ambiguous expressions resulting from multiple post modification is presented detailing the sources of ambiguities that arise. Finally, possible disambiguation ...

  20. Are the poor worse at dealing with ambiguity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Li (Chen)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper studies the relationship between people’s ambiguity attitudes and income in the field using language as a natural source of ambiguity. It shows that the method of Baillon et al. (2017b) can be adapted for field studies, providing ambiguity measurement tasks that are more

  1. Phonological ambiguity modulates resolution of semantic ambiguity during reading: An fMRI study of Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitan, Tali; Kaftory, Asaf; Meiri-Leib, Adi; Eviatar, Zohar; Peleg, Orna

    2017-10-01

    The current fMRI study examined the role of phonology in the extraction of meaning from print in each hemisphere by comparing homophonic and heterophonic homographs (ambiguous words in which both meanings have the same or different sounds respectively, e.g., bank or tear). The analysis distinguished between the first phase, in which participants read ambiguous words without context, and the second phase in which the context resolves the ambiguity. Native Hebrew readers were scanned during semantic relatedness judgments on pairs of words in which the first word was either a homophone or a heterophone and the second word was related to its dominant or subordinate meaning. In Phase 1 there was greater activation for heterophones in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), pars opercularis, and more activation for homophones in bilateral IFG pars orbitalis, suggesting that resolution of the conflict at the phonological level has abolished the semantic ambiguity for heterophones. Reduced activation for all ambiguous words in temporo-parietal regions suggests that although ambiguity enhances controlled lexical selection processes in frontal regions it reduces reliance on bottom-up mapping processes. After presentation of the context, a larger difference between the dominant and subordinate meaning was found for heterophones in all reading-related regions, suggesting a greater engagement for heterophones with the dominant meaning. Altogether these results are consistent with the prominent role of phonological processing in visual word recognition. Finally, despite differences in hemispheric asymmetry between homophones and heterophones, ambiguity resolution, even toward the subordinate meaning, is largely left lateralized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  3. Pricing risk and ambiguity: the effect of perspective taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Stefan T; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    In the valuation of uncertain prospects, a difference is often observed between selling and buying perspectives. This paper distinguishes between risk (known probabilities) and ambiguity (unknown probabilities) in decisions under uncertainty and shows that the valuation disparity increases under ambiguity compared to risk. It is found that both the comparative versus noncomparative evaluation of risky and ambiguous prospects and the uniqueness of the valuation perspective (either seller or buyer) moderate this increase in the disparity under ambiguity. The finding is consistent with recent theoretical accounts of pricing under uncertainty. We discuss implications for market behaviour and for the ambiguity paradigm as a research tool.

  4. Ambiguities and conventions in the perception of visual art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamassian, Pascal

    2008-09-01

    Vision perception is ambiguous and visual arts play with these ambiguities. While perceptual ambiguities are resolved with prior constraints, artistic ambiguities are resolved by conventions. Is there a relationship between priors and conventions? This review surveys recent work related to these ambiguities in composition, spatial scale, illumination and color, three-dimensional layout, shape, and movement. While most conventions seem to have their roots in perceptual constraints, those conventions that differ from priors may help us appreciate how visual arts differ from everyday perception.

  5. Potential Ambiguity Translation Performances within Legal Language Institutional Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oţăt Diana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by a paradoxical corollary of ambiguities in legal documents and especially in contract texts, the current paper underpins a dichotomy approach to unintended ambiguities aiming to establish a referential framework for the occurrence rate of translation ambiguities within the legal language nomenclature. The research focus is on a twofold situation since ambiguities may. on the one hand, arise dining the translation process, generated by the translator’s lack of competence, i.e. inadequate use of English regarding the special nature of legal language, or. on the other hand, they may be simply transferred from the source language into the target language without even noticing the potential ambiguous situation, i.e. culture-bound ambiguities. Hence, the paper proposes a contrastive analysis in order to localize the occurrence of lexical, structural, and socio-cultural ambiguities triggered by the use of the term performance and its Romanian equivalents in a number of sales contracts.

  6. A United Methodist approach to end-of-life decisions: intentional ambiguity or ambiguous intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobaben, James R

    1997-12-01

    The position of the United Methodist Church on end-of-life decisions is best described as intentional ambiguity or ambiguous intentions or both. The paper analyzes the official position of the denomination and then considers the actions of a U.M.C. bishop who served as a foreman for a trial of Dr. Jack Kevorkian. In an effort to find some common ground within an increasingly divided denomination, the work concludes with a consideration of the work of John Wesley and his approach to human death.

  7. Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

  8. Ambiguous Expectations for Intersectoral Action for Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heering Holt, Ditte; Waldorff, Susanne Boch; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2018-01-01

    presented as a means to produce better quality services, more cost-effective operations and ensure the future of the welfare state, while at the same time hardly changing much at all. By applying the lens of institutional logics we show how ISA, although being vaguely defined, offer ambiguous normative...... and symbolic repertoires for action. We discuss the implementation challenges associated with this advocacy rhetoric and suggest that the domination of the corporation logic may appear to reduce the political character of ISA and potentially conflict with the ideals of health as a matter of social justice...

  9. Management of ambiguities in magnetostratigraphic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallier, Florent; Antoine, Christophe; Charreau, Julien; Caumon, Guillaume; Ruiu, Jeremy

    2013-06-01

    Magnetostratigraphy is a powerful tool to provide absolute dating of sediments enabling robust and detailed chronostratigraphic correlations. It is based on the correlation of a magnetic polarity column, observed and measured in a given sediment section, to a magnetic polarity reference scale where polarity changes are well dated via other independent methods. However, magnetostratigraphic correlations are loose as they are only constrained by binary magnetic chrons (i.e. normal or reversal) and their thickness, which are both defined from depth variations of the magnetic remanent directions. The thickness of a given magnetic polarity zone is a function of time and sediment accumulation rate, which may not be stationary, leading to ambiguities when performing the correlations. To address these ambiguities, a numerical method based on the Dynamic Time Warping algorithm is proposed. Magnetostratigraphic correlations are computed in order to minimise the local variation of the accumulation rate. The main advantage of the proposed method is to automatically provide a set of reasonably likely correlations. This set can then be scrutinised for further analysis and interpretation. However, the likelihood of a correlation should be handled carefully as it depends on the information content of the magnetostratigraphic section itself and remain ultimately valid by ancillary constraint. Nevertheless, the method gives consistent results on difficult synthetic cases that simulate abrupt variations of the sedimentation rate. Insights on true sections debated by previous authors are also given.

  10. The importance and types of ambiguity in the researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gh. Shiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Old Persian literature, ambiguity is of little importance. Only when talking of the figure of paradox, always along with two other synonymous terms i.e. Towjih and zoowajhein, at times ـand not very often ـ they refer to ambiguity which is a fourth term for the very unusual figure of speech in Persian and Arabic literature. This is while in the old literary texts up to now ambiguity is considered one of the most frequent figures of speech, which goes hand in hand by simile and metaphor. Firstly, This paper intends to give an exact definition of ambiguity, and then to provide a literature review on the previous research papers relevant to the subject and, finally along with clarifying different types of ambiguity determine the importance of the impact of four fundamental elements of text, reader, environment, and author ـ four basic pillars of the structure of a text ـ on ambiguity.

  11. Finding Home: Landmark Ambiguity in Human Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jetzschke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Memories of places often include landmark cues, i.e., information provided by the spatial arrangement of distinct objects with respect to the target location. To study how humans combine landmark information for navigation, we conducted two experiments: To this end, participants were either provided with auditory landmarks while walking in a large sports hall or with visual landmarks while walking on a virtual-reality treadmill setup. We found that participants cannot reliably locate their home position due to ambiguities in the spatial arrangement when only one or two uniform landmarks provide cues with respect to the target. With three visual landmarks that look alike, the task is solved without ambiguity, while audio landmarks need to play three unique sounds for a similar performance. This reduction in ambiguity through integration of landmark information from 1, 2, and 3 landmarks is well modeled using a probabilistic approach based on maximum likelihood estimation. Unlike any deterministic model of human navigation (based e.g., on distance or angle information, this probabilistic model predicted both the precision and accuracy of the human homing performance. To further examine how landmark cues are integrated we introduced systematic conflicts in the visual landmark configuration between training of the home position and tests of the homing performance. The participants integrated the spatial information from each landmark near-optimally to reduce spatial variability. When the conflict becomes big, this integration breaks down and precision is sacrificed for accuracy. That is, participants return again closer to the home position, because they start ignoring the deviant third landmark. Relying on two instead of three landmarks, however, goes along with responses that are scattered over a larger area, thus leading to higher variability. To model the breakdown of integration with increasing conflict, the probabilistic model based on a

  12. Azimuth Phase Coding for Range Ambiguity Suppression in SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders

    2004-01-01

    excels by actually eliminating the ambiguities rather than just defocusing them as most other techniques do. This makes the proposed technique applicable to distributed targets. The range ambiguity suppression permits the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) to exceed the upper limit otherwise defined...... by the antenna elevation dimension. The fundamental antenna area constraint still applies, but the PRF can be chosen with more freedom. In addition to ambiguity suppression, potential applications include nadir return elimination and signal-to-noise ratio improvement....

  13. VALUING AMBIGUITY: THE CASE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED GROWTH ENHANCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Buhr,Brian L.; Hayes, Dermot J.; Jason F. Shogren; Kliebenstein, James B.

    1993-01-01

    A split-valuation method is developed and implemented to elicit the willingness to pay to consume- or avoid consuming- a product of ambiguous quality. The split-valuation method uses experimental auction markets to separate and value the positive and negative attributes of the ambiguous good. The results show that the method can be used to successfully value a good ambiguous quality. Our application reveals that for a sample of students at a midwestern land-grant institution, the average resp...

  14. Ambiguous Loss Experienced by Transnational Mexican Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Catherine; Zaid, Samantha; Ballard, Jaime

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an ambiguous loss framework as described by Boss (1999, Ambiguous loss: Learning to live with unresolved grief, First Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA) was used to examine and understand the family experiences of Mexican immigrant agricultural workers in Minnesota. Transcripts from interviews with 17 workers in Minnesota and 17 family members in Mexico were analyzed using qualitative methodology to identify experiences of ambiguous loss in the participants' narratives. Key dimensions of ambiguous loss identified in the transcripts include: psychological family, feelings of chronic/recurring loss, finding support, and meaning making. In the category of psychological family, participants in both Mexico and the United States mourned the physical absence of their family members and experienced ambiguity regarding family responsibilities, but worked to maintain their psychological roles within the family. In the category of chronic/recurring loss, participants in both countries experienced chronic worry from not knowing if family members were safe, ambiguity regarding when the immigrant would return, and chronic stressors that compounded these feelings of loss. Participants in both countries coped with both real and ambiguous losses by accessing family support and by using ambiguous communication to minimize worry. Participants in Mexico also accessed work and community-based support. Participants in both countries made meaning of the ambiguous loss by identifying ways their lives were improved and goals were met as a result of the immigration for agricultural work in Minnesota. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  15. Interpretation of ambiguous information in clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, Karin; Bradbury, Katherine E; Bradley, Brendan P

    2006-10-01

    The present study used two cognitive tasks--a text comprehension task and a homophone task--to investigate whether clinically depressed individuals have a negative bias when interpreting ambiguous information. Previous research indicates that both tasks are sensitive to anxiety-related interpretive biases, and that the former is less prone to response bias effects. Negative memory biases were also assessed. Results showed that, compared with normal controls, depressed individuals made more negative interpretations on the homophone task, and they also showed an enhanced negative recall bias. However, the groups did not differ in interpretative bias on the text comprehension task. Possible explanations of the results are discussed, including the potential influences of self-referent processing and response bias.

  16. Possible resolution of the lattice Gribov ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandula, Jeffrey E.; Ogilvie, Michael C.

    1990-04-01

    The Gribov ambiguity in lattice gauge theory is discussed. The Landau gauge and the finite-temperature temporal gauge (∂4A4=0) are formulated as maximization conditions on the lattice. This formulation is shown to eliminate Gribov copies from the temporal gauge. The possibility that it also eliminates copies from the Landau gauge is discussed. An algorithm which will eliminate Gribov copies from the lattice implementation of the Landau gauge, in case any remain, is introduced and studied via Monte Carlo simulation. The algorithm involves a noncovariant intermediate step and so eliminates the copies at the cost of the possible introduction of a violation of lattice Poincaré symmetry. The covariance of this algorithm is studied numerically and no evidence is found for symmetry violation, which indicates that either the maximization form of the lattice Landau gauge is free of copies, or that the modified algorithm selects one in an acceptably covariant way.

  17. Possible resolution of the lattice Gribov ambiguity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandula, J.E. (Department of Energy, Division of High Energy Physics, Washington, District of Columbia 20545 (USA)); Ogilvie, M.C. (Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-04-15

    The Gribov ambiguity in lattice gauge theory is discussed. The Landau gauge and the finite-temperature temporal gauge ({partial derivative}{sub 4}{ital A4}=0) are formulated as maximization conditions on the lattice. This formulation is shown to eliminate Gribov copies from the temporal gauge. The possibility that it also eliminates copies from the Landau gauge is discussed. An algorithm which will eliminate Gribov copies from the lattice implementation of the Landau gauge, in case any remain, is introduced and studied via Monte Carlo simulation. The algorithm involves a noncovariant intermediate step and so eliminates the copies at the cost of the possible introduction of a violation of lattice Poincare symmetry. The covariance of this algorithm is studied numerically and no evidence is found for symmetry violation, which indicates that either the maximization form of the lattice Landau gauge is free of copies, or that the modified algorithm selects one in an acceptably covariant way.

  18. Integration, differentiation and ambiguity in safety cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Anne; Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses safety cultures, drawing on the differentiation, integration and ambiguity-scheme introduced by scholars of organizational culture. An ethnographic approach has been applied in the study of meaning and symbols relating to work, hazards, occupational accidents and prevention....... The application of this approach is demonstrated through a multifacetted analysis of safety cultures. Case studies in Danish manufacturing show that it usually is necessary to differentiate between several safety cultures dispersed throughout the shop floor and other parts of the manufacturing organization....... Although some common elements are present across cultures, they are indeed a multiple configuration of cultures. The article illustrates this by providing one case showing a configuration of three cultures, metaphorically labelled Production, Welfare and Master. For example, the former views risk...

  19. Resolving deconvolution ambiguity in gene alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbell Earl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many gene structures it is impossible to resolve intensity data uniquely to establish abundances of splice variants. This was empirically noted by Wang et al. in which it was called a "degeneracy problem". The ambiguity results from an ill-posed problem where additional information is needed in order to obtain an unique answer in splice variant deconvolution. Results In this paper, we analyze the situations under which the problem occurs and perform a rigorous mathematical study which gives necessary and sufficient conditions on how many and what type of constraints are needed to resolve all ambiguity. This analysis is generally applicable to matrix models of splice variants. We explore the proposal that probe sequence information may provide sufficient additional constraints to resolve real-world instances. However, probe behavior cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy by any existing probe sequence model, and so we present a Bayesian framework for estimating variant abundances by incorporating the prediction uncertainty from the micro-model of probe responsiveness into the macro-model of probe intensities. Conclusion The matrix analysis of constraints provides a tool for detecting real-world instances in which additional constraints may be necessary to resolve splice variants. While purely mathematical constraints can be stated without error, real-world constraints may themselves be poorly resolved. Our Bayesian framework provides a generic solution to the problem of uniquely estimating transcript abundances given additional constraints that themselves may be uncertain, such as regression fit to probe sequence models. We demonstrate the efficacy of it by extensive simulations as well as various biological data.

  20. Top-Down Influence in Young Children's Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabagliati, Hugh; Pylkkanen, Liina; Marcus, Gary F.

    2013-01-01

    Language is rife with ambiguity. Do children and adults meet this challenge in similar ways? Recent work suggests that while adults resolve syntactic ambiguities by integrating a variety of cues, children are less sensitive to top-down evidence. We test whether this top-down insensitivity is specific to syntax or a general feature of children's…

  1. The Learning Teacher: Role of Ambiguity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzawa, Gilbert S.

    2013-01-01

    Life is full of ambiguities, but as teachers we generally try to teach our students in a manner that sanitizes knowledge of all of its ambiguities. In doing so, we create an educational environment which forces students to learn in a rather meaningless fashion and this in turn leads to a lack of vitality and relevance within the academy. This need…

  2. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  3. Ambiguity Tolerance and Perceptual Learning Styles of Chinese EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haishan; He, Qingshun

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance and perceptual learning styles are the two influential elements showing individual differences in EFL learning. This research is intended to explore the relationship between Chinese EFL learners' ambiguity tolerance and their preferred perceptual learning styles. The findings include (1) the learners are sensitive to English…

  4. Children's Understanding of Ambiguous Idioms and Conversational Perspective-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sourn-Bissaoui, Sandrine; Caillies, Stephanie; Bernard, Stephane; Deleau, Michel; Brule, Lauriane

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that conversational perspective-taking is a determinant of unfamiliar ambiguous idiom comprehension. We investigated two types of ambiguous idiom, decomposable and nondecomposable expressions, which differ in the degree to which the literal meanings of the individual words contribute to the overall…

  5. Cognitive Flexibility Supports Preschoolers' Detection of Communicative Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Randall; Nilsen, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    To become successful communicators, children must be sensitive to the clarity/ambiguity of language. Significant gains in children's ability to detect communicative ambiguity occur during the early school-age years. However, little is known about the cognitive abilities that support this development. Relations between cognitive flexibility and…

  6. Examining ambiguities in film titles: the Nigerian situation | Nwala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated ambiguous film titles with specific reference to films in Nigeria. It observed that film titles which are meant to serve as initial appraisal and forerunners of films that light up the interest of the consumers and promote patronage are usually scripted in mind-boggling ambiguous expressions, which make ...

  7. A novel constrained ambiguity resolution approach for Beidou attitude determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingsong; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jie; Wang, Dingjie; Dong, Yi

    2017-12-01

    This paper develops a novel approach to obtain the fixed ambiguity solution with orthonormal constraints for Beidou attitude determination. The approach extends the traditional attitude model by taking the attitude matrix elements as unknown parameters directly. The orthonormal property of the attitude matrix is used as constraints to assist in calculating the float ambiguity solution and its corresponding variance-covariance matrix. An iteration algorithm with the linearization of orthonormal constraints is developed to solve the nonlinear conditional extremum problem and a sequential filtering multi-epoch ambiguity resolution method is derived for real-time applications. Long-time static experiments with three antennas tracing Beidou signals are employed to demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that, compared to unconstrained ambiguity resolution, the proposed approach can improve the reliability of the integer ambiguity vectors for single epochs and can also decrease the time to fix for multiple epochs.

  8. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Stephen G.; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks. PMID:28458446

  9. The Ethics of Strategic Ambiguity: Contrasting Teleologically and Deontologically Based Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jim; And Others

    This paper describes ethical considerations in the use of strategic ambiguity in organizational communication. Ambiguity is defined as "experienced ambiguity" and is distinct from uncertainty and equivocality which are properties of a stimulus. Strategic ambiguity is the use of "calculated ambiguity" in organizations to achieve…

  10. Neuropsychology of Aesthetic Judgment of Ambiguous and Non-Ambiguous Artworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Boccia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several affective and cognitive processes have been found to be pivotal in affecting aesthetic experience of artworks and both neuropsychological as well as psychiatric symptoms have been found to affect artistic production. However, there is a paucity of studies directly investigating effects of brain lesions on aesthetic judgment. Here, we assessed the effects of unilateral brain damage on aesthetic judgment of artworks showing part/whole ambiguity. We asked 19 unilaterally brain-damaged patients (10 left and 9 right brain damaged patients, respectively LBDP and RBDP and 20 age- and education-matched healthy individuals (controls, C to rate 10 Arcimboldo’s ambiguous portraits (AP, 10 realistic Renaissance portraits (RP, 10 still life paintings (SL, and 10 Arcimboldo’s modified portraits where only objects/parts are detectable (AO. They were also administered a Navon task, a facial recognition test, and evaluated on visuo-perceptual and visuo-constructional abilities. Patients included in the study did not show any deficits that could affect the capability to explore and enjoy artworks. SL and RP was not affected by brain damage regardless of its laterality. On the other hand, we found that RBDP liked AP more than the C participants. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between aesthetic judgment of AP and visuo-perceptual skills even if the single case analyses failed to find a systematic association between neuropsychological deficits and aesthetic judgment of AP. On the whole, the present data suggest that a right hemisphere lesion may affect aesthetic judgment of ambiguous artworks, even in the absence of exploration or constructional deficits.

  11. Chimpanzees and bonobos distinguish between risk and ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2011-02-23

    Although recent research has investigated animal decision-making under risk, little is known about how animals choose under conditions of ambiguity when they lack information about the available alternatives. Many models of choice behaviour assume that ambiguity does not impact decision-makers, but studies of humans suggest that people tend to be more averse to choosing ambiguous options than risky options with known probabilities. To illuminate the evolutionary roots of human economic behaviour, we examined whether our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), share this bias against ambiguity. Apes chose between a certain option that reliably provided an intermediately preferred food type, and a variable option that could vary in the probability that it provided a highly preferred food type. To examine the impact of ambiguity on ape decision-making, we interspersed trials in which chimpanzees and bonobos had no knowledge about the probabilities. Both species avoided the ambiguous option compared with their choices for a risky option, indicating that ambiguity aversion is shared by humans, bonobos and chimpanzees.

  12. The neural underpinnings of semantic ambiguity and anaphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Veena D; Phillips, Natalie A; Einagel, Stephanie; Baum, Shari R

    2010-01-22

    We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to investigate how definite NP anaphors are integrated into semantically ambiguous contexts. Although sentences such as Every kid climbed a tree lack any syntactic or lexical ambiguity, these structures exhibit two possible meanings, where either many trees or only one tree was climbed. This semantic ambiguity is the result of quantifier scope ambiguity. Previous behavioural studies have shown that a plural definite NP continuation is preferred (as reflected in a continuation sentence, e.g., The trees were in the park) over singular NPs (e.g., The tree was in the park). This study aimed to identify the neurophysiological pattern associated with the integration of the continuation sentences, as well as the time course of this process. We examined ERPs elicited by the noun and verb in continuation sentences following ambiguous and unambiguous context sentences. A sustained negative shift was most evident at the Verb position in sentences exhibiting scope ambiguity. Furthermore, this waveform did not differentiate itself until 900 ms after the presentation of the Noun, suggesting that the parser waits to assign meaning in contexts exhibiting quantifier scope ambiguity, such that such contexts are left as underspecified representations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  14. Extent of the Immirzi ambiguity in quantum general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marugan, Guillermo A Mena [Centro de Fisica Miguel A Catalan, IMAFF, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2002-04-21

    The Ashtekar-Barbero formulation of general relativity admits a one-parameter family of canonical transformations that preserves the expressions of the Gauss and diffeomorphism constraints. The loop quantization of the connection formalism based on each of these canonical sets leads to different predictions. This phenomenon is called the Immirzi ambiguity. It has been recently argued that this ambiguity could be generalized to the extent of a spatially dependent function instead of a parameter. This would ruin the predictability of loop quantum gravity. We prove that such expectations are not realized, so that the Immirzi ambiguity introduces exclusively a freedom in the choice of a real number. (letter to the edit0008.

  15. Robust portfolio choice with ambiguity and learning about return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Linda Sandris; Branger, Nicole; Munk, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the optimal stock-bond portfolio under both learning and ambiguity aversion. Stock returns are predictable by an observable and an unobservable predictor, and the investor has to learn about the latter. Furthermore, the investor is ambiguity-averse and has a preference for investment...... strategies that are robust to model misspecifications. We derive a closed-form solution for the optimal robust investment strategy. We find that both learning and ambiguity aversion impact the level and structure of the optimal stock investment. Suboptimal strategies resulting either from not learning...

  16. Robust Portfolio Choice with Ambiguity and Learning About Return Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branger, Nicole; Larsen, Linda Sandris; Munk, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the optimal stock-bond portfolio under both learning and ambiguity aversion. Stock returns are predictable by an observable and an unobservable predictor, and the investor has to learn about the latter. Furthermore, the investor is ambiguity-averse and has a preference for investment...... strategies that are robust to model misspecifications. We derive a closed-form solution for the optimal robust investment strategy. We find that both learning and ambiguity aversion impact the level and structure of the optimal stock investment. Suboptimal strategies resulting either from not learning...

  17. A method to reduce ambiguities of qualitative reasoning for conceptual design applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Amelio, V.; Chmarra, M.K.; Tomiyama, T.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative reasoning can generate ambiguous behaviors due to the lack of quantitative information. Despite many different research results focusing on ambiguities reduction, fundamentally it is impossible to totally remove ambiguities with only qualitative methods and to guarantee the consistency

  18. Interpretation of Ambiguous Information in Girls at Risk for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Karen F.

    2010-01-01

    Research has consistently documented that depressed individuals process information in a negatively biased manner. There is little evidence, however, concerning whether these biases represent risk factors for depression, as is hypothesized by cognitive models. In the present study we investigated whether a particular cognitive bias observed in currently depressed individuals, the tendency to interpret ambiguous information negatively, characterizes daughters of depressed mothers, a population known to be at increased risk for depression. Following a negative mood induction, young daughters of depressed and never-disordered mothers completed two information-processing tasks in which their interpretations of emotionally ambiguous stimuli were evaluated. Daughters of depressed mothers interpreted ambiguous words more negatively and less positively, and ambiguous stories more negatively, than did daughters of never-disordered mothers. These results provide support for cognitive vulnerability models of depression. PMID:18679791

  19. Tradition and Japanese vegetables: history, locality, geography, and discursive ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Uchiyama

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Origins of traditional Japanese vegetables and relationships with their regions have innumerable ambiguous points. The results of the analysis of two types of traditional vegetables show that quality standards and definitions strongly influence branding and brand management.

  20. Process ambiguities in Sino-Danish Business Negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    The article analyzes the role played by process ambiguities in Sino-Danish business negotiations. Process ambiguities refer to perceived expectational inconsistencies concerning (1) appropriate forms of behavior; (ii) attributional judgments; and (iii) structuring of the negotiation process....... These ambiguities stem from differences in negotiation scripts across Danish and Chinese cultures. The essential argument being advanced here is that it is the effective and/or the ineffective management of process ambiguities that shapes the evolution of the negotiating dynamic between the Danish and the Chinese...... businesspeople. An inductive model of sino-Danish negotiations is developed that is based on 24 interviews conducted with Danish expatriate managers in China and 4 interviews with Chinese working in Danish companies. Implications for research and practice are discussed...

  1. Comparing Tolerance of Ambiguity in Veterinary and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jason; Hammond, Jennifer A; Roberts, Martin; Mattick, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Current guidelines suggest that educators in both medical and veterinary professions should do more to ensure that students can tolerate ambiguity. Designing curricula to achieve this requires the ability to measure and understand differences in ambiguity tolerance among and within professional groups. Although scales have been developed to measure tolerance of ambiguity in both medical and veterinary professions, no comparative studies have been reported. We compared the tolerance of ambiguity of medical and veterinary students, hypothesizing that veterinary students would have higher tolerance of ambiguity, given the greater patient diversity and less well-established evidence base underpinning practice. We conducted a secondary analysis of questionnaire data from first- to fourth-year medical and veterinary students. Tolerance of ambiguity scores were calculated and compared using the TAMSAD scale (29 items validated for the medical student population), the TAVS scale (27 items validated for the veterinary student population), and a scale comprising the 22 items common to both scales. Using the TAMSAD and TAVS scales, medical students had a significantly higher mean tolerance of ambiguity score than veterinary students (56.1 vs. 54.1, p<.001 and 60.4 vs. 58.5, p=.002, respectively) but no difference was seen when only the 22 shared items were compared (56.1 vs. 57.2, p=.513). The results do not support our hypothesis and highlight that different findings can result when different tools are used. Medical students may have slightly higher tolerance of ambiguity than veterinary students, although this depends on the scale used.

  2. Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazara I. A. Barry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

  3. GNSS antenna array-aided CORS ambiguity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bofeng; Teunissen, Peter J. G.

    2014-04-01

    Array-aided precise point positioning is a measurement concept that uses GNSS data, from multiple antennas in an array of known geometry, to realize improved GNSS parameter estimation proposed by Teunissen (IEEE Trans Signal Process 60:2870-2881, 2012). In this contribution, the benefits of array-aided CORS ambiguity resolution are explored. The mathematical model is formulated to show how the platform-array data can be reduced and how the variance matrix of the between-platform ambiguities can profit from the increased precision of the reduced platform data. The ambiguity resolution performance will be demonstrated for varying scenarios using simulation. We consider single-, dual- and triple-frequency scenarios of geometry-based and geometry-free models for different number of antennas and different standard deviations of the ionosphere-weighted constraints. The performances of both full and partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) are presented for these different scenarios. As the study shows, when full advantage is taken of the array antennas, both full and partial ambiguity resolution can be significantly improved, in some important cases even enabling instantaneous ambiguity resolution. PAR widelaning and its suboptimal character are hereby also illustrated.

  4. Mitigation Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  5. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA)....

  6. Interpretation in Social Anxiety: When Meaning Precedes Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Courtney; Amir, Nader

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive models of anxiety posit that negative beliefs influence socially anxious individuals' interpretation of ambiguous social cues. However, paradigms used to assess interpretation bias in social anxiety have not addressed such beliefs. Furthermore, studies have assessed interpretation with either self-report or reaction time paradigms, rather than using both methods. In the current study, socially anxious and non-anxious participants completed the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP). In the WSAP, participants decide whether or not a word (implying a threat or benign interpretation) is related to an ambiguous sentence. Threat or benign meanings preceded the ambiguity in order to examine the influence of positive and negative beliefs on interpretation of ambiguous information. The WSAP results in two types of interpretation indices: (1) response latency to make relatedness decisions for threat and benign interpretations, and (2) endorsement rates of the relatedness of threat and benign interpretations to ambiguous sentences. Results revealed a threat interpretation bias and a lack of a benign interpretation bias in both reaction time and self-report data. Threat and benign biases were not strongly correlated. These findings support the distinction between threat and benign interpretation biases.

  7. Increasing Statistical Literacy by Exploiting Lexical Ambiguity of Technical Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kaplan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Instructional inattention to language poses a barrier for students in entry-level science courses, in part because students may perceive a subject as difficult solely based on the lack of understanding of the vocabulary. In addition, the technical use of terms that have different everyday meanings may cause students to misinterpret statements made by instructors, leading to an incomplete or incorrect understanding of the domain. Terms that have different technical and everyday meanings are said to have lexical ambiguity and statistics, as a discipline, has many lexically ambiguous terms. This paper presents a cyclic process for designing activities to address lexical ambiguity in statistics. In addition, it describes three short activities aimed to have high impact on student learning associated with two different lexically ambiguous words or word pairs in statistics. Preliminary student-level data are used to assess the efficacy of the activities, and future directions for development of activities and research about lexical ambiguity in statistics in particular and STEM in general are discussed.

  8. Mitigation Banking Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404

  9. Text Association Analysis and Ambiguity in Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhonde, S. B.; Paikrao, R. L.; Rahane, K. U.

    2010-11-01

    Text Mining is the process of analyzing a semantically rich document or set of documents to understand the content and meaning of the information they contain. The research in Text Mining will enhance human's ability to process massive quantities of information, and it has high commercial values. Firstly, the paper discusses the introduction of TM its definition and then gives an overview of the process of text mining and the applications. Up to now, not much research in text mining especially in concept/entity extraction has focused on the ambiguity problem. This paper addresses ambiguity issues in natural language texts, and presents a new technique for resolving ambiguity problem in extracting concept/entity from texts. In the end, it shows the importance of TM in knowledge discovery and highlights the up-coming challenges of document mining and the opportunities it offers.

  10. Portfolio Management with Stochastic Interest Rates and Inflation Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Claus; Rubtsov, Alexey Vladimirovich

    -Jacobi-Bellman equation in closed form and derive and illustrate a number of interesting properties of the solution. For example, ambiguity aversion affects the optimal portfolio through the correlation of price level with the stock index, a bond, and the expected inflation rate. Furthermore, unlike other settings......We solve a stock-bond-cash portfolio choice problem for a risk- and ambiguity-averse investor in a setting where the inflation rate and interest rates are stochastic. The expected inflation rate is unobservable, but the investor may learn about it from realized inflation and observed stock and bond...

  11. Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…

  12. Processing Deliberate Ambiguity in Newspaper Headlines: Double Grounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brone, Geert; Coulson, Seana

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the processing and appreciation of double grounding, a form of intentional ambiguity often used in the construction of headlines. For example, in "Russia takes the froth off Carlsberg results," the key element, "takes the froth off," is significant both metaphorically, where it refers to the…

  13. Syntactic Structure Guides Prosody in Temporarily Ambiguous Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catherine; Carlson, Katy

    2010-01-01

    A pair of speaking and listening studies investigated the prosody of sentences with temporary Object/Clause and Late/Early Closure ambiguities. Speakers reliably produced prosodic cues that allowed listeners to disambiguate Late/Early Closure sentences, but only infrequently produced prosody that disambiguated Object/Clause sentences, as shown by…

  14. Prosody and the Interpretation of Hierarchically Ambiguous Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Although significant attention has been devoted to prosody in discourse production, relatively little is known about prosody's effect on discourse interpretation. This article explores the ability of synthetic manipulations of prosody to bias interpretation of discourse ambiguities where a first sentence is linked to two following sentences either…

  15. A Lexico-Grammatical Interpretation of Ambiguity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses semantic ambiguous headlines stating their communicative effectiveness with regards to print media. The concentration of this paper is on the multiple meaning of headlines. Hence, we have realized that multiple meanings of a word or sentence can be analysed semantically based on the syntactic ...

  16. GLONASS CDMA L3 ambiguity resolution and positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaminpardaz, Safoora; Teunissen, P.J.G.; Nadarajah, Nandakumaran

    2016-01-01

    A first assessment of GLONASS CDMA L3 ambiguity resolution and positioning performance is provided. Our analyses are based on GLONASS L3 data from the satellite pair SVNs 755-801, received by two JAVAD receivers at Curtin University, Perth, Australia. In our analyses, four different versions of

  17. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  18. Fear of Success Revisited: Introducing an Ambiguous Cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenkemper, Stephen A.; Paludi, Michele A.

    1983-01-01

    M.S. Horner has been criticized for defining "success" to her subjects in her research on fear-of-success. The present study, which provided an ambiguous verbal lead, showed low incidence of fear-of-success, because subjects themselves were allowed to define "success." (GC)

  19. Children's Use of Gesture in Ambiguous Pronoun Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich Smith, Whitney; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether children can use gesture to inform their interpretation of ambiguous pronouns. Specifically, we ask whether four- to eight-year-old English-speaking children are sensitive to information contained in co-referential localizing gestures in video narrations. The data show that the older (7-8 years of age) but not younger…

  20. A Mindfulness Experiential Small Group to Help Students Tolerate Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohecker, Lynn; Vereen, Linwood G.; Wells, Pamela C.; Wathen, Cristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the lived experiences of 20 counselors-in-training (CITs) in a mindfulness experiential small group. Using grounded theory, the authors described a 5-dimensional model for navigating ambiguity. Findings suggest mindfulness training provides CITs self-reflection skills and a greater ability to manage cognitive complexity.

  1. Multitarget particle filter addressing ambiguous radar data in TBD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocquel, Melanie; Driessen, H.; Bagchi, Arunabha

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have addressed the problem of multiple target tracking in Track-Before-Detect (TBD) context using ambiguous Radar data. TBD is a method which uses raw measurement data, i.e. reflected target power, to track targets. Tracking can be defined as the estimation of the state of a moving

  2. The ambiguity of simplicity in quantum and classical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina, E-mail: caghamohammadi@ucdavis.edu; Mahoney, John R., E-mail: jrmahoney@ucdavis.edu; Crutchfield, James P., E-mail: chaos@ucdavis.edu

    2017-04-11

    Highlights: • Simplicity depends on whether a system is represented classically or quantally. • We demonstrate that simplicity is unavoidably ambiguous. • Relative simplicity changes order moving between classical and quantum descriptions. • Ambiguity of simplicity bears directly on model selection. - Abstract: A system's perceived simplicity depends on whether it is represented classically or quantally. This is not so surprising, as classical and quantum physics are descriptive frameworks built on different assumptions that capture, emphasize, and express different properties and mechanisms. What is surprising is that, as we demonstrate, simplicity is ambiguous: the relative simplicity between two systems can change sign when moving between classical and quantum descriptions. Here, we associate simplicity with small model-memory. We see that the notions of absolute physical simplicity at best form a partial, not a total, order. This suggests that appeals to principles of physical simplicity, via Ockham's Razor or to the “elegance” of competing theories, may be fundamentally subjective. Recent rapid progress in quantum computation and quantum simulation suggest that the ambiguity of simplicity will strongly impact statistical inference and, in particular, model selection.

  3. The Ambiguity of Musical Expression Marks and the Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ambiguity of Musical Expression Marks and the Challenges of Teaching and Learning Keyboard Instruments: The Nnamdi Azikiwe University Experience. ... the fact that some of the performance marks demand subjective expressions from the performer such as, 'furiously', 'fiercely' 'with agitation' 'brightly', tenderly, etc.

  4. Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

  5. Projection Effects and Strategic Ambiguity in Electoral Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    projection. If voters' perceptions are not counterfactual and voting is based on perceived policy positions then projection gives a generally liked candidate an incentive to be ambiguous. In this paper we construct and analyze a formal model to investigate under which conditions this incentive survives...

  6. Projection effects and strategic ambiguity in electoral competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    projection. If voters' perceptions are not counterfactual and voting is based on perceived policy positions then projection gives generally liked candidates an incentive to be ambiguous. In this paper we extend the standard Downsian model in order to investigate under what conditions this incentive survives...

  7. Ambiguity resolution in a Neural Blackboard Architecture for sentence structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, Frank; de Kamps, Marc; Besold, Tarek R.; Kühnberger, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    We simulate two examples of ambiguity resolution found in human language processing in a neural blackboard architecture for sentence representation and processing. The architecture also accounts for a related garden path effect. The architecture represents and processes sentences in terms of

  8. A life-cycle model with ambiguous survival beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groneck, Max; Ludwig, Alexander; Zimper, Alexander

    Based on a cognitive notion of neo-additive capacities reflecting likelihood insensitivity with respect to survival chances, we construct a Choquet Bayesian learning model over the life-cycle that generates a motivational notion of neo-additive survival beliefs expressing ambiguity attitudes. We

  9. Portfolio Management with Stochastic Interest Rates and Inflation Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Claus; Rubtsov, Alexey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We solve, in closed form, a stock-bond-cash portfolio problem of a risk- and ambiguity-averse investor when interest rates and the inflation rate are stochastic. The expected inflation rate is unobservable, but the investor can learn about it from observing realized inflation and stock and bond...

  10. Doctoral Dissertation Defences: Performing Ambiguity between Ceremony and Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Arjen; Rufas, Alix; Supper, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Dissertation defenses are ambiguous affairs, which mark both the end of a long process of doctoral education and the inauguration of a doctoral candidate into a body of experts. At Maastricht University (and other Dutch universities), the decision to award a doctoral degree is made on the basis of

  11. Implicit perceptual memory modulates early visual processing of ambiguous images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maartje C.; Brascamp, Jan W.; Kemner, Chantal; van Ee, Raymond; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2014-01-01

    The way we perceive the present visual environment is influenced by past visual experiences. Here we investigated the neural basis of such experience dependency.Werepeatedly presentedhumanobservers with an ambiguous visual stimulus (structure-from-motion) that can give rise to two distinct

  12. Ambiguity of the equivalence principle and Hawking's temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1984-01-01

    There are two inequivalent ways in which the laws of physics in a gravitational field can be related to the laws in an inertial frame, when quantum mechanical effects are taken into account. This leads to an ambiguity in the derivation of Hawking's radiation temperature for a black hole: it could be

  13. Sublexical Ambiguity Effect in Reading Chinese Disyllabic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Jie-Li; Tzeng, Ovid J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    For Chinese compounds, neighbors can share either both orthographic forms and meanings, or orthographic forms only. In this study, central presentation and visual half-field (VF) presentation methods were used in conjunction with ERP measures to investigate how readers solve the sublexical semantic ambiguity of the first constituent character in…

  14. In Praise of Vagueness: Uncertainty, ambiguity and archaeological methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2016-01-01

    the appreciation of difficult experiences. However, the recent archaeological (re)turn to science as the main provider of knowledge of the past renders vagueness futile as an empirical occurrence through its exorcism of elusiveness and ambiguity in the notorious pursuit of absolute, exact and quantifiable facts...

  15. Difficulty Processing Temporary Syntactic Ambiguities in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Murray; Gross, Rachel G.; Moore, Peachie; Dreyfuss, Michael; McMillan, Corey T.; Cook, Philip A.; Ash, Sherry; Siderowf, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    While grammatical aspects of language are preserved, executive deficits are prominent in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We examined executive control during sentence processing in LBSD by assessing temporary structural ambiguities. Using an…

  16. "What Happened?" Teaching Attribution Theory through Ambiguous Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, John

    2011-01-01

    The concept of attribution, "the act of explaining why something happens or why a person acts a particular way," is typically an abstract concept. This 35-50-minute activity invites students to make a series of attributions by asking them "What happened?" in ambiguous scenes presented in class. Then, students retrospectively identify what…

  17. CSR and the Mediated Emergence of Strategic Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guthey, Eric; Morsing, Mette

    2014-01-01

    We develop a framework for understanding how lack of clarity in business press coverage of corporate social responsibility functions as a mediated and emergent form of strategic ambiguity. Many stakeholders expect CSR to exhibit clarity, consistency, and discursive closure. But stakeholders also...

  18. Differential effects of cognitive load on subjective versus motor responses to ambiguously valenced facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattek, Alison M; Whalen, Paul J; Berkowitz, Julia L; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2016-09-01

    Valence is a principal dimension by which we understand emotional experiences, but oftentimes events are not easily classified as strictly positive or negative. Inevitably, individuals vary in how they tend to interpret the valence of ambiguous situations. Surprised facial expressions are one example of a well-defined, ambiguous affective event that induces trait-like differences in the propensity to form a positive or negative interpretation. To investigate the nature of this affective bias, we asked participants to organize emotional facial expressions (surprised, happy, sad) into positive/negative categories while recording their hand-movement trajectories en route to each response choice. We found that positivity-negativity bias resulted in differential hand movements for modal versus nonmodal response trajectories, such that when an individual categorized a surprised face according to his or her nonmodal interpretation (e.g., a negatively biased individual selecting a positive interpretation), the hand showed an enhanced spatial attraction to the alternative, modal response option (e.g., negative) in the opposite corner of the computer screen (Experiment 1). Critically, we also demonstrate that this asymmetry between modal versus nonmodal response trajectories is mitigated when the valence interpretations are made under a cognitive load, although the frequency of modal interpretations is unaffected by the load (Experiment 2). These data inform a body of seemingly disparate findings regarding the effect of cognitive effort on affective responses, by showing within a single paradigm that varying cognitive load selectively alters the dynamic motor movements involved in indicating affective interpretations, whereas the subjective interpretations themselves remain consistent across variable cognitive loads. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of national and international space debris mitigation guides is to promote the preservation of near-Earth space for applications and exploration missions far into the future. To accomplish this objective, the accumulation of objects, particularly in long-lived orbits, must be eliminated or curtailed.

  20. Indoor multipath mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragünas, Kostas; Borre, Kai

    2010-01-01

    is the presence of multipath. The current paper analyzes several available multipath mitigation techniques which would be suitable for indoor applications. A few deconvolution based techniques such as the Projection Onto Convex Sets and the Deconvolution Approach are selected for closer investigation...

  1. Acrylamide mitigation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Gökmen, V.; Meulenaer, De B.; Ciesarová, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Pedreschi, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2016-01-01

    FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. The Toolbox is intended for small and medium size enterprises with limited R&D

  2. Does language ambiguity in clinical practice justify the introduction of standard terminology? An integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallinga, H.A.; Napel, H. ten; Jansen, G.J; Geertzen, J.H.; Vries Robbé, P.F. de; Roodbol, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To research the use of ambiguous language in written information concerning patients' functioning and to identify problems resulting from the use of ambiguous language in clinical practice. BACKGROUND: Many projects that aimed to introduce standard terminology concerning

  3. Does language ambiguity in clinical practice justify the introduction of standard terminology? An integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallinga, Hillegonda A.; ten Napel, Huib; Jansen, Gerard J.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Robbe, Pieter F. de Vries; Roodbol, Petrie F.

    Aims and objectives. To research the use of ambiguous language in written information concerning patients' functioning and to identify problems resulting from the use of ambiguous language in clinical practice. Background. Many projects that aimed to introduce standard terminology concerning

  4. Ambiguity of care in the experience of drug consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Araújo, Mitze Lopes; Ribeiro, Bárbara Santos; Santos, Vanessa Thamyris Carvalho Dos; Malhado, Sâmia de Carliris Barbosa; Soares, Carine de Jesus; Carvalho, Patrícia Anjos Lima de

    2017-07-20

    To understand the perception of users of a Psychosocial Care Center about care in the context of drug use. Study based on the Phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, developed in the Center for Psychosocial Care Alcohol and Other Drugs. The data has been submitted to the Analytical Technique of Ambiguity. The drug use sometimes provides the consumer with pleasurable feelings, sometimes contributing to the occurrence of biopsychosocial harm and/or new possibilities for relationship with the drug. The drug use is an ambiguous process, which corresponds to the perception of different care profiles in the relationship between the consumer and the drug. It is up to the health professionals to recognize the diverse possibilities of care and to favor the construction of therapeutic projects based on listening and respecting the needs of drug users.

  5. Polysemy, syntactic constraints and reduction of ambiguity in controlled languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bogacki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers such peculiarities of the controlled languages as the choice of lexical units and constraints on their syntax. We review various difficulties that arise during the selection of forms we would like to put in the lexicon of a controlled language. We compare the index of multiple meanings of the words used to form the vocabulary of a controlled language before and after the lexical control and calculate the change in the ambiguity rate of sentences due to the elimination of polysemy. The words allowed in the lexicon of a controlled language usually have a high polysemy index in the standard language. This is evident especially as far as grammatical and non-technical words are concerned. In contrast, technical terms are much more often monosemic. Thus the observation of the “one token = one meaning” principle in the lexicon for the controlled language has a great effect on the decline of ambiguity.

  6. Portfolio Management with Stochastic Interest Rates and Inflation Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Claus; Rubtsov, Alexey Vladimirovich

    We solve a stock-bond-cash portfolio choice problem for a risk- and ambiguity-averse investor in a setting where the inflation rate and interest rates are stochastic. The expected inflation rate is unobservable, but the investor may learn about it from realized inflation and observed stock and bond...... prices. The investor is aware that his model for the observed inflation is potentially misspecified, and he seeks an investment strategy that maximizes his expected utility from real terminal wealth and is also robust to inflation model misspecification. We solve the corresponding robust Hamilton......-Jacobi-Bellman equation in closed form and derive and illustrate a number of interesting properties of the solution. For example, ambiguity aversion affects the optimal portfolio through the correlation of price level with the stock index, a bond, and the expected inflation rate. Furthermore, unlike other settings...

  7. The ambiguity of simplicity in quantum and classical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Mahoney, John R.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-04-01

    A system's perceived simplicity depends on whether it is represented classically or quantally. This is not so surprising, as classical and quantum physics are descriptive frameworks built on different assumptions that capture, emphasize, and express different properties and mechanisms. What is surprising is that, as we demonstrate, simplicity is ambiguous: the relative simplicity between two systems can change sign when moving between classical and quantum descriptions. Here, we associate simplicity with small model-memory. We see that the notions of absolute physical simplicity at best form a partial, not a total, order. This suggests that appeals to principles of physical simplicity, via Ockham's Razor or to the ;elegance; of competing theories, may be fundamentally subjective. Recent rapid progress in quantum computation and quantum simulation suggest that the ambiguity of simplicity will strongly impact statistical inference and, in particular, model selection.

  8. Obstetricians' choice of cesarean delivery in ambiguous cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglenes, Dorthe; Oian, Pål; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that obstetricians' choice of delivery method is influenced by their risk attitude and perceived risk of complaints and malpractice litigation. STUDY DESIGN: The choice of delivery method in ambiguous cases was studied in a nationwide...... survey of Norwegian obstetricians (n = 716; response rate, 71%) using clinical scenarios. The risk attitude was measured by 6 items from the Jackson Personality Inventory-Revised. RESULTS: The proportion of obstetricians consenting to the cesarean request varied both within and across the scenarios....... The perceived risk of complaints and malpractice litigation was a clear determinant of obstetricians' choice of cesarean in all of the clinical scenarios, whereas no impact was observed for risk attitude. CONCLUSION: Obstetricians' judgments about cesarean request in ambiguous clinical cases vary considerably...

  9. Immirzi ambiguity, boosts and conformal frames for black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garay, Luis J; Marugan, Guillermo A Mena [Centro de Fisica Miguel A Catalan, IMAFF, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2003-04-21

    We analyse changes of the Immirzi parameter in loop quantum gravity and compare their consequences with those of Lorentz boosts and constant conformal transformations in black-hole physics. We show that the effective value deduced for the Planck length in local measurements of vacuum black holes by an asymptotic observer may depend on its conformal or Lorentz frame. This introduces an apparent ambiguity in the expression of the black-hole entropy which is analogous to that produced by the Immirzi parameter. For quantities involving a notion of energy, the similarity between the implications of the Immirzi ambiguity and a conformal scaling disappears, but the parallelism with boosts is maintained. (letter to the editor)

  10. The ambiguity of confidentiality in a psychoanalytic institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulchin, J; Segal, A J

    1982-02-01

    Traditionally, psychoanalytic training institutes have used the knowledge which faculty gained in the psychoanalyses of their student patients to evaluate the progress of those students. The training institute that we shall call Eastern Institute regarded such a practice as unacceptable, and organized its program with the intention that analysis would exercise no power over their student patients' careers. The institute's commitment to the confidentiality of psychoanalytic relationships led to an ambiguous definition of confidentiality. This ambiguity meant that some faculty members violated the confidentiality of the analytic relationship even though they believed thye were sustaining it. This paper examines the ways in which confidential information was managed, the conditions under which it was compromised, and the significance of this paradoxical situation in the life of the Institute and in the wider psychoanalytic world.

  11. Learning and Generalization under Ambiguity: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbley, J. R.; Flandin, G.; Bach, D. R.; Daunizeau, J.; Fehr, E.; Dolan, R. J.; Friston, K. J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behavior often exploits generalizations from past experience by applying them judiciously in new situations. This requires a means of quantifying the relative importance of prior experience and current information, so they can be balanced optimally. In this study, we ask whether the brain generalizes in an optimal way. Specifically, we used Bayesian learning theory and fMRI to test whether neuronal responses reflect context-sensitive changes in ambiguity or uncertainty about experience-dependent beliefs. We found that the hippocampus expresses clear ambiguity-dependent responses that are associated with an augmented rate of learning. These findings suggest candidate neuronal systems that may be involved in aberrations of generalization, such as over-confidence. PMID:22275857

  12. An Example and Analysis for Ambiguity Resolution in the Indoor ZigBee Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Joanna; Rapinski, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents ambiguity resolution in the range-based ZigBee positioning system. The system is using the phase shift measurements to determine the distances between user and anchors. In this paper, the ambiguity is defined as the number of full reps of a certain distance added to the measurement result. The way of resolving ambiguities in the positioning system is described and an experiment results are presented. Featured algorithm is successful in finding ambiguities and correct location of the user.

  13. Children's ambiguous understanding of weak and strong quantifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik-Jan Smits

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite suggestions in the literature that the semantics of many might be the key for understanding children’s non-adult-like interpretations of quantified sentences (cf. Drozd 2001, Geurts 2003, experimental data on the acquisition of weak quantifiers like many is rare. This paper investigates children’s comprehension of weak (many versus strong (many of, all quantifiers in English. In particular, by means of a truth-value judgment task, taking the semantic and syntactic characteristics of many into account, we tested whether 28 children aged between four and seven understand the ambiguous nature of many as described in the literature (Partee, 1988 and whether they transfer this ambiguity to many of and all. The results show that children have an ambiguous quantifier system for both strong and weak quantifiers. This runs counter the idea that the child always prefers a reading of many in which the arguments seem to ‘switch’ (as for adults in Many French have won the Tour de France, resulting in the interpretation Many Tour de France winners are French, as predicted by Drozd and Van Loosbroek’s (1999 Weak Quantification Hypothesis. On the basis of our experimental results on children’s understanding of both weak and strong quantifiers, we conclude that children’s non-adult interpretations of quantified sentences are due to the ambiguous nature of (weak quantifiers. This presents the language learner with the difficult, but necessary, task to distinguish between those different kinds of readings and understand their different semantic and syntactic representations in order to converge with the target language.

  14. Coach and athlete perceptions of ambiguous behaviors and sexual harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Hassall, CE; Bringer, JD; Johnston, LH; Brackenridge, CH

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of coaches and athletes of ambiguous behaviors (i.e. actions which may or may not be construed as sexual harassment) in order to inform curriculum development in coach education. This study replicates and extends a previous American study which examined perceptions and experiences of sexual harassment among 210 female college athletes in the USA (Volkwein, et al., 1997). The Americans’ research design was based on earlier work in educat...

  15. Ambiguities: residents' experience of 'nursing home as my home'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrem, Sigrid; Vinsnes, Anne G; Harkless, Gene E; Paulsen, Bård; Seim, Arnfinn

    2013-09-01

    Residential care in nursing homes continues to be necessary for those individuals who are no longer able to live at home. Uncovering what nursing home residents' view as quality of care in nursing homes will help further understanding of how best to provide high quality, person-centred care. To describe residents' experiences of living in a nursing home related to quality of care. The study utilises a descriptive exploratory design. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 15 residents who were not cognitively impaired, aged 65 and over and living in one of four nursing homes. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by categorising of meaning. Residents perceived the nursing home as their home, but at the same time not 'a home'. This essential ambiguity created the tension from which the categories of perceptions of quality emerged. Four main categories of quality of care experience were identified: 'Being at home in a nursing home', 'Paying the price for 24-hour care', 'Personal habits and institutional routines', and 'Meaningful activities for a meaningful day'. Ambiguities concerning the nursing home as a home and place to live, a social environment in which the residents experience most of their social life and the institution where professional health service is provided were uncovered. High-quality care was when ambiguities were managed well and a home could be created within the institution. Implication for practice. Achieving quality care in nursing homes requires reconciling the ambiguities of the nursing home as a home. This implies helping residents to create a private home distinct from the professional home, allowing residents' personal habits to guide institutional routines and supporting meaningful activities. Using these resident developed quality indicators is an important step in improving nursing home services. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Representation and productive ambiguity in mathematics and the sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Grosholz, Emily R

    2007-01-01

    Emily Grosholz offers an original investigation of demonstration in mathematics and science, examining how it works and why it is persuasive. Focusing on geometrical demonstration, she shows the roles that representation and ambiguity play in mathematical discovery. She presents a wide range of case studies in mechanics, topology, algebra, logic, and chemistry, from ancient Greece to the present day, but focusing particularly on the seventeenth and twentieth centuries. Anyone interested in how mathematics works will find this a stimulating read.

  17. Resolution of ambiguous radar measurements using a floating bin correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, E. R.; Frost, E. L.

    It is pointed out that the Chinese Remainder Theorem (Mooney and Skillman, 1970) can be used to yield unambiguous measurements by comparing outputs allocated to fixed integer number bins using integer arithmetic to modulo to the correct bin number. In general, targets straddling two or more bins or the assignment of an incorrect bin number will yield incorrect parameter values. An ambiguity resolution technique using multiple pulse repetition frequency (PRF) data and a sliding floating point window or 'floating bin' to correlate ambiguous centroided Doppler measurements is proposed. An advantage of the technique is that false targets are much less prevalent than in classical techniques. What is more, the same technique may be employed to resolve ambiguous range wherein centroided range measurements are moduloed with the pulse repetition interval associated with each PRF. Results demonstrate that this method is better than conventional approaches in that the number of false targets produced is significantly lower while simultaneoulsy providing a high probability of correlation. In addition, the correlation can be effected in real time.

  18. Teaching weight to explicitly address language ambiguities and conceptual difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Taibu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Language ambiguities in concept meanings can exacerbate student learning difficulties and conceptual understanding of physics concepts. This is especially true for the concept of “weight,” which has multiple meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. The term weight has been defined in several different ways, with nuances, but in textbooks and teaching the term is almost always defined in one of two ways: operationally either as the contact force between an object and a measuring scale or as the gravitational force on an object due to some other body such as Earth. The use of the same name for different concepts leads to much confusion, especially in accelerating situations, and to conflicting notions of “weightlessness” in free fall situations. In the present paper, we share an innovative approach that initially avoids the term weight entirely while teaching the physics of each situation, and then teaches the language ambiguities explicitly. We developed an instructional module with this approach and implemented it over two terms in three sections of an introductory physics course for preservice elementary teachers. Learning gains for content understanding were assessed using pretests and post-tests. Participants achieved remarkably high gains for both static and accelerating situations. Surveys pre- and postinstruction showed substantially improved appreciation of language issues and ambiguities associated with weight, weightlessness, and free fall. Interviews with instructors teaching the module provided additional insight into the advantages and teaching demands of the new approach.

  19. Textbook presentations of weight: Conceptual difficulties and language ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibu, Rex; Rudge, David; Schuster, David

    2015-06-01

    The term "weight" has multiple related meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. Even among experts and in textbooks, weight is ambiguously defined as either the gravitational force on an object or operationally as the magnitude of the force an object exerts on a measuring scale. This poses both conceptual and language difficulties for learners, especially for accelerating objects where the scale reading is different from the gravitational force. But while the underlying physical constructs behind the two referents for the term weight (and their relation to each other) are well understood scientifically, it is unclear how the concept of weight should be introduced to students and how the language ambiguities should be dealt with. We investigated treatments of weight in a sample of twenty introductory college physics textbooks, analyzing and coding their content based on the definition adopted, how the distinct constructs were dealt with in various situations, terminologies used, and whether and how language issues were handled. Results indicate that language-related issues, such as different, inconsistent, or ambiguous uses of the terms weight, "apparent weight," and "weightlessness," were prevalent both across and within textbooks. The physics of the related constructs was not always clearly presented, particularly for accelerating bodies such as astronauts in spaceships, and the language issue was rarely addressed. Our analysis of both literature and textbooks leads us to an instructional position which focuses on the physics constructs before introducing the term weight, and which explicitly discusses the associated language issues.

  20. Teaching weight to explicitly address language ambiguities and conceptual difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibu, Rex; Schuster, David; Rudge, David

    2017-06-01

    Language ambiguities in concept meanings can exacerbate student learning difficulties and conceptual understanding of physics concepts. This is especially true for the concept of "weight," which has multiple meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. The term weight has been defined in several different ways, with nuances, but in textbooks and teaching the term is almost always defined in one of two ways: operationally either as the contact force between an object and a measuring scale or as the gravitational force on an object due to some other body such as Earth. The use of the same name for different concepts leads to much confusion, especially in accelerating situations, and to conflicting notions of "weightlessness" in free fall situations. In the present paper, we share an innovative approach that initially avoids the term weight entirely while teaching the physics of each situation, and then teaches the language ambiguities explicitly. We developed an instructional module with this approach and implemented it over two terms in three sections of an introductory physics course for preservice elementary teachers. Learning gains for content understanding were assessed using pretests and post-tests. Participants achieved remarkably high gains for both static and accelerating situations. Surveys pre- and postinstruction showed substantially improved appreciation of language issues and ambiguities associated with weight, weightlessness, and free fall. Interviews with instructors teaching the module provided additional insight into the advantages and teaching demands of the new approach.

  1. Cross-linguistic scope ambiguity: When two systems meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Scontras

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurately recognizing and resolving ambiguity is a hallmark of linguistic ability. English is a language with scope ambiguities in doubly-quantified sentences like 'A shark ate every pirate'; this sentence can either describe a scenario with a single shark eating all of the pirates, or a scenario with many sharks—a potentially-different one eating each pirate. In Mandarin Chinese, the corresponding sentence is unambiguous, as it can only describe the single-shark scenario. We present experimental evidence to this effect, comparing native speakers of English with native speakers of Mandarin in their interpretations of doubly-quantified sentences. Having demonstrated the difference between these two languages in their ability for inverse scope interpretations, we then probe the robustness of the grammar of scope by extending our experiments to English-dominant adult heritage speakers of Mandarin. Like native speakers of Mandarin, heritage Mandarin speakers lack inverse scope in Mandarin. Crucially, these speakers also lack inverse scope in English, their dominant language in adulthood. We interpret these results as evidence for the pressure to simplify the grammar of scope, decreasing ambiguity when possible. In other words, when two systems meet—as in the case of heritage speakers—the simpler system prevails. This article is part of the special collection: Quantifier Scope

  2. Another Kind of Ambiguous Loss: Seventh-Day Adventist Women in Mixed-Orientation Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Barbara C.; Wilson, Colwick M.

    2007-01-01

    Narratives of five Seventh-day Adventist heterosexual women whose mixed-orientation marriages ended were analyzed through the lens of ambiguous loss. Thematic coding identified a wave-like process of changing emotional foci that emerged from their experience during marital dissolution. Elements of ambiguous loss included boundary ambiguity,…

  3. Ambiguous Loss after Lesbian Couples with Children Break up: A Case for Same-Gender Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Katherine R.

    2007-01-01

    The theory of ambiguous loss is applied to structural ambiguity and personal transcendence in the parent-child relationship following a same-gender relational ending. Working recursively through the six guidelines of ambiguous loss (finding meaning, tempering mastery, reconstructing identity, normalizing ambivalence, revising attachment, and…

  4. Semantic ambiguity processing in sentence context: Evidence from event-related fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zempleni, Monika-Zita; Renken, Remco; Hoeks, John C. J.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2007-01-01

    Lexical semantic ambiguity is the phenomenon when a word has multiple meanings (e.g. 'bank'). The aim of this event-related functional MRI study was to identify those brain areas, which are involved in contextually driven ambiguity resolution. Ambiguous words were selected which have a most

  5. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  6. Unraveling the Symmetry Ambiguity in a Hexamer: Calculation of the R6 Human Insulin Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, Sean I.; Chang, Xiaoqing; Abseher, Roger

    2000-01-01

    ambiguous distance restraints, insulin hexamer, principal component analysis, solution structure, symmetric oligomers......ambiguous distance restraints, insulin hexamer, principal component analysis, solution structure, symmetric oligomers...

  7. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A; Braun, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects' choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects' choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain.

  8. Resolving combinatorial ambiguities in dilepton t t¯ event topologies with constrained M2 variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Dipsikha; Kim, Doojin; Kim, Jeong Han; Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.

    2017-10-01

    We advocate the use of on-shell constrained M2 variables in order to mitigate the combinatorial problem in supersymmetry-like events with two invisible particles at the LHC. We show that in comparison to other approaches in the literature, the constrained M2 variables provide superior ansätze for the unmeasured invisible momenta and therefore can be usefully applied to discriminate combinatorial ambiguities. We illustrate our procedure with the example of dilepton t t ¯ events. We critically review the existing methods based on the Cambridge MT 2 variable and MAOS reconstruction of invisible momenta, and show that their algorithm can be simplified without loss of sensitivity, due to a perfect correlation between events with complex solutions for the invisible momenta and events exhibiting a kinematic endpoint violation. Then we demonstrate that the efficiency for selecting the correct partition is further improved by utilizing the M2 variables instead. Finally, we also consider the general case when the underlying mass spectrum is unknown, and no kinematic endpoint information is available.

  9. Ambiguity and Investment Decisions: An Empirical Analysis on Mutual Fund Investor Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically studies the relationship between ambiguity and mutual fund investor behaviour. Theoretical models for investment decisions incorporating ambiguity motivate our analyses. While the models indicate that investors would less likely to invest in financial markets when ambiguity increases, there is rare empirical evidence in natural occurring financial data to examine this hypothesis. In this paper, we test the hypothesis with equity fund flow data as for investment decisions and ambiguity with the degree of disagreement in equity analysts’ prediction about asset returns. Our results support the hypothesis that increases in ambiguity could lead to less fund flows and this result remains consistently when adding various control variables affecting fund flows. Besides, we find that heterogeneous impacts of ambiguity: equity funds with high yield targets and active management style are affected more than funds investing in stable stocks; funds with larger proportion of institutional investors are more sensitive and affected by the ambiguity.

  10. Mitigating flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; McLean, Andrew; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Rosen, Alexa; Kelly, Fiona; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Youngs Jr, Georgia A; Jensen, Jessica; Bernal, Oscar; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2011, following heavy winter snowfall, two cities bordering two rivers in North Dakota, USA faced major flood threats. Flooding was foreseeable and predictable although the extent of risk was uncertain. One community, Fargo, situated in a shallow river basin, successfully mitigated and prevented flooding. For the other community, Minot, located in a deep river valley, prevention was not possible and downtown businesses and one-quarter of the homes were inundated, in the city’s worst flood on record. We aimed at contrasting the respective hazards, vulnerabilities, stressors, psychological risk factors, psychosocial consequences, and disaster risk reduction strategies under conditions where flood prevention was, and was not, possible. Methods. We applied the “trauma signature analysis” (TSIG) approach to compare the hazard profiles, identify salient disaster stressors, document the key components of disaster risk reduction response, and examine indicators of community resilience. Results. Two demographically-comparable communities, Fargo and Minot, faced challenging river flood threats and exhibited effective coordination across community sectors. We examined the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in situations where coordinated citizen action was able to prevent disaster impact (hazard avoidance) compared to the more common scenario when unpreventable disaster strikes, causing destruction, harm, and distress. Across a range of indicators, it is clear that successful mitigation diminishes both physical and psychological impact, thereby reducing the trauma signature of the event. Conclusion. In contrast to experience of historic flooding in Minot, the city of Fargo succeeded in reducing the trauma signature by way of reducing risk through mitigation. PMID:28228985

  11. Indoor multipath mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragünas, Kostas

    2010-01-01

    There are many applications that require continuous positioning in combined outdoor urban and indoor environments. GNSS has been used for a long time in outdoor environments, while indoor positioning is still a challenging task. One of the major degradations that GNSS receivers experience indoors...... is the presence of multipath. The current paper analyzes several available multipath mitigation techniques which would be suitable for indoor applications. A few deconvolution based techniques such as the Projection Onto Convex Sets and the Deconvolution Approach are selected for closer investigation...

  12. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

  13. Clutter in the GMTI range-velocity map.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2009-04-01

    Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar maps echo data to range and range-rate, which is a function of a moving target's velocity and its position within the antenna beam footprint. Even stationary clutter will exhibit an apparent motion spectrum and can interfere with moving vehicle detections. Consequently it is very important for a radar to understand how stationary clutter maps into radar measurements of range and velocity. This mapping depends on a wide variety of factors, including details of the radar motion, orientation, and the 3-D topography of the clutter.

  14. Textbook presentations of weight: Conceptual difficulties and language ambiguities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Taibu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “weight” has multiple related meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. Even among experts and in textbooks, weight is ambiguously defined as either the gravitational force on an object or operationally as the magnitude of the force an object exerts on a measuring scale. This poses both conceptual and language difficulties for learners, especially for accelerating objects where the scale reading is different from the gravitational force. But while the underlying physical constructs behind the two referents for the term weight (and their relation to each other are well understood scientifically, it is unclear how the concept of weight should be introduced to students and how the language ambiguities should be dealt with. We investigated treatments of weight in a sample of twenty introductory college physics textbooks, analyzing and coding their content based on the definition adopted, how the distinct constructs were dealt with in various situations, terminologies used, and whether and how language issues were handled. Results indicate that language-related issues, such as different, inconsistent, or ambiguous uses of the terms weight, “apparent weight,” and “weightlessness,” were prevalent both across and within textbooks. The physics of the related constructs was not always clearly presented, particularly for accelerating bodies such as astronauts in spaceships, and the language issue was rarely addressed. Our analysis of both literature and textbooks leads us to an instructional position which focuses on the physics constructs before introducing the term weight, and which explicitly discusses the associated language issues.

  15. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hung Jung.

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by [mu][sup 2] [approximately] Q[sub min][sup 2]Q[sub med][sup 2]/Q[sub max][sup 2] where Q[sub min][sup 2]Q[sub med][sup 2]/Q[sub max][sup 2] are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed.

  16. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hung Jung

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by {mu}{sup 2} {approximately} Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} where Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed.

  17. SAR antenna design for ambiguity and multipath suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz; Dich, Mikael

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been developed at the Electromagnetics Institute (EMI) for remote sensing applications. The paper considers the radiation of antennas for a SAR system from a systems perspective. The basic specifications of an idealised antenna...... are obtained from the required swath and the azimuth footprint needed for the SAR processing. The radiation from a real antenna causes unwanted signal returns that lead to intensity variations (multipath) and ghost echoes (ambiguity). Additional specifications are deduced by considering these signals...

  18. Resolving the sign ambiguity in the singular value decomposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bro, Rasmus (University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark); Acar, Evrim (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-10-01

    Many modern data analysis methods involve computing a matrix singular value decomposition (SVD) or eigenvalue decomposition (EVD). Principal components analysis is the time-honored example, but more recent applications include latent semantic indexing, hypertext induced topic selection (HITS), clustering, classification, etc. Though the SVD and EVD are well-established and can be computed via state-of-the-art algorithms, it is not commonly mentioned that there is an intrinsic sign indeterminacy that can significantly impact the conclusions and interpretations drawn from their results. Here we provide a solution to the sign ambiguity problem and show how it leads to more sensible solutions.

  19. Role of MRI in the evaluation of ambiguous genitalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secaf, E. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. de Radiologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Hricak, H. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Urology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Gooding, C.A. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Ho, V.W. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Gorczyca, D.P. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Ringertz, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Conte, F.A. (Dept. of Pediatr

    1994-08-01

    Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpretation was assessed prospectively in patients with ambiguous genitalia or intersex problems. MRI depiction of the uterus was possible in 93 %, the vagina in 95 %, the penis in 100 %, the testis in 88 %, and the ovary in 74 % of patients. The strength of MRI lies in the multiplanar capability and tissue characterization by means of T1- and T2-weighted sequences. MRI contributes to accurate morphologic evaluation of muellerian duct structures, the gonads, and the development of the phallus, all of which are essential for appropriate gender assignment and planning of surgical reconstruction. (orig.)

  20. Gribov ambiguities at the Landau-maximal Abelian interpolating gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Antonio D.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F. [UFF-Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    In a previous work, we presented a new method to account for the Gribov ambiguities in non-Abelian gauge theories. The method consists on the introduction of an extra constraint which directly eliminates the infinitesimal Gribov copies without the usual geometric approach. Such strategy allows one to treat gauges with non-hermitian Faddeev-Popov operator. In this work, we apply this method to a gauge which interpolates among the Landau and maximal Abelian gauges. The result is a local and power counting renormalizable action, free of infinitesimal Gribov copies. Moreover, the interpolating tree-level gluon propagator is derived. (orig.)

  1. Sibling jealousy and aesthetic ambiguity in Austen's Pride and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Margaret Ann Fitzpatrick

    2009-04-01

    Jane Austen's most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice (1813), illuminates and is illuminated by psychoanalytic aesthetics. When Austen dramatizes unconscious oedipal/sibling rivalries, irony acts as a type of aesthetic ambiguity (E. Kris 1952). A psychoanalytic perspective shows that Austen uses a grammar of negatives (negation, denial, minimization) to achieve the dual meanings of irony, engaging the reader's unconscious instinctual satisfactions, while at the same time protecting the reader from unpleasant affects. Austen's plot, which portrays regressions driven by sibling jealousy, reveals that a new tolerance of remorse and depression in her heroine and hero leads to psychic growth.

  2. Ambiguous symbols: why there were no figurines in Neolithic Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the scarcity of representational art, and particularly of representations of the human body, in Neolithic Britain, in contrast with the Neolithic of south-east Europe. My suggestion is that this contrast can be linked with differing notions of personal identity and bodily integrity. In later Neolithic Britain, a complex mode of non-representational decoration developed, which elaborated the practice of making reference to absent persons and things by using deliberately ambiguous motifs, which connected past and present as well as remote locations.

  3. Resolving ambiguities in reconstructed grain maps using discrete tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, A.; Knudsen, E.; Poulsen, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    The so-called 3DXRD microscope, implemented at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, utilizes the principle of X-ray diffraction for mapping the crystalline grains within hard materials such as metals or ceramics. Present algorithms, using continuous models, roughly...... reconstruct the image from diffraction data, but they are often unable to assign unambiguous values to all pixels. We present an approach that resolves these ambiguous pixels by using a Monte Carlo technique that exploits the discrete nature of the problem and utilizes proven methods of discrete tomography...

  4. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  5. From expert generalists to ambiguity masters: using ambiguity tolerance theory to redefine the practice of rural nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kaye; Kenny, Amanda; Endacott, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    To redefine the practice of rural nurses and describe a model that conceptualises the capabilities and characteristics required in the rural environment. The way in which the practice of rural nurses has been conceptualised is problematic. Definitions of rural nursing have been identified primarily through the functional context of rural health service delivery. The expert generalist term has provided a foundation theory for rural nurses with understandings informed by the scope of practice needed to meet service delivery requirements. However, authors exploring intrinsic characteristics of rural nurses have challenged this definition, as it does not adequately address the deeper, intangible complexities of practice required in the rural context. Despite this discourse, an alternative way to articulate the distinctive nature of rural nursing practice has eluded authors in Australia and internationally. A theoretical paper based on primary research. The development of the model was informed by the findings of a study that explored the nursing practice of managing telephone presentations in rural health services in Victoria, Australia. The study involved policy review from State and Federal governments, nursing and medical professional bodies, and five rural health services; semi-structured interviews with eight Directors of Nursing, seven registered nurses and focus group interviews with eight registered nurses. An ambiguity tolerance model drawn from corporate global entrepreneurship theory was adapted to explain the findings of the study. The adapted model presents capabilities and characteristics used by nurses to successfully manage the ambiguity of providing care in the rural context. Redefining the practice of rural nurses, through an adapted theory of ambiguity tolerance, highlights nursing characteristics and capabilities required in the rural context. This perspective offers new ways of thinking about the work of rural nurses, rural nurse policy, education

  6. Interpreting ambiguous 'trace' results in Schistosoma mansoni CCA Tests: Estimating sensitivity and specificity of ambiguous results with no gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Michelle N; Donnelly, Christl A; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Knowles, Sarah C L; Meité, Aboulaye; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Nalule, Yolisa; Nogaro, Sarah; Phillips, Anna E; Tukahebwa, Edridah Muheki; Fleming, Fiona M

    2017-12-01

    The development of new diagnostics is an important tool in the fight against disease. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) is used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of tests in the absence of a gold standard. The main field diagnostic for Schistosoma mansoni infection, Kato-Katz (KK), is not very sensitive at low infection intensities. A point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test has been shown to be more sensitive than KK. However, CCA can return an ambiguous 'trace' result between 'positive' and 'negative', and much debate has focused on interpretation of traces results. We show how LCA can be extended to include ambiguous trace results and analyse S. mansoni studies from both Côte d'Ivoire (CdI) and Uganda. We compare the diagnostic performance of KK and CCA and the observed results by each test to the estimated infection prevalence in the population. Prevalence by KK was higher in CdI (13.4%) than in Uganda (6.1%), but prevalence by CCA was similar between countries, both when trace was assumed to be negative (CCAtn: 11.7% in CdI and 9.7% in Uganda) and positive (CCAtp: 20.1% in CdI and 22.5% in Uganda). The estimated sensitivity of CCA was more consistent between countries than the estimated sensitivity of KK, and estimated infection prevalence did not significantly differ between CdI (20.5%) and Uganda (19.1%). The prevalence by CCA with trace as positive did not differ significantly from estimates of infection prevalence in either country, whereas both KK and CCA with trace as negative significantly underestimated infection prevalence in both countries. Incorporation of ambiguous results into an LCA enables the effect of different treatment thresholds to be directly assessed and is applicable in many fields. Our results showed that CCA with trace as positive most accurately estimated infection prevalence.

  7. Lexical and prosodic effects on syntactic ambiguity resolution in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as "While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song." Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group.

  8. AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION IN PRECISE POINT POSITIONING TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistor S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the dynamics of the GPS technique used in different domains like geodesy, near real-time GPS meteorology, geodynamics, the precise point positioning (PPP becomes more than a powerful method for determining the position, or the delay caused by the atmosphere. The main idea of this method is that we need only one receiver – preferably that have dual frequencies pseudorange and carrier-phase capabilities – to obtain the position. Because we are using only one receiver the majority of the residuals that are eliminated in double differencing method, we have to estimate them in PPP. The development of the PPP method allows us, to use precise satellite clock estimates, and precise orbits, resulting in a much more efficient way to deal with the disadvantages of this technique, like slow convergence time, or ambiguity resolution. Because this two problem are correlated, to achieve fast convergence we need to resolve the problem of ambiguity resolution. But the accuracy of the PPP results are directly influenced by presence of the uncalibrated phase delays (UPD originating in the receivers and satellites. In this article we present the GPS errors and biases, the zenith wet delay and the necessary time for obtaining the convergence. The necessary correction are downloaded by using the IGS service.

  9. Flow Ambiguity: A Path Towards Classically Driven Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantri, Atul; Demarie, Tommaso F.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.

    2017-07-01

    Blind quantum computation protocols allow a user to delegate a computation to a remote quantum computer in such a way that the privacy of their computation is preserved, even from the device implementing the computation. To date, such protocols are only known for settings involving at least two quantum devices: either a user with some quantum capabilities and a remote quantum server or two or more entangled but noncommunicating servers. In this work, we take the first step towards the construction of a blind quantum computing protocol with a completely classical client and single quantum server. Specifically, we show how a classical client can exploit the ambiguity in the flow of information in measurement-based quantum computing to construct a protocol for hiding critical aspects of a computation delegated to a remote quantum computer. This ambiguity arises due to the fact that, for a fixed graph, there exist multiple choices of the input and output vertex sets that result in deterministic measurement patterns consistent with the same fixed total ordering of vertices. This allows a classical user, computing only measurement angles, to drive a measurement-based computation performed on a remote device while hiding critical aspects of the computation.

  10. The ambiguous pulmonary venoatrial junction: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konin, Gabrielle P; Jain, Vineet R; Fisher, John D; Haramati, Linda B

    2008-04-01

    The pulmonary venoatrial junction (PVAJ) has recently received attention due to the widespread use of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. However, the literature lacks a consensus in the definition of the PVAJ. We aim to review the inconsistent definitions for the PVAJ and related implications in imaging and catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. The PVAJ as described by embryology, gross anatomy, histology and imaging is ambiguous, leading to disparities in its definition. Because of differing definitions of the PVAJ, there is a broad range in the prevalence of anatomic variations, including (1) percentage of common pulmonary veins (10-79% on the left), (2) supernumerary pulmonary veins (10-42%) and (3) ostial diameter and shape. We postulate several reasons for this broad range in the described prevalence of anatomic variation of the PV as follows: (1) different definitions of the PVAJ, (2) different vantage points, (3) different imaging modalities, and (4) different prevalence of anatomic variants among different study populations. The ambiguous PVAJ with its gradual transition from the left atrium to the pulmonary veins defies precise definition even though it plays an important role in the management of atrial fibrillation. Physicians should be aware of variability in the language used to describe the PVAJ and resultant discrepancy in reported anatomical information.

  11. Removing label ambiguity in learning-based visual saliency estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Xu, Dong; Gao, Wen

    2012-04-01

    Visual saliency is a useful clue to depict visually important image/video contents in many multimedia applications. In visual saliency estimation, a feasible solution is to learn a "feature-saliency" mapping model from the user data obtained by manually labeling activities or eye-tracking devices. However, label ambiguities may also arise due to the inaccurate and inadequate user data. To process the noisy training data, we propose a multi-instance learning to rank approach for visual saliency estimation. In our approach, the correlations between various image patches are incorporated into an ordinal regression framework. By iteratively refining a ranking model and relabeling the image patches with respect to their mutual correlations, the label ambiguities can be effectively removed from the training data. Consequently, visual saliency can be effectively estimated by the ranking model, which can pop out real targets and suppress real distractors. Extensive experiments on two public image data sets show that our approach outperforms 11 state-of-the-art methods remarkably in visual saliency estimation.

  12. A Computational Model of Syntactic Processing Ambiguity Resolution from Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Niv, M

    1994-01-01

    Syntactic ambiguity abounds in natural language, yet humans have no difficulty coping with it. In fact, the process of ambiguity resolution is almost always unconscious. But it is not infallible, however, as example 1 demonstrates. 1. The horse raced past the barn fell. This sentence is perfectly grammatical, as is evident when it appears in the following context: 2. Two horses were being shown off to a prospective buyer. One was raced past a meadow. and the other was raced past a barn. ... Grammatical yet unprocessable sentences such as 1 are called `garden-path sentences.' Their existence provides an opportunity to investigate the human sentence processing mechanism by studying how and when it fails. The aim of this thesis is to construct a computational model of language understanding which can predict processing difficulty. The data to be modeled are known examples of garden path and non-garden path sentences, and other results from psycholinguistics. It is widely believed that there are two distinct loci...

  13. Vaccine hesitancy: clarifying a theoretical framework for an ambiguous notion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Larson, Heidi J; Ward, Jeremy K; Schulz, William S; Verger, Pierre

    2015-02-25

    Today, according to many public health experts, public confidence in vaccines is waning. The term "vaccine hesitancy" (VH) is increasingly used to describe the spread of such vaccine reluctance. But VH is an ambiguous notion and its theoretical background appears uncertain. To clarify this concept, we first review the current definitions of VH in the public health literature and examine its most prominent characteristics. VH has been defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, or behaviours, or some combination of them, shared by a large and heterogeneous portion of the population and including people who exhibit reluctant conformism (they may either decline a vaccine, delay it or accept it despite their doubts) and vaccine-specific behaviours. Secondly, we underline some of the ambiguities of this notion and argue that it is more a catchall category than a real concept. We also call into question the usefulness of understanding VH as an intermediate position along a continuum ranging from anti-vaccine to pro-vaccine attitudes, and we discuss its qualification as a belief, attitude or behaviour. Thirdly, we propose a theoretical framework, based on previous literature and taking into account some major structural features of contemporary societies, that considers VH as a kind of decision-making process that depends on people's level of commitment to healthism/risk culture and on their level of confidence in the health authorities and mainstream medicine.

  14. Ambivalence and Ambiguity in The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Michlin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This close reading of the text highlights how Miss Jane, in her double role as protagonist and narrator, shows considerable ambivalence towards friend and foe alike, with the result that the apparently transparent ideological meaning of entire episodes is blurred by what some critics have merely put down to “conservatism.” I examine Miss Jane’s almost constant suppression of emotion, and frequent displays of ambivalence towards other black people; her ambiguous relationship to oppressive, but familiar whites like Albert Cluveau or Robert Samson; and her conflicted relation to black heroes and heroics. Is the leading character a variation on the “mammy” who has internalized racist figures of speech, and uses contradictory images that undermine black heroics and validate white oppression? Or is Gaines’s point to undo the “retrick” of heroics and of alienation alike, and, against of backdrop of constant, ordinary destruction of black lives, to cast the adult Miss Jane as a Brer Rabbit-like figure, for whom survival and resistance are both dialectically connected and opposed? Is there a contradiction between her “progress” towards resistance shown in the last section, and her metadiscursive comments in the present, and does her literally walking out of her own story give a conclusive meaning to her narrative, or does it point to the author’s not having been able to resolve the ambivalence and ambiguities within the text?

  15. Speech rhythm facilitates syntactic ambiguity resolution: ERP evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Roncaglia-Denissen

    Full Text Available In the current event-related potential (ERP study, we investigated how speech rhythm impacts speech segmentation and facilitates the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in auditory sentence processing. Participants listened to syntactically ambiguous German subject- and object-first sentences that were spoken with either regular or irregular speech rhythm. Rhythmicity was established by a constant metric pattern of three unstressed syllables between two stressed ones that created rhythmic groups of constant size. Accuracy rates in a comprehension task revealed that participants understood rhythmically regular sentences better than rhythmically irregular ones. Furthermore, the mean amplitude of the P600 component was reduced in response to object-first sentences only when embedded in rhythmically regular but not rhythmically irregular context. This P600 reduction indicates facilitated processing of sentence structure possibly due to a decrease in processing costs for the less-preferred structure (object-first. Our data suggest an early and continuous use of rhythm by the syntactic parser and support language processing models assuming an interactive and incremental use of linguistic information during language processing.

  16. Speech rhythm facilitates syntactic ambiguity resolution: ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, Maria Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-01-01

    In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated how speech rhythm impacts speech segmentation and facilitates the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in auditory sentence processing. Participants listened to syntactically ambiguous German subject- and object-first sentences that were spoken with either regular or irregular speech rhythm. Rhythmicity was established by a constant metric pattern of three unstressed syllables between two stressed ones that created rhythmic groups of constant size. Accuracy rates in a comprehension task revealed that participants understood rhythmically regular sentences better than rhythmically irregular ones. Furthermore, the mean amplitude of the P600 component was reduced in response to object-first sentences only when embedded in rhythmically regular but not rhythmically irregular context. This P600 reduction indicates facilitated processing of sentence structure possibly due to a decrease in processing costs for the less-preferred structure (object-first). Our data suggest an early and continuous use of rhythm by the syntactic parser and support language processing models assuming an interactive and incremental use of linguistic information during language processing.

  17. Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee Nagel, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts.

  18. Resolution of ambiguities in cartoons as an illustration of the role of pragmatics in natural language understanding by computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlack, L.J.; Paz, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Newspaper cartoons can graphically display the result of ambiguity in human speech; the result can be unexpected and funny. Likewise, computer analysis of natural language statements also needs to successfully resolve ambiguous situations. Computer techniques already developed use restricted world knowledge in resolving ambiguous language use. This paper illustrates how these techniques can be used in resolving ambiguous situations arising in cartoons. 8 references.

  19. Novel Ice Mitigation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    After the loss of Columbia, there was great concern in the Space Shuttle program for the impact of debris against the leading edges of the Orbiter wings. It was quickly recognized that, in addition to impacts by foam, ice that formed on the liquid-oxygen bellows running down the outside of the External Tank could break free during launch and hit this sensitive area. A Center Director s Discretionary Fund (CDDF) project would concentrate on novel ideas that were potentially applicable. The most successful of the new concepts for ice mitigation involved shape memory alloy materials. These materials can be bent into a given shape and, when heated, will return to their original shape.

  20. Space Debris & its Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

    2012-07-01

    Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh

  1. Emergence in extinction of enhanced and persistent responding to ambiguous aversive cues is associated with high MAOA activity in the prelimbic cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume L. Poirier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a great deal of individual variability in the emotional outcomes of potentially traumatic events, and the underlying mechanisms are only beginning to be understood. In order to further our understanding of individual trajectories to trauma, its vulnerability and resilience, we adapted a model of fear expression to ambiguous vs perfect cues in adult male rats, and examined long-term fear extinction, 2, 3, and 50 days from acquisition. After the final conditioned fear test, mitochondrial enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA function was examined. In order to identify associations between this function and behavioral expression, an a posteri median segregation approach was adopted, and animals were classified as high or low responding according to level of freezing to the ambiguous cue at remote testing, long after the initial extinction. Those individuals characterized by their higher response showed a freezing pattern that persisted from their previous extinction sessions, in spite of their acquisition levels being equivalent to the low-freezing group. Furthermore, unlike more adaptive individuals, freezing levels of high-freezing animals even increased at initial extinction, to almost double their acquisition session levels. Controlling for perfect cue response at remote extinction, greater ambiguous threat cue response was associated with enhanced prelimbic cortex MAOA functional activity. These findings underscore MAOA as a potential target for the development of interventions to mitigate the impact of traumatic experiences.

  2. Lexical ambiguity resolution for Turkish in direct transfer machine translation models

    OpenAIRE

    Tantuğ, A. Cüneyd; Tantug, A. Cuneyd; Oflazer, Kemal; Adalı, Eşref; Adali, Esref

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical lexical ambiguity resolution method in direct transfer machine translation models in which the target language is Turkish. Since direct transfer MT models do not have full syntactic information, most of the lexical ambiguity resolution methods are not very helpful. Our disambiguation model is based on statistical language models. We have investigated the performances of some statistical language model types and parameters in lexical ambiguity resolution for o...

  3. The Inhibitory Mechanism in Learning Ambiguous Words in a Second Language

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yao; Wu, Junjie; Dunlap, Susan; Chen, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguous words are hard to learn, yet little is known about what causes this difficulty. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the representations of new and prior meanings of ambiguous words in second language (L2) learning, and to explore the function of inhibitory control on L2 ambiguous word learning at the initial stage of learning. During a 4-day learning phase, Chinese–English bilinguals learned 30 novel English words for 30 min per day using bilingual flashc...

  4. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  5. Lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in Parkinson's disease: An event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Angwin

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded to investigate lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in 16 people with Parkinson's disease (PD and 16 healthy controls. Sentences were presented word-by-word on computer screen, and participants were required to decide if a subsequent target word was related to the meaning of the sentence. The task consisted of related, unrelated and ambiguous trials. For the ambiguous trials, the sentence ended with an ambiguous word and the target was related to one of the meanings of that word, but not the one captured by the sentence context (e.g., 'He dug with the spade', Target 'ACE'. Both groups demonstrated slower reaction times and lower accuracy for the ambiguous condition relative to the unrelated condition, however accuracy was impacted by the ambiguous condition to a larger extent in the PD group. These results suggested that PD patients experience increased difficulties with contextual ambiguity resolution. The ERP results did not reflect increased ambiguity resolution difficulties in PD, as a similar N400 effect was evident for the unrelated and ambiguous condition in both groups. However, the magnitude of the N400 for these conditions was correlated with a measure of inhibition in the PD group, but not the control group. The ERP results suggest that semantic processing may be more compromised in PD patients with increased response inhibition deficits.

  6. Ambiguities in representing the concept of energy: a semiotic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMIEN GIVRY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many researches in science education have shown the importance of the concept of energy and the learning difficulties that students face. Based on a semiotic approach, the current study focuses on the different ways in representing the concept of energy. It examines the ambiguities appear in written text, diagram, photo, graph, corporal acts etc. as vehicles of conveying some aspects of the energy concept. Video of a regular Greek lesson about energy and an usual Greek physics school textbook composed our database. The first results show a conceptual blending between the concepts 'transfer' and 'transformation' due to the lack of specification of which are exactly the physical systems studied in these modes of representation.

  7. Parents' experiences of having a baby with ambiguous genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mailme de Souza; de Paiva-e-Silva, Roberto Benedito; Guerra-Junior, Gil; Maciel-Guerra, Andréa Trevas

    2015-07-01

    Health professionals must be aware of the impact on parents of the birth of children with ambiguous genitalia. This study aimed to analyze the experiences and perceptions of such parents. Parents of 30 children who were evaluated in a reference center for disorders of sex development (DSD) were interviewed. The questionnaire covered the prenatal period, the moment they were told about the disorder, initial management by health professionals, and problems they experienced. Only two cases were detected during pregnancy. The news was usually given to the mother alone by pediatricians. Most parents kept it secret and avoided exposing the baby to the prejudice of others. Parents of children who were referred without sex assignment usually held a personal belief of their child's sex. Previous assignment was based on clinical examination and/or karyotype. Spreading knowledge about DSD could increase awareness of this issue, thus reducing parents' shock and societal stigma. Training of neonatal care teams is required to avoid assignment before evaluation.

  8. [Technological innovation and healthcare professionals' workloads: an ambiguous relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Bertoncini, Judite Hennemann; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Matos, Eliane; Azambuja, Eliana; Borges, Ana Maria Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    This is an integrative review with the aim of tracing the scientific production concerning the influence of technological innovation in health care professionals' workloads. Fifty-seven (57) publications presented from 2004 to 2009 were selected from the LILACS and PubMed databases. In the selected studies field research using qualitative approaches and carried out in hospitals predominated. No study had the purpose to analyze the relationship between technological innovation and workloads. In studies involving technological innovation, publications concerning information and communication technologies and new forms of work organizations were highlighted studies concerning conditions which promote stress and Burnout predominated in the workloads theme. Results show an ambiguous relationship between technological innovation and workloads, which are either increased or diminished by innovations.

  9. Ambiguous loss and incomplete abduction narratives in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajtazi-Testa, Laura; Hewer, Christopher J

    2018-02-01

    Ten mothers of men and boys who were abducted and listed as missing during the war in Kosovo in 1998/1999 were interviewed in Kosovo in the spring of 2012. Although the missing are presumed dead by the authorities, the mothers continue to live in a state of emotional ambiguity where a presumption of death is balanced with the hope of being reunited. In the absence of absolute proof, finding the remains of their loved ones becomes a major preoccupation. Using a social phenomenological approach, this study explored the social and political complexities existing within the life-world of these women. The findings suggest that they live in a continual state of psychological distress, and even when remains are returned, the unknown elements of the narrative of their abduction and murder only add to their distress and force many into self-imposed emotional exile away from community and close family.

  10. Doppler Ambiguity Resolution Based on Random Sparse Probing Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for solving Doppler ambiguous problem based on compressed sensing (CS theory is proposed in this paper. A pulse train with the random and sparse transmitting time is transmitted. The received signals after matched filtering can be viewed as randomly sparse sampling from the traditional fixed-pulse repetition frequency (PRF echo signals. The whole target echo could be reconstructed via CS recovery algorithms. Through refining the sensing matrix, which is equivalent to increase the sampling frequency of target characteristic, the Doppler unambiguous range is enlarged. In particular, Complex Approximate Message Passing (CAMP algorithm is developed to estimate the unambiguity Doppler frequency. Cramer-Rao lower bound expressions are derived for the frequency. Numerical simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, compared with traditional methods, the proposed method only requires transmitting a few sparse probing pulses to achieve a larger Doppler frequency unambiguous range and can also reduce the consumption of the radar time resources.

  11. The ambiguity of US foreign policy towards Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2017-01-01

    with the Pentagon and the State Department playing prominent roles. The paper argues that in the current century, evangelical Christian lobby groups have gained increasing influence on policymaking on Africa. Because policymaking has been influenced by a number of different actors, the American Africa policy may...... appear incoherent and ambiguous if judged narrowly on the expectation that it only aims to take care of US national security concerns and economic self-interests. The paper concludes that Africa was important to the United States during the presidencies of George W. Bush and Barack Obama because......Since 9/11, the American policy towards Africa has been strongly influenced by national security interests and in particular by the fight against international terrorism and Islamic radicalisation. Traditionally, the American Africa policy has been the result of bureaucratic policymaking...

  12. Sensorimotor Adaptations Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Harm, D. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. We hypothesize that multi-sensory integration will be adaptively optimized in altered gravity environments based on the dynamics of other sensory information available, with greater changes in otolith-mediated responses in the mid-frequency range where there is a crossover of tilt and translation responses. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation.

  13. In Praise of Ambiguity: Musical Subtlety and Merleau-Ponty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiger C. Roholt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When a jazz, rock, or hip-hop drummer strikes certain notes in each measure slightly late, instead of hearing the degree to which those notes are late, we typically hear the effects of those variations; namely, a groove, the "feel" of a rhythm. Slight variations of pitch function similarly. In this essay, I argue that certain analytic theorists go astray due to their preoccupation with the variations themselves. By invoking Maurice Merleau-Ponty's insights into subtle visual perceptions, and his notion of perceptual indeterminacy, I avoid an account of musical subtlety suggested by Daniel Dennett that is too coarse-grained, as well as the bleak conclusion that certain musical subtleties are ineffable, Diana Raffman's view. I conclude that elements of music that are perceived ambiguously can perform a positive function in such aesthetic experiences: they can mediate or foster emergent qualities; moreover, they must be perceived in this way to do so.

  14. Lifting the Gribov ambiguity in Yang-Mills theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serreau, J., E-mail: serreau@apc.univ-paris7.fr [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Tissier, M. [LPTMC, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, CNRS UMR 7600, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, boite 121, 4 pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2012-05-30

    We propose a new one-parameter family of Landau gauges for Yang-Mills theories which can be formulated by means of functional integral methods and are thus well suited for analytic calculations, but which are free of Gribov ambiguities and avoid the Neuberger zero problem of the standard Faddeev-Popov construction. The resulting gauge-fixed theory is perturbatively renormalizable in four dimensions and, for what concerns the calculation of ghost and gauge field correlators, it reduces to a massive extension of the Faddeev-Popov action. We study the renormalization group flow of this theory at one-loop and show that it has no Landau pole in the infrared for some - including physically relevant - range of values of the renormalized parameters.

  15. Ambiguity as an Essential Aesthetic Principle in Musical Listening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Anders

    2006-01-01

    in truth is continuous, if we only expand our musical thought beyond a superficial examination. Rather, I want to emphasize the assumption that the important musical experience is to be found in the ambiguity itself, caused by an aporetic relation between the apparent discontinuous gestures...... as a superficial feature. In the compositional structure, there are several indications of connection and development which can be explored. Hence a ‘continuity-after-all’ comprehension has been an important principle guiding most commentators, from Edward Cone’s threefold conception of ‘stratification......’, ‘interlocking’, and ‘synthesis’ (Cone, 1962: 19f), to Jonathan Kramer’s accentuation of discontinuity as a ‘profound musical experience’ with the ‘proportional lengths of moments as the one remaining principle of formal coherence’ (Kramer, 1978: 182). Though, the general attempt to reveal the music’s ‘secret...

  16. Quadri-stability of a spatially ambiguous auditory illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance May Bainbridge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to vision, audition plays an important role in sound localization in our world. One way we estimate the motion of an auditory object moving towards or away from us is from changes in volume intensity. However, the human auditory system has unequally distributed spatial resolution, including difficulty distinguishing sounds in front versus behind the listener. Here, we introduce a novel quadri-stable illusion, the Transverse-and-Bounce Auditory Illusion, which combines front-back confusion with changes in volume levels of a nonspatial sound to create ambiguous percepts of an object approaching and withdrawing from the listener. The sound can be perceived as traveling transversely from front to back or back to front, or bouncing to remain exclusively in front of or behind the observer. Here we demonstrate how human listeners experience this illusory phenomenon by comparing ambiguous and unambiguous stimuli for each of the four possible motion percepts. When asked to rate their confidence in perceiving each sound’s motion, participants reported equal confidence for the illusory and unambiguous stimuli. Participants perceived all four illusory motion percepts, and could not distinguish the illusion from the unambiguous stimuli. These results show that this illusion is effectively quadri-stable. In a second experiment, the illusory stimulus was looped continuously in headphones while participants identified its perceived path of motion to test properties of perceptual switching, locking, and biases. Participants were biased towards perceiving transverse compared to bouncing paths, and they became perceptually locked into alternating between front-to-back and back-to-front percepts, perhaps reflecting how auditory objects commonly move in the real world. This multi-stable auditory illusion opens opportunities for studying the perceptual, cognitive, and neural representation of objects in motion, as well as exploring multimodal perceptual

  17. Mitigation analysis for Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, A.; Roos, J.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The present report provides data on the mitigation analysis of Estonia. The results for energy, forest and agricultural sectors and macro-economic analysis are given. The Government of Estonia has identified the development of energy production as the main strategical means in the movement towards market economy. Now 99% of electricity generation and about 25% of heat production in Estonia is based on oil shale combustion. To increase the efficiency of oil shale-fired power plants and decrease CO{sub 2} emissions, the State Enterprise (SE) Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy) is planning to reconstruct these power plants and introduce the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustion technology for oil shale burning to replace the Pulverized Combustion (PC). According to the Estonian Forest Policy, two general objectives are of importance: sustainability in forestry and efficiency in forest management. For the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of production resource usage. The growth of the GDP in 1995 was 2.9% as a result of large-scale privatization activities in Estonia and re-introduction of the available, but unused production capacities with the help of foreign and domestic investments. It is assumed that the medium growth rate of GDP reaches 6% in 1998.

  18. AGRICULTURE DISEASE MITIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  19. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, Ian H. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, and Univ. of Waterloo (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the `regional` - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  20. Model-Based Mitigation of Availability Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambon, Emmanuele; Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro; Salvato, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The assessment and mitigation of risks related to the availability of the IT infrastructure is becoming increasingly important in modern organizations. Unfortunately, present standards for Risk Assessment and Mitigation show limitations when evaluating and mitigating availability risks. This is due

  1. How Hispanic Patients Address Ambiguous versus Unambiguous Bias in the Doctor's Office

    OpenAIRE

    Bean, Meghan G.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Stone, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined Hispanic individuals’ preferences for using ten different bias reduction strategies when interacting with a doctor whose beliefs about their group were either ambiguous or clearly biased. Consistent with predictions, participants who imagined interacting with a doctor whose beliefs were ambiguous preferred strategies that facilitate positive doctor-patient interactions, whereas participants whose doctor explicitly endorsed negative stereotypes about their group preferred ...

  2. Understandings of Environmental Quality: Ambiguities and Values Held by Environmental Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Hull; David Richert; Erin Seekamp; David Robertson; Gregory J. Buhyoff

    2003-01-01

    The terms used to describe and negotiate environmental quality are both ambiguous and value-laden. Stakeholders intimately and actively involved in the management of forested lands were interviewed and found to use ambiguous, tautological, and value-laden definitions of terms such as health, biodiversity, sustainability, and naturalness. This confusing language...

  3. In the Face of Uncertainty: A Twin Study of Ambiguous Information, Anxiety and Depression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; McGuffin, Peter; Napolitano, Maria; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety and depression share genetic influences, and have been associated with similar cognitive biases. Psychological theories of anxiety and depression highlight threat interpretations of ambiguity. Little is known about whether genes influence cognitive style, or its links to symptoms. We assessed ambiguous word and scenario interpretations,…

  4. Structural Ambiguities and Written Advertisements: An Inventory of Tools for More Resourceful Advertisements in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Dallin D.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses some types of writing tasks, such as advertising, in which a writer might want to create ambiguous wordplays. States that a more conscious understanding of the structure of a language could make the generation of structural ambiguities easier. Examines some structural features of English that could prove useful to advertisers who wish to…

  5. Learning the Language of Evolution: Lexical Ambiguity and Word Meaning in Student Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Meghan A.; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Our study investigates the challenges introduced by students' use of lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations. Specifically, we examined students' meaning of five key terms incorporated into their written evolutionary explanations: pressure, select, adapt, need, and must. We utilized a new technological tool known as the Assessment Cascade System (ACS) to investigate the frequency with which biology majors spontaneously used lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations, as well as their definitions and explanations of what they meant when they used such terms. Three categories of language were identified and examined in this study: terms with Dual Ambiguity, Incompatible Ambiguity, and Unintended Ambiguity. In the sample of 1282 initial evolutionary explanations, 81 % of students spontaneously incorporated lexically ambiguous language at least once. Furthermore, the majority of these initial responses were judged to be inaccurate from a scientific point of view. While not significantly related to gender, age, or reading/writing ability, students' use of contextually appropriate evolutionary language ( pressure and adapt) was significantly associated with academic performance in biology. Comparisons of initial responses to follow-up responses demonstrated that the majority of student explanations were not reinterpreted after consideration of the follow-up response; nevertheless, a sizeable minority was interpreted differently. Most cases of interpretation change were a consequence of resolving initially ambiguous responses, rather than a change of accuracy, resulting in an increased understanding of students' evolutionary explanations. We discuss a series of implications of lexical ambiguity for evolution education.

  6. Morpho-Semantic Processing in Word Recognition: Evidence from Balanced and Biased Ambiguous Morphemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2013-01-01

    The role of morphemic meaning in Chinese word recognition was examined with the masked and unmasked priming paradigms. Target words contained ambiguous morphemes biased toward the dominant or the subordinate meanings. Prime words either contained the same ambiguous morphemes in the subordinate interpretations or were unrelated to the targets. In…

  7. Early Morphological Processing Is Sensitive to Morphemic Meanings: Evidence from Processing Ambiguous Morphemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2013-01-01

    In three priming experiments, we investigated whether the meanings of ambiguous morphemes were activated during word recognition. Using a meaning generation task, Experiment 1 demonstrated that the dominant meaning of individually presented ambiguous morphemes was reported more often than did other less frequent meanings. Also, participants tended…

  8. The Issue of Ambiguity in the Igbo Language | Thecla-Obiora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Issue of Ambiguity in the Igbo Language. ... AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ... The findings reveal the ambiguities in the Igbo language arise from homonyms, homophones, homographs and from anaphoric pronouns, dialectal differences, among other things.

  9. Multiple ambiguity and an impression formation focus make inapplicable primes useful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, DA; Koomen, W

    Two studies demonstrated that accessible knowledge can affect judgments of ambiguous targets, even when this knowledge is descriptively inapplicable to these targets. Study I showed that when the target stimulus is ambiguous on multiple dimensions rather than on a single dimension, the priming of

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Tolerance of Ambiguity of EFL Learners and Their Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basöz, Tutku

    2015-01-01

    Learning a new language is akin to exploring an unknown land as ambiguous situations are prevalent in language learning. Ambiguity tolerance, which can hinder or facilitate language learning, is considered as an important learning style. The purpose of the present study was to understand how tolerant/intolerant EFL learners are of foreign language…

  11. Surface System Dust Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will perform a detailed examination of dust mitigation and tolerance strategies for connections and mechanisms to be employed on the lunar...

  12. Developing a congestion mitigation toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    Researchers created A Michigan Toolbox for Mitigating Traffic Congestion to be a useful desk reference for practitioners and an educational tool for elected officials acting through public policy boards to better understand the development, planning,...

  13. Mitigation: Decarbonization unique to cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nadine

    2017-10-01

    Strategies that reduce fossil-fuel use can achieve both global carbon mitigation and local health-protection goals. Now research shows the dual benefits of compact urban design and circular economy policies in Chinese cities.

  14. Determinants of translation ambiguity: A within and cross-language comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals.

  15. Ambiguity Tolerance in Organizations: Definitional Clarification and Perspectives on Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Mclain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity tolerance is an increasingly popular subject for study in a wide variety of fields. The definition of ambiguity tolerance has changed since its inception, and accompanying that change are changes in measurement and the research questions that interest researchers. There is a wealth of opportunity for research related to ambiguity tolerance and recent advances in neuroscience, measurement, trait research, perception, problem solving, and other fields highlight areas of interest and point to issues that need further attention. The future of ambiguity tolerance research is promising and it is expected that future studies will yield new insights into individual differences in reactions to the complex, unfamiliar, confusing, indeterminate, and incomplete stimuli that fall within the conceptual domain of ambiguity.

  16. Finding meaning in art: Preferred levels of ambiguity in art appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty is typically not desirable in everyday experiences, but uncertainty in the form of ambiguity may be a defining feature of aesthetic experiences of modern art. In this study, we examined different hypotheses concerning the quantity and quality of information appreciated in art. Artworks were shown together with auditorily presented statements. We tested whether the amount of information, the amount of matching information, or the proportion of matching to nonmatching statements apparent in a picture (levels of ambiguity) affect liking and interestingness. Only the levels of ambiguity predicted differences in the two dependent variables. These findings reveal that ambiguity is an important determinant of aesthetic appreciation and that a certain level of ambiguity is appreciable. PMID:19565431

  17. Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Trenton W. J.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Muths, Erin L.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Weldon, Che; Fisher, Matthew C.; Bosch, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians across the planet face the threat of population decline and extirpation caused by the disease chytridiomycosis. Despite consensus that the fungal pathogens responsible for the disease are conservation issues, strategies to mitigate their impacts in the natural world are, at best, nascent. Reducing risk associated with the movement of amphibians, non-amphibian vectors and other sources of infection remains the first line of defence and a primary objective when mitigating the threat of disease in wildlife. Amphibian-associated chytridiomycete fungi and chytridiomycosis are already widespread, though, and we therefore focus on discussing options for mitigating the threats once disease emergence has occurred in wild amphibian populations. All strategies have shortcomings that need to be overcome before implementation, including stronger efforts towards understanding and addressing ethical and legal considerations. Even if these issues can be dealt with, all currently available approaches, or those under discussion, are unlikely to yield the desired conservation outcome of disease mitigation. The decision process for establishing mitigation strategies requires integrated thinking that assesses disease mitigation options critically and embeds them within more comprehensive strategies for the conservation of amphibian populations, communities and ecosystems.

  18. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Kreysa

    Full Text Available A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins". Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze.

  19. Expressive intent, ambiguity, and aesthetic experiences of music and poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth; Levine, William H; Simchy-Gross, Rhimmon; Kroger, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies are investigating the way that aesthetic experiences are generated across different media. Empathy with a perceived human artist has been suggested as a common mechanism [1]. In this study, people heard 30 s excerpts of ambiguous music and poetry preceded by neutral, positively valenced, or negatively valenced information about the composer's or author's intent. The information influenced their perception of the excerpts-excerpts paired with positive intent information were perceived as happier and excerpts paired with negative intent information were perceived as sadder (although across intent conditions, musical excerpts were perceived as happier than poetry excerpts). Moreover, the information modulated the aesthetic experience of the excerpts in different ways for the different excerpt types: positive intent information increased enjoyment and the degree to which people found the musical excerpts to be moving, but negative intent information increased these qualities for poetry. Additionally, positive intent information was judged to better match musical excerpts and negative intent information to better match poetic excerpts. These results suggest that empathy with a perceived human artist is indeed an important shared factor across experiences of music and poetry, but that other mechanisms distinguish the generation of aesthetic appreciation between these two media.

  20. Transcriptional and Microenvironmental Regulation of Lineage Ambiguity in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyuan Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia is characterized by the uncontrolled production of leukemic cells and impaired normal hematopoiesis. Although the combination of chemotherapies and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has significantly improved the outcome of leukemia patients, a proportion of patients still suffer from relapse after treatment. Upon relapse, a phenomenon termed “lineage switch” is observed in a subset of leukemia patients, in which conversion of lymphoblastic leukemia to myeloid leukemia or vice versa is observed. A rare entity of leukemia called mixed-phenotype acute leukemia exhibits co-expression of markers representing two or three lineages. These two phenotypes regarding the lineage ambiguity suggest that the fate of some leukemia retain or acquire a certain degree of plasticity. Studies using animal models provide insight into how lineage specifying transcription factors can enforce or convert a fate in hematopoietic cells. Modeling lineage conversion in normal hematopoietic progenitor cells may improve our current understanding of how lineage switch occurs in leukemia. In this review, we will summarize the role of transcription factors and microenvironmental signals that confer fate plasticity to normal hematopoietic progenitor cells, and their potential to regulate lineage switching in leukemias. Future efforts to uncover the mechanisms contributing to lineage conversion in both normal hematopoiesis and leukemia may pave the way to improve current therapeutic strategies.

  1. Sexual Orientation Self-Concept Ambiguity: Scale Adaptation and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Amelia E; Stevens, Jordan E

    2017-07-01

    The current article describes the adaptation of a measure of sexual orientation self-concept ambiguity (SSA) from an existing measure of general self-concept clarity. Latent "trait" scores of SSA reflect the extent to which a person's beliefs about their own sexual orientation are perceived as inconsistent, unreliable, or incongruent. Sexual minority and heterosexual women ( n = 348), ages 18 to 30, completed a cross-sectional survey. Categorical confirmatory factor analysis guided the selection of items to form a 10-item, self-report measure of SSA. In the current report, we also examine (a) reliability of the 10-item scale score, (b) measurement invariance based on respondents' sexual identity status and age group, and (c) correlations with preexisting surveys that purport to measure similar constructs and theoretical correlates. Evidence for internal reliability, measurement invariance (based on respondent sex), and convergent validity was also investigated in an independent, validation sample. The lowest SSA scores were reported by women who self-ascribed an exclusively heterosexual or exclusively lesbian/gay sexual identity, whereas those who reported a bisexual, mostly lesbian/gay, or mostly heterosexual identity, reported relatively higher SSA scores.

  2. Ambiguous Capture: Collaborative Capitalism and the Meningitis Vaccine Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The primary health care approach advanced at Alma Ata to address social determinants of health was replaced by selective health care a year later at Bellagio. Subsequently, immunization was endorsed as a cost-effective technical intervention to combat targeted infectious diseases. Multilateral efforts to collaborate on immunization as a universal public health good ambiguously capture the interests of the world's governments as well as private, public, and not-for-profit institutions. Global assemblages of scientists, governments, industry and nongovernmental organizations now work in public-private partnerships to develop and make essential vaccines accessible, with vaccines marketed as single fix solutions for global health. Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork in France and Burkina Faso that followed the development, regulation, and implementation of the group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa, in this article I describe events during and after the development of MenAfriVac. A technological success narrative steeped in collaborative capitalist rhetoric disguises neglected health care systems.

  3. Ethical assumptions and ambiguities in the Americans With Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, L M

    1996-04-01

    The Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) promotes social justice by protecting disabled persons from discrimination and prejudice. It seeks equality of opportunity for them and protects their well being by giving them fair access to goods, services and benefits. These rights are circumscribed in the ADA, however, by constraints of cost, efficiency, utility, and certain social mores. The ADA offers little direction about how to set priorities when these values come into conflict, or about whether equality or opportunity favors equivalent or preferential treatment for disadvantaged people. Until these ambiguities and potential value conflicts are resolved, a central moral and social problem remains unresolved: How can we demonstrate commitment to the rights and welfare of those with severe disabilities while placing fair limits upon their claims? Five special concerns are discussed: (1) eligibility and the allocation of health care; (2) the meaning of 'qualified but disabled' in employing people with mental disabilities; (3) equal opportunity and problems of envy and malingering; (4) ADA accommodation and public protection through testing and licensure; and (5) ADA protection and problems of backlash. Rather than simply wait to see what courts and administrative agencies decide, we should evaluate the moral conflicts, articulate criteria, and help make some difficult choices on morally defensible grounds.

  4. Implicit perceptual memory modulates early visual processing of ambiguous images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maartje C; Brascamp, Jan W; Kemner, Chantal; van Ee, Raymond; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2014-07-23

    The way we perceive the present visual environment is influenced by past visual experiences. Here we investigated the neural basis of such experience dependency. We repeatedly presented human observers with an ambiguous visual stimulus (structure-from-motion) that can give rise to two distinct perceptual interpretations. Past visual experience is known to influence the perception of such stimuli. We recorded fast dynamics of neural activity shortly after stimulus onset using event-related electroencephalography. The number of previous occurrences of a certain percept modulated early posterior brain activity starting as early as 50 ms after stimulus onset. This modulation developed across hundreds of percept repetitions, reflecting several minutes of accumulating perceptual experience. Importantly, there was no such modulation when the mere number of previous stimulus presentations was considered regardless of how they were perceived. This indicates that the effect depended on previous perception rather than previous visual input. The short latency and posterior scalp location of the effect suggest that perceptual history modified bottom-up stimulus processing in early visual cortex. We propose that bottom-up neural responses to a given visual presentation are shaped, in part, by feedback modulation that occurred during previous presentations, thus allowing these responses to be biased in light of previous perceptual decisions. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349970-12$15.00/0.

  5. Expressive intent, ambiguity, and aesthetic experiences of music and poetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies are investigating the way that aesthetic experiences are generated across different media. Empathy with a perceived human artist has been suggested as a common mechanism [1]. In this study, people heard 30 s excerpts of ambiguous music and poetry preceded by neutral, positively valenced, or negatively valenced information about the composer's or author's intent. The information influenced their perception of the excerpts-excerpts paired with positive intent information were perceived as happier and excerpts paired with negative intent information were perceived as sadder (although across intent conditions, musical excerpts were perceived as happier than poetry excerpts. Moreover, the information modulated the aesthetic experience of the excerpts in different ways for the different excerpt types: positive intent information increased enjoyment and the degree to which people found the musical excerpts to be moving, but negative intent information increased these qualities for poetry. Additionally, positive intent information was judged to better match musical excerpts and negative intent information to better match poetic excerpts. These results suggest that empathy with a perceived human artist is indeed an important shared factor across experiences of music and poetry, but that other mechanisms distinguish the generation of aesthetic appreciation between these two media.

  6. Expressive intent, ambiguity, and aesthetic experiences of music and poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth; Levine, William H.; Simchy-Gross, Rhimmon; Kroger, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies are investigating the way that aesthetic experiences are generated across different media. Empathy with a perceived human artist has been suggested as a common mechanism [1]. In this study, people heard 30 s excerpts of ambiguous music and poetry preceded by neutral, positively valenced, or negatively valenced information about the composer's or author’s intent. The information influenced their perception of the excerpts—excerpts paired with positive intent information were perceived as happier and excerpts paired with negative intent information were perceived as sadder (although across intent conditions, musical excerpts were perceived as happier than poetry excerpts). Moreover, the information modulated the aesthetic experience of the excerpts in different ways for the different excerpt types: positive intent information increased enjoyment and the degree to which people found the musical excerpts to be moving, but negative intent information increased these qualities for poetry. Additionally, positive intent information was judged to better match musical excerpts and negative intent information to better match poetic excerpts. These results suggest that empathy with a perceived human artist is indeed an important shared factor across experiences of music and poetry, but that other mechanisms distinguish the generation of aesthetic appreciation between these two media. PMID:28746376

  7. Contesting Double Genealogy: Representing Rebellion Ambiguity in Babad Tanah Jawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Fawaid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since firstly written in 1612 until the “final version” in 1836, Babad Tanah Jawi had a special place among intellectual debates, partly, in regard with its “functions” as mythical genre, ancient prophecy, historical narrative of Java, genealogical prototype, and typical structure with previous texts. However, little attention was given to the fact that Mataram, largely depicted in Babad Tanah Jawi, is considered as having ‘problematic’ double genealogy, which partly resulted from a double familial lineage of Batara Guru and the Prophet Adam, and the synthetic power of Demak and Majapahit. This study attempts to depict a scholarly contestation of the double genealogy of Mataram and its implication on ambivalent narratives of rebellion in the text.  Constructed as ex post facto in the universum of historical references, Babad Tanah Jawi seemingly takes its dual position in providing a subjectively constructed cosmology of Javanese characters and in attempting to objectively illustrate historical events. In some ways, it impacts on the way the text justified Javanese rulers by providing supernatural genesis of ancestors, and ‘purifying’ genealogical defects. The result is a distorted story of those who failed and succeeded to take over the Javanese kingdoms. The ambiguity lies on the way it has to maintain mythological genealogy of rebelling descendants and to perceive such rebellion as subversive.

  8. Decoding covert shifts of attention induced by ambiguous visuospatial cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eTrachel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Simple and unambiguous visual cues (e.g. an arrow can be used to trigger covert shifts of visual attention away from the center of gaze. The processing of visual stimuli is enhanced at the attended location. Covert shifts of attention modulate the power of cerebral oscillations in the alpha band over parietal and occipital regions. These modulations are sufficiently robust to be decoded on a single trial basis from electro-encephalography (EEG signals. It is often assumed that covert attention shifts are under voluntary control, and also occur in more natural and complex environments, but there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. We address this important issue by using random-dot stimuli to cue one of two opposite locations, where a visual target is presented. We contrast two conditions in which the random-dot motion is either predictive of the target location or contains ambiguous information. Behavioral results show attention shifts in anticipation of the visual target, in both conditions. In addition, these attention shifts involve similar neural sources, and the EEG can be decoded on a single trial basis. These results shed a new light on the behavioral and neural correlates of visuospatial attention, with implications for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI based on covert attention shifts.

  9. Sensitivity to Referential Ambiguity in Discourse: The Role of Attention, Working Memory, and Verbal Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Traxler, Matthew J; Lesh, Tyler A; Dave, Shruti; Mangun, George R; Carter, Cameron S; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2015-12-01

    The establishment of reference is essential to language comprehension. The goal of this study was to examine listeners' sensitivity to referential ambiguity as a function of individual variation in attention, working memory capacity, and verbal ability. Participants listened to stories in which two entities were introduced that were either very similar (e.g., two oaks) or less similar (e.g., one oak and one elm). The manipulation rendered an anaphor in a subsequent sentence (e.g., oak) ambiguous or unambiguous. EEG was recorded as listeners comprehended the story, after which participants completed tasks to assess working memory, verbal ability, and the ability to use context in task performance. Power in the alpha and theta frequency bands when listeners received critical information about the discourse entities (e.g., oaks) was used to index attention and the involvement of the working memory system in processing the entities. These measures were then used to predict an ERP component that is sensitive to referential ambiguity, the Nref, which was recorded when listeners received the anaphor. Nref amplitude at the anaphor was predicted by alpha power during the earlier critical sentence: Individuals with increased alpha power in ambiguous compared with unambiguous stories were less sensitive to the anaphor's ambiguity. Verbal ability was also predictive of greater sensitivity to referential ambiguity. Finally, increased theta power in the ambiguous compared with unambiguous condition was associated with higher working-memory span. These results highlight the role of attention and working memory in referential processing during listening comprehension.

  10. Dispositional sources of sanction perceptions: Emotionality, cognitive style, intolerance of ambiguity, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Justin T; Bushway, Shawn D

    2015-12-01

    This study contributes to efforts to identify the sources of arrest risk perceptions and ambiguity (or lack of confidence) in such perceptions. Drawing on dual-process theories of reasoning, we argue that arrest risk perceptions often represent intuitive judgments that are influenced by cognitive heuristics and dispositional attributes. Multivariate regression models are estimated with data from 3 national surveys to test 6 hypotheses about the relationships between specific dispositional attributes and perceived arrest risk and ambiguity. We find evidence that dispositional positive affect and intolerance of ambiguity are both positively related to perceived arrest risk, and are also both negatively related to ambiguity. We also find evidence that cognitive reflection and general self-efficacy are, respectively, positively and negatively associated with ambiguity. Mixed evidence emerges about whether cognitive reflection is related to risk perceptions, and about whether either dispositional negative affect or thoughtfully reflective decision making correlate with ambiguity. Taken together, the results provide partial support for each of our hypotheses, and suggest that dispositional attributes are important sources of perceptions of arrest risk as well as of ambiguity in such perceptions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Pigeons and the Ambiguous-Cue Problem: A Riddle that Remains Unsolved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar García-Leal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous-cue task is composed of two-choice simultaneous discriminations involving three stimuli: positive (P, ambiguous (A, and negative (N. Two different trial types are presented: PA and NA. The ambiguous cue (A served as an S- in PA trials, but as an S+ in NA trials. When using this procedure, it is typical to observe a less accurate performance in PA trials than in NA trials. This is called the ambiguous-cue effect. Recently, it was reported in starlings that the ambiguous-cue effect decreases when the stimuli are presented on an angled (120° panel. The hypothesis is that the angled panel facilitates that the two cues from each discrimination are perceived as a compound, precluding value transfer via a second-order conditioning mechanism. In this experiment, we used pigeons and a flat panel. Nevertheless, our data were quite similar to the previous data in starlings. We conclude that the form of the panel cannot explain the ambiguous-cue effect. Several alternatives to be explored in future experiments are suggested. The riddle of the ambiguous-cue problem still remains unsolved.

  12. Azimuth Ambiguities Removal in Littoral Zones Based on Multi-Temporal SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangguang Leng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar (SAR is one of the most important techniques for ocean monitoring. Azimuth ambiguities are a real problem in SAR images today, which can cause performance degradation in SAR ocean applications. In particular, littoral zones can be strongly affected by land-based sources, whereas they are usually regions of interest (ROI. Given the presence of complexity and diversity in littoral zones, azimuth ambiguities removal is a tough problem. As SAR sensors can have a repeat cycle, multi-temporal SAR images provide new insight into this problem. A method for azimuth ambiguities removal in littoral zones based on multi-temporal SAR images is proposed in this paper. The proposed processing chain includes co-registration, local correlation, binarization, masking, and restoration steps. It is designed to remove azimuth ambiguities caused by fixed land-based sources. The idea underlying the proposed method is that sea surface is dynamic, whereas azimuth ambiguities caused by land-based sources are constant. Thus, the temporal consistence of azimuth ambiguities is higher than sea clutter. It opens up the possibilities to use multi-temporal SAR data to remove azimuth ambiguities. The design of the method and the experimental procedure are based on images from the Sentinel data hub of Europe Space Agency (ESA. Both Interferometric Wide Swath (IW and Stripmap (SM mode images are taken into account to validate the proposed method. This paper also presents two RGB composition methods for better azimuth ambiguities visualization. Experimental results show that the proposed method can remove azimuth ambiguities in littoral zones effectively.

  13. Does language ambiguity in clinical practice justify the introduction of standard terminology? An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallinga, Hillegonda A; ten Napel, Huib; Jansen, Gerard J; Geertzen, Jan H B; de Vries Robbé, Pieter F; Roodbol, Petrie F

    2015-02-01

    To research the use of ambiguous language in written information concerning patients' functioning and to identify problems resulting from the use of ambiguous language in clinical practice. Many projects that aimed to introduce standard terminology concerning patients' functioning in clinical practice are unsuccessful because standard terminology is rarely used in clinical practice. These projects mainly aim to improve communication by reducing ambiguous language. Considering their lack of success, the validity of the argument that language ambiguity is used in clinical practice is questioned. An integrative literature review. A systematic search of the MEDLINE (1950-2012) and CINAHL (1982-2012) databases was undertaken, including empirical and theoretical literature. The selected studies were critically appraised using a data assessment and extraction form. Seventeen of 767 papers were included in the review and synthesis. The use of ambiguous language in written information concerning patients' functioning was demonstrated. Problems resulting from the use of ambiguous language in clinical practice were not identified. However, several potential problems were suggested, including hindered clinical decision-making and limited research opportunities. The results of this review demonstrated the use of ambiguous language concerning patients' functioning, but health professionals in clinical practice did not experience this issue as a problem. This finding might explain why many projects aimed at introducing standard terminology concerning functioning in clinical practice to solve problems caused by ambiguous language are often unsuccessful. Language ambiguity alone is not a valid argument to justify the introduction of standard terminology. The introduction of standard terminology concerning patients' functioning will only be successful when clinical practice requires the aggregation and reuse of data from electronic patient records for different purposes, including

  14. Industry initiatives in impact mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    The author concludes that mitigation is the focus of conflicting opinions regarding responsibility, strategy, and effort. There are no hard, fast, or tried and true rules for company involvement in mitigation efforts. Each mitigation effort must be tailored and negotiated to match the unique characteristics of individual projects and circumstances of specific locales. Companies must assume financial responsibility for the temporary impacts and area needs created by their projects. They must also offer financial and technical assistance to impact areas, not just the host political jurisdiction, when local, state, federal, and special fund sources of revenue or technical assistance are not available or insufficient. But, local, state, and federal governments must also recognize their responsibilities and make adjustments in tax jurisdiction boundaries and disbursement formulas so that impacted areas are properly defined and receive an adequate share of lease, royalty, severance tax, permit fee, special use and service charges, and sales tax payments. Laws need to allow innovative uses of tax pre-payments, housing mortgage bonds, changeable debt and bounding limits, industrial loans with delayed prepayment, and revised revenue assistance formulas. Enabling legislation is required in most states to allow impact areas to negotiate the mitigation efforts. A review of 7 types of mitigation effort is presented: transportation; housing; public utilities; health, public safety and recreation; miscellaneous; and company-community interaction. (PBS)

  15. The Ambiguity of Justice: Paul Ricoeur on Universalism and Evil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Dierckxsens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will examine Ricœur’s idea of the universal in his understanding of justice. Scholars recently discussed the extent to which Ricœur understands universal moral norms and universal rules of justice in his anthropology of human action (e.g., J. Michel, Paul Ricœur: une philosophie de l’agir humain, Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, 2006, and argue that Ricœur stresses too much the idea of universal moral norms with regard to cultural and moral diversity (e.g., G. H. Taylor, “Ricoeur versus Ricoeur? Between the Universal and the Contextual,” From Ricoeur to Action. The Socio-Political Significance of Ricoeur’s Thinking, Todd S. Mei and David Lewin (eds., (London and New York: Bloomsbury, 2012. G. H. Taylor, “Reenvisioning Justice,” Lo Squarda 12 (2013: 65-80. In this article I will take part in the debate about universalism and approach Ricœur’s idea of the universal from a different angle, in placing it in light of his idea of evil. The point I will aim to make in this article is that Ricœur’s idea of the relation between justice and evil demonstrates what I understand as the ambiguity of justice, which highlights the difficulty of defining universal rules of justice. I will argue that this ambiguity is the following: justice aims at the establishment of social peace and in that sense it is the necessary remedy against human evil, but justice also implies power, and possibly violence, over others in that it relates to violent feelings of vengeance, to institutional mechanism of authority, and to a struggle of values. Yet if rules of justice relate to evil in the sense of power over others, so I argue, then it is problematic to define absolute criteria for rules of justice, i.e., for rules for social peace: because justice relates to particular values, which means that the risk of violence is inherent to institutional rules of justice, there is no ultimate universal set of such rules. This article therefore

  16. Processing ambiguous Spanish se in a minimal chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer, Enrique; Acuña-Fariña, Carlos; Carreiras, Manuel

    2009-04-01

    The recovery of pieces of information that are not linguistically expressed is a constant feature of the process of language comprehension. In the processing literature, such missing information is generally referred to as "gaps". Usually, one resolves gaps by finding "fillers" in either the sentence or the context. For instance, in Peter seemed to be upset, Peter is really the subject of being upset but appears as surface subject of seems. Sometimes constituents move, leaving gaps behind. Various Romance languages such as Spanish or Italian have a grammatical particle se/si, which, as it is extremely ambiguous, licenses different sorts of gaps. In Spanish, se can encode at least reflexive, impersonal, and passive meanings. In an eye-tracking experiment we contrast reflexive structures containing postverbal subjects with impersonal structures with no subjects (GAP se vendó apresuradamente el corredor/"the runner bandaged himself hurriedly" vs. GAP se vendó apresuradamente al corridor/"(someone) bandaged the runner hurriedly"). In a second manipulation we contrast the presence of an extra argument with se-passives (GAP se vendó el tobillo el corredor/"the runner bandaged his ankle" vs. GAP se vendó el tobillo al corridor/"the runner's ankle was bandaged"). Our comparisons involve contrasting standard transitive structures with nonstandard word order (postverbal subject and a preverbal subject gap) against inherently complex and less habitual structures such as impersonals (with no subject) or se-passives (with subjects in canonical object position). We evaluate the minimal chain principle (de Vincenzi, 1991), according to which displacement is costly because it entails complex (derivational) "chains" that must be undone before phrasal packaging can commence. We show the minimal chain principle to be essentially correct when contrasting more complex but more frequent structures with less complex but less frequent structures. A noteworthy feature of this research

  17. A course in disaster mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    While endeavors are underway within the emergency management discipline to develop a unique body of foundational knowledge, widespread acknowledgement and agreement within the emergency management scholarly community of the existence of theoretical foundations and the consistent incorporation of these elements into emergency management research and teaching are still lacking. This article offers an outline of a US-based undergraduate course in mitigation theory and practice that is based on a synthesis of the academic literature related to disaster mitigation as a means to advance the discourse on foundational knowledge and curriculum development. The course outline proposes a set of concepts, theories, propositions, and empirical data that would arguably be fundamental for students in gaining a comprehensive understanding of mitigation in the United States and suggests how that information can be organized and presented in a meaningful way.

  18. Logic without unique readability - a study of semantic and syntactic ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    not hold true universally. Whereas e.g. scope ambiguities in natural languages have been studied extensively, ambiguous formal languages have not been the focus of in depth research. Here, we lift the assumption of unique readability by omitting the brackets from propositional logic, making it possible...... to formally distinguish between syntactic and semantic ambiguity. A valuation then amounts to a semantic disambiguation, and rather than a unique valuation (truth value), there is a set of valuations corresponding to ways a formula could have been constructed. We show what happens to familiar concepts...... of logic such as definability, satisfiability and validity. Here follows two simple examples illustrating the relation between syntactic and semantic ambiguity. In some cases unique readability can be regained through careful construction of formulas. E.g., although an attempt to define p → q as ¬p ∨ q...

  19. The processing of lexical ambiguity: homonymy and polysemy in the mental lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepousniotou, Ekaterini

    2002-01-01

    Under the theoretical assumption that lexical ambiguity is not a homogeneous phenomenon, but rather that it is subdivided into two distinct types, namely homonymy and polysemy, the present study investigated whether these different types of lexical ambiguity are psychologically real. Four types of ambiguous words, homonymous words (e.g., "pen"), polysemous words with metaphorical extensions (e.g., "eye"), polysemous words with a count/mass metonymic extension (e.g., "turkey"), and polysemous words with a producer/product metonymic extension (e.g., "Dali"), were used in a cross-modal sentence-priming lexical decision task. Overall, the theoretical distinction between homonymy and polysemy was reflected in the results of the present study, which revealed differential processing depending on the type of ambiguity. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).

  20. Perceptions of boundary ambiguity in the process of leaving an abusive partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, Lyndal; Hardesty, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    The process of leaving an abusive partner has been theorized using the Stages of Change Model. Although useful, this model does not account for changes in relational boundaries unique to the process of leaving. Using family stress and feminist perspectives, this study sought to integrate boundary ambiguity into the Stages of Change Model. Boundary ambiguity is defined as a perception of uncertainty as to who is in or out of a family system (Boss & Greenberg, 1984). Twenty-five mothers who had temporarily or permanently left their abusers were interviewed. Data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory methods. Results identify types, indicators of, and mothers' responses to boundary ambiguity throughout the five stages of change. Most mothers and abusers fluctuated between physical and psychological presence and absence over multiple separations. The integration of boundary ambiguity into the Stages of Change Model highlights the process of leaving an abusive partner as systemic, fluid, and nonlinear. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  1. Role conflict and ambiguity of CEOs in international joint ventures: a transaction cost perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y; Shenkar, O; Luo, Y; Nyaw, M K

    2001-08-01

    Insights from transaction cost economics were used to study the boundary conditions underlying the role conflict and ambiguity of 265 CEOs in Chinese-based international joint ventures. Role conflict and ambiguity were lower when the contract between parents was more complete. Contract completeness fully mediated the effects of parent objective gap and parent formalization on role ambiguity but only partially so in the case of role conflict. Role conflict was lower when the foreign parent was dominant in the venture but higher when the local parent was dominant. Role conflict and ambiguity were inversely related to cultural distance. Neither construct had a detrimental effect on international joint venture performance. Implications for role theory are discussed.

  2. Four-dimensional aether-like Lorentz-breaking QED revisited and problem of ambiguities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Rua Hugo D' Antola, 95, Lapa, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mariz, T. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil); Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, we consider the perturbative generation of the CPT-even aether-like Lorentz-breaking term in the extended Lorentz-breaking QED within different approaches and discuss its ambiguities. (orig.)

  3. Resolving the Theoretical Ambiguities of Social Exclusion with reference to Polarisation and Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses several ambiguities in the social exclusion literature that fuel the common criticism that the concept is redundant with respect to already existing poverty approaches, particularly more multidimensional and processual approaches such as relative or capability

  4. Choledochal cyst, polysplenia and situs ambiguous: A rare and new association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Destro

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: A careful evaluation of patients with situs ambiguous is important to exclude associated anomalies and to plan the most appropriate surgical approach. The association with choledochal cyst should be taken into account.

  5. Identification and definition of lexically ambiguous words in statistics by tutors and students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; Hutchins, Rene

    2013-10-01

    Lexical ambiguity arises when a word from everyday English is used differently in a particular discipline, such as statistics. This paper reports on a project that begins by identifying tutors' perceptions of words that are potentially lexically ambiguous to students, in two different ways. Students' definitions of nine lexically ambiguous words are also collected at the beginning and end of a semester of introductory statistics study, in a complex design taking account of multiple tutors and multiple words in multiple contexts. Tutor perceptions and actual student difficulties at the beginning of a semester are compared. The lexical ambiguity associated with the word 'significance' is shown to be evident in students even after completing an introductory statistics course.

  6. More than visual literacy: art and the enhancement of tolerance for ambiguity and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentwich, Miriam Ethel; Gilbey, Peter

    2017-11-10

    Comfort with ambiguity, mostly associated with the acceptance of multiple meanings, is a core characteristic of successful clinicians. Yet past studies indicate that medical students and junior physicians feel uncomfortable with ambiguity. Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) is a pedagogic approach involving discussions of art works and deciphering the different possible meanings entailed in them. However, the contribution of art to the possible enhancement of the tolerance for ambiguity among medical students has not yet been adequately investigated. We aimed to offer a novel perspective on the effect of art, as it is experienced through VTS, on medical students' tolerance of ambiguity and its possible relation to empathy. Quantitative method utilizing a short survey administered after an interactive VTS session conducted within mandatory medical humanities course for first-year medical students. The intervention consisted of a 90-min session in the form of a combined lecture and interactive discussions about art images. The VTS session and survey were filled by 67 students in two consecutive rounds of first-year students. 67% of the respondents thought that the intervention contributed to their acceptance of multiple possible meanings, 52% thought their visual observation ability was enhanced and 34% thought that their ability to feel the sufferings of other was being enhanced. Statistically significant moderate-to-high correlations were found between the contribution to ambiguity tolerance and contribution to empathy (0.528-0.744; p ≤ 0.01). Art may contribute especially to the development of medical students' tolerance of ambiguity, also related to the enhancement of empathy. The potential contribution of visual art works used in VTS to the enhancement of tolerance for ambiguity and empathy is explained based on relevant literature regarding the embeddedness of ambiguity within art works, coupled with reference to John Dewey's theory of learning. Given the

  7. Statistical analysis of the ambiguities in the asteroid period determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkiewicz, M.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Bartczak, P.; Dudziński, G.

    2014-07-01

    A synodic period of an asteroid can be derived from its lightcurve by standard methods like Fourier-series fitting. A problem appears when results of observations are based on less than a full coverage of a lightcurve and/or high level of noise. Also, long gaps between individual lightcurves create an ambiguity in the cycle count which leads to aliases. Excluding binary systems and objects with non-principal-axis rotation, the rotation period is usually identical to the period of the second Fourier harmonic of the lightcurve. There are cases, however, where it may be connected with the 1st, 3rd, or 4th harmonic and it is difficult to choose among them when searching for the period. To help remove such uncertainties we analysed asteroid lightcurves for a range of shapes and observing/illuminating geometries. We simulated them using a modified internal code from the ISAM service (Marciniak et al. 2012, A&A 545, A131). In our computations, shapes of asteroids were modeled as Gaussian random spheres (Muinonen 1998, A&A, 332, 1087). A combination of Lommel-Seeliger and Lambert scattering laws was assumed. For each of the 100 shapes, we randomly selected 1000 positions of the spin axis, systematically changing the solar phase angle with a step of 5°. For each lightcurve, we determined its peak-to-peak amplitude, fitted the 6th-order Fourier series and derived the amplitudes of its harmonics. Instead of the number of the lightcurve extrema, which in many cases is subjective, we characterized each lightcurve by the order of the highest-amplitude Fourier harmonic. The goal of our simulations was to derive statistically significant conclusions (based on the underlying assumptions) about the dominance of different harmonics in the lightcurves of the specified amplitude and phase angle. The results, presented in the Figure, can be used in individual cases to estimate the probability that the obtained lightcurve is dominated by a specified Fourier harmonic. Some of the

  8. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity of Chief Executive Officers in International Joint Ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Oded Shenkar; Yoram Zeira

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the organizational and personal correlates of role conflict and role ambiguity of chief executive officers heading international joint ventures. Role conflict was found to be lower when the number of parent firms was higher and when the CEO had spent more years with the organization. Role ambiguity was found to be lower when the CEO had more years of education, when the Power Distance and Masculinity/Femininity gap between parents were lower, and when the Individualism/Col...

  9. How meaning similarity influences ambiguous word processing: the current state of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    The majority of words in the English language do not correspond to a single meaning, but rather correspond to two or more unrelated meanings (i.e., are homonyms) or multiple related senses (i.e., are polysemes). It has been proposed that the different types of “semantically-ambiguous words” (i.e., words with more than one meaning) are processed and represented differently in the human mind. Several review papers and books have been written on the subject of semantic ambiguity (e.g., Adriaens, Small, Cottrell, & Tanenhaus, 1988; Burgess & Simpson, 1988; Degani & Tokowicz, 2010; Gorfein, 1989, 2001; Simpson, 1984). However, several more recent studies (e.g., Klein & Murphy, 2001; Klepousniotou, 2002; Klepousniotou & Baum, 2007; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2002) have investigated the role of the semantic similarity between the multiple meanings of ambiguous words on processing and representation, whereas this was not the emphasis of previous reviews of the literature. In this review, we focus on the current state of the semantic ambiguity literature that examines how different types of ambiguous words influence processing and representation. We analyze the consistent and inconsistent findings reported in the literature and how factors such as semantic similarity, meaning/sense frequency, task, timing, and modality affect ambiguous word processing. We discuss the findings with respect to recent parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of ambiguity processing (Armstrong & Plaut, 2008, 2011; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2004). Finally, we discuss how experience/instance-based models (e.g., Hintzman, 1986; Reichle & Perfetti, 2003) can inform a comprehensive understanding of semantic ambiguity resolution. PMID:24889119

  10. How meaning similarity influences ambiguous word processing: the current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2015-02-01

    The majority of words in the English language do not correspond to a single meaning, but rather correspond to two or more unrelated meanings (i.e., are homonyms) or multiple related senses (i.e., are polysemes). It has been proposed that the different types of "semantically-ambiguous words" (i.e., words with more than one meaning) are processed and represented differently in the human mind. Several review papers and books have been written on the subject of semantic ambiguity (e.g., Adriaens, Small, Cottrell, & Tanenhaus, 1988; Burgess & Simpson, 1988; Degani & Tokowicz, 2010; Gorfein, 1989, 2001; Simpson, 1984). However, several more recent studies (e.g., Klein & Murphy, 2001; Klepousniotou, 2002; Klepousniotou & Baum, 2007; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2002) have investigated the role of the semantic similarity between the multiple meanings of ambiguous words on processing and representation, whereas this was not the emphasis of previous reviews of the literature. In this review, we focus on the current state of the semantic ambiguity literature that examines how different types of ambiguous words influence processing and representation. We analyze the consistent and inconsistent findings reported in the literature and how factors such as semantic similarity, meaning/sense frequency, task, timing, and modality affect ambiguous word processing. We discuss the findings with respect to recent parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of ambiguity processing (Armstrong & Plaut, 2008, 2011; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2004). Finally, we discuss how experience/instance-based models (e.g., Hintzman, 1986; Reichle & Perfetti, 2003) can inform a comprehensive understanding of semantic ambiguity resolution.

  11. Scanning and Parsing Languages with Ambiguities and Constraints: The Lamb and Fence Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada, Luis; Berzal, Fernando; Cortijo, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional language processing tools constrain language designers to specific kinds of grammars. In contrast, model-based language processing tools decouple language design from language processing. These tools allow the occurrence of lexical and syntactic ambiguities in language specifications and the declarative specification of constraints for resolving them. As a result, these techniques require scanners and parsers able to parse context-free grammars, handle ambiguities, and enforce con...

  12. How Vestibular Neurons Solve the Tilt/Translation Ambiguity: Comparison of Brainstem, Cerebellum, and Thalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Dora E. Angelaki; Yakusheva, Tatyana A.

    2009-01-01

    The peripheral vestibular system is faced by a sensory ambiguity, where primary otolith afferents respond identically to translational (inertial) accelerations and changes in head orientation relative to gravity. Under certain conditions, this sensory ambiguity can be resolved using extra-otolith cues, including semicircular canal signals. Here we review and summarize how neurons in the vestibular nuclei, rostral fastigial nuclei, cerebellar nodulus/uvula, and thalamus respond during combinat...

  13. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  14. Blast Mitigation Using Water Mist

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Jean L; Farley, John P; Williams, Frederick W; Lindsay, Michael S; Schwer, Douglas A

    2006-01-01

    A series of experiments demonstrating the mitigation of water mist on the over-pressure effects of a TNT detonation have been conducted A series of TNT charges, 0.9 kg (2 lb), 2.2 kg (5 lb) and 3.2 kg (7 lb...

  15. Remote Sensing Technologies Mitigate Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Ames Research Center has partnered with the California Department of Water Resources to develop satellite-based technologies to mitigate drought conditions. One project aims to help water managers adjust their irrigation to match the biological needs of each crop, and another involves monitoring areas where land is fallow so emergency relief can more quickly aid affected communities.

  16. Space Debris Mitigation CONOPS Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Rome II. Acta Astronautica, 66(1), 239-244. Space debris mitigation guidelines of the committee on the peaceful uses of outer space (2010). United...law with respect to future space activities. Space Policy, 12(1), 5-8. 134 von der Dunk, Frans G. (2011). Space tourism , private spaceflight

  17. Comparison of turbulence mitigation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen T.; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-07-01

    When capturing imagery over long distances, atmospheric turbulence often degrades the data, especially when observation paths are close to the ground or in hot environments. These issues manifest as time-varying scintillation and warping effects that decrease the effective resolution of the sensor and reduce actionable intelligence. In recent years, several image processing approaches to turbulence mitigation have shown promise. Each of these algorithms has different computational requirements, usability demands, and degrees of independence from camera sensors. They also produce different degrees of enhancement when applied to turbulent imagery. Additionally, some of these algorithms are applicable to real-time operational scenarios while others may only be suitable for postprocessing workflows. EM Photonics has been developing image-processing-based turbulence mitigation technology since 2005. We will compare techniques from the literature with our commercially available, real-time, GPU-accelerated turbulence mitigation software. These comparisons will be made using real (not synthetic), experimentally obtained data for a variety of conditions, including varying optical hardware, imaging range, subjects, and turbulence conditions. Comparison metrics will include image quality, video latency, computational complexity, and potential for real-time operation. Additionally, we will present a technique for quantitatively comparing turbulence mitigation algorithms using real images of radial resolution targets.

  18. A study of potential sources of linguistic ambiguity in written work instructions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the results of a small experimental study that investigated potential sources of ambiguity in written work instructions (WIs). The English language can be highly ambiguous because words with different meanings can share the same spelling. Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous WIs can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. To study possible sources of ambiguity in WIs, we determined which of the recommended action verbs in the DOE and BWXT writer's manuals have numerous meanings to their intended audience, making them potentially ambiguous. We used cognitive psychology techniques to conduct a survey in which technicians who use WIs in their jobs indicated the first meaning that came to mind for each of the words. Although the findings of this study are limited by the small number of respondents, we identified words that had many different meanings even within this limited sample. WI writers should pay particular attention to these words and to their most frequent meanings so that they can avoid ambiguity in their writing.

  19. The inertial attitude augmentation for ambiguity resolution in SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

    2014-06-26

    The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation.

  20. Management of ambiguous genitalia in ile ife, Nigeria: Challenges and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowande Oludayo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ambiguous genitalia are a major cause of parental anxiety and can create social problems if not properly managed. Diagnosis and management can however be challenging. The aim of this study is to highlight some of the challenges in management of ambiguous genitalia in our environment. Patients and Methods: All cases of ambiguous genitalia managed at the Paediatric surgical unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching hospital, Ile Ife, Nigeria, between January 1993 and October 2007 were analysed for age, sex at presentation, investigation modality, and final sex of rearing and outcome of surgery. Result: Nine patients had surgical reconstruction for ambiguous genitalia during the study period. Their age ranges from 5 weeks to 19 years at presentation. The causes of genital ambiguity in the patients was congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH in 6, true hermaphroditism in 2 and male pseudo-hermaphroditism in 1. Seven patients were reconstructed as females while 2 were raised as males. Change of sex of raring was necessary in 2 patients. Conclusion: The diagnosis and management of ambiguous genitalia is a challenging problem in our environment. Early presentation and treatment is necessary to avoid psychological and social embarrassment.

  1. Effect of Changing Governance System: Result of Western Style Management Adoption to Japanese Culture of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohichiro Hotta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the difficulty of management style change through observation of the management style of Company-A, one of the biggest Japanese IT companies. Japanese economy grew after World War II until the early 1990's. During that era, Ba or SECI process worked in Japanese organizations very well. Further, there was an ambiguous culture in the background of such characteristics. Some kinds of ambiguity or adhocracy made positive effects for Japanese organizational activity, or ambiguity played an important role for Ba activity. There were nested Ba's in each organization with ambiguity. Ambiguous descriptions of roles for each organizational unit activated nested Ba's and generated hot groups. After the economic crisis, Company-A changed its governance and gave clear targets for each organizational unit and for each employee. This change gave new difficulty and diminishes its competence. The change denied the ambiguity in the organization but it was the basis of the competence. Adopting a new system of governance is not a simple activity. Systems must be adjusted to the culture of the organization. Company-A should study competitors in different cultures and adjust the methodology for its culture.

  2. Athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and coaching competency in sport teams: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselut, Grégoire; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Eys, Mark A; Fontayne, Paul; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and two theoretically derived dimensions of coaching competency (i.e., game strategy and technique competencies). A total of 243 players from 26 teams representing various interdependent sports completed French versions of the Role Ambiguity Scale and the Coaching Competency Scale. Multilevel analyses supported the existence of relationships between the four dimensions of role ambiguity and the two dimensions of coaching competency at both individual and team levels. When the levels were considered jointly, athletes perceiving greater ambiguity in their role in both offensive and defensive contexts were more critical of their coach's capacities to lead their team during competitions and to diagnose or formulate instructions during training sessions. The results also indicated that the dimension of scope of responsibilities was the main contributor to the relationship with coaching competency at an individual level, whereas role evaluation was the main contributor to this relationship at a group level. Findings are discussed in relation to the role episode model, the role ambiguity dimensions involved in the relationships according to the level of analysis considered, and the salience of ambiguity perceptions in the offensive context.

  3. Generalized dynamic model and control of ambiguous mono axial vehicle robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Duchon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the novel concept of ambiguous mono axial vehicle robot. Such robot is a combination of Segway and dicycle, which utilizes the advantages of each chassis. The advantage of dicycle is lower energy consumption during the movement and the higher safety of carried payload. The movable platform inside the ambiguous mono axial vehicle allows using the various sensors or devices. This will change the ambiguous mono axial vehicle to the Segway type robot. Both these modes are necessary to control in the stable mode to ensure the safety of the ambiguous mono axial vehicle’s movement. The main contents of the article contain description of generalized dynamic model of ambiguous mono axial vehicle and related control of ambiguous mono axial vehicle. The proposal is unique in that the same controller is used for both modes. Several simulations verify proposed control schemes and identified parameters. Moreover, the dicycle type of platform has never been used in robotics and that is another novelty.

  4. Ambiguity: A new way of thinking about responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A; Howden, S M

    2016-11-15

    Diversity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are now recognized as vital to tackling wicked problems such as those presented by a changing climate (Nature editorial 2015, Ledford 2015; Dick et al., 2016). Including diverse disciplines in science projects enables a range of different views which often facilitate the creation of innovative solutions. Supporting multiple views and options requires a different way of working beyond traditional reductionist approaches to science, communication and decision-making. To embrace diversity in scientific project teams in order to tackle complex, integrated and urgent issues but to expect singular and linear pathways forward is paradoxical. Much has been written about the need for the scientific community to embrace uncertainty (e.g. Popper, Lempert & Bankes 2005; Lempert et al., 2004; Nelson, Howden & Hayman 2013; Bammer & Smithson 2008). We argue that this in itself will not suffice, and that there is also a need to embrace ambiguity in certain situations. Thus, in this article we explore: (1) what ambiguity is, including the benefits it can offer to climate adaptation in particular, using existing approaches to ambiguity in the arts and humanities as examples (2), we discuss practical meanings of ambiguity in relation to climate change, (3) we propose possible next steps for bringing ambiguity into interdisciplinary practice, and (4) we identify some challenges and necessary preconditions to successfully and appropriately embracing ambiguity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Mitigation Prototype Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    technologies or techniques that can mitigate the impacts of oil in the water column on the surrounding environment through containment, diversion, or...impacts on the environment , water intakes, and commercial facilities. Currently there is no well-established technology , technique, or strategy to prevent... technology did not prove to be effective at removing the dispensed oil. 3. Minimization of environmental impacts with a focus on wildlife and plant life

  6. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  7. IMS Mitigation Target Areas - 2010 [ds673

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Mitigation Target Areas (MTA) were developed by the California Department of Fish and Game for the Interim Mitigation Strategy (IMS). The MTAs are an identification...

  8. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  9. The Inhibitory Mechanism in Learning Ambiguous Words in a Second Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguous words are hard to learn, yet little is known about what causes this difficulty. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the representations of new and prior meanings of ambiguous words in second language (L2 learning, and to explore the function of inhibitory control on L2 ambiguous word learning at the initial stage of learning. During a 4-day learning phase, Chinese–English bilinguals learned 30 novel English words for 30 min per day using bilingual flashcards. Half of the words to be learned were unambiguous (had one meaning and half were ambiguous (had two semantically unrelated meanings learned in sequence. Inhibitory control was introduced as a subject variable measured by a Stroop task. The semantic representations established for the studied items were probed using a cross-language semantic relatedness judgment task, in which the learned English words served as the prime, and the targets were either semantically related or unrelated to the prime. Results showed that response latencies for the second meaning of ambiguous words were slower than for the first meaning and for unambiguous words, and that performance on only the second meaning of ambiguous words was predicted by inhibitory control ability. These results suggest that, at the initial stage of L2 ambiguous word learning, the representation of the second meaning is weak, probably interfered with by the representation of the prior learned meaning. Moreover, inhibitory control may modulate learning of the new meanings, such that individuals with better inhibitory control may more effectively suppress interference from the first meaning, and thus learn the new meaning more quickly.

  10. The Inhibitory Mechanism in Learning Ambiguous Words in a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Wu, Junjie; Dunlap, Susan; Chen, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguous words are hard to learn, yet little is known about what causes this difficulty. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the representations of new and prior meanings of ambiguous words in second language (L2) learning, and to explore the function of inhibitory control on L2 ambiguous word learning at the initial stage of learning. During a 4-day learning phase, Chinese-English bilinguals learned 30 novel English words for 30 min per day using bilingual flashcards. Half of the words to be learned were unambiguous (had one meaning) and half were ambiguous (had two semantically unrelated meanings learned in sequence). Inhibitory control was introduced as a subject variable measured by a Stroop task. The semantic representations established for the studied items were probed using a cross-language semantic relatedness judgment task, in which the learned English words served as the prime, and the targets were either semantically related or unrelated to the prime. Results showed that response latencies for the second meaning of ambiguous words were slower than for the first meaning and for unambiguous words, and that performance on only the second meaning of ambiguous words was predicted by inhibitory control ability. These results suggest that, at the initial stage of L2 ambiguous word learning, the representation of the second meaning is weak, probably interfered with by the representation of the prior learned meaning. Moreover, inhibitory control may modulate learning of the new meanings, such that individuals with better inhibitory control may more effectively suppress interference from the first meaning, and thus learn the new meaning more quickly.

  11. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  12. ITER Disruption Mitigation System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, David; Lyttle, M. S.; Baylor, L. R.; Carmichael, J. R.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Combs, S. K.; Ericson, N. M.; Bull-Ezell, N. D.; Fehling, D. T.; Fisher, P. W.; Foust, C. R.; Ha, T.; Meitner, S. J.; Nycz, A.; Shoulders, J. M.; Smith, S. F.; Warmack, R. J.; Coburn, J. D.; Gebhart, T. E.; Fisher, J. T.; Reed, J. R.; Younkin, T. R.

    2015-11-01

    The disruption mitigation system for ITER is under design and will require injection of up to 10 kPa-m3 of deuterium, helium, neon, or argon material for thermal mitigation and up to 100 kPa-m3 of material for suppression of runaway electrons. A hybrid unit compatible with the ITER nuclear, thermal and magnetic field environment is being developed. The unit incorporates a fast gas valve for massive gas injection (MGI) and a shattered pellet injector (SPI) to inject a massive spray of small particles, and can be operated as an SPI with a frozen pellet or an MGI without a pellet. Three ITER upper port locations will have three SPI/MGI units with a common delivery tube. One equatorial port location has space for sixteen similar SPI/MGI units. Supported by US DOE under DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  13. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  14. Mitigating hyperventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolla, Dhimitri; Lewandowski, Tyler; Carlson, Jestin

    2016-03-01

    Although multiple airway management and ventilation strategies have been proposed during cardiac arrest, the ideal strategy is unknown. Current strategies call for advanced airways, such as endotracheal intubation and supraglottic airways. These may facilitate hyperventilation which is known to adversely affect cardiopulmonary physiology. We provide a summary of conceptual models linking hyperventilation to patient outcomes and identify methods for mitigating hyperventilation during cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Climate change mitigation in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, G.A.; Turkson, J.K.; Davidson, O.R. [eds.

    1998-10-01

    The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on `Climate Change Mitigation in Africa` between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)

  16. Ambiguity Resolution for GPS/GNSS Network Solution Implemented in SPODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUAN Rengui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity resolution plays an essential role in global GPS/GNSS network solution. In order to fix as many double-difference(DD ambiguities to the nearest integers as possible, a set of "most-easy-to-fix" independent DD-ambiguities has to be defined. The most usable state-of-art method (the "traditional" methodat present is to make the independency checking on two levels firstly on the baseline level and then the network level, in which the DD-ambiguity candidates are sorted by their fixing probabilities on both levels. Considering the fact that, in general global network solution, the number of stations involved is usual times larger than that of satellites, a new approach for independent DD-ambiguities selection was presented, which makes the independency checking in an analogous two-level way firstly on the constellation level and then the network level. Together with a new procedure for sequential ambiguity fixing base on updating the upper triangular square root of covariance matrix, the new approach is implemented in the satellite positioning and orbit determination system (SPODS software which is designed and developed at Xi'an Research Institute of Surveying & Mapping. Validation experiment with GPS observation data collected from about 64 IGS stations was carried out, which demonstrate that 1D RMSs for daily orbit solution, compared with IGS final combined solution, are about 0.012 m, and about 92% of DD-ambiguities were fixed, with only neglectable tiny difference for both the new and traditional method. Another experiment with varied number of stations indicates that the ratio of the number of DD-ambiguities candidates to be checked for independency on the network level between the new and the traditional approach is nearly equal to the ratio of satellites to stations involved. For the cases that more stations are involved than satellites, which are common in actual GPS/GNSS network solution, the computation time for independent DD-ambiguities

  17. Rate-gyro-integral constraint for ambiguity resolution in GNSS attitude determination applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Hu, Xiaoping; Wu, Meiping

    2013-06-21

    In the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination, the constraints usually play a critical role in resolving the unknown ambiguities quickly and correctly. Many constraints such as the baseline length, the geometry of multi-baselines and the horizontal attitude angles have been used extensively to improve the performance of ambiguity resolution. In the GNSS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated attitude determination systems using low grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the initial heading parameters of the vehicle are usually worked out by the GNSS subsystem instead of by the IMU sensors independently. However, when a rotation occurs, the angle at which vehicle has turned within a short time span can be measured accurately by the IMU. This measurement will be treated as a constraint, namely the rate-gyro-integral constraint, which can aid the GNSS ambiguity resolution. We will use this constraint to filter the candidates in the ambiguity search stage. The ambiguity search space shrinks significantly with this constraint imposed during the rotation, thus it is helpful to speeding up the initialization of attitude parameters under dynamic circumstances. This paper will only study the applications of this new constraint to land vehicles. The impacts of measurement errors on the effect of this new constraint will be assessed for different grades of IMU and current average precision level of GNSS receivers. Simulations and experiments in urban areas have demonstrated the validity and efficacy of the new constraint in aiding GNSS attitude determinations.

  18. Making Decisions under Ambiguity: Judgment Bias Tasks for Assessing Emotional State in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Sanne; Boleij, Hetty; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2016-01-01

    Judgment bias tasks (JBTs) are considered as a family of promising tools in the assessment of emotional states of animals. JBTs provide a cognitive measure of optimism and/or pessimism by recording behavioral responses to ambiguous stimuli. For instance, a negative emotional state is expected to produce a negative or pessimistic judgment of an ambiguous stimulus, whereas a positive emotional state produces a positive or optimistic judgment of the same ambiguous stimulus. Measuring an animal’s emotional state or mood is relevant in both animal welfare research and biomedical research. This is reflected in the increasing use of JBTs in both research areas. We discuss the different implementations of JBTs with animals, with a focus on their potential as an accurate measure of emotional state. JBTs have been successfully applied to a very broad range of species, using many different types of testing equipment and experimental protocols. However, further validation of this test is deemed necessary. For example, the often extensive training period required for successful judgment bias testing remains a possible factor confounding results. Also, the issue of ambiguous stimuli losing their ambiguity with repeated testing requires additional attention. Possible improvements are suggested to further develop the JBTs in both animal welfare and biomedical research. PMID:27375454

  19. Task Characteristics and Work Engagement: Exploring Effects of Role Ambiguity and ICT Presenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to secure organizational sustainability in a rapidly changing environment, it is necessary to implement a decentralized and flexible work environment. In such work environments, normally individuals are provided with autonomy and independence in performing tasks, thus allowing them to further engage in their given work. This study investigated task antecedents of work engagement, and further explored the process of how task characteristics affect work engagement. It focused on examining the mediating effect of role ambiguity on the task characteristics-work engagement relationship and the moderating effect of information and communication technology (ICT presenteeism on the task characteristics–role ambiguity relationship through multiple regression analyses and a bootstrapping procedure on survey data collected from 202 South Korean employees. It found that task interdependence and autonomy were negatively associated with role ambiguity. Of the two task characteristics, only task interdependence had a negative relationship with role ambiguity, and this relationship was significantly moderated by ICT presenteeism such that the negative association between task interdependence and role ambiguity was more pronounced when ICT presenteeism was high than when it was low.

  20. Physicians' attitudes about communicating and managing scientific uncertainty differ by perceived ambiguity aversion of their patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David B; Han, Paul K J; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Clauser, Steven B

    2013-12-01

    Medical interventions are often characterized by substantial scientific uncertainty regarding their benefits and harms. Physicians must communicate to their patients as part of the process of shared decision making, yet they may not always communicate scientific uncertainty for several reasons. One suggested by past research is individual differences in physicians' tolerance of uncertainty. Relatedly, an unexplored explanation is physicians' beliefs about their patients' tolerance of uncertainty. To test this possibility, we surveyed a sample of primary care physicians (N = 1500) and examined the association between their attitudes about communicating and managing scientific uncertainty and their perceptions of negative reactions to uncertainty by their patients. Physician perceptions were measured by their propensity towards pessimistic appraisals of risk information and avoidance of decision making when risk information is ambiguous--of uncertain reliability, credibility or adequacy, known as 'ambiguity aversion'. Confirming past studies, physician demographics (e.g. medical specialty) predicted attitudes toward communicating scientific uncertainty. Additionally, physicians' beliefs about their patients' ambiguity aversion significantly predicted these preferences. Physicians who thought that more of their patients would have negative reactions to ambiguous information were more likely to think that they should decide what is best for their patients (β = 0.065, P = 0.013), and to withhold an intervention that had uncertainty associated with it (β = 0.170, P communicating scientific uncertainty about medical tests and treatments, physicians' perceptions of their patients' ambiguity aversion may be related to their attitudes towards communicating uncertainty. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Making Decisions under Ambiguity: Judgment Bias Tasks for Assessing Emotional State in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Sanne; Boleij, Hetty; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2016-01-01

    Judgment bias tasks (JBTs) are considered as a family of promising tools in the assessment of emotional states of animals. JBTs provide a cognitive measure of optimism and/or pessimism by recording behavioral responses to ambiguous stimuli. For instance, a negative emotional state is expected to produce a negative or pessimistic judgment of an ambiguous stimulus, whereas a positive emotional state produces a positive or optimistic judgment of the same ambiguous stimulus. Measuring an animal's emotional state or mood is relevant in both animal welfare research and biomedical research. This is reflected in the increasing use of JBTs in both research areas. We discuss the different implementations of JBTs with animals, with a focus on their potential as an accurate measure of emotional state. JBTs have been successfully applied to a very broad range of species, using many different types of testing equipment and experimental protocols. However, further validation of this test is deemed necessary. For example, the often extensive training period required for successful judgment bias testing remains a possible factor confounding results. Also, the issue of ambiguous stimuli losing their ambiguity with repeated testing requires additional attention. Possible improvements are suggested to further develop the JBTs in both animal welfare and biomedical research.

  2. Ego depletion in visual perception: Ego-depleted viewers experience less ambiguous figure reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Marina C; Stirk, Steven; Hancock, Peter J B

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the effects of ego depletion on ambiguous figure perception. Adults (N = 315) received an ego depletion task and were subsequently tested on their inhibitory control abilities that were indexed by the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and their ability to perceive both interpretations of ambiguous figures that was indexed by reversal (Experiment 2). Ego depletion had a very small effect on reducing inhibitory control (Cohen's d = .15) (Experiment 1). Ego-depleted participants had a tendency to take longer to respond in Stroop trials. In Experiment 2, ego depletion had small to medium effects on the experience of reversal. Ego-depleted viewers tended to take longer to reverse ambiguous figures (duration to first reversal) when naïve of the ambiguity and experienced less reversal both when naïve and informed of the ambiguity. Together, findings suggest that ego depletion has small effects on inhibitory control and small to medium effects on bottom-up and top-down perceptual processes. The depletion of cognitive resources can reduce our visual perceptual experience.

  3. AMBIGUITY OF LOCI DURING HLA-TYPING ON SSO TECHNOLOGY AND ATTEMPT TO RESOLVE THEM

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    M. A. Loginova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequence specific oligonucleotides typing was used to identify human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A, B, DRB1 alleles from 705 recruited volunteers with Volga Federal District for unrelated hematopoietic stem cell registry and 155 of their number at locus HLA-C. 48 samples cannot be entered into the database because of ambiguities in the identification of allelic loci on HLA-class I – HLA-A, HLA-B. To resolution of ambiguity use reagents kits AlleleSEQR HLA Sequencing, which allowed to reveal the ambiguity of the locus HLA-A, 44% of cases, the loci HLA-B and HLA-C – 40% of cases. Application software HARPs Finder showed the possibility of resolution of all identified allelic ambiguities (with the exception of types of ambiguity – A*03/A*32 or A*74:13/A*32:04 and A*01/A*11 or A*36:04/A*11 with the addition of basic kits AlleleSEQR HLA Sequencing reagents kit Al- leleSEQR HARPs. 

  4. Apparent ambiguities in the post-Newtonian expansion for binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Rafael A.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2017-07-01

    We discuss the source of the apparent ambiguities arising in the calculation of the dynamics of binary black holes within the post-Newtonian framework. Divergences appear in both the near and far zone calculations, and may be of either ultraviolet (UV) or infrared (IR) nature. The effective field theory (EFT) formalism elucidates the origin of the singularities which may introduce apparent ambiguities. In particular, the only (physical) "ambiguity parameters" that necessitate a matching calculation correspond to unknown finite size effects, which first appear at fifth post-Newtonian (5PN) order for nonspinning bodies. We demonstrate that the ambiguities linked to IR divergences in the near zone, that plague the recent derivations of the binding energy at 4PN order, both in the Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner (ADM) and "Fokker-action" approach, can be resolved by implementing the so-called zero-bin subtraction in the EFT framework. The procedure yields ambiguity-free results without the need of additional information beyond the PN expansion.

  5. Diabetic fetopathy associated with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia: a case report

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    Tantbirojn Patou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Many fetal malformations can occur because of maternal diabetes. However, ambiguous genital organs have never been reported as an associated finding in the literature. This is the first report of associated ambiguous genital organ and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in a case of diabetic fetopathy. Case presentation A 19-year-old Thai primigravida with familial history of diabetes mellitus (DM was diagnosed as having gestational DM type 2, based on 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, and was poorly controlled with insulin injections. Delayed targeted ultrasonography at 28 weeks gestation revealed multiple fetal anomalies. The woman underwent low transverse cesarean section at 30 weeks gestation due to preterm labor and transverse lie. The newborn with ambiguous genitalia was delivered but expired after birth. Autopsy findings revealed alobar holoprosencephaly, a prominent forehead, hypotelorism, an absent nose, absent bilateral ears, median cleft lip and palate, preaxial polydactyly of the right hand, accessory spleens, single umbilical artery, markedly enlarged adrenal glands and ambiguous external genitalia The subsequent fetal chromosomal study revealed 46,XX. Conclusion We describe a case of diabetic fetopathy with classic facial malformation and preaxial hallucal polydactyly which has been proposed as a marker of diabetic embryopathy. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with ambiguous genitalia, an uncommon associated anomaly, was also identified. It is controversial whether adrenal hyperplasia can be a novel feature of diabetic fetopathy or just a coincidental finding. Further observation and adequate investigation are needed in such cases.

  6. Tolerance for ambiguity: an ethics-based criterion for medical student selection.

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    Geller, Gail

    2013-05-01

    Planned changes to the MCAT exam and the premedical course requirements are intended to enable the assessment of humanistic characteristics and, thus, to select students who are more likely to become physicians who can communicate and relate with patients and engage in ethical decision making. Identifying students who possess humanistic and communication skills is an important goal, but the changes being implemented may not be sufficient to evaluate key personality traits that characterize well-rounded, thoughtful, empathic, and respectful physicians. The author argues that consideration should be given to assessing prospective students' tolerance for ambiguity as part of the admission process. Several strategies are proposed for implementing and evaluating such an assessment. Also included in this paper is an overview of the conceptual and empirical literature on tolerance for ambiguity among physicians and medical students, its impact on patient care, and the attention it is given in medical education. This evidence suggests that if medical schools admitted students who possess a high tolerance for ambiguity, quality of care in ambiguous conditions might improve, imbalances in physician supply and practice patterns might be reduced, the humility necessary for moral character formation might be enhanced, and the increasing ambiguity in medical practice might be better acknowledged and accepted.

  7. Role conflict, role ambiguity and job satisfaction: Perceptions of the Brazilian controllers

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    Marilu Nuñez Palomino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT From early times to the present, accounting literature has recorded several situations involving role conflict and ambiguity that cause tension among controllers. The theoretical framework was comprised of the seminal work on Role Theory by Katz and Kahn (1970, and empirical evidence regarding the evolution of the role of controllers in the enterprises. In this study, we used the structural equations technique, which allowed for non-rejection of the two study hypotheses, thus providing evidence that role conflict and ambiguity adversely affect job satisfaction among Brazilian controllers. The sample was comprised of 114 controllers. An electronic questionnaire was used to collect the data, allowing information about the respondents to be captured, along with their perceptions regarding levels of role conflict and ambiguity and job satisfaction. For this, the tools developed by Rizzo, House, and Lirtzman (1970 were used, as well as the Job Satisfaction Index presented by Tarrant and Sabo (2010. The results indicated that Brazilian controllers perceive role conflict and role ambiguity while they perform their duties. Job satisfaction of the controllers isaffected more strongly by role ambiguity than by role conflict. However, despite perceiving these two tensions, executives are moderately satisfied with their current working conditions.

  8. The dynamic interplay among EFL learners’ ambiguity tolerance, adaptability, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement

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    Shadi Alahdadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A key objective of education is to prepare individuals to be fully-functioning learners. This entails developing the cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, cultural, and emotional competencies. The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships among adaptability, tolerance of ambiguity, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement as manifestations of the above competencies within a single model. The participants comprised one hundred eighty BA and MA Iranian university students studying English language teaching and translation. The instruments used in this study consisted of the translated versions of four questionnaires: second language tolerance of ambiguity scale, adaptability taken from emotional intelligence inventory, cultural intelligence (CQ inventory, and the revised study process questionnaire measuring surface and deep learning. The results estimated via structural equation modeling (SEM revealed that the proposed model containing the variables under study had a good fit with the data. It was found that all the variables except adaptability directly influenced language achievement with deep approach having the highest impact and ambiguity tolerance having the lowest influence. In addition, ambiguity tolerance was a positive and significant predictor of deep approach. CQ was found to be under the influence of both ambiguity tolerance and adaptability. The findings were discussed in the light of the yielded results.

  9. Resolving Ambiguity in Emotional Disorders: The Nature and Role of Interpretation Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Colette R; Meeten, Frances; Krahé, Charlotte; Reeder, Clare

    2016-01-01

    People with emotional disorders, such as social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and depression, demonstrate a consistent tendency, or bias, to generate negative interpretations of ambiguous material. This is different from people without emotional disorders who tend, in general, to make positive interpretations of ambiguity. If central components of an emotional disorder have high levels of inherent ambiguity (e.g., concern about the negative perceptions of others in SAD, or worry in GAD), then interpretive bias may have a causal maintaining role, and this has been demonstrated in studies using cognitive bias modification techniques. This research has also shown that interpretation biases combine with other cognitive processes, such as imagery and memory, which could exacerbate distress. Psychological interventions will benefit from effectively targeting negative interpretations, and future experimental research can inform ways to improve facilitation of more benign inferential processing to maximize amelioration of key components of emotional disorders.

  10. [Analytics of ambiguity: methodological strategy to the phenomenological research in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; Granzotto, Marcos José Müller; Carvalho, Patricia Anjos Lima; Reis, Helca Franciolli Teixeira

    2010-12-01

    The strategy presented in this paper, called Analytics of ambiguity, is connected to the necessity of understanding findings in researches based on Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology. It was developed through a study of descriptions of life experiences from ten family members, members of a Mutual Help Group for caregivers of Alzheimer's patients, conducted at a university in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Such descriptions were shown through interviews based on intercorporeal experience, during the writing of a Doctoral Dissertation in Nursing. The application of the Analytics of ambiguity to this study is consistent with other similar studies and opens up possibilities for the understanding of findings in phenomenological researches, specifically those based on the experiential ontology of Merleau-Ponty, for it enables us to recognize consciousness as something non-perceptible and perception as an always ambiguous process.

  11. Is "Σ" purple or green? Bistable grapheme-color synesthesia induced by ambiguous characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhkyung; Blake, Randolph; Kim, Chai-Youn

    2013-09-01

    People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive specific colors when viewing different letters or numbers. Previous studies have suggested that synesthetic color experience can be bistable when induced by an ambiguous character. However, the exact relationship between processes underlying the identity of an alphanumeric character and the experience of the induced synesthetic color has not been examined. In the present study, we explored this by focusing on the temporal relation of inducer identification and color emergence using inducers whose identity could be rendered ambiguous upon rotation of the characters. Specifically, achromatic alphabetic letters (W/M) and digits (6/9) were presented at varying angles to 9 grapheme-color synesthetes. Results showed that grapheme identification and synesthetically perceived grapheme color covary with the orientation of the test stimulus and that synesthetes were slower naming the experienced color than identifying the character, particularly at intermediate angles where ambiguity was greatest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF ROLE CONFLICT AND ROLE AMBIGUITY ON BURNOUT AND JOB SATISFACTION

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    EBRU TOLAY SABUNCUOĞLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of role conflict and role ambiguity on burnout and job satisfaction are examined with a survey whose respondents are 71 research assistants working in the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences at Dokuz Eylül University. Therefore, a model was developed in order to determine the cause-effect relationships among variables and the path analysis was utilized to test the model. According to the results of this study, it was determined that role conflict and role ambiguity reduce job satisfaction by means of increasing the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization which are burnout dimensions, and thus there is mediating effect of burnout between role conflict-job satisfaction and role ambiguity-job satisfaction.

  13. Joint Frequency Ambiguity Resolution and Accurate Timing Estimation in OFDM Systems with Multipath Fading

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    Ouyang Shan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A serious disadvantage of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM is its sensitivity to carrier frequency offset (CFO and timing offset (TO. For many low-complexity algorithms, the estimation ambiguity exists when the CFO is greater than one or two subcarrier spacing, and the estimated TO is also prone to exceeding the ISI-free interval within the cyclic prefix (CP. This paper presents a method for joint CFO ambiguity resolution and accurate TO estimation in multipath fading. Maximum-likelihood (ML principle is employed and only one pilot symbol is needed. Frequency ambiguity is resolved and accurate TO can be obtained simultaneously by using the fast Fourier transform (FFT and one-dimensional (1D search. Both known and unknown channel order cases are considered. Computer simulations show that the proposed algorithm outperforms some others in the multipath fading channels.

  14. Cultural-psychological and clinical perspectives of research on phenomena of subjective uncertainty and ambiguity

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    Sokolova, Elena T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes certain socio-cultural and personal predispositions, which determine the modern diversity of subjective uncertainty and ambiguity manifestations. It stresses that for the creation of ‘realistic’ clinical psychology (in terms of A.R. Luria one needs to retrace the relations between the resourceful and the psychopathological aspects of the ambiguity phenomenon and the cultural environment with its destructive ideals and mythologems, manipulative media-technologies and all-pervading idea of ‘deconstruction’. Methods for modeling the experiences of ambiguity in experimental settings, in pathopsychological examination and in projective psychological diagnostics are put in comparison. The arguments are adduced for the interpretation of deficient manifestations of subjective uncertainty as a criterion for diagnostics of the severity of personality disorder.

  15. Perceptions of racial confrontation: the role of color blindness and comment ambiguity.

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    Zou, Linda X; Dickter, Cheryl L

    2013-01-01

    Because of its emphasis on diminishing race and avoiding racial discourse, color-blind racial ideology has been suggested to have negative consequences for modern day race relations. The current research examined the influence of color blindness and the ambiguity of a prejudiced remark on perceptions of a racial minority group member who confronts the remark. One hundred thirteen White participants responded to a vignette depicting a White character making a prejudiced comment of variable ambiguity, after which a Black target character confronted the comment. Results demonstrated that the target confronter was perceived more negatively and as responding less appropriately by participants high in color blindness, and that this effect was particularly pronounced when participants responded to the ambiguous comment. Implications for the ways in which color blindness, as an accepted norm that is endorsed across legal and educational settings, can facilitate Whites' complicity in racial inequality are discussed.

  16. Bias in interpretation of ambiguous sentences related to threat in anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, M W; Mogg, K; May, J; Richards, A; Mathews, A

    1991-05-01

    In the 1st of 2 experiments, currently clinically anxious, recovered clinically anxious, and normal control subjects were presented with a mixture of unambiguous and ambiguous sentences; both threatening and nonthreatening interpretations were possible for the latter. A subsequent recognition-memory test indicated that the currently anxious subjects were more likely than normal control and recovered anxious subjects to interpret the ambiguous sentences in a threatening fashion rather than in a nonthreatening fashion. This suggests that the biased interpretation of ambiguity found in currently anxious subjects reflected their anxious mood state. A 2nd experiment established that the difference in interpretative processes between currently anxious and control subjects was not due to response bias and that the interpretative bias was a reasonably general one.

  17. Radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and radiation mitigators

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    Jayam Raviraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is regarded as one of the most important therapeutic modality for the treatment of malignant lesions. This field is undergoing rapid advancements in the recent times. With the use of radiosensitizers and radioprotective agents, the course of radiotherapy has improved the sensitization of tumor cells and protection of normal cells, respectively. The aim of this paper was to critically review and analyze the available compounds used as radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and radiation mitigators. For reviewing, the author used the electronic search for the keywords ′Radiosensitizers′, ′Radioprotectors′, ′Radiation mitigators′ on PubMed for inclusion of previously published articles and further search of reference papers on individual radiosensitizing and radioprotecting agents was done. Radiosensitizers are agents that sensitize the tumor cells to radiation. These compounds apparently promote fixation of the free radicals produced by radiation damage at the molecular level. The mechanism of action is similar to the oxygen effect, in which biochemical reactions in the damaged molecules prevent repair of the cellular radiation damage. Free radicals such as OH + are captured by the electron affinity of the radiosensitizers, rendering the molecules incapable of repair. Radioprotectors are compounds that are designed to reduce the damage in normal tissues caused by radiation. These compounds are often antioxidants and must be present before or at the time of radiation for effectiveness. Other agents, termed mitigators, may be used to minimize toxicity even after radiation has been delivered. This article tries to discuss the various aspects of radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and radiation mitigators including the newer agents.

  18. Smart disaster mitigation in Thailand

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    Aimmanee, S.; Ekkawatpanit, C.; Asanuma, H.

    2016-04-01

    Thailand is notoriously exposed to several natural disasters, from heavy thunder storms to earthquakes and tsunamis, since it is located in the tropical area and has tectonic cracks underneath the ground. Besides these hazards flooding, despite being less severe, occurs frequently, stays longer than the other disasters, and affects a large part of the national territory. Recently in 2011 have also been recorded the devastating effects of major flooding causing the economic damages and losses around 50 billion dollars. Since Thailand is particularly exposed to such hazards, research institutions are involved in campaigns about monitoring, prevention and mitigation of the effects of such phenomena, with the aim to secure and protect human lives, and secondly, the remarkable cultural heritage. The present paper will first make a brief excursus on the main Thailand projects aimed at the mitigation of natural disasters, referring to projects of national and international relevance, being implemented, such as the ESCAP1999 (flow regime regulation and water conservation). Adaptable devices such as foldable flood barriers and hydrodynamically supported temporary banks have been utilized when flooding. In the second part of the paper, will be described some new ideas concerning the use of smart and biomimicking column structures capable of high-velocity water interception and velocity detection in the case of tsunami. The pole configuration is composite cylindrical shell structure embedded with piezoceramic sensor. The vortex shedding of the flow around the pole induces the vibration and periodically strains the piezoelectric element, which in turn generates the electrical sensorial signal. The internal space of the shell is filled with elastic foam to enhance the load carrying capability due to hydrodynamic application. This more rigid outer shell inserted with soft core material resemble lotus stem in nature in order to prolong local buckling and ovalization of column

  19. Computational study of depth completion consistent with human bi-stable perception for ambiguous figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukura, Eiichi; Satoh, Shunji

    2017-12-12

    We propose a computational model that is consistent with human perception of depth in "ambiguous regions," in which no binocular disparity exists. Results obtained from our model reveal a new characteristic of depth perception. Random dot stereograms (RDS) are often used as examples because RDS provides sufficient disparity for depth calculation. A simple question confronts us: "How can we estimate the depth of a no-texture image region, such as one on white paper?" In such ambiguous regions, mathematical solutions related to binocular disparities are not unique or indefinite. We examine a mathematical description of depth completion that is consistent with human perception of depth for ambiguous regions. Using computer simulation, we demonstrate that resultant depth-maps qualitatively reproduce human depth perception of two kinds. The resultant depth maps produced using our model depend on the initial depth in the ambiguous region. Considering this dependence from psychological viewpoints, we conjecture that humans perceive completed surfaces that are affected by prior-stimuli corresponding to the initial condition of depth. We conducted psychological experiments to verify the model prediction. An ambiguous stimulus was presented after a prior stimulus removed ambiguity. The inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was inserted between the prior stimulus and post-stimulus. Results show that correlation of perception between the prior stimulus and post-stimulus depends on the ISI duration. Correlation is positive, negative, and nearly zero in the respective cases of short (0-200 ms), medium (200-400 ms), and long ISI (>400 ms). Furthermore, based on our model, we propose a computational model that can explain the dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated ambiguity estimation for VLBI Intensive sessions using L1-norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareinen, Niko; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-12-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a space-geodetic technique that is uniquely capable of direct observation of the angle of the Earth's rotation about the Celestial Intermediate Pole (CIP) axis, namely UT1. The daily estimates of the difference between UT1 and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) provided by the 1-h long VLBI Intensive sessions are essential in providing timely UT1 estimates for satellite navigation systems and orbit determination. In order to produce timely UT1 estimates, efforts have been made to completely automate the analysis of VLBI Intensive sessions. This involves the automatic processing of X- and S-band group delays. These data contain an unknown number of integer ambiguities in the observed group delays. They are introduced as a side-effect of the bandwidth synthesis technique, which is used to combine correlator results from the narrow channels that span the individual bands. In an automated analysis with the c5++ software the standard approach in resolving the ambiguities is to perform a simplified parameter estimation using a least-squares adjustment (L2-norm minimisation). We implement L1-norm as an alternative estimation method in c5++. The implemented method is used to automatically estimate the ambiguities in VLBI Intensive sessions on the Kokee-Wettzell baseline. The results are compared to an analysis set-up where the ambiguity estimation is computed using the L2-norm. For both methods three different weighting strategies for the ambiguity estimation are assessed. The results show that the L1-norm is better at automatically resolving the ambiguities than the L2-norm. The use of the L1-norm leads to a significantly higher number of good quality UT1-UTC estimates with each of the three weighting strategies. The increase in the number of sessions is approximately 5% for each weighting strategy. This is accompanied by smaller post-fit residuals in the final UT1-UTC estimation step.

  1. Disaster mitigation - The Iridium way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Peter A.; Love, Lee M.

    1992-08-01

    The paper discusses salient features of a telecommunication concept, called Iridium. Iridium is envisioned as a network of telecommunication satellites which will make it possible to communicate 'anytime-at-any-place' on the globe. The Iridium system will consist of 77 satellites; earth stations, called gateways, connected to the public switched telephone networks; and the personal communication telephone. It is pointed out that Iridium communication system will have a dramatic impact on mitigating the effects of severe disasters (natural or manmade) by providing direct communications to the user before, during, and after the disaster.

  2. Ambiguous Keyboards and Scanning: The Relevance of the Cell Selection Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Borrás, Julio; Bernabeu-Soler, Pablo; Llinares, Raul; Igual, Jorge

    This paper focuses on the relevance of the cell selection phase in the overall performance of a text entry system based on scanning and with an ambiguous keyboard. Most of the layouts are designed trying only to minimize the ambiguity of the keyboard, and taking into consideration only the disambiguation process when entering text. Nevertheless, the number of scan cycles necessary for selecting the cells has great importance in the overall performance. As we show, the performance depends on the number of cells and the linguistic model used in the cell selection phase.

  3. The Emphasizing Metonymy and Its Relation Whit Ambiguity of Text

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    Amir Saleh Masoomi

    2016-05-01

    signs, are not seen in the text, it becomes hard for reader to recognize metonymic meaning from true meaning and he continuously faces the possibility existence of metonymic words without any verbal sign.   The emphasis, as well as metonymy, is one of the important Linguistic tools in Arabic which has different uses. To strengthen the word's true meaning and to prevent understanding the metonymic meaning, are the most important aims of using the emphasis. Sometimes, the reader may feel that some word has been used in metonymic meaning and this is because he thinks that there is a contextual sign in the text. So, to prevent such perception by readers, the speaker (i.e. creator of the text uses emphasis to show that his intention of using the word is its true meaning, not metonymic.   The emphasis conceptually is related to true meaning and incompatible with metonymic meaning. So, if the reader finds some word accompanied with emphasis, he has no choice but interpreting the word in its true meaning. Otherwise, the text faces conceptual tension.   By this explanation, the presentation of "Emphasizing Metonymy" seems essentially illogical and meaningless. Because, in one hand the requirement of making use of the metonymy is to set the sign in the sentence for preventing understanding true meaning of the word, and guiding the readers to the metonymic meaning; and in the other hand, the using of emphasis prevents the perception of metonymic meaning and guides the readers to true meaning of the word. So, synchronic use of these two linguistic tools practically leads to paradox and contradiction .   However, some of the Muslim linguistics like Abul Fath Othman ibn jinni (1002 A.D. has permitted such a use and even mentioned examples of it. This has made some questions: Doesn't synchronic use of emphasis and metonymy lead to ambiguity of text or cause that the speaker deliberately confuses the reader? What shall we say, if we find such a linguistic phenomenon in a

  4. Tsunami mitigation - redistribution of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Usama

    2017-04-01

    Tsunamis are water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, in the deep ocean or a large lake, following an earthquake, landslide, underwater explosion, meteorite impacts, or other violent geological events. On the coastline, the resulting waves evolve from unnoticeable to devastating, reaching heights of tens of meters and causing destruction of property and loss of life. Over 225,000 people were killed in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami alone. For many decades, scientists have been studying tsunami, and progress has been widely reported in connection with the causes (1), forecasting (2), and recovery (3). However, none of the studies ratifies the approach of a direct mitigation of tsunamis, with the exception of mitigation using submarine barriers (e.g. see Ref. (4)). In an attempt to open a discussion on direct mitigation, I examine the feasibility of redistributing the total energy of a very long surface ocean (gravity) wave over a larger space through nonlinear resonant interaction with two finely tuned acoustic-gravity waves (see Refs. (5-8)). Theoretically, while the energy input in the acoustic-gravity waves required for an effective interaction is comparable to that in a tsunami (i.e. impractically large), employing the proposed mitigation technique the initial tsunami amplitude could be reduced substantially resulting in a much milder impact at the coastline. Moreover, such a technique would allow for the harnessing of the tsunami's own energy. Practically, this mitigation technique requires the design of highly accurate acoustic-gravity wave frequency transmitters or modulators, which is a rather challenging ongoing engineering problem. References 1. E. Bryant, 2014. Tsunami: the underrated hazard. Springer, doi:10.1007/978-3-319- 06133-7. 2. V. V. Titov, F. I. Gonza`lez, E. N. Bernard, M. C. Eble, H. O. Mofjeld, J. C. Newman, A. J. Venturato, 2005. Real-Time Tsunami Forecasting: Challenges and Solutions. Nat. Hazards 35:41-58, doi:10

  5. Monolingual and Bilingual Preschoolers' Use of Gestures to Interpret Ambiguous Pronouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W. Quin

    2015-01-01

    Young children typically do not use order-of-mention to resolve ambiguous pronouns, but may do so if given additional cues, such as gestures. Additionally, this ability to utilize gestures may be enhanced in bilingual children, who may be more sensitive to such cues due to their unique language experience. We asked monolingual and bilingual…

  6. Supervisor-subordinate communication relationships, role ambiguity, autonomy and affective commitment for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, Yvonne; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Shacklock, Kate

    2011-10-01

    This paper examine nurses' levels of satisfaction with their supervisor-subordinate communication relationships on their level of role ambiguity (in relation to their supervisors) and their resultant perceptions of autonomy and in turn, affective commitment. A survey of 900 nurses working in private sector hospitals in Australia was used to collect data. The combined effects of supervisor-nurse communication relationships, nurses' role ambiguity in relation to their supervisors plus nurses' resultant perceptions of autonomy, definitely influenced nurses' level of affective commitment. Also, nurses were somewhat dissatisfied with their communication relationships with their supervisors, experienced role ambiguity, reported being only a little autonomous, and were subsequently only somewhat committed to their hospitals. Contribution: The findings contribute to addressing nurse retention challenges by identifying factors affecting nurses' organisational commitment. Not only will nurses be more productive (with less supervisor ambiguity), but high quality Nurse Unit Manager-nurse communication relationships are also likely to enhance perceptions of autonomy and thereby, encourage nurses' commitment to their organisation and intention to remain. These results raise the question as to whether the present management practices are ideal for retaining nurses who are in short supply in many Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.

  7. The Advantage of Hiding Both Hands : Foreign Exchange Intervention, Ambiguity and Private Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Verhagen, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyzes a dynamic exchange rate policy game in which the central bank has private information about its short-term exchange rate target, on the one hand, and in which the market is faced with a certain degree of ambiguity concerning the actual intervention volume, on the other.

  8. The truth about chickens and bats: ambiguity avoidance distinguishes types of polysemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabagliati, Hugh; Snedeker, Jesse

    2013-07-01

    Words mean different things in different contexts, a phenomenon called polysemy. People talk about lines of both people and poetry, and about both long distances and long times. Polysemy lets a limited vocabulary capture a great variety of experiences, while highlighting commonalities. But how is this achieved? Are polysemous senses contextually driven modifications of core meanings, or must each sense be memorized separately? We show that participants' ability to avoid referentially ambiguous descriptions of pictures named by polysemous words provides evidence for both possibilities. When senses followed a regular pattern (e.g., animals and the foodstuffs derived from them; noisy chicken, tasty chicken), participants avoided using ambiguous labels in referentially ambiguous situations (e.g., both types of chicken were present), a result indicating that they noticed a common meaning. But when senses were idiosyncratically related (e.g., sheet of glass, drinking glass), participants frequently produced ambiguous labels, a result indicating that the meanings were separately stored. We discuss implications for the relationship between word meanings and concepts.

  9. Not All Ambiguous Words Are Created Equal: An EEG Investigation of Homonymy and Polysemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Pike, G. Bruce; Steinhauer, Karsten; Gracco, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the time-course of meaning activation of different types of ambiguous words. Unbalanced homonymous ("pen"), balanced homonymous ("panel"), metaphorically polysemous ("lip"), and metonymically polysemous words ("rabbit") were used in a visual single-word priming delayed lexical decision task.…

  10. Resolving Ambiguity: A Psycholinguistic Approach to Understanding Prosody Processing in High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Joshua J.; Bennetto, Loisa; Watson, Duane; Gunlogson, Christine; McDonough, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with autism exhibit significant impairments in prosody production, yet there is a paucity of research on prosody comprehension in this population. The current study adapted a psycholinguistic paradigm to examine whether individuals with autism are able to use prosody to resolve syntactically ambiguous sentences. Participants were 21…

  11. Improving the GNSS attitude ambiguity success rate with the multivariate constrained LAMBDA method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgi, G.; Teunissen, P.J.G.; Verhagen, S.; Buist, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    GNSS Attitude Determination is a valuable technique for the estimation of platform orientation. To achieve high accuracies on the angular estimations, the GNSS carrier phase data has to be used. These data are known to be affected by integer ambiguities, which must be correctly resolved in order to

  12. An Efficient Implementation of Fixed Failure-Rate Ratio Test for GNSS Ambiguity Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanqing; Verhagen, Sandra; Wu, Jie

    2016-06-23

    Ambiguity Resolution (AR) plays a vital role in precise GNSS positioning. Correctly-fixed integer ambiguities can significantly improve the positioning solution, while incorrectly-fixed integer ambiguities can bring large positioning errors and, therefore, should be avoided. The ratio test is an extensively used test to validate the fixed integer ambiguities. To choose proper critical values of the ratio test, the Fixed Failure-rate Ratio Test (FFRT) has been proposed, which generates critical values according to user-defined tolerable failure rates. This contribution provides easy-to-implement fitting functions to calculate the critical values. With a massive Monte Carlo simulation, the functions for many different tolerable failure rates are provided, which enriches the choices of critical values for users. Moreover, the fitting functions for the fix rate are also provided, which for the first time allows users to evaluate the conditional success rate, i.e., the success rate once the integer candidates are accepted by FFRT. The superiority of FFRT over the traditional ratio test regarding controlling the failure rate and preventing unnecessary false alarms is shown by a simulation and a real data experiment. In the real data experiment with a baseline of 182.7 km, FFRT achieved much higher fix rates (up to 30% higher) and the same level of positioning accuracy from fixed solutions as compared to the traditional critical value.

  13. Children’s and Adolescents’ Processing of Temporary Syntactic Ambiguity: An Eye Movement Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the eye movements of 24 children and adolescents as they read sentences containing temporary syntactic ambiguities. Prior research suggested that children primarily use grammatical information when making initial parsing decisions, and they tend to disregard semantic and contextual information. On each trial, participants read a garden path sentence (e.g., While the storm blew the boat sat in the shed, and, afterwards, they answered a comprehension question (e.g., Did the storm blow the boat?. The design was 2 × 2 (verb type × ambiguity repeated measures. Verb type was optionally transitive or reflexive, and sentences were ambiguous or unambiguous. Results showed no differences in first pass reading times at the disambiguating verb (e.g., sat. However, regressions did show a significant interaction. The unambiguous-reflexive condition had approximately half the number of regressions, suggesting less processing difficulty in this condition. Developmentally, we found that adolescents had significantly better comprehension, which seemed to be linked to the increased tendency to regress from the disambiguating word. Findings are consistent with the assumption that the processing architecture is more restricted in children compared to adolescents. In addition, results indicated that variance in ambiguity resolution was associated with interference control but not working memory.

  14. Pragmatic Failure and Referential Ambiguity when Attorneys Ask Child Witnesses "Do You Know/Remember" Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Angela D; Stolzenberg, Stacia N; Lyon, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    "Do you know" and "Do you remember" (DYK/R) questions explicitly ask whether one knows or remembers some information while implicitly asking for that information. This study examined how 104 4- to 9-year-old children testifying in child sexual abuse cases responded to DYK/R wh- and yes/no questions. When asked DYK/R questions containing an implicit wh- question requesting information, children often provided unelaborated "Yes" responses. Attorneys' follow-up questions suggested that children usually misunderstood the pragmatics of the questions. When DYK/R questions contained an implicit yes/no question, unelaborated "Yes" or "No" responses could be responding to the explicit or the implicit questions resulting in referentially ambiguous responses. Children often provided referentially ambiguous responses and attorneys usually failed to disambiguate children's answers. Although pragmatic failure following DYK/R wh- questions decreased with age, the likelihood of referential ambiguity following DYK/R yes/no questions did not. The results highlight the risks of serious miscommunications caused by pragmatic misunderstanding and referential ambiguity when children testify.

  15. Ambiguity Aversion, Asset Prices, and the Welfare Costs of Aggregate Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, Irasema; Prado, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Under the hypothesis that aggregate U.S. consumption is random and, more importantly, viewed as ambiguous by consumers, we examine the implications for asset prices and for how consumption fluctuations influence consumer welfare. We consider a simple, Mehra–Prescott-style endowment economy...

  16. Executive function and intelligence in the resolution of temporary syntactic ambiguity: an individual differences investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E; Nigg, Joel T; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of intelligence and executive functions in the resolution of temporary syntactic ambiguity using an individual differences approach. Data were collected from 174 adolescents and adults who completed a battery of cognitive tests as well as a sentence comprehension task. The critical items for the comprehension task consisted of object/subject garden paths (e.g., While Anna dressed the baby that was small and cute played in the crib), and participants answered a comprehension question (e.g., Did Anna dress the baby?) following each one. Previous studies have shown that garden-path misinterpretations tend to persist into final interpretations. Results showed that both intelligence and processing speed interacted with ambiguity. Individuals with higher intelligence and faster processing were more likely to answer the comprehension questions correctly and, specifically, following ambiguous as opposed to unambiguous sentences. Inhibition produced a marginal effect, but the variance in inhibition was largely shared with intelligence. Conclusions focus on the role of individual differences in cognitive ability and their impact on syntactic ambiguity resolution.

  17. Decision making under ambiguity but not under risk is related to problem gambling severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Bechara, Antoine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between problem gambling severity and decision-making situations that vary in two degrees of uncertainty (probability of outcome is known: decision-making under risk; probability of outcome is unknown: decision-making under ambiguity). For

  18. Executive function and intelligence in the resolution of temporary syntactic ambiguity: an individual differences investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Nigg, Joel T.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of intelligence and executive functions in the resolution of temporary syntactic ambiguity using an individual differences approach. Data were collected from 174 adolescents and adults who completed a battery of cognitive tests as well as a sentence comprehension task. The critical items for the comprehension task consisted of object/subject garden paths (e.g., While Anna dressed the baby that was small and cute played in the crib), and participants answered a comprehension question (e.g., Did Anna dress the baby?) following each one. Previous studies have shown that garden-path misinterpretations tend to persist into final interpretations. Results showed that both intelligence and processing speed interacted with ambiguity. Individuals with higher intelligence and faster processing were more likely to answer the comprehension questions correctly and, specifically, following ambiguous as opposed to unambiguous sentences. Inhibition produced a marginal effect, but the variance in inhibition was largely shared with intelligence. Conclusions focus on the role of individual differences in cognitive ability and their impact on syntactic ambiguity resolution. PMID:27150661

  19. Exact Robust Counterparts of Ambiguous Stochastic Constraints Under Mean and Dispersion Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postek, Krzysztof; Ben-Tal, A.; den Hertog, Dick; Melenberg, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider ambiguous stochastic constraints under partial information consisting of means and dispersion measures of the underlying random parameters. Whereas the past literature used the variance as the dispersion measure, here we use the mean absolute deviation from the mean (MAD).

  20. Parental Deployment and Youth in Military Families: Exploring Uncertainty and Ambiguous Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Angela J.; Mancini, Jay A.; Wilcox, Ryan M.; Grass, Saralyn R.; Grass, Gabriel A.

    2007-01-01

    Parental deployment has substantial effects on the family system, among them ambiguity and uncertainty. Youth in military families are especially affected by parental deployment because their coping repertoire is only just developing; the requirements of deployment become additive to normal adolescent developmental demands. Focus groups were used…

  1. De Antwerpse wereldtentoonstelling van 1894 als ambigu spektakel van de moderniteit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostveldt, B.; Bussels, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how in the late nineteenth century the modernity of the world exhibition was an extremely ambiguous phenomenon. The world exhibition is not only the place par excellence where unbridled belief in the future is celebrated, but is also the place where tension and alienation can

  2. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

  3. Main Verb Versus Reduced Relative Clause Ambiguity Resolution in L2 Sentence Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffs, Alan

    1998-01-01

    Investigated how adult learners of English-as-a-Second- Language (ESL) process sentences containing verbs that are temporarily ambiguous in interpretation between a main verb and a reduced relative clause. Seventeen Chinese, 17 Korean or Japanese, and 17 Romance learners with advanced ESL proficiency and a comparison group of 17 monolingual native…

  4. Aggression in Teachers is Related to Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity as Occupational Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchika, Masaru; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Konish, Akihito; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Yumi; Nakada, Akihiro; Inoue, Koki

    2015-12-01

    Aggression in the workplace is increasingly recognized as a serious problem, but there are few studies about worker aggression toward outsiders in the workplace. We investigated the association between aggression and occupational stress among teachers. This was a cross-sectional study of 1583 teachers, principals, and vice-principals. Aggression was measured using the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ). The survey respondents were classified into tertiles according to the BAQ score. The high BAQ group was defined as the upper tertile for the BAQ total score (BAQ total score 625). Occupational stress was measured using the Japanese version of the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire. Comparisons among the groups were performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the 1583 respondents, 488 were included in the high BAQ group. After adjusting for demographic and occupational variables, high role conflict and role ambiguity were significantly associated with belonging to the high BAQ group. In subscales of the BAQ, high role conflict and role ambiguity related to high levels of hostility, and physical aggression. Occupational stress such as role conflict and role ambiguity was associated with aggression among teachers. It is necessary to reduce problems which relates to role conflict and role ambiguity for preventing teachers' aggression.

  5. Essentialist Thinking Predicts Decrements in Children's Memory for Racially Ambiguous Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Sarah E.; Schultz, Jennifer R.; Pauker, Kristin; Sommers, Samuel R.; Maddox, Keith B.; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Past research shows that adults often display poor memory for racially ambiguous and racial outgroup faces, with both face types remembered worse than own-race faces. In the present study, the authors examined whether children also show this pattern of results. They also examined whether emerging essentialist thinking about race predicts…

  6. The Antwerp world exhibition of 1894 as ambiguous spectacle of modernity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oostveldt, Bram; Bussels, Stijn

    This article discusses how in the late nineteenth century the modernity of the world exhibition was an extremely ambiguous phenomenon. The world exhibition is not only the place par excellence where unbridled belief in the future is celebrated, but is also the place where tension and alienation can

  7. Ambiguity in Units and the Referents: Two Cases in Rational Number Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    I explore the impact of ambiguous referral to the unit on understanding of decimal and fraction operations during episodes in two different mathematics courses for pre-service teachers (PSTs). In one classroom, the instructor introduces a rectangular area diagram to help the PSTs visualize decimal multiplication. A transcript from this classroom…

  8. Engineering Objects for Collaboration: Strategies of Ambiguity and Clarity at Knowledge Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, William C.; Leonardi, Paul M.; Bailey, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that boundary objects gain meaning through group interaction. Drawing from the literature on strategic ambiguity, we explore the possibility that individuals strategically create potential boundary objects in an attempt to shape the meanings that groups develop. From ethnographic observations of automotive engineers, we…

  9. Processing coordinated structures in context : The effect of topic-structure on ambiguity resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, JCJ; Vonk, W; Schriefers, H

    When a sentence such as The model embraced the designer and the photographer laughed is read, the noun phrase the photographer is temporarily ambiguous: It call be either one of the objects of embraced (NP-coordination) or the subject or a new, conjoined sentence (S-coordination). It has been shown

  10. Are Multilingualism, Tolerance of Ambiguity, and Attitudes toward Linguistic Variation Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the links between multilingualism, the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA), and attitudes toward linguistic variation among 379 mono-, bi-, and multilingual adults who completed an online questionnaire. A self-reported high level of proficiency in multiple languages, short- and long-term residence abroad, and high…

  11. Is ambiguity tolerance malleable? Experimental evidence with potential implications for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Endres

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted two research studies to address the malleability of TA by manipulating situational ambiguity. Students participated in a semester-end assessment of their management skills (n = 306. In Study 1, students in low and moderate ambiguity conditions had significantly higher post-experiment TA, more positive change in self-efficacy, and marginally higher faculty ratings. In Study 2, a control group (n = 103 did not participate in the assessment and was established for comparison to the first study results. The Study 2 students reported TA significantly lower than Study 1 students in the low and moderate ambiguity conditions. The control group TA was not significantly different from that of the Study 1 high ambiguity condition. This further suggested TA’s situational malleability, as those who had controlled access to structured information appeared to have increased their TA over that observed in the other two groups. These results suggest that TA may be malleable. We review the relevant literature, offer hypotheses, report our analyses and findings, and then propose future research and potential prescriptive applications in such areas as management development, assessment, and decision-making.

  12. 109 The Issue of Ambiguity in the Igbo Language Thecla-Obiora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    are different words that are pronounced the same, but may or may not be spelled the same. To, too, and two are homonyms despite their spelling differences. Homonyms can create ambiguity. Yule (1996:121) asserts that homonymy is used when one form (written and spoken) has two or more unrelated meanings. Example ...

  13. Ambiguity in deriving Larmor's formula from the LAD equation of motion

    CERN Document Server

    Faci, Sofiane

    2016-01-01

    Larmor's formula provides the power radiated by an accelerated electric charge. This can be derived from the Li\\'enard-Wiechert retarded potential. However, extracting the same result from the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation of motion is ambiguous. The present letter discusses this difficulty and reviews other problems of the LAD equation.

  14. Enhancing Preschoolers' Understanding of Ambiguity in Communication: A Training Study on Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmiol, Ana M.; Vinden, Penelope G.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding knowledge acquisition involves a comprehension of the relationship between a person's access to relevant information and that person's subsequent knowledge. This report investigates how preschoolers improve in their ability to evaluate the effects of two distinct types of messages--ambiguous and informative--on a listener's…

  15. Ambiguities of the hedge: an exercise in creative pleaching - of moments, memories and meanings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of published material on the English hedgerow, and its ambiguous role in both landscape history and contemporary countryside management. While there is a strand of recent landscape history scholarship that can be stridently critical of the hedge as a ‘technology of subj...

  16. Explanation of Ambiguous Advertisements: A Developmental Study with Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Forty students aged 9-18 were asked to explain the meanings of lexically ambiguous advertisements from magazines, newspapers, and brochures. Older subjects explained the meanings correctly more frequently than younger subjects. The psychological meanings of the ads were found to be more difficult to explain than the physical meanings. (Author/JDD)

  17. Foul or dive? Motor contributions to judging ambiguous foul situations in football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Kerstens, S.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Canal Bruland, R.

    2014-01-01

    Football (soccer) referees frequently face situations in which they have to distinguish dives and fouls. Yet, little is known about the contributing factors that characterise the ability to judge these ambiguous situations correctly. To this end, in the current article we tested the hypothesis that

  18. A New Method for Single-Epoch Ambiguity Resolution with Indoor Pseudolite Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Jiming; Wang, Jinling; Qiu, Weining

    2017-04-21

    Ambiguity resolution (AR) is crucial for high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning. Due to the existing characteristics of the pseudolite positioning system, such as the geometry structure of the stationary pseudolite which is consistently invariant, the indoor signal is easy to interrupt and the first order linear truncation error cannot be ignored, and a new AR method based on the idea of the ambiguity function method (AFM) is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is a single-epoch and nonlinear method that is especially well-suited for indoor pseudolite positioning. Considering the very low computational efficiency of conventional AFM, we adopt an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm to search for the best solution in the coordinate domain, and variances of a least squares adjustment is conducted to ensure the reliability of the solving ambiguity. Several experiments, including static and kinematic tests, are conducted to verify the validity of the proposed AR method. Numerical results show that the IPSO significantly improved the computational efficiency of AFM and has a more elaborate search ability compared to the conventional grid searching method. For the indoor pseudolite system, which had an initial approximate coordinate precision better than 0.2 m, the AFM exhibited good performances in both static and kinematic tests. With the corrected ambiguity gained from our proposed method, indoor pseudolite positioning can achieve centimeter-level precision using a low-cost single-frequency software receiver.

  19. Aversion to Ambiguity Regarding Medical Tests and Treatments: Measurement, Prevalence, and Relationship to Sociodemographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAN, PAUL K. J.; REEVE, BRYCE B.; MOSER, RICHARD P.; KLEIN, WILLIAM M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Aversion to “ambiguity”—uncertainty about the reliability, credibility, or adequacy of risk-related information—is an important problem that may influence judgments and decisions about medical interventions. Ambiguity aversion (AA) varies among individuals, however, and has been understudied in the health domain. To explore this phenomenon further, we developed a new theory-based measure of aversion to ambiguity regarding medical tests and treatments, and examined the prevalence and association of AA with sociodemographic factors. The “AA-Med” scale was developed using a large survey sample of the U.S. public (n = 4,398), and scale psychometric properties and the population distribution of AA were evaluated. The scale demonstrated acceptable reliability (α = .73) and validity as ascertained by association with respondents’ interest in a hypothetical ambiguous cancer screening test. Ambiguity aversion (AA) was associated with older age, non-White race, lower education and income, and female sex. The AA-Med scale is a promising new measure, and AA is associated with several sociodemographic factors. We discuss implications of these findings and potential applications of the scale for future research. PMID:19731127

  20. Curriculum, Curriculum Development, Curriculum Studies? Problematising Theoretical Ambiguities in Doctoral Theses in the Education Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Petro; Simmonds, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical ambiguities in curriculum studies result in conceptual mayhem. Accordingly, they hinder the development of the complicated conversation on curriculum as a verb. This article aims to contribute to reconceptualizing curriculum studies as a dynamic social practice that aspires to thinking and acting with intelligences and sensitivity so…

  1. Explaining the role of character development in the evaluation of morally ambiguous characters in entertainment media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.; Eden, A.; Daalmans, S.; Ommen, M.E. van; Weijers, G.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    The current project aims at better understanding how narrative characteristics in stories function in the liking, moral evaluation, and enjoyment of narratives featuring morally ambiguous characters (MACs). Shafer and Raney (2012) found that viewers differently enjoyed a heroic versus MAC-centered

  2. Embedded Promotions in Online Services: How Goal-Relevance Ambiguity Shapes Response and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasel, S. Adam

    2010-01-01

    Adding promotions to online services is increasingly commonplace, yet consumers may have difficulty determining whether service-embedded promotions are goal-relevant, due to the linear and transactional nature of online services. This contextual effect of goal-relevance ambiguity on promotions is explored across three studies. An exploratory study…

  3. Triggering a Schema: The Role of Italics and Intonation in the Interpretation of Ambiguous Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Michael W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This study shows that variations in paralinguistic stress cues, based upon Chafe's given--new and contrastiveness notions, can also influence which frameworks subjects use in comprehending ambiguous passages. Educational implications of schematic-triggering phenomena are discussed. (Author/GK)

  4. The Relevance of Sarcasm in Resolving Ambiguous References in Spoken Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Sarcasm, or sarcastic irony, involves expressing a message that is often opposite of the literal meaning of what is being said, in a way that may sound bitter, or caustic (Gibbs, 1986). In the past, sarcasm has been viewed as a method of introducing the possibility of alternative interpretations of a discourse, by creating ambiguity as to the…

  5. Phonological ambiguity and context sensitivity : on sublexical clustering in visual word recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martensen, H.E.; Maris, E.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    In one lexical decision and three naming experiments, we established the effect of visually separating two letters that have to be considered jointly for pronunciation. Segmentation effects were studied for digraphic vowels and for ambiguous onset-letter (C) whose pronunciation is determined by the

  6. Children's Trait and Emotion Attributions in Socially Ambiguous and Unambiguous Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseovski, Janet J.; Lapan, Candace; Bosacki, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Children's attributions about story characters in ambiguous and unambiguous social situations were assessed. One hundred and forty-four 6-7-year-olds and 10-11-year-olds heard about actors who slighted a recipient intentionally or for an undetermined reason and then made causal attributions about the events, an emotion attribution about the…

  7. Family ambiguity and domestic violence in Asia: Reconceptualising law and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad, M.; Wieringa, S.

    2014-01-01

    The book Family Ambiguity and Domestic Violence in Asia (2013; Brighton: Sussex University Press) raises pertinent questions as to why the incidence of domestic violence has remained as a continuing scourge. The Focus section in this issue of The Newsletter provides the abridged version of select

  8. Unforced Revision in Processing Relative Clause Association Ambiguity in Japanese: Evidence against Revision as Last Resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; Arai, Manabu; Hirose, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The current study tackles a long standing question of whether comprehenders perform structural revision when it is not forced by grammar or not. Using an eye-tracking reading paradigm, we addressed this issue by making use of global structural ambiguity in Japanese. Our results show that comprehenders initially associate a relative clause with the…

  9. An Efficient Implementation of Fixed Failure-Rate Ratio Test for GNSS Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Hou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity Resolution (AR plays a vital role in precise GNSS positioning. Correctly-fixed integer ambiguities can significantly improve the positioning solution, while incorrectly-fixed integer ambiguities can bring large positioning errors and, therefore, should be avoided. The ratio test is an extensively used test to validate the fixed integer ambiguities. To choose proper critical values of the ratio test, the Fixed Failure-rate Ratio Test (FFRT has been proposed, which generates critical values according to user-defined tolerable failure rates. This contribution provides easy-to-implement fitting functions to calculate the critical values. With a massive Monte Carlo simulation, the functions for many different tolerable failure rates are provided, which enriches the choices of critical values for users. Moreover, the fitting functions for the fix rate are also provided, which for the first time allows users to evaluate the conditional success rate, i.e., the success rate once the integer candidates are accepted by FFRT. The superiority of FFRT over the traditional ratio test regarding controlling the failure rate and preventing unnecessary false alarms is shown by a simulation and a real data experiment. In the real data experiment with a baseline of 182.7 km, FFRT achieved much higher fix rates (up to 30% higher and the same level of positioning accuracy from fixed solutions as compared to the traditional critical value.

  10. Family Ambiguity and Domestic Violence in Asia: Concept, Law and Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad, M.; Wieringa, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    This book revisits the issue of Domestic Violence (DV) in Asia by exploring the question of family ambiguity, and interrogating DV’s relationship between concept, law and strategy. Comparative experiences in the Asian context enable an examination of the effectiveness of family regulations and laws

  11. Seeing love, or seeing lust : How people interpret ambiguous romantic situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstude, Kai; Foerster, Jens

    Interpreting ambiguous situations is a task individuals face on a daily basis. In romantic contexts the accurate interpretation of these situations is of particular importance. In the present set of studies we investigated how level of construal guides individual perception in these cases. When a

  12. Brainstorming Groups: Ambiguity Tolerance, Communication Apprehension, Task Attraction, and Individual Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comadena, Mark E.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the performance of individuals (N=76) in brainstorming groups to determine the relationships among communication apprehension, ambiguity tolerance, perceptions of task attraction, and individual ideation output. Results indicated that high producers of ideas perceived the task as more attractive, were low in communication apprehension and…

  13. The Dynamic Interplay among EFL Learners' Ambiguity Tolerance, Adaptability, Cultural Intelligence, Learning Approach, and Language Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahdadi, Shadi; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    A key objective of education is to prepare individuals to be fully-functioning learners. This entails developing the cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, cultural, and emotional competencies. The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships among adaptability, tolerance of ambiguity, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and…

  14. Can Ambiguity Tolerance, Success in Reading, and Gender Predict the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Gülten

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on the relationship between reading anxiety and ambiguity tolerance of 295 Turkish EFL learners of English (180 females, 115 males). Data were collected using the Turkish version of FLRAS and SLTAS in 2015-2016 academic year. The overall design of the study was based on the quantitative research method. Data were…

  15. Seeing love, or seeing lust: how people interpret ambiguous romantic situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstude, K.; Förster, J.

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting ambiguous situations is a task individuals face on a daily basis. In romantic contexts the accurate interpretation of these situations is of particular importance. In the present set of studies we investigated how level of construal guides individual perception in these cases. When a

  16. Mitigating for nature in Danish infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    his paper presents results of a Danish study of mitigation efforts directed at nature protection in EIA of Danish infrastructure projects. The projects included in the study comprise road, rail, bridges, tunnels cables and oil- and gas-pipes. The study is based on a document analysis of EIA reports...... mitigation measures are suggested and implemented. Based on this the paper concludes with a discussion of how practice of mitigating impacts on nature can be developed leading to better nature protection....

  17. Improving Ambiguity Resolution for Medium Baselines Using Combined GPS and BDS Dual/Triple-Frequency Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Gao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The regional constellation of the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS has been providing continuous positioning, navigation and timing services since 27 December 2012, covering China and the surrounding area. Real-time kinematic (RTK positioning with combined BDS and GPS observations is feasible. Besides, all satellites of BDS can transmit triple-frequency signals. Using the advantages of multi-pseudorange and carrier observations from multi-systems and multi-frequencies is expected to be of much benefit for ambiguity resolution (AR. We propose an integrated AR strategy for medium baselines by using the combined GPS and BDS dual/triple-frequency observations. In the method, firstly the extra-wide-lane (EWL ambiguities of triple-frequency system, i.e., BDS, are determined first. Then the dual-frequency WL ambiguities of BDS and GPS were resolved with the geometry-based model by using the BDS ambiguity-fixed EWL observations. After that, basic (i.e., L1/L2 or B1/B2 ambiguities of BDS and GPS are estimated together with the so-called ionosphere-constrained model, where the ambiguity-fixed WL observations are added to enhance the model strength. During both of the WL and basic AR, a partial ambiguity fixing (PAF strategy is adopted to weaken the negative influence of new-rising or low-elevation satellites. Experiments were conducted and presented, in which the GPS/BDS dual/triple-frequency data were collected in Nanjing and Zhengzhou of China, with the baseline distance varying from about 28.6 to 51.9 km. The results indicate that, compared to the single triple-frequency BDS system, the combined system can significantly enhance the AR model strength, and thus improve AR performance for medium baselines with a 75.7% reduction of initialization time on average. Besides, more accurate and stable positioning results can also be derived by using the combined GPS/BDS system.

  18. Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Seiner, John; Suzuki, Toshio; Lackner, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    There is a mounting consensus that human behavior is changing the global climate and its consequence could be catastrophic. Reducing the 24 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions from stationary and mobile sources is a gigantic task involving both technological challenges and monumental financial and societal costs. The pursuit of sustainable energy resources, environment, and economy has become a complex issue of global scale that affects the daily life of every citizen of the world. The present mitigation activities range from energy conservation, carbon-neutral energy conversions, carbon advanced combustion process that produce no greenhouse gases and that enable carbon capture and sequestion, to other advanced technologies. From its causes and impacts to its solutions, the issues surrounding climate change involve multidisciplinary science and technology. This handbook will provide a single source of this information. The book will be divided into the following sections: Scientific Evidence of Cl...

  19. Emotion and decision-making under uncertainty: Physiological arousal predicts increased gambling during ambiguity but not risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Glimcher, Paul; Baker, Augustus L; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Uncertainty, which is ubiquitous in decision-making, can be fractionated into known probabilities (risk) and unknown probabilities (ambiguity). Although research has illustrated that individuals more often avoid decisions associated with ambiguity compared to risk, it remains unclear why ambiguity is perceived as more aversive. Here we examine the role of arousal in shaping the representation of value and subsequent choice under risky and ambiguous decisions. To investigate the relationship between arousal and decisions of uncertainty, we measure skin conductance response-a quantifiable measure reflecting sympathetic nervous system arousal-during choices to gamble under risk and ambiguity. To quantify the discrete influences of risk and ambiguity sensitivity and the subjective value of each option under consideration, we model fluctuating uncertainty, as well as the amount of money that can be gained by taking the gamble. Results reveal that although arousal tracks the subjective value of a lottery regardless of uncertainty type, arousal differentially contributes to the computation of value-that is, choice-depending on whether the uncertainty is risky or ambiguous: Enhanced arousal adaptively decreases risk-taking only when the lottery is highly risky but increases risk-taking when the probability of winning is ambiguous (even after controlling for subjective value). Together, this suggests that the role of arousal during decisions of uncertainty is modulatory and highly dependent on the context in which the decision is framed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Effect of Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict on Performance of Vice Principals: The Mediating Role of Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Kazim

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Role ambiguity and role conflict are considered issues that affect performance and lead to burnout. While numerous studies have analyzed role ambiguity or role conflict in relation to burnout or performance, few studies have studied all of these issues together. Since vice principals are expected to carry out a variety of…

  1. Simply Imagining Sunshine, Lollipops and Rainbows Will Not Budge the Bias: The Role of Ambiguity in Interpretive Bias Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Patrick J F; Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Notebaert, Lies; Holmes, Emily A; Blackwell, Simon E; Macleod, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Imagery-based interpretive bias modification (CBM-I) involves repeatedly imagining scenarios that are initially ambiguous before being resolved as either positive or negative in the last word/s. While the presence of such ambiguity is assumed to be important to achieve change in selective interpretation, it is also possible that the act of repeatedly imagining positive or negative events could produce such change in the absence of ambiguity. The present study sought to examine whether the ambiguity in imagery-based CBM-I is necessary to elicit change in interpretive bias, or, if the emotional content of the imagined scenarios is sufficient to produce such change. An imagery-based CBM-I task was delivered to participants in one of four conditions, where the valence of imagined scenarios were either positive or negative, and the ambiguity of the scenario was either present (until the last word/s) or the ambiguity was absent (emotional valence was evident from the start). Results indicate that only those who received scenarios in which the ambiguity was present acquired an interpretive bias consistent with the emotional valence of the scenarios, suggesting that the act of imagining positive or negative events will only influence patterns of interpretation when the emotional ambiguity is a consistent feature.

  2. Boundary Ambiguity and Coparental Conflict after Divorce: An Empirical Test of a Family Systems Model of the Divorce Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden-Derdich, Debra A.; Leonard, Stacie A.; Christopher, F. Scott

    1999-01-01

    A family systems model of the divorce process was proposed and tested for divorced mothers and fathers using a series of multiple regression analysis. Findings support the hypothesized positive relationship between boundary ambiguity and coparental conflict. Reports factors that influence boundary ambiguity were found to be distinct for mothers…

  3. Preventing Data Ambiguity in Infectious Diseases with Four-Dimensional and Personalized Evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Iandiorio

    Full Text Available Diagnostic errors can occur, in infectious diseases, when anti-microbial immune responses involve several temporal scales. When responses span from nanosecond to week and larger temporal scales, any pre-selected temporal scale is likely to miss some (faster or slower responses. Hoping to prevent diagnostic errors, a pilot study was conducted to evaluate a four-dimensional (4D method that captures the complexity and dynamics of infectious diseases.Leukocyte-microbial-temporal data were explored in canine and human (bacterial and/or viral infections, with: (i a non-structured approach, which measures leukocytes or microbes in isolation; and (ii a structured method that assesses numerous combinations of interacting variables. Four alternatives of the structured method were tested: (i a noise-reduction oriented version, which generates a single (one data point-wide line of observations; (ii a version that measures complex, three-dimensional (3D data interactions; (iii a non-numerical version that displays temporal data directionality (arrows that connect pairs of consecutive observations; and (iv a full 4D (single line-, complexity-, directionality-based version.In all studies, the non-structured approach revealed non-interpretable (ambiguous data: observations numerically similar expressed different biological conditions, such as recovery and lack of recovery from infections. Ambiguity was also found when the data were structured as single lines. In contrast, two or more data subsets were distinguished and ambiguity was avoided when the data were structured as complex, 3D, single lines and, in addition, temporal data directionality was determined. The 4D method detected, even within one day, changes in immune profiles that occurred after antibiotics were prescribed.Infectious disease data may be ambiguous. Four-dimensional methods may prevent ambiguity, providing earlier, in vivo, dynamic, complex, and personalized information that facilitates both

  4. FM echolocating bats shift frequencies to avoid broadcast-echo ambiguity in clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiryu, Shizuko; Bates, Mary E; Simmons, James A; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2010-04-13

    Sonar broadcasts are followed by echoes at different delays from objects at different distances. When broadcasts are emitted rapidly in cluttered surroundings, echo streams from successive broadcasts overlap and cause ambiguity in matching echoes to corresponding broadcasts. To identify reactions to ambiguity in clutter, echolocating bats that emit multiple-harmonic FM sounds were trained to fly into a dense, extended array of obstacles (multiple rows of vertically hanging chains) while the sonar sounds the bat emitted were recorded with a miniature radio microphone carried by the bat. Flight paths were reconstructed from thermal-infrared video recordings. Successive rows of chains extended more than 6 m in depth, so each broadcast was followed by a series of echoes from multiple rows of chains that lasted up to 40 ms. Bats emitted sounds in pairs ("strobe groups") at short (20-40 ms) interpulse intervals (IPIs) alternating with longer IPIs (>50 ms). For many short IPIs, the stream of echoes from the first broadcast was still arriving when the second broadcast was emitted. This overlap caused ambiguity about matching echoes with broadcasts. Bats shifted frequencies of the first sound in each strobe group upward and the second sound downward by 3-6 kHz. When overlap and ambiguity ceased, frequency shifts ceased also. Frequency differences were small compared with the total broadcast band, which was 75-80 kHz wide, but the harmonic structure of echoes enhances the differences in spectrograms. Bats could use time-frequency comparisons of echoes with broadcasts to assign echoes to the corresponding broadcasts and thus avoid ambiguity.

  5. Physicians’ attitudes about communicating and managing scientific uncertainty differ by perceived ambiguity aversion of their patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David B.; Han, Paul K. J.; Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Klein, William M. P.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Medical interventions are often characterized by substantial scientific uncertainty regarding their benefits and harms. Physicians must communicate to their patients as part of the process of shared decision making, yet they may not always communicate scientific uncertainty for several reasons. One suggested by past research is individual differences in physicians’ tolerance of uncertainty. Relatedly, an unexplored explanation is physicians’ beliefs about their patients’ tolerance of uncertainty. Design  To test this possibility, we surveyed a sample of primary care physicians (N = 1500) and examined the association between their attitudes about communicating and managing scientific uncertainty and their perceptions of negative reactions to uncertainty by their patients. Physician perceptions were measured by their propensity towards pessimistic appraisals of risk information and avoidance of decision making when risk information is ambiguous – of uncertain reliability, credibility or adequacy, known as ‘ambiguity aversion’. Results  Confirming past studies, physician demographics (e.g. medical specialty) predicted attitudes toward communicating scientific uncertainty. Additionally, physicians’ beliefs about their patients’ ambiguity aversion significantly predicted these preferences. Physicians who thought that more of their patients would have negative reactions to ambiguous information were more likely to think that they should decide what is best for their patients (β = 0.065, P = 0.013), and to withhold an intervention that had uncertainty associated with it (β = 0.170, P communicating scientific uncertainty about medical tests and treatments, physicians’ perce‐ptions of their patients’ ambiguity aversion may be related to their attitudes towards communicating uncertainty. PMID:21838835

  6. Individual differences in aversion to ambiguity regarding medical tests and treatments: association with cancer screening cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Paul K J; Williams, Andrew E; Haskins, Amy; Gutheil, Caitlin; Lucas, F Lee; Klein, William M P; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2014-12-01

    Aversion to "ambiguity"-uncertainty about the reliability, credibility, or adequacy of information-about medical tests and treatments is an important psychological response that varies among individuals, but little is known about its nature and extent. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual-level ambiguity aversion relates to important health cognitions related to different cancer screening tests. A survey of 1,074 adults, ages 40 to 70 years, was conducted in four integrated U.S. healthcare systems. The Ambiguity Aversion in Medicine (AA-Med) scale, a measure of individual differences in aversion to ambiguity (AA) about medical tests and treatments, was administered along with measures of several cancer screening-related cognitions: perceived benefits and harms of colonoscopy, mammography, and PSA screening, and ambivalence and future intentions regarding these tests. Multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the associations between AA-Med scores and cancer screening cognitions. Individual-level AA as assessed by the AA-Med scale was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with lower perceived benefits, greater perceived harms, and greater ambivalence about all three screening tests, and lower intentions for colonoscopy but not mammography or PSA screening. Individual-level AA is broadly and simultaneously associated with various pessimistic cognitive appraisals of multiple cancer screening tests. The breadth of these associations suggests that the influence of individual-level AA is insensitive to the degree and nonspecific with respect to the causes of ambiguity. Individual-level AA constitutes a measurable, wide-ranging cognitive bias against medical intervention, and more research is needed to elucidate its mechanisms and effects. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Strategies for mitigation of global warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed.......The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed....

  8. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  9. Using periodicity to mitigate ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of trenches, barriers and wave impeding blocks on the transmission path between a source and receiver can be used for mitigation of ground vibration. However, to be effective a barrier must have a depth of about one wavelength of the waves to be mitigated. Hence, while great reductions...

  10. Real-time PPP with undifferenced integer ambiguity resolution, experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurichesse, Denis; Mercier, Flavien

    2010-05-01

    A method to solve the GPS zero-difference measurement equations with integer ambiguities has been recently introduced at CNES. When the method is applied to data from a global network of GPS receivers it provides a consistent set of satellite orbits and clocks, which have an ‘integer' property: phase residuals for any receiver computed using these orbits and clocks easily reveal integer ambiguities. The presentation focuses on the application of this novel approach to the computation of real-time orbits and clocks for the GPS constellation, and the benefit of using these products for real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) with integer ambiguity fixing of user receivers. In this method, real-time corrections to extrapolated IGS IGU orbits are estimated at the same time as all other relevant parameters by a Kalman filter which processes measurements from a world-wide stations network. The filter performs zero-difference ambiguity fixing in real-time. Two results are presented; the first with one month of raw data taken from the IGS, the second with raw data taken from the Internet in real-time using the NTRIP protocol. Relative to IGS final orbits, the 3-D precision of the real-time orbits is about 3 cm RMS. When these constellation orbits and clocks are used to perform real-time PPP for receivers outside of the reference network, the horizontal precision obtained using zero-difference integer ambiguity fixing is close to 1 cm RMS. This is about one order of magnitude better than standard solutions, which rely upon floating ambiguity fixing, close to the precision of RTK. We present several ‘site survey' type real-time experiments conducted at CNES that confirm these results. Advantages and drawbacks of this new integer-PPP method with respect to RTK are outlined. These topics include mainly the time to convergence, the baselines size and the associated precision. Some specific applications of this new method, especially those that cannot be obtained using a

  11. An Introduction to the Ambiguity Tolerance: As a Source of Variation in English-Persian Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Different individuals provide different translations of different qualities of the same text. This may be due to one’s dominant cognitive style and individuals’ particular personal characteristics (Khoshsima & Hashemi Toroujeni, 2017 in general or ambiguity tolerance in particular. A certain degree of ambiguity tolerance (henceforth AI has been found to facilitate language learning (Chapelle, 1983; Ehrman, 1999; Ely, 1995. However, this influential factor has been largely overlooked in translation studies. The purpose of this study was to find the relationship between AT and translation quality by identifying the expected positive correlation between the level of AT and the numbers of translation errors. Out of the 56 undergraduates of English-Persian Translation at Chabahar Maritime University (CMU, a sample of 34 top students was selected based on their scores on the reading comprehension which enjoys a special focus in many contexts (Khoshsima & Rezaeian Tiyar, 2014 and structure subtests of the TOEFL. The participants responded to the SLTAS questionnaire for AT developed by Ely (1995. The questionnaire had a high alpha internal consistency reliability of .84 and standardized item alpha of .84. In the next stage of the research, the participants translated a short passage of contemporary English into Persian, which was assessed using the SICAL III scale for TQA developed and used by Canadian Government’s Translation Bureau as its official TQA model (Williams, 1989.  Then, to find the relationship between the level of ambiguity tolerance in undergraduates of English-Persian translation at Chabahar Maritime University and their translation quality, analysis of the collected data revealed a significant positive correlation (r=440, p<.05 between the participants’ degree of AT and the numbers of errors in their translations. Controlling for SL proficiency, the correlation was still significantly positive (r=.397, p<.05. Accordingly, it

  12. The association between tolerance for ambiguity and fear of negative evaluation: A study of engineering technology capstone courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubikovsky, Sergey I.

    For many students in engineering and engineering technology programs in the US, senior capstone design courses require students to form a team, define a problem, and find a feasible technical solution to address this problem. Students must integrate the knowledge and skills acquired during their studies at the college or university level. These truly integrative design activities do not have a single "correct" solution. Instead, there is an array of solutions, many of which could be used to achieve the final result. This ambiguity can cause students to experience anxiety during the projects. This study examined the main topics: • To what extent is a social anxiety (measured as fear of negative evaluation) related to tolerance for ambiguity in senior engineering capstone courses? • How does exposure to ambiguity prior to and during capstone courses affect tolerance for ambiguity? The study looked at the standard educational practices to see if they have unintended consequences, such a social anxiety in dealing with ambiguity. Those consequences are highly undesirable because they reduce students' learning. It was hypothesized that the lecture-based approaches that are more common in the first three years of study would not prepare students for self-directed capstone courses because the students would rarely have experienced problem-based learning before. The study used a quantitative approach and examined students' perceptions of their tolerance for ambiguity, and social anxiety before and after their senior capstone design experience. A survey instrument was adapted to measure exposure to ambiguity, which was studied as a potential moderator of the relationship between social anxiety and tolerance for ambiguity. The study indicated that social anxiety, as measured by fear of negative evaluation, does not play a major role in capstone courses. The second finding is that a single course, even if it was administered as a problem-based senior class, failed to

  13. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramaratne, Rupa [Ministry of Forestry and Environment, GEF/UNDP Enabling Activity Project (Sri Lanka)

    1998-12-01

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  14. Ambiguous Results When Using the Ambiguous-Cue Paradigm to Assess Learning and Cognitive Bias in Gorillas and a Black Bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly C. McGuire

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive bias tests are frequently used to assess affective state in nonhumans. We adapted the ambiguous-cue paradigm to assess affective states and to compare learning of reward associations in two distantly related species, an American black bear and three Western lowland gorillas. Subjects were presented with three training stimuli: one that was always rewarded (P, one that was never rewarded (N and one that was ambiguous (A because its reward association depended on whether it had been paired with P (PA pairing or N (NA pairing. Differential learning of NA and PA pairs provided insight into affective state as the bear and one gorilla learned NA pairs more readily, indicating that they focused on cues of reinforcement more than cues of non-reinforcement, whereas the opposite was true of one gorilla. A third gorilla did not learn either pairings at above chance levels. Although all subjects experienced difficulty learning the pairings, we were able to assess responses to A during probe trials in the bear and one gorilla. Both responded optimistically, but it was difficult to determine whether their responses were a true reflection of affective state or were due to preferences for specific stimuli.

  15. A public health hazard mitigation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jennifer M; Kay Carpender, S; Crouch, Jill Artzberger; Quiram, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    The Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health, a member of the Training and Education Collaborative System Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (TECS-PERLC), has long-standing partnerships with 2 Health Service Regions (Regions) in Texas. TECS-PERLC was contracted by these Regions to address 2 challenges identified in meeting requirements outlined by the Risk-Based Funding Project. First, within Metropolitan Statistical Areas, there is not a formal authoritative structure. Second, preexisting tools and processes did not adequately satisfy requirements to assess public health, medical, and mental health needs and link mitigation strategies to the Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, which provide guidance to prepare for, respond to, and recover from public health incidents. TECS-PERLC, with its partners, developed a framework to interpret and apply results from the Texas Public Health Risk Assessment Tool (TxPHRAT). The 3-phase community engagement-based TxPHRAT Mitigation Planning Process (Mitigation Planning Process) and associated tools facilitated the development of mitigation plans. Tools included (1) profiles interpreting TxPHRAT results and identifying, ranking, and prioritizing hazards and capability gaps; (2) a catalog of intervention strategies and activities linked to hazards and capabilities; and (3) a template to plan, evaluate, and report mitigation planning efforts. The Mitigation Planning Process provided a framework for Regions to successfully address all funding requirements. TECS-PERLC developed more than 60 profiles, cataloged and linked 195 intervention strategies, and developed a template resulting in 20 submitted mitigation plans. A public health-focused, community engagement-based mitigation planning process was developed by TECS-PERLC and successfully implemented by the Regions. The outcomes met all requirements and reinforce the effectiveness of academic practice partnerships and importance of

  16. Using FRET for Drought Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, H. D.; Palmer, C. K.; Hobbins, M.

    2016-12-01

    With the ongoing drought plaguing California and much of the Western United States, water agencies and the general public have a heightened need for short term forecasts of evapotranspiration. The National Weather Service's (NWS) Forecast Reference Evapotranspiration (FRET) product suite can fill this need. The FRET product suite uses the Penman - Monteith Reference Evapotranspiration (ETrc) equation for a short canopy (12 cm grasses), adopted by the Environmental Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers. FRET is calculated across the contiguous U.S. using temperatures, humidity, winds, and sky cover from Numerical Weather Prediction (NPW) models and adjusted by NWS forecasters with local expertise of terrain and weather patterns. The Weekly ETrc product is easily incorporated into drought-planning strategies, allowing water managers, the agricultural community, and the public to make better informed water-use decisions. FRET can assist with the decision making process for scheduling irrigation (e.g., farms, golf courses, vineyards) and timing of fertilizers. The California Department of Water Resources (CA DWR) also ingests the FRET into their soil moisture models, and uses FRET to assist in determining the reservoir releases for the Feather River. The United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) also uses FRET in determining reservoir releases and assessing water temperature along the Sacramento and American Rivers. FRET is now operational on the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD), permitting other agencies easy access to this nationwide data for all drought mitigation and planning purposes.

  17. Mitigation of Space Radiation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William

    2012-02-01

    During low earth orbit and deep space missions, humans and spacecraft systems are exposed to high energy particles emanating from basically three sources: geomagnetically-trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen Belts), extremely high energy galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and solar proton events (SPEs). The particles can have deleterious effects if not properly shielded. For humans, there can be a multitude of harmful effects depending on the degree of exposure. For spacecraft systems, especially electronics, the effects can range from single event upsets (SEUs) to catastrophic effects such as latchup and burnout. In addition, some materials, radio-sensitive experiments, and scientific payloads are subject to harmful effects. To date, other methods have been proposed such as electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding, but these approaches have not proven feasible due to cost, weight, and safety issues. The only method that has merit and has been effective is bulk or parasitic shielding. In this paper, we discuss in detail the sources of the space radiation environment, spacecraft, human, and onboard systems modeling methodologies, transport of these particles through shielding materials, and the calculation of the dose effects. In addition, a review of the space missions to date and a discussion of the space radiation mitigation challenges for lunar and deep space missions such as lunar outposts and human missions to Mars are presented.

  18. Mitigation of Fluorosis - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodamani, Arun S.; Jadhav, Harish C.; Naik, Rahul G.; Deshmukh, Manjiri A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is required for normal development and growth of the body. It is found in plentiful quantity in environment and fluoride content in drinking water is largest contributor to the daily fluoride intake. The behaviour of fluoride ions in the human organism can be regarded as that of “double-edged sword”. Fluoride is beneficial in small amounts but toxic in large amounts. Excessive consumption of fluorides in various forms leads to development of fluorosis. Fluorosis is major health problem in 24 countries, including India, which lies in the geographical fluoride belt. Various technologies are being used to remove fluoride from water but still the problem has not been rooted out. The purpose of this paper is to review the available treatment modalities for fluorosis, available technologies for fluoride removal from water and ongoing fluorosis mitigation programs based on literature survey. Medline was the primary database used in the literature search. Other databases included: PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, WHO, Ebscohost, Science Direct, Google Search Engine, etc. PMID:26266235

  19. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G

    2005-01-01

    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  20. Gas Mitigation in Paper Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, AS; Bittencourt, C.

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian paper industry has competitive advantages offered by the favorable climate, which favors an increase in the yield of forest restoration, and consequently, in the productive process. On the other hand, following the greenhouse gases (GHG), we can see our constantly changing sun, causing the solar storms, allowing their prevention or mitigating measures. The objective of this work is to contribute to the construction of the understanding necessary for the reduction of GHG emission from a preliminary analysis of the pulp and paper sector. As a secondary objective, the text preliminarily analyzes a company’s behavior against the backdrop of the Paris Accord, which strengthens the global response to the threat of climate change and strengthens the capacity of countries to deal with the impacts of such changes. The identification of best practices in the pulp and paper industry is understood, focusing on environmental sustainability, such as the adoption of reforestation, obtaining significant results. In the case of the paper industry, the management of public forests for sustainable production, within the structure of the Ministry of the Environment, establishes the promotion of public awareness about the importance of conservation, recovery and sustainable management of forest resources.

  1. MicroRNA profiling can classify acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage as either acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, David C; van den Ancker, Willemijn; Denkers, Fedor; de Menezes, Renée X; Westers, Theresia M; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A; Smit, Linda

    2013-04-15

    Classification of acute leukemia is based on the commitment of leukemic cells to the myeloid or the lymphoid lineage. However, a small percentage of acute leukemia cases lack straightforward immunophenotypical lineage commitment. These leukemias of ambiguous lineage represent a heterogeneous category of acute leukemia that cannot be classified as either acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). The lack of clear classification of acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage as either AML or ALL is a hurdle in treatment choice for these patients. Here, we compared the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of 17 cases with acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage and 16 cases of AML, B-cell acute lymphoid leukemia (B-ALL), and T-cell acute lymphoid leukemia (T-ALL). We show that leukemias of ambiguous lineage do not segregate as a separate entity but exhibit miRNA expression profiles similar to AML, B-ALL, or T-ALL. We show that by using only 5 of the most lineage-discriminative miRNAs, we are able to define acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage as either AML or ALL. Our results indicate the presence of a myeloid or lymphoid lineage-specific genotype, as reflected by miRNA expression, in these acute leukemias despite their ambiguous immunophenotype. miRNA-based classification of acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage might be of additional value in therapeutic decision making.

  2. Ambiguities and symmetry relations in the perturbative solution of quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gobira, S R; Battistel, O A

    2000-01-01

    We show that ambiguities and symmetry violations arising in one loop calculations can always be avoided provided the regularization scheme employed satisfies three consistency conditions. Our calculations are effected by assuming only implicitly the presence of a regulator in the integrand. We demonstrate in this way that there is a set of three relations involving divergent integrals of the same degree of divergence which are the source of both ambiguities and symmetry violations in Quantum Electrodynamics. Moreover we give analytical expressions for the finite parts of amplitudes off the mass shell systematized in terms of a set of special functions. Ward identities require highly non trivial relations involving those functions which we also derive.

  3. Are You Insulting Me? Exposure to Alcohol Primes Increases Aggression Following Ambiguous Provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, William C; Vasquez, Eduardo A; Bartholow, Bruce D; Grosvenor, Marianne; Truong, Ana

    2014-08-01

    Considerable research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase aggression and produce extremes in other social behaviors. Although most theories posit that such effects are caused by pharmacological impairment of cognitive processes, recent research indicates that exposure to alcohol-related constructs, in the absence of consumption, can produce similar effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that alcohol priming is most likely to affect aggression in the context of ambiguous provocation. Experiment 1 showed that exposure to alcohol primes increased aggressive retaliation but only when an initial provocation was ambiguous; unambiguous provocation elicited highly aggressive responses regardless of prime exposure. Experiment 2 showed that alcohol prime exposure effects are relatively short-lived and that perceptions of the provocateur's hostility mediated effects of prime exposure on aggression. These findings suggest modification and extension of existing models of alcohol-induced aggression. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. The relationship between bilingualism and selective attention in young adults: Evidence from an ambiguous figures task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Sorge, Geoff B; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has shown that bilinguals outperform monolinguals on a variety of tasks that have been described as involving executive functioning, but the precise mechanism for those effects or a clear definition for "executive function" is unknown. This uncertainty has led to a number of studies for which no performance difference between monolingual and bilingual adults has been detected. One approach to clarifying these issues comes from research with children showing that bilinguals were more able than their monolingual peers to perceive both interpretations of an ambiguous figure, an ability that is more tied to a conception of selective attention than to specific components of executive function. The present study extends this notion to adults by assessing their ability to see the alternative image in an ambiguous figure. Bilinguals performed this task more efficiently than monolinguals by requiring fewer cues to identify the second image. This finding has implications for the role of selective attention in performance differences between monolinguals and bilinguals.

  5. Perceptions of personal sex discrimination: the role of belief in a just world and situational ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Becky; Hafer, Carolyn; Crosby, Faye; Foster, Mindi

    2012-01-01

    The roles of belief in a just world (BJW) and discrimination against ones' group in perceptions of personal discrimination were examined. Female participants (n = 63) were personally discriminated against in a laboratory setting. We manipulated whether the experimenter appeared to discriminate against other participants, which presumably made the presence of personal discrimination less ambiguous, or did not appear to discriminate against others, which presumably made personal discrimination more ambiguous. In the no group discrimination condition, but not in the group discrimination condition, participants' perceptions of being personally discriminated against depended on individual differences in BJW: Women with a strong BJW perceived less personal discrimination than those with a weak BJW. Also, strong BJW women in the group discrimination condition perceived less personal discrimination than strong BJW women in the no group discrimination condition.

  6. Ambiguity of large scale temperature reconstructions from artificial tree growth in millennial climate simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bothe, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The ambiguity of temperature reconstructions is assessed using pseudo tree growth series in the virtual reality of two simulations of the climate of the last millennium. The simple, process-based Vaganov-Shashkin-Lite (VS-Lite) code calculates tree growth responses controlled by a limited number of climatic parameters. Growth limitation by different ambient climate conditions allows for possible nonlinearity and non-stationarity in the pseudo tree growth series. Statistical reconstructions of temperature are achieved from simulated tree growth for random selections of pseudo-proxy locations by simple local regression and composite plus scaling techniques to address additional ambiguities in paleoclimate reconstructions besides the known uncertainty and shortcomings of the reconstruction methods. A systematic empirical evaluation shows that the interrelations between simulated target and reconstructed temperatures undergo strong variations with possibly pronounced misrepresentations of temperatures. Thus (i) c...

  7. Are You Insulting Me? Exposure to Alcohol Primes Increases Aggression Following Ambiguous Provocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, William C.; Vasquez, Eduardo A.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Grosvenor, Marianne; Truong, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase aggression and produce extremes in other social behaviors. Although most theories posit that such effects are caused by pharmacological impairment of cognitive processes, recent research indicates that exposure to alcohol-related constructs, in the absence of consumption, can produce similar effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that alcohol priming is most likely to affect aggression in the context of ambiguous provocation. Experiment 1 showed that exposure to alcohol primes increased aggressive retaliation but only when an initial provocation was ambiguous; unambiguous provocation elicited highly aggressive responses regardless of prime exposure. Experiment 2 showed that alcohol prime exposure effects are relatively short-lived and that perceptions of the provocateur's hostility mediated effects of prime exposure on aggression. These findings suggest modification and extension of existing models of alcohol-induced aggression. PMID:24854477

  8. Ambiguity Function Analysis and Processing for Passive Radar Based on CDR Digital Audio Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China Digital Radio (CDR broadcasting is a new standard of digital audio broadcasting of FM frequency (87–108 MHz based on our research and development efforts. It is compatible with the frequency spectrum in analog FM radio and satisfies the requirements for smooth transition from analog to digital signal in FM broadcasting in China. This paper focuses on the signal characteristics and processing methods of radio-based passive radar. The signal characteristics and ambiguity function of a passive radar illumination source are analyzed. The adverse effects on the target detection of the side peaks owing to cyclic prefix, the Doppler ambiguity strips because of signal synchronization, and the range of side peaks resulting from the signal discontinuous spectrum are then studied. Finally, methods for suppressing these side peaks are proposed and their effectiveness is verified by simulations.

  9. On the elimination of infinitesimal Gribov ambiguities in non-Abelian gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Antonio D.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F. [UFF - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    An alternative method to account for the Gribov ambiguities in gauge theories is presented. It is shown that, to eliminate Gribov ambiguities, at infinitesimal level, it is required to break the BRST symmetry in a soft manner. This can be done by introducing a suitable extra constraint that eliminates the infinitesimal Gribov copies. It is shown that the present approach is consistent with the well established known cases in the literature, i.e., the Landau and maximal Abelian gauges. The method is valid for gauges depending exclusively on the gauge field and is restricted to classical level. However, occasionally, we deal with quantum aspects of the technique, which are used to improve the results. (orig.)

  10. The musical magic of ambiguity in Benjamin Britten’s Death in Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Spies

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the blurred musical significations in Benjamin Britten’s Death in Venice, an opera based on Thomas Mann’s important novella Der Tod in Venedig. The discussion of multiple meanings links up with two categories of ambiguity as set out by William Empson in his Seven Types of Ambiguity, that is two or more meanings which do not agree among themselves, but combine to make clear a more complicated state of mind, and two opposite meanings that show a fundamental division in the mind of the protagonist. It is indicated how this opera, as a story through music, portrays the physical and moral decay of the anti-hero, Gustav von Aschenbach, who enters the opera as a celebrated, worldrenowned writer.

  11. High Order Linguistic Features Such as Ambiguity Processing as Relevant Diagnostic Markers for Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ketteler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the deficits of schizophrenic patients regarding the understanding of vague meanings (D. Ketteler and S. Ketteler (2010 we develop a special test battery called HOLF (high order linguistic function test, which should be able to detect subtle linguistic performance deficits in schizophrenic patients. HOLF was presented to 40 schizophrenic patients and controls, focussing on linguistic features such as ambiguity, synonymy, hypero-/hyponymy, antinomy, and adages. Using the HOLF test battery we found that schizophrenic patients showed significant difficulties in discriminating ambiguities, hypero- and hyponymy, or synonymy compared to healthy controls. Antonyms and adages showed less significant results in comparing both groups. The more difficult a linguistic task was, the more confusion was measured in the schizophrenic group while healthy controls did not show significant problems in processing high order language tasks.

  12. Black + white = black: hypodescent in reflexive categorization of racially ambiguous faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, Destiny; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2008-10-01

    Historically, the principle of hypodescent specified that individuals with one Black and one White parent should be considered Black. Two experiments examined whether categorizations of racially ambiguous targets reflect this principle. Participants studied ambiguous target faces accompanied by profiles that either did or did not identify the targets as having multiracial backgrounds (biological, cultural, or both biological and cultural). Participants then completed a speeded dual-categorization task requiring Black/not Black and White/not White judgments (Experiments 1 and 2) and deliberate categorization tasks requiring participants to describe the races (Experiment 2) of target faces. When a target was known to have mixed-race ancestry, participants were more likely to rapidly categorize the target as Black (and not White); however, the same cues also increased deliberate categorizations of the targets as "multiracial." These findings suggest that hypodescent still characterizes the automatic racial categorizations of many perceivers, although more complex racial identities may be acknowledged upon more thoughtful reflection.

  13. Documentation: International Legal Human Rights Framework -- Human Rights and the Institutionalisation of ASEAN: An Ambiguous Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Rathgeber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the ASEAN Charter of 2007 heralded an era of improved democracy, human rights protection and good governance in accordance with the rule of law, the reality on the ground tells a different story. While all of the trappings of a human rights mechanism are in place, the normative and protective capacity of the regime is ambiguous at best. The adoption of core international human rights treaties by ASEAN member states presents an ambiguous picture, one which reveals significant variations between the ten countries. The purported institutionalisation of international human rights standards since 2007 in the region via the creation of an ASEAN human rights mechanism in that year is betrayed by the poor condition of actual protection of human rights at the national and regional level. The article analyses the situation on the ground in light of the normative obligations and aspirations of the states.

  14. Who is respectful? Effects of social context and individual empathic ability on ambiguity resolution during utterance comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming eJiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Verbal communication is often ambiguous. By employing the event-related potential (ERP technique, this study investigated how a comprehender resolves referential ambiguity by using information concerning the social status of communicators. Participants read a conversational scenario which included a minimal conversational context describing a speaker and two other persons of the same or different social status and a directly quoted utterance. A singular, second-person pronoun in the respectful form (nin/nin-de in Chinese in the utterance could be ambiguous with respect to which of the two persons was the addressee (the Ambiguous condition. Alternatively, the pronoun was not ambiguous either because one of the two persons was of higher social status and hence should be the addressee according to social convention (the Status condition or because a word referring to the status of a person was additionally inserted before the pronoun to help indicate the referent of the pronoun (the Referent condition. Results showed that the perceived ambiguity decreased over the Ambiguous, Status, and Referent conditions. Electrophysiologically, the pronoun elicited an increased N400 in the Referent than in the Status and the Ambiguous conditions, reflecting an increased integration demand due to the necessity of linking the pronoun to both its antecedent and the status word. Relative to the Referent condition, a late, sustained positivity was elicited for the Status condition starting from 600 ms, while a more delayed, anterior negativity was elicited for the Ambiguous condition. Moreover, the N400 effect was modulated by individuals’ sensitivity to the social status information, while the late positivity effect was modulated by individuals’ empathic ability. These findings highlight the neurocognitive flexibility of contextual bias in referential processing during utterance comprehension.

  15. Pourquoi le diagnostic d'ambiguïté sexuelle constitue-t-il une urgence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'ambiguïté sexuelle est une urgence médicochirurgicale en raison du risque vital en période néonatale et de ces conséquences psychologiques qu'elle entraîne chez les parents et les enfants devenus adultes. Il convient poser très précocement le diagnostic afin d'assigner un sexe qui puisse permettre à l'enfant de vivre ...

  16. MEDICAL AUDIT OF CHILDREN WITH AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA- REVIEW OF CHILDREN TREATED OVER 18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praburam P. M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The survival of a newborn or a child presenting with ambiguous genitalia depends upon the timely diagnosis and institution of appropriate medical care. We undertook this study with the aim to determine if appropriate clinical and confirmatory diagnosis was arrived on time and if the treatment instituted was relevant and satisfactory. Methods: All children who were evaluated for ambiguous genitalia under the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology over the preceding 18 years were invited for a review. Data including time taken to make a clinical diagnosis, time taken to confirm the diagnosis, reasons for delay if any, and appropriateness of the sex assigned for rearing and treatment instituted were collected from the charts. Patients were evaluated for adequacy of response to treatment, compliance, problems encountered if any and subjective parental satisfaction. Results: A total of 165 children were diagnosed to have conditions with ambiguous genitalia and were called for a review. 33 children attended the review. 15 were being raised as boys and 18 as girls. 12 children had virilising congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, 6 had cryptorchidism, 6 had hypospadias, 3 had complete and 1 had partial testicular feminisation, 2 had mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD, 2 had hypogonadism and 1 was a true hermaphrodite. An appropriate clinical diagnosis was made in 30childrenon the day one and a final confirmatory diagnosis was made within a month in 23. Conclusion: In most conditions presenting with ambiguous genitalia, a clinical and confirmatory diagnosis can be made in a short duration. Initiation of appropriate treatment results in favourable outcomes in terms of growth sexual identity and adaptation.

  17. Relationships between communication apprehension, ambiguity tolerance and learning styles in accounting students

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Arquero; Carmen Fernández-Polvillo; Trevor Hassall; John Joyce

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the global business environment have led to changes in the skills required by accountants in order to add value for their clients. Consequently, there is a growing pressure on accounting educators to design and implement educational programmes that could contribute to the development of the relevant skills. In such a context, it is possible that some characteristics of students (for example communication apprehension, ambiguity tolerance, or learning styles) could be constrain...

  18. Spectroscopic approaches to resolving ambiguities of hyper-polarized NMR signals from different reaction cascades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Rose; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The influx of exogenous substrates into cellular reaction cascades on the seconds time scale is directly observable by NMR spectroscopy when using nuclear spin polarization enhancement. Conventional NMR assignment spectra for the identification of reaction intermediates are not applicable...... in these experiments due to the non-equilibrium nature of the nuclear spin polarization enhancement. We show that ambiguities in the intracellular identification of transient reaction intermediates can be resolved by experimental schemes using site-specific isotope labelling, optimised referencing and response...

  19. Building corporate reputation with stakeholders: exploring the role of message ambiguity for social marketers

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson-Delaporte, Sonia; Beverland, Michael B.; Lindgreen, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Managing the corporate reputation of hybrid firms (organizations that act commercially to pursue social agendas) involves particular challenges because of competing stakeholder interests. With reference to the Trappist beer market, the paper seeks to identify the value of message ambiguity in reducing stakeholder tension, while simultaneously achieving a clear market positioning.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – In total, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with brand marketer...

  20. Resolving the ambiguities: An industrial hygiene Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Resolving the Ambiguities: An Industrial Hygiene (IAQ) Symposium was a one-day event designed to inform practicing industrial hygienists about highlight presentations made at Indoor Air `93. A broad range of topics was presented by invited speakers. Topics included were attempts to deal with guidelines and standards, questionnaires, odors and sensory irritation, respiratory allergies, neuroses, sick building syndrome (SBS), and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS).

  1. Lack of trust in maternal support is associated with negative interpretations of ambiguous maternal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Simon; Waters, Theodore; Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Attachment theory assumes that children who lack trust in maternal availability for support are more inclined to interpret maternal behavior in congruence with their expectation that mother will remain unavailable for support. To provide the first test of this assumption, early adolescents (9-13 years old) were asked to assess whether ambiguous interactions with mother should be interpreted in a positive or a negative way. In our sample (n = 322), results showed that early adolescents' lack o...

  2. The influence of amplitude envelope information on resolving lexically ambiguous spoken words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Christine M; Pitt, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies exploring the contribution of amplitude envelope information to spoken word recognition are mixed with regard to the question of whether amplitude envelope alone, without spectral detail, can aid isolated word recognition. Three experiments show that the amplitude envelope will aid word identification only if two conditions are met: (1) It is not the only information available to the listener and (2) lexical ambiguity is not present. Implications for lexical processing are discussed.

  3. Vriendelijke burgemeesters in crisistijd: leiderschap, tijdsdruk en situationele ambiguïteit

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, B; de Hoogh, A.H.B.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between one of the Big Five personality traits 'agreeableness' and the autocratic and participative leadership behavior and effectiveness of mayors during crises. Based on trait activation theory, it was expected that the relationship between a mayor's agreeableness and his autocratic and participative leadership behavior and its effectiveness are dependent on the extent to which a crisis is characterized by time pressure and ambiguity. Expectations wer...

  4. How mathematicians think using ambiguity, contradiction, and paradox to create mathemathics

    CERN Document Server

    Byers, William

    2007-01-01

    To many outsiders, mathematicians appear to think like computers, grimly grinding away with a strict formal logic and moving methodically--even algorithmically--from one black-and-white deduction to another. Yet mathematicians often describe their most important breakthroughs as creative, intuitive responses to ambiguity, contradiction, and paradox. A unique examination of this less-familiar aspect of mathematics, How Mathematicians Think reveals that mathematics is a profoundly creative activity and not just a body of formalized rules and results

  5. Conservation′s Ambiguities: Rangers on the Periphery of the W Park, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Poppe

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates the central role of ambiguity in the (re)production process of conservation practice. It argues that some current political economy as well as environmentality approaches to research conservation practice fail to capture the complexity of the lived experience of local conservationists. The article focuses on the multiple identities of rangers in interaction with other residents at the periphery of the W Park in Burkina Faso, as rangers are local conservationists who ...

  6. The Cross of Wisdom : Ambiguities in Turning Down Apologetics (Paul, Anselm, Barth)

    OpenAIRE

    Feneuil, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Recalling Anselm)s interpretation of the "fool" (insipiens), Anthony Feneuil delves into the ambiguities of the decision, still frequent in many quarters of modern theology, to reject apologetics. In what name do we reject apologetics? In the name of a sort of fideism, which postulates that the theme of theology lies beyond what can be demonstrated by reason, or in the name of skepticism? [from the "Introduction" by H.-C. Askani and C. Chalamet

  7. The influence of sense-contingent argument structure frequencies on ambiguity resolution in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Anneline; Thompson, Robin L; Cruice, Madeline; Marshall, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Verbs with multiple senses can show varying argument structure frequencies, depending on the underlying sense. When acknowledge is used to mean 'recognise', it takes a direct object (DO), but when it is used to mean 'admit' it prefers a sentence complement (SC). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether people with aphasia (PWA) can exploit such meaning-structure probabilities during the reading of temporarily ambiguous sentences, as demonstrated for neurologically healthy individuals (NHI) in a self-paced reading study (Hare et al., 2003). Eleven people with mild or moderate aphasia and eleven neurologically healthy control participants read sentences while their eyes were tracked. Using adapted materials from the study by Hare et al. target sentences containing an SC structure (e.g. He acknowledged (that) his friends would probably help him a lot) were presented following a context prime that biased either a direct object (DO-bias) or sentence complement (SC-bias) reading of the verbs. Half of the stimuli sentences did not contain that so made the post verbal noun phrase (his friends) structurally ambiguous. Both groups of participants were influenced by structural ambiguity as well as by the context bias, indicating that PWA can, like NHI, use their knowledge of a verb's sense-based argument structure frequency during online sentence reading. However, the individuals with aphasia showed delayed reading patterns and some individual differences in their sensitivity to context and ambiguity cues. These differences compared to the NHI may contribute to difficulties in sentence comprehension in aphasia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MOCCS: Clarifying DNA-binding motif ambiguity using ChIP-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Haruka; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2016-08-01

    As a key mechanism of gene regulation, transcription factors (TFs) bind to DNA by recognizing specific short sequence patterns that are called DNA-binding motifs. A single TF can accept ambiguity within its DNA-binding motifs, which comprise both canonical (typical) and non-canonical motifs. Clarification of such DNA-binding motif ambiguity is crucial for revealing gene regulatory networks and evaluating mutations in cis-regulatory elements. Although chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) now provides abundant data on the genomic sequences to which a given TF binds, existing motif discovery methods are unable to directly answer whether a given TF can bind to a specific DNA-binding motif. Here, we report a method for clarifying the DNA-binding motif ambiguity, MOCCS. Given ChIP-Seq data of any TF, MOCCS comprehensively analyzes and describes every k-mer to which that TF binds. Analysis of simulated datasets revealed that MOCCS is applicable to various ChIP-Seq datasets, requiring only a few minutes per dataset. Application to the ENCODE ChIP-Seq datasets proved that MOCCS directly evaluates whether a given TF binds to each DNA-binding motif, even if known position weight matrix models do not provide sufficient information on DNA-binding motif ambiguity. Furthermore, users are not required to provide numerous parameters or background genomic sequence models that are typically unavailable. MOCCS is implemented in Perl and R and is freely available via https://github.com/yuifu/moccs. By complementing existing motif-discovery software, MOCCS will contribute to the basic understanding of how the genome controls diverse cellular processes via DNA-protein interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ambiguous Genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetics, endocrinology (hormones), pediatric surgery or urology, and psychology. Questions to ask your doctor • What is my baby’s sex? • Does my child need treatment now or later? • Are there support ...

  10. Ambiguous Allegories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluge, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    or dramatic bagatelles meant to divert a decadent royal audience interested in nothing but idle amorous intrigues and pretty words. In fact, we find some of Lope and Calderón’s most solemn involvements with the tragic among the serious mythological comedias. Not fullblown realizations of the tragedia patética...

  11. Ambiguous Genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reconstruct an incomplete penis may improve appearance and make erections possible. Results of surgery are often satisfying, but repeat surgeries may be needed later. Risks include a disappointing cosmetic result or sexual dysfunction, such as an impaired ...

  12. Ambiguous Genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetics, endocrinology (hormones), pediatric surgery or urology, and psychology. Questions to ask your doctor • What is my ... advanced clinical and scientific knowledge from The Endocrine Society ( www. endo- society. org ). The Network’s goal is ...

  13. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the connection between contract duration, relational mechanisms, and premature relationship termination. Based on an analysis of a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service-provider industry, we argue that investments in either longer contract duration or more...

  14. Ambiguous Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar

    2011-01-01

    the discursive ordering practices of welfare services for marginalized citizens, i.e. the homeless. On this basis, it contrasts what we term a ‘modern’ versus a ‘postmodern’ perspective upon organized welfare. Some limits to a postmodern position are indicated, in particular with respect to the ideal...

  15. Ambiguous Intimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation explores how intimacy is experienced and practiced by hiv-positive women and children in aids treatment within an urban environment of volatility and spatial proximity in South Africa. It is based on thirteen months of ethnographic fieldwork in Khayelitsha township on the outskirts...... of Cape Town, where hiv is widespread and aids medicines widely available through the public health system. Here, at this particular time and place in the epidemic, hiv is first and foremost not about the disruption of intimate relationships through severe illness and untimely deaths; rather, it is about...... finding ways of living with hiv as an integral part of everyday mundane life. The argument in the dissertation is phenomenological in its attention to the everyday lifeworld and explores matters of intimacy through women and children's 'doing' of aids medicine and life in a densely populated informal...

  16. Target Tracking Using SePDAF under Ambiguous Angles for Distributed Array Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Long

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed array radar can improve radar detection capability and measurement accuracy. However, it will suffer cyclic ambiguity in its angle estimates according to the spatial Nyquist sampling theorem since the large sparse array is undersampling. Consequently, the state estimation accuracy and track validity probability degrades when the ambiguous angles are directly used for target tracking. This paper proposes a second probability data association filter (SePDAF-based tracking method for distributed array radar. Firstly, the target motion model and radar measurement model is built. Secondly, the fusion result of each radar’s estimation is employed to the extended Kalman filter (EKF to finish the first filtering. Thirdly, taking this result as prior knowledge, and associating with the array-processed ambiguous angles, the SePDAF is applied to accomplish the second filtering, and then achieving a high accuracy and stable trajectory with relatively low computational complexity. Moreover, the azimuth filtering accuracy will be promoted dramatically and the position filtering accuracy will also improve. Finally, simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. 'Dealing with ambiguity'- the role of obstetricians in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Margareta; Hörnsten, Asa; Winkvist, Anna; Mogren, Ingrid

    2012-04-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is a pregnancy-related complication and therefore obstetricians counsel and manage the maternal health care for these women. This study describes obstetricians' experiences of management of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Interview study. Hospital-based specialist maternal health care clinics in Sweden. A consecutive purposive national sample of 17 obstetricians providing maternal health care to pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The overall theme describing the experiences of the obstetricians was labeled 'Dealing with ambiguity'. This ambiguity permeated all aspects of working as an obstetrician within the maternal health care; the role of the obstetrician, the context of organization, the multifaceted maternal and fetal interests to balance, and lack of consensus, recommendations and evidence-based knowledge. The study revealed the ambiguous situation experienced and managed by obstetricians providing maternal health care to pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. This indicates a need for national guidelines and standardized maternal health care services regarding gestational diabetes mellitus to fulfill the intentions of the health care system. Such recommendations may be beneficial and supportive for the health care professionals as well as for the mother-to-be and her fetus. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Conservation′s Ambiguities: Rangers on the Periphery of the W Park, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Poppe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the central role of ambiguity in the (reproduction process of conservation practice. It argues that some current political economy as well as environmentality approaches to research conservation practice fail to capture the complexity of the lived experience of local conservationists. The article focuses on the multiple identities of rangers in interaction with other residents at the periphery of the W Park in Burkina Faso, as rangers are local conservationists who simultaneously submit to and produce conservation practices. Park rangers are village men who are recruited under the banner of community participation in conservation projects and state forestry. On a day-to-day basis, these rangers help the foresters with the management of the natural resources on the one hand, and guide tourists, especially in the hunting concessions, on the other. They occupy ambiguous positions at the crossroads of conservationist, state, political, economic, spiritual, social, and cultural practices, inherent to their conservation occupations at the lowest echelon, where residents have to transform conservation policies into practices. It is precisely this ambiguity that turns out to ensure the conservation implementation.

  19. Calibration of Magnetometers with GNSS Receivers and Magnetometer-Aided GNSS Ambiguity Fixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Patrick

    2017-06-08

    Magnetometers provide compass information, and are widely used for navigation, orientation and alignment of objects. As magnetometers are affected by sensor biases and eventually by systematic distortions of the Earth magnetic field, a calibration is needed. In this paper, a method for calibration of magnetometers with three Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers is presented. We perform a least-squares estimation of the magnetic flux and sensor biases using GNSS-based attitude information. The attitude is obtained from the relative positions between the GNSS receivers in the North-East-Down coordinate frame and prior knowledge of these relative positions in the platform's coordinate frame. The relative positions and integer ambiguities of the periodic carrier phase measurements are determined with an integer least-squares estimation using an integer decorrelation and sequential tree search. Prior knowledge on the relative positions is used to increase the success rate of ambiguity fixing. We have validated the proposed method with low-cost magnetometers and GNSS receivers on a vehicle in a test drive. The calibration enabled a consistent heading determination with an accuracy of five degrees. This precise magnetometer-based attitude information allows an instantaneous GNSS integer ambiguity fixing.

  20. On the impact of GNSS ambiguity resolution: geometry, ionosphere, time and biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandeh, A.; Teunissen, P. J. G.

    2017-11-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) is the key to fast and precise GNSS positioning and navigation. Next to the positioning parameters, however, there are several other types of GNSS parameters that are of importance for a range of different applications like atmospheric sounding, instrumental calibrations or time transfer. As some of these parameters may still require pseudo-range data for their estimation, their response to IAR may differ significantly. To infer the impact of ambiguity resolution on the parameters, we show how the ambiguity-resolved double-differenced phase data propagate into the GNSS parameter solutions. For that purpose, we introduce a canonical decomposition of the GNSS network model that, through its decoupled and decorrelated nature, provides direct insight into which parameters, or functions thereof, gain from IAR and which do not. Next to this qualitative analysis, we present for the GNSS estimable parameters of geometry, ionosphere, timing and instrumental biases closed-form expressions of their IAR precision gains together with supporting numerical examples.

  1. Rotation Matrix Method Based on Ambiguity Function for GNSS Attitude Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingdong; Mao, Xuchu; Tian, Weifeng

    2016-06-08

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are well suited for attitude determination. In this study, we use the rotation matrix method to resolve the attitude angle. This method achieves better performance in reducing computational complexity and selecting satellites. The condition of the baseline length is combined with the ambiguity function method (AFM) to search for integer ambiguity, and it is validated in reducing the span of candidates. The noise error is always the key factor to the success rate. It is closely related to the satellite geometry model. In contrast to the AFM, the LAMBDA (Least-squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment) method gets better results in solving the relationship of the geometric model and the noise error. Although the AFM is more flexible, it is lack of analysis on this aspect. In this study, the influence of the satellite geometry model on the success rate is analyzed in detail. The computation error and the noise error are effectively treated. Not only is the flexibility of the AFM inherited, but the success rate is also increased. An experiment is conducted in a selected campus, and the performance is proved to be effective. Our results are based on simulated and real-time GNSS data and are applied on single-frequency processing, which is known as one of the challenging case of GNSS attitude determination.

  2. Audit of manufactured products: use of allergen advisory labels and identification of labeling ambiguities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieretti, Mariah M; Chung, Danna; Pacenza, Robert; Slotkin, Todd; Sicherer, Scott H

    2009-08-01

    The Food Allergy Labeling and Consumer Protection Act became effective January 1, 2006, and mandates disclosure of the 8 major allergens in plain English and as a source of ingredients in the ingredient statement. It does not regulate advisory labels. We sought to determine the frequency and language used in voluntary advisory labels among commercially available products and to identify labeling ambiguities affecting consumers with allergy. Trained surveyors performed a supermarket survey of 20,241 unique manufactured food products (from an original assessment of 49,604 products) for use of advisory labels. A second detailed survey of 744 unique products evaluated additional labeling practices. Overall, 17% of 20,241 products surveyed contain advisory labels. Chocolate candy, cookies, and baking mixes were the 3 categories of 24 with the greatest frequency (> or = 40%). Categorically, advisory warnings included "may contain" (38%), "shared equipment" (33%), and "within plant" (29%). The subsurvey disclosed 25 different types of advisory terminology. Nonspecific terms, such as "natural flavors" and "spices," were found on 65% of products and were not linked to a specific ingredient for 83% of them. Additional ambiguities included unclear sources of soy (lecithin vs protein), nondisclosure of sources of gelatin and lecithin, and simultaneous disclosure of "contains" and "may contain" for the same allergen, among others. Numerous products have advisory labeling and ambiguities that present challenges to consumers with food allergy. Additional allergen labeling regulation could improve safety and quality of life for individuals with food allergy.

  3. Memory cueing during sleep modifies the interpretation of ambiguous scenes in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, Sabine; McMakin, Dana; Guggenbühl, Patrick; Rasch, Björn; Huber, Reto; Wilhelm, Ines

    2016-02-01

    The individual tendency to interpret ambiguous situations negatively is associated with mental disorders. Interpretation biases are already evident during adolescence and due to the greater plasticity of the developing brain it may be easier to change biases during this time. We investigated in healthy adolescents and adults whether stabilizing memories of positive or negative scenes modulates the later interpretation of similar scenes. In the evening, participants learnt associations between ambiguous pictures and words that disambiguate the valence of the pictures in a positive or negative direction. Half of the words were acoustically presented (i.e. cued) during post-learning sleep which is known to benefit memory consolidation by inducing reactivation of learned information. Cued compared to un-cued stimuli were remembered better the next morning. Importantly, cueing positively disambiguated pictures resulted in more positive interpretations whereas cueing negatively disambiguated pictures led to less positive interpretations of new ambiguous pictures with similar contents the next morning. These effects were not modulated by participants' age indicating that memory cueing was as efficient in adolescents as in adults. Our findings suggest that memory cueing during sleep can modify interpretation biases by benefitting memory stabilization and generalization. Implications for clinical settings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Target Tracking Using SePDAF under Ambiguous Angles for Distributed Array Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Teng; Zhang, Honggang; Zeng, Tao; Chen, Xinliang; Liu, Quanhua; Zheng, Le

    2016-01-01

    Distributed array radar can improve radar detection capability and measurement accuracy. However, it will suffer cyclic ambiguity in its angle estimates according to the spatial Nyquist sampling theorem since the large sparse array is undersampling. Consequently, the state estimation accuracy and track validity probability degrades when the ambiguous angles are directly used for target tracking. This paper proposes a second probability data association filter (SePDAF)-based tracking method for distributed array radar. Firstly, the target motion model and radar measurement model is built. Secondly, the fusion result of each radar’s estimation is employed to the extended Kalman filter (EKF) to finish the first filtering. Thirdly, taking this result as prior knowledge, and associating with the array-processed ambiguous angles, the SePDAF is applied to accomplish the second filtering, and then achieving a high accuracy and stable trajectory with relatively low computational complexity. Moreover, the azimuth filtering accuracy will be promoted dramatically and the position filtering accuracy will also improve. Finally, simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27618058

  5. Negotiators' profit predicted by cognitive reappraisal, suppression of emotions, misrepresentation of information, and tolerance of ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between negative emotions and variables that affect negotiators' profit. Based on a simulated negotiation, this study induced emotions by providing negative feedback on how negotiating partners perceived and evaluated each other's behavior. Then relationships were examined between negative emotions and emotional regulation strategies, misrepresentation of information, tolerance of ambiguity, and negotiators' profit. A total of 228 undergraduate students enrolled in an economics course in the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Management at a university in Ankara participated. There were 130 students in the experimental group and 98 students in the control group; 102 were men and 126 were women, ages 17 to 35 years (M =22.6 yr., SD = 2.3). A simulated negotiation process was used. Regression coefficients suggested positive relation between Emotional Reaction and the use of a Suppression strategy and Misrepresentation of Information. Negative coefficients were obtained from scores between Emotional Reaction and Cognitive Reappraisal and Tolerance of Ambiguity. The regression also suggested there were negative regression coefficients linking Misrepresentation of Information and Suppression strategies to Negotiators' Profit. Positive regression coefficients linked Tolerance of Ambiguity to Negotiators' Profit. Mediating variables explained 55% of variance in Negotiators' Profit; the majority (43%) was explained by Cognitive Reappraisal.

  6. A study of ultraviolet renormalon ambiguities in the determination of $\\alpha_{s}$ from $\\tau$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Ridolfi, G; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G

    1995-01-01

    The divergent large-order behaviour of the perturbative series relevant for the determination of \\as from \\tau decay is controlled by the leading ultraviolet (UV) renormalon. Even in the absence of the first infrared (IR) renormalon, an ambiguity of order \\Lambda^2/m_\\tau^2 is introduced. We make a quantitative study of the practical implications of this ambiguity. We discuss the magnitude of UV renormalon corrections obtained in the large-N_f limit, which, although unrealistic, is nevertheless interesting to some extent. We then study a number of improved approximants for the perturbative series, based on a change of variable in the Borel representation, such as to displace the leading UV renormalon singularity at a larger distance from the origin than the first IR renormalon. The spread of the resulting values of \\as(m^2_\\tau) obtained by different approximants, at different renormalization scales, is exhibited as a measure of the underlying ambiguities. Finally, on the basis of mathematical models, we disc...

  7. Acute Stress Eliminates Female Advantage in Detection of Ambiguous Negative Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. DeDora

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human stress response evolved to maximize an individual's probability of survival when threatened. The present study addressed whether physical danger modulates perception of an unrelated ambiguous threat and, if so, to what extent this response is sex-specific. The authors utilized a first-time tandem skydive as a stressor, which had been previously validated as producing a highly-controlled, genuinely stressful environment. In a counter-balanced within-subjects design, participants wore a virtual reality helmet to complete an emotion-identification task during the plane's ascent (stress condition and in the laboratory (control condition. Participants were presented static male faces morphed between 20–80% aggression, which gradually emerged from degraded images. Using a binary forced-choice design, participants identified each ambiguous face as aggressive or neutral. Results showed that participants characterized emotion more rapidly under stress versus control conditions. Unexpectedly, the results also show that while women were more sensitive to affect ambiguity than men under control conditions, they exhibited a marked decrease in sensitivity equivalent to men while under stress.

  8. How vestibular neurons solve the tilt/translation ambiguity. Comparison of brainstem, cerebellum, and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaki, Dora E; Yakusheva, Tatyana A

    2009-05-01

    The peripheral vestibular system is faced by a sensory ambiguity, where primary otolith afferents respond identically to translational (inertial) accelerations and changes in head orientation relative to gravity. Under certain conditions, this sensory ambiguity can be resolved using extra-otolith cues, including semicircular canal signals. Here we review and summarize how neurons in the vestibular nuclei, rostral fastigial nuclei, cerebellar nodulus/uvula, and thalamus respond during combinations of tilt and translation. We focus primarily on cerebellar cortex responses, as nodulus/uvula Purkinje cells reliably encode translation rather than net gravito-inertial acceleration. In contrast, neurons in the vestibular and rostral fastigial nuclei, as well as the ventral lateral and ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus represent a continuum, with some encoding translation and some net gravito-inertial acceleration. This review also outlines how Purkinje cells use semicircular canal signals to solve the ambiguity problem and how this solution fails at low frequencies. We conclude by attempting to bridge the gap between the proposed roles of nodulus/uvula in tilt/translation discrimination and velocity storage.

  9. Biased interpretations of ambiguous bodily threat information in adolescents with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, L C; Jacobs, K; Eccleston, C; Fox, E; Lau, J Y F

    2017-03-01

    Adult patients with chronic pain are consistently shown to interpret ambiguous health and bodily information in a pain-related and threatening way. This interpretation bias may play a role in the development and maintenance of pain and disability. However, no studies have yet investigated the role of interpretation bias in adolescent patients with pain, despite that pain often first becomes chronic in youth. We administered the Adolescent Interpretations of Bodily Threat (AIBT) task to adolescents with chronic pain (N = 66) and adolescents without chronic pain (N = 74). Adolescents were 10 to 18 years old and completed the study procedures either at the clinic (patient group) or at school (control group). We found that adolescents with chronic pain were less likely to endorse benign interpretations of ambiguous pain and bodily threat information than adolescents without chronic pain, particularly when reporting on the strength of belief in those interpretations being true. These differences between patients and controls were not evident for ambiguous social situations, and they could not be explained by differences in anxious or depressive symptoms. Furthermore, this interpretation pattern was associated with increased levels of disability among adolescent patients, even after controlling for severity of chronic pain and pain catastrophizing. The current findings extend our understanding of the role and nature of cognition in adolescent pain, and provide justification for using the AIBT task in longitudinal and training studies to further investigate causal associations between interpretation bias and chronic pain.

  10. [Eye movement parameters in reading the sentences with syntactic ambiguity in Russian language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, V A; Fedorova, O V; Latanov, A V

    2014-01-01

    We studied the eye movement parameters during reading of syntactically ambiguous sentences with feminine relative clause in Russian language. A priori difficulties of sentence structural analysis results in increase of time spent on reading as opposed to reading control sentences (unambiguous). Such a delay is caused by an increase of frequency of regressions (backward saccades) which are executed for rereading an ambiguous fragment ofsentence. This fact in turn leads to an increase in number of fixations and their duration. The total reading time for particular words composing the ambiguous fragment of sentence depended on disambiguation result (relative clause attachment, early/late closure). In case of early closure (when the subject attached relative clause to first noun) the total reading time for this noun exceeded one for second noun. In case of late closure (when the subject attached relative clause to second noun) the total reading time for both nouns didn't differ. Our results indicate that early closure domination in Russian language determines the greater total reading time for first noun of nominal group associated with relative clause.

  11. Memory cueing during sleep modifies the interpretation of ambiguous scenes in adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Groch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The individual tendency to interpret ambiguous situations negatively is associated with mental disorders. Interpretation biases are already evident during adolescence and due to the greater plasticity of the developing brain it may be easier to change biases during this time. We investigated in healthy adolescents and adults whether stabilizing memories of positive or negative scenes modulates the later interpretation of similar scenes. In the evening, participants learnt associations between ambiguous pictures and words that disambiguate the valence of the pictures in a positive or negative direction. Half of the words were acoustically presented (i.e. cued during post-learning sleep which is known to benefit memory consolidation by inducing reactivation of learned information. Cued compared to un-cued stimuli were remembered better the next morning. Importantly, cueing positively disambiguated pictures resulted in more positive interpretations whereas cueing negatively disambiguated pictures led to less positive interpretations of new ambiguous pictures with similar contents the next morning. These effects were not modulated by participants’ age indicating that memory cueing was as efficient in adolescents as in adults. Our findings suggest that memory cueing during sleep can modify interpretation biases by benefitting memory stabilization and generalization. Implications for clinical settings are discussed.

  12. A Review of the Scattering-Parameter Extraction Method with Clarification of Ambiguity Issues in Relation to Metamaterial Homogenization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Hansen, Troels Vejle; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    The scattering-parameter extraction method of metamaterial homogenization is reviewed to show that the only ambiguity is that related to the choice of the branch of the complex logarithmic function (or the complex inverse cosine function). It is shown that the method has no ambiguity for the sign...... of a uniform plane wave normally incident on a planar slab in free space. The severity of the branch ambiguity is illustrated through simulations of a known metamaterial realization. Several approaches for proper branch selection are reviewed, and the suitability to metamaterial samples is discussed....

  13. Landslides risk mitigation along lifelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capparelli, G.; Versace, P.; Artese, G.; Costanzo, S.; Corsonello, P.; Di Massa, G.; Mendicino, G.; Maletta, D.; Leone, S.; Muto, F.; Senatore, A.; Troncone, A.; Conte, E.; Galletta, D.

    2012-04-01

    The paper describes an integrated, innovative and efficient solution to manage risk issues associated to landslides interfering with infrastructures. The research project was submitted for financial support in the framework of the Multi -regional Operational Programme 2007-13: Research and Competitiveness funded by the Ministry of Research (MIUR) and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project is aimed to developing and demonstrating an integrated system of monitoring, early warning and mitigation of landslides risk. The final goal is to timely identify potentially dangerous landslides, and to activate all needed impact mitigation measures, including the information delivery. The essential components of the system include monitoring arrays, telecommunication networks and scenario simulation models, assisted by a data acquisition and processing centre, and a traffic control centres. Upon integration, the system will be experimentally validated and demonstrated over ca. 200 km of three highway sections, crossing the regions of Campania, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily. Progress in the state of art is represented by the developments in the field of environmental monitoring and in the mathematical modeling of landslides and by the development of services for traffic management. The approach to the problem corresponds to a "systemic logics" where each developed component foresees different interchangeable technological solutions to maximize the operational flexibility. The final system may be configured as a simple to complex structure, including different configurations to deal with different scenarios. Specifically, six different monitoring systems will be realized: three "point" systems, made up of a network of locally measuring sensors, and three "area" systems to remotely measure the displacements of large areas. Each network will be fully integrated and connected to a unique data transmission system. Standardized and shared procedures for the

  14. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  15. Trend on Corrosion Mitigation Research Paper Publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Woung [Korea Institute Of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Those papers were analyzed and arranged in the form of publication years and citation, document types, research areas, source titles, countries and languages, organization and funding agencies. In the 'corrosion mitigation' search, the percentage of the publication number of the nuclear science and technology field was about 12%. The sum of the time cited and the average citation number per item in corrosion mitigation survey were 5059 and 11.47, respectively, while those in nuclear corrosion mitigation survey were 285 and 7.5, respectively. Among 38 source titles, the major ones were Nuclear Eng. and Design, Nuclear Sci. and Eng., Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping.

  16. 2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

    2009-09-30

    This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

  17. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 651 - Mitigation and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effectiveness, but also public interest or debate. (4) Mitigation outcome. The probability of the mitigation's... governed by who will actually perform the mitigation; a contractor, a cooperating agency, or an in-house...

  18. Voluntary climate change mitigation actions of young adults: a classification of mitigators through latent class analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi A E Korkala

    Full Text Available Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%. Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%, the Semi-active (63% and the Active (11% and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72% and the Active (28%. The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns.

  19. Voluntary climate change mitigation actions of young adults: a classification of mitigators through latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkala, Essi A E; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%). Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%), the Semi-active (63%) and the Active (11%) and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72%) and the Active (28%). The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns.

  20. Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 gave FDA the authority to require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) from manufacturers to...

  1. OEM Emergency Prevention and Mitigation Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management maintains information relevant to preventing emergencies before they occur, and/or mitigating the effects of emergency when they...

  2. Investigation of reflective cracking mitigation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In the state of Florida, an asphalt rubber membrane interlayer (ARMI) has been commonly used as a reflective cracking (RC) mitigation method, but inconsistent performance of an ARMI has been observed in the field. Moreover, the Heavy Vehicle Simulato...

  3. Indoor Air Vapor Intrusion Mitigation Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory has developed a technology transfer document regarding management and treatment of vapor intrusion into building structures. This document describes the range of mitigation technologies available.

  4. NIR LIDAR for Hazard Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have investigated the feasibility of employing a hazard detection and mitigation system based upon a polarization discriminating range-gated Lidar system. This...

  5. Nanotube Electrodes for Dust Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dust mitigation is critical to the survivability of vehicle and infrastructure components and systems and to the safety of astronauts during EVAs and planetary...

  6. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grant Program - Property Acquisitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HMGP provides grants to states and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures after a major disaster declaration. The HMGP is one of three...

  7. Mitigating risk during strategic supply network modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Müssigmann, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    Mitigating risk during strategic supply network modeling. - In: Managing risks in supply chains / ed. by Wolfgang Kersten ... - Berlin : Schmidt, 2006. - S. 213-226. - (Operations and technology management ; 1)

  8. Bioenergy as a Mitigation Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, P.; Brovkin, V.; Müller, C.; Cramer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bioenergy, being one of the renewable energies with the lowest costs, is expected to play an important role in the near future as climate change mitigation measure. Current practices of converting crop products such as carbohydrates or plant oils to ethanol or biodiesel have limited capabilities to curb emission. Moreover, they compete with food production for the most fertile lands. Thus, second generation bioenergy technologies are being developed to process lignocellulosic plant materials from fast growing tree and grass species. A number of deforestation experiments using Earth System models have shown that in the mid- to high latitudes, deforested surface albedo strongly increases in presence of snow. This biophysical effect causes cooling, which could dominate over the biogeochemical warming effect because of the carbon emissions due to deforestation. In order to find out the global bioenergy potential of extensive plantations in the mid- to high latitudes, and the resultant savings in carbon emissions, we use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5°. It represents both natural and managed ecosystems, including the cultivation of cellulosic energy crops. LPJmL is run with 21st century projections of climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration based on the IPCC-SRES business as usual or A2 scenario. Latitudes above 45° in both hemispheres are deforested and planted with crops having the highest bioenergy return for the respective pixels of the model. The rest of the Earth has natural vegetation. The agricultural management intensity values are used such that it results in the best approximation for 1999 - 2003 national yields of wheat and maize as reported by FAOSTAT 2009. Four different scenarios of land management are used ranging from an idealistic or best case scenario, where all limitations of soil and terrain properties are managed to the worst case scenario where none of these

  9. Resilience Mitigation Financing for Water and Wastewater Utilities Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Resilience Mitigation Financing for Water and Wastewater Utilities webinar focuses on tools and financing resources to conduct resilience planning and to mitigate impacts before a disaster strikes.

  10. Examining the Roles of Work Autonomous and Controlled Motivations on Satisfaction and Anxiety as a Function of Role Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Huyghebaert, Tiphaine

    2016-07-03

    Past research in the self-determination theory has shown that autonomous motivation is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., work satisfaction), whereas controlled motivation is related to negative outcomes (e.g., anxiety). The purpose of the present research was to examine the moderating function of role ambiguity on the relationships between work autonomous and controlled motivations on the one hand, and work satisfaction and anxiety on the other. Six hundred and ninety-eight workers (449 men and 249 women) participated in this study. Results revealed that autonomous motivation was most strongly related to satisfaction when ambiguity was low. In addition, controlled motivation was most strongly related to anxiety when ambiguity was high. In other words, the present findings suggest that the outcomes associated with each form of motivation may vary as a function of role ambiguity. The present study thus offers meaningful insights for organizations, managers, and employees.

  11. Hapl-o-Mat: open-source software for HLA haplotype frequency estimation from ambiguous and heterogeneous data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christian Schafer; Alexander H Schmidt; Jurgen Sauter

    2017-01-01

    ... donor registry planning. However, the estimation of haplotype frequencies from HLA genotyping data is challenged by the large amount of genotype data, the complex HLA nomenclature, and the heterogeneous and ambiguous nature of typing records...

  12. A Novel Sex Chromosome Mosaicism 45,X/45,Y/46,XY/46,YY/47,XYY Causing Ambiguous Genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Riaz; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Junxiang, Tang; Hui, Liu; Muhammad, Niaz; Fan, Cui; Zhu, Jiangsheng; Wu, Mian

    2017-11-01

    Sex chromosomal mosaicism has been considered as a major cause of human sexual differentiation disorders, like partial virilization and ambiguous genitalia. 45,X/46,XX, 45,X/46,XY and 46,XY/47,XXY are three most common sex chromosome mosaics associated with human ambiguous genitalia. Here, we report the case of a 3-year-old boy with ambiguous genitalia, bilateral cryptorchidism, and with an inguinal hernia. G banded cytological karyotyping and FISH analyses revealed that the patient has extremely rare and novel sex chromosome mosaic 45,X/45,Y/46,XY/46,YY/47,XYY karyotype. These cells exist in different percentages, important for phenotypic appearance of the patient. This is a first report of an unusual mosaic karyotype causing ambiguous genitalia. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  13. Amount of Conflicting Information In a Group Discussion and Tolerance for Ambiguity As Predictors of Task Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Michael

    1971-01-01

    The author found through experimentation that a person's tolerance for ambiguity alone is not sufficient to predict his attraction to a group discussion task since the amount of existing conflicting information will mediate evaluation of the task. (Author)

  14. Modeling of environmental adaptation versus pollution mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Yatsenko, Yuri; Hritonenko, Natali; Bréchet, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The paper combines analytic and numeric tools to investigate a nonlinear optimal control problem relevant to the economics of climate change. The problem describes optimal investments into pollution mitigation and environmental adaptation at a macroeconomic level. The steady-state analysis of this problem focuses on the optimal ratio between adaptation and mitigation. In particular, we analytically prove that the long- term investments into adaptation are profitable only for economies above c...

  15. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper compares model estimates of national and sectoral GHG mitigation potential across six key OECD GHG-emitting economies: Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, Mexico and the US. It examines the implications of model structure, baseline and policy assumptions, and assesses GHG mitigation potential estimates across a variety of models, including models that are used to inform climate policy-makers in each of these economies.

  16. Rural methods to mitigate arsenic contaminated water

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water is one of the burning issues in the rural world. Poor public awareness program about health effects of drinking arsenic contaminated water and the rural methods to mitigate this problem poses a great threat of arsenic poisoning many people of the rural world. In this thesis, arsenic removal efficiency and the working mechanism of four rural and economical arsenic mitigation technologies i.e. solar oxidation and reduction of arsenic (SORAS), Bucket tr...

  17. Mitigation of EMI in a flyback converter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering Science) This study investigates the mitigation of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) in a flyback DC-DC converter. Without the use of filters, the maximum mitigation of EMI possible without significantly decreasing converter operating efficiency is investigated. The following parameters are found to influence EMI: · Switching speed: Decreasing switching speed (increasing rise and fall times of the MOSFET) effectively reduces both commo...

  18. Problems with mitigation translocation of herpetofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian K; Nowak, Erika M; Kwiatkowski, Matthew A

    2015-02-01

    Mitigation translocation of nuisance animals is a commonly used management practice aimed at resolution of human-animal conflict by removal and release of an individual animal. Long considered a reasonable undertaking, especially by the general public, it is now known that translocated subjects are negatively affected by the practice. Mitigation translocation is typically undertaken with individual adult organisms and has a much lower success rate than the more widely practiced conservation translocation of threatened and endangered species. Nonetheless, the public and many conservation practitioners believe that because population-level conservation translocations have been successful that mitigation translocation can be satisfactorily applied to a wide variety of human-wildlife conflict situations. We reviewed mitigation translocations of reptiles, including our own work with 3 long-lived species (Gila monsters [Heloderma suspectum], Sonoran desert tortoises [Gopherus morafkai], and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes [Crotalus atrox]). Overall, mitigation translocation had a low success rate when judged either by effects on individuals (in all studies reviewed they exhibited increased movement or increased mortality) or by the success of the resolution of the human-animal conflict (translocated individuals often returned to the capture site). Careful planning and identification of knowledge gaps are critical to increasing success rates in mitigation translocations in the face of increasing pressure to find solutions for species threatened by diverse anthropogenic factors, including climate change and exurban and energy development. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Using an ambiguous cue paradigm to assess cognitive bias in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla during a forage manipulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly C. McGuire

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In nonhumans, ‘optimism’ is often defined as responding to an ambiguous item in the same manner as to items previously associated with reward (or lack of punishment, and “pessimism” is defined as responding to an ambiguous item in the same manner as to items previously associated with a lack of reward (or with punishment. We measured the degree of “optimism” and “pessimism” in three captive male western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla during four consecutive two-week periods in which the amount of available forage material (mulberry, Moraceae or alfalfa, Medicago sativa was manipulated. We assessed cognitive bias using an ambiguous cue paradigm for the first time. Pairs of two-dimensional shapes were presented on a touch-screen computer in a forced choice task in which one shape was always reinforced (P, one was never reinforced (N, and one was reinforced half the time, making it ambiguous (A. The gorillas were presented with an equivalent number of PA and NA pairs prior to testing, which also included probe trials of ambiguous items paired with novel items. During the limited forage phase, the gorillas, as a group, selected the ambiguous stimulus (indicating optimism at a level greater than chance; tests for all other phases were non-significant. The gorillas displayed individual differences in learning PA and NA trials and in their choice of ambiguous items on test trials. Idiosyncratic preferences for particular stimuli suggest that the ambiguous cue paradigm may not be ideal for assessing cognitive bias in nonhumans.

  20. Interpretation of ambiguities by schoolchildren with low birth weight from Embu das Artes, São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Rebeca Rodrigues; Araújo, Sarah Cueva Cândido Soares de; Isotani, Selma Mie; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Perissinoto, Jacy

    To assess the development of language regarding the ability to recognize and interpret lexical ambiguity in low-birth-weight schoolchildren enrolled at the school system in the municipality of Embu das Artes, Sao Paulo state, compared with that of schoolchildren with normal birth weight. A case-control, retrospective, cross-sectional study conducted with 378 schoolchildren, both genders, aged 5 to 9.9 years, from the municipal schools of Embu das Artes. Study Group (SG) comprising 210 schoolchildren with birth weight < 2500 g. Control Group (CG) composed of 168 school children with birth weight ≥ 2500 g. Participants of both groups were compared with respect to the skills of recognition and verbal interpretation of sentences containing lexical ambiguity using the Test of Language Competence. Variables of interest: Age and gender of children; age and schooling of mothers. Statistical analysis: Descriptive analysis to characterize the sample and score per group; Student's t test for comparison between the total scores of each skill/subtest; Chi-square test to compare items within each subtest; multiple regression analysis for the intervening variables. Participants of the SG presented lower scores for ambiguous sentences compared with those of participants of the CG. Multiple regression analysis showed that child's current age was a predictor for all metalinguistic skills regarding interpretation of ambiguities in both groups. Participants of the SG presented lower specific and total scores than those of participants of the CG for ambiguity skills. The child's current age factor positively influenced the ambiguity skills in both groups.