Sample records for range-safe explosive device

  1. Explosion containment device (United States)

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.


    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  2. Predicting the Emplacement of Improvised Explosive Devices: An Innovative Solution (United States)

    Lerner, Warren D.


    In this quantitative correlational study, simulated data were employed to examine artificial-intelligence techniques or, more specifically, artificial neural networks, as they relate to the location prediction of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). An ANN model was developed to predict IED placement, based upon terrain features and objects…

  3. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  4. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices (United States)

    Kercel, Stephen W.; Burlage, Robert S.; Patek, David R.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Rayner, Timothy J.


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, one has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  5. Numerical simulation and experimental study of explosive projectile devices (United States)

    Selivanov, V. V.; Gryaznov, E. F.; Goldenko, N. A.; Sudomoev, A. D.; Feldstein, V. A.


    A study of explosive-throwing device (ETD) was undertaken to simulate the hypervelocity impact of space debris fragments (SDF) and meteoroids with spacecrafts. The principle of operation of an ETD is based on the cumulative effect in combination with the cut-off head of the cumulative jet, which enables one to simulate a compact particle, such as a meteoroid or a fragment of space debris. Different design schemes of ETD with different composition explosive charge initiation schemes with notably low speeds of the jet cut-off are explored, and a method to control the particle velocity is proposed. Numerical simulation of device modes and basic technical characteristics of experimental testing are investigated.

  6. Ocular injuries in survivors of improvised explosive devices (IED) in commuter trains


    Agarwal Vinay; Mehta Salil; Jiandani Prakash


    Abstract Background Ocular injuries are common in survivors of terror incidents that involve the use of explosive materials. These explosives are commonly of a High Explosive type (HE) and may be fashioned into improvised explosive devices (IED) that incorporate additional materials to maximise trauma and injuries. Serial IED explosions have occurred in commuter trains in several cities including London and Madrid but data on ocular injuries is limited. We report the ocular injuries of the su...

  7. Serious Gaming for Improvised Explosive Device Neutralization Training

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    Chan Christopher C.K.


    Full Text Available An improvised explosive device (IED is a “homemade” bomb intended to cause great harm when it explodes. The public safety task of identifying and neutralizing IEDs falls to military and police services often called explosive disposal units (EDU who act to neutralize the threat associated with the IED either rendering it inoperable or destroying it safely. EDUs train in various aspects of explosive handling and investigation but are limited in the tools available for safely analyzing real world bombs. This paper describes a game based approach to IED training that employs an interactive 3D simulation to spatially identify key IED components of interest. We give an example of how this approach might be used and provide a preliminary evaluation of its potential effectiveness. We employ images formed from a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM system captured using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI technology to a virtual IED in a game. Empirical evaluation and EDU testimony suggest accurate representation of the IED and the potential efficacy of the proposed approach for successfully identifying components in the bomb for the purposes of EDU training.

  8. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents (United States)


    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  9. Getting it Right: The Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US Army (United States)


    Getting it Right: The Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US Army A Monograph by MAJ Christian R. Johnson United States...Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Page Name of Candidate: Major Christian R. Johnson Monograph Title: Getting it Right: The Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US

  10. Systems Approach to Defeating Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices in U.S. Ports (United States)



  11. Research in Support of Electromagnetic Detection and Jamming of Improvised Explosive Devices (United States)


    electromagnetic radiation . 20Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs); electromagnetic detection of IEDs; electromagnetic propagation over earth; Galerkin method; EMF method; TEM horn antennas; transmission-line antennas ...SUBJECT TERMS Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs); electromagnetic detection of IEDs; electromagnetic propagation over earth; Galerkin method; EMF ...wires and give pointers to published material relevant to the analysis of health effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation . (a) Papers

  12. Ureteral injuries from gunshots and shells of explosive devices (United States)

    Abid, Ammar Fadil; Hashem, Hussein Lafta


    Context: Penetrating rather than blunt trauma is the most common cause of ureteral injuries. The approach to management differs from the far more common iatrogenic injury. Aims: The purpose of this series is to report our experience in ureteral trauma management, with attention to the diagnosis, repair, and outcome of these injuries. Materials and Methods: From April 2003 to October 2009, all abdominal trauma cases received alive, reviewed for penetrating ureteric injuries Results: A total of twenty (fifteen male, five female) penetrating ureteral injuries were evaluated. All penetrating ureteric injuries were due to (9 gunshot and 11 shells from explosive devices). Since the patients had a clear indication for surgery, no IVU or CT scan was done preoperatively, major intra-abdominal injuries were often associated. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intraoperatively in 8 cases (40%) While, twelve cases (60%) were diagnosed postoperatively. Eight ureteric injuries (40%) were proximal 1/3, 4 (20%) to middle 1/3 and 8 (40%) to the distal 1/3. Management was with stenting in 2 patients, ureteroureterostomy in 8, ureteroneocystostomy in 6, and nephrectomy in 4. Conclusions: In this study, a delay in diagnosis was a contributory factor in morbidity related to ureteral injury, the need for second operation in already compromised patients from associated injuries, The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, and colon injuries were associated with a high complication rate. Ureteral injuries must be considered early during the evaluation of penetrating abdominal injuries. PMID:20842252

  13. Ureteral injuries from gunshots and shells of explosive devices

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    Abid Ammar


    Full Text Available Context: Penetrating rather than blunt trauma is the most common cause of ureteral injuries. The approach to management differs from the far more common iatrogenic injury. Aims: The purpose of this series is to report our experience in ureteral trauma management, with attention to the diagnosis, repair, and outcome of these injuries. Materials and Methods: From April 2003 to October 2009, all abdominal trauma cases received alive, reviewed for penetrating ureteric injuries Results: A total of twenty (fifteen male, five female penetrating ureteral injuries were evaluated. All penetrating ureteric injuries were due to (9 gunshot and 11 shells from explosive devices. Since the patients had a clear indication for surgery, no IVU or CT scan was done preoperatively, major intra-abdominal injuries were often associated. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intraoperatively in 8 cases (40% While, twelve cases (60% were diagnosed postoperatively. Eight ureteric injuries (40% were proximal 1/3, 4 (20% to middle 1/3 and 8 (40% to the distal 1/3. Management was with stenting in 2 patients, ureteroureterostomy in 8, ureteroneocystostomy in 6, and nephrectomy in 4. Conclusions: In this study, a delay in diagnosis was a contributory factor in morbidity related to ureteral injury, the need for second operation in already compromised patients from associated injuries, The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, and colon injuries were associated with a high complication rate. Ureteral injuries must be considered early during the evaluation of penetrating abdominal injuries.

  14. An Analysis of the Initiation Process of Electro-Explosive Devices

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    Paulo Cesar de Carvalho Faria


    Full Text Available Electro-explosive devices (an electric resistance encapsulated by a primary explosive fundamentally convert electrical energy into thermal energy, to start off an explosive chemical reaction. Obviously, the activation of those devices shall not happen by accident or, even worse, by intentional exogenous influence. From an ordinary differential equation, which describes the electro-explosive thermal behavior, a remarkable, but certainly not intuitive, dependence of the temperature response on the time constant of the heat transfer process is verified: the temperature profile dramatically changes as the time constant spans a wide range of values, from much lesser than the pulse width to much greater than the pulse period. Based on this dependence, important recommendations, concerning the efficient and safety operation of electro-explosive devices, are proposed.

  15. The anatomy of a pipe bomb explosion: the effect of explosive filler, container material and ambient temperature on device fragmentation. (United States)

    Bors, Dana; Cummins, Josh; Goodpaster, John


    Understanding the mechanical properties of different piping material under various conditions is important to predicting the behavior of pipe bombs. In this study, the effect of temperature on pipe bomb containers (i.e., PVC, black steel and galvanized steel) containing low explosive fillers (i.e., Pyrodex and double-base smokeless powder (DBSP)) was investigated. Measurements of fragment velocity and mass were compared for similar devices exploded in the spring (low/high temperature was 8°C/21°C) and winter (low/high temperature range was -9°C/-3°C). The explosions were captured using high speed filmography and fragment velocities were plotted as particle vector velocity maps (PVVM). The time that elapsed between the initiation of the winter devices containing double-base smokeless powder (DBSP) and the failure of their pipe containers ranged from 5.4 to 8.1 ms. The maximum fragment velocities for these devices ranged from 332 to 567 m/s. The steel devices ruptured and exploded more quickly than the PVC device. The steel devices also generated fragments with higher top speeds. Distributions of fragment masses were plotted as histograms and fragment weight distribution maps (FWDM). As expected, steel devices generated fewer, larger fragments than did the PVC devices. Comparison to devices exploded in the spring revealed several pieces of evidence for temperature effects on pipe bombs. For example, the mean fragment velocities for the winter devices were at or above those observed in the spring. The maximum fragment velocity was also higher for the winter steel devices. Although there were no significant differences in mean relative fragment mass, the fragment weight distribution maps (FWDMs) for two winter devices had anomalous slopes, where lower energy filler caused more severe fragmentation than higher energy filler. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Apollo Spacecraft and Saturn V Launch Vehicle Pyrotechnics/Explosive Devices (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael


    The Apollo Mission employs more than 210 pyrotechnic devices per mission.These devices are either automatic of commanded from the Apollo spacecraft systems. All devices require high reliability and safety and most are classified as either crew safety critical or mission critical. Pyrotechnic devices have a wide variety of applications including: launch escape tower separation, separation rocket ignition, parachute deployment and release and electrical circuit opening and closing. This viewgraph presentation identifies critical performance, design requirements and safety measures used to ensure quality, reliability and performance of Apollo pyrotechnic/explosive devices. The major components and functions of a typical Apollo pyrotechnic/explosive device are listed and described (initiators, cartridge assemblies, detonators, core charges). The presentation also identifies the major locations and uses for the devices on: the Command and Service Module, Lunar Module and all stages of the launch vehicle.

  17. Ground Penetrating Radar : Ultra-wideband radars for improvised explosive devices and landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarovoy, A.


    For last two decades Ultra-Wideband Ground Penetrating Radars seemed to be a useful tool for detection and classification of landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). However limitations of radar technology considerably limited operational use of these radars. Recent research at TU Delft

  18. Explosive device of conduit using Ti Ni alloy

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    A. Yu. Kolobov


    Full Text Available Presently, materials have been developed which are capable at changing temperate to return significant inelastic deformations, exhibit rubber-like elasticity, convert heat into mechanical work, etc. The aggregate of these effects is usually called the shape memory effect.At present a great number of compounds and alloys with a shape memory effect has been known.These are alloys based on titanium nickelide (TiNi, copper-based alloys (Cu-Al, Cu-Sn, Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Zn-Si, etc., gold and silver (Ag-Cd, Au-Ag-Cd, Au-Cd-Cu, Au-Zn-Cu, etc., manganese (Mn-Cr, Fe-Cu, Mn-Cu-Ni, Mn-Cu-Zr, Mn-Ni, etc., iron (Fe-Mn, Fe-Ni, Fe-Al, etc., and other compounds.The alloys based on titanium nickelide (nitinol are the most widely used.Alloys with shape memory effect find various applications in engineering and medicine, namely connecting devices, actuators, transformable design, multipurpose medical implants, etc.There is a task of breaking fuel conduit during separating the spacecraft from the rocket in space technology.The paper examines the procedure for design calculation of the separating device of conduit with the use of Ti-Ni alloy. This device can be used instead of the pyro-knives.The device contains two semi-rings from Ti-Ni alloy. In the place of break on the conduit an annular radius groove is made.At a temperature of martensite passage the semi-rings undergo deformation and in the strained state are set in the device. With heating to the temperature of the austenitic passage of bushing macro-deformation the energy stored by the nitinol bushing is great enough to break the conduit on the neck.The procedures of design calculation and response time of device are given.

  19. Tracker Mindset for Explosive Device Emplacement Indicator Detection (United States)


    finding an increased number of IED emplacement indicators, whether they are from actual devices or hoaxes . The training we developed for this study... science , observed, “It is impossible for a criminal to act, especially considering the intensity of a crime, without leaving traces of this presence...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences : Alexandria, VA, 2002. Itti, L.; Koch, C. Target Detection Using Saliency-Based

  20. A neutron based vehicle-borne improvised explosive device detection system (United States)

    Koltick, D.; Kim, Y.; McConchie, S.; Novikov, I.; Belbot, M.; Gardner, G.


    Vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices pose significant risk to government facilities, economic centers and the general public. The detonation of large-scale explosive devices is a worldwide phenomenon. Checkpoint operations currently call for a manual search of vehicles, putting personnel at high risk. We have built a prototype, remotely controlled system to non-intrusively and non-destructively detect explosives with a vehicle inspection time of between 2 and 5 min. The system utilizes a neutron generator and high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in moving components that scan the entire vehicle and allow for a single location rescan. The neutron generator operates at ∼108 neutrons per second resulting in extremely small induced radiation levels and low exposure to possible stowaways. A control software operator interface is fully automated for remote operation of the hardware components and execution of the data analysis and threat algorithm with no operator intervention. Studies have been completed to characterize the performance of the system as a function of the weight of explosive within a complete set of vehicles. The underlying physical concepts of the system development are presented.

  1. Improvised Explosive Device Detector Dogs (IDDs): Is the USMC Barking Up the Wrong Tree? (United States)


    dogs . The dogs temperament is its hallmark: kind, outgoing, eager to please, and non-aggressive to man or animal. Hip and elbow dysplasia are the... dogs retire. Through selective breeding health problems such as hip dysplasia have been minimized. The benefit of selecting this breed as an...CONTRACT NUMBER Improvised Explosive Device Detector Dogs (IDDs): Is the USMC barking up the N/A wrong tree? 5b. GRANT NUMBER .. ~- - --- N/A

  2. Electromagnetic coupling between transmitters and electro-explosive devices located within an enclosure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Coats, Rebecca Sue


    This report documents calculations conducted to determine if 42 low-power transmitters located within a metallic enclosure can initiate electro-explosive devices (EED) located within the same enclosure. This analysis was performed for a generic EED no-fire power level of 250 mW. The calculations show that if the transmitters are incoherent, the power available is 32 mW - approximately one-eighth of the assumed level even with several worst-case assumptions in place.

  3. Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices and Precursors


    Roberto Viola; Nicola Liberatore; Domenico Luciani; Sandro Mengali


    A compact portable and standalone point sensor has been developed for the detection and identification of precursors of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and to be part of a network of sensors for the discovery of hidden bomb factories in homeland security applications. The sensor is based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), and it implements a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser source (EC-QCL). It makes use of an optical cell purposely designed with a ...

  4. Simulation Study of Near-Surface Coupling of Nuclear Devices vs. Equivalent High-Explosive Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Kevin B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walton, Otis R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benjamin, Russ [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlop, William H [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    -of-burial until it reached a value of one at a DOB between 15m and 20m. These simulations confirm the expected result that the variation of coupling to the ground, or the air, change s much more rapidly with emplacement location for a high-energy-density (i.e., nuclear-like) explosive source than it does for relatively low - energy - density chemical explosive sources. The Energy Partitioning, Energy Coupling (EPEC) platform at LLNL utilizes laser energy from one quad (i.e. 4-laser beams) of the 192 - beam NIF Laser bank to deliver ~10kJ of energy to 1mg of silver in a hohlraum creating an effective small-explosive ‘source’ with an energy density comparable to those in low-yield nuclear devices. Such experiments have the potential to provide direct experimental confirmation of the simulation results obtained in this study, at a physical scale (and time-scale) which is a factor of 1000 smaller than the spatial- or temporal-scales typically encountered when dealing with nuclear explosions.

  5. Propellant's differentiation using FTIR-photoacoustic detection for forensic studies of improvised explosive devices. (United States)

    Álvarez, Ángela; Yáñez, Jorge; Contreras, David; Saavedra, Renato; Sáez, Pedro; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri


    The use of propellant for making improvised explosive devices (IED) is an incipient criminal practice. Propellant can be used as initiator in explosive mixtures along with other components such as coal, ammonium nitrate, sulfur, etc. The identification of the propellant's brand used in homemade explosives can provide additional forensic information of this evidence. In this work, four of the most common propellant brands were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) which is a non-destructive micro-analytical technique. Spectra shows characteristic signals of typical compounds in the propellants, such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, guanidine, diphenylamine, etc. The differentiation of propellant components was achieved by using FTIR-PAS combined with chemometric methods of classification. Principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used to achieve an effective differentiation and classification (100%) of propellant brands. Furthermore, propellant brand differentiation was also assessed using partial least squares discriminant analyses (PLS-DA) by leave one out cross (∼97%) and external (∼100%) validation method. Our results show the ability of FTIR-PAS combined with chemometric analysis to identify and differentiate propellant brands in different explosive formulations of IED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of Referee Functions to the Vehicle-Born Improvised Explosive Device Problem


    Frederic Dambreville


    We propose a solution to the Vehicle-Born Improvised Explosive Device problem. This solution is based on a modelling by belief functions, and involves the construction of a combination rule dedicated to this problem. The construction of the combination rule is made possible by a tool developped in previous works, which is a generic framework dedicated to the construction of combination rules. This tool implies a tripartite architecture, with respective parts...

  7. Ocular injuries in survivors of improvised explosive devices (IED in commuter trains

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    Agarwal Vinay


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular injuries are common in survivors of terror incidents that involve the use of explosive materials. These explosives are commonly of a High Explosive type (HE and may be fashioned into improvised explosive devices (IED that incorporate additional materials to maximise trauma and injuries. Serial IED explosions have occurred in commuter trains in several cities including London and Madrid but data on ocular injuries is limited. We report the ocular injuries of the survivors of a series of IED explosions in crowded commuter trains. Methods 28 patients (56 eyes, 28 male, ages ranging from 22 to 52 years (mean 35.27 years were screened in the triage area or the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Testing included bedside visual acuity testing, torchlight examination of the anterior segment and dilated (or if necessary, undilated fundus examination. Selected patients underwent B-scan examination, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, orbits and the optic nerves or visual evoked potential assessment. The injuries, investigations and procedures were entered into the patient's case sheet as well as into a standardised format suggested by the Indian eye injury registry (IER. Results 16 of 28 patients (57.1% had ocular injuries whereas 12 (42.8% were found to be normal. Injuries were seen unilaterally in 10 patients and bilaterally in six yielding a total of 22 injured eyes. The common injuries were periorbital haemorrhages (09 eyes, 40%; first or second degree burns to the upper or lower lids (seen in 07 eyes, 31.8 % and corneal injuries (seen in 08 eyes, 36.3%. Open globe injuries were seen in two eyes of two patients (09%. One patient (4.5% had a traumatic optic neuropathy. Conclusion Ophthalmologists and traumatologists should be aware of these patterns of ocular injuries. Protocols need to include the screening of large numbers of patients in a short time, diagnostic tests (B scan, visual evoked potential (VEP etc and early surgery

  8. Capillary-driven microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for lab on a chip screening of explosive residues in soil. (United States)

    Ueland, Maiken; Blanes, Lucas; Taudte, Regina V; Stuart, Barbara H; Cole, Nerida; Willis, Peter; Roux, Claude; Doble, Philip


    A novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was designed to filter, extract, and pre-concentrate explosives from soil for direct analysis by a lab on a chip (LOC) device. The explosives were extracted via immersion of wax-printed μPADs directly into methanol soil suspensions for 10min, whereby dissolved explosives travelled upwards into the μPAD circular sampling reservoir. A chad was punched from the sampling reservoir and inserted into a LOC well containing the separation buffer for direct analysis, avoiding any further extraction step. Eight target explosives were separated and identified by fluorescence quenching. The minimum detectable amounts for all eight explosives were between 1.4 and 5.6ng with recoveries ranging from 53-82% from the paper chad, and 12-40% from soil. This method provides a robust and simple extraction method for rapid identification of explosives in complex soil samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing. (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H


    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries. ©RSNA, 2016.

  10. Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices and Precursors

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    Roberto Viola


    Full Text Available A compact portable and standalone point sensor has been developed for the detection and identification of precursors of improvised explosive devices (IEDs and to be part of a network of sensors for the discovery of hidden bomb factories in homeland security applications. The sensor is based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and it implements a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser source (EC-QCL. It makes use of an optical cell purposely designed with a miniaturized internal volume, to achieve fast response and high sensitivity, and that can also be heated to improve sensitivity towards less volatile compounds. The sensor has been assembled and successfully tested in the lab with several compounds, including IED’s precursors such as acetone, nitromethane, nitric acid, and hydrogen peroxide. The identification capability and limits of detection near the ppm level have been estimated for all these compounds.

  11. Identical fracture patterns in combat vehicle blast injuries due to improvised explosive devices; a case series

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    Commandeur Joris


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In November 2008, a surgical team from the Red Cross Hospital Beverwijk, the Netherlands, was deployed in Afghanistan for three months to attend in the army hospital of Kandahar. During their stay, four incidents of armored personnel carriers encountering an improvised explosive device were assessed. In each incident, two soldiers were involved, whose injuries were strikingly similar. Case presentation The described cases comprise paired thoracic vertebral fractures, radial neck fractures, calcaneal fractures and talar fractures. Moreover, the different types of blast injury are mentioned and related to the injuries described in our series. Acknowledging the different blast mechanisms is important for understanding possible injury patterns. Conclusion From this case series, as well as the existing literature on injury patterns caused by blast injuries, it seems appropriate to pay extra attention to bodily areas that were injured in other occupants of the same vehicle. Obviously, the additional surveillance for specific injuries should be complementary to the regular trauma work-up (e.g., ATLS.

  12. Identification of the Emplacement of Improvised Explosive Devices by Experienced Mission Payload Operators. (United States)

    McNeese, Nathan J; Cooke, Nancy J; Branaghan, Russell; Knobloch, Ashley; Taylor, Amanda


    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have become one of the deadliest threats to military personnel, resulting in over 50% of American combat casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan. Identification of IED emplacement is conducted by mission payload operators (MPOs). Yet, experienced MPOs are limited in number, making MPO training a critical intervention. In this article, we implement a Cognitive Engineering Based on Expert Skill methodology to better understand how experienced MPOs identify the emplacement of IEDs for the purposes of improving training. First, expert knowledge was elicited through interviews and questionnaires to identify the types of perceptual cues used and how these cues are cognitively processed. Results indicate that there are many different static and dynamic cues that interact with each other over time and space. Using data from the interviews and questionnaires, an empirically grounded framework is presented that explains the cognitive process of IED emplacement detection. Using the overall findings and the framework, IED emplacement training scenarios were developed and built into a simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Emotional Profile of a Group of Colombian Military Victims of Landmines or Improvised Explosive Devices]. (United States)

    Restrepo, Jorge Emiro; Yara, Eduardo Alfonso; Cano Betancur, Jessica; Tavera, Luz Navia


    Antipersonnel Mines (MAP) and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are frequently used in Colombia as an armed resource without the need for direct combat. The Department of Antioquia has the highest number of events associated with the detonation of such battle techniques. There are no studies on the psychological effects that appear as a result of accidents with Antipersonnel Mines and IEDs in the military population. To establish the psychological profile of a group of military victims of MAP and AEI, and a control group of soldiers who were not victims from the analysis of four emotional variables (depression, anxiety, anger and stress). The research was conducted using a case-control design in a .quantitative, comparative, descriptive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 80 soldiers assigned to the Seventh Division of the National Army of Colombia at Medellin, Antioquia. The sample included a group of 30 military cases and 50 soldiers as controls. The anxiety state, trait anxiety, state anger, and trait anger variables showed statistically significant differences between groups. There were no significant differences in the variables depression and stress between groups variables. There was no depression, anxiety, or stress in either of the two groups, but there were clinically significant levels of anger in both groups. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutralization of improvised explosive devices by high-power lasers: research results from the FP7 project ENCOUNTER (United States)

    Osterholz, J.; Lueck, M.; Lexow, B.; Wickert, M.


    The development of reliable techniques for the safe neutralization of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is an active field of research. Recently, innovative approaches for the neutralization of IEDs were developed and tested within the FP7 project ENCOUNTER ("Explosive Neutralisation and Mitigation Countermeasures for IEDs in Urban/Civil Environment") and were compared to existing, established technologies. Here, the ENCOUNTER project is presented with a special focus on the neutralization of IEDs by high-power lasers. The working principle of the application of high-power lasers for the neutralization of explosive devices is based on thermal effects. Heating of the IEDs main charge may occur either by direct irradiation of the explosive material or by heat transfer through the main charge's confinement. The aim of the application of the laser is to achieve a low order burning reaction of the explosive charge and thus a controlled neutralization of the IED. Since laser beams allow for the directed transport of energy, this technique can be applied over long stand-off distances and has thus potential for an increase of the safety of clearing forces and population in the case of terroristic attacks in a civilian environment. Within the ENCOUNTER project, a laboratory environment has been set up which allows for the irradiation of IEDs with a laser power of up to 10 kW. Experiments have been carried out on a broad spectrum of different types of IEDs. The processes during neutralization were studied in detail with high-speed diagnostics. On the basis of these experimental data, the safety and the reliability of the application of the laser was analyzed, and recommendations to end users were given. In addition to the results of the ENCOUNTER project, approaches for the numerical simulation of the neutralization of IEDs are discussed.

  15. Pulse X-ray device for stereo imaging and few-projection tomography of explosive and fast processes (United States)

    Palchikov, E. I.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Klypin, V. V.; Krasnikov, I. Y.; Ryabchun, A. M.


    This paper describes the operation principles and design features of the device for single pulse X-raying of explosive and high-speed processes, developed on the basis of a Tesla transformer with lumped secondary capacitor bank. The circuit with the lumped capacitor bank allows transferring a greater amount of energy to the discharge circuit as compared with the Marks-surge generator for more effective operation with remote X-ray tubes connected by coaxial cables. The device equipped with multiple X-ray tubes provides simultaneous X-raying of extended or spaced objects, stereo imaging, or few-projection tomography.

  16. The psychological effects of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) on UK military personnel in Afghanistan. (United States)

    Jones, Norman; Thandi, Gursimran; Fear, Nicola T; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil


    To explore the psychological consequences of improvised explosive device (IED) exposure as IEDs have been the greatest threat to UK military personnel in Afghanistan though the mental health consequences of IED exposure are largely unknown. Deployed UK military personnel completed a survey while deployed in Afghanistan. Combat personnel and those dealing specifically with the IED threat were compared with all other deployed personnel; the relationship between IED exposure, general combat experiences, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and General Health Questionnaire scores were evaluated. The response rate was 98% (n=2794). Half reported IED-related concerns, a third experienced exploding IEDs and a quarter gave medical aid to IED casualties. Combat and counter-IED threat personnel had higher levels of IED exposure than other deployed personnel. 18.8% of personnel who witnessed exploding IEDs scored positive for common mental disorder (General Health Questionnaire-12 scores ≥4) and 7.6% scored positive for probable PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version scores ≥44). After adjusting for general combat exposure and other observed confounders, PTSD symptoms were associated with IED exposure whereas common mental disorder symptoms were not. IED exposure, IED-related concerns and functional impairment accumulated during deployment but functional impairment was related to factors other than IED exposure alone. In Afghanistan, a substantial proportion of personnel were exposed to exploding IEDs however, the majority of exposed personnel were psychologically healthy. Psychological effects were similar for combat personnel and those dealing specifically with the IED threat but both groups were at greater psychological risk than other deployed personnel. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  17. Power Device Thermal Fault Tolerant Control of High-Power Three-Level Explosion-Proof Inverter Based on Holographic Equivalent Dual-Mode Modulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi-Zhou Xu; Chun-jie Wang; Yu-feng Peng


    It is necessary for three-level explosion-proof inverters to have high thermal stability and good output characteristics avoiding problems caused by power devices, such as IGBT, so it becomes a hot...

  18. Computational and experimental research of explosive meteorial devices with combined cumulative liners of the semi-sphere-cylinder shape (United States)

    Fedorov, S. V.; Ladov, S. V.; Nikolskaya, Ya M.


    On the basis of numerical modeling within the two-dimensional axisymmetric problem of continuum mechanics and experimental studies, the features of the formation of high-speed compact elements using cumulative charges with liners of the combined form have been analysed.Such liners may have a jet-forming part in the form of a hemisphere, a slightly stretched semi-ellipsoid or a truncated sphere and an ellipsoid, as well as a cutting part in the form of a cylinder.The constructive solutions promoting increase in mass and high-speed parametrs of the compact element formed by explosion are proposed.The variants of steel combined cumulative liners as a part of an explosive device provided the formation of non-gradient elements with a mass from15 to a fraction of a gram moving at speeds from 7.5 to 10 km / s respectively are defined.Such fairly simple explosive devices can be used to simulate, in terrestrial conditions, single and group effects of micrometeorites and fragments of space debris on rocket and space equipment.

  19. Recovery of DNA and fingermarks following deployment of render-safe tools for vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED). (United States)

    Ramasamy, S; Houspian, A; Knott, F


    Improvised explosive devices (IED) are responsible for a significant proportion of combat and civilian deaths around the world. Given the ease with which IEDs can be made, the large quantity of explosive which can be contained within or on a vehicle, and the use of VBIED in the past (for example the 2002 Bali bombing) in terrorist activities, VBIED are an ongoing concern for Defence and law enforcement agencies. Fingermark and DNA analyses are routinely used by police and forensic analysts to identify suspects involved in illegal activities. There is limited information available on the feasibility of obtaining fingermarks, fibres, hair and DNA samples following an explosive incident, or a situation whereby an IED has been rendered safe following the utilisation of an appropriate defeat or render-safe tool. The main objective of this study was to determine if fingermarks and/or DNA (from saliva and hair samples) placed on the interior and exterior of road vehicles, and on inanimate objects (such as plastic or glass bottles), are able to be obtained and analysed following the use of a vehicle-borne IED (VBIED) render-safe tool on a vehicle containing simulated explosives. The identification of fingermarks on the exterior (67.2±8.5%) and interior (43.8±17.8%) of the vehicles was possible following the use of the render-safe tool, though this was more challenging in the latter than the former. Fingermarks were also able to be identified from both plastic and glass bottles placed inside the vehicles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques yielded DNA profiles that were able to be identified from saliva and hair samples. These preliminary results suggest that both fingermarks and DNA profiles, obtained from vehicles that have been subjected to a VBIED render-safe tool, may be used to identify persons of interest. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transformer Oil Dielectric Strength in the Contact Gap of the Explosive Arc-Extinguishing Device (United States)

    Muravlev, I. O.; Surkov, M. A.; Tarasov, E. V.; Tsoggerel, Kh; Uvarov, N. F.


    The article describes the experimental results on the breakdown of the high-speed flow of transformer oil. In real conditions, the flow moves in the contact gap of a high-voltage explosive switch with speeds from 67 to 152 m / s. The geometry of the contact gap is sharply inhomogeneous and forms turbulence in the flow zone. In the arc chute medium the air inclusions pass from the dissolved state to the gaseous and the emerging bubbles enter to the electric field. Breakdown occurs, mainly through gas inclusions. In the moment, the gradient of the breakdown voltage is reduced by 91.6% compared to the static state of the oil. The experiments were carried out on the model of a high-voltage explosive switch, connected to the power circuit of the surge generator. The probing of the gap was made by a standard pulse of 1.5 / 50 μs. As a result, the dependences of the gradient of the breakdown voltage on the flow rate of the transformer oil for the usual geometry of the high-voltage explosive switch contact system are constructed.

  1. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir


    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  2. An experimental study addressing the use of geoforensic analysis for the exploitation of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). (United States)

    Wilks, Beth; Morgan, Ruth M; Rose, Neil L


    The use of geoforensic analysis in criminal investigations is continuing to develop, with the diversification of analytical techniques, many of which are semi-automated, facilitating prompt analysis of large sample sets at a relatively low cost. Whilst micro-scale geoforensic analysis has been shown to assist criminal investigations including homicide (Concheri et al., 2011 [1]), wildlife crime (Morgan et al., 2006 [2]), illicit drug distribution (Stanley, 1992 [3]), and burglary (Mildenhall, 2006 [4]), its application to the pressing international security threat posed by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is yet to be considered. This experimental study simulated an IED supply chain from the sourcing of raw materials through to device emplacement. Mineralogy, quartz grain surface texture analysis (QGSTA) and particle size analysis (PSA) were used to assess whether environmental materials were transferred and subsequently persisted on the different components of three pressure plate IEDs. The research also addressed whether these samples were comprised of material from single or multiple geographical provenances that represented supply chain activity nodes. The simulation demonstrated that material derived from multiple activity nodes, was transferred and persisted on device components. The results from the mineralogy and QGSTA illustrated the value these techniques offer for the analysis of mixed provenance samples. The results from the PSA, which produces a bulk signature of the sample, failed to distinguish multiple provenances. The study also considered how the environmental material recovered could be used to generate information regarding the geographical locations the device had been in contact with, in an intelligence style investigation, and demonstrated that geoforensic analysis has the potential to be of value to international counter-IED efforts. It is a tool that may be used to prevent the distribution of large quantities of devices, by aiding the

  3. The ignitability of petrol vapours and potential for vapour phase explosion by use of TASER® law enforcement electronic control device. (United States)

    Clarke, C; Andrews, S P


    An experimental study was made of the potential of the TASER-X26™ law enforcement electronic control device to ignite petrol vapours if used by an officer to incapacitate a person soaked in petrol, or within a flammable atmosphere containing petrol vapour. Bench scale tests have shown that a wooden mannequin with pig skin covering the chest was a suitable representation of a human target. Full scale tests using the mannequin have shown that the arc from a TASER-X26™ is capable of igniting petrol/air vapours on a petrol-soaked person. Further tests in a 1/5 scale and a full scale compartment have shown that if a TASER is used within a compartment, a petrol vapour explosion (deflagration) may be achieved. It is evident from this research that if used in a flammable vapour rich environment, the device could prove fatal not only to the target but the TASER® operator as well. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Research and development to protect soldiers from landmines and improvised explosive devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ahmed, R


    Full Text Available Devices (IEDs) remain a major threat for military vehicles, their occupants and other assets • Warfare shifting from conventional to unconventional tactics and weapons • Improvised nature of IEDs make it difficult to predict terminal effects... of chemical, biological or nuclear material script=sci_arttext&tlng=pt Case Study Case Study Aim: to develop a protection solution to protect against a...

  5. Basic Research at the University of Washington to Counter Improvised Explosive Devices (United States)


    frequency equal to ωS = ω1 + ω2. As a concrete example of this process, when photons having wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm illuminate the surface of...Final Report for ONR CODE 30 CIED 6.1 Basic Research Effort 1. “Deep Bleeder Mitigation by Image Guided Ultrasound ” 2. Prime Offeror: Applied Physics...goals of this effort were as follows: (1) Adapt and modify an image-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) device for use in an investigation

  6. Explosion suppression system (United States)

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.


    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  7. The Nose Knows: Developing Advanced Chemical Sensors for the Remote Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices in 2030 (United States)


    insect algorithms into a reliable artificial intelligence will permit minimal human controller input. 58 In nature, pheromones are chemical...developing bio-chemical sensing and urban operations will translate into tangible gains with explosive sensing. Converting insect behaviors into... pheromones ” similar to the way that ants mark their territory, a UAV can detect how much of an individual terrain has been covered by itself and

  8. Explosives tester (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S [San Ramon, CA; Howard, Douglas E [Livermore, CA; Eckels, Joel D [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA


    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  9. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology


    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  10. Bulk and trace detection of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide using quantum cascade laser technology - a tool for identifying improvised explosive devices (United States)

    Lindley, Ruth; Normand, Erwan; McCulloch, Michael; Black, Paul; Howieson, Iain; Lewis, Colin; Foulger, Brian


    The type of explosive materials used in terrorist activities has seen a gradual shift from those that are commonly manufactured but difficult to obtain, such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) and nitroglycerine (NG), to improvised explosive devices (IEDs) made from substances that are more readily available. This shift has placed an emphasis on development of instruments capable of detecting IEDs and their precursors, which are often small, volatile molecules well suited to detection through mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy. Two such examples are ammonia, a breakdown product of ammonium nitrate and urea nitrate, and hydrogen peroxide, an efficient oxidiser used in the production of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethyl triperoxide diamine (HMTD). At this meeting in 2007 we presented results of a hydrogen peroxide detection portal utilising quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology. This trace detection system has since undergone significant development to improve sensitivity and selectivity, and the results of this will be presented alongside those of a similar system configured for bulk detection of ammonia. Detection of ammonia produced from the breakdown of ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated, both on the optical bench and in a walkthrough portal. This research has been supported by the UK government.

  11. Modeling nuclear explosion (United States)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander


    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  12. Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and Documentation of Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Initiatives (Redacted) (United States)


    auditing standards . We considered management comments on a draft of this report. DoD Instruction 7650.03 requires that recommendations be...660, “Actions Needed to Improve the Joint Improvised Device Defeat Organization’s System of Internal Controls,” July 1, 2010. 20 Report of Audit ...July 2015 through June 2016 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards . Those standards require that we plan and perform the

  13. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping


    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  14. Green primary explosives: 5-Nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies


    Huynh, My Hang V.; Coburn, Michael D.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Wetzler, Modi


    The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for mi...

  15. Explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, J.F.M.; Falconer, E.L.


    A thickening agent for an aqueous slurry explosive composition consists of the combination of a cross-linked galactomannan with psyllium flour in specific proportions. This thickener provides good fluidity and reduced tackiness. (7 claims)

  16. Explosive detection technology (United States)

    Doremus, Steven; Crownover, Robin


    The continuing proliferation of improvised explosive devices is an omnipresent threat to civilians and members of military and law enforcement around the world. The ability to accurately and quickly detect explosive materials from a distance would be an extremely valuable tool for mitigating the risk posed by these devices. A variety of techniques exist that are capable of accurately identifying explosive compounds, but an effective standoff technique is still yet to be realized. Most of the methods being investigated to fill this gap in capabilities are laser based. Raman spectroscopy is one such technique that has been demonstrated to be effective at a distance. Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a technique capable of identifying chemical compounds inside of containers, which could be used to detect hidden explosive devices. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) utilized a coherent pair of lasers to excite a sample, greatly increasing the response of sample while decreasing the strength of the lasers being used, which significantly improves the eye safety issue that typically hinders laser-based detection methods. Time-gating techniques are also being developed to improve the data collection from Raman techniques, which are often hindered fluorescence of the test sample in addition to atmospheric, substrate, and contaminant responses. Ultraviolet based techniques have also shown significant promise by greatly improved signal strength from excitation of resonance in many explosive compounds. Raman spectroscopy, which identifies compounds based on their molecular response, can be coupled with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) capable of characterizing the sample's atomic composition using a single laser.

  17. Microbial bioreporters of trace explosives. (United States)

    Shemer, Benjamin; Koshet, Ori; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon


    Since its introduction as an explosive in the late 19th century, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), along with other explosive compounds, has left numerous environmental marks. One of these is widespread soil and water pollution by trace explosives in military proving grounds, manufacturing facilities, or actual battlefields. Another dramatic impact is that exerted by the millions of landmines and other explosive devices buried in large parts of the world, causing extensive loss of life, injuries, and economical damage. In this review we highlight recent advances in the design and construction of microbial bioreporters, molecularly engineered to generate a quantifiable dose-dependent signal in the presence of trace amounts of explosives. Such sensor strains may be employed for monitoring environmental pollution as well as for the remote detection of buried landmines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast (United States)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  19. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep K Sharma


    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to describe the clinical and computed tomography features of 'explosive pleuritis', an entity first named by Braman and Donat in 1986, and to propose a case definition. A case report of a previously healthy, 45-year-old man admitted to hospital with acute onset pleuritic chest pain is presented. The patient arrived at the emergency room at 15:00 in mild respiratory distress; the initial chest x-ray revealed a small right lower lobe effusion. The subsequent clinical course in hospital was dramatic. Within 18 h of admission, he developed severe respiratory distress with oxygen desaturation to 83% on room air and dullness of the right lung field. A repeat chest x-ray, taken the morning after admission, revealed complete opacification of the right hemithorax. A computed tomography scan of the thorax demonstrated a massive pleural effusion with compression of pulmonary tissue and mediastinal shift. Pleural fluid biochemical analysis revealed the following concentrations: glucose 3.5 mmol/L, lactate dehydrogenase 1550 U/L, protein 56.98 g/L, amylase 68 U/L and white blood cell count 600 cells/mL. The pleural fluid cultures demonstrated light growth of coagulase-negative staphylococcus and viridans streptococcus, and very light growth of Candida albicans. Cytology was negative for malignant cells. Thoracotomy was performed, which demonstrated a loculated parapneumonic effusion that required decortication. The patient responded favourably to the empirical administration of intravenous levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, and conservative surgical methods in the management of the empyema. This report also discusses the patient's rapidly progressing pleural effusion and offers a potential case definition for explosive pleuritis. Explosive pleuritis is a medical emergency defined by the rapid development of a pleural effusion involving more than 90% of the hemithorax over 24 h, which causes compression of pulmonary tissue and

  20. Toxicology of explosives and fireworks in small animals. (United States)

    Gahagan, Patti; Wismer, Tina


    Intoxication with explosives or fireworks in dogs or cats is not common, but serious toxicosis can result from exposure to different types of explosives depending on the chemical class of explosive involved. This article will discuss the different types of materials/chemicals, clinical signs of toxicosis, and their treatment. Despite the complexities of explosives and plethora of different devices currently in use worldwide, the toxic potential is more easily explained by looking at the relatively short list of chemical classes used to produce these materials. This article combines structurally similar explosives into different groups and focuses on the toxicity of the most commonly available explosives.

  1. Experiments in gasdynamics of explosions. (United States)

    Oppenheim, A. K.; Soloukhin, R. I.


    Various topics concerning recent accomplishments in experimental studies of gasdynamics of explosions are reviewed. Detonations, shocks, and blast waves form these topics. The most important feature of current studies is the particular attention paid to transient processes and the concomitant progress made in the development of novel experimental means for the study of such processes. The most exciting prospects for the future are associated with possibilities of exploiting knowledge of explosion phenomena for the development of such interesting devices as the gasdynamic laser and the apparatus based on the use of lasers to achieve controlled thermonuclear reaction.

  2. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  3. Underground Explosions (United States)


    is viewed as a result of the propulsion of broken rock mass by explosion gas by-products. The physical model used to recreate the second and the third...period seismographs. Seismologists of the                                                              5  Edinaya  Sistema   Seismicheskih  Nablyudenii...d’explosifs chiniques dans le sable: Programme Dynasol, Centre d’etudes Nucl. De Grenoble Lab. D’applications Speciales de la Physique, Grenoble. 9

  4. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.


    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  5. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David


    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  6. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems


    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  7. Explosive Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey


    The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The studies were carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model results were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements are presented in this report. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another.

  8. Detection and dispersal of explosives by ants (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve; Faust, Anthony A.; Puckrin, Eldon; House, Andrew; Reynolds, Damon; McDougall, William; Asquini, Adam


    The ability of animals to detect explosives is well documented. Mammalian systems, insects and even single celled organisms have all been studied and in a few cases employed to detect explosives. This paper will describe the potential ability of ants to detect, disperse and possibly neutralize bulk explosives. In spring 2008 a team of DRDC and Itres scientists conducted experiments on detecting surface-laid and buried landmines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and their components. Measurements were made using state-of-the-art short wave and thermal infrared hyperspectral imagers mounted on a personnel lift. During one of the early morning measurement sessions, a wispy, long linear trail was seen to emanate several meters from piles of explosives that were situated on the ground. Upon close visual inspection, it was observed that ants had found the piles of explosives and were carrying it to their ant hill, a distance of almost 20 meters from the piles. Initial analysis of the hyperspectral images clearly revealed the trail to the ant hill of explosives, despite being present in quantities not visible to the unaided eye. This paper details these observations and discusses them in the context of landmine and IED detection and neutralization. Possible reasons for such behaviour are presented. A number of questions regarding the behaviour, many pertinent to the use of ants in a counter-landmine/IED role, are presented and possible methods of answering them are discussed. Anecdotal evidence from deminers of detection and destruction of explosives by ants are presented.

  9. Inspection tester for explosives (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.


    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  10. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives (United States)


    ... for classifying, labeling, and providing safety data sheets for explosives. By withdrawing this.... OSHA-S031-2006-0665 and OSHA-S-031)] RIN 1218-AC09 Explosives AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health... the rulemaking to amend its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29 CFR 1910.109. OSHA is taking...

  11. Explosives Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. H. Seabury; A. J. Caffrey


    The feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices has been studied computationally, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Monte Carlo results, in turn were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements have been previously reported. In this report we describe measurements performed on actual explosives and compare the results with calculations. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another by PGNAA

  12. Development in the Detection and Identification of Explosive Residues. (United States)

    Beveridge, A D


    In the past 2 decades, developments in the sensitivity and selectivity of instrument detectors have significantly improved the detection limits for explosives, particularly nitrated organic compounds. Significant improvements have also been made in clean up and recovery procedures for explosive residues. Methods which also have met the criterion of proven effectiveness in identifying explosive components in "real-world" residues from test explosions have been incorporated into systematic analysis protocols for explosive residues. This article first reviews developments in the application of both traditional and novel methods to analysis of unreacted explosives and explosive residues. Compounds used to formulate commercial, military, and "homemade" explosives are then cross-referenced to the analytical methods that have been specifically applied to them, both as pure chemicals and in explosive mixtures. The subsequent focus is on the combinations of methods used to systematically analyze and positively identify residues from improvised explosive devices, from handswabs derived from persons suspected of handling explosives, and from organic gunshot residue. Technology is available to positively identify virtually any unreacted explosive in residue, but no one method can detect all components of all explosives. Investigators and the courts are best served by well-equipped forensic science laboratories staffed with scientists who have gained experience by the successful analysis of post-blast residues from an explosives range and have comprehensive reference collections of physical material, analytical data, and literature. The greatest progress has been made with respect to nitrated organic compounds, but the new generation of commercial explosive slurries and emulsions which are primarily formulated with inorganic salts and non-nitrated organic compounds offer an ongoing challenge. Copyright © 1992 Central Police University.

  13. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding (United States)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid


    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  14. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.


    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  15. Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET) (United States)

    Feeley, Terry


    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

  16. Explosives tester with heater (United States)

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA


    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  17. 49 CFR 173.60 - General packaging requirements for explosives. (United States)


    ... explosives must provide double protection against leakage, such as a screw cap secured in place with tape. (3... fixed to cradles or contained in crates or other suitable handling, storage or launching devices in such...

  18. Explosive Technology Group (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  19. 36 CFR 327.13 - Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. (United States)


    ... weapons and fireworks. 327.13 Section 327.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.13 Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. (a) The... explosives or explosive devices of any kind, including fireworks or other pyrotechnics, is prohibited unless...

  20. Active explosion barrier performance against methane and coal dust explosions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. J. L. du Plessis


    Preventing the propagation of methane or coal dust explosions through the use of active explosion-suppression systems remains one of the most underutilised explosion controls in underground coal mines...

  1. Hyperspectral requirements for detection of trace explosives agents (United States)

    Schau, Harvey C.; Jennette, Bryan D.


    The ability to remotely detect explosive devices and explosive materials has generated considerable interest over the last several years. The study of remote sensing of explosives date back many decades but recent world events have forced the technology to respond to changing events and bring new technologies to the field in shorter development times than previously thought possible. Several applications have proven both desirable and illusive to date. Most notable is the desire to sense explosives within containers, sealed or otherwise. This requires a sensing device to penetrate the walls of the container, a difficult task when the container is steel or thick cement. Another is the desire to detect explosive vapors which escape from a container into the ambient air. This has been made difficult because explosives are generally formulated to have extremely low vapor pressure. (This has made many gas detection technique not strong candidates for explosive vapor detection due to the low vapor pressure of explosive materials [1].) Because of the many difficulties in a general explosive remote detection, we have attempted to bound the problem into a series of achievable steps with the first step a simple remote detection of TNT-bearing compounds. Prior to discussing our technology, we will first discuss our choice for attacking the problem in this manner.

  2. Supersensitive fingerprinting of explosives by chemically modified nanosensors arrays (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Amir; Havivi, Ehud; Shacham, Ronen; Hahamy, Ehud; Leibovich, Ronit; Pevzner, Alexander; Krivitsky, Vadim; Davivi, Guy; Presman, Igor; Elnathan, Roey; Engel, Yoni; Flaxer, Eli; Patolsky, Fernando


    The capability to detect traces of explosives sensitively, selectively and rapidly could be of great benefit for applications relating to civilian national security and military needs. Here, we show that, when chemically modified in a multiplexed mode, nanoelectrical devices arrays enable the supersensitive discriminative detection of explosive species. The fingerprinting of explosives is achieved by pattern recognizing the inherent kinetics, and thermodynamics, of interaction between the chemically modified nanosensors array and the molecular analytes under test. This platform allows for the rapid detection of explosives, from air collected samples, down to the parts-per-quadrillion concentration range, and represents the first nanotechnology-inspired demonstration on the selective supersensitive detection of explosives, including the nitro- and peroxide-derivatives, on a single electronic platform. Furthermore, the ultrahigh sensitivity displayed by our platform may allow the remote detection of various explosives, a task unachieved by existing detection technologies.

  3. Novel Methods for Detecting Buried Explosive Devices (United States)


    hypothesized that the light is a lure for other fish, which are then snapped up by the host fish as a meal. This type of light production is familiar to...shape, which defeats most projective techniques such as x-ray or neutron absorption or scattering. The very low vapor pressures and the...with activated neutron methods. Mines have NQR signatures; tree roots do not. NQR exploits the electromagnetic interaction between atomic nuclei

  4. Detection and Imaging of Improvised Explosive Devices (United States)


    microwave tomographic scanner is going to use a commercial stepper motor positioning control (including stepper motors , controller and drivers and...the commercial stepper motor positioning control, were acquired with funding available to the MSPL, Multi Sensing Processing and Learning Lab...stage (ρ component of the tomographic projection); and (3) angular positioning stage (θ component of the tomographic projection). Stepper motors and

  5. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M


    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  6. Cell phone explosion. (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj


    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Steam explosion studies review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong


    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  8. Venting of gas explosion through relief ducts: interaction between internal and external explosions. (United States)

    Ferrara, G; Willacy, S K; Phylaktou, H N; Andrews, G E; Di Benedetto, A; Salzano, E; Russo, G


    Relief ducts fitted to venting openings is a widespread configuration in the industrial practice. The presence of a duct has been reported to severely increase the violence of the vented explosion posing a problem for the proper design of the venting device. Several studies have reported the leading importance--in the whole complex explosion phenomenology--of a secondary explosion in the duct. Modern approaches in the study of simply vented explosions (without ducts) have focused on the study of the interaction between internal and external explosion as a key issue in the mechanisms of pressure generation. The issue is even more relevant when a duct is fitted to the vent due the confined nature of the external explosion. In this work the interaction between internal and external events is experimentally investigated for gas explosions vented through a relief duct. The work has aimed at studying mechanisms underlying the pressure rise of this venting configuration. The study has put the emphasis on the mutual nature of the interaction. A larger scale than laboratory has been investigated allowing drawing results with a greater degree of generality with respect to data so far presented in literature.

  9. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło


    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  10. Chemical explosive stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRocca, S.J.; McLamore, R.T.; Spencer, A.M. Jr.


    A safe, reliable chemical explosive fracturing process has been demonstrated and prototype equipment for its use has been successfully field tested.Called the Astro-Flow II process, it utilizes a highly energetic, hydrazine-based family of liquid explosives known as Astrolite. A unique property of these explosives is that they can be divided into 2 nonexplosive pumpable components that can be handled safely. The 2 components are pumped independently and simultaneously into the well and blended together downhole to form the explosive which is circulated in place or displaced into formation fractures. Explosive hazards to surface equipment and personnel are eliminated. Extensive testing of the physical and chemical stability of the mixed explosive indicates that the material can be reliable and safely used at elevated temperatures, pressures, and in the adverse chemical environment often found in deep oil and gas wells. These tests of prototype equipment proved that the 2 components could be independently pumped with precision and blended together to form the desired explosive formulation. How the process works is described.

  11. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey


    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.



    KOYUNCU, Hülya


    Explosives are used on a large scale byboth the military and by various civilian industries (e.g. mining, high-energymetalwork, and civil engineering). Explosives utilization contributes to the high environmentalcontamination. TNT(2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) are found mainly in soils and surface waters; there havealso been cases of groundwater contamination. Most explosives are stable du...

  13. Front to back ocular injury from a vaping-related explosion. (United States)

    Khairudin, Muhammad Najmi; Mohd Zahidin, Aida Zairani; Bastion, Mae-Lynn Catherine


    We describe a case of extensive ocular injury secondary to an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette)-related explosion. The explosion was the result of modifications made to a heating element of the e-cigarette device by a non-professional. Extensive ocular injuries that result from an explosion of an e-cigarette device can potentially cause significant and permanent visual impairment. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Aging of civil explosives (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hoen, C. 't; Krämer, R.E.


    For the Dutch MoD and police, TNO composed sets with different kinds of civil explosives to train their detection dogs. The manufacturer of these explosives guarantees several years of stability of these explosives. These sets of explosives are used under different conditions, like temperature and

  15. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL


    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  16. Explosive Components Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  17. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (United States)

    ... Headache Intermittent explosive disorder Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  18. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R


    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  19. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka


    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  20. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam


    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  1. Polymeric binder for explosives (United States)

    Bissell, E. R.


    Chemical reaction for producing a polymer which can be mixed with explosives to produce a rigid material is discussed. Physical and chemical properties of polymers are described and chemical structure of the polymer is illustrated.

  2. 29 CFR 1910.109 - Explosives and blasting agents. (United States)


    ..., cartridges for propellant-actuated power devices, and cartridges for industrial guns. Commercial explosives..., and cartridges for propellant-actuated power devices and industrial guns. Military-type ammunition... is familiar with the traffic regulations, State laws, and the provisions of this section. (ii) Except...

  3. Facial trauma caused by electronic cigarette explosion. (United States)

    Vaught, Brian; Spellman, Joseph; Shah, Anil; Stewart, Alexander; Mullin, David


    Electronic cigarettes are increasingly popular as a supposed safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes or a smoking cessation tool. Research and debate have focused primarily on possible adverse effects caused by the inhaled aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes and on smoking cessation efficacy. Few reports in the medical literature describe injuries secondary to device malfunction. We present a case of electronic cigarette explosion, with a projectile fracturing the patient's right naso-orbital-ethmoid complex and anterior and posterior frontal sinus tables, with frontal sinus outflow tract involvement. The patient underwent combined open and endoscopic repair, including open reduction internal fixation, with reconstitution and preservation of the frontal sinus and frontal sinus outflow tract. Additionally, we review the available data on electronic cigarette malfunction-including fires, explosions, associated injuries, and possible reasons for device malfunction-and discuss new 2016 U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations pertaining to electronic cigarettes.

  4. Surface explosion cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Clanet, Christophe


    We present a fluid dynamics video on cavities created by explosions of firecrackers at the water free surface. We use three types of firecrackers containing 1, 1.3 and 5 g of flash powder. The firecrackers are held with their center at the surface of water in a cubic meter pool. The movies are recorded from the side with a high-speed video camera. Without confinement the explosion produces an hemispherical cavity. Right after the explosion this cavity grows isotropically, the bottom then stops while the sides continue to expand. In the next phase the bottom of the cavity accelerates backwards to the surface. During this phase the convergence of the flow creates a central jet that rises above the free surface. In the last part of the video the explosion is confined in a vertical open tube made of glass and of centimetric diameter. The explosion creates a cylindrical cavity that develops towards the free end of the tube. Depending on the charge, the cavity can either stop inside the tube or at its exit, but nev...

  5. Design optimization of Cassegrain telescope for remote explosive trace detection (United States)

    Bhavsar, Kaushalkumar; Eseller, K. E.; Prabhu, Radhakrishna


    The past three years have seen a global increase in explosive-based terror attacks. The widespread use of improvised explosives and anti-personnel landmines have caused thousands of civilian casualties across the world. Current scenario of globalized civilization threat from terror drives the need to improve the performance and capabilities of standoff explosive trace detection devices to be able to anticipate the threat from a safe distance to prevent explosions and save human lives. In recent years, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging approach for material or elemental investigations. All the principle elements on the surface are detectable in a single measurement using LIBS and hence, a standoff LIBS based method has been used to remotely detect explosive traces from several to tens of metres distance. The most important component of LIBS based standoff explosive trace detection system is the telescope which enables remote identification of chemical constituents of the explosives. However, in a compact LIBS system where Cassegrain telescope serves the purpose of laser beam delivery and light collection, need a design optimization of the telescope system. This paper reports design optimization of a Cassegrain telescope to detect explosives remotely for LIBS system. A design optimization of Schmidt corrector plate was carried out for Nd:YAG laser. Effect of different design parameters was investigated to eliminate spherical aberration in the system. Effect of different laser wavelengths on the Schmidt corrector design was also investigated for the standoff LIBS system.

  6. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials (United States)


    ... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. ] Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G... fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol trinitrate. Minol-2 . MMAN ; methylamine nitrate...

  7. Analysis of different materials subjected to open-air explosions in search of explosive traces by Raman microscopy. (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen


    Post-explosion scenes offer such chaos and destruction that evidence recovery and detection of post-blast residues from the explosive in the surrounding materials is highly challenging and difficult. The suitability of materials to retain explosives residues and their subsequent analysis has been scarcely investigated. Particularly, the use of explosive mixtures containing inorganic oxidizing salts to make improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a current security concern due to their wide availability and lax control. In this work, a wide variety of materials such as glass, steel, plywood, plastic bag, brick, cardboard or cotton subjected to open-air explosions were examined using confocal Raman microscopy, aiming to detect the inorganic oxidizing salts contained in explosives as black powder, chloratite, dynamite, ammonium nitrate fuel oil and ammonal. Post-blast residues were detected through microscopic examination of materials surfaces. In general, the more homogeneous and smoother the surface was, the less difficulties and better results in terms of identification were obtained. However, those highly irregular surfaces were the most unsuitable collectors for the posterior identification of explosive traces by Raman microscopy. The findings, difficulties and some recommendations related to the identification of post-blast particles in the different materials studied are thoroughly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Green primary explosives: 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies. (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V; Coburn, Michael D; Meyer, Thomas J; Wetzler, Modi


    The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for military and civilian purposes continues to expand owing to variations in initiating method, chemical composition, quantity, sensitivity, explosive performance, and other necessary built-in mechanisms. Although the most widely used primaries contain toxic lead azide and lead styphnate, mixtures of thermally unstable primaries, like diazodinitrophenol and tetracene, or poisonous agents, like antimony sulfide and barium nitrate, are also used. Novel environmentally friendly primary explosives are expanded here to include cat[Fe(II)(NT)(3)(H(2)O)(3)], cat(2)[Fe(II)(NT)(4)(H(2)O)(2)], cat(3)[Fe(II)(NT)(5)(H(2)O)], and cat(4)[Fe(II)(NT)(6)] with cat = cation and NT(-) = 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2). With available alkaline, alkaline earth, and organic cations as partners, four series of 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2)-ferrate hierarchies have been prepared that provide a plethora of green primaries with diverse initiating sensitivity and explosive performance. They hold great promise for replacing not only toxic lead primaries but also thermally unstable primaries and poisonous agents. Strategies are also described for the systematic preparation of coordination complex green primaries based on appropriate selection of ligands, metals, and synthetic procedures. These strategies allow for maximum versatility in initiating sensitivity and explosive performance while retaining properties required for green primaries.

  9. XIT Commercial Explosives Identification Tool (United States)


    Explosives Identification Tool (XIT) was supported by the Canadian Safety and Security Program ( CSSP ) which is led by Defence Research and Development...Explosives Training Unit, and Toronto Police Service, Explosives Disposal Unit. CSSP is a federally-funded program to strengthen Canada’s ability to

  10. The secondary explosion phenomenon of gasoline-air mixture in a confined tunnel (United States)

    Zhang, Peili; Li, Jianxiang; Guo, Yanbo; Du, Yang


    In this article, experimental evidences of the special phenomenon of the secondary explosion of gasoline-air mixture were presented in the first place, and then, the causes for the secondary explosion were discussed. At last, effects of concentration on the secondary explosion were studied in detail through multiple experiments carried out in a cylinder tunnel with a solid heating device. Based on the experimental results analysis, the critical concentration for the secondary explosion of the gasoline-air mixture in the confined tunnel were discussed. Results indicated that main causes for the secondary explosion could be summarized as 4 points. Whether the secondary explosion occurred or not was determined by critical gasoline vapour and oxygen concentration even if the temperature was maintained in a reasonable scope. When the concentration of the gasoline vapour was as low as 0.45% and the oxygen as low as 10.4%, the secondary explosion still could be triggered.

  11. Development of ammonium nitrate based explosives to optimize explosive properties and explosive welding parameters used during explosion cladding (United States)

    Hurley, Christoph

    The ability to accurately measure and predict the velocity of explosively driven flyer plates has been a subject of significant work by the explosives community for some time. The majority of this work has focused on the use of high-energy, ideal explosives that are of interest for defense applications. Several attempts have been made to modify the experimental methods developed for these ideal explosives for use in testing low-energy, non-ideal explosive compounds (including industrially useful mixtures of ammonium nitrate, fuels, and additives) with varying degrees of success. The detonation properties of non-ideal explosives are difficult to measure precisely due to the effect of physical, environmental, and geometric factors on the detonation of these materials. The work presented in this document attempts to mitigate the variability inherent in measurements of non-ideal, ammonium nitrate-based explosives by performing testing using charge geometry similar to that used in the industrial process of explosion welding. A method to measure flyer plate velocity with optical high-speed imaging using commercially available equipment is described. Flyer plate velocity data from both experimental measurements and numerical modeling is presented. A new formula for predicting explosive energy based on the detonation velocity of an ammonium nitrate based explosive in a planar geometry is proposed and applied to a theoretical explosive cladding scenario.

  12. Biodegradation of nitro-explosives. (United States)

    Kanekar, Pradnya; Dautpure, Premlata; Sarnaik, Seema


    Environmental contamination by nitro compounds is associated principally with the explosives industry. However, global production and use of explosives is unavoidable. The presently widely used nitro-explosives are TNT (Trinitrotoluene), RDX (Royal Demolition Explosive) and HMX (High Melting Explosive). Nevertheless, the problems of these nitro-explosives are almost parallel due to their similarities of production processes, abundance of nitro-explosives and resembling chemical structures. The nitro-explosives per se as well as their environmental transformation products are toxic, showing symptoms as methaemoglobinaemia, kidney trouble, jaundice etc. Hence their removal/degradation from soil/water is essential. Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of TNT and RDX have been reported, while for HMX anaerobic or anoxic degradation have been described in many studies. A multisystem involvement using plants in remediation is gaining importance. Thus the information about degradation of nitro-explosives is available in jigsaw pieces which needs to be arranged and lacunae filled to get concrete degradative schemes so that environmental pollution from nitro-explosives can be dealt with more successfully at a macroscale. An overview of the reports on nitro-explosives degradation, future outlook and studies done by us are presented in this review.

  13. Detection of explosives based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Wackerbarth, Hainer; Salb, Christian; Gundrum, Lars; Niederkrüger, Matthias; Christou, Konstantin; Beushausen, Volker; Viöl, Wolfgang


    In this study we present a device based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the detection of airborne explosives. The explosives are resublimated on a cooled nanostructured gold substrate. The explosives trinitrotoluene (TNT) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) are used. The SERS spectrum of the explosives is analyzed. Thus, TNT is deposited from an acetonitrile solution on the gold substrate. In the case of TATP, first the bulk TATP Raman spectrum was recorded and compared with the SERS spectrum, generated by deposition out of the gas phase. The frequencies of the SERS spectrum are hardly shifted compared to the spectrum of bulk TATP. The influence of the nanostructured gold substrate temperature on the signals of TATP was studied. A decrease in temperature up to 200 K increased the intensities of the TATP bands in the SERS spectrum; below 200 K, the TATP fingerprint disappeared.

  14. Services Textbook of Explosives (United States)


    and shock effects is obtained by the use of ’primary’ (also known as ’initiatory’) explosives, among the most important of which are mercury fulminate ...Brown had discovered that compressed dry guncotton could be detonated by a mercury fulminate detonator, and a little later they found that compressed wet...of his powder (a mixture of mercury fulminate and potassium chlorate) enclosed in thin copper caps. This idea did not at once meet with the approval

  15. Explosives signatures and analysis (United States)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.


    The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

  16. Explosive Welding of Pipes (United States)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga


    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  17. Isotopic and elemental profiling of ammonium nitrate in forensic explosives investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, H.; Koeberg, M.; van der Heijden, A.; Wiarda, W.; Mügler, I.; Schrader, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.


    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is frequently encountered in explosives in forensic casework. It is widely available as fertilizer and easy to implement in explosive devices, for example by mixing it with a fuel. Forensic profiling methods to determine whether material found on a crime scene and material

  18. 14 CFR 417.417 - Propellants and explosives. (United States)


    ... that ensure public safety for the receipt, storage, handling, inspection, test, and disposal of... the public may re-enter the complex until each safety device is re-established. (3) Do not allow heat... lightning protection on each facility used to store or process explosives to prevent inadvertent initiation...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1303 - Explosives, handling and use. (United States)


    ... key or other control to an electrical firing device shall be entrusted only to the person designated... deteriorated explosives or detonators shall be destroyed in a safe manner. (e) Where electric blasting is to be performed, electric circuits to equipment in the immediate area to be blasted shall be deenergized before...

  20. Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives (United States)


    weight (6 kg), and its power require- ments (24 W) allow for the high portability of the system. Laser vibrometer measurement, 2 meters from target...2515 P ar tic le v el oc ity (× 1 0 μ m /s ) −1 −2 2 0 1 −1 −2 2 0 1 −1 −2 2 0 1 The laser vibrometer and processing algorithms clearly...technique is depicted for a moving system. Note that the laser vibrometer measures the vibrations caused by the explosive vaporization process. At the same

  1. Nitroaromatic explosives detection using electrochemically exfoliated graphene (United States)

    Yew, Ying Teng; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin


    Detection of nitroaromatic explosives is of paramount importance from security point of view. Graphene sheets obtained from the electrochemical anodic exfoliation of graphite foil in different electrolytes (LiClO4 and Na2SO4) were compared and tested as electrode material for the electrochemical detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in seawater. Voltammetry analysis demonstrated the superior electrochemical performance of graphene produced in LiClO4, resulting in higher sensitivity and linearity for the explosives detection and lower limit of detection (LOD) compared to the graphene obtained in Na2SO4. We attribute this to the presence of oxygen functionalities onto the graphene material obtained in LiClO4 which enable charge electrostatic interactions with the -NO2 groups of the analyte, in addition to π-π stacking interactions with the aromatic moiety. Research findings obtained from this study would assist in the development of portable devices for the on-site detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

  2. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination. (United States)


    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES... provision of law for any device which he believes is not likely to be used as a weapon shall submit a...

  3. Pyroshock Prediction of Ridge-Cut Explosive Bolts Using Hydrocodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Lee


    Full Text Available Pyrotechnic release devices such as explosive bolts are prevalent for many applications due to their merits: high reliability, high power-to-weight ratio, reasonable cost, and more. However, pyroshock generated by an explosive event can cause failures in electric components. Although pyroshock propagations are relatively well understood through many numerical and experimental studies, the prediction of pyroshock generation is still a very difficult problem. This study proposes a numerical method for predicting the pyroshock of a ridge-cut explosive bolt using a commercial hydrocode (ANSYS AUTODYN. A numerical model is established by integrating fluid-structure interaction and complex material models for high explosives and metals, including high explosive detonation, shock wave transmission and propagation, and stress wave propagation. To verify the proposed numerical scheme, pyroshock measurement experiments of the ridge-cut explosive bolts with two types of surrounding structures are performed using laser Doppler vibrometers (LDVs. The numerical analysis results provide accurate prediction in both the time (acceleration and frequency domains (maximax shock response spectra. In maximax shock response spectra, the peaks due to vibration modes of the structures are observed in both the experimental and numerical results. The numerical analysis also helps to identify the pyroshock generation source and the propagation routes.

  4. Laser machining of explosives (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.


    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  5. Solid state gas sensors for detection of explosives and explosive precursors (United States)

    Chu, Yun

    The increased number of terrorist attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) over the past few years has made the trace detection of explosives a priority for the Department of Homeland Security. Considerable advances in early detection of trace explosives employing spectroscopic detection systems and other sensing devices have been made and have demonstrated outstanding performance. However, modern IEDs are not easily detectable by conventional methods and terrorists have adapted to avoid using metallic or nitro groups in the manufacturing of IEDs. Instead, more powerful but smaller compounds, such as TATP are being more frequently used. In addition, conventional detection techniques usually require large capital investment, labor costs and energy input and are incapable of real-time identification, limiting their application. Thus, a low cost detection system which is capable of continuous online monitoring in a passive mode is needed for explosive detection. In this dissertation, a thermodynamic based thin film gas sensor which can reliably detect various explosive compounds was developed and demonstrated. The principle of the sensors is based on measuring the heat effect associated with the catalytic decomposition of explosive compounds present in the vapor phase. The decomposition mechanism is complicated and not well known, but it can be affected by many parameters including catalyst, reaction temperature and humidity. Explosives that have relatively high vapor pressure and readily sublime at room temperature, like TATP and 2, 6-DNT, are ideal candidate for vapor phase detection using the thermodynamic gas sensor. ZnO, W2O 3, V2O5 and SnO2 were employed as catalysts. This sensor exhibited promising sensitivity results for TATP, but poor selectivity among peroxide based compounds. In order to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the thermodynamic sensor, a Pd:SnO2 nanocomposite was fabricated and tested as part of this dissertation. A

  6. Explosives detection for aviation security. (United States)

    Fainberg, A


    The threat of terrorism against commercial aviation has received much attention in the past few years. In response, new ways to detect explosives and to combine techniques based on different phenomena into integrated security systems are being developed to improve aviation security. Several leading methods for explosives and weapons detection are presented.

  7. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  8. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions. (United States)

    Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael


    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

  9. The Development of Explosive Metalworking in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babul W.


    Full Text Available The author coordinated the research in Poland by the collaboration with civil and military scientific and research centres. In result they elaborated detonation process of spraying coats designed and constructed stands equipped with detonative devices, they also elaborated the techniques of basic coating parameter measurement and built devices for commercial and scientific services. In the research the author's achievements within the range of explosive welding have been used. The experience of the scientific teams was very effective. It was observed that many phenomena that take place in the processes of detonative layer coating and explosive welding are the same. In order to obtain a required connection the plastic strain of the connected material surfaces has to be achieved and cumulative flows have to be formed. There are a similar range of the connecting process conditions and the mechanisms of plastic strain. The highest connection strength is obtained when an intermediate zone is formed. The zone has to be composed of the two connected materials. The intermediate layer is formed as a result of mechanical alloying of the materials due to large plastic strain. The plastic strain leads to forming meta-stable phases that have properties of pseudo solid solution, chemical compounds, intermetallic phases and fragmentation corresponding to nanomaterials and amorphous states.

  10. FAA bulk technology overview for explosives detection (United States)

    Novakoff, Alan K.


    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the leading federal agency responsible for encouraging and fostering the development of a safe, secure, and efficient national airspace system (NAS). Our goal is to establish an operating environment that ensures a threat-free system to preclude acts of terrorism and fatalities. As part of the process to meet this goal, our research and development activities continually search for technologies to ensure aviation security. Recent acts of terrorism against the aviation community have demonstrated an increasing level of sophistication in the design and deployment of explosive devices. In order to prevent the introduction of explosives onto an aircraft they must be detected prior to passenger and baggage loading. The Bulk Detection program is one method of developing a number of technologies that 'see' into and 'alarm' on suspect baggage. These detection devices must be capable of providing this serve with a confidence commensurate with the state-of-the- art available today. This program utilizes the expertise of government agencies, universities and industries working toward constructing their plans and executing their designs to produce the best available equipment.

  11. Caribbean AIDS explosion examined. (United States)


    Homophobia, sex tourism, infidelity, and poverty are major factors causing a rapid explosion of AIDS and increasingly infecting women in the Caribbean. The region has the second largest incidence of AIDS in the world after Africa. The number of people with the HIV virus is likely greater than 500,000 and could be as high as 700,000, about twice the previously reported figures. Societal norms encourage homosexuals to have heterosexual relationships, and married men to have extramarital affairs, while poverty forces men and women to prostitution, often with tourists. In addition, a survey of 8100 school children in 4 English-speaking Caribbean islands revealed that 42% of the children had experienced sex before the age of 10 years; 62% had experienced it by age 12. This finding may reflect a high rate of child molestation in the region.

  12. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.


    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  13. Mixing in explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A.L.


    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  14. Microelectromechanical safe arm device (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM


    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  15. Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun


    Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

  16. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives. (United States)

    Merrifield, R


    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading.

  17. Testing of Confining Pressure Impacton Explosion Energy of Explosive Materials (United States)

    Drzewiecki, Jan; Myszkowski, Jacek; Pytlik, Andrzej; Pytlik, Mateusz


    This paper presents the results of testing the explosion effects of two explosive charges placed in an environment with specified values of confining pressure. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of variable environmental conditions on the suitability of particular explosives for their use in the prevention of natural hazards in hard coal mining. The research results will contribute to improving the efficiency of currently adopted technologies of natural hazard prevention and aid in raising the level of occupational safety. To carry out the subject matter measurements, a special test stand was constructed which allows the value of the initial pressure inside the chamber, which constitutes its integral part, to be altered before the detonation of the charge being tested. The obtained characteristics of the pressure changes during the explosion of the analysed charge helped to identify the work (energy) which was produced during the process. The test results are a valuable source of information, opening up new possibilities for the use of explosives, the development of innovative solutions for the construction of explosive charges and their initiation.

  18. [Causation, prevention and treatment of dust explosion]. (United States)

    Dong, Maolong; Jia, Wenbin; Wang, Hongtao; Han, Fei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Hu, Dahai


    With the development of industrial technology, dust explosion accidents have increased, causing serious losses of people's lives and property. With the development of economy, we should lay further emphasis on causation, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion. This article summarizes the background, mechanism, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion, which may provide some professional knowledge and reference for the treatment of dust explosion.

  19. Explosives mimic for testing, training, and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, John G.; Durban, Matthew M.; Gash, Alexander E.; Grapes, Michael D.; Kelley, Ryan S.; Sullivan, Kyle T.


    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is used to make mimics for explosives. The process uses mixtures of explosives and matrices commonly used in AM. The explosives are formulated into a mixture with the matrix and printed using AM techniques and equipment. The explosive concentrations are kept less than 10% by wt. of the mixture to conform to requirements of shipping and handling.

  20. Microglass spheres in ammonium nitrate explosives


    Y. Kazakov; G. Turesheva; Olga Golovchenko; N. Bergeneva; R. Seisembayev


    Developed consisting the explosive ammonium nitrate, paraffin and mikrosteklosfer. Due to the input of the explosive paraffin increased water resistance of explosives to 60 minutes. By entering into the explosive mikrosteklosfers been improved caking indices, since steklomikrosfers and paraffin was formed seal between the granules of ammonium nitrate.

  1. Microglass spheres in ammonium nitrate explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kazakov


    Full Text Available Developed consisting the explosive ammonium nitrate, paraffin and mikrosteklosfer. Due to the input of the explosive paraffin increased water resistance of explosives to 60 minutes. By entering into the explosive mikrosteklosfers been improved caking indices, since steklomikrosfers and paraffin was formed seal between the granules of ammonium nitrate.

  2. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics


    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  3. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs


    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  4. Causes of the Cambrian Explosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Paul Smith; David A. T. Harper


    .... Recent hypotheses for the Cambrian explosion fall into three main categories: developmental/genetic, ecologic, and abiotic/environmental, with geochemical hypotheses forming an abundant and distinctive subset of the last...

  5. Ultrasensitive optoelectronic sensors for nitrogen oxides and explosives detection (United States)

    Wojtas, J.; Bielecki, Z.; Stacewicz, T.; Mikolajczyk, J.


    The article describes application of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) for detection of nitrogen oxides and vapours of explosives. The oxides are important greenhouse gases that are of large influence on environment, living organisms and human health. These compounds are also markers of some human diseases as well as they are emitted by commonly used explosives. Therefore sensitive nitrogen oxides sensors are of great importance for many applications, e. g. for environment protection (air monitoring), for medicine investigation (analyzing of exhaled air) and finally for explosives detection. In the Institute of Optoelectronics MUT different types of optoelectronic sensors employing CEAS were developed. They were designed to measure trace concentration of nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide. The sensors provide opportunity for simultaneous measurement of these gases concentration at ppb level. Their sensitivity is comparable with sensitivities of instruments based on other methods, e.g. gas chromatography or mass spectrometry. Our sensors were used for some explosives detection as well. The experiment showed that the sensors provide possibility to detect explosive devices consisting of nitroglycerine, ammonium nitrate, TNT, PETN, RDX and HMX.

  6. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Joshua David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  7. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrovnikov Sergei M.


    Full Text Available The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT, hexogen (RDX, trotyl-hexogen (Comp B, octogen (HMX, and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  8. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation. (United States)

    Mansfield, Scott K; Borrowdale, Roderick


    The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott K. Mansfield


    Full Text Available The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring.

  10. exLOPA for explosion risks assessment. (United States)

    Markowski, Adam S


    The European Union regulations require safety and health protection of workers who are potentially at risk from explosive atmosphere areas. According to the requirements, the operators of installations where potentially explosive atmosphere can occur are obliged to produce an explosion protection document. The key objective of this document is the assessment of explosion risks. This paper is concerned with the so-called explosion layer of protection analysis (exLOPA), which allows for semi-quantitative explosion risk assessment for process plants where explosive atmospheres occur. The exLOPA is based on the original work of CCPS for LOPA but takes into account some typical factors appropriate for explosion, like the probability that an explosive atmosphere will occur, probability that sources of ignition will be present and become effective as well as the probability of failure on demand for appropriate explosion prevention and mitigation means.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dallas


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n=15, whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17. Flexibility (sit and reach test and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ, and single leg squat (right leg (RL and left leg (LL] were performed initially (pre-test, immediately after the intervention (post-test 1, and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15. Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG and time (pre, post 1, and post 15 with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p 0.05. Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme.

  12. New Clothing for Handheld Devices (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    Clothing is influenced by many factors, trends, and social happenings. Much of what is worn today had utilitarian roots in the past. In the activitiy presented in this article, students will have the opportunity to redesign clothing for new trends, in this case, the explosion of handheld electronic devices.

  13. The Quiet Explosion (United States)


    A European-led team of astronomers are providing hints that a recent supernova may not be as normal as initially thought. Instead, the star that exploded is now understood to have collapsed into a black hole, producing a weak jet, typical of much more violent events, the so-called gamma-ray bursts. The object, SN 2008D, is thus probably among the weakest explosions that produce very fast moving jets. This discovery represents a crucial milestone in the understanding of the most violent phenomena observed in the Universe. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 23a/08 A Galaxy and two Supernovae These striking results, partly based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, will appear tomorrow in Science Express, the online version of Science. Stars that were at birth more massive than about 8 times the mass of our Sun end their relatively short life in a cosmic, cataclysmic firework lighting up the Universe. The outcome is the formation of the densest objects that exist, neutron stars and black holes. When exploding, some of the most massive stars emit a short cry of agony, in the form of a burst of very energetic light, X- or gamma-rays. In the early afternoon (in Europe) of 9 January 2008, the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift telescope discovered serendipitously a 5-minute long burst of X-rays coming from within the spiral galaxy NGC 2770, located 90 million light-years away towards the Lynx constellation. The Swift satellite was studying a supernova that had exploded the previous year in the same galaxy, but the burst of X-rays came from another location, and was soon shown to arise from a different supernova, named SN 2008D. Researchers at the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), ESO, and at various other institutions have observed the supernova at great length. The team is led by Paolo Mazzali of INAF's Padova Observatory and MPA. "What made this event very interesting," says Mazzali, "is that the X-ray signal was very

  14. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)


    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using {sup 12}CO( J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  15. Thermonuclear ignition by Z-pinch X-ray radiation produced by current of an explosive magnetic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garanin, S. G.; Ivanovskiy, A. V., E-mail: [All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)


    The scheme of a device based a superpower disk-type magnetic explosion generator to produce a pulse of X-ray radiation with the energy exceeding the target ignition threshold is described and validated.

  16. Pressure Wave Measurements from Thermal Cook-off of an HMX Based Explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S


    A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios.

  17. Pressure Wave Measurements from Thermal Cook-Off of an HMX Based High Explosive PBX 9501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, F; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S


    A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios.

  18. Assessment of Safety Parameters for Radiological Explosion Based on Gaussian Dispersion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Alok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hyungjoon; Kim, Hong Suk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    These sources if used with explosive (called RDD - radiological dispersion device), can cause dispersion of radioactive material resulting in public exposure and contamination of the environment. Radiological explosion devices are not weapons for the mass destruction like atom bombs, but can cause the death of few persons and contamination of large areas. The reduction of the threat of radiological weapon attack by terrorist groups causing dispersion of radioactive material is one of the priority tasks of the IAEA Nuclear Safety and Security Program.Emergency preparedness is an essential part for reducing and mitigating radiological weapon threat. Preliminary assessment of dispersion study followed by radiological explosion and its quantitative effect will be helpful for the emergency preparedness team for an early response. The effect of the radiological dispersion depends on various factors like radioisotope, its activity, physical form, amount of explosive used and meteorological factors at the time of an explosion. This study aim to determine the area affected by the radiological explosion as pre assessment to provide feedback to emergency management teams for handling and mitigation the situation after an explosion. Most practical scenarios of radiological explosion are considered with conservative approach for the assessment of the area under a threat for emergency handling and management purpose. Radioisotopes under weak security controls can be used for a radiological explosion to create terror and socioeconomic threat for the public. Prior assessment of radiological threats is helpful for emergency management teams to take prompt decision about evacuation of the affected area and other emergency handling actions. Comparable activities of Co-60 source used in radiotherapy and Sr-90 source of disused and orphaned RTGs with two different quantities of TNT were used for the scenario development of radiological explosion. In the Basic Safety Standard (BSS

  19. A mass spectrometer based explosives trace detector (United States)

    Vilkov, Andrey; Jorabchi, Kaveh; Hanold, Karl; Syage, Jack A.


    In this paper we describe the application of mass spectrometry (MS) to the detection of trace explosives. We begin by reviewing the issue of explosives trace detection (ETD) and describe the method of mass spectrometry (MS) as an alternative to existing technologies. Effective security screening devices must be accurate (high detection and low false positive rate), fast and cost effective (upfront and operating costs). Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the most commonly deployed method for ETD devices. Its advantages are compact size and relatively low price. For applications requiring a handheld detector, IMS is an excellent choice. For applications that are more stationary (e.g., checkpoint and alternatives to IMS are available. MS is recognized for its superior performance with regard to sensitivity and specificity, which translate to lower false negative and false positive rates. In almost all applications outside of security where accurate chemical analysis is needed, MS is usually the method of choice and is often referred to as the gold standard for chemical analysis. There are many review articles and proceedings that describe detection technologies for explosives. 1,2,3,4 Here we compare MS and IMS and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method. - Mass spectrometry (MS): MS offers high levels of sensitivity and specificity compared to other technologies for chemical detection. Its traditional disadvantages have been high cost and complexity. Over the last few years, however, the economics have greatly improved and MS is now capable of routine and automated operation. Here we compare MS and IMS and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method. - Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS): 5 MS-ETD Screening System IMS is similar in concept to MS except that the ions are dispersed by gas-phase viscosity and not by molecular weight. The main advantage of IMS is that it does not use a vacuum system, which greatly reduces the size, cost, and complexity

  20. Thickened aqueous slurry explosive composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, J.F.M.; Matts, T.C.; Seto, P.F.L.


    A thickened slurry explosive composition consists of water, inorganic oxidizing salt, fuel, and thickener wherein the thickener is a mixture of an unmodified guar gum and a hydroxypropyl-modified guar gum. The thickener mixture improves the stability and rheologic properties of the explosive. The preferred thickener mixture contains from 15 to 85% by weight of unmodified guar to 15 to 85% by weight of hydroxypropyl-modified guar and the composition preferably comprises 0.2% to 2.0% by weight of the thickener mixture. The thickener mixture is especially effective in explosive compositions sensitized with gas bubbles or with water-soluble organic nitrate for example, ethylene glycol mononitrate, propylene glycol mononitrate, ethanolamine nitrate, propanolamine nitrate, methylamine nitrate, ethylamine nitrate, ethylenediamine dinitrate, urea nitrate, or aniline nitrate. 14 claims.

  1. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV


    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  2. Laser-based standoff detection of surface-bound explosive chemicals (United States)

    Huestis, David L.; Smith, Gregory P.; Oser, Harald


    Avoiding or minimizing potential damage from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) such as suicide, roadside, or vehicle bombs requires that the explosive device be detected and neutralized outside its effective blast radius. Only a few seconds may be available to both identify the device as hazardous and implement a response. As discussed in a study by the National Research Council, current technology is still far from capable of meeting these objectives. Conventional nitrocarbon explosive chemicals have very low vapor pressures, and any vapors are easily dispersed in air. Many pointdetection approaches rely on collecting trace solid residues from dust particles or surfaces. Practical approaches for standoff detection are yet to be developed. For the past 5 years, SRI International has been working toward development of a novel scheme for standoff detection of explosive chemicals that uses infrared (IR) laser evaporation of surfacebound explosive followed by ultraviolet (UV) laser photofragmentation of the explosive chemical vapor, and then UV laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of nitric oxide. This method offers the potential of long standoff range (up to 100 m or more), high sensitivity (vaporized solid), simplicity (no spectrometer or library of reference spectra), and selectivity (only nitrocompounds).

  3. Intravesical explosion during transurethral electrosurgery. (United States)

    Georgios, Kallinikas; Evangelos, Boulinakis; Helai, Habib; Ioannis, Gerzelis


    Intravesical explosion is a very rare complication of transurethral resection of prostate and transurethral resection of bladder tumour operations. In vitro studies have shown that the gases produced during the procedure could result in a blast once they are mixed with air from the atmosphere. A 79-year-old male experienced an explosion in his bladder while undergoing a transurethral resection of bladder tumour. The case is presented as well as the way that it was treated as an emergency. Precautions of such events are finally suggested. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:

  4. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Formation of High Concentration of H2 Generated by Gas Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Baiwei


    Full Text Available In coal mine fire rescues, if the abnormal increase of gas concentration occurs, it is the primary thing to analyze the reasons and identify sources of the abnormal forming, which is also the basis of judge the combustion state of fire area and formulate proper fire reliefs. Nowadays, related researches have recognized the methane explosion as the source of high concentration of H2 formation, but there are few studies about the conditions and reaction mechanism of gas explosion generating high concentration of H2.Therefore, this paper uses the chemical kinetic calculation software, ChemKin, and the 20L spherical explosion experimental device to simulate the generating process and formation conditions of H2 in gas explosion. The experimental results show that: the decomposition of water vapor is the main base element reaction (R84 which leads to the generation of H2.The free radical H is the key factor to influence the formation of H2 generated from gas explosion. With the gradual increase of gas explosion concentration, the explosive reaction becomes more incomplete, and then the generating quantity of H2 increases gradually. Experimental results of 20L spherical explosion are consistent with the change trend about simulation results, which verifies the accuracy of simulation analysis. The results of explosion experiments show that when gas concentration is higher than 9%, the incomplete reaction of methane explosion increases which leads to the gradual increase of H2 formation.

  5. Pulmonary contusion and hemothorax due to explosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeza-Herrera, Carlos; Sanjuán-Fabián, Héctor; Medellín-Sierra, Ulises Darío; Nájera-Garduño, Heladio; García-Cabello, Luis Manuel


    .... Such is the case of gunpowder explosive objects used during celebration holidays. We present a 14-year-old male who suffered a pulmonary contusion as a consequence of an explosion of "huevo de codorniz...

  6. Oral Trauma and Tooth Avulsion Following Explosion of E-Cigarette. (United States)

    Rogér, James M; Abayon, Maricelle; Elad, Sharon; Kolokythas, Antonia


    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes), or personal vaporizers, were introduced in 2003 and have been available in the United States since 2007. In addition to the health and safety concerns of the aerosol delivery of nicotine through E-cigarettes, during the past 8 years, reports of explosions and fires caused by the E-cigarette devices have led the US Fire Administration to evaluate the safety of these devices. These explosions have been observed frequently enough that the US Department of Transportation has recently banned E-cigarette devices in checked baggage aboard airplanes. This report contributes to existing knowledge about the hazards related to E-cigarettes by describing oral hard and soft tissue injuries from an E-cigarette explosion. Copyright © 2016 The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Advances in Raman spectroscopy for explosive identification in aviation security (United States)

    Santillán, Javier D.; Brown, Christopher D.; Jalenak, Wayne


    In the operational airport environment, the rapid identification of potentially hazardous materials such as improvised explosive devices, chemical warfare agents and flammable and explosive liquids is increasingly critical. Peroxide-based explosives pose a particularly insidious threat because they can be made from commonly available and relatively innocuous household chemicals, such as bleach and hydrogen peroxide. Raman spectroscopy has been validated as a valuable tool for rapid identification of chemicals, explosives, and narcotics and their precursors while allowing "line-of-sight" interrogation through bottles or other translucent containers. This enables safe identification of both precursor substances, such as acetone, and end-products, such as TATP, without direct sampling, contamination and exposure by security personnel. To date, Raman systems have been laboratory-based, requiring careful operation and maintenance by technology experts. The capital and ongoing expenses of these systems is also significant. Recent advances in Raman component technologies have dramatically reduced the footprint and cost, while improving the reliability and ease of use of Raman spectroscopy systems. Such technologies are not only bringing the lab to the field, but are also protecting civilians and security personnel in the process.

  8. Electrochemical Sensor for Explosives Precursors’ Detection in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloé Desmet


    Full Text Available Although all countries are intensifying their efforts against terrorism and increasing their mutual cooperation, terrorist bombing is still one of the greatest threats to society. The discovery of hidden bomb factories is of primary importance in the prevention of terrorism activities. Criminals preparing improvised explosives (IE use chemical substances called precursors. These compounds are released in the air and in the waste water during IE production. Tracking sources of precursors by analyzing air or wastewater can then be an important clue for bomb factories’ localization. We are reporting here a new multiplex electrochemical sensor dedicated to the on-site simultaneous detection of three explosive precursors, potentially used for improvised explosive device preparation (hereafter referenced as B01, B08, and B15, for security disclosure reasons and to avoid being detrimental to the security of the counter-explosive EU action. The electrochemical sensors were designed to be disposable and to combine ease of use and portability in a screen-printed eight-electrochemical cell array format. The working electrodes were modified with different electrodeposited metals: gold, palladium, and platinum. These different coatings giving selectivity to the multi-sensor through a “fingerprint”-like signal subsequently analyzed using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. Results are given regarding the detection of the three compounds in a real environment and in the presence of potentially interfering species.

  9. Wireless system for explosion detection in underground structures (United States)

    Chikhradze, M.; Bochorishvili, N.; Akhvlediani, I.; Kukhalashvili, D.; Kalichava, I.; Mataradze, E.


    Considering the growing threat of terrorist or accidental explosions in underground stations, underground highway and railway sections improvement of system for protecting people from explosions appears urgent. Current automatic protective devices with blast identification module and blast damping absorbers of various designs as their basic elements cannot be considered effective. Analysis revealed that low reliability of blast detection and delayed generation of start signal for the activation of an absorber are the major disadvantages of protective devices. Besides the transmission of trigger signal to an energy absorber through cable communication reduces the reliability of the operation of protective device due to a possible damage of electric wiring under blast or mechanical attack. This paper presents the outcomes of the studies conducted to select accurate criteria for blast identification and to design wireless system of activation of defensive device. The results of testing of blast detection methods (seismic, EMP, optical, on overpressure) showed that the proposed method, which implies constant monitoring of overpressure in terms of its reliability and response speed, best meets the requirements. Proposed wireless system for explosions identification and activation of protective device consists of transmitter and receiver modules. Transmitter module contains sensor and microprocessor equipped with blast identification software. Receiver module produces activation signal for operation of absorber. Tests were performed in the underground experimental base of Mining Institute. The time between the moment of receiving signal by the sensor and activation of absorber - 640 microsecond; distance between transmitter and receiver in direct tunnel - at least 150m; in tunnel with 900 bending - 50m. This research is sponsored by NATO's Public Diplomacy Division in the framework of "Science for Peace".

  10. Experimental Investigations of Multiphase Explosions (United States)

    Carney, Joel R.; Lightstone, James M.; McGrath, Thomas P.


    The addition of solid fuel particles to explosive formulations generally reduces the detonation velocity, but can enhance the blast performance if prompt combustion of the particles occurs in the detonation products and surrounding air early enough to support the shock. The degree to which fuel particles burn heavily depends on their dispersal throughout the explosion field and access to oxidizers. To distinguish the factors affecting the dispersal of fuel particles from those controlling their combustion, we began by analyzing the dispersal of equivalent mock inert particles. Solid glass spheres embedded in detonating small explosive charges were tracked using high-speed digital shadowgraphy. Two different particle sizes, 3 and 30 μm, and different mass fractions in the explosive compositions were considered. Shadowgraphs and pressure measurements were compared to the predictions of a newly developed multiphase numerical model. Reactive aluminum particles in the range of 1 to 120 μm in diameter were also analyzed. During the first 50 μs of the expansion, the general trend for both reactive and inert particles is for the smaller particles to expand near or beyond the leading shock wave to a greater extent than the larger particles. Expansion beyond the initial shock from the detonation is presumed to occur when particles agglomerate. The results are consistent with the predictions of the numerical models, highlighting the role of simple factors such as particle size and density in the early time expansion and mixing of fuels for enhanced blast applications.

  11. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, D.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a very high temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures homogeneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles almost instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and

  12. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism. (United States)

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett


    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  13. Lead-free primary explosives (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.


    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  14. The Core-Collapse Supernova Explosion Mechanism (United States)

    Müller, Bernhard


    The explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae is a long-standing problem in stellar astrophysics. We briefly outline the main contenders for a solution and review recent efforts to model core-collapse supernova explosions by means of multi-dimensional simulations. Focusing on the neutrino-driven mechanism, we summarize currents efforts to predict supernova explosion and remnant properties.

  15. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.100 Section 7.100 Mineral... Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.100 Explosion tests. (a) Test... agree. (ii) Remove all parts that do not contribute to the operation or ensure the explosion-proof...

  16. Explosion Power and Pressure Desensitization Resisting Property of Emulsion Explosives Sensitized by MgH2 (United States)

    Cheng, Yangfan; Ma, Honghao; Liu, Rong; Shen, Zhaowu


    Due to low detonation power and pressure desensitization problems that traditional emulsion explosives encounter in utilization, a hydrogen-based emulsion explosives was devised. This type of emulsion explosives is sensitized by hydrogen-containing material MgH2, and MgH2 plays a double role as a sensitizer and an energetic material in emulsion explosives. Underwater explosion experiments and shock wave desensitization experiments show that an MgH2 emulsion explosives has excellent detonation characteristics and is resistant to pressure desensitization. The pressure desensitization-resistant mechanism of MgH2 emulsion explosives was investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

  17. 30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (United States)


    ... for installation on explosion-proof enclosures to relieve pressure, ventilate, or drain will be... metal will prevent discharge of flame in explosion tests. (b) Devices for pressure relief, ventilation.... (c) Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage will be acceptable for application only on...

  18. Improvised Explosive Devices: Booklet of Related Readings 25 (United States)


    component in U.S. strategy because it influences attitudes and behavior." According to Deputy National Security Advisor Juan Zarate, this is...Michael Leiter, Juan Zarate, Charles Allen, and Dell Dailey. Library of Congress...was Shab-e-barat (night of salvation ), a festival when Muslims visit graveyards to offer night-long prayers for their dead relatives. Blasts in

  19. Detecting Improvised Explosive Devices: Enduring Threat Requires Enduring Solutions (United States)


    current, or recoiled springs; a command-, time-, or victim-operated switch; an initiator, such as electric or non-electric blasting caps; and a...and programs such as robots, radio frequency jamming systems, change detection and directed-energy technologies, ground penetrating radar ...clearance vehicles and equipment and specialized tools (ground penetrating radar , mine detectors, robots, optics suites, etc…) to detect IEDs. Once

  20. Defeating Improvised Explosive Devices (IED): Asymmetric Threats and Capability Gaps (United States)


    nail polish remover. HMTD can also be synthesized from hydrogen peroxide and a weak acid such as citric acid , and hexamine solid fuel tablets such...Trinitrotoluene (TNT), but are made in crude chemical labs using industrial chemicals like nitric acid , ammonium nitrate, diesel fuel and sugar, they...creativity of those who would do the population of the world harm is seemingly limitless. This fact has been true throughout history ; today is no

  1. Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization: Anomaly or Future Roadmap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadowski, Robert W


    .... JIEDDO itself has been compared to a 'Manhattan-style' project This paper provides historical perspective through case studies while exploring other analogs such as the North Atlantic shipping tragedy in WWII...

  2. Disrupting Improvised Explosive Device Terror Campaigns: Basic Research Opportunities (United States)


    graphs (Carter, Raich , and Hero 2007). Network tomography12 is another field of research with potential applicability to IED discovery. Rabbat and...Applications 2003, at Orlando, FL. Carter, Kevin M., Raviv Raich , and Alfred O. III Hero. 2007. Debiasing for Intrinsic Dimension Estimation. Paper

  3. Developing the Second Generation of Improvised Explosive Device Detector Dog (United States)


    Agility and search and rescue training differently affects pet dogs’ behaviour in socio-cognitive tasks. Behav Processes. 2009 Jul;81(3):416-22...equipped, and operated to comply with Title 9, Code of Federal Regulations, parts 1-3 and with DoD Directive 3216.01 to guarantee the humane , safe and... music amplifiers (~120 dB), jet engine noise (138 dB at 100 feet), and gunshot/firecracker (140 dB at 2-3 feet). We also considered that the breed

  4. Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices: A Threat Based Technology Study (United States)


    Underwater Vehicle,” accessed 25 April 2015, Downloads/Bluefin-HAUV-Product-Sheet.pdf; ECA Group , “H300 MK utilizing ECA Group , “H300 MK II,” accessed 25 April 2015, http:// eca be5...The Civil War Campaigns of David Farragut. New York: Castle Books. ECA Group . 2015. “H300 MK II.” Accessed 25 April 2015. http:// eca -media.eca

  5. Exploration of the contribution of isotope ratio mass spectrometry to the investigation of explosives: A study of black powders and ammonium nitrate fertilisers


    Gentile, N.


    The increasing number of bomb attacks involving improvised explosive devices, as well as the nature of the explosives, give rise to concern among safety and law enforcement agencies. The substances used in explosive charges are often everyday products diverted from their primary licit applications. Thus, reducing or limiting their accessibility for prevention purposes is difficult. Ammonium nitrate, employed in agriculture as a fertiliser, is used worldwide in small and large h...

  6. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives. (United States)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš


    The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spot test kit for explosives detection (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L


    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  8. Studying stellar explosions with Athena (United States)

    O'Brien, P.; Jonker, P.

    Athena is the second large mission selected in the ESA Cosmic Vision plan. With its large collecting area, high spectral-energy resolution (X-IFU instrument) and impressive grasp (WFI instrument), Athena will truly revolutionise X-ray astronomy. The most prodigious sources of high-energy photons are often transitory in nature. Athena will provide the sensitivity and spectral resolution coupled with rapid response to enable the study of the dynamic sky. Potential sources include: distant Gamma-Ray Bursts to probe the reionisation epoch and find missing baryons in the cosmic web; tidal disruption events to reveal dormant supermassive and intermediate-mass black holes; and supernova explosions to understand progenitors and their environments. We illustrate Athenas capabilities and show how it will be able to constrain the nature of explosive transients including gas metallicity and dynamics.

  9. Ranchero Explosive Pulsed Power Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goforth, J.H.; Atchison, W.L.; Deninger, W.J.; Fowler, C.M.; Herrera, D.H.; King, J.C.; Lopez, E.A.; Oona, H.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Stokes, J.L.; Sena, F.C.; Tabaka, L.J.; Tasker, D.G.; Torres, D.T.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Taylor, A.J.; Rodriguez, G.; Oro, D.M.; Garcia, O.F.; parker, J.V.; Broste, W.B.


    The authors are developing the Ranchero high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system to power cylindrically imploding solid-density liners for hydrodynamics experiments. The near-term goal is to conduct experiments in the regime pertinent to the Atlas Capacitor bank. That is, they will attempt to implode liners of {approximately}50 g mass at velocities approaching 15 km/sec. The basic building block of the HEPP system is a coaxial generator with a 304.8 mm diameter stator, and an initial armature diameter of 152 mm. The armature is expanded by a high explosive (HE) charge detonated simultaneously along its axis. They have reported a variety of experiments conducted with generator modules 43 cm long and have presented an initial design for hydrodynamic liner experiments. In this paper they give a synopsis of their first system test, and a status report on the development of a generator module that is 1.4 m long.

  10. RANCHERO explosive pulsed power experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Goforth, J H; Armijo, E V; Atchison, W L; Bartos, Yu; Clark, D A; Day, R D; Deninger, W J; Faehl, R J; Fowler, C M; García, F P; García, O F; Herrera, D H; Herrera, T J; Keinigs, R K; King, J C; Lindemuth, I R; López, E; Martínez, E C; Martínez, D; McGuire, J A; Morgan, D; Oona, H; Oro, D M; Parker, J V; Randolph, R B; Reinovsky, R E; Rodríguez, G; Stokes, J L; Sena, F C; Tabaka, L J; Tasker, D G; Taylor, A J; Torres, D T; Anderson, H D; Broste, W B; Johnson, J B; Kirbie, H C


    The authors are developing the RANCHERO high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system to power cylindrically imploding solid-density liners for hydrodynamics experiments. Their near-term goal is to conduct experiments in the regime pertinent to the Atlas capacitor bank. That is, they will attempt to implode liners of ~50 g mass at velocities approaching 15 km/sec. The basic building block of the HEPP system is a coaxial generator with a 304.8 mm diameter stator, and an initial armature diameter of 152 mm. The armature is expanded by a high explosive (HE) charge detonated simultaneously along its axis. The authors have reported a variety of experiments conducted with generator modules 43 cm long and have presented an initial design for hydrodynamic liner experiments. In this paper, they give a synopsis of their first system test, and a status report on the development of a generator module that is 1.4 m long. (6 refs).

  11. Explosives Removal from Munitions Wastewaters (United States)


    Rohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 19105 2 Background Generally, pollation in munitions plant waste water stems from washing and steam cleaning...290131 EXPLOSIVES REMOVAL FROM MUNITIONS WST- WATERS B. W. STEVENS, R. P. MCDONNELL ROHM. AND HAAS CO?*ANY, PHILAD2ELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA R. K. PXDREN...operations. Waste water from a typical TNT manufacturing J21 plant may contain from 40 to 120 ppm of TNT and lesser aimounts of 2,4, DNT. K. Waste

  12. Shell and explosive hydrogen burning

    CERN Document Server

    Boeltzig, A; Cavanna, F; Cristallo, S; Davinson, T; Depalo, R; deBoer, R J; Di Leva, A; Ferraro, F; Imbriani, G; Marigo, P; Terrasi, F; Wiescher, M


    The nucleosynthesis of light elements, from helium up to silicon, mainly occurs in Red Giant and Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and Novae. The relative abundances of the synthesized nuclides critically depend on the rates of the nuclear processes involved, often through non-trivial reaction chains, combined with complex mixing mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the contributions made by LUNA experiments in furthering our understanding of nuclear reaction rates necessary for modeling nucleosynthesis in AGB stars and Novae explosions.

  13. Nuclear Explosions 1945-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergkvist, Nils-Olov; Ferm, Ragnhild


    The main part of this report is a list of nuclear explosions conducted by the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, China, India and Pakistan in 1945-98. The list includes all known nuclear test explosions and is compiled from a variety of sources including officially published information from the USA, Russia and France. The details given for each explosion (date, origin time, location, yield, type, etc.) are often compiled from more than one source because the individual sources do not give complete information. The report includes a short background to nuclear testing and provides brief information on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and the verification regime now being established to verify compliance with the treaty. It also summarizes nuclear testing country by country. The list should be used with some caution because its compilation from a variety of sources means that some of the data could be incorrect. This report is the result of cooperation between the Defence Research Establishment (FOA) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)

  14. Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baglio, Salvatore


    This edited book is devoted specifically to the applications of complex nonlinear dynamic phenomena to real systems and device applications. While in the past decades there has been significant progress in the theory of nonlinear phenomena under an assortment of system boundary conditions and preparations, there exist comparatively few devices that actually take this rich behavior into account. "Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics" applies and exploits this knowledge to make devices which operate more efficiently and cheaply, while affording the promise of much better performance. Given the current explosion of ideas in areas as diverse as molecular motors, nonlinear filtering theory, noise-enhanced propagation, stochastic resonance and networked systems, the time is right to integrate the progress of complex systems research into real devices.

  15. Data base of chemical explosions in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, V.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Malahova, M.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Martysevich, P.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Mihaylova, N.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Nurmagambetov, A. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Kopnichev, Yu.F. D. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Edomin, V.I. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan)


    Within the bounds of this report, the following works were done: (1) Information about explosion quarries, located in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kasakstan was summarized. (2) The general information about seismicity of areas of location of explosion quarries was adduced. (3) The system of observation and seismic apparatus, recording the local earthquakes and quarry explosions at the territory of Kazakstan were described. (4) Data base of quarry explosions, that were carried out in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kazakstan during 1995 and first half of 1996 year was adduced. (5) Upon the data of registration of explosions in Southern Kazakstan the correlative dependences between power class of explosions and summary weight of charge were constructed. (6) Seismic records of quarry explosions were adduced. It is necessary to note, that the collection of data about quarry explosions in Kazakstan in present time is very difficult task. Organizations, that makes these explosions, are always suffering reorganizations and sometimes it is actually impossible to receive all the necessary information. Some quarries are situated in remote, almost inaccessible regions, and within the bounds of supplier financing not the every quarry was in success to visit. So the present data base upon the chemical explosions for 1995 is not full and in further it`s expansion is possible.

  16. Collection of trace evidence of explosive residues from the skin in a death due to a disguised letter bomb. The synergy between confocal laser scanning microscope and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses. (United States)

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Monaci, Fabrizio; Neri, Margherita; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Baroni, Davide; Fineschi, Vittorio


    In most deaths caused by explosive, the victim's body becomes a depot for fragments of explosive materials, so contributing to the collection of trace evidence which may provide clues about the specific type of device used with explosion. Improvised explosive devices are used which contain "homemade" explosives rather than high explosives because of the relative ease with which such components can be procured. Many methods such as chromatography-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, stereomicroscopy, capillary electrophoresis are available for use in the identification of explosive residues on objects and bomb fragments. Identification and reconstruction of the distribution of explosive residues on the decedent's body may give additional hints in assessing the position of the victim in relation to the device. Traditionally these residues are retrieved by swabbing the body and clothing during the early phase, at autopsy. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other analytical methods may be used to analyze the material swabbed from the victim body. The histological examination of explosive residues on skin samples collected during the autopsy may reveal significant details. The information about type, quantity and particularly about anatomical distribution of explosive residues obtained utilizing confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) together with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), may provide very significant evidence in the clarification and reconstruction of the explosive-related events. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal Cook-off of an HMX Based Explosive: Pressure Gauge Experiments and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urtiew, P A; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S


    Safety issues related to thermal cook-off are important for handling and storing explosive devices. Violence of event as a function of confinement is important for prediction of collateral events. There are major issues, which require an understanding of the following events: (1) transit to detonation of a pressure wave from a cook-off event, (2) sensitivity of HMX based explosives changes with thermally induced phase transitions and (3) the potential danger of neighboring explosive devices being affected by a cook-off reaction. Results of cook-off events of known size, confinement and thermal history allows for development and/or calibrating computer models for calculating events that are difficult to measure experimentally.

  18. Estimation of body exposure to explosion. (United States)

    Oliver, William R; Baker, Andrew M; Powell, James D; Cotone, Chris M; Meeker, Jeffrey


    An ordnance-disposal expert was killed while disposing of a cache of explosives. The likely position of the body was reconstructed by modeling the explosion as an omnidirectional emission of particles from a model of the explosion site and noting the distribution of particles on a model of a human. The applications and limitations of this method in reconstructing the events and correlation with the injuries noted at autopsy are discussed.

  19. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T) (United States)


    ... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G... fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol trinitrate. Minol-2 . MMAN ; methylamine nitrate...

  20. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T) (United States)


    ... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. ] Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G... fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol trinitrate. Minol-2 . MMAN ; methylamine nitrate...

  1. Failure Mode Analysis and Dynamic Response of a Coal Mine Refuge Chamber with a Gas Explosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyi Zhang; Dongxian Zhai; Wei Wang


      A gas and coal dust explosion is potential hazard in majority coal mines. A coal mine mobile refuge chamber is a new class of device for miners those who are unable to escape after an accident which can provide basic survival conditions...

  2. Determining the effectiveness of protective fences from explosions of terroristic orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov Alexander


    Full Text Available The article provides a general methodology for determining the effectiveness of protective fence against explosive devices of a terroristic nature. It also presents an example of using the developed methodology to create a more optimal solution for protective fence for a particular enclosure.

  3. The dynamic behaviour of the floor of a surrogate vehicle under explosive blast loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Newell, N


    Full Text Available Improvised Explosive Devices have been the signature weapon in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. High-rate axial forces exerted by the vehicle floor to the lower limbs of occupants have been the cause of severe injuries. In order to gain...

  4. Research Challenges in Combating Terrorist Use of Explosives in the United States (United States)


    architecture approach from the start. The term HME has been used to cover a wide range of materials from pure explosive compounds, such as TATP , that...terials used in the devices also range in sensitivity from fairly insensitive (e.g., ANFO) to extremely sensitive (e.g., TATP ). Approaches to

  5. Simulated nuclear optical signatures using explosive light sources (ELS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R.F.


    Four Explosive Light Source (aluminium powder and oxygen) tests were conducted on the test range at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque (SLA) from 28 February through 7 March 1978. Although several types of measuring devices were used, the report documents only the optical time histories measured by the bhangmeters and the NBDS, and explains the conclusions reached. In general, the four shots made it possible to gather clear-air optical transmission data, determine the suitability of ELS to simulate the optical effects of a nuclear burst, and provide experience for the larger scale ELS tests to be conducted at Fort Ord, CA in April.

  6. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M


    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  7. High Explosives Research and Development (HERD) Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to provide high explosive formulation, chemical analysis, safety and performance testing, processing, X-ray, quality control and loading support for...

  8. Explosives detection technology for commercial aviation security (United States)

    Schafrik, Robert E.


    The threat posed to commercial aviation by small, concealed plastic explosives is particularly onerous. Small amounts of these highly energetic explosives are difficult to reliably detect using current technologies. But they can cause significant damage to an aircraft that can result in the destruction of the aircraft, resulting in loss of life. The key issues regarding explosive detection technologies include: What methods can detect plastic explosives? How do these methods perform in practice? How can the different methods be best employed to counter the terrorist threat?

  9. Theoretical basis of explosion effects using al - granules in bulk explosives


    Dambov, Risto; Nikolic, Miroslav; Dambov, Ilija; Cacarov, Vladimir


    Use of bulk explosives such as AN-FO, heavy AN-FO, SLLURY and various Emulsions significantly improves explosive energy efficiency in the rock massif. Many operating engineers have the opportunity to examine and modify the technical characteristics of explosives and technologists especially, in the production of explosives where the main goal is improvement, the energy capacity by adding various components. The question is when is technically and economically most suitable to use ...

  10. Explosive transition in amorphous microwire (United States)

    Borisenko, I. Yu.; Tulin, V. A.


    An amorphous microwire in a glass shell offers a quick thermal response and can be rapidly heated to the crystallization point. When heated by a current pulse with a small amplitude and duration, the wire passes from the amorphous to microcrystalline state. The crystallization of the amorphous state may represent a slow or explosive process depending on the parameters of the pulse. In the latter case, the emission of electromagnetic waves (flash of light) and a sharp rise in the resistance are observed. The rate of propagation of the crystallization front in our experiments has been found to be about 1 m/s.

  11. Explosives detection using nanoporous coatings (United States)

    Pina, María P.; Pellejero, Ismael; Urbiztondo, Miguel; Sesé, Javier; Santamaría, J.


    Zeolite-coated cantilevers provided with internal heating elements have been developed and used for the selective detection of nitroderivates, in particular o-nitrotoluene as an example of an explosive-related molecule. In particular, Co exchanged commercial BEA zeolites have been deployed of rectangular Si cantilevers by microdropping technique. In particular, two different strategies have been demonstrated to increase the zeolite modified cantilevers performance: the sensing coating and the operating temperature. As a result, o-nitrotoluene LOD values below 1 ppm are attained at room temperature conditions; whereas the interference of toluene at concentrations below 1000 ppm is completely suppressed by heating the cantilever.

  12. Supernova Explosions Stay In Shape (United States)


    At a very early age, children learn how to classify objects according to their shape. Now, new research suggests studying the shape of the aftermath of supernovas may allow astronomers to do the same. A new study of images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory on supernova remnants - the debris from exploded stars - shows that the symmetry of the remnants, or lack thereof, reveals how the star exploded. This is an important discovery because it shows that the remnants retain information about how the star exploded even though hundreds or thousands of years have passed. "It's almost like the supernova remnants have a 'memory' of the original explosion," said Laura Lopez of the University of California at Santa Cruz, who led the study. "This is the first time anyone has systematically compared the shape of these remnants in X-rays in this way." Astronomers sort supernovas into several categories, or "types", based on properties observed days after the explosion and which reflect very different physical mechanisms that cause stars to explode. But, since observed remnants of supernovas are leftover from explosions that occurred long ago, other methods are needed to accurately classify the original supernovas. Lopez and colleagues focused on the relatively young supernova remnants that exhibited strong X-ray emission from silicon ejected by the explosion so as to rule out the effects of interstellar matter surrounding the explosion. Their analysis showed that the X-ray images of the ejecta can be used to identify the way the star exploded. The team studied 17 supernova remnants both in the Milky Way galaxy and a neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. For each of these remnants there is independent information about the type of supernova involved, based not on the shape of the remnant but, for example, on the elements observed in it. The researchers found that one type of supernova explosion - the so-called Type Ia - left behind relatively symmetric, circular

  13. The gas dynamics of explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee,\tJohn H S


    Explosions, and the non-steady shock propagation associated with them, continue to interest researchers working in different fields of physics and engineering (such as astrophysics and fusion). Based on the author's course in shock dynamics, this book describes the various analytical methods developed to determine non-steady shock propagation. These methods offer a simple alternative to the direct numerical integration of the Euler equations and offer a better insight into the physics of the problem. Professor Lee presents the subject systematically and in a style that is accessible to graduate students and researchers working in shock dynamics, combustion, high-speed aerodynamics, propulsion and related topics.

  14. Power of TATP based explosives. (United States)

    Matyás, Robert; Selesovský, Jakub


    The power of various explosive mixtures based on triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP), ammonimum nitrate (AN), urea nitrate (UrN) and water (W), namely TATP/AN, oil/AN, TATP/UrN, TATP/W and TATP/AN/W, was studied using the ballistic mortar test. The ternary mixtures of TATP/AN/W have relatively high power in case of the low water contents. Their power decrease significantly with increasing the water content in the mixture to more than 30%.

  15. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 55 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations..., explosives, (b) Permits for users who buy or transport explosives in interstate or foreign commerce, (c...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.902 - Surface transportation of explosives. (United States)


    ... of explosives shall be equipped with a fully charged fire extinguisher, in good condition. An... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface transportation of explosives. 1926.902 Section 1926... Explosives § 1926.902 Surface transportation of explosives. (a) Transportation of explosives shall meet the...



    Luchko, Ivan Andriiovych; Pashkov, Anatolii Pavlovych


    Dangerous factors at the handling ammonium nitrate explosives are covered. Dependence of influence of critical diameter for detonation on degree of compaction of the explosives is specified, causes of self-ignition of liquid explosive mixes are determined and measures according to their elimination are recommended.

  18. A structured approach to forensic study of explosions: The TNO Inverse Explosion Analysis tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.


    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  19. Near-infrared-light mediated ratiometric luminescent sensor for multimode visualized assays of explosives. (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoxia; Wei, Ting; Wang, Jie; Liu, Zi-En; Li, Xinyang; Zhang, Binhao; Li, Zhihao; Li, Lele; Yuan, Quan


    The development of a portable and easy-to-use device for the detection of explosives with high sensitivity and selectivity is in high demand for homeland security and public safety. In this study, we demonstrate miniaturized devices depending on the upconversion ratiometric luminescent probe for point-of-care (POC) assay of explosives with the naked-eye. When the PEI-coated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) selectively bonded to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives by the formation of Meisenheimer complex, the formed of UCNP-Meisenheimer complexes show turned visible multicolor upconversion luminescence (UCL) on account of TNT-modulating Förster resonance energy transfer process under near-infrared excitation. With UCL emission at 808 nm as internal standard and ratiometric UCL at 477 nm to that at 808 nm (I477/I808) as output signal, the probe can simultaneously meet the accuracy for TNT explosives quantitative analysis. In addition, this easy-to-use visual technique provides a powerful tool for convenient POC assay of rapid explosives identification.

  20. High temperature two component explosive (United States)

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles


    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of K. At temperatures on the order of K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  1. Geotechnical Aspects of Explosive Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shakeran


    Full Text Available Explosive Compaction (EC is the ground modification technique whereby the energy released from setting off explosives in subsoil inducing artificial earthquake effects, which compact the soil layers. The efficiency of EC predominantly depends on the soil profile, grain size distribution, initial status, and the intensity of energy applied to the soil. In this paper, in order to investigate the geotechnical aspects, which play an important role in performance of EC, a database has been compiled from thirteen-field tests or construction sites around the world, where EC has been successfully applied for modifying soil. This research focuses on evaluation of grain size distribution and initial stability status of deposits besides changes of soil penetration resistance due to EC. Results indicated suitable EC performance for unstable and liquefiable deposits having particle sizes ranging from gravel to silty sand with less than 40% silt content and less than 10% clay content. However, EC is most effective in fine-to-medium sands with a fine content less than 5% and hydraulically deposited with initial relative density ranging from 30% to 60%. Moreover, it has been observed that EC can be an effective method to improve the density, stability, and resistance of the target soils.

  2. Advances IN Explosive Nuclear Astrophysics (United States)

    Lotay, Gavin


    Breathtaking results from the Planck satellite mission and Hubble space telescope have highlighted the key role modern Astronomy is playing for our understanding of Big Bang Cosmology. However, not so widely publicized is the similar wealth of observational data now available on explosive stellar phenomena, such as X-ray bursts, novae and Supernovae. These astronomical events are responsible for the synthesis of almost all the chemical elements we find on Earth and observe in our Galaxy, as well as energy generation throughout the cosmos. Regrettably, understanding the latest collection of observational data is severely hindered by the current, large uncertainties in the underlying nuclear physics processes that drive such stellar scenarios. In order to resolve this issue, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is a need to explore the unknown properties and reactions of nuclei away from the line of stability. Consequently, state-of-the-art radioactive beam facilities have become terrestrial laboratories for the reproduction of explosive astrophysical events. In this talk, both direct and indirect methods for studying key astrophysical reactions using radioactive beams will be discussed.

  3. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert, E-mail: [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Selesovsky, Jakub; Musil, Tomas [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  5. Explosive Joining for Nuclear-Reactor Repair (United States)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.


    In explosive joining technique, adapter flange from fuel channel machined to incorporate a V-notch interface. Ribbon explosive, 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) in width, drives V-notched wall of adapter into bellows assembly, producing atomic-level metallurgical bond. Ribbon charge yields joint with double parent metal strength.

  6. Forecasting volcanic explosions based on seismic quiescence (United States)

    Roman, D.; La Femina, P.; Rodgers, M.; Geirsson, H.; Tenorio, V.


    Volcanic eruptions are generally forecast based on strong increases in monitoring parameters such as seismicity or gas emissions above a relatively low background level. Because of this, forecasting individual explosions during an ongoing eruption, or at persistently restless volcanoes, is difficult as seismicity, gas emissions, and other indicators of unrest are already in a heightened state. Therefore, identification of short-term precursors to individual explosions at volcanoes already in heightened states of unrest, and an understanding of explosion trigger mechanisms, is important for the reduction of volcanic risk worldwide. Seismic and visual observations at Telica Volcano, Nicaragua, demonstrate that a) episodes of seismic quiescence reliably preceded explosions during an eruption in May 2011 and b) the duration of precursory quiescence and the energy released in the ensuing explosion were strongly correlated. Precursory seismic quiescence is interpreted as the result of sealing of shallow gas pathways, leading to pressure accumulation and eventual catastrophic failure of the system, culminating in an explosion. Longer periods of sealing and pressurization lead to greater energy release in the ensuing explosion. Near-real-time observations of seismic quiescence at restless or erupting volcanoes can thus be useful for both timely eruption warnings and for forecasting the energy of impending explosions.

  7. Some analytical methods for explosives: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.


    This report is the second compilation of methods for analyzing explosives. All the methods were developed for routine performance by techniques, and an attempt has therefore been made to keep them as simple as possible. Methods are presented for analyzing plastic-bonded explosives based on sym-cyclomethylenetetra-nitramine (HMX), based on viton in addition to HMX, and based on pentraerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  8. 76 FR 8923 - Explosive Siting Requirements (United States)


    ... launch site in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 420. Part of the application for a... operational requirements of other regulatory regimes, they do not pose a risk of fire or explosion. Isolating... explosion due to the mixing of the two. In accordance with current DDESB and National Fire Protection...

  9. Characterization of mock high-explosive powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, C.R.; Dorsey, G.F.


    Analytical characterization and explosibility tests were made on a simulative high-explosive powder consisting of cyanuric acid, melamine, nitrocellulose, and tris-(..beta..-chloroethyl)-phosphate. Tests indicated that the powder presents no unusual safety or health hazards in isostatic-pressing and dry-machining operations.

  10. Explosion risks and consequences for tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Berg, A.C. van den


    Tunnel accidents with transports of dangerous goods may lead to explosions. Risk assessment for these accidents is complicated because of the low probability and the unknown, but disastrous effects expected. Especially the lack of knowledge on the strength of the explosion and the consequences for

  11. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels. (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the United States and in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, Class 1, Divisions 1.1 to 1.5 inclusive...

  12. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forbidden explosives. 173.54 Section 173.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.54 Forbidden explosives...

  13. The St Marys fragmentation grenade explosion. (United States)

    Nocera, A


    The accidental explosion of a fragmentation grenade in a munitions factory at St Marys injured four workers, two critically. The prompt response by ambulances and physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service prevented deaths, but the incident suggests lessons for the future handling of urban explosions.

  14. Insertion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrdt, J


    The interaction of an insertion device with the electron beam in a storage ring is discussed. The radiation property including brightness, ux and polarization of an ideal and real planar and helical / elliptical device is described. The magnet design of planar, helical, quasiperiodic devices and of devices with a reduced on axis power density are resumed.

  15. Hydrodynamics of Explosion Experiments and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kedrinskii, Valery K


    Hydronamics of Explosion presents the research results for the problems of underwater explosions and contains a detailed analysis of the structure and the parameters of the wave fields generated by explosions of cord and spiral charges, a description of the formation mechanisms for a wide range of cumulative flows at underwater explosions near the free surface, and the relevant mathematical models. Shock-wave transformation in bubbly liquids, shock-wave amplification due to collision and focusing, and the formation of bubble detonation waves in reactive bubbly liquids are studied in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the investigation of wave processes in cavitating liquids, which incorporates the concepts of the strength of real liquids containing natural microinhomogeneities, the relaxation of tensile stress, and the cavitation fracture of a liquid as the inversion of its two-phase state under impulsive (explosive) loading. The problems are classed among essentially nonlinear processes that occur unde...

  16. [Explosion injuries - prehospital care and management]. (United States)

    Holsträter, Thorsten; Holsträter, Susanne; Rein, Daniela; Helm, Matthias; Hossfeld, Björn


    Explosion injuries are not restricted to war-like military conflicts or terrorist attacks. The emergency physician may also encounter such injuries in the private or industrial fields, injuries caused by fireworks or gas explosions. In such cases the injury patterns are especially complex and may consist of blunt and penetrating injuries as well as thermal damage. Emergency medical personnel must be prepared to cope with explosion trauma not only in individual cases but also in major casualty incidents (MCI). This necessitates a sound knowledge about the mechanisms and processes of an explosion as well as the particular pathophysiological relationships of explosion injuries in order to be able to initiate the best possible, guideline-conform trauma therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Independence day explosion on lovers key. (United States)

    Harding, Brett A; Wolf, Barbara C


    The display of fireworks is a popular holiday celebration in the United States. Because injuries due to recreational fireworks-related explosions among private consumers are relatively common, the sale of fireworks is regulated by the federal government and is also limited by state and local laws. In contrast, because fireworks display companies are under tight safety regulations, explosions in the professional pyrotechnics industry are uncommon occurrences, and the literature contains rare reports of injuries and fatalities resulting from such explosions. We report the 2003 Fourth of July commercial fireworks explosion on Lovers Key in southwest Florida that resulted in five fatalities. Events occurring during the investigation of the scene of this explosion illustrate the unique considerations and hazards for medicolegal death investigators, law enforcement and other investigative agencies. Additionally, this case demonstrates unusual aspects of the postmortem examinations performed on victims of fireworks-related incidents.

  18. Explosion interaction with water in a tube (United States)

    Homae, T.; Sugiyama, Y.; Wakabayashi, K.; Matsumura, T.; Nakayama, Y.


    As proposed and legislated in Japan, subsurface magazines have an explosive storage chamber, a horizontal passageway, and a vertical shaft for a vent. The authors found that a small amount of water on the floor of the storage chamber mitigated blast pressure remarkably. The mitigation mechanism has been examined more closely. To examine the effect of water, the present study assesses explosions in a transparent, square cross section, and a straight tube. A high-speed camera used to observe the tube interior. Blast pressure in and around the tube was also measured. Images obtained using the high-speed camera revealed that water inside the tube did not move after the explosion. Differences between cases of tubes without water and with water were unclear. Along with blast pressure measurements, these study results suggest that blast pressure mitigation by water occurs because of interaction between the explosion and the water near the explosion point.

  19. Local Explosion Monitoring using Rg (United States)

    O'Rourke, C. T.; Baker, G. E.


    Rg is the high-frequency fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave, which is only excited by near-surface events. As such, an Rg detection indicates that a seismic source is shallow, generally less than a few km depending on the velocity structure, and so likely man-made. Conversely, the absence of Rg can indicate that the source is deeper and so likely naturally occurring. We have developed a new automated method of detecting Rg arrivals from various explosion sources at local distances, and a process for estimating the likelihood that a source is not shallow when no Rg is detected. Our Rg detection method scans the spectrogram of a seismic signal for a characteristic frequency peak. We test this on the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment data, which includes earthquakes, active source explosions in boreholes, and mining explosions recorded on a dense network that spans the Bighorn Mountains and Powder River Basin. The Rg passbands used were 0.4-0.8 Hz for mining blasts and 0.8-1.2 Hz for borehole shots. We successfully detect Rg across the full network for most mining blasts. The lower-yield shots are detectable out to 50 km. We achieve methods that use cross-correlation to detect retrograde motion of the surface waves. Our method shows more complete detection across the network, especially in the Powder River Basin where Rg exhibits prograde motion that does not trigger the existing detector. We also estimate the likelihood that Rg would have been detected from a surface source, based on the measured P amplitude. For example, an event with a large P wave and no detectable Rg would have a high probability of being a deeper event, whereas we cannot confidently determine whether an event with a small P wave and no Rg detection is shallow or not. These results allow us to detect Rg arrivals, which indicate a shallow source, and to use the absence of Rg to estimate the likelihood that a source in a calibrated region is not shallow enough to be man-made.

  20. Explosion probability of unexploded ordnance: expert beliefs. (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacqueline Anne; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M G


    This article reports on a study to quantify expert beliefs about the explosion probability of unexploded ordnance (UXO). Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with UXO and are slated for cleanup, at an estimated cost of $15-140 billion. Because no available technology can guarantee 100% removal of UXO, information about explosion probability is needed to assess the residual risks of civilian reuse of closed military bases and to make decisions about how much to invest in cleanup. This study elicited probability distributions for the chance of UXO explosion from 25 experts in explosive ordnance disposal, all of whom have had field experience in UXO identification and deactivation. The study considered six different scenarios: three different types of UXO handled in two different ways (one involving children and the other involving construction workers). We also asked the experts to rank by sensitivity to explosion 20 different kinds of UXO found at a case study site at Fort Ord, California. We found that the experts do not agree about the probability of UXO explosion, with significant differences among experts in their mean estimates of explosion probabilities and in the amount of uncertainty that they express in their estimates. In three of the six scenarios, the divergence was so great that the average of all the expert probability distributions was statistically indistinguishable from a uniform (0, 1) distribution-suggesting that the sum of expert opinion provides no information at all about the explosion risk. The experts' opinions on the relative sensitivity to explosion of the 20 UXO items also diverged. The average correlation between rankings of any pair of experts was 0.41, which, statistically, is barely significant (p= 0.049) at the 95% confidence level. Thus, one expert's rankings provide little predictive information about another's rankings. The lack of consensus among experts suggests that empirical studies

  1. Numerical modelling of the effect of using multi-explosives on the explosive forming of steel cones


    De Vuyst, T; Kong, K.; Djordjevic, N.; Vignjevic, R.; Campbell, JC; Hughes, K


    Modelling and analysis of underwater explosive forming process by using FEM and SPH formulation is presented in this work. The explosive forming of a steel cone is studied. The model setup includes a low carbon steel plate, plate holder, forming die as well as water and C4 explosive. The effect of multiple explosives on rate of targets deformation has been studied. Four different multi-explosives models have been developed and compared to the single explosive model. The formability of the ste...

  2. Fast Chromatographic Method for Explosive Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Hugues Stefanuto


    Full Text Available Security control is becoming a major global issue in strategic locations, such as airports, official buildings, and transit stations. The agencies responsible for public security need powerful and sensitive tools to detect warfare agents and explosives. Volatile signature detection is one of the fastest and easiest ways to achieve this task. However, explosive chemicals have low volatility making their detection challenging. In this research, we developed and evaluated fast chromatographic methods to improve the characterization of volatile signatures from explosives samples. The headspace of explosives was sampled with solid phase micro-extraction fiber (SPME. Following this step, classical gas chromatography (GC and comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC were used for analysis. A fast GC approach allows the elution temperature of each analyte to be decreased, resulting in decreased thermal degradation of sensitive compounds (e.g., nitro explosives. Using fast GC×GC, the limit of detection is further decreased based on the cryo-focusing effect of the modulator. Sampling of explosives and chromatographic separation were optimized, and the methods then applied to commercial explosives samples. Implementation of fast GC methods will be valuable in the future for defense and security forensics applications.

  3. Accidental head explosion: an unusual blast wave injury as a result of self-made fireworks. (United States)

    Kunz, S N; Zinka, B; Peschel, O; Fieseler, S


    A 33-year old hobby pyrotechnician sustained a lethal craniofacial trauma secondary to a salute fireworks blast. He was examining a misfire of a self-constructed salute gun, when it detonated, causing an explosively rupture of his forehead, which led to his immediate death. An autopsy was performed to achieve knowledge of the injury and to be able to reconstruct the events that lead to it. The pressure effect of the explosion caused a shredded rupture of the forehead with a regional spread of brain tissue and small polygonal skull fragments up to 30m from the detonation site. Furthermore multiple cinderlike fragments of black powder were embedded in the skin of the face and the anterior aspect of the neck (s.c. blast tattoo). The complete destruction of the forehead in combination with the multiple blast tattooing suggested that the explosion detonated while he was leaning over the device. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potentials and limits of mid-infrared laser spectroscopy for the detection of explosives (United States)

    Bauer, C.; Sharma, A. K.; Willer, U.; Burgmeier, J.; Braunschweig, B.; Schade, W.; Blaser, S.; Hvozdara, L.; Müller, A.; Holl, G.


    Optical methods are well-established for trace gas detection in many applications, such as industrial process control or environmental sensing. Consequently, they gain much interest in the discussion of sensing methods for counterterrorism, e.g., the detection of explosives. Explosives as well as their decomposition products possess strong absorption features in the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral region between λ=5 and 11 μm. In this report we present two different laser spectroscopic approaches based on quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) operating at wavelengths around λ=5 and 8 μm, respectively. Stand-off configuration for the remote detection of nitro-based explosives (e.g., trinitrotoluene, TNT) and a fiber coupled sensor device for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) are discussed.

  5. Metal explosion chambers: designing, manufacturing, application (United States)

    Stoyanovskii, O. I.; Zlobin, B. S.; Shtertser, A. A.; Meshcheryakov, Y. P.


    Designing of explosion chambers is based on research investigations of the chamber body stress-strain state, which is determined by numerical computation and experimentally by the strain gage technique. Studies show that chamber bottoms are the most loaded elements, and maximal stresses arise in chamber poles. Increasing the shell thickness around poles by welding-in an insert is a simple and saving way to solve this problem. There are structural solutions, enabling reliable hermetic closure and preventing leakage of detonation products from the chamber. Explosion chambers are employed in scientific research and in different industrial applications: explosive welding and hardening, synthesis of new materials, disposal of expired ammunition, and etc.

  6. Wave dynamics of electric explosion in solids (United States)

    Burkin, V. V.; Kuznetsova, N. S.; Lopatin, V. V.


    A mathematical model of an electric explosion is developed that consistently describes the expansion of the explosion channel with regard to the parameters of the discharge circuit of a high-voltage pulse generator, radiation, and propagation of stress waves in a solid. The dynamics of conversion of the stored energy to a wave and the formation of mechanical stresses due to electric explosion in a solid immersed in a liquid are considered. In the context of electro-discharge destruction of hard materials, the resulting stress field and the relationship between the discharge circuit parameters and characteristics of the wave are analyzed and the most efficient discharge modes are determined.

  7. The mathematical modeling of supernova explosion (United States)

    Denisov, A. A.; Koldoba, A. V.; Poveshchenko, Iu. A.; Popov, Iu. P.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    An essentially two-dimensional model of supernova explosion is developed, with emphasis on the role of rotation in the thermonuclear explosion process. Attention is given to a star with a carbon-oxygen core, which is transformed into a nickel core as a result of nuclear reaction. In this case, the development of thermal instability leads to the generation of a detonation wave propagating to the periphery of the star. Rapid rotation is found to produce a strong asymmetry of the hydrodynamic processs of the explosion.

  8. Water waves generated by underwater explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Mehaute, Bernard Le


    This is the first book on explosion-generated water waves. It presents the theoretical foundations and experimental results of the generation and propagation of impulsively generated waves resulting from underwater explosions. Many of the theories and concepts presented herein are applicable to other types of water waves, in particular, tsunamis and waves generated by the fall of a meteorite. Linear and nonlinear theories, as well as experimental calibrations, are presented for cases of deep and shallow water explosions. Propagation of transient waves on dissipative, nonuniform bathymetries to

  9. On the Violence of High Explosive Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarver, C M; Chidester, S K


    High explosive reactions can be caused by three general energy deposition processes: impact ignition by frictional and/or shear heating; bulk thermal heating; and shock compression. The violence of the subsequent reaction varies from benign slow combustion to catastrophic detonation of the entire charge. The degree of violence depends on many variables, including the rate of energy delivery, the physical and chemical properties of the explosive, and the strength of the confinement surrounding the explosive charge. The current state of experimental and computer modeling research on the violence of impact, thermal, and shock-induced reactions is reviewed.

  10. The stability of TNT, RDX and PETN in simulated post-explosion soils: Implications of sample preparation for analysis. (United States)

    Yu, H A; DeTata, D A; Lewis, S W; Nic Daeid, N


    Explosives residues in soils may be a useful source of evidence following the detonation of an improvised explosive device (IED), such as a vehicle-borne IED. Soil samples collected from the vicinity of an explosion scene will often be stored for some time prior to analysis, yet explosives residues in soil samples are susceptible to rapid degradation or transformation. Although some research has assessed the use of different storage temperatures with a view to reducing explosives' degradation over time, further research examining the degradation of explosives in soil when stored under a variety of storage conditions is crucial to determine the optimal sample collection and storage procedures for soil containing explosives residues. In this work, three different soils were spiked with solutions of TNT, RDX and PETN and stored either at room temperature, refrigerated or frozen. Samples were extracted over 6 weeks, with additional samples gamma-irradiated or nitrogen purged prior to storage. Experimental results indicate that TNT underwent very rapid degradation at room temperature, attributed to microbial action, whereas PETN and RDX proved to be more stable. Gamma irradiation and nitrogen purging proved of some benefit for mitigating TNT degradation, with lower storage temperatures ultimately proving the most effective method of mitigating degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Photovoltaic device (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.


    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  12. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R


    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  13. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  14. Numerical Analysis of the Risk of Neck Injuries Caused By IED Explosion under the Vehicle in Military Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackiewicz Agnieszka


    Full Text Available As a result of an explosion under a military vehicle, the risk of threat to life and health of the crew increases. Examination of this event in terms of the security of soldiers comes down to a complex analysis of the mutual interaction of the body of a soldier, seating and structural elements of the vehicle. As a result, shock wave impacts can cause tremor resulting from the construction of the vehicle and acceleration of the passenger's body. This study attempts to analyze the impact of an explosion of an improvised explosive device (IED under the military vehicle with the risk of cervical spine injuries of soldiers. The analysis was carried out using numerical methods in the LS-DYNA program and was carried out taking into account the variable displacement values and acceleration recorded during the\\ explosion. The study used a model of the body of a soldier in the form of a Hybrid III 50th Male Dummy.

  15. Compact, rapid, and rugged detector of military and improvised explosives based on external grating cavity quantum cascade lasers (United States)

    Tsekoun, Alexei; Dunayevskiy, Ilya; Maulini, Richard; Barron-Jimenez, Rodolfo; Lyakh, Arkadiy; Patel, C. Kumar N.


    Early detection of explosive substances is the first and most difficult step in defeating explosive devices. Many currently available methods suffer from fundamental failure modes limiting their realworld suitability. Infrared spectroscopy is ideal for reliable identification of explosives since it probes the chemical composition of molecules. Quantum cascade lasers rapidly became the light source of choice of IR spectroscopy due to their wavelength agility, relatively high output power, and small size and weight. Our compact, rapid, and rugged multi-explosives sensor based on external grating cavity QCLs simultaneously detects TNT, TATP, and acetone while being immune to ammonium nitrate interference. The instrument features low false alarm rate, and low probability of false negatives. Receiver operation characteristics curves are presented.

  16. 30 CFR 75.1314 - Sheathed explosive units. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sheathed explosive units. 75.1314 Section 75... explosive units. (a) A separate instantaneous detonator shall be used to fire each sheathed explosive unit. (b) Sheathed explosive units shall be primed and placed in position for firing only by a qualified...

  17. Detection of Nuclear Explosions Using Infrasound Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christie, D. R; Kennett, B. L


    The performance of typical IMS infrasound monitoring stations has been examined in detail in order to evaluate the detection capability of the global network for regional and distant nuclear explosions...

  18. Isolator fragmentation and explosive initiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rae, Philip John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Timothy J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Novak, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Armstrong, Christopher Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baca, Eva V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gunderson, Jake Alfred [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Three tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of firing an isolator in proximity to a barrier or explosive charge. The tests with explosive were conducted without a barrier, on the basis that since any barrier will reduce the shock transmitted to the explosive, bare explosive represents the worst-case from an inadvertent initiation perspective. No reaction was observed. The shock caused by the impact of a representative plastic material on both bare and cased PBX 9501 is calculated in the worst-case, 1-D limit, and the known shock response of the HE is used to estimate minimum run-to-detonation lengths. The estimates demonstrate that even 1-D impacts would not be of concern and that, accordingly, the divergent shocks due to isolator fragment impact are of no concern as initiating stimuli.

  19. Electronic cigarette explosions involving the oral cavity. (United States)

    Harrison, Rebecca; Hicklin, David


    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is a rapidly growing trend throughout the United States. E-cigarettes have been linked to the risk of causing explosion and fire. Data are limited on the associated health hazards of e-cigarette use, particularly long-term effects, and available information often presents conflicting conclusions. In addition, an e-cigarette explosion and fire can pose a unique treatment challenge to the dental care provider because the oral cavity may be affected heavily. In this particular case, the patient's injuries included intraoral burns, luxation injuries, and alveolar fractures. This case report aims to help clinicians gain an increased knowledge about e-cigarette design, use, and risks; discuss the risk of spontaneous failure and explosion of e-cigarettes with patients; and understand the treatment challenges posed by an e-cigarette explosion. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly explosive nanosilicon-based composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, D.; Diener, J.; Gross, E.; Kuenzner, N.; Kovalev, D. [Technical University of Munich, Physics Department, James-Franck-Str., 85747 Garching (Germany); Timoshenko, V.Yu. [Moscow State M.V. Lomonosov University, Physics Department, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We present a highly explosive binary system based on porous silicon layers with their pores filled with solid oxidizers. The porous layers are produced by a standard electrochemical etching process and exhibit properties that are different from other energetic materials. Its production is completely compatible with the standard silicon technology and full bulk silicon wafers can be processed and therefore a large number of explosive elements can be produced simultaneously. The application-relevant parameters: the efficiency and the long-term stability of various porous silicon/oxidizer systems have been studied in details. Structural properties of porous silicon, its surface termination, the atomic ratio of silicon to oxygen and the chosen oxidizers were optimized to achieve the highest efficiency of the explosive reaction. This explosive system reveals various possible applications in different industrial fields, e.g. as a novel, very fast airbag igniter. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Climatic Reliability of Electronic Devices and Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan


    This article provides an overview of the climatic reliability issues of electronic devices and components with a focus on the metals/alloys usage on PCB a surface together with cleanliness issues, humidity interaction on PCB a surface, and PCB a design and device design aspects. The miniaturization...... of electronic systems and the explosive increase in their usage has increased the climatic reliability issues of electronics devices and components, especially when metal/alloy parts are exposed on the PCB assembly surface or embedded within the multilayer laminate. Problems are compounded by the fact...

  2. Hamiltonian approach for explosive percolation. (United States)

    Moreira, A A; Oliveira, E A; Reis, S D S; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S


    We present a cluster growth process that provides a clear connection between equilibrium statistical mechanics and an explosive percolation model similar to the one recently proposed by D. Achlioptas [Science 323, 1453 (2009)]. We show that the following two ingredients are sufficient for obtaining an abrupt (first-order) transition in the fraction of the system occupied by the largest cluster: (i) the size of all growing clusters should be kept approximately the same, and (ii) the inclusion of merging bonds (i.e., bonds connecting vertices in different clusters) should dominate with respect to the redundant bonds (i.e., bonds connecting vertices in the same cluster). Moreover, in the extreme limit where only merging bonds are present, a complete enumeration scheme based on treelike graphs can be used to obtain an exact solution of our model that displays a first-order transition. Finally, the presented mechanism can be viewed as a generalization of standard percolation that discloses a family of models with potential application in growth and fragmentation processes of real network systems.

  3. Regional Seismic Methods of Identifying Explosions (United States)

    Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Pasyanos, M.; Pyle, M. L.; Hauk, T. F.


    A lesson from the 2006, 2009 and 2013 DPRK declared nuclear explosion Ms:mb observations is that our historic collection of data may not be representative of future nuclear test signatures (e.g. Selby et al., 2012). To have confidence in identifying future explosions amongst the background of other seismic signals, we need to put our empirical methods on a firmer physical footing. Here we review the two of the main identification methods: 1) P/S ratios and 2) Moment Tensor techniques, which can be applied at the regional distance (200-1600 km) to very small events, improving nuclear explosion monitoring and confidence in verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Amplitude ratios of seismic P-to-S waves at sufficiently high frequencies (~>2 Hz) can identify explosions among a background of natural earthquakes (e.g. Walter et al., 1995). However the physical basis for the generation of explosion S-waves, and therefore the predictability of this P/S technique as a function of event properties such as size, depth, geology and path, remains incompletely understood. Calculated intermediate period (10-100s) waveforms from regional 1-D models can match data and provide moment tensor results that separate explosions from earthquakes and cavity collapses (e.g. Ford et al. 2009). However it has long been observed that some nuclear tests produce large Love waves and reversed Rayleigh waves that complicate moment tensor modeling. Again the physical basis for the generation of these effects from explosions remains incompletely understood. We are re-examining regional seismic data from a variety of nuclear test sites including the DPRK and the former Nevada Test Site (now the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)). Newer relative amplitude techniques can be employed to better quantify differences between explosions and used to understand those differences in term of depth, media and other properties. We are also making use of the Source Physics

  4. Effects of Explosions in Underground Magazines (United States)


    values of confined explosion gas pressure for PETN in air at sea level.. 23 2.3 An example of the scaling procedure employed to predict peak pressures in...compared to -thoso currently eowployed in the 1980 Department of )fise, O0D) - Amunititon and Explosivo Safety Standards (Refotetce 1). The details are...comparisons of Proctor’s (1974, Reference 5) theoretical predictions with experimontal data for TNT and PETN explosives. Stromsoo (Reference 8) calculated

  5. Non-shock initiation of explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asay, B. W


    ... explosives. Before 1942, explosives were used in munitions and commercial pursuits that demanded proper chemistry and confinement for the necessary effect, but little else. The needs and requirements of the Manhattan project were of a much more precise and specific nature. Spatial and temporal specifications were reduced from centimeters and milliseconds to micrometers and nanoseconds. New theory and computational tools were required along with a raft of new experimental techniques and novel ways of interpreting...

  6. Weapons Experiments Division Explosives Operations Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laintz, Kenneth E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Presentation covers WX Division programmatic operations with a focus on JOWOG-9 interests. A brief look at DARHT is followed by a high level overview of explosives research activities currently being conducted within in the experimental groups of WX-Division. Presentation covers more emphasis of activities and facilities at TA-9 as these efforts have been more traditionally aligned with ongoing collaborative explosive exchanges covered under JOWOG-9.

  7. Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development (United States)


    some concern was the occasional appearance of iron-Ta intermetallics near the liner-steel interface. This is a brittle phase and subject to...Montgomery JS, de Rosset WS. Examination of intermetallic phases and residual stresses resulting from explosive bonding of refractory metal gun tube...caliber smoothbore gun tube. The metallic bond produced by explosive bonding is extremely strong and presumably would keep the liner in place. In Phase

  8. Grain-scale Dynamics in Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E


    High explosives can have reactions to external stimuli that range from mild pressure bursts to full detonation. The ability to predict these responses is important for understanding the performance as well as the safety and reliability of these important materials. At present, we have only relatively simple phenomenological computational models for the behavior of high explosives under these conditions. These models are limited by the assumption that the explosive can be treated as homogeneous. In reality the explosive is a highly heterogeneous composite of irregular crystallites and plastic binder. The heterogeneous nature of explosives is responsible for many of their unique mechanical and chemical properties. We use computational models to simulate the response of explosives to external mechanical stimuli at the grain-scale level. The ultimate goal of this work is to understand the detailed processes involved with the material response, so that we can develop realistic material models, which can be used in a hydrodynamics/multi-physics code to model real systems. The new material models will provide a more realistic description of the explosive system during the most critical period of ignition and initiation. The focus of this work is to use the results of grain-scale simulations to develop an advanced macroscopic reactive flow model that is consistent with our understanding of the grain-scale details, and that can incorporate such information quantitatively. The objective is to connect changes to observed properties of the explosive (grain size distribution, binder thickness distribution, void shape, size, and separation distribution, binder mechanical properties, etc.) with predictions of the resulting sensitivity and performance.

  9. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity? (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J


    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  10. Statistical estimation of loads from gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiset, Stian


    In the design of structures in the offshore and process industries, the possibility of a gas explosion must always be considered. The main uncertainties in computerized simulation of gas explosions are the assumptions of the gas cloud, the location of the ignition point and the properties of the simulator itself. This thesis quantifies the levels of these uncertainties by performing a large number of simulations on three offshore modules and one onshore plant. It is found that (1) there is an approximate linear relation between pressure and gas volume, (2) it may be possible to find a linear relation between pressure and impulse, (3) there is an inverse relation between pressure and duration, (4) the response of offshore structures exposed to gas explosions are rarely in the impulsive regime, (5) loading rates vary widely in magnitude, (6) an assumption of a triangular explosion pulse is often correct, (7) louvres increase pressure, impulse and duration of an explosion. The effect of ignition point location is studied in detail. It is possible to derive an ignition point uncertainty load factor that shows predictable behaviour by generalizing the non-parametric properties of the explosion pressure. A model for taking into account the uncertainties regarding gas volume, ignition point location and simulator imperfectness is proposed. The model is intended to produce a characteristic load for structural design. 68 refs., 51 figs., 36 tabs.

  11. Experimental Explosive Characterization for Counterterrorist Investigation (United States)

    Etayo, D.; Maestrojuan, I.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.


    A THz spectral characterization of different explosives of special interest for the Spanish National Security Forces "Guardia Civil" is presented in this paper. This forensic analysis has been done in the frequency range from 0.060 THz to 3.5 THz using the Teraview TPS Spectra 3000 system in laboratory conditions. With this equipment the refractive index, absorbance and complex permittivity of the explosive samples have been obtained. In this study, some of the most common used explosives (Bullet gunpowder, mine gunpowder, PETN, TNT, RDX) are analysed paying special attention to differences related to the manufacturing process used to elaborate some of them and to the purity of the samples. The different fabrication processes of the explosives lead to the same spectral behaviour and characteristics. At the same time, the inclusion of some additives in the explosive samples does not alter their main electromagnetic properties. The sensitivity limit of the measurement system has been found to be to 10 mg of explosives. These results will be used to design future THz imaging systems that allow to detect and identify them in security and defence applications and/or to complete laboratory studies after a terrorist action.

  12. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily


    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium. PMID:27443235

  13. Solid Rocket Launch Vehicle Explosion Environments (United States)

    Richardson, E. H.; Blackwood, J. M.; Hays, M. J.; Skinner, T.


    Empirical explosion data from full scale solid rocket launch vehicle accidents and tests were collected from all available literature from the 1950s to the present. In general data included peak blast overpressure, blast impulse, fragment size, fragment speed, and fragment dispersion. Most propellants were 1.1 explosives but a few were 1.3. Oftentimes the data from a single accident was disjointed and/or missing key aspects. Despite this fact, once the data as a whole was digitized, categorized, and plotted clear trends appeared. Particular emphasis was placed on tests or accidents that would be applicable to scenarios from which a crew might need to escape. Therefore, such tests where a large quantity of high explosive was used to initiate the solid rocket explosion were differentiated. Also, high speed ground impacts or tests used to simulate such were also culled. It was found that the explosions from all accidents and applicable tests could be described using only the pressurized gas energy stored in the chamber at the time of failure. Additionally, fragmentation trends were produced. Only one accident mentioned the elusive "small" propellant fragments, but upon further analysis it was found that these were most likely produced as secondary fragments when larger primary fragments impacted the ground. Finally, a brief discussion of how this data is used in a new launch vehicle explosion model for improving crew/payload survival is presented.

  14. Standoff laser-induced thermal emission of explosives (United States)

    Galán-Freyle, Nataly Y.; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Figueroa-Navedo, Amanda; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.


    A laser mediated methodology for remote thermal excitation of analytes followed by standoff IR detection is proposed. The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of using laser induced thermal emission (LITE) from vibrationally excited explosives residues deposited on surfaces to detect explosives remotely. Telescope based FT-IR spectral measurements were carried out to examine substrates containing trace amounts of threat compounds used in explosive devices. The highly energetic materials (HEM) used were PETN, TATP, RDX, TNT, DNT and ammonium nitrate with concentrations from 5 to 200 μg/cm2. Target substrates of various thicknesses were remotely heated using a high power CO2 laser, and their mid-infrared (MIR) thermally stimulated emission spectra were recorded. The telescope was configured from reflective optical elements in order to minimize emission losses in the MIR frequencies and to provide optimum overall performance. Spectral replicas were acquired at a distance of 4 m with an FT-IR interferometer at 4 cm- 1 resolution and 10 scans. Laser power was varied from 4-36 W at radiation exposure times of 10, 20, 30 and 60 s. CO2 laser powers were adjusted to improve the detection and identification of the HEM samples. The advantages of increasing the thermal emission were easily observed in the results. Signal intensities were proportional to the thickness of the coated surface (a function of the surface concentration), as well as the laser power and laser exposure time. For samples of RDX and PETN, varying the power and time of induction of the laser, the calculated low limit of detections were 2 and 1 μg/cm2, respectively.

  15. Explosions in Majestic Spiral Beauties (United States)


    Images of beautiful galaxies, and in particular of spiral brethren of our own Milky Way, leaves no-one unmoved. It is difficult indeed to resist the charm of these impressive grand structures. Astronomers at Paranal Observatory used the versatile VIMOS instrument on the Very Large Telescope to photograph two magnificent examples of such "island universes", both of which are seen in a southern constellation with an animal name. But more significantly, both galaxies harboured a particular type of supernova, the explosion of a massive star during a late and fatal evolutionary stage. The first image (PR Photo 33a/04) is of the impressive spiral galaxy NGC 6118 [1], located near the celestial equator, in the constellation Serpens (The Snake). It is a comparatively faint object of 13th magnitude with a rather low surface brightness, making it pretty hard to see in small telescopes. This shyness has prompted amateur astronomers to nickname NGC 6118 the "Blinking Galaxy" as it would appear to flick into existence when viewed through their telescopes in a certain orientation, and then suddenly disappear again as the eye position shifted. There is of course no such problem for the VLT's enormous light-collecting power and ability to produce sharp images, and this magnificent galaxy is here seen in unequalled detail. The colour photo is based on a series of exposures behind different optical filters, obtained with the VIMOS multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT Melipal telescope during several nights around August 21, 2004. About 80 million light-years away, NGC 6118 is a grand-design spiral seen at an angle, with a very small central bar and several rather tightly wound spiral arms (it is classified as of type "SA(s)cd" [2]) in which large numbers of bright bluish knots are visible. Most of them are active star-forming regions and in some, very luminous and young stars can be perceived. Of particular interest is the comparatively bright stellar-like object situated directly

  16. Performance of electrical contact pins near a nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, C.E.; Silbert, M.G.; Ellis, A.N.; Robinson, E.E.; Daddario, M.J.


    The pressures attainable in equation-of-state studies using nuclear-explosion-driven shock waves greatly exceed those that can be reached in normal laboratory conditions. However, the diagnostic instrumentation must survive in the high-radiation environment present near such an explosion. Therefore, a set of experiments were fielded on the Redmud event to test the feasibility of using electrical contact pins in this environment. In these experiments a 60-cm-high shield of boron-lead was placed on the rack lid approximately 1 m from the device. A sample consisting of slabs of molybdenum and /sup 238/U was placed on top of the shield, and twelve electrical contact pins were embedded to five different depths in the materials. Five different multiplexing-charging circuits were used for the pins, and a piezoelectric quartz gauge was placed on top of the uranium to obtain an estimate of the fission-energy deposition. All of the charged pins survived the radiation and produced signals indicating shock arrival. The uncertainty in determining the pin-closure time was approximately 3 ns. The signal from the quartz gauge corresponded to a pressure that was consistent with the calculated neutron fluence.

  17. Deformation and shock consolidation of various sands under explosive loading (United States)

    Weckert, S. A.; Resnyansky, A. D.


    Transmission of a shock wave through various geological materials is important in military applications, for assessing the effects from a buried explosive device to an above-ground target. The composition of a real soil is complex and involves multiple constituents that undergo a number of physical and mechanical transformations during the shock loading. The present study analyzes several model soils represented by limestone sand, silica sand, and a small aggregate soil. The soils are compressed using two different steel encapsulation assemblies subject to explosive compression. These set-ups attempt to vary the level of applied load to the encapsulated soil and the length of the high-temperature effects. The assemblies are instrumented with embedded manganin gauges within the encapsulation casing for comparative analysis of the waves propagating through the soil and steel encapsulation. A comparative analysis of the recovered soil samples, including a microstructural analysis focusing on the grain breakage, soil compaction and consolidation, is correlated with a CTH numerical analysis employing a multi-phase rate sensitive material model.

  18. Chemical, Biological, and Explosive Sensors for Field Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kyle, Manuel Manard, Stephan Weeks


    Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) is developing handheld chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) detection systems and sensor motes for wireless networked field operations. The CBE sensors are capable of detecting and identifying multiple targeted toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and high-explosive vapor components. The CBE devices are based on differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) coupled with fast gas chromatography (GC) or mass spectrometry. The systems all include the concepts of: 1. Direct air/particulate “smart” sampling 2. Selective, continuous real-time (~1 sec) alert monitoring using DMS 3. Highly selective, rapid dual technology separation/verification analysis The biosensor technology is based on Raman aerosol particle flow cytometry for target detection and identification. Monitoring and identifying trace level chemical vapors directly from ambient air will allow First Responders to quickly adapt situational response strategies and personal protective equipment needs to the specific response scenario being encountered. First Responders require great confidence in the measurements and ability of a given system to detect CBE below threshold levels without interferences. The concept of determining the background matrix in near real-time to allow subsequent automated field-programmable method selection and cueing of high-value assets in a wide range of environs will be presented. This provides CBE information for decisions prior to First Responders entering the response site or sending a portable mobile unit for a remote site survey of the hazards. The focus is on real-time information needed by those responsible for emergency response and national security.

  19. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor (United States)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K.; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B.


    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  20. Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.


    Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

  1. Application of Explosion Area Control Volume in MELCOR Code for Safety Analysis of Hydrogen and Dust Explosion Accident in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Soo Min; Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Nuclear fusion power is said to be one of the most promising energy sources to generate large amount of energy with less radioactive waste or less radiological hazard due to nuclear accidents. However, the nuclear fusion device still confronts the tritium management tasks because they hold considerable amount of tritium for fusion reaction. In so-called 'Hypothetical events,' the beyond the design basis accidents in nuclear fusion reactors, a radiological material release may occur. Therefore, safety analysis for hydrogen mitigation and management should be performed to demonstrate the ultimate safety margin of the design to evade from situations such as the Fukushima accident. For ITER facility, accident analysis report (AAR) demonstrates the analysis of selected postulated accident scenarios holding the most challenging in terms of expected radiological consequences including beyond design basis accidents. Hydrogen and dust explosion in the ITER vacuum vessel using explosion area was modeled with MELCOR code. The vacuum vessel confinement was ruptured making a penetration line between vacuum vessel and port/NBI cell. The overall pressure transient of the accident was similar with the ITER accident analysis report (AAR) results, however, amount of tungsten dust release into the environment was significantly different.

  2. Simulating thermal explosion of RDX-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F; Tarver, C M


    We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two RDX-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in large scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 5 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

  3. Thermal Impulse Sensors for use in Explosions (United States)

    Eilers, Hergen; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Anderson, Benjamin


    We have developed temperature and thermal impulse (temperature and duration) sensors for use in explosive fireballs. These sensors are seeded into an explosive fireball and record temperature and duration via morphological phase changes that are optically probed. The thermal impulse sensors include two sensor materials with different phase transition kinetics, and may include a reference material which does not undergo temperature-induced phase changes, and can aid in the optical analysis. Analyzing the sensor materials allows us to determine heating temperature and heating duration of an explosion. The temperature sensors and thermal impulse sensors were recently tested and showed promising results. However, we found that the different components of the thermal impulse sensors tend to get separated during the explosion. We are now evaluating several approaches for redesigning our thermal impulse sensors so that the components remain together during the explosion. These approaches include a core/shell assembly, crosslinking, and co-synthesis. The integrity of the chemically bonded components is evaluated by subjecting the sensors to dispersing forces, while temperature-dependent phase changes of these sensors are assessed by rapid heating using a CO2 laser.

  4. Detection of drugs and plastic explosives using neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, F.J.O. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail:; Crispim, V.R; Silva, A.X. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear], E-mail:, E-mail:


    The unique ability of neutrons to image certain elements and isotopes that are either completely undetectable or poorly detected by other Non-Destructive-Assay (NDA) methods makes neutron radiography an important tool for the NDA community. Neutron radiography, like other imaging techniques takes a number of different forms (i.e. / that is film, radioscopic, transfer methods, tomography, etc.) In this work report the Neutron Tomography System developed, which will allow inspections NDA of samples with high efficiency, in terms of minors measure time and the result analysis, and the application for detection of drugs and plastic explosives, which is very important for the combat to the terrorism and drug trafficking. The neutron tomography system developed is third generation. Therefore a rotary table driven by a step motor connected to a computerized motion control system has been installed at the sample position. In parallel to this a suitable electronic imaging device has been designed and can be controlled by a computer in order to synchronize the software the detector and of the rotary table with the aim of an automation of measurements. To obtain 2D tomography image, a system with an electronic imaging system for producing real time neutron radiography. Images are processing digital for cancel random noise effects and to optimize spatial resolution. Finally, using a (ARIEN) algorithm reconstruction of tomography images by finite element maximum entropy. The system was installed adjacent to the exit of the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta Reactor in the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) - which is an organ of the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN - Brazil).The Argonauta reactor operates at 340 watts, being that the characteristics of the neutron beam on the plane of the image: thermal neutron flux 4,46 x10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}s. In the tomography assays, several encapsulated samples of paste, rock and cocaine powder and plastic explosives devices

  5. Eye-safe UV Raman spectroscopy for remote detection of explosives and their precursors in fingerprint concentration (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Angelini, F.; Chirico, R.; Palucci, A.; Nuvoli, M.; Schnuerer, F.; Schweikert, W.; Romolo, F. S.


    We report the results of Raman investigation performed at stand-off distance between 6-10 m with a new apparatus, capable to detect traces of explosives with surface concentrations similar to those of a single fingerprint. The device was developed as part of the RADEX prototype (RAman Detection of EXplosives) and is capable of detecting the Raman signal with a single laser shot of few ns (10-9 s) in the UV range (wavelength 266 nm), in conditions of safety for the human eye. This is because the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for the human eye is established to be 3 mJ/cm2 in this wavelength region and pulse duration. Samples of explosives (PETN, TNT, Urea Nitrate, Ammonium Nitrate) were prepared starting from solutions deposited on samples of common fabrics or clothing materials such as blue jeans, leather, polyester or polyamide. The deposition process takes place via a piezoelectric-controlled plotter device, capable of producing drops of welldefined volume, down to nanoliters, on a surface of several cm2, in order to carefully control the amount of explosive released to the tissue and thus simulate a slight stain on a garment of a potential terrorist. Depending on the type of explosive sampled, the detected density ranges from 0.1 to 1 mg/cm2 and is comparable to the density measured in a spot on a dress or a bag due to the contact with hands contaminated with explosives, as it could happen in the preparation of an improvised explosive device (IED) by a terrorist. To our knowledge the developed device is at the highest detection limits nowadays achievable in the field of eyesafe, stand-off Raman instruments. The signals obtained show some vibrational bands of the Raman spectra of our samples with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), allowing us to identify with high sensitivity (high number of True Positives) and selectivity (low number of False Positives) the explosives, so that the instrument could represent the basis for an automated and remote monitoring

  6. Sourcing explosives: a multi-isotope approach. (United States)

    Widory, David; Minet, Jean-Jacques; Barbe-Leborgne, Martine


    Although explosives are easily identified with current instrumental techniques, it is generally impossible to distinguish between sources of the same substance. To alleviate this difficulty, we present a multi-stable isotope (delta13C, delta15N, delta18O, deltaD) approach for appraising the possibility of discriminating explosives. The results from 30 distinct PETN, TNT and ANFO samples show that the different families of explosives are clearly differentiated by both their specific isotope signatures and their combination with corresponding element concentrations. Coupling two or more of the studied isotope systematics yields an even more precise differentiation on the basis of their raw-material origin and/or manufacturing process.

  7. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyer, S.D.


    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig.

  8. Magnetorotational Explosions of Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan


    Full Text Available Core-collapse supernovae are accompanied by formation of neutron stars. The gravitation energy is transformed into the energy of the explosion, observed as SN II, SN Ib,c type supernovae. We present results of 2-D MHD simulations, where the source of energy is rotation, and magnetic eld serves as a "transition belt" for the transformation of the rotation energy into the energy of the explosion. The toroidal part of the magnetic energy initially grows linearly with time due to dierential rotation. When the twisted toroidal component strongly exceeds the poloidal eld, magneto-rotational instability develops, leading to a drastic acceleration in the growth of magnetic energy. Finally, a fast MHD shock is formed, producing a supernova explosion. Mildly collimated jet is produced for dipole-like type of the initial field. At very high initial magnetic field no MRI development was found.

  9. [First aid to persons with explosion trauma]. (United States)

    Shapovalov, V M; Samokhvalov, I M


    Modern organization providing medical aid to victims of explosion trauma in peace time, the success of which largely depends on the timely and professional interaction among the structures involeved into emergency relief operation is represented in the article. Content and sequence of events providing emergency medical and first medical aid to victims of the explosions, and the appropriateness of allocation affected groups, based on the predicted effectiveness of medical care is analyzed. The algorithm, currently used by ambulance crews, of assistance to victims with explosion and order evacuations is analyzed. The content of therapeutic measures in receipt of the wounded on the steps of skilled and specialized surgical care in accordance with the idea of a separation surgery on three stages (damage control). The content of the main levels of damage control orthopedics is introduced.

  10. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J


    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  11. Explosive fragmentation of liquids in spherical geometry (United States)

    Milne, A.; Longbottom, A.; Frost, D. L.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Petel, O.


    Rapid acceleration of a spherical shell of liquid following central detonation of a high explosive causes the liquid to form fine jets that are similar in appearance to the particle jets that are formed during explosive dispersal of a packed layer of solid particles. Of particular interest is determining the dependence of the scale of the jet-like structures on the physical parameters of the system, including the fluid properties (e.g., density, viscosity, and surface tension) and the ratio of the mass of the liquid to that of the explosive. The present paper presents computational results from a multi-material hydrocode describing the dynamics of the explosive dispersal process. The computations are used to track the overall features of the early stages of dispersal of the liquid layer, including the wave dynamics, and motion of the spall and accretion layers. The results are compared with new experimental results of spherical charges surrounded by a variety of different fluids, including water, glycerol, ethanol, and vegetable oil, which together encompass a significant range of fluid properties. The results show that the number of jet structures is not sensitive to the fluid properties, but primarily dependent on the mass ratio. Above a certain mass ratio of liquid fill-to-explosive burster ( F / B), the number of jets is approximately constant and consistent with an empirical model based on the maximum thickness of the accretion layer. For small values of F / B, the number of liquid jets is reduced, in contrast with explosive powder dispersal, where small F / B yields a larger number of particle jets. A hypothetical explanation of these features based on the nucleation of cavitation is explored numerically.

  12. Jet noise recorded during discrete explosive eruptions (United States)

    Scarlato, P.; Sesterhenn, J.; Taddeucci, J.


    Most commonly, acoustic studies of explosive volcanic activity focus on the infrasonic range, as related to large volumetric changes mostly associated with the liberation of pressurized gas. However, there are multiple potential sources of sound that accompany explosive activity, expected to cover a broad range of frequencies. Among the audible range are several mechanisms, generating sound in high-velocity jets of gas or gas-particle mixture entering the atmosphere. This types of sound, well-documented and investigated in physics and engineering literature, has been so far mostly neglected in the study of explosive eruptions, due to the high energy content of the jet noise in the infrasonic regime, despite the potential it holds for parameterizing and understanding eruption processes. High-speed imaging of Strombolian and Vulcanian explosive eruptions at several volcanoes allowed the visualization of acoustic waves generated during the emission of the eruptive gas-pyroclast mixture. The waves, visible only when travelling within dilute gas/aerosol plumes, are thought to cause a temporary phase change in the travel medium. Image analysis allows direct measurement of the apparent (projected) trajectory, wavelength and travel velocity of the waves. Synchronized audio recording from the same eruptions include frequency contents in agreement with the observed waves. The general features of the observed waves are compatible with jet noise originated by the gas-pyroclast mixture entering the atmosphere, opening the way for future comparison with the results of numerical simulations of explosive eruptions, and possibly setting the basis for new acoustic monitoring tools for explosive eruptions.

  13. Potential explosion hazard of carbonaceous nanoparticles: Explosion parameters of selected materials. (United States)

    Turkevich, Leonid A; Dastidar, Ashok G; Hachmeister, Zachary; Lim, Michael


    Following a previous explosion screening study, we have conducted concentration and ignition energy scans on several carbonaceous nanopowders: fullerene, SWCNT, carbon black, MWCNT, graphene, CNF, and graphite. We have measured minimum explosive concentration (MEC), minimum ignition energy (MIE), and minimum ignition temperature (MITcloud) for these materials. The nanocarbons exhibit MEC ~10(1)-10(2) g/m(3), comparable to the MEC for coals and for fine particle carbon blacks and graphites. The nanocarbons are confirmed mainly to be in the St-1 explosion class, with fullerene, at K(St) ~200 bar-m/s, borderline St-1/St-2. We estimate MIE ~ 10(2)-10(3) J, an order of magnitude higher than the MIE for coals but an order of magnitude lower than the MIE for fine particle graphites. While the explosion severity of the nanocarbons is comparable to that of the coals, their explosion susceptibility (ease of ignition) is significantly less (i.e., the nanocarbons have higher MIEs than do the coals); by contrast, the nanocarbons exhibit similar explosion severity to the graphites but enhanced explosion susceptibility (i.e., the nanocarbons have lower MIEs than do the graphites). MIT(cloud) > 550 °C, comparable to that of the coals and carbon blacks. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Bioslurry treatment of explosives contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappi, M.; Gunnison, D.; Pennington, J.; Teeter, C. [USAE Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Environmental Lab.; Coyle, C.; Rope, C. [Army Engineer, Kansas City, MO (United States)


    Explosives contamination represents a widespread problem to the US Department of Defense (DOD) due to military activities associated with national defense. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) has evaluated the potential of several aerobic bioslurry process formulations for biotreatment of explosives compounds. This effort was conducted using five liter bench scale bioslurry reactors. Results were that the addition of a commercially available surfactant dramatically improved the treatment effectiveness of aerobic bioslurry. The surfactant amended bioreactors achieved an approximate 100 percent decrease in TNT half-life.

  15. Explosive opening switch work at Westinghouse (United States)

    Aivaliotis, E.; Peterhans, M.


    An explosive switch that commutated 315 kA into a resistor and a second version designed to switch up to 1 MA into an HPG (homopolar generator)-driven railgun system are presented. These switches are located very near the load and consist of a set of main busbars in a low-inductance configuration shorted by a thinner switch busbar. Linear-shaped charges are used to sever this switch busbar at several locations when a preselected current level is attained, commutating the current into the load. The feasibility of multishot explosive switches for electromagnetic-launch systems is also considered.

  16. Explosive Outflows from Forming Massive Stars


    Bally, J.; Ginsburg, A.; Kasliwal, M. M.


    AO imaging of the near IR [Fe ii] and H_2 lines and ALMA CO J = 2 − 1 data confirms the explosive nature of the BN/KL outflow in Orion. N-body interactions in compact groups may be responsible for the production of powerful, explosive protostellar outflows and luminous infrared flares. The Orion event may have been triggered by a protostellar merger. First results of a search for Orion-like events in 200 nearby galaxies with the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) are brief...

  17. Spherical Solutions of an Underwater Explosion Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Wardlaw


    Full Text Available The evolution of the 1D explosion bubble flow field out to the first bubble minimum is examined in detail using four different models. The most detailed is based on the Euler equations and accounts for the internal bubble fluid motion, while the simplest links a potential water solution to a stationary, Isentropic bubble model. Comparison of the different models with experimental data provides insight into the influence of compressibility and internal bubble dynamics on the behavior of the explosion bubble.

  18. Nanopowder synthesis based on electric explosion technology (United States)

    Kryzhevich, D. S.; Zolnikov, K. P.; Korchuganov, A. V.; Psakhie, S. G.


    A computer simulation of the bicomponent nanoparticle formation during the electric explosion of copper and nickel wires was carried out. The calculations were performed in the framework of the molecular dynamics method using many-body potentials of interatomic interaction. As a result of an electric explosion of dissimilar metal wires, bicomponent nanoparticles having different stoichiometry and a block structure can be formed. It is possible to control the process of destruction and the structure of the formed bicomponent nanoparticles by varying the distance between the wires and the loading parameters.

  19. Explosive detection using infrared laser spectroscopy (United States)

    Hildenbrand, J.; Herbst, J.; Wöllenstein, J.; Lambrecht, A.


    Stand-off and extractive explosive detection methods for short distances are investigated using mid-infrared laser spectroscopy. A quantum cascade laser (QCL) system for TATP-detection by open path absorption spectroscopy in the gas phase was developed. In laboratory measurements a detection limit of 5 ppm*m was achieved. For explosives with lower vapor pressure an extractive hollow fiber based measurement system was investigated. By thermal desorption gaseous TATP or TNT is introduced into a heated fiber. The small sample volume and a fast gas exchange rate enable fast detection. TNT and TATP detection levels below 100 ng are feasible even in samples with a realistic contaminant background.



    Turuchko, Ivan Ivanovych; Korshun, M.M.; Hubar, Inna Volodymyrivna


    The sanitary and hygienic characteristics of industrial explosives and their components are considered, the types of combinations of harmful substances in the air of the working zone at different technological stages of manufacturing explosives

  1. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji


    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  2. Catalytic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xiang


    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to catalytic devices. In one aspect, a device includes a substrate, an electrically insulating layer disposed on the substrate, a layer of material disposed on the electrically insulating layer, and a catalyst disposed on the layer of material. The substrate comprises an electrically conductive material. The substrate and the layer of material are electrically coupled to one another and configured to have a voltage applied across them.

  3. Evaluation of the Thermochemical Code - CHEETAH 2.0 for Modelling Explosives Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Jing


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CHEETAH 2.0 program has been used to analyse a number of conventional ideal explosive ingredients, ideal explosive compositions, non-ideal explosive compositions, and new and proposed explosives...

  4. Validation of a Miniaturized Spectrometer for Trace Detection of Explosives by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Almaviva


    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS measurements of some common military explosives were performed with a table-top micro-Raman system integrated with a Serstech R785 miniaturized device, comprising a spectrometer and detector for near-infrared (NIR laser excitation (785 nm. R785 was tested as the main component of a miniaturized SERS detector, designed for in situ and stand-alone sensing of molecules released at low concentrations, as could happen in the case of traces of explosives found in an illegal bomb factory, where solid microparticles of explosives could be released in the air and then collected on the sensor’s surface, if placed near the factory, as a consequence of bomb preparation. SERS spectra were obtained, exciting samples in picogram quantities on specific substrates, starting from standard commercial solutions. The main vibrational features of each substance were clearly identified also in low quantities. The amount of the sampled substance was determined through the analysis of scanning electron microscope images, while the spectral resolution and the detector sensitivity were sufficiently high to clearly distinguish spectra belonging to different samples with an exposure time of 10 s. A principal component analysis procedure was applied to the experimental data to understand which are the main factors affecting spectra variation across different samples. The score plots for the first three principal components show that the examined explosive materials can be clearly classified on the basis of their SERS spectra.

  5. Flow injection analysis of picric acid explosive using a copper electrode as electrochemical detector. (United States)

    Junqueira, João R C; de Araujo, William R; Salles, Maiara O; Paixão, Thiago R L C


    A simple and fast electrochemical method for quantitative analysis of picric acid explosive (nitro-explosive) based on its electrochemical reduction at copper surfaces is reported. To achieve a higher sample throughput, the electrochemical sensor was adapted in a flow injection system. Under optimal experimental conditions, the peak current response increases linearly with picric acid concentration over the range of 20-300 μmol L(-1). The repeatability of the electrode response in the flow injection analysis (FIA) configuration was evaluated as 3% (n=10), and the detection limit of the method was estimated to be 6.0 μmol L(-1) (S/N=3). The sample throughput under optimised conditions was estimated to be 550 samples h(-1). Peroxide explosives like triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) were tested as potential interfering substances for the proposed method, and no significant interference by these explosives was noticed. The proposed method has interesting analytical parameters, environmental applications, and low cost compared with other electroanalytical methods that have been reported for the quantification of picric acid. Additionally, the possibility to develop an in situ device for the detection of picric acid using a disposable sensor was evaluated. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Noninvasive detection of concealed explosives: depth profiling through opaque plastics by time-resolved Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Petterson, Ingeborg E Iping; López-López, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Gooijer, Cees; Buijs, Joost B; Ariese, Freek


    The detection of explosives concealed behind opaque, diffusely scattering materials is a challenge that requires noninvasive analytical techniques for identification without having to manipulate the package. In this context, this study focuses on the application of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy (TRRS) with a picosecond pulsed laser and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector for the noninvasive identification of explosive materials through several millimeters of opaque polymers or plastic packaging materials. By means of a short (250 ps) gate which can be delayed several hundred picoseconds after the laser pulse, the ICCD detector allows for the temporal discrimination between photons from the surface of a sample and those from deeper layers. TRRS was applied for the detection of the two main isomers of dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene as well as for various other components of explosive mixtures, including akardite II, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Spectra were obtained through different diffuse scattering white polymer materials: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polyethylene (PE). Common packaging materials of various thicknesses were also selected, including polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). With the demonstration of the ability to detect concealed, explosives-related compounds through an opaque first layer, this study may have important applications in the security and forensic fields.

  7. Landmine Detection Technologies to TraceExplosive Vapour Detection Techniques


    J. C. Kapoor; G. K. Kannan


    Large quantity of explosive is manufactured worldwide for use in various types of ammunition,arms, and mines, and used in armed conflicts. During manufacturing and usage of the explosiveequipment, some of the explosive residues are released into the environment in the form ofcontaminated effluents, unburnt explosives fumes and vapours. Limited but uncontrolledcontinuous release of trace vapours also takes place when explosive-laden landmines are deployedin the field. One of the major technolo...

  8. A Study of the behaviour of emulsion explosives


    Allum, J


    This study investigated the formulation and characterisation of emulsion explosives. This included the manufacture of more than 120kg of emulsion explosive of which around 105kg was used on the explosive ordnance range in over 350 individual firings. For each emulsion composition, an average of eight firings was undertaken with which to substantiate the explosive performance data. The formulation was varied to determine the effects of water content upon the physical characte...

  9. Source analysis of underground chemical explosions (United States)

    Chiang, A.; Ford, S. R.; Pitarka, A.


    Several physical mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of S-waves from underground explosions, such as asymmetries in the source, release of tectonic pre-stress, interactions with the free-surface, and heterogeneities in the Earth. An accurate description of the explosion source processes is an important step towards understanding which of these plausible mechanisms are actively contributing to the generation of S-waves and under what conditions. In this study we investigate the sensitivity of far-field waveforms to seismic source mechanisms by comparing simulated and recorded data from underground chemical explosions performed during the Source Physics Experiment. We use both forward and inverse waveform modeling approaches to estimate the source properties of the explosions, and compare solutions using different velocity models and at different frequency bands and distances. 1D and 3D velocity models are used to characterize wave propagation between the source and receiver. The 3D velocity models are constructed using available geological and geophysical data, and ambient noise seismic tomography. The 3D Green's functions are computed using a numerical finite-difference approach. We will investigate the sensitivity of far-field ground motion to different levels of source complexities, such as a single isotropic source or complex sources with non-isotropic radiation in the frequency range of 0.5 to 6 Hz.

  10. 78 FR 1143 - Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction (United States)


    ... increases flexibility for launch site operators in site planning for the storage and handling of energetic... this final rule, contact Laura Montgomery, AGC 200, ] Senior Attorney for Commercial Space... in site planning for the storage and handling of energetic liquids and explosives. In the discussion...

  11. DOD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards (United States)


    following: bulk lead azide, lead styphnate, mercury fulminate , tetracene, dry cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) (also known as cyclonite, hexogen, or...primary explosives are lead azide and mercury fulminate . AP1.191. Primary fragment. A fragment from material in intimate contact with reacting AE

  12. Wave forming mechanisms in explosive welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.


    Experimental results of wavy metal interfaces obtained by explosive welding are presented and used to determine which wave forming mechanism occurred. It was found that for small collision angles (smaller than about 20°) the Von Karman or jet indentation mechanism occurs, while for large collision

  13. Detection of Nuclear Explosions Using Infrasound Techniques (United States)


    state-of-the- art wind-noise reduction systems, turbulent wind noise will prevent the detection of infrasonic signals from atmospheric explosions over...D.R., J.A. Vivas Veloso, P. Campus, M. Bell, T. Hoffmann, A. Langlois, P. Martysevich, E. Demirovic and J. Carvalho (2001). Detection of atmospheric

  14. Explosives safety research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Wees, R.M.M. van; Dongen. P. van


    The handling of explosives and ammunition introduces a safety risk for personnel and third parties. Accidents related to storage, transport and transhipment may result in severe injury and material damage. TNO has developed a number of tools to quantify the consequences and risks of accidental

  15. EUExNet - A European Explosives Network (United States)


    Tallinn Technical University (EE) • University of Latvia (LV) • Sprengschule Dresden (DE) • LEDAP (PT) • Irish Industrial Explosives (IR) • EFEE (EU...Univ. Latvia WP2 DISSEMINATION Chair KCEM WP3 QC and QA Chair KAU WP4 National nodes Chair IExpE WP5 Certification Chair LEDAP WP6 European

  16. Java: An Explosion on the Internet. (United States)

    Read, Tim; Hall, Hazel

    Summer 1995 saw the release, with considerable media attention, of draft versions of Sun Microsystems' Java computer programming language and the HotJava browser. Java has been heralded as the latest "killer" technology in the Internet explosion. Sun Microsystems and numerous companies including Microsoft, IBM, and Netscape have agreed…

  17. Differential thermal analysis microsystem for explosive detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Greve, Anders; Senesac, L.


    A micro differential thermal analysis (DTA) system is used for detection of trace explosive particles. The DTA system consists of two silicon micro chips with integrated heaters and temperature sensors. One chip is used for reference and one for the measurement sample. The sensor is constructed a...... of the Xsense project at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) which combines four independent sensing techniques, these micro DNT sensors will be included in handheld explosives detectors with applications in homeland security and landmine clearance.......A micro differential thermal analysis (DTA) system is used for detection of trace explosive particles. The DTA system consists of two silicon micro chips with integrated heaters and temperature sensors. One chip is used for reference and one for the measurement sample. The sensor is constructed...... as a small silicon nitride membrane incorporating heater elements and a temperature measurement resistor. In this manuscript the DTA system is described and tested by measuring calorimetric response of 3 different kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX and PETN). This project is carried out under the framework...

  18. Developments in vapour cloud explosion blast modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercx, W.P.M.; Berg, A.C. van den; Hayhurst, C.J.; Robertson, N.J.; Moran, K.C.


    TNT Equivalency methods are widely used for vapour cloud explosion blast modeling. Presently, however, other types of models are available which do not have the fundamental objections TNT Equivalency models have. TNO Multi-Energy method is increasingly accepted as a more reasonable alternative to be

  19. Explosion proof vehicle for tank inspection (United States)

    Zollinger, William T [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Bauer, Scott G [Idaho Falls, ID


    An Explosion Proof Vehicle (EPV) having an interior substantially filled with an inert fluid creating an interior pressure greater than the exterior pressure. One or more flexible tubes provide the inert fluid and one or more electrical conductors from a control system to the vehicle. The vehicle is preferably used in subsurface tank inspection, whereby the vehicle is submerged in a volatile fluid.

  20. The Physics, Chemistry and Dynamics of Explosions (United States)


    is to follow. 2. Fundamentals The basis of our present understanding began with the experimental observations of Berthelot & Vieille [1] and Mallard...carried out. References 1 Berthelot , M. & Vieille, P. 1881 On the propagation velocity of explosion phenomena. Acad. Sci. Comptes Rendus Math. 93, 18–22. 2

  1. Construction of hydrogenation stalls for explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raichle, L.


    This report contained explanations for different questions that had been asked by the Association of Chemical Manufacturers. The first item discussed was the pressure occurring in hydrogenation stalls in hydrogen explosions. The pressures actually used were much smaller than the maximum design pressure due to burning gases being allowed to escape from the top and front of the stalls since these areas were open and it could not be assumed that the whole stall space was filled with a 32% hydrogen concentration at the beginning of an explosion. The second item discussed was specifications and rules for the building of hydrogenation stalls. These included the calculations for simple wind pressure according to the Building Code with the usual safety factors and the calculations for an inner pressure of 300 kg/m/sup 2/ with the usual safety factors. An explanation of a stall explosion in Poelitz and reinforced stall construction in Poelitz were two other items that were discussed. Appendix I of the report involved maximum pressures and temperature in hydrogen explosions. Diagram I was involved with this. Appendix II discussed the behavior of a hydrogen flame at high emerging velocities and Appendix III discussed stall construction at Poelitz.

  2. 75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T) (United States)


    ... mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G Gelatinized nitrocellulose. Gem-dinitro...-dinitropentanoate]. MEAN [monoethanolamine nitrate]. Mercuric fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol...

  3. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T) (United States)


    ... Flash powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G Gelatinized nitrocellulose. Gem-dinitro aliphatic explosive.... MDNP . MEAN . Mercuric fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol trinitrate. Minol-2 . MMAN...

  4. Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

  5. Expediency of application of explosion-relief constructions to ensure explosion resistance of production buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapin Anton


    Full Text Available The article presents a model of economic evaluation and selection of explosion-relief constructions (ERC, as well as determination of explosion protection efficiency of buildings and structures provided on a stage of construction. It has been shown that definition of economic efficiency of ERС is the evaluation of its application for buildings with remote or automatically controlled production. It has been determined that an important role in design of explosive industrial facilities is played by selection of the economically feasible and effective materials for ERC. When selecting materials it is necessary to consider probability and yield of explosions. Necessity to create the methods allow considering such probability has been revealed.

  6. Modeling cookoff of HMX based PBX explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L.


    We have previously developed a PBX 9501 cookoff model for the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9501 consisting of 95 wt% octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazoncine (HMX), 2.5 wt% Estane® 5703 (a polyurethane thermoplastic), and 2.5 wt% of a nitroplasticizer (NP): BDNPA/F, a 50/50 wt% eutectic mixture bis(2,2-dinitropropyl)-acetal (BDNPA) and bis(2,2-dinitropropyl)-formal (BDNPF). This fivestep model includes desorption of water, decomposition of the NP to form NO2, reaction of the NO2 with Estane and HMX, and decomposition of HMX [1]. This model has been successfully validated with data from six laboratories with scales ranging from 2 g to more than 2.5 kg of explosive. We have determined, that the PBX 9501 model can be used to predict cookoff of other plastic bonded explosives containing HMX and an inert binder, such as LX-04 consisting of 85 wt% HMX and 15 wt% Viton A (vinylidine fluoride/hexafluoropropylene copolymer), LX-07 (90 wt% HMX and 10 wt% Viton A), LX- 10-0 (95 wt% HMX and 5 wt% Viton A), and LX-14 consisting of 95.5 wt % HMX and 4.5 wt% Estane® 5702-F1 (a polyurethane thermoplastic). Normally our cookoff models are verified using Sandia’s Instrumented Thermal Initiation (SITI) experiment. However, SITI data for LX-04, LX-07, LX-10-0, and LX-14 are not available at pressed density; although, some molding powder SITI data on LX-10-0 and LX-14 exists. Tarver and Tran [2] provide some one-dimensional time-to-explosion (ODTX) data for these explosives. The applicability of the PBX 9501 model to LX-04, LX-07, LX-10-0, AND LX-14 was made using this ODTX data [2]. The PBX 9501 model is applied to these other explosives by accounting for the correct amount of HMX in the explosive and limiting the NP reaction. We have found the PBX 9501 model to be useful for predicting the response of these PBXs to abnormal thermal environments such as fire.

  7. Micro-explosion of compound drops (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui


    Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive

  8. Increase of water resistance of ammonium nitrate explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov


    Full Text Available Developed a method of kapsulating of ammonium nitrate with liquid paraffin increase finding explosives in water for 60 minutes. Placing explosives in the plastic shell, the explosive was, as in standing or running water during the day. When conducting field tests failures were absent.

  9. an experimental investigation into the explosive forming of square ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe


    Mar 1, 1981 ... The explosive forming of steel blanks into a perforated square die of side 200 mm and depth 40 mm has been investigated. ... quantity of explosive needed for successful forming. The results also show that the indentation of ..... the Use of. Vented Dies in Explosive Forming of. Metal Sheets" ,Presented at the.

  10. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J. Sabatini


    Full Text Available This review discusses the recent advances in the syntheses of high explosive energetic materials. Syntheses of some relevant modern primary explosives and secondary high explosives, and the sensitivities and properties of these molecules are provided. In addition to the synthesis of such materials, processing improvement and formulating aspects using these ingredients, where applicable, are discussed in detail.

  11. 49 CFR 173.57 - Acceptance criteria for new explosives. (United States)


    ... appendix D to this part), a non-gelatin dynamite loses more than 3 percent by weight of the liquid explosive or a gelatin dynamite loses more than 10 percent by weight of the liquid explosive; or (3) During... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance criteria for new explosives. 173.57...

  12. 30 CFR 77.304 - Explosion release vents. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion release vents. 77.304 Section 77.304... Dryers § 77.304 Explosion release vents. Drying chambers, dry-dust collectors, ductwork connecting dryers... explosion release vents which open directly to the outside atmosphere, and all such vents shall be: (a...

  13. 30 CFR 19.7 - Protection against explosion hazard. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against explosion hazard. 19.7..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC CAP LAMPS § 19.7 Protection against explosion hazard. Unless properly designed, electric cap lamps may present two sources of probable explosion hazards...

  14. A model to assess dust explosion occurrence probability. (United States)

    Hassan, Junaid; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Ferdous, Refaul


    Dust handling poses a potential explosion hazard in many industrial facilities. The consequences of a dust explosion are often severe and similar to a gas explosion; however, its occurrence is conditional to the presence of five elements: combustible dust, ignition source, oxidant, mixing and confinement. Dust explosion researchers have conducted experiments to study the characteristics of these elements and generate data on explosibility. These experiments are often costly but the generated data has a significant scope in estimating the probability of a dust explosion occurrence. This paper attempts to use existing information (experimental data) to develop a predictive model to assess the probability of a dust explosion occurrence in a given environment. The pro-posed model considers six key parameters of a dust explosion: dust particle diameter (PD), minimum ignition energy (MIE), minimum explosible concentration (MEC), minimum ignition temperature (MIT), limiting oxygen concentration (LOC) and explosion pressure (Pmax). A conditional probabilistic approach has been developed and embedded in the proposed model to generate a nomograph for assessing dust explosion occurrence. The generated nomograph provides a quick assessment technique to map the occurrence probability of a dust explosion for a given environment defined with the six parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Forensic analysis of explosions: Inverse calculation of the charge mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.


    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU fP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estïmate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  16. 30 CFR 75.1311 - Transporting explosives and detonators. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transporting explosives and detonators. 75.1311... Transporting explosives and detonators. (a) When explosives and detonators are to be transported underground... transported by any cars or vehicles— (1) The cars or vehicles shall be marked with warnings to identify the...

  17. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explosives magazine... § 555.63 Explosives magazine changes. (a) General. (1) The requirements of this section are applicable to magazines used for other than temporary (under 24 hours) storage of explosives. (2) A magazine is...

  18. Increase of water resistance of ammonium nitrate explosives


    Zulkhair Mansurov; Y. Kazakov; Roza Abdulkarimova; A. Kosmaganbetova


    Developed a method of kapsulating of ammonium nitrate with liquid paraffin increase finding explosives in water for 60 minutes. Placing explosives in the plastic shell, the explosive was, as in standing or running water during the day. When conducting field tests failures were absent.

  19. Fluid Interactions with Explosion-Induced Fractures (United States)

    Swanson, E.; Sussman, A. J.; Wilson, J.; Broome, S.


    Fluids can chemically interact with the fractures they flow through, a process that may affect the movement of fluids in the subsurface. This is a topic of interest to a large variety of research areas, including (but not limited to) production of oil and gas, contaminant tracking, geothermal energy production, CO2 sequestration, and nuclear test monitoring. A study performed as part of the Source Physics Experiment, designed to look at the effects of underground chemical explosions, provides a rare opportunity to compare cores from pre-shot and post-shot rock, from damage created in situ. We present data on the variability of microfracture density with distance from the explosion, as well as the occurrence of fractures that either open or contain clay infill. We find that both open and filled fractures occur more frequently within the post-shot samples (by a factor of up to 4x), with similar spatial distributions. This calls into question the validity of the commonly made assumption that all filled fractures were present prior to the explosive shot, and only open fractures can represent explosion-induced damage. These results suggest that fluid-rock interactions might have a significant influence on the permeabilities that result from explosions, even within a few weeks. Additional data on the mechanical properties of the pre-shot and post-shot core samples show an unexpected pattern during unconfined compressive strength tests: the samples retrieved following 2 successive shots failed at higher stresses than did samples retrieved after 1 shot. We present these results, along with some evidence this behavior may arise from trace differences in water content during testing.

  20. Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion (United States)


    Astronomers have made the best ever determination of the power of a supernova explosion that was visible from Earth long ago. By observing the remnant of a supernova and a light echo from the initial outburst, they have established the validity of a powerful new method for studying supernovas. Using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, ESA's XMM-Newton Observatory, and the Gemini Observatory, two teams of researchers studied the supernova remnant and the supernova light echo that are located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a small galaxy about 160,000 light years from Earth. They concluded that the supernova occurred about 400 years ago (in Earth’s time frame), and was unusually bright and energetic. X-ray Image of SNR 0509-67.5 X-ray Image of SNR 0509-67.5 This result is the first time two methods - X-ray observations of a supernova remnant and optical observations of the expanding light echoes from the explosion - have both been used to estimate the energy of a supernova explosion. Up until now, scientists had only made such an estimate using the light seen soon after a star exploded, or using remnants that are several hundred years old, but not from both. "People didn't have advanced telescopes to study supernovas when they went off hundreds of years ago," said Armin Rest of Harvard University, who led the light echo observations using Gemini. "But we've done the next best thing by looking around the site of the explosion and constructing an action replay of it." People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act Oldest Known Objects Are Surprisingly Immature Discovery of Most Recent Supernova in Our Galaxy NASA Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers In 2004, scientists used Chandra to determine that a supernova remnant, known as SNR 0509-67.5 in the LMC, was a so-called Type Ia supernova, caused by a white dwarf star in a binary system that reaches a critical mass and explodes. In

  1. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. (United States)


    ...) Plastic explosive means an explosive material in flexible or elastic sheet form formulated with one or... unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section 555.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES...

  2. Identification device (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Shian; Su, Chih-Chieh; Chou, Ta-Hsin; Wu, Mount-Learn; Lai, Chieh-Lung; Hsu, Che-Lung; Lan, Hsiao-Chin; Huang, Hung-I.; Liu, Yung-Chih; Tu, Zong-Ru; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Chang, Jenq-Yang


    In this Letter, the identification device disclosed in the present invention is comprised of: a carrier and a plurality of pseudo-pixels; wherein each of the plural pseudo-pixels is formed on the carrier and is further comprised of at least a light grating composed of a plurality of light grids. In a preferred aspect, each of the plural light grids is formed on the carrier while spacing from each other by an interval ranged between 50nm and 900nm. As the aforesaid identification device can present specific colors and patterns while it is being viewed by naked eye with respect to a specific viewing angle, the identification device is preferred for security and anti-counterfeit applications since the specific colors and patterns will become invisible when it is viewed while deviating from the specific viewing angle.

  3. DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, R.L. Jr.


    The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled {open_quotes}Transportation of Explosives{close_quotes} to compliment the basic {open_quotes}core ten{close_quotes} training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej MENČÍK


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to approximate danger of dust clouds normally occur by determining their explosion characteristics. Nowadays, dusty environment is phenomenon in the industry. In general, about 70% of dust produced is explosive. Dust reduction in companies is the main purpose of the national and European legislative. Early identification and characterization of dust in companies may reduce the risk of explosion. It could be used to identify hazards in industrial production where an explosive dust is produced. For this purpose several standards for identification and characterization of explosion characteristics of industrial dust are being used.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Levin Vladimir


    Full Text Available This problem is related to the safety problem in the area of forest fires. It is well known that is possible to extinguish a fire, for example, by means of a powerful air stream. Such flow arises from the explosive shock wave. To enhance the im- pact of the blast wave can be used an explosive charge of annular shape. The shock wave, produced by the explosion, in- creased during moves to the center and can serve as a means of transportation dust in the seat of the fire. In addition, emerging after the collapse of a converging shock wave strong updraft can raise dust on a greater height and facilitate fire extinguishing, precipitating dust over a large area. This updraft can be dangerous for aircraft that are in the sky above the fire. To determine the width and height of the danger zone performed the numerical simulation of the ring of the explosion and the subsequent movement of dust and gas mixtures. The gas is considered ideal and perfect. The explosion is modeled as an instantaneous increase in the specific internal energy in an annular zone on the value of the specific heat of explosives. The flow is consid- ered as two-dimensional, and axisymmetric. The axis of symmetry perpendicular to the Earth surface. This surface is considered to be absolutely rigid and is considered as the boundary of the computational domain. On this surface is exhibited the condition of no motion. For the numerical method S. K. Godunov is used a movable grid. One system of lines of this grid is moved in accordance with movement of the shock wave. Others lines of this grid are stationary. The calculations were per- formed for different values of the radii of the annular field and for different sizes of rectangular cross-sectional of the annular field. Numerical results show that a very strong flow is occurring near the axis of symmetry and the particles rise high above the surface. These calculations allow us to estimate the sizes of the zone of danger in specific

  6. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodean, H.C.


    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations.

  7. Explosion characteristics of flammable organic vapors in nitrous oxide atmosphere. (United States)

    Koshiba, Yusuke; Takigawa, Tomihisa; Matsuoka, Yusaku; Ohtani, Hideo


    Despite unexpected explosion accidents caused by nitrous oxide have occurred, few systematic studies have been reported on explosion characteristics of flammable gases in nitrous oxide atmosphere compared to those in air or oxygen. The objective of this paper is to characterize explosion properties of mixtures of n-pentane, diethyl ether, diethylamine, or n-butyraldehyde with nitrous oxide and nitrogen using three parameters: explosion limit, peak explosion pressure, and time to the peak explosion pressure. Then, similar mixtures of n-pentane, diethyl ether, diethylamine, or n-butyraldehyde with oxygen and nitrogen were prepared to compare their explosion characteristics with the mixtures containing nitrous oxide. The explosion experiments were performed in a cylindrical vessel at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The measurements showed that explosion ranges of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were narrow compared to those of the mixtures containing oxygen. On the other hand, the maximum explosion pressures of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were higher than those of the mixtures containing oxygen. Moreover, our experiments revealed that these mixtures differed in equivalence ratios at which the maximum explosion pressures were observed: the pressures of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were observed at stoichiometry; in contrast, those of the mixtures containing oxygen were found at fuel-rich area. Chemical equilibrium calculations confirmed these behaviors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Seismic and source characteristics of large chemical explosions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kostuchenko, V.N.; Pernik, L.M.; Sultanov, D.D.; Zcikanovsky, V.I.


    From the very beginning of its arrangement in 1947, the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres RAS (former Special Sector of the Institute for physics of the Earth, RAS) was providing scientific observations of effects of nuclear explosions, as well as large-scale detonations of HE, on environment. This report presents principal results of instrumental observations obtained from various large-scale chemical explosions conducted in the Former-Soviet Union in the period of time from 1957 to 1989. Considering principal aim of the work, tamped and equivalent chemical explosions have been selected with total weights from several hundreds to several thousands ton. In particular, the selected explosions were aimed to study scaling law from excavation explosions, seismic effect of tamped explosions, and for dam construction for hydropower stations and soil melioration. Instrumental data on surface explosions of total weight in the same range aimed to test military technics and special objects are not included.

  9. Numerical simulation of explosive welding using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Feng


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanism of explosive welding and the influences of explosive welding parameters on the welding quality, this paper presents numerical simulation of the explosive welding of Al-Mg plates using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method. The multi-physical phenomena of explosive welding, including acceleration of the flyer plate driven by explosive detonation, oblique collision of the flyer and base plates, jetting phenomenon and the formation of wavy interface can be reproduced in the simulation. The characteristics of explosive welding are analyzed based on the simulation results. The mechanism of wavy interface formation is mainly due to oscillation of the collision point on the bonding surfaces. In addition, the impact velocity and collision angle increase with the increase of the welding parameters, such as explosive thickness and standoff distance, resulting in enlargement of the interfacial waves.

  10. One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (Thermal Sensitivity) of ANPZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hust, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gresshoff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the recent ODTX experimental data and modeling results for 2,6-diamino-3,5-dintropyrazine (ANPZ).

  11. Analysis of the internal explosion affecting building barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Siwiński


    Full Text Available In this paper we considered the action of an internal explosion onto building barriers. Determination of the maximum peak pressure on the forehead of an internal wave explosion was presented on the basis of the analysis of reflected waves. Variability in time of the action of an internal explosion describes overpressure phase only. Load analysis of internal cargo detonation was carried out for the standard atmosphere undisturbed conditions. We developed the tabulated algorithm for determination of loadings taking into account the geometric characteristics of the building barriers and rooms in which the detonation occurs and parameters of explosion environment.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, explosive actions, internal explosion, concentrate explosive

  12. Laser based in-situ and standoff detection of chemical warfare agents and explosives (United States)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.


    environment, especially from improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and of civilian personnel from terrorist attacks in metropolitan areas.

  13. Electronic Cigarette Explosion Resulting in a C1 and C2 Fracture: A Case Report. (United States)

    Norii, Tatsuya; Plate, Adam


    Electronic cigarettes have seen a drastic increase in use. A lithium-ion battery is often used as the rechargeable battery of the electronic cigarette device and has recently received much attention in terms of safety. There are several recent case reports in the scientific literature of injuries due to electronic cigarette explosions that involved soft-tissue injuries. We report a significant spinal fracture from an electronic-cigarette explosion in a 27-year-old male. The electronic cigarette exploded during use, sending the mouthpiece through the pharynx and into the first cervical vertebra and resulting in fractures of the first and second vertebrae. An x-ray study of the neck showed a foreign body in the neck at the level of C1. A computed tomography scan of the neck showed fractures of C1. The foreign body was removed in the operating room. The patient was discharged home without neurologic sequelae. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Our case report is the first case of a cervical spine injury due to the explosion of an electronic cigarette. This case demonstrates that an electronic cigarette explosion can cause potentially serious penetrating neck injury. Emergency physicians should be aware of the potential danger of electronic cigarettes and have a low threshold to obtain radiographic tests and surgical consultation in the case of electronic cigarette explosion in the oral cavity. As the use of electronic cigarettes continue to increase, it is likely that injuries associated with them will also increase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection device (United States)

    Smith, J.E.


    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  15. Medical Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Mahieu, H.F.; Geertsema, A.A.; Hermann, I.F.; van Horn, J.R.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van Loon, J.P.; Mihaylov, D.; van der Plaats, A.; Schraffordt Koops, H.; Schutte, H.K.; Veth, R.P.H.; de Vries, M.P.; Rakhorst, G.; Shi, Donglu


    The development of new medical devices is a very time-consuming and costly process. Besides the time between the initial idea and the time that manufacturing and testing of prototypes takes place, the time needed for the development of production facilities, production of test series, marketing,

  16. Printing Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.J.; Markies, P.R.; Zuilhof, H.


    An ink jetprinting device includes a pressure chamber formed by a plurality of wall segments, a first aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink jet orifice and a second aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink supply duct. The pressure

  17. Sensing trace amounts of nitro-aromatic explosives using nanowire-nanocluster hybrids (United States)

    Aluri, Geetha S.; Motayed, Abhishek; Davydov, Albert V.; Oleshko, Vladimir; Bertness, Kris A.; Sanford, Norman A.; Rao, Mulpuri V.


    The threat of terrorism and the need for homeland security calls for advanced technologies to detect the concealed explosives safely and efficiently. We demonstrated highly sensitive and selective detection of traces of nitroaromatic explosive compounds by functionalizing gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoclusters to address this issue. The hybrid sensor devices were developed by fabricating two-terminal devices using individual GaN nanowires (NWs) followed by the deposition of TiO2 nanoclusters (NCs) using sputtering technique. The photo-modulated GaN/TiO2 NWNC hybrids showed remarkable selectivity to benzene and related aromatic compounds, with no measureable response for other analytes at room temperature. This paper presents the sensing characteristics of GaN/TiO2 nanowire-nanocluster hybrids towards the different aromatic and nitroaromatic compounds at room temperature. The GaN/TiO2 hybrids were able to detect trinitrotoluene (TNT) concentrations as low as 500 pmol/mol (ppt) in air and dinitrobenzene concentrations as low as 10 nmol/mol (ppb) in air in approximately 30 s. The noted sensitivity range of the devices for TNT was from 8 ppm down to as low as 500 ppt. The detection limit of Dinitrotoluene , nitrobenzene , nitrotoluene, toluene and benzene in air is 100 ppb with a response time of ~ 75 s. The devices show very sensitive and selective response to TNT when compared to interfering compounds like toluene. Integration of this nano-scale technology could lead to tiny, highly sensitive, selective, low-power and smart explosive detectors that could be manufactured cheaply in large numbers.

  18. Specific features of explosive decomposition of pentaerythritol tetranitrate exposed to an electron beam with an explosive emission cathode (United States)

    Aduev, B. P.; Belokurov, G. M.; Krechetov, A. G.; Liskov, I. Yu.


    A comparative examination of the critical energy density of explosive decomposition of pentaerythritol tetranitrate exposed either to an electron beam of a GIN-600 accelerator (240 keV, 20 ns) with an explosive emission cathode or to this beam combined with metal low-temperature diode plasma has been performed. It has been demonstrated that the contribution of plasma to the development of explosive decomposition is appreciable at explosion probabilities P ≤ 0.2. At higher energy densities and explosion probabilities P ≥ 0.5, the contribution of plasma to the overall beam energy density did not exceed 10%.

  19. Seismic explosion sources on an ice cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans


    Controlled source seismic investigation of crustal structure below ice covers is an emerging technique. We have recently conducted an explosive refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment on the ice cap in east-central Greenland. The data-quality is high for all shot points and a full...... crustal model can be modelled. A crucial challenge for applying the technique is to control the sources. Here, we present data that describe the efficiency of explosive sources in the ice cover. Analysis of the data shows, that the ice cap traps a significant amount of energy, which is observed...... as a strong ice wave. The ice cap leads to low transmission of energy into the crust such that charges need be larger than in conventional onshore experiments to obtain reliable seismic signals. The strong reflection coefficient at the base of the ice generates strong multiples which may mask for secondary...

  20. Initiation and Propagation in Primary Explosives (United States)

    Dickson, P. M.; Field, J. E.


    The initiation and propagation of deflagration and detonation in mercury fulminate, lead azide, mercuric-5-nitrotetrazole and silver-5-nitrotetrazole have been studied using various techniques. Streak and framing high-speed photography were used to observe these events directly. The main aim has been to investigate the factors which affect deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) and the related phenomenon of dead-pressing, which may be regarded as a failure of the DDT process at high pressed densities. These factors include the variable properties of pressed density, void structure, confinement and charge dimension and geometry, and also fixed properties (for a given explosive) such as shock and thermal sensitivities, heat of explosion and the quantity and state of the reaction products. The nature and strength of the initiating stimulus also have a major effect on the subsequent reaction.

  1. Ignitability and explosibility of gases and vapors

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Tingguang


    The book provides a systematic view on flammability and a collection of solved engineering problems in the fields of dilution and purge, mine gas safety, clean burning safety and gas suppression modeling. For the first time, fundamental principles of energy conservation are used to develop theoretical flammability diagrams and are then explored to understand various safety-related mixing problems. This provides the basis for a fully-analytical solution to any flammability problem. Instead of the traditional view that flammability is a fundamental material property, here flammability is discovered to be a result of the explosibility of air and the ignitability of fuel, or a process property. By exploring the more fundamental concepts of explosibility and ignitability, the safety targets of dilution and purge can be better defined and utilized for guiding safe operations in process safety. This book provides various engineering approaches to mixture flammability, benefiting not only the safety students, but al...

  2. Study on Explosive Forming of Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Iyama


    Full Text Available Now, the aluminum alloy is often used as auto parts, for example, body, engine. For example, there are the body, a cylinder block, a piston, a connecting rod, interior, exterior parts, etc. These are practical used the characteristic of a light and strong aluminum alloy efficiently. However, although an aluminum alloy is lighter than steel, the elongation is smaller than that. Therefore, in press forming, some problems often occur. We have proposed use of explosive forming, in order to solve this problem. In the explosive forming, since a blank is formed at high speed, a strain rate effect becomes large and it can be made the elongation is larger. Then, in order to clarify this feature, we carried out experimental research and numerical analysis. In this paper, these contents will be discussed.

  3. Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.; Angelini, S.; Freeman, K.; Chen, X.; Salmassi, T. [Center for Risk Studies and Safety, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sienicki, J.J.


    Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive evaluation of all relevant severe accident scenarios, melt conditions and timing of release from the core region, fully 3D mixing and explosion wave dynamics, and lower head fragility under local, dynamic loading. All of these factors and brought together in a ROAAM Probabilistic Framework to evaluate failure likelihood. The conclusion is that failure is `physically unreasonable`. (author)

  4. The First Man-Made Nuclear Explosion (United States)

    Worth Seagondollar, L.


    This talk is part Nuclear Physics, part description of the greatest war-time experience possible for a young graduate student, and part eye-witness description of the 1945 plutonium fission devise explosion in the New Mexico desert. Living and working in the secret Manhattan District laboratory was truly unique. Hearing talks by Nobel Laureates (past & future), participating in nuclear experiments that determined the critical masses for U-235 and Pu-239, having near-catastrophic accidents, working with an armed guard watching you, having Enrico Fermi ask you to come to his office--these are unforgettable memories. There will be a description of 3 days in the New Mexico desert and a description of the early morning nuclear explosion at the Trinity Site and a description of that Site 30 days later.

  5. SERS substrate for detection of explosives. (United States)

    Chou, Alison; Jaatinen, Esa; Buividas, Ricardas; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Izake, Emad L; Fredericks, Peter M


    A novel gold coated femtosecond laser nanostructured sapphire surface - an "optical nose" - based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for detecting vapours of explosive substances was investigated. Four different nitroaromatic vapours at room temperature were tested. Sensor responses were unambiguous and showed response in the range of 0.05-15 μM at 25 °C. The laser fabricated substrate nanostructures produced up to an eight-fold increase in Raman signal over that observed on the unstructured portions of the substrate. This work demonstrates a simple sensing system that is compatible with commercial manufacturing practices to detect taggants in explosives which can undertake as part of an integrated security or investigative mission.

  6. Quantum cascade laser FM spectroscopy of explosives (United States)

    Gutmann, Zach; Clasp, Trocia; Lue, Chris; Johnson, Tiffani; Ingle, Taylor; Jamison, Janet; Buchanan, Roger; Reeve, Scott


    Polyisobutylene is an industrial polymer that is widely used in a number of applications including the manufacture of military grade explosives. We have examined the vapor emanating from a series of different molecular weight samples of polyisobutylene using high resolution Quantum Cascade Laser FM spectroscopy. The vapor phase spectra all exhibit a rovibrational structure similar to that for the gas phase isobutylene molecule. We have assigned the structure in the 890 cm-1 and 1380 cm-1 regions to the isobutylene ν28 and ν7 fundamental bands respectively. These spectroscopic signatures may prove useful for infrared sensing applications. Here we will present the infrared signatures along with recent GCMS data from a sample of C4, utilizing solid-phase microextraction vapor collection fibers, which confirm the presence of isobutylene as one of the volatile bouquet species in RDX-based explosives.

  7. Explosive magnetorotational instability in Keplerian disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtemler, Yu., E-mail:; Liverts, E., E-mail:; Mond, M., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)


    Differentially rotating disks under the effect of axial magnetic field are prone to a nonlinear explosive magnetorotational instability (EMRI). The dynamic equations that govern the temporal evolution of the amplitudes of three weakly detuned resonantly interacting modes are derived. As distinct from exponential growth in the strict resonance triads, EMRI occurs due to the resonant interactions of an MRI mode with stable Alfvén–Coriolis and magnetosonic modes. Numerical solutions of the dynamic equations for amplitudes of a triad indicate that two types of perturbations behavior can be excited for resonance conditions: (i) EMRI which leads to infinite values of the three amplitudes within a finite time, and (ii) bounded irregular oscillations of all three amplitudes. Asymptotic explicit solutions of the dynamic equations are obtained for EMRI regimes and are shown to match the numerical solutions near the explosion time.

  8. Electronic Nose for Detection of Explosives. (United States)

    Oakes, Landon; Dobrokhotov, Vladimir


    The ability to sense the environment is of critical importance for a broad array of applications ranging from ecosystem health, hazardous materials avoidance/chemical warfare to medical applications. In this research project we use the self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-functionalized nanoparticle-decorated nanosprings as a novel design for sensing vapors associated with explosives. The common requirements for any sensor application are sensitivity, selectivity, refreshability, repeatability, low cost of manufacture, and ease of use. The project goal is to answer these needs through the use of mats of functionalized metal nanoparticle-coated nanosprings as a novel type of low-cost nanomaterials-based gas sensor. The advantage of this approach is that very dilute quantities of airborne explosive products can be accumulated over a few seconds to a few minutes onto our high surface area nanospring electrodes. This will facilitate electronic detection, which in contrast to optical detection methods reduces false positive signals, reduces detector sizes and complexity.

  9. The November 2009 paroxysmal explosions at Stromboli (United States)

    Andronico, Daniele; Pistolesi, Marco


    Two paroxysmal explosions occurred at Stromboli volcano (Italy) on 8 and 24 November 2009. Analysis of recordings (from video-camera surveillance) indicates that each paroxysm consisted of multiple bursts from different vents. Field surveys, carried out within a few days after the two paroxysmal events, allowed us to gather crucial data on eruptive deposits and document morphological variations occurring at the source vents. Integration of video-analysis and field observations allowed making inferences on the eruptive dynamics of each explosive paroxysm. The 24 November event, in particular, erupted a larger volume and coarser products dispersed further from the summit area, resulting in a more hazardous event compared to the 8 November event that was largely confined to the upper part of the volcano.

  10. DOE explosives safety manual. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This manual prescribes the Department of Energy (DOE) safety rules used to implement the DOE safety policy for operations involving explosives. This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation, processing, or testing of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, or assemblies containing these materials. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, and the safe management of such operations. The design of all new explosives facilities shall conform to the requirements established in this manual and implemented in DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria Manual.`` It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with these provisions, except as required by law. Existing facilities that do not comply with these standards may continue to be used for the balance of their functional life, as long as the current operation presents no significantly greater risk than that assumed when the facility was originally designed and it can be demonstrated clearly that a modification to bring the facility into compliance is not feasible. However, in the case of a major renovation, the facility must be brought into compliance with current standards. The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ``shall,`` ``must,`` or ``will,`` are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ``should`` or ``may`` are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management.

  11. Risk-Based Explosive Safety Analysis (United States)


    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 30 November 2016 2. REPORT TYPE...Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 November 2016 – 30 November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Risk-Based Explosive Safety Analysis 5a

  12. Explosive Infrasonic Events: Sensor Comparison Experiment (SCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurr, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garces, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    SCE (sensor comparison experiment) 1 through 4 consists of a series of four controlled above-ground explosions designed to provide new data for overpressure propagation. Infrasound data were collected by LLNL iPhones and other sensors. Origin times, locations HOB, and yields are not being released at this time and are therefore not included in this report. This preliminary report will be updated as access to additional data changes, or instrument responses are determined.

  13. Surface detonation in type Ia supernova explosions?


    Roepke, F. K.; Woosley, S. E.


    We explore the evolution of thermonuclear supernova explosions when the progenitor white dwarf star ignites asymmetrically off-center. Several numerical simulations are carried out in two and three dimensions to test the consequences of different initial flame configurations such as spherical bubbles displaced from the center, more complex deformed configurations, and teardrop-shaped ignitions. The burning bubbles float towards the surface while releasing energy due to the nuclear reactions. ...

  14. Polyurethane Binder Systems for Polymer Bonded Explosives (United States)


    Trimethylol propane TPB Triphenyl Bismuth DSTO-GD-0492 1. Introduction The desire for increased safety in explosives handling, storage and...HTPB) 7.346 Dioctyl adipate (DOA) 7.346 Antioxidant 2246 (AO) 0.10 N,N 2-Hydroxyethyl dimethyl-hydantoin (DHE) 0.26 Triphenyl bismuth (TBP) 0.02...with water and the liberated acetic acid is titrated against 0.5 N alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution. The following solutions are required

  15. Explosive detection technologies for airline security


    Maruyama, Xavier K.


    Aviation safety and security has become a topic of paramount national concern. Informed decision making requires an appreciation of trends in technology in response to projected future terrorist activities. In the area of security, explosive detection is made possible by a bewildering array of newly offered equipment. This document describes the science and engineering of the various technologies. The information presented here was written for airline security, but it applies also to a wi...

  16. Optimization of Composting for Explosives Contaminated Soil (United States)


    required for implementation of j composting as a cost- effective alternative to incineration. All three explosives present at UMDA demonstrated...into the mixture to be composted and/or the contaminants must be degraded at a higher rate. To increase the rates of degradation either more effective ...microorganisms with more effective metabolic pathways/enzymes are available and will function well in a compost matrix), optimizing the composition of the

  17. Composting of Explosives-Contaminated Soil Technology (United States)


    dinitrotoluenes) and to evaluate the influence of temperature upon composting effectiveness . This study demonstrated that the bioconversion of explosives under... effected primarily by mechanical turning of the compost , clcsely regulated temperature regimes in such a system may be difficult to achieve. In aerated...treatment processes, the feasibility and economics of composting will be directly influenced by the length of time required for treatment. Treatment

  18. Dynamic Fracture Simulations of Explosively Loaded Cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Carly W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Goto, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This report documents the modeling results of high explosive experiments investigating dynamic fracture of steel (AerMet® 100 alloy) cylinders. The experiments were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during 2007 to 2008 [10]. A principal objective of this study was to gain an understanding of dynamic material failure through the analysis of hydrodynamic computer code simulations. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational cylinder models were analyzed using the ALE3D multi-physics computer code.

  19. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered (United States)


    Astronomers have found the remains of the youngest supernova, or exploded star, in our Galaxy. The supernova remnant, hidden behind a thick veil of gas and dust, was revealed by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which could see through the murk. The object is the first example of a "missing population" of young supernova remnants. 1985 and 2008 VLA Images Move cursor over image to blink. VLA Images of G1.9+0.3 in 1985 and 2008: Circle for size comparison. CREDIT: Green, et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF From observing supernovae in other galaxies, astronomers have estimated that about three such stellar explosions should occur in our Milky Way every century. However, the most recent one known until now occurred around 1680, creating the remnant called Cassiopeia A. The newly-discovered object is the remnant of an explosion only about 140 years ago. "If the supernova rate estimates are correct, there should be the remnants of about 10 supernova explosions in the Milky Way that are younger than Cassiopeia A," said David Green of the University of Cambridge in the UK, who led the VLA study. "It's great to finally track one of them down." Supernova explosions, which mark the violent death of a star, release tremendous amounts of energy and spew heavy elements such as calcium and iron into interstellar space. They thus seed the clouds of gas and dust from which new stars and planets are formed and, through their blast shocks, can even trigger such formation. The lack of evidence for young supernova remnants in the Milky Way had caused astronomers to wonder if our Galaxy, which appears otherwise normal, differed in some unknown way from others. Alternatively, scientists thought that the "missing" Milky Way supernovae perhaps indicated that their understanding of the relationship between supernovae and other galactic processes was in error. The astronomers made their discovery by measuring the expansion of the debris from

  20. Synthesis of Magnetized Nuclei at Supernova Explosion (United States)

    Kondratyev, V. N.; Nurtayeva, U. M.; Zhomartova, A. Zh.; Mishenina, T. V.

    Influence of magnetorotational instabilities in astrophysical plasma at supernova explosion on synthesis of chemical elements is investigated. At field strength less than 10 teratesla nuclear magnetic susceptibility exhibits linear regime with enhanced nuclear binding energy for open shell nuclei. Effects of ultra-strong nuclear magnetization are demonstrated to enhance the portion of titanium product. The relation to an excess of titanium isotopes revealed from the Integral mission data and galactic chemical evolution is discussed.

  1. Radioactive Beam Measurements to Probe Stellar Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL


    Unique beams of unstable nuclei from the Holi eld Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are being used to measure the thermonuclear reactions that occur in novae, X-ray bursts, and supernovae. The astrophysical impact of these measurements is determined by synergistic nuclear data evaluations and element synthesis calculations. Results of recent measurements and explosion simulations are brie y described, along with future plans and software research tools for the community.

  2. The Biggest Explosions in the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G am m a ray bursts { w hich are ¯rst detected in energetic gam m a rays and w hich then glow in. X -ray, visible and radio w avelengths { are the result of the biggest explosions in the universe. A stronom ers w onder w hat causes these violent events, and som e of their ideas are discussed in th is article. 1. S eren d ip itou s ...

  3. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeman, Svatopluk [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Trzcinski, Waldemar A. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, PL-00-908 Warsaw 49 (Poland); Matyas, Robert [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)


    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E{sub 0}, and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E{sub 0} values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m{sup -3}. Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities.

  4. High Voltage Application of Explosively Formed Fuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasker, D.G.; Goforth, J.H.; Fowler, C.M.; Lopez, E.M.; Oona, H.; Marsh, S.P.; King, J.C.; Herrera, D.H.; Torres, D.T.; Sena, F.C.; Martinez, E.C.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Stokes, J.L.; Tabaka, L.J.; Kiuttu, G.; Degnan, J.


    At Los Alamos, the authors have primarily applied Explosively Formed Fuse (EFF) techniques to high current systems. In these systems, the EFF has interrupted currents from 19 to 25 MA, thus diverting the current to low inductance loads. The magnitude of transferred current is determined by the ratio of storage inductance to load inductance, and with dynamic loads, the current has ranged from 12 to 20 MA. In a system with 18 MJ stored energy, the switch operates at a power up to 6 TW. The authors are now investigating the use of the EFF technique to apply high voltages to high impedance loads in systems that are more compact. In these systems, they are exploring circuits with EFF lengths from 43 to 100 cm, which have storage inductances large enough to apply 300 to 500 kV across high impedance loads. Experimental results and design considerations are presented. Using cylindrical EFF switches of 10 cm diameter and 43 cm length, currents of approximately 3 MA were interrupted producing {approximately}200 kV. This indicate s the switch had an effective resistance of {approximately}100 m{Omega} where 150--200 m{Omega} was expected. To understand the lower performance, several parameters were studied, including: electrical conduction through the explosive products; current density; explosive initiation; insulator type; conductor thickness; and so on. The results show a number of interesting features, most notably that the primary mechanism of switch operation is mechanical and not electrical fusing of the conductor. Switches opening on a 10 to 10 {micro}s time scale with resistances starting at 50 {micro}{Omega} and increasing to perhaps 1 {Omega} now seem possible to construct, using explosive charges as small as a few pounds.

  5. The influence of explosive power on the performance of an elite swimmer in 25 and 50 metre pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baumrtová


    Full Text Available Each swimming stroke, and each distance, requires a different approach to strength training. For sprinters in swimming the most essential part is explosive power. The goal of this case study was to find out how explosive training can influence the performance in both long course and short course meters swimming pools. This study was conducted with the cooperation of an elite swimmer over a time period of 6 years. Tests were performed twice a year (June and November during the years of 2010–2016. The Myotest device was used to measure countermovement jump height. Swimming performance was evaluated by FINA points in the swimmer’s three main disciplines. ANOVA, Cohen’s d and regression equation were used for statistical analysis. The results showed that explosive power does not influence performance in the 50m swimming pool (p = 0.25; r2 = 0.08. However the performance in the 25m pool is directly linked to the level of explosive power of the lower limbs (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.85. The results of the swimmer in the 25m pool are closely related to the level of explosive power of the lower limbs. Performance in the 50m pool might not be affected by level of lower limb power.

  6. Explosive microfractures induced by K-metasomatism (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Wang; Cai, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Wang, Jie


    Ultra-fine mineral aggregates in K-metasomatic rocks of the Hougou area, northwestern Hebei Province, China contain peculiar and distinct intergranular and intragranular geometries, compositions, and textures. These features indicate solidification of expanded and enclosed relict fluids within tensile microfractures. Two basic morphologic types of textures are present: saw-toothed and wheel-shaped, and several composite patterns also are present, such as X-shaped, grid, and network. The appearance of these features indicate explosion from an instantaneous force. These microscopic explosive microfractures are directly related to the enclosed relict fluids. Theoretical estimates show that volume expansion induced by mineral replacements during K-metasomatism may have caused the K-metasomatic fluids to be confined and strongly compressed in order to build up powerful forces that produced the ultra-fine mineral aggregates and explosive microfractures. The thick-walled texture of K-metasomatic rocks confined fractures that propagated only in the replaced rocks with the lowest strength. Both pumping pressures and the propagation of the K-metasomatism were self-governed and controlled by introduced chemical elements, specially K +.

  7. Explosive Detection in Aviation Applications Using CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C R


    CT scanners are deployed world-wide to detect explosives in checked and carry-on baggage. Though very similar to single- and dual-energy multi-slice CT scanners used today in medical imaging, some recently developed explosives detection scanners employ multiple sources and detector arrays to eliminate mechanical rotation of a gantry, photon counting detectors for spectral imaging, and limited number of views to reduce cost. For each bag scanned, the resulting reconstructed images are first processed by automated threat recognition algorithms to screen for explosives and other threats. Human operators review the images only when these automated algorithms report the presence of possible threats. The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has requirements for future scanners that include dealing with a larger number of threats, higher probability of detection, lower false alarm rates and lower operating costs. One tactic that DHS is pursuing to achieve these requirements is to augment the capabilities of the established security vendors with third-party algorithm developers. A third-party in this context refers to academics and companies other than the established vendors. DHS is particularly interested in exploring the model that has been used very successfully by the medical imaging industry, in which university researchers develop algorithms that are eventually deployed in commercial medical imaging equipment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for third-parties to develop advanced reconstruction and threat detection algorithms.

  8. Development of steam explosion simulation code JASMINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Yamano, Norihiro; Maruyama, Yu; Kudo, Tamotsu; Sugimoto, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nagano, Katsuhiro; Araki, Kazuhiro


    A steam explosion is considered as a phenomenon which possibly threatens the integrity of the containment vessel of a nuclear power plant in a severe accident condition. A numerical calculation code JASMINE (JAeri Simulator for Multiphase INteraction and Explosion) purposed to simulate the whole process of steam explosions has been developed. The premixing model is based on a multiphase flow simulation code MISTRAL by Fuji Research Institute Co. In JASMINE code, the constitutive equations and the flow regime map are modified for the simulation of premixing related phenomena. The numerical solution method of the original code is succeeded, i.e. the basic equations are discretized semi-implicitly, BCGSTAB method is used for the matrix solver to improve the stability and convergence, also TVD scheme is applied to capture a steep phase distribution accurately. Test calculations have been performed for the conditions correspond to the experiments by Gilbertson et al. and Angelini et al. in which mixing of solid particles and water were observed in iso-thermal condition and with boiling, respectively. (author).

  9. Laser device (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.


    A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

  10. "Distinvar" device

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The alignment of one of the accelerator magnets being checked by the AR Division survey group. A "distinvar" device, invented by the group, using calibrated invar wires stretched between the fixed survey pillar (on the left) and a fixed point on the magnet. In two days it is thus possible to measure the alignment of the 100 magnets with an accuracy better than 1/10.

  11. Characteristics of regional seismic waves from large explosive events including Korean nuclear explosions (United States)

    Jo, Eunyoung; Lee, Ha-sung


    Three North Korean underground nuclear explosion (UNE) tests were conducted in 2006, 2009 and 2013. Discrimination of explosions from natural earthquakes is important in monitoring the seismic activity in the Korean Peninsula. The UNEs were well recorded by dense regional seismic networks in South Korea. The UNEs provide unique regional seismic waveforms with high signal-to-noise ratios. However, the continental crust in the Korean Peninsula changes abruptly into a transitional structure between continental and oceanic crusts across the eastern coast. The complex geological and tectonic structures around the Korean Peninsula cause significant variations in regional waveforms. Outstanding question is whether conventional discrimination techniques can be applicable for explosions including the North Korean UNEs. P/S amplitude ratios are widely used for seismic discrimination. To understand the regional shear-energy composition, we analyze the frequency contents of waveforms. The shear-energy contents for the UNEs are compared with those for natural earthquakes with comparable magnitudes. The result shows that the UNEs are successfully discriminated from earthquakes in the Korean Peninsula. We also analyze the explosive events from North Korean not UNEs to test the applicability of the discrimination technique. The result of high frequency Pn/Sn regional discrimination in the explosions show that as magnitude of event is smaller, available distance of discrimination is decreased particularly in high frequency range. The poor signal to noise ratio of Pn phase in the explosions, and inefficient propagation of Sn phase in the Western part of the peninsula frustrate Pn/Sn discriminant, while the UNEs show good performance using both discriminants because of propagation path effects in the eastern part of the peninsula.

  12. Analysis of the external explosion action on the building barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Siwiński


    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for determination of the action of an external explosion on building barriers. We used different procedures, known in the literature, for analysis of action of an external explosion. These procedures were the basis of tabulated algorithm for determination of the characteristics of the explosion action on the building barriers. We considered the basic division of phases of explosion action onto overpressure phase and underpressure phase. We determined blast wave parameters considering the division of explosion zone onto the close zone and distant zone. For each zone, we presented the methods of determination of the initial pressure of the reflected wave, time durations of overpressure phase, and the load variation in time.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, structural mechanics, explosive actions, building structures

  13. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.


    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  14. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case. (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio


    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  15. Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa (United States)


    1~7JJ!i 5a. DATE: 6a. DATE: 7a. DATE: 8. TITLE: Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 9. CONTRACT NUMBER: 10...00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...600 Raleigh, NC 27605 Contract Number: HDTRA2-11-D-0001 Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 4

  16. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS


    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  17. Air Blasts from Cased and Uncased Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The problem of a spherical blast in air is solved using the STUN code. For bare charges, the calculations are shown to be in excellent agreement with previous published results. It is demonstrated that, for an unconfined (uncased) chemical explosive, both range and time to effect scale inversely as the cube root of the yield and directly as the cube root of the ambient air density. It is shown that the peak overpressure decays to roughly 1/10 of ambient pressure in a scaled range of roughly 10 m/kg1/3 at sea level. At a height of 30 km, where the ambient density is a factor of 64 less, the range to the same decay increases to 40 m/kg1/3 . As a direct result of the scaling a single calculation suffices for all charge sizes and altitudes. Although the close-in results are sensitive to the nature of the explosive source and the equation of state of the air, this sensitivity is shown to virtually disappear at scaled ranges > 0.5 m/kg1/3 . For cased explosives the case thickness introduces an additional scale factor. Moreover, when the blast wave arrives at the inner case radius the case begins to expand. Fracture occurs when a critical value of the resulting hoop strain is reached, causing the case to shatter into fragments. A model is proposed to describe the size distribution of the fragments and their subsequent motion via drag interaction with the explosion products and ambient air. It is shown that a significant fraction of the charge energy is initially transmitted to the case fragments in the form of kinetic energy; for example, a 1 kg spherical charge with a 5 mm thick steel case has almost 29% of the total charge energy as initial kinetic energy of case fragments. This percentage increases with increasing case thickness and decreases with increasing charge size. The peak overpressure at a given range is 70-85% for cased explosives as compared with uncased and the peak impulse per unit area is 90-95%. The peak overpressure and

  18. Movement of Explosive Ordnance Disposal Command and Control (C2) from Logistical Support to Operational/Maneuver Support, within the Military Organization (United States)


    future wars. EOD requirements would receive higher priority in attaining tlie equipment required to successfuiTy support operations on tiie oattlefiefii...battlefield threat, the improvised explosive device. Service EOD forces need to reorganize so tiiat tiie fudiVidual· services can atfequateiy pian and

  19. The Xsense project: The application of an intelligent sensor array for high sensitivity handheld explosives detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Bosco, Filippo


    Multiple independent sensors are used in security and military applications in order to increase sensitivity, selectivity and data reliability. The Xsense project has been initiated at the Technical University of Denmark in collaboration with a number of partners in an effort to produce a handheld...... sensor for trace detection of explosives. We are using micro- and nano technological approaches for integrating four sensing principles into a single device. At the end of the project, the consortium aims at having delivered a sensor platform consisting of four independent detector principles capable...

  20. Colorimetric Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Identification of Chemical Weapons and Explosives. (United States)

    Kangas, Michael J; Burks, Raychelle M; Atwater, Jordyn; Lukowicz, Rachel M; Williams, Pat; Holmes, Andrea E


    There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes. This review also describes an outlook toward future technologies, and describes how they could possibly be used in areas such as war zones to detect and identify hazardous substances.

  1. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.


    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  2. Explosive Boiling in Z-pinch Plasmas* (United States)

    de Groot, John S.; Bauer, Bruno S.


    Recently, high resolution x-ray backlighting (radiography), experiments [1] have shown complex small-scale (typical sizes of 2-30 µm) structure of the exploding wire cores of both single-wire and multiwire loads subjected to 2-5 kA per 7.5-25 µm diameter wire for 1µs. The radiographs show features implying that the core has become a foam-like, liquid-vapor mixture. This foam-like state is apparently caused by explosive boiling. The point is that the wires are heated so rapidly that normal boiling (vapor bubbles are formed heterogeneously in the liquid) cannot occur. In explosive boiling, the liquid is superheated to a temperature close to the critical temperature and the phase change occurs explosively in times as short as a few ns. Homogeneous bubble nucleation occurs and the wire makes a very rapid transition from superheated liquid to a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets. This behavior will have very important effects on wire initiation in Z-pinch driven wire arrays and breakdown in MITLs. The ablation of the wire to form the coronal plasma and the remaining core plasma will be quite different for the mixed state. The mixed state is not modeled in the MHD codes that are being used to model wire initiation. We are developing models of the mixed state to include in the MHD codes. We are also developing experiments to improve the understanding of this curious state of matter. 1. Pikuz, S. A., Shelkovenko, T. A., Sinars, D. B., Greenly, J. B., Dimant, Y. S., and Hammer, D. A., Phys. Rev. Letters 83, 4313-4316 (1999). *Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy Under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Storage standards for industrial explosives, May 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The storage standards for industrial explosives comprise the following 3 parts: (1) magazine storage standards, (2) storage operation principles, and (3) ruling and policy decisions for magazines built before May 31, 2001. There are many refinements and improvements in these revised storage standards which were first published in 1972. They come into force on May 31, 2001 and update and supersede the Revised 1982 Magazine Standards for Blasting Explosives and Detonators. The Explosives and Regulatory Division (ERD) of Natural Resources Canada worked with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) to develop and adopt a redesign of the walk-in magazine door to ensure greater security. The laminated door is mandatory for all new walk-in-type magazines immediately. For existing magazine installations, it will be phased in over a period of 5 to 10 years with most emphasis on those areas with a high risk of break-ins. ERD has also moved from heavy duty-locks to high-security locking hardware and is emphasizing better key control for magazines with no grandfathering on locking hardware. The wall thicknesses for the new Type 4 magazine standards have been upgraded from 5 to 7.6 cm for gravel and 15 cm for sand. Types 2, 3, 5, and 7 magazines will no longer be allowed under this new standard. Type 9 magazines will also be phased out over the next 5 years and will be replaced by an upgraded design similar to Type 4 magazine. Type 11 magazine standards have also been revised to use the ISO seacan container which has a newer door concept with ballistic materials in the walls. With these revised standards, only approved welding facilities across Canada will be issued design details of magazine doors. Each magazine will have a unique code of numbers corresponding to a tag and noted on the licence. Each of these storage standards has been upgraded to reflect higher security. tabs., figs.

  4. Thermal Environment inside a Tunnel after Thermobaric Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen


    Full Text Available The outstanding thermal damage effect of thermobaric explosive (TBX is enhanced in closed or semiclosed spaces, which may pose a serious threat to the security of people sheltered in tunnels or other protective engineering. In order to investigate the thermal environment inside a tunnel after thermobaric explosion, we developed a damage evaluation method for the thermal radiation of explosion fireballs in tunnels; secondly, the air temperature distribution inside a tunnel shortly after explosion was theoretically analyzed; finally, the dynamic thermal environment after the explosion and the influences of TBXs mass and initial ground temperature on it in cases of open and blocked tunnels were numerically simulated with the FLUENT software. The results show that the fireball thermal radiation damage occurs mainly in the vicinity of the explosion source. The air temperature inside a tunnel shortly after the explosion decreases continuously with increasing distance from the explosion source and finally reaches the initial air temperature. The decay rate of air temperature inside a tunnel is slower in the blocked case, which increases the probability of causing a secondary fire disaster. The increase of explosive mass and the initial ground temperature favor the high-temperature performance of TBX, especially for the blocked tunnel.

  5. Remote Machining and Evaluation of Explosively Filled Munitions (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is used for remote machining of explosively loaded ammunition. Munition sizes from small arms through 8-inch artillery can be accommodated. Sectioning,...

  6. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration for trace explosives detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linker, Kevin Lane


    A trace explosives detection system typically contains three subsystems: sample collection, preconcentration, and detection. Sample collection of trace explosives (vapor and particulate) through large volumes of airflow helps reduce sampling time while increasing the amount of dilute sample collected. Preconcentration of the collected sample before introduction into the detector improves the sensitivity of the detector because of the increase in sample concentration. By combining large-volume sample collection and preconcentration, an improvement in the detection of explosives is possible. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration is presented using a systems level approach. In addition, the engineering of large-volume sampling and preconcentration for the trace detection of explosives is explained.

  7. Vapor explosion studies for nuclear and non-nuclear industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. [Arden L. Bement, Jr. Professor Nuclear Engineering, School of Nuclear Engineering, 1290 Nuclear Engineering Building, Room 108C, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47905 (United States)]. E-mail:


    Energetic melt-water explosions are a well-established contributor to risk for nuclear reactors, and even more so for the metal casting industry. In-depth studies were undertaken in an industry-national laboratory collaborative effort to understand the root causes of explosion triggering and to evaluate methods for prevention. The steam explosion triggering studies (SETS) facility was devised and implemented for deriving key insights into explosion prevention. Data obtained indicated that onset of base surface-entrapment induced explosive boiling-caused trigger shocks is a result of complex combination of surface wettability, type of coating (organic versus inorganic), degree of coating wearoff, existence of bypass pathways for pressure relief, charring and non-condensable gas (NCG) release potential. Of these parameters NCGs were found to play a preeminent role on explosion prevention by stabilizing the melt-water steam interface and acting as a shock absorber. The role of NCGs was experimentally confirmed using SETS for their effect on stable film boiling using a downward facing heated body through which gases were injected. The presence of NCGs in the steam film layer caused a significant delay in the transitioning of film-to-nucleate boiling. The role of NCGs on explosion prevention was thereafter demonstrated more directly by introducing molten metal drops into water pools with and without NCG bubbling. Whereas spontaneous and energetic explosions took place without NCG injection, only benign quenching occurred in the presence of NCGs. Gravimetric analyses of organic coatings which are known to prevent explosion onset were also found to release significant NCGs during thermal attack by melt in the presence of water. These findings offer a novel, simple, cost-effective technique for deriving fundamental insights into melt-water explosions as well as for explosion prevention under most conditions of interest to metal casting, and possibly for nuclear reactor

  8. Explosion of a road tanker containing liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planas-Cuchi, E.; Casal, J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Catalonia (Spain). CERTEC; Gasulla, N.; Ventosa, A. [Autonomous Government of Catalonia (Spain). General Directorate for Emergencies and Civl Security


    The explosion of a road tanker transporting LNG (one person killed, two injured) is studied. The analysis shows that the explosion, which followed a two-step mode as for the failure of the vessel, could have been a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). The overpressure and thermal radiation have been estimated and related to the effects observed. Only a relatively small part of the energy released in the explosion was manifested in the pressure wave. The large fragments (the three pieces into which the tank was broken) and the truck motor were ejected at various distances along the tank's main axis. (author)

  9. Nonisotropic radiation of the 2013 North Korean nuclear explosion (United States)

    Vavryčuk, Václav; Kim, So Gu


    On 12 February 2013, North Korea conducted an underground nuclear test in the northeastern mountainous part of the country. The explosion reached magnitude mb = 5.1 being recorded at most of seismic stations around the world and becoming one of the best ever recorded nuclear explosions in history. Similarly, as other nuclear explosions buried in Nevada, Kazakhstan, or China, the 2013 North Korean explosion is characterized by a significant nonisotropic radiation. This radiation is manifested by distinct SH and Love waves in the wave field and is inconsistent with the model of a spherically symmetric source. We show that the Love waves are not generated by a tectonic earthquake triggered on a nearby fault structures but produced by asymmetry of the explosive source caused by presence of deviatoric stress in the surrounding rock. The retrieved moment tensor of the 2013 explosion is characterized by the isotropic component of 57 ± 5%, the double-couple component of 17 ± 9%, and the compensated linear vector dipole component of 24 ± 7%. The P, T, and N axes of the moment tensor are consistent with the principal axes of the regional tectonic stress in the Korean Peninsula. A comparison of waveforms and particle motions of the 2013 explosion and the previous North Korean nuclear explosion buried in 2009 indicates that the 2013 explosion was slightly more nonisotropic.

  10. Coal-preparation baghouse protects against explosion damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Improvements in baghouse containment technology are reducing the risks when air and coal dust mixtures ignite and cause secondary explosions that were formerly vented. The cement industry was quick to adopt the new technology that resembles a circular pressure vessel able to withstand a 50-psi internal pressure and contain secondary explosions. Steps to minimize primary explosions include new standards for baghouse design and construction to eliminate components that cause sparks, electrical grounding, continuous dust removal, high air-to-cloth ratios, and pulse jet cleaning. Other considerations involving baghouse location, maintenance access, fire suppression, and rotary valve sizing can also reduce explosion risks. (DCK)

  11. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, D.J. [Northwest Technical Industries, Inc., Sequim, WA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)


    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques.

  12. Scalable devices

    KAUST Repository

    Krüger, Jens J.


    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales with the size of the problem, i.e., it can not only be used in a very specific setting but it\\'s applicable for a wide range of problems. From small scenarios to possibly very large settings. In this spirit, there exist a number of fixed areas of research on scalability. There are works on scalable algorithms, scalable architectures but what are scalable devices? In the context of this chapter, we are interested in a whole range of display devices, ranging from small scale hardware such as tablet computers, pads, smart-phones etc. up to large tiled display walls. What interests us mostly is not so much the hardware setup but mostly the visualization algorithms behind these display systems that scale from your average smart phone up to the largest gigapixel display walls.

  13. Ballistic Evaluation of Aircraft Explosion Suppression Materials (United States)


    Inside tihe tank, the use of a fan as in TWS No. I was prwL\\luded. The system devised is depicted in Figure No. 5. lt is composed of two electric fans daLa acquisition and control system. This system was composed of an HP 2100 mini-computer with associated analog-to- digital converters, relay...panel damage. h’lherefore, for all of the explosion suppression materiali tested, there did not appear to he any marked difference in exit panel

  14. Luck Reveals Stellar Explosion's First Moments (United States)


    Through a stroke of luck, astronomers have witnessed the first violent moments of a stellar explosion known as a supernova. Astronomers have seen thousands of these stellar explosions, but all previous supernovae were discovered days after the event had begun. This is the first time scientists have been able to study a supernova from its very beginning. Seeing one just moments after the event began is a major breakthrough that points the way to unraveling longstanding mysteries about how such explosions really work. Galaxy Before Supernova Explosion NASA's Swift satellite took these images of SN 2007uy in galaxy NGC 2770 before SN 2008D exploded. An X-ray image is on the left; image at right is in visible light. CREDIT: NASA/Swift Science Team/Stefan Immler. Large Image With Labels Large Image Without Labels Galaxy After Supernova Explosion On January 9, 2008, Swift caught a bright X-ray burst from an exploding star. A few days later, SN 2008D appeared in visible light. CREDIT: NASA/Swift Science Team/Stefan Immler. Large Image With Labels Large Image Without Labels "For years, we have dreamed of seeing a star just as it was exploding," said team leader Alicia Soderberg, a Hubble and Carnegie-Princeton Fellow at Princeton University. "This newly-born supernova is going to be the Rosetta Stone of supernova studies for years to come." Theorists had predicted for four decades that a bright burst of X-rays should be produced as the shock wave from a supernova blasts out of the star and through dense material surrounding the star. However, in order to see this burst, scientists faced the nearly-impossible challenge of knowing in advance where to point their telescopes to catch a supernova in the act of exploding. On January 9, luck intervened. Soderberg and her colleagues were making a scheduled observation of the galaxy NGC 2770, 88 million light-years from Earth, using the X-ray telescope on NASA's Swift satellite. During that observation, a bright burst of X

  15. Projection image enhancement for explosive detection systems (United States)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen


    Automated Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) utilizing Computed Tomography (CT) generate a series of 2-D projections from a series of X-ray scans OF luggage under inspection. 3-D volumetric images can also be generated from the collected data set. Extensive data manipulation of the 2-D and 3-D image sets for detecting the presence of explosives is done automatically by EDS. The results are then forwarded to human screeners for final review. The final determination as to whether the luggage contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed by trained TSA (Transportation Security Administration) screeners following an approved TSA protocol. The TSA protocol has the screeners visually inspect the resulting images and the renderings from the EDS to determine if the luggage is suspicious and consequently should be searched manually. Enhancing those projection images delivers a higher quality screening, reduces screening time and also reduces the amount of luggage that needs to be manually searched otherwise. This paper presents a novel edge detection algorithm that is geared towards, though not exclusive to, automated explosive detection systems. The goal of these enhancements is to provide a higher quality screening process while reducing the overall screening time and luggage search rates. Accurately determining the location of edge pixels within 2-D signals, often the first step in segmentation and recognition systems indicates the boundary between overlapping objects in a luggage. Most of the edge detection algorithms such as Canny, Prewitt, Roberts, Sobel, and Laplacian methods are based on the first and second derivatives/difference operators. These operators detect the discontinuities in the differences of pixels. These approaches are sensitive to the presence of noise and could produce false edges in noisy images. Including large scale filters, may avoid errors generated by noise, but often simultaneously eliminating the finer edge details as

  16. Reaction Studies for Explosive Nuclear Astrophysics (United States)

    Woods, Philip J.

    The paper describes experimental approaches to measuring key nuclear astrophysical reactions involving radioactive isotopes. Specifically the paper considers the utilisation of (d, n) and (d, p) transfer reactions to probe the strengths of key resonances in the hydrogen burning/proton capture reactions 30P(p, γ) and 26Al(p, γ). The use of a radioactive target and silicon strip detector set-ups to study the key 26Al(n, p) and (n, α) destruction reactions relevant to explosive burning conditions in core collapse supernovae is also reported.

  17. Optical chemosensors and reagents to detect explosives


    Salinas Soler, Yolanda; Martínez Mañez, Ramón; Marcos Martínez, María Dolores; Sancenón Galarza, Félix; Costero Nieto, Ana Maria; Parra Alvarez, Margarita; Gil Grau, Salvador


    This critical review is focused on examples reported from 1947 to 2010 related to the design of chromo-fluorogenic chemosensors and reagents for explosives (141 references). © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Spanish Government (project MAT2009-14564-C04) Generalitat Valencia (project PROMETEO/2009/016) Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation Salinas Soler, Y.; Martínez Mañez, R.; Marcos Martínez, MD.; Sancenón Galarza, F.; Costero Nieto, AM.; Parra Alvarez, M.; Gil Grau, S...

  18. Physics of semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prew, B.A.


    The properties of semiconductors which make them important in the electronic devices industry, and how these properties are controlled by doping, are described. The physics and applications of p-n and other junction devices, and of bulk effect devices are discussed. Avalanche devices, optical devices, solar cells, Schottky barriers, MOS devices, heterojunctions, photoconductors, and transferred electron devices are considered.

  19. An electromagnetic and thermodynamic lumped parameter model of an explosively driven regenerative magnetohydrodynamic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, John L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)


    The objective of this research is to develop a simple, yet accurate, lumped parameter mathematical model for an explosively driven magnetohydrodynamic generator that can predict the pulse power variables of voltage and current from startup through regenerative operation. The inputs to the model will be the plasma properties entering the generator as predicted by the explosive shock model of Reference [1]. The strategy used was to simplify electromagnetic and thermodynamic three dimensional effects into a zero dimensional model. The model will provide a convenient tool for researchers to optimize designs to be used in pulse power applications. The model is validated using experimental data of Reference [1]. An overview of the operation of the explosively driven generator is first presented. Then a simplified electrical circuit model that describes basic performance of the device is developed. Then a lumped parameter model that incorporates the coupled electromagnetic and thermodynamic effects that govern generator performance is described and developed. The model is based on fundamental physical principles and parameters that were either obtained directly from design data or estimated from experimental data. The model was used to obtain parameter sensitivities and predict beyond the limits observed in the experiments to the levels desired by the potential Department of Defense sponsors. The model identifies process limitations that provide direction for future research.

  20. Remote laser drilling and sampling system for the detection of concealed explosives (United States)

    Wild, D.; Pschyklenk, L.; Theiß, C.; Holl, G.


    The detection of hazardous materials like explosives is a central issue in national security in the field of counterterrorism. One major task includes the development of new methods and sensor systems for the detection. Many existing remote or standoff methods like infrared or raman spectroscopy find their limits, if the hazardous material is concealed in an object. Imaging technologies using x-ray or terahertz radiation usually yield no information about the chemical content itself. However, the exact knowledge of the real threat potential of a suspicious object is crucial for disarming the device. A new approach deals with a laser drilling and sampling system for the use as verification detector for suspicious objects. Central part of the system is a miniaturised, diode pumped Nd:YAG laser oscillator-amplifier. The system allows drilling into most materials like metals, synthetics or textiles with bore hole diameters in the micron scale. During the drilling process, the hazardous material can be sampled for further investigation with suitable detection methods. In the reported work, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to monitor the drilling process and to classify the drilled material. Also experiments were carried out to show the system's ability to not ignite even sensitive explosives like triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The detection of concealed hazardous material is shown for different explosives using liquid chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry.

  1. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard


    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  2. Aerosol can puncture device operational test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.


    Puncturing of aerosol cans is performed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1) process as a requirement of the waste disposal acceptance criteria for both transuranic (TRU) waste and low-level waste (LLW). These cans have contained such things as paints, lubricating oils, paint removers, insecticides, and cleaning supplies which were used in radioactive facilities. Due to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Fire Protection concerns of the baseline system`s fire/explosion proof characteristics, a study was undertaken to compare the baseline system`s design to commercially available puncturing devices. While the study found no areas which might indicate a risk of fire or explosion, WHC Fire Protection determined that the puncturing system must have a demonstrated record of safe operation. This could be obtained either by testing the baseline design by an independent laboratory, or by substituting a commercially available device. As a result of these efforts, the commercially available Aerosolv can puncturing device was chosen to replace the baseline design. Two concerns were raised with the system. Premature blinding of the coalescing/carbon filter, due to its proximity to the puncture and draining operation; and overpressurization of the collection bottle due to its small volume and by blinding of the filter assembly. As a result of these concerns, testing was deemed necessary. The objective of this report is to outline test procedures for the Aerosolv.

  3. Civilian casualties of terror-related explosions: The impact of vascular trauma on treatment and prognosis. (United States)

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Givon, Adi; Simon, Daniel; Bass, Arie; Almogy, Gidon; Peleg, Kobi


    A high prevalence (10%) of vascular trauma (VT) was previously described in terror-related trauma as compared with non-terror-related trauma (1%), in a civilian setting. No data regarding outcome of VT casualties of improvised explosive device (IED) explosions, in civilian settings, are available. The aim of the current study is to present the prognosis of civilian casualties of IED explosions with and without VT. A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from September 2000 to December 2005 who were victims of explosions were included. These patients were subdivided into patients with VT (n = 109) and non-VT (NVT) (n = 1,152). Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury, and treatment. Of 1,261 explosion casualties, there were 109 VT victims (8.6%). Patients with VT tended to be more complex, with a higher injury severity score (ISS): 17.4% with ISS 16 to 24 as compared with only 10.5%. In the group of critically injured patients (ISS, 25-75), 51.4% had VT compared with only 15.5% of the NVT patients. As such, a heavy share of hospitals' resources were used-trauma bay admission (62.4%), operating rooms (91.7%), and intensive care unit beds (55.1%). The percentage of VT patients who were admitted for more than 15 days was 2.3 times higher than that observed among the NVT patients. Lower-extremity VT injuries were the most prevalent. Although many resources are being invested in treating this group of patients, their mortality rate is approximately five times more than NVT (22.9% vs. 4.9%). Vascular trauma casualties of IED explosions are more complex and have poorer prognosis. Their higher ISS markedly increases the hospital's resource utilization, and as such, it should be taken into consideration either upon the primary evacuation from the scene or when secondary modulation is needed in order to reduce the burden of the hospitals receiving the casualties

  4. Man-Made Major Hazards Like Earthquake or Explosion; Case Study, Turkish Mine Explosion (13 May 2014). (United States)

    Vasheghani Farahani, Jamileh


    In all over the world, mining is considered as a high-risk activity that is pregnant with serious disasters not only for miners, engineers, and other people into it, but also for people who live near the mines. In this article, our main purpose is to examine some major mine disasters and safety in mines and the case study is a coal mine in Turkey. Safety in mines is one of the most important issues that need attention. Therefore, it is suggested that existing deficiencies in mines should be removed by continuous monitoring in all devices, equipments, control of Methane and safe separation of coal from a mine. Moreover, we recommend that early warning systems should be installed to alert some explosions, fires and other dangerous events to the fire departments, hospitals, Red Crescent and other major reliefs. Experiences from previous events in mines can help managers and miners. With some plans and projects related to disasters in mines and solution for them, some diseases such as black lung disease or other problems in mines such as carbon monoxide poisoning can forestall a danger. Before Mine owners begin their activity, they must research about the environmental and social effects of their activities. Therefore, they should identify some important hazards and determine some essential tasks to remove them or control risks via collaboration with other scientists.

  5. Man-Made Major Hazards Like Earthquake or Explosion; Case Study, Turkish Mine Explosion (13 May 2014) (United States)



    Abstract In all over the world, mining is considered as a high-risk activity that is pregnant with serious disasters not only for miners, engineers, and other people into it, but also for people who live near the mines. In this article, our main purpose is to examine some major mine disasters and safety in mines and the case study is a coal mine in Turkey. Safety in mines is one of the most important issues that need attention. Therefore, it is suggested that existing deficiencies in mines should be removed by continuous monitoring in all devices, equipments, control of Methane and safe separation of coal from a mine. Moreover, we recommend that early warning systems should be installed to alert some explosions, fires and other dangerous events to the fire departments, hospitals, Red Crescent and other major reliefs. Experiences from previous events in mines can help managers and miners. With some plans and projects related to disasters in mines and solution for them, some diseases such as black lung disease or other problems in mines such as carbon monoxide poisoning can forestall a danger. Before Mine owners begin their activity, they must research about the environmental and social effects of their activities. Therefore, they should identify some important hazards and determine some essential tasks to remove them or control risks via collaboration with other scientists. PMID:26060707

  6. CLOSURE DEVICE (United States)

    Linzell, S.M.; Dorcy, D.J.


    A quick opening type of stuffing box employing two banks of rotatable shoes, each of which has a caraming action that forces a neoprene sealing surface against a pipe or rod where it passes through a wall is presented. A ring having a handle or wrench attached is placed eccentric to and between the two banks of shoes. Head bolts from the shoes fit into slots in this ring, which are so arranged that when the ring is rotated a quarter turn in one direction the shoes are thrust inwardly to cramp the neopnrene about the pipe, malting a tight seal. Moving the ring in the reverse direction moves the shoes outwardly and frees the pipe which then may be readily removed from the stuffing box. This device has particular application as a closure for the end of a coolant tube of a neutronic reactor.

  7. Pre-operational environmental monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferate, F.D.


    Nuclear explosives operations have been and may continue to be an important component of the DOE mission at the NTS. This mission has been to conduct the nation`s nuclear testing program in a safe, secure, and efficient manner while assuring full compliance with state and federal regulations, and DOE order`s and directives. These operations have generally included assembly, disassembly or modification, staging, transportation, and tesbng of nuclear explosive devices. They may also include maintenance, repair, retrofit, and surveillance. The Device Assembly Facility (DAF) was constructed to provide a dedicated facility in which to prepare nuclear explosives assemblies for their intended disposition. This facility will provide for combined operations (replacing two separate facilities) and incorporates state-of-the-art safety and security features while minimizing the risks of environmental impacts. The facility has been completed but not yet operated, so the impacts to be considered will b e based on normal operations and not on the impacts of construction activities. The impacts will arise from nuclear explosives operations that require the handling of high explosives in combination with special nuclear materials. Wastes from operation of the earlier device assembly facilities have included grams of epoxies, pints of solvents, and small quantities of waste explosives. These are hazardous (includes radioactive) wastes and are disposed of in accordance with state and federal regulations. Assuming similar operations at the DAF, non-hazardous (includes non-radioactive) solid waste would be transported to a permitted landfill. Waste explosives would be sent to the Area 11 Explosive Ordnance Disposal Unit. Other hazardous waste would be sent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste.Management Site for shipment or burial.

  8. Explosive formation of coherent particle jets (United States)

    Frost, David; Ruel, Jean-Frederic; Zarei, Zouya; Goroshin, Sam; Gregoire, Yann; Zhang, Fan; Milne, Alec; Longbottom, Aaron


    A high-speed jet of solid particles may be formed by detonating an explosive layer lining the outside of a conically-shaped volume of particles. Experiments have been carried out to determine the velocity history and the coherency of a particle jet formed using this shaped-charge arrangement. Important parameters include the cone angle, the ratio of the masses of the explosive and particles, and the particle size and density. Dense particles (e.g., iron) form thin, stable, coherent jets, whereas lighter particles (e.g., glass or Al) lead to more diffuse jets. The jet velocities observed experimentally were close to the predictions from a Gurney velocity formulation for conical geometry. The effects of cone angle and particle density on the jet formation and development were explored with calculations using a multimaterial hydrocode. The simulations indicate that the converging shock and Mach disk within the particle bed have a strong influence on the uniformity of the particle density field. With iron particles, the particle volume remains coherent whereas for glass particles, during the particle acceleration phase, the shock interactions within the particle bed cause the particles to be concentrated in a thin shell surrounding a low density region.

  9. Biotreatment of explosive-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, C. F.; Guiot, S. R.; Manuel, M. F.; Havari, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Biotechnology Research Institute, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    A research project was undertaken to develop a process for the remediation of soils which have been contaminated by 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT), and/or by hexahydro-1.3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), two of the most widely used military explosives. In this context, municipal activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were evaluated for their TNT and RDX degrading ability. Results showed that TNT was easily degraded in the bioslurry reactors. Complete removal was achieved in less than two weeks of reactor operation. Removal efficiency was further increased by the addition of anaerobic sludge. RDX degradation was poor under most operating conditions. Only 25 per cent to 40 per cent of RDX was degraded after five weeks of operation, however, in one of the reactors which received an injection of 20 per cent anaerobic sludge, and was operated under anaerobic conditions, RDX removal was 100 per cent after 37 days. These results support the conclusion that municipal anaerobic sludge and activated sludge are rich sources of TNT and RDX degrading organisms, therefore, bioslurry reactors may be a cost-effective approach to on-site bioremediation of explosive-contaminated soils.

  10. Surface detonation in type Ia supernova explosions? (United States)

    Röpke, F. K.; Woosley, S. E.


    We explore the evolution of thermonuclear supernova explosions when the progenitor white dwarf star ignites asymmetrically off-center. Several numerical simulations are carried out in two and three dimensions to test the consequences of different initial flame configurations such as spherical bubbles displaced from the center, more complex deformed configurations, and teardrop-shaped ignitions. The burning bubbles float towards the surface while releasing energy due to the nuclear reactions. If the energy release is too small to gravitationally unbind the star, the ash sweeps around it, once the burning bubble approaches the surface. Collisions in the fuel on the opposite side increase its temperature and density and may - in some cases - initiate a detonation wave which will then propagate inward burning the core of the star and leading to a strong explosion. However, for initial setups in two dimensions that seem realistic from pre-ignition evolution, as well as for all three-dimensional simulations the collimation of the surface material is found to be too weak to trigger a detonation.

  11. Contamination with explosives in analytical laboratory procedure. (United States)

    Pawłowski, Wojciech; Matyjasek, Łukasz; Cieślak, Katarzyna; Karpińska, Monika


    The philosophy underlying the procedure with the trace from the moment of the securing of the evidence up to its ultimate inspection is of significance for the result achieved. Hands of the people who conduct investigative action or of the experts involved in examinations contaminated with explosives may adversely affect results of the analyses. The contamination effect is one of the most dangerous consequences of non-observance of the strict rules in handling the traces secured on the crime scene. The aim of this research work was to examine whether at all, and if so, with what an ease and at which stage of the analytical procedure there occurs a likely contamination of the evidence material with explosives such as TNT, RDX, PETN, NG. The analytical procedure employed consisted of the sampling stage, extraction from gauze swab, transfer of the extract and execution of an instrumental analysis based on gas chromatography with electron capture detector (ECD). The most significant contamination effect was observed during the analytical procedure for TNT, followed by a similar, yet less pronounced, for RDX and PETN. Contaminating the research material with nitroglycerin, known to be liquid under normal conditions, proved unsuccessful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Interaction of Two Underwater Explosion Bubbles (United States)

    Milligan, Charles; Duncan, James


    The interaction between two growing and collapsing underwater explosion bubbles is studied experimentally and numerically. In the experiments, the bubbles are generated by detonating small Lead Azide explosive charges submerged in a transparent water tank, and the resulting interactions are photographed using a high-speed camera. The parametric studies include simultaneous detonation of two charges of different sizes, and detonation of identically sized charges at staggered times. When the time delay between detonations is significant, the collapsing first bubble forms a jet directed away from the expanding second bubble and then re-expands nonspherically. During the re-expansion of the first bubble, a micro-jet forms in the second bubble. Eventually this micro-jet pierces the side of the second bubble farthest from the first and vortex rings are formed. Numerical simulations of the interaction phenomena are achieved using a boundary element method. By partitioning the system into computational sub-domains it is possible to replicate many relevant physical details including jet formation, fluid-fluid impact, and bubble re-expansion after complete jet penetration. The numerical results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental findings.

  13. Jetting formation of the explosively loaded powders (United States)

    Xue, Kun; Yu, Qiqi


    The formation of jet-like structures is widely reported in the explosive dispersal of powders surrounding high explosive charges. The jetting of powder beds initiates upon the shock wave reaches the outer edge of the charge. Opposed to the interface instability theory, a hollow sphere based bulk fragmentation model is established to account for the jetting of powders. A two-phase process, namely the nucleation and free expansion of hollow spheres, corresponds to the unloading process of the powder compact caused by the rarefaction waves which governs the fragmentation of the powders. The separation between adjacent hollow spheres dictates the size of the particle clusters, which would evolve into particle jets in later times. The predicted breakup time and the size of particle jets agree well with the experimental results. The increased moisture content in powders results in an increased number of particle jets. This moisture effect can be understood in light of the varied energy distribution due to the incompressibility of the interstitial liquids trapped inside the inter-grain pores. The portion of shock energy which is not consumed in the shock compaction of the wet powders would be dissipated through the viscous shear flows during the unloading of the wet powder compact. The excessive viscous energy requires to activate more localized shear flows, accordingly leading to an increased number of particle jets.

  14. Robustness Assessment of Building Structures under Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Waggoner


    Full Text Available Over the past decade, much research has focused on the behaviour of structures following the failure of a key structural component. Particular attention has been given to sudden column loss, though questions remain as to whether this event-independent scenario is relevant to actual extreme events such as explosion. Few studies have been conducted to assess the performance of floor slabs above a failed column, and the computational tools used have not been validated against experimental results. The research program presented in this paper investigates the adequacy of sudden column loss as an idealisation of local damage caused by realistic explosion events, and extends prior work by combining the development of accurate computational models with large-scale testing of a typical floor system in a prototypical steel-framed structure. The floor system consists of corrugated decking topped by a lightly reinforced concrete slab that is connected to the floor beams through shear studs. The design is consistent with typical building practices in the US. The first test has been completed, and subsequent tests are currently being planned. This paper addresses the importance of robustness design for localized damage and includes a detailed description regarding how the research program advances the current state of knowledge for assessing robustness of compositely constructed steel-framed buildings.

  15. SANFO: The missing link in explosives technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.J. [Johnson Hi-Tech Australia Pty Ltd, Queensland (Australia)


    The development of SANFO has provided the mining industry with a low cost high gas volume, variable density, blasting agent which can be blended on site in a simple agitator mixing and charging system by mine site employees. During the last decade most major explosives manufacturers have been promoting high density, high shock energy blasting agents. To offset the cost of these products they have relied on expanded borehole patterns. It has since been discovered that lower VOD products are more effective in most overburden geologies due to the longer explosion pressure period and lower shock energy. These characteristics also reduce energy loss consumed in pulverization around the perimeter of borehole. The major advantages of SANFO compared with normal ANFO or heavy ANFO are as listed. Due to problems associated with bulling when blasting soft geologies at BHP`s Riverside Mine in Central Queensland, Australia, the company was invited to develop a low density blasting agent which could be blended as required on the mine site. This paper describes the problems associated with blasting softer geologies and the use of sawdust as a cost-effective bulking agent.

  16. Analysis of Explosives by GC-UV. (United States)

    Andrasko, Jan; Lagesson-Andrasko, Ludmila; Dahlén, Johan; Jonsson, Bengt-Harald


    A mixture of explosives was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) linked to ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry that enabled detection in the range of 178-330 nm. The gas-phase UV spectra of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN), glycerine trinitrate (NG, nitroglycerine), triacetone triperoxide (TATP), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were successfully recorded. The most interesting aspect of the current application is that it enabled simultaneous detection of both the target analyte and its decomposition products. At suitable elevated temperatures of the transfer line between the GC instrument and the UV detector, a partial decomposition was accomplished. Detection was made in real time and resulted in overlaid spectra of the mother compound and its decomposition product. Hence, the presented approach added another level to the qualitative identification of the explosives in comparison with traditional methods that relies only on the detection of the target analyte. As expected, the decomposition product of EGDN, NG, and PETN was NO, while TATP degraded to acetone. DNT and TNT did not exhibit any decomposition at the temperatures used. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Hydrogen-poor superluminous stellar explosions. (United States)

    Quimby, R M; Kulkarni, S R; Kasliwal, M M; Gal-Yam, A; Arcavi, I; Sullivan, M; Nugent, P; Thomas, R; Howell, D A; Nakar, E; Bildsten, L; Theissen, C; Law, N M; Dekany, R; Rahmer, G; Hale, D; Smith, R; Ofek, E O; Zolkower, J; Velur, V; Walters, R; Henning, J; Bui, K; McKenna, D; Poznanski, D; Cenko, S B; Levitan, D


    Supernovae are stellar explosions driven by gravitational or thermonuclear energy that is observed as electromagnetic radiation emitted over weeks or more. In all known supernovae, this radiation comes from internal energy deposited in the outflowing ejecta by one or more of the following processes: radioactive decay of freshly synthesized elements (typically (56)Ni), the explosion shock in the envelope of a supergiant star, and interaction between the debris and slowly moving, hydrogen-rich circumstellar material. Here we report observations of a class of luminous supernovae whose properties cannot be explained by any of these processes. The class includes four new supernovae that we have discovered and two previously unexplained events (SN 2005ap and SCP 06F6) that we can now identify as members of the same class. These supernovae are all about ten times brighter than most type Ia supernova, do not show any trace of hydrogen, emit significant ultraviolet flux for extended periods of time and have late-time decay rates that are inconsistent with radioactivity. Our data require that the observed radiation be emitted by hydrogen-free material distributed over a large radius (∼10(15) centimetres) and expanding at high speeds (>10(4) kilometres per second). These long-lived, ultraviolet-luminous events can be observed out to redshifts z > 4.

  18. Trends in Microfabrication Capabilities & Device Architectures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lentine, Tony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mudrick, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Okandan, Murat [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodrigues, Arun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The last two decades have seen an explosion in worldwide R&D, enabling fundamentally new capabilities while at the same time changing the international technology landscape. The advent of technologies for continued miniaturization and electronics feature size reduction, and for architectural innovations, will have many technical, economic, and national security implications. It is important to anticipate possible microelectronics development directions and their implications on US national interests. This report forecasts and assesses trends and directions for several potentially disruptive microfabrication capabilities and device architectures that may emerge in the next 5-10 years.

  19. 40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. (United States)


    ... commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10 Applicability; description of the...

  20. Aluminum Micro Balloons as Improved Fuel for Warhead Explosives (United States)


    Improved Fuel for Warhead Explosives Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. January 2018 HDTRA1...A. Shidlovskij, "Explosive mixtures of water and methanol with magnesium and aluminum," J. Prikl. Khimii, vol. 19, pp. 371-378, 1946. 3. Oren E

  1. Explosion of a collapsing Bose-Einstein condensate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duine, R.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.


    We show that elastic collisions between atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive interactions can lead to an explosion that ejects a large fraction of the collapsing condensate. We study variationally the dynamics of this explosion and find excellent agreement with recent experiments on

  2. Explosion of a Collapsing Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duine, R.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.


    we show that elastic collisions between atoms in an Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive interactions lead to an explosion that ejects a large fraction of the collapsing condensate. We study variationally the dynamics of thes explosion and find excellent agreement with recent experiments on

  3. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265.382 Section 265.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... explosives or propellants Minimum distance from open burning or detonation to the property of others 0 to 100...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section 56.6205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to carry...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section 57.6205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers...

  6. Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives (United States)


    2. Peroxide-based Explosives In 2001, the U.S. encountered homemade peroxide-based explosives when Richard Reid attempted to detonate PETN...R. P. Feynman , R. B. Leighton, R. B and M. L. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub, 1963. [40] S. D

  7. 36 CFR 331.5 - Explosives and fireworks. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and fireworks. 331... CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.5 Explosives and fireworks. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District Engineer. (a) The possession or use of fireworks is prohibited. (b) The possession...

  8. 43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (United States)


    ... fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... WATERBODIES Rules of Conduct § 423.30 Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess... with applicable Federal, State, and local law. (c) You must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks...



    Niculae MARIN; Victor GHIZDAVU


    The explosive forming represents a technological alternative for obtaining small-lot parts,with inexpensive and efficient manufacturing preparation. The explosive forming processing methodspresent a series of important advantages, being recommended for the wide-scale application in theaerospace industry. The economic benefit varies from case to case, independent from the part type,manufacturing series and user.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae MARIN


    Full Text Available The explosive forming represents a technological alternative for obtaining small-lot parts,with inexpensive and efficient manufacturing preparation. The explosive forming processing methodspresent a series of important advantages, being recommended for the wide-scale application in theaerospace industry. The economic benefit varies from case to case, independent from the part type,manufacturing series and user.

  11. A dozen miners perish in W.Va. mine explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A report is given of the mine explosion which occurred at the Sago mine in Upshur County, WV, leaving 13 coal miners trapped underground. Only one of the 13 was found alive. The cause of the explosion might have been the miners' equipment igniting trapped methane. Early reports blamed a lightning strike. 2 photos.

  12. Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The gap junction plays an important role in spreading of apoptotic and necrotic signals from injured and stressed cells to the neighboring viable cells. The present study was performed to investigate the important role of gap junction communication on rabbits' explosive brain injury. Methods: Explosion of paper ...

  13. Effect of Velocity of Detonation of Explosives on Seismic Radiation (United States)

    Stroujkova, A. F.; Leidig, M.; Bonner, J. L.


    We studied seismic body wave generation from four fully contained explosions of approximately the same yields (68 kg of TNT equivalent) conducted in anisotropic granite in Barre, VT. The explosions were detonated using three types of explosives with different velocities of detonation (VOD): Black Powder (BP), Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil/Emulsion (ANFO), and Composition B (COMP B). The main objective of the experiment was to study differences in seismic wave generation among different types of explosives, and to determine the mechanism responsible for these differences. The explosives with slow burn rate (BP) produced lower P-wave amplitude and lower corner frequency, which resulted in lower seismic efficiency (0.35%) in comparison with high burn rate explosives (2.2% for ANFO and 3% for COMP B). The seismic efficiency estimates for ANFO and COMP B agree with previous studies for nuclear explosions in granite. The body wave radiation pattern is consistent with an isotropic explosion with an added azimuthal component caused by vertical tensile fractures oriented along pre-existing micro-fracturing in the granite, although the complexities in the P- and S-wave radiation patterns suggest that more than one fracture orientation could be responsible for their generation. High S/P amplitude ratios and low P-wave amplitudes suggest that a significant fraction of the BP source mechanism can be explained by opening of the tensile fractures as a result of the slow energy release.

  14. Quick-closing valve is actuated by explosive discharge (United States)

    Majeski, S. J.


    Remotely controlled plug-type valve shuts off a high-pressure, high-temperature gas flow in a few milliseconds. The valve is actuated by a commercially available electrically initiated squib of low explosive power. More rapid closure is attainable with squibs containing heavier explosive changes.

  15. Evaluating of NASA-Langley Research Center explosion seam welding (United States)

    Otto, H. E.; Wittman, R.


    An explosion bonding technique to meet current fabrication requirements was demonstrated. A test program was conducted on explosion bonded joints, compared to fusion joints in 6061-T6 aluminum. The comparison was made in required fixtures, non-destructive testing, static strength and fatigue strength.

  16. Preparation of resistant sweet potato starch by steam explosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... steam explosion (SE) technology. Methods: A response surface method was used to investigate the effects of explosion pressure, pressure-holding time and autoclaving time on digestion resistance of sweet potato starch. The resulting resistant sweet potato starch was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.860 - Selective demolition by explosives. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selective demolition by explosives. 1926.860 Section 1926.860 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Demolition § 1926.860 Selective demolition by explosives. Selective...

  18. 30 CFR 18.43 - Explosion-proof splice boxes. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-proof splice boxes. 18.43 Section 18.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... Design Requirements § 18.43 Explosion-proof splice boxes. Internal connections shall be rigidly held and...

  19. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. 154.820 Section 154.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a single...

  20. 30 CFR 18.42 - Explosion-proof distribution boxes. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-proof distribution boxes. 18.42 Section 18.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... and Design Requirements § 18.42 Explosion-proof distribution boxes. (a) A cable passing through an...

  1. A review of United Nations tests for explosivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, A.K.; Mak, W.A.; Whitmore, M.W.


    In attempting to develop a closed pressure vessel test for assessing explosivity, arising from propagation of detonation, deflagration or thermal explosion, some difficulties were encountered in relation to United Nations test methods. This led to a review of these methods and comparisons of their

  2. Explosively-Driven Blast Waves in Small-Diameter Tubes (United States)

    Cooper, M. A.; Marinis, R. T.; Oliver, M. S.

    Studies on blast waves are motivated by the need to understand dynamic pressure loadings in accident scenarios associated with rapid energy release in confined geometries. Explosions from fuel-air mixtures, explosives and industrial accidents often occur within a range of length scales associated with ducts, pipes, corridors, and tunnels [1, 2].

  3. Explosive spread F caused by lightning-induced electromagnetic effects (United States)

    Liao, C. P.; Freidberg, J. P.; Lee, M. C.


    Lightning-produced electromagnetic effects may produce significant modifications in the ionospheric plasmas. An outstanding phenomenon investigated in this paper is the so-called explosive spread F, whose close link with lightning has been identified (Woodman and Kudeki, 1984). Parametric instability excited by the lightning-induced whistler waves is proposed as a potential source mechanism causing the explosive spread F.

  4. Explosive force of primacord grid forms large sheet metal parts (United States)


    Primacord which is woven through fish netting in a grid pattern is used for explosive forming of large sheet metal parts. The explosive force generated by the primacord detonation is uniformly distributed over the entire surface of the sheet metal workpiece.

  5. Nanostructured surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates for explosives detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbaek; Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Boisen, Anja


    Here we present a method for trace detection of explosives in the gas phase using novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy substrates. Novel substrates that produce an exceptionally large enhancement of the Raman effect were used to amplify the Raman signal of explosives molecu...

  6. 46 CFR 189.25-47 - Chemical and explosive hazards. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.25-47 Section 189.25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-47 Chemical and explosive hazards. (a) The marine inspector shall inspect every chemistry laboratory, scientific laboratory, and chemical storeroom...

  7. Controlled Detonation Dynamics in Additively Manufactured High Explosives (United States)

    Schmalzer, Andrew; Tappan, Bryce; Bowden, Patrick; Manner, Virginia; Clements, Brad; Menikoff, Ralph; Ionita, Axinte; Branch, Brittany; Dattelbaum, Dana; Espy, Michelle; Patterson, Brian; Wu, Ruilian; Mueller, Alexander


    The effect of structure in explosives has long been a subject of interest to explosives engineers and scientists. Through structure, detonation dynamics in explosives can be manipulated, introducing a new level of safety and directed performance into these previously difficult to control materials. New advances in additive manufacturing (AM) allow the deliberate introduction of exact internal structures at dimensions approaching the mesoscale of these energetic materials. We show through simulation and experiment that this structure can be used to control detonation behavior by manipulating complex shockwave interactions. We use high-speed video and shorting mag-wires to determine the detonation velocity in AM generated explosive structures, demonstrating, for the first time, a method of controlling the directional propagation of reactive flow through the controlled introduction of structure within a high explosive. With ongoing improvement in the AM methods available coupled with guidance through modeling and simulations, more complex interactions are being explored. LANL LDRD Office.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Mader


    Full Text Available Krakatoa exploded August 27, 1883 obliterating 5 square miles of land and leaving a crater 3.5 miles across and 200-300 meters deep. Thirty three feet high tsunami waves hit Anjer and Merak demolishing the towns and killing over 10,000 people. In Merak the wave rose to 135 feet above sea level and moved 100 ton coral blocks up on the shore.Tsunami waves swept over 300 coastal towns and villages killing 40,000 people. The sea withdrew at Bombay, India and killed one person in Sri Lanka.The tsunami was produced by a hydrovolcanic explosion and the associated shock wave and pyroclastic flows.A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becoming water gas at constant volume generates a pressure of 30,000 atmospheres.The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMREulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE which includes the high pressure physics of explosions.The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by the magma to 1100 degree Kelvin or 19 kcal/mole. The high temperature water is an explosive with the hot liquid water going to a water gas. The BKW steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 89 kilobars, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/second and the water is compressed to 1.33 grams/cc.The observed Krakatoa tsunami had a period of less than 5 minutes and wavelength of less than 7 kilometers and thus rapidly decayed. The far field tsunami wave was negligible. The air shock generated by the hydrovolcanic explosion propagated around the world and coupled to the ocean resulting in the explosion being recorded on tide gauges around the world.

  9. Trace headspace sampling for quantitative analysis of explosives with cryoadsorption on short alumina porous layer open tubular columns. (United States)

    Lovestead, Tara M; Bruno, Thomas J


    Quantitative headspace (HS) measurements have been performed on the practical industrial and military plastic bonded explosives (PBX) tagged-C-4, Semtex-1A, Semtex-H, detonating cord (detcord), and sheet explosive (Detaflex). The measurements were made by a modified purge and trap technique developed in our laboratory on the basis of cryoadsorption on short alumina-coated porous layer open tubular (PLOT) columns. Trace compounds (of both high and low volatility) were identified and quantitated as a function of HS collection temperature. The data are presented in the form of van't Hoff equations. The linear relationship of the recovered mass as a function of inverse collection temperature reveals the predictive capabilities of the methodology employed here. Knowledge of the compounds that can be detected, along with the expected concentrations to be collected, can aid in detection of explosive materials. Additionally, these data can aid in the standardization, calibration, and certification of energetic material detection devices and can aid in the training of canines for explosive detection.

  10. [Unexpected abdominal trauma from a fireworks explosion]. (United States)

    Smeulders, Mark J C; Gorter, Ramon R; Cense, Huib A; van Trier, A Toine


    Fireworks injuries are common and often affect children. Such injuries should be considered high energy trauma in the emergency room and taken care of according to the principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS). A 7-year-old boy was a victim of an explosion when he set off illegal fireworks. During evaluation in the emergency department he presented with a superficial laceration on the belly and extensive hand injury. Upon examination he had small-intestinal perforation that required immediate resection. The patient recovered well, but suffered permanent damage to the hand. Potentially life threatening injuries may accompany hand injuries after modern illegal fireworks. Hand injuries are serious. Despite prolonged treatment, they often result in permanent disability. The structured approach to trauma according to ATLS was important in detecting an accompanying abdominal trauma in this case.

  11. Tabletop Nucleosynthesis Driven by Cluster Coulomb Explosion (United States)

    Last, Isidore; Jortner, Joshua


    Coulomb explosion of completely ionized (CH4)n, (NH3)n, and (H2O)n clusters will drive tabletop nuclear reactions of protons with C6+12, N7+14, and O8+16 nuclei, extending the realm of nuclear reactions driven by ultraintense laser-heterocluster interaction. The realization for nucleosynthesis in exploding cluster beams requires complete electron stripping from the clusters (at laser intensities IM≥1019Wcm-2), the utilization of nanodroplets of radius 300 700 Å for vertical ionization, and the attainment of the highest energies for the nuclei (i.e., ˜30MeV for heavy nuclei and ˜3MeV for protons).

  12. Multistage reaction pathways in detonating high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)


    Atomistic mechanisms underlying the reaction time and intermediate reaction products of detonating high explosives far from equilibrium have been elusive. This is because detonation is one of the hardest multiscale physics problems, in which diverse length and time scales play important roles. Here, large spatiotemporal-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a two-stage reaction mechanism during the detonation of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine crystal. Rapid production of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O within ∼10 ps is followed by delayed production of CO molecules beyond ns. We found that further decomposition towards the final products is inhibited by the formation of large metastable carbon- and oxygen-rich clusters with fractal geometry. In addition, we found distinct unimolecular and intermolecular reaction pathways, respectively, for the rapid N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O productions.

  13. Study on Coulomb explosions of ion mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Boella, E; D'Angola, A; Coppa, G; Silva, L O


    The paper presents a theoretical work on the dynamics of Coulomb explosion for spherical nanoplasmas composed by two different ion species. Particular attention has been dedicated to study the energy spectra of the ions with the larger charge-to-mass ratio. The connection between the formation of shock shells and the energy spread of the ions has been the object of a detailed analysis, showing that under particular conditions the width of the asymptotic energy spectrum tends to become very narrow, which leads to a multi-valued ion phase-space. The conditions to generate a quasi mono-energetic ion spectrum have been rigorously demonstrated and verifed by numerical simulations, using a technique that, exploiting the spherical symmetry of the problem, allows one to obtain very accurate and precise results.

  14. Development of Speditive Explosibility Test (SET): a statistical reliable method for combustible dust explosibility investigation


    Danzi, Enrico


    The present work of thesis investigate the explosibility sensitivity and behavior of combustible solid materials, in the form of dusts. The first phase of the work has focused on the ignition sensitivity of combustible dusts, both in form of clouds than deposed as layers. Standard test methods has been used to assess ignition parameter of the samples, i.e. UNI EN 50821: 1999. MITC and MITL were measured for pure combustible dusts and for mixtures of different dusts. In particular mixtures of ...

  15. Explosion-Earthquake Discrimination at Local Distances (United States)

    O'Rourke, C. T.; Baker, G. E.; Sheehan, A. F.; Harder, S. H.


    Event discrimination research has largely focused on regional distances over the last couple of decades. Most regional discriminants have not been thoroughly tested at local distances, and a recent investigation of P/S ratios from the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) found that they were less effective locally. As discrimination thresholds are reduced, local methods will need to be validated and the physical bases for their performance will need to be understood. We are assessing new and existing methods of source discrimination at 10 to 200 km distance. We use data from a temporary array deployed around the Bighorn Mountains in Wyoming and from nearby US Array stations. Small magnitude local earthquakes, coal mine explosions, and controlled borehole shots were recorded at over 200 broadband and short-period seismometers spaced at 5-35 km intervals across the tectonically complex area. We assess the local discrimination performance of the P/S amplitude ratio, the presence of the fundamental Rayleigh wave Rg, and the signature of scattered Rg in the coda. P/S amplitudes are used because earthquakes typically have higher S-wave energy relative to P than shallow explosions, but the separation of populations is not always effective at local distances. Site effects have a significant impact that may need to be accounted for, along with propagation effects. Specifically, relative P and S site amplifications at basin and mountain stations vary in such a way that they limit separation of the event populations. The Rg phase is only excited by near-surface events, so its presence indicates the likelihood of a man-made source since most earthquakes occur at too great a depth to excite Rg. We implement two methods for detecting Rg: one that uses the cross-correlation of the Hilbert transformed vertical and the radial seismograms, and one that scans a time-frequency representation for the signature of scattered Rg in the coda. These methods are effective in low signal

  16. [Intermittent Explosive Disorder: A Controversial Diagnosis]. (United States)

    Zapata, Juan Pablo; Palacio, Juan David


    Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is aan externalizing externalising disorder characterized characterised by recurrent aggression episodes. Even though this disorder was described several decades ago, and it carries personal and social consequences, there is little in the medical scientific literature on this. bibliographic production about it is scanty. To perform a conceptualization conceptualisation of this disorder, through the review and bibliometric analysis of the available scientific articles. A search was performed in databases with the english English terms intermittent explosive disorder, impulse disorders control [MeSH], in combination with other terms. A bibliometric analysis in the GoPubMed® search engineer was also performed using all data obtained in the search. was also perfomed. IED prevalence ranges from 1.4% to 7%, it presents more frequently during middle adolescence, and with more noticeable repercussions in men males than in womenfemales. The psychopathological core of IED is the impulsive aggressive behaviour that presents in the form of «attacks» that occurs in response to a lower precipitating stimulus. Scientific publications about IED are few and relatively recent, and the vast majority is provided bycomes from the United States (56.56%), and headed by a single author. This fact highlights the need to replicate the findings described about the IED in order to demonstrate the validity and reliability of its diagnostic criteria. It is possible that doubts about the existence of a diagnosis lead have led to such a scant literature about the IED. Available studies about IED allow have allowed characterizing a group of subjects with episodes of impulsive aggression to be characterised, but this description requires replication in different latitudesneeds to be repeated in different areas. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. An overview on the climatic reliability issues of electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan


    devices and components with a focus on the metals/alloys usage on PCBA surface together with cleanliness issues, humidity interaction on PCBA surface, and PCBA design and device design aspects. Some aspects related to device and enclosure design will also be considered.......The miniaturization of electronic systems and the explosive increase in their usage has increased the climatic reliability issues of electronics devices and components especially having metal/alloys parts exposed on t he Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) surface or embedded within the multi...... - layer laminate. Problems are compounded by the fact that these systems are built by multi - material combinations and additional accelerating factors such as corrosion causing proc ess related residues, bias voltage, and unpredictable user environment. Demand for miniaturised device has resulted...

  18. Mobile authentication and access: any time, any place, any device?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Williams


    Full Text Available The move from IP-based authentication to that of federated access has seen the sector support single sign-on to web-based resources, but the simplified user experience is at risk due to the rapid growth of mobile platforms and increasing variety of accompanying access methods for such devices. The user authentication experience on mobile devices is often further complicated by the poor discovery and delivery design of websites. While the introduction of tools such as Raptor permit accurate tracking of usage statistics via the UK Access Management Federation, the variety of mobile authentication methods such as native apps on devices and device paring pose additional challenges to librarians trying to gather a complete picture of resource use within their institution. In this article we examine the access challenges posed by the explosion of mobile device use.

  19. Research on Initiation Sensitivity of Solid Explosive and Planer Initiation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Matsuo


    Full Text Available Firstly, recently, there are a lot of techniques being demanded for complex process, various explosive initiation method and highly accurate control of detonation are needed. In this research, the metal foil explosion using high current is focused attention on the method to obtain linear or planate initiation easily, and the main evaluation of metal foil explosion to initiate explosive was conducted. The explosion power was evaluated by observing optically the underwater shock wave generated from the metal foil explosion. Secondly, in high energy explosive processing, there are several applications, such as shock compaction, explosive welding, food processing and explosive forming. In these explosive applications, a high sensitive explosive has been mainly used. The high sensitive explosive is so dangerous, since it can lead to explosion suddenly. So, for developing explosives, the safety is the most important thing as well as low manufacturing cost and explosive characteristics. In this work, we have focused on the initiation sensitivity of a solid explosive and performed numerical analysis of sympathetic detonation. The numerical analysis is calculated by LS-DYNA 3D (commercial code. To understand the initiation reaction of an explosive, Lee-Tarver equation was used and impact detonation process was analyzed by ALE code. Configuration of simulation model is a quarter of circular cylinder. The donor type of explosive (SEP was used as initiation explosive. When the donor explosive is exploded, a shock wave is generated and it propagates into PMMA, air and metallic layers in order. During passing through the layers, the shock wave is attenuated and finally, it has influence on the acceptor explosive, Comp. B. Here, we evaluate the initiation of acceptor explosive and discuss about detonation pressure, reactive rate of acceptor explosive and attenuation of impact pressure.

  20. Medical devices: US medical device regulation. (United States)

    Jarow, Jonathan P; Baxley, John H


    Medical devices are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) within the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Center for Devices and Radiological Health is responsible for protecting and promoting the public health by ensuring the safety, effectiveness, and quality of medical devices, ensuring the safety of radiation-emitting products, fostering innovation, and providing the public with accurate, science-based information about the products we oversee, throughout the total product life cycle. The FDA was granted the authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of medical devices in 1976. It does not regulate the practice of medicine. Devices are classified based on complexity and level of risk, and "pre-1976" devices were allowed to remain on the market after being classified without FDA review. Post-1976 devices of lower complexity and risk that are substantially equivalent to a marketed "predicate" device may be cleared through the 510(k) premarket notification process. Clinical data are typically not needed for 510(k) clearance. In contrast, higher-risk devices typically require premarket approval. Premarket approval applications must contain data demonstrating reasonable assurance of safety and efficacy, and this information typically includes clinical data. For novel devices that are not high risk, the de novo process allows FDA to simultaneously review and classify new devices. Devices that are not legally marketed are permitted to be used for clinical investigation purposes in the United States under the Investigational Device Exemptions regulation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Stellar survivor from explosion in 1572 AD (United States)


    hi-res Size hi-res: 1051 kb Credits: NASA/ESA, CXO and P. Ruiz-Lapuente (University of Barcelona) Tycho's Supernova, SN 1572A These images show the location of a suspected runaway companion star to a titanic supernova explosion witnessed in the year 1572 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe and other astronomers of that era. This discovery provides the first direct evidence supporting the long-held belief that Type Ia supernovae come from binary star systems containing a normal star and a burned-out white dwarf star. When the dwarf ultimately explodes by being overfueled by the companion star, the companion is slung away from the demised star. The Hubble Space Telescope played a key role by precisely measuring the surviving star's motion against the sky background. Right: A Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image of a small section of sky containing the candidate star. The star is like our Sun except several thousand million years older. It is moving through space at three times the speed of the other stars in its neighbourhood. Hubble's sharp view allowed for a measurement of the star's motion, based on images taken in 1999 and 2003. The image consists of a single greyscale Hubble exposure colourised with the help of data from Digitized Sky Survey 2. Left: The Hubble view is superimposed on this wide-field view of the region enveloped by the expanding bubble of the supernova explosion; the bubble and candidate star are at approximately the same distance, 10 000 light-years. The star is noticeably offset from the geometric centre of the bubble. The colours in the Chandra X-Ray image of the hot bubble show different X-ray energies, with red, green and blue representing low, medium and high energies, respectively. (The image is cut off at the bottom because the southernmost region of the remnant fell outside the field of view of the Chandra camera.) hi-res Size hi-res: 1059 kb Credits: NASA/ESA and P. Ruiz-Lapuente (University of Barcelona) The

  2. Increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of gas sensors for the detection of explosives (United States)

    Mallin, Daniel

    Over the past decade, the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has increased, domestically and internationally, highlighting a growing need for a method to quickly and reliably detect explosive devices in both military and civilian environments before the explosive can cause damage. Conventional techniques have been successful in explosive detection, however they typically suffer from enormous costs in capital equipment and maintenance, costs in energy consumption, sampling, operational related expenses, and lack of continuous and real-time monitoring. The goal was thus to produce an inexpensive, portable sensor that continuously monitors the environment, quickly detects the presence of explosive compounds and alerts the user. In 2012, here at URI, a sensor design was proposed for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The design entailed a thermodynamic gas sensor that measures the heat of decomposition between trace TATP vapor and a metal oxide catalyst film. The sensor was able to detect TATP vapor at the part per million level (ppm) and showed great promise for eventual commercial use, however, the sensor lacked selectivity. Thus, the specific objective of this work was to take the original sensor design proposed in 2012 and to make several key improvements to advance the sensor towards commercialization. It was demonstrated that a sensor can be engineered to detect TATP and ignore the effects of interferent H2O2 molecules by doping SnO2 films with varying amounts of Pd. Compared with a pure SnO2 catalyst, a SnO2, film doped with 8 wt. % Pd had the highest selectivity between TATP and H2O2. Also, at 12 wt. % Pd, the response to TATP and H2O2 was enhanced, indicating that sensitivity, not only selectivity, can be increased by modifying the composition of the catalyst. An orthogonal detection system was demonstrated. The platform consists of two independent sensing mechanisms, one thermodynamic and one conductometric, which take measurements from

  3. Light Initiated High Explosives (LIHE) Test Technique and Capabilities (United States)

    Covert, Timothy


    The Light Initiated High Explosives (LIHE) test facility has been re-established and chartered to impart impulsive loads to a variety of targets. This loading is achieved through the detonation of a primary explosive applied directly to the target surface using a robotic spraying system. Using light as the initiating mechanism ensures virtually simultaneous loading. Uniform, discontinuous, or graded explosive loading conditions are achievable over complex shapes with the LIHE process. This direct detonation technique is a demonstrated capability at the LIHE facility. Test results will be presented. In addition to the direct detonation technique, the LIHE facility is developing the capability to explosively accelerate a thin flyer plate to impact various test targets. This explosively accelerated flyer plate (X-Flyer) will enable pressure control during impulsive loading. By controlling flyer density (material), thickness, velocity, and acceleration gap, the impact pressure amplitude and pulse duration can be controlled. Similar to the direct detonation technique, a primary explosive is robotically sprayed onto the flyer plate and subsequently detonated using an intense flash of light. Through the control of the explosive deposition and flyer gap, virtually simultaneous impact is achievable for either uniform or graded loading conditions. X-Flyer test results will be presented.

  4. Modelling and simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeter, Olav


    This thesis presents a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code (EXSIM94) for modelling and simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries. It gives the theory and validates the following sub-models : (1) the flow resistance and turbulence generation model for densely packed regions, (2) the flow resistance and turbulence generation model for single objects, and (3) the quasi-laminar combustion model. It is found that a simple model for flow resistance and turbulence generation in densely packed beds is able to reproduce the medium and large scale MERGE explosion experiments of the Commission of European Communities (CEC) within a band of factor 2. The model for a single representation is found to predict explosion pressure in better agreement with the experiments with a modified k-{epsilon} model. This modification also gives a slightly improved grid independence for realistic gas explosion approaches. One laminar model is found unsuitable for gas explosion modelling because of strong grid dependence. Another laminar model is found to be relatively grid independent and to work well in harmony with the turbulent combustion model. The code is validated against 40 realistic gas explosion experiments. It is relatively grid independent in predicting explosion pressure in different offshore geometries. It can predict the influence of ignition point location, vent arrangements, different geometries, scaling effects and gas reactivity. The validation study concludes with statistical and uncertainty analyses of the code performance. 98 refs., 96 figs, 12 tabs.

  5. Parameters affecting the thermal behaviour of emulsion explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.E.G.; Feng, H.; Mintz, K.J.; Augsten, R.A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory


    Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and heat flux calorimetry (HFC) were used to study the sensitivity of ammonium nitrate (AN) and emulsion explosives to pressure and various other parameters. The explosives were evaluated in a series of experiments that examined the influence of pressure in both Argon and air environments at 5.4 MPa. Results of the study demonstrated that significantly lower onset temperatures were observed when the ammonium nitrate (AN) explosive was used in air. Results of the ARC study suggested that lower initial temperatures resulted in an elevated onset temperature. Lower onset temperatures observed in the study were attributed to oxidation of the oil phase in the emulsion. Onset temperatures for the AN explosive were lower than rates observed for the emulsion explosives. The size of the samples also influenced onset temperatures in both the ARC and HFC analyses. At heating rates of 0.1 degrees C per minute, the results of heat flux calorimetry revealed a complex exotherm pattern for the emulsion explosive in both Argon and in air. The high pressure of inert gas inhibited and delayed the exothermic reactions for the emulsion explosives. It was concluded that air-oxidative decomposition results in lower onset temperatures that are influenced by higher pressure rates. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  6. Aluminum-Enhanced Underwater Electrical Discharges for Steam Explosion Triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For a number of years, we have been initiating steam explosions of single drops of molten materials with pressure and flow (bubble growth) transients generated by discharging a capacitor bank through gold bridgewires placed underwater. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field of steam explosions, however, have made it important to substantially increase these relatively mild transients in water without using high explosives, if possible. To do this with the same capacitor bank, we have discharged similar energies through tiny strips of aluminum foil submerged in water. By replacing the gold wires with the aluminum strips, we were able to add the energy of the aluminum-water combustion to that normally deposited electrically by the bridgewire explosion in water. The chemical enhancement of the explosive characteristics of the discharges was substantial: when the same electrical energies were discharged through the aluminum strips, peak pressures increased as much as 12-fold and maximum bubble volumes as much as 5-fold above those generated with the gold wires. For given weights of aluminum, the magnitudes of both parameters appeared to exceed those produced by the underwater explosion of equivalent weights of high explosives.

  7. A portable explosive detector based on fluorescence quenching of pyrene deposited on coloured wax-printed μPADs. (United States)

    Taudte, Regina Verena; Beavis, Alison; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Roux, Claude; Doble, Philip; Blanes, Lucas


    A new technique for the detection of explosives has been developed based on fluorescence quenching of pyrene on paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). Wax barriers were generated (150 °C, 5 min) using ten different colours. Magenta was found as the most suitable wax colour for the generation of the hydrophobic barriers with a nominal width of 120 μm resulting in fully functioning hydrophobic barriers. One microliter of 0.5 mg mL(-1) pyrene dissolved in an 80:20 methanol-water solution was deposited on the hydrophobic circle (5 mm diameter) to produce the active microchip device. Under ultra-violet (UV) illumination, ten different organic explosives were detected using the μPAD, with limits of detection ranging from 100-600 ppm. A prototype of a portable battery operated instrument using a 3 W power UV light-emitting-diode (LED) (365 nm) and a photodiode sensor was also built and evaluated for the successful automatic detection of explosives and potential application for field-based screening.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Explosive Forming Using Detonating Fuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Iyama


    Full Text Available The explosive forming is a characteristic method. An underwater shock wave is generated by underwater explosion of an explosive. A metal plate is affected high strain rate by the shock loading and is formed along a metal die. Although this method has the advantage of mirroring the shape of the die, a free forming was used in this paper. An expensive metal die is not necessary for this free forming. It is possible that a metal plate is formed with simple supporting parts. However, the forming shape is depend on the shock pressure distribution act on the metal plate. This pressure distribution is able to change by the shape of explosive, a mass of explosive and a shape of pressure vessel. On the other hand, we need the pressure vessel for food processing by the underwater shock wave. Therefore, we propose making the pressure vessel by this explosive forming. One design suggestion of pressure vessel made of stainless steel was considered. However, we cannot decide suitable conditions, the mass of the explosive and the distance between the explosive and the metal plate to make the pressure vessel. In order to decide these conditions, we have tried the numerical simulation on this explosive forming. The basic simulation method was ALE (Arbitrary Laglangian Eulerian method including with Mie-Grümeisen EOS (equation of state, JWL EOS, Johnson-Cook constitutive equation for a material model. In this paper, the underwater pressure contours to clear the propagations of the underwater shock wave, forming processes and deformation velocity of the metal plate is shown and it will be discussed about those results.

  9. Heat pipe cooling system of high-power three-level explosion-proof inverter based on the loss calculation and finite element analysis (United States)

    Li, Yuan


    The special using condition of high-power three-level explosion-proof inverter limits its cooling system within heat pipe and water-cooled cooling systems. How to calculate these two systems quantitatively to provide references for engineering application becomes one of the critical problems. In this paper, the principle of three-level explosion-proof was introduced first, and the power-loss generation theory was described and deduced into equations. Secondly, the heat pipe cooling system theory calculation was conducted based on the power losses of power devices, and the whole cooling system model was built by using finite element analysis. Finally, the temperature rise experiment was carried out on a 1 MW high-power three-level explosion-proof inverter, and the results proved the feasibility of this theory and its accuracy of analysis.

  10. Progress in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Explosions and Earthquakes (United States)


    parallel computers are making it easier to simulate ground motions on the scale lengths (domain sizes) and frequencies (resolutions) of importance to nuclear explosion monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop and improve methods for seismic simulation in fully 3D earth models to improve nuclear explosion monitoring. Specifically, research is directed along three thrusts: modeling of shock-wave propagation with hydrodynamic methods; modeling of elastic propagation near shallow explosions and earthquakes, including the effect of 3D volumetric structure and

  11. Numerical Simulation of Explosive Forming Using Detonating Fuse


    H Iyama; Higa, Y.; Nishi, M.; Itoh, S.


    The explosive forming is a characteristic method. An underwater shock wave is generated by underwater explosion of an explosive. A metal plate is affected high strain rate by the shock loading and is formed along a metal die. Although this method has the advantage of mirroring the shape of the die, a free forming was used in this paper. An expensive metal die is not necessary for this free forming. It is possible that a metal plate is formed with simple supporting parts. However, the forming ...

  12. Spraying explosive formulations. [Quarterly report], July--September 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, G.T.


    A composition of 98/2 weight percent PETN/polybutadiene elastomer was formulated, sprayed on bridgewires and electrically initiated, to determine the,feasibility of such deposition of explosives bonded to test surfaces. Test firing resulted in a detonation reaction which could mean that explosive compositions sprayed on test surfaces may be an important tool in testing structural integrity, e.g., as presently in the Vulnerability Testing Program. A semi-automatic apparatus for spraying explosive formulations on chemically etched electric circuits, support membranes and/or test vehicle surfaces has been designed, and improved application processes are being developed.

  13. A new seismic discriminant for earthquakes and explosions (United States)

    Woods, Bradley B.; Helmberger, Donald V.

    With the spread of nuclear weapons technology, more regions of the world need to be monitored in order to verify nuclear nonproliferation and limited test-ban treaties. Seismic monitoring is the primary means to remotely sense contained underground explosions “Bolt, 1976; Dahlman and Israelson, 1977”. Both underground explosions and earthquakes generate seismic energy, which propagates through the Earth as elastic waves. The crux of the verification problem is to differentiate between the seismic signatures of explosions and earthquakes. Such identification is most difficult in countries with seismically active areas, where bombs might be detonated to blend in with the region's natural seismicity.

  14. Sensor distribution design of travel time tomography in explosion. (United States)

    Guo, Yali; Han, Yan; Wang, Liming; Liu, Linmao


    Optimal sensor distribution in explosion testing is important in saving test costs and improving experiment efficiency. Aiming at travel time tomography in an explosion, an optimizing method in sensor distribution is proposed to improve the inversion stability. The influence factors of inversion stability are analyzed and the evaluating function on optimizing sensor distribution is proposed. This paper presents a sub-region and multi-scale cell partition method, according to the characteristics of a shock wave in an explosion. An adaptive escaping particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to achieve the optimal sensor distribution. The experimental results demonstrate that optimal sensor distribution has improved both indexes and inversion stability.

  15. Electric conductivity of high explosives with carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Rubtsov, I. A.; Pruuel, E. R.; Ten, K. A.; Kashkarov, A. O.; Kremenko, S. I.


    The paper presents a technique for introducing carbon nanotubes into high explosives (HEs). For a number of explosives (trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, benzotrifuroxan), it was possible to achieve the appearance of conductivity by adding a small amount (up to 1% by mass) of single-walled carbon nanotubes TUBALL COATE H2O (CNTs) produced by OCSiAl. Thus it is possible to reduce the sensitivity of explosives to static electricity by adding an insignificant part of conductive nanotubes. This will increase safety of HEs during production and application and will reduce the number of accidents.

  16. The geometry of Strombolian explosions: insights from Doppler radar measurements (United States)

    Gouhier, Mathieu; Donnadieu, Franck


    Observations of Strombolian volcanic explosions were carried out at Etna's southeast crater on 2001 July 4 using a ground-based pulsed Doppler radar (VOLDORAD). To obtain quantitative constraints on the geometry of the explosions, we modelled synthetic Doppler spectra by combining the outputs of a ballistic model to compute the theoretical velocities of gas and particles, and an electromagnetic scattering model to calculate the synthetic echo power. This allowed us to reproduce the shapes of recorded Doppler spectra for each volcanic explosion. We examined the geometrical distribution of ejected pyroclasts for about 200 explosions and found two main types of explosion, each showing a distinctive spectral signature. The first type, characterized by the triangular shape of their Doppler spectra, represents 34 per cent of the explosions. This spectrum shape is related to a Gaussian distribution of the pyroclast ejection angles, where most of the volcanic material is ejected vertically within a narrow cone, with the particle concentration decreasing radially. The second type represents about 12 per cent of the explosions, and is characterized by a top-hat-shaped spectrum. It is produced by a uniform distribution of pyroclast ejection angles. In this case, the bubbles tend to burst above the crater rim and eject the ballistic clasts hemispherically without preferential orientation. The majority of the Strombolian explosions analysed (54 per cent) are intermediate between these end-member shapes, and show a triangular spectra truncated by a plateau. They result from a uniform distribution of ejection angles around the jet axis. The continuous radar recordings allowed us to carry out a statistical analysis on the geometrical features of the same 200 Strombolian explosions. Thus we find that 40° is a statistically representative aperture of the dispersion cone characterized by uniform ejecta distribution for explosions having a plateau component (i.e. 2/3 of all

  17. Type Ia supernovae: explosions and progenitors (United States)

    Kerzendorf, Wolfgang Eitel


    Supernovae are the brightest explosions in the universe. Supernovae in our Galaxy, rare and happening only every few centuries, have probably been observed since the beginnings of mankind. At first they were interpreted as religious omens but in the last half millennium they have increasingly been used to study the cosmos and our place in it. Tycho Brahe deduced from his observations of the famous supernova in 1572, that the stars, in contrast to the widely believe Aristotelian doctrine, were not immutable. More than 400 years after Tycho made his paradigm changing discovery using SN 1572, and some 60 years after supernovae had been identified as distant dying stars, two teams changed the view of the world again using supernovae. The found that the Universe was accelerating in its expansion, a conclusion that could most easily be explained if more than 70% of the Universe was some previously un-identified form of matter now often referred to as `Dark Energy'. Beyond their prominent role as tools to gauge our place in the Universe, supernovae themselves have been studied well over the past 75 years. We now know that there are two main physical causes of these cataclysmic events. One of these channels is the collapse of the core of a massive star. The observationally motivated classes Type II, Type Ib and Type Ic have been attributed to these events. This thesis, however is dedicated to the second group of supernovae, the thermonuclear explosions of degenerate carbon and oxygen rich material and lacking hydrogen - called Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). White dwarf stars are formed at the end of a typical star's life when nuclear burning ceases in the core, the outer envelope is ejected, with the degenerate core typically cooling for eternity. Theory predicts that such stars will self ignite when close to 1.38 Msun (called the Chandrasekhar Mass). Most stars however leave white dwarfs with 0.6 Msun, and no star leaves a remnant as heavy as 1.38 M! sun, which suggests

  18. Connector device for building integrated photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Eurich, Gerald K.; Lesniak, Michael J.; Mazor, Michael H.; Cleerman, Robert J.; Gaston, Ryan S.


    The present invention is premised upon a connector device and method that can more easily electrically connect a plurality of PV devices or photovoltaic system components and/or locate these devices/components upon a building structure. It also may optionally provide some additional sub-components (e.g. at least one bypass diode and/or an indicator means) and may enhance the serviceability of the device.

  19. Stability of volcanic conduits during explosive eruptions (United States)

    Aravena, Álvaro; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Cioni, Raffaello; Neri, Augusto


    Geological evidences of volcanic conduit widening are common in most pyroclastic deposits (e.g. presence of lithic fragments from different depths), suggesting a continuous modification of the conduit geometry during volcanic eruptions. However, the controlling factors of the mechanisms driving conduit enlargement (e.g. erosion, local collapse) are still partially unclear, as well as the influence of conduit geometry on the eruptive dynamics. Although numerical models have been systematically employed to study volcanic conduits, their mechanical stability and the eruptive dynamics related to non-cylindrical conduits have been poorly addressed. We present here a 1D steady-state model which includes the main processes experimented by ascending magmas (i.e. crystallization, rheological changes, fragmentation, drag forces, outgassing and degassing), and the application of two mechanical stability criteria (Mohr-Coulomb and Mogi-Coulomb), in order to study the collapse conditions of volcanic conduits during a representative explosive rhyolitic eruption. It emerges that mechanical stability of volcanic conduits is mainly controlled by its radial dimension, and a minimum radius for reaching stable conditions can be computed, as a function of water content and inlet overpressure. Additionally, for a set of input parameters thought typical of explosive rhyolitic volcanism, we estimated a minimum magma flux for developing a mechanically stable conduit ( 7 • 107 - 3 • 108 kg/s). Results are consistent with the unsteady character usually observed in sub-Plinian eruptions, opposite to mainly stationary Plinian eruptions, commonly characterized by higher magma discharge rates. We suggest that cylindrical conduits represent a mechanically stable configuration only for large radii. Because the instability conditions are not uniform along the conduit, the widening processes probably lead to conduit geometries with depth-varying width. Consequently, as our model is able to

  20. Explosive Strength Imbalances in Professional Basketball Players (United States)

    Schiltz, Marc; Lehance, Cédric; Maquet, Didier; Bury, Thierry; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis


    Context: Despite the high rate of lower limb injuries in basketball players, studies of the dominant-limb effect in elite athletes often neglect injury history. Objective: To determine lower limb explosive-strength asymmetries in professional basketball players compared with junior basketball players and control participants. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Academic medical institution. Patients or Other Participants: 15 professional basketball players, 10 junior basketball players, and 20 healthy men. Main Outcome Measure(s): We performed an isokinetic examination to evaluate the knee extensor (Ext) and flexor (Fl) concentric peak torque at 60°·s−1 and 240°·s−1 and (Fl only) eccentric peak torque at 30°·s−1 and 120°·s−1. Functional evaluation included countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arms, 10-m sprint, single-leg drop jump, and single-leg, 10-second continuous jumping. Variables were compared among groups using analysis of variance or a generalized linear mixed model for bilateral variables. Results: The 2 groups of basketball players demonstrated better isokinetic and functional performances than the control group did. No differences in functional or relative isokinetic variables were noted between professional and junior basketball players. Professional players with a history of knee injury failed to reach normal knee extensor strength at 60°·s−1. Knee Ext (60°·s−1) and Fl (eccentric 120°·s−1) torque values as well as 10-second continuous jumping scores were higher in those professional players without a history of knee injury than those with such a history. Compared with the group without a history of knee injury, the group with a history of knee injury maintained leg asymmetry ratios greater than 10% for almost all isokinetic variables and more than 15% for unilateral functional variables. Conclusions: The relative isokinetic and functional performances of professional basketball players were similar to those of junior