WorldWideScience

Sample records for range vor system

  1. A digital goniometer for VOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    A new VOR (VHF omni-range) goniometer design which promises to improve the reliability and maintainability of the VOR ground station is described. The heart of the new concept is the use of two digital phase shifters to produce the rotating figure-of-eight pattern of conventional VOR. Using digital circuits, the goniometer adjustments and calibration reduce to timing adjustments of binary signals. A common clock used for timing the digital phase shifters also synchronizes the 30 Hz modulation of the 9.96 kHz reference.

  2. Supermennesket er vor tids ideal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff; Meyhoff, Karsten Wind

    2011-01-01

    Diagnose af vor tids samfunds som et mulighedssamfund modsat tidligere tiders mangelsamfund og fremstilling af den ideologi, der hersker i mulighedssamfundet, som en individualistisk ideologi om permanent selvudvikling....

  3. 77 FR 71493 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airway V-8 in the Vicinity of Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...This action amends VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR) Federal Airway V-8 in the vicinity of Rifle, CO, to correct the description contained in part 71 to ensure it matches the information contained in the FAA's aeronautical database, matches the depiction on the associated charts, and to ensure the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS).

  4. A design study of VOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deen, P. P.; Vickery, Anette; Andersen, K. H.

    2015-01-01

    VOR, the versatile optimal resolution chopper spectrometer, is designed to probe dynamic phenomena that are currently inaccessible for inelastic neutron scattering due to flux limitations. VOR is a short instrument by the standards of the European Spallation Source (ESS), 30.2m moderator to sample...... an extra order of magnitude in flux. In addition, VOR has been optimised for repetition rate multiplication (RRM) and is therefore able to measure, in a single ESS period, 6-14 incident wavelengths, across a wavelength band of 9 Å with a novel chopper configuration that transmits all incident wavelengths...... with equivalent counting statistics. The characteristics of VOR make it a unique instrument with capabilities to access small, limited-lifetime samples and transient phenomena with inelastic neutron scattering....

  5. Graphical Analysis of Electromagnetic Coupling on B-737 and B-757 Aircraft for VOR and LOC IPL Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Madiha; Ely, Jay; Vahala, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic coupling measurements were performed from numerous passenger cabin locations to aircraft instrument landing system localizer (LOC) and VHF Omni-Ranging (VOR) systems. This paper presents and compares the data for B-757 and B-737 airplanes, and provides a basis for fuzzy modeling of coupling patterns in different types of airplanes and airplanes with different antenna locations.

  6. Vorsø Skov VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal, Tommy; Fabricius, Peter

    Den urørte skov på den beskyttede ø Vorsø i Horsens Fjord er blevet undersøgt hvert tiende år siden 1952 for at dokumentere antal træer, areal , træernes volumen og biomasse over jorden. Denne rapport beskriver skovens udvikling og resultaterne af undersøgelsen i 2002....

  7. 76 FR 20835 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-1, V-7, V-11 and V-20; Kona, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-1, V-7, V-11 and V-20; Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal... delays the effective date for the amendment of four VOR Federal airways in the vicinity of Kona, HI; V-1...), amends VOR Federal Airways V-1, V-7 V-11 and V-20; Kona, HI. These VHF Omnidirectional Range Federal...

  8. Functional testing of the vestibular ocular reflex (VOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eRamat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The experimental assessment of the vestibulo-ocular-reflex (VOR gain provides an objective and quantitative measure of VOR performance which is nonetheless difficult to correlate with its efficiency in everyday living conditions. We developed the Head Impulse Testing Device (HITD based on an inertial sensing system allowing to investigate the functional performance of the VOR by testing its gaze stabilization ability in response to head impulses at different head angular accelerations. HITD results on a population of 39 vestibular patients were compared to those of 22 controls. Overall the sensitivity of the HITD was 92% against the results of the clinical head impulse test and 83% against the clinical diagnosis, while the specificity was 58% against the clinical head impulse test and 83% against the diagnosis. The HITD appears to be a very promising tool for detecting abnormal VOR performance while providing information on the functional performance of the rotational VOR. As compared to the usual testing devices the HITD tests higher frequencies and accelerations that characterize head movements in everyday life activities and provides a functional assessment that is more likely to be related to the subject’s self-feeling.

  9. A Device for the Functional Evaluation of the VOR in Clinical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramat, Stefano; Colnaghi, Silvia; Boehler, Andreas; Astore, Serena; Falco, Paola; Mandalà, Marco; Nuti, Daniele; Colagiorgio, Paolo; Versino, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    We developed the head impulse testing device (HITD) based on an inertial sensing system allowing to investigate the functional performance of the rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) by testing its gaze stabilization ability, independently from the subject’s visual acuity, in response to head impulses at different head angular accelerations ranging from 2000 to 7000 deg/s2. HITD was initially tested on 22 normal subjects, and a method to compare the results from a single subject (patient) with those from controls was set up. As a pilot study, we tested the HITD in 39 dizzy patients suffering, non-acutely, from different kinds of vestibular disorders. The results obtained with the HITD were comparable with those from the clinical head impulse test (HIT), but an higher number of abnormalities was detectable by HITD in the central vestibular disorders group. The HITD appears to be a promising tool for detecting abnormal VOR performance while providing information on the functional performance of the rotational VOR, and can provide a valuable assistance to the clinical evaluation of patients with vestibular disorders. PMID:22470364

  10. Modeling learning in brain stem and cerebellar sites responsible for VOR plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, K. J.; Didier, A. J.; Baker, J. F.; Peterson, B. W.

    1998-01-01

    A simple model of vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) function was used to analyze several hypotheses currently held concerning the characteristics of VOR plasticity. The network included a direct vestibular pathway and an indirect path via the cerebellum. An optimization analysis of this model suggests that regulation of brain stem sites is critical for the proper modification of VOR gain. A more physiologically plausible learning rule was also applied to this network. Analysis of these simulation results suggests that the preferred error correction signal controlling gain modification of the VOR is the direct output of the accessory optic system (AOS) to the vestibular nuclei vs. a signal relayed through the cerebellum via floccular Purkinje cells. The potential anatomical and physiological basis for this conclusion is discussed, in relation to our current understanding of the latency of the adapted VOR response.

  11. Globale Landwirtschaft vor alten und neuen Herausforderungen

    OpenAIRE

    Giger, Markus; Hurni, Hans; Portner, Brigitte; Scheidegger, Urs

    2008-01-01

    Die globale Landwirtschaft steht vor enormen Herausforderungen, die nach neuen Ansätzen für die zukünftige Entwicklung der Landwirtschaft verlangen. Zwei internationale Berichte, das ‚International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology’ und der ‚World Development Report 2008’ wurden kürzlich vorgelegt. Die Autoren dieses Artikels analysieren die Gemeinsamkeiten und Divergenzen der beiden Berichte, weisen auf die Notwendigkeit hin, die nach wie vor bestehenden Unterschiede in den S...

  12. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  13. Absichten und Vorsätze

    OpenAIRE

    Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Malzacher, Juliane T.

    1995-01-01

    Die zentrale Thematik dieses Kapitels ist die Frage, wie Intentionen in Handlungen übersetzt werden. Hypothesen über diese Übersetzungsprozesse werden gewonnen, indem zunächst die Funktion von Intentionen beim Realisieren von Wünschen bestimmt wird. Dabei wird zwischen Zielintentionen oder Absichten ("Ich will den gewünschten Endzustand X erreichen!") einerseits und Vorsätzen ("Ich will die Handlung Y ausführen, sobald die Situation Z vorliegt!") andererseits unterschieden. Vorsätze werden a...

  14. The video head impulse test (vHIT of semicircular canal function – age dependent normative values of VOR gain in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Andrew McGarvie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Hypothesis. The video Head Impulse Test (vHIT is now widely used to test the function of each of the six semicircular canals individually by measuring the eye rotation response to an abrupt head rotation in the plane of the canal. The main measure of canal adequacy is the ratio of the eye movement response to the head movement stimulus i.e. the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR. However there is a need for normative data about how VOR gain is affected by age and also by head velocity, to allow the response of any particular patient to be compared to response of healthy subjects in their age range. In this study we determined for all six semicircular canals, normative values of VOR gain, for each canal across a range of head velocities, for healthy subjects in each decade of life.Study Design. The VOR gain was measured for all canals across a range of head velocities for at least 10 healthy subjects in decade age bands: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89. Methods. The compensatory eye movement response to a small, unpredictable, abrupt head rotation (head impulse was measured by the ICS Impulse prototype system. The same operator delivered every impulse to every subject. Results. VOR gain decreased at high head velocities, but was largely unaffected by age into the 80-89 year age group. There were some small but systematic differences between the two directions of head rotation, which appear to be largely due to the fact that in this study only the right eye was measured. The results are considered in relation to recent evidence about the effect of age on VOR performance.Conclusion. These normative values allow the results of any particular patient to be compared to the values of healthy people in their age range and so allow, for example, detection of whether a patient has a bilateral vestibular loss. VOR gain, as measured directly by the eye movement response to head rotation, seems largely unaffected by

  15. A design study of VOR: A versatile optimal resolution chopper spectrometer for the ESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deen P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available VOR, the versatile optimal resolution chopper spectrometer, is designed to probe dynamic phenomena that are currently inaccessible for inelastic neutron scattering due to flux limitations. VOR is a short instrument by the standards of the European Spallation Source (ESS, 30.2 m moderator to sample, and provides instantaneous access to a broad dynamic range, 1–120 meV within each ESS period. The short instrument length combined with the long ESS pulse width enables a quadratic flux increase, even at longer wavelengths, by relaxing energy resolution from ΔE/E = 1% up to ΔE/E = 7%. This is impossible both on a long chopper spectrometer at the ESS and with instruments at short pulsed sources. In comparison to current day chopper spectrometers, VOR can offer an order of magnitude improvement in flux for equivalent energy resolutions, ΔE/E = 1–3%. Further relaxing the energy resolution enables VOR to gain an extra order of magnitude in flux. In addition, VOR has been optimised for repetition rate multiplication (RRM and is therefore able to measure, in a single ESS period, 6–14 incident wavelengths, across a wavelength band of 9 Å with a novel chopper configuration that transmits all incident wavelengths with equivalent counting statistics. The characteristics of VOR make it a unique instrument with capabilities to access small, limited-lifetime samples and transient phenomena with inelastic neutron scattering.

  16. Religionsunterricht vor theologischen und gesellschaftlichen Herausforderungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Kuld

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Die Wiederkehr der Religion und neuer Atheismus, religiöser Traditionsbruch und religiöse Optionsvielfalt beschreiben die widersprüchlichen theologischen und gesellschaftlichen Herausforderungen, vor denen der Religionsunterricht heute steht. Als Teil des Bildungssystems hat er die Tradierung von Religion übernommen. Religiöse Bildung ist die Voraussetzung dafür, dass Menschen als Individuen überhaupt eine vernünftige religiöse Identität entwickeln können.

  17. 76 FR 2800 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-2 and V-21; Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ...; Hawaii AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends two VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR) Federal airway legal descriptions in the State of Hawaii. The... Federal Airways, V-2 and V-21, located in the State of Hawaii by removing all references to Restricted...

  18. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  19. Cross axis VOR induced by pursuit training in monkeys: further properties of adaptive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, K; Sato, T; Fukushima, J; Kurkin, S

    2000-01-01

    We have shown recently in alert monkeys that repeated interaction between the pursuit and vestibular systems in the orthogonal plane induces adaptive changes in the VOR. To examine further properties of adaptive cross axis VOR induced by pursuit training, sinusoidal whole body rotation was applied either in the pitch or yaw plane while presenting a target spot that moved orthogonally to the rotation plane with either 90 degrees phase-lead or 90 degrees phase-lag to the chair signal. After one hour of training at 0.5 Hz (+/- 10 degrees), considerable phase-shift was observed in orthogonal eye movement responses consistent with the training paradigms by identical chair rotation in complete darkness, with further lead at lower frequencies and lag at higher frequencies. However, gains (eye/chair) induced by phase- shift pursuit training was different during pitch and yaw rotation. Although frequency tuning was maintained during pitch in the phase-shift paradigms, it was not maintained during yaw, resulting in higher gains at lower stimulus frequencies compared to the gains during yaw. This difference may reflect otolith contribution during pitch rotation. To understand further the nature of signals that induce adaptive cross axis VOR, we examined interaction of pursuit, whole field-visual pattern and vestibular stimuli. Magnitudes of the cross axis VOR with a spot alone on one hand and with a spot and pattern moving together in the same plane on the other during chair rotation were similar, and when one of the two visual stimuli was stationary during chair rotation, our well trained monkeys did not induce the cross axis VOR. These results suggest that the cross axis VOR induced by pursuit training shares common mechanisms with the cross axis VOR induced by whole field-slip stimuli and that if conflicting information is given between the two visual stimuli, adaptive changes are inhibited. Horizontal GVPs were recorded in the cerebellar floccular lobe during pitch

  20. 77 FR 54859 - Proposed Establishment of VOR Federal Airway V-629; Las Vegas, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... of marginal radar coverage. This would enhance the efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS... . Commenters wishing the FAA to acknowledge receipt of their comments on this action must submit with those... navigating in an area of marginal radar coverage. VOR Federal airways are published in paragraph 6010 of FAA...

  1. Expert systems and ballistic range data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Wayne; Steinhoff, Mark; Whyte, Robert; Brown, David; Choate, Jeff; Adelgren, Russ

    1992-07-01

    A program aimed at the development of an expert system for the reduction of ballistic range data is described. The program applies expert system and artificial intelligence techniques to develop a mathematically complex state-of-the-art spark range data reduction procedure that includes linear theory and six-degree-of-freedom analysis. The scope of the knowledge base includes both spin and statically stable vehicles. The expert system is expected to improve the quality of the data reduction process while reducing the work load on the senior range engineer.

  2. Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of...

  3. Oxygen Compatibility and Challenge Testing of the PLSS Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR) for the Advanced EMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Cox, Marlon; Meginnis, Carly; Falconi, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), a stepper actuated two-stage mechanical regulator, is being developed for the purpose of serving as the Primary Oxygen Regulator (POR) and Secondary Oxygen Regulator (SOR) within the Advanced EMU PLSS, now referred to as the xEMU and xPLSS. Three prototype designs have been fabricated and tested as part of this development. Building upon the lessons learned from the 35 years of Shuttle/ISS EMU Program operation including the fleet-wide EMU Secondary Oxygen Pack (SOP) contamination failure that occurred in 2000, the VOR is being analyzed, designed, and tested for oxygen compatibility with controlled Non-Volatile Residue (NVR) and a representative worst-case hydro-carbon system contamination event (>100mg/sq ft dodecane). This paper discusses the steps taken in testing of VOR 2.0 with for oxygen compatibility and then discusses follow-on design changes implemented in the VOR 3.0 (3rd prototype) as a result.

  4. Development of the seafloor acoustic ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a seafloor acoustic ranging system, which simulates an operation with the DONET (Development of Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunami) cable, to monitor seafloor crustal movement. The seafloor acoustic ranging system was based on the precise acoustic transponder (PXP). We have a few problems for the improvement of the resolution. One thing is the variation of sound speed. Another is the bending of ray path. A PXP measures horizontal distances on the seafloor from the round trip travel times of acoustic pulses between pairs of PXP. The PXP was equipped with the pressure, temperature gauge and tilt-meter. The variation of sound speed in seawater has a direct effect on the measurement. Therefore we collect the data of temperature and pressure. But we don't collect the data of salinity because of less influence than temperature and pressure. Accordingly a ray path of acoustic wave tends to be bent upward in the deep sea due to the Snell's law. As the acoustic transducer of each PXPs held about 3.0m above the seafloor, the baseline is too long for altitude from the seafloor. In this year we carried out the experiment for the seafloor acoustic ranging system. We deployed two PXPs at about 750m spacing on Kumano-nada. The water depth is about 2050m. We collected the 660 data in this experiment during one day. The round trip travel time show the variation with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 0.03msec. It was confirmed to explain the majority in this change by the change in sound speed according to the temperature and pressure. This results shows the resolution of acoustic measurements is +/-2mm. Acknowledgement This study is supported by 'DONET' of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  5. 76 FR 13082 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-1, V-7, V-11 and V-20; Kona, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ...-11 and V-20; Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends four VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR) Federal airways in the vicinity of Kona, HI; V... International Keahole Airport property Kailua-Kona, HI. This will enhance the management of aircraft operations...

  6. Tuning of gravity-dependent and gravity-independent vertical angular VOR gain changes by frequency of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushin, Sergei B

    2012-06-01

    The gain of the vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) was adaptively increased and decreased in a side-down head orientation for 4 h in two cynomolgus monkeys. Adaptation was performed at 0.25, 1, 2, or 4 Hz. The gravity-dependent and -independent gain changes were determined over a range of head orientations from left-side-down to right-side-down at frequencies from 0.25 to 10 Hz, before and after adaptation. Gain changes vs. frequency data were fit with a Gaussian to determine the frequency at which the peak gain change occurred, as well as the tuning width. The frequency at which the peak gravity-dependent gain change occurred was approximately equal to the frequency of adaptation, and the width increased monotonically with increases in the frequency of adaptation. The gravity-independent component was tuned to the adaptive frequency of 0.25 Hz but was uniformly distributed over all frequencies when the adaptation frequency was 1-4 Hz. The amplitude of the gravity-independent gain changes was larger after the aVOR gain decrease than after the gain increase across all tested frequencies. For the aVOR gain decrease, the phase lagged about 4° for frequencies below the adaptation frequency and led for frequencies above the adaptation frequency. For gain increases, the phase relationship as a function of frequency was inverted. This study demonstrates that the previously described dependence of aVOR gain adaptation on frequency is a property of the gravity-dependent component of the aVOR only. The gravity-independent component of the aVOR had a substantial tuning curve only at an adaptation frequency of 0.25 Hz.

  7. A new tool for investigating the functional testing of the VOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eColagiorgio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral vestibular function may be tested quantitatively, by measuring the gain of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR, or functionally, by assessing how well the aVOR performs with respect to its goal of stabilizing gaze in space and thus allow to acquire visual information during the head movement. In recent years, several groups have developed clinical and quantitative approaches to functional testing of the vestibular system based on the ability to identify an optotype briefly displayed on screen during head rotations.Although the proposed techniques differ in terms of the parameters controlling the testing paradigm, no study has thus far dealt with understanding the role of such choices in determining the effectiveness and reliability of the testing approach. Moreover, recent work has shown that peripheral vestibular patients may produce corrective saccades during the head movement (covert saccades, yet the role of these eye movements towards reading ability during head rotations is not yet understood. Finally, no study has thus far dealt with measuring the true performance of their experimental setups, which is nonetheless likely to be crucial information for understanding the effectiveness of functional testing approaches. Thus we propose a new software and hardware research tool allowing the combined measurement of eye and head movements, together with the timing of the optotype on screen, during functional testing of the VOR based on the Head Impulse Test (HIT. The goal of such tool is therefore that of allowing functional testing of the VOR while collecting the experimental data necessary to understand, for instance, a the effectiveness of the covert saccades strategy towards image stabilization, b which experimental parameters are crucial for optimizing the diagnostic power of the functional testing approach, and c which conditions lead to a successful reading or an error trial.

  8. Cormorants as visitors in the Vorsø colony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Vinas, Marta Mas; Gregersen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Like other seabirds Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis are known to prospect in potential breeding colonies during their first years of life before they settle to breed. Based on daily resightings of colour-ringed cormorants in the old Vorsø colony we examined the difference between na...

  9. Instrumentation of an Irrigator for Test VOR (Vestibule-Ocular Reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Martínez J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows one kind of VOR’s (vestibule ocular reflex implementation. Here, the VOR is built and designed with the instrumentation and automation of an irrigator system. This is done by water irrigation at three different temperatures, in one or both ear cavities, which it can stimulate internally any of the 3 semicircular canals of the vestibular system. This fact produces a measurable Nystagmic response at a glance. The irrigator is formed by analog instrumentation item coupled to a PLC, for its automated operation.

  10. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  11. Investigation of acoustic systems for scaring off fish from hydropower turbines. Final report; Untersuchung der Moeglichkeiten der Anwendung und Effektivitaet verschiedener akustischer Scheucheinrichtungen zum Schutz der Fischfauna vor Turbinenschaeden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, H.P.; Schmalz, W.

    2002-12-01

    The investigation focused on acoustic systems for scaring off fish from hydropower turbines, as mechanical and electric systems have failed so far. The project comprised three sections: High-frequency systems, low-frequency systems, and systems combining pressure waves and shock waves (oxyhydrogen gas blow systems).

  12. Microprocessor realizations of range and range-rate filters in radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, D.; Aronhime, P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of digital radar range-rate filters on a microprocessor-based system. A range-rate filter processes a digitized noisy range signal to recover smoothed range data and its derivative, range rate. Two filter designs are implemented. Considerations aiding their efficient operation on an 8-bit microprocessor are discussed. The filters are subjected to a noisy range input signal of known variance, and the associated output signals are statistically analysed to determine noise-rejection characteristics. These results are compared to analytical predictions.

  13. A trunk ranging system based on binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xixuan; Kan, Jiangming

    2017-07-01

    Trunk ranging is an essential function for autonomous forestry robots. Traditional trunk ranging systems based on personal computers are not convenient in practical application. This paper examines the implementation of a trunk ranging system based on the binocular vision theory via TI's DaVinc DM37x system. The system is smaller and more reliable than that implemented using a personal computer. It calculates the three-dimensional information from the images acquired by binocular cameras, producing the targeting and ranging results. The experimental results show that the measurement error is small and the system design is feasible for autonomous forestry robots.

  14. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  15. 76 FR 68674 - Proposed Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-320 and V-440; Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Federal Airways V-320 and V-440; Alaska AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... (VOR) Federal airways in Alaska, V-320 and V-440, due to the relocation of the Anchorage VOR navigation... that V-320 and V-440 did not have satisfactory signal reception coverage in the vicinity of Anchorage...

  16. Vestibular Compensation in Unilateral Patients Often Causes Both Gain and Time Constant Asymmetries in The VOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina eRanjbaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR is essential in our daily life to stabilize retinal images during head movements. Balanced vestibular functionality secures optimal reflex performance which can be distorted in case of peripheral vestibular lesions. Luckily, vestibular compensation in different neuronal sites restores VOR function to some extent over time. Studying vestibular compensation gives insight into the possible mechanisms for plasticity in the brain.In this work, novel experimental analysis tools are employed to reevaluate the VOR characteristics following unilateral vestibular lesions and compensation. Our results suggest that following vestibular lesions, asymmetric performance of the VOR is not only limited to its gain. Vestibular compensation also causes asymmetric dynamics, i.e. different time constants for the VOR during leftward or rightward passive head rotation. Potential mechanisms for these experimental observations are provided using simulation studies.

  17. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The imaging capability of a surveillance vision system from harsh low-visibility environments such as in fire and detonation areas is a key function to monitor the safety of the facilities. 2D and range image data acquired from low-visibility environment are important data to assess the safety and prepare appropriate countermeasures. Passive vision systems, such as conventional camera and binocular stereo vision systems usually cannot acquire image information when the reflected light is highly scattered and absorbed by airborne particles such as fog. In addition, the image resolution captured through low-density airborne particles is decreased because the image is blurred and dimmed by the scattering, emission and absorption. Active vision systems, such as structured light vision and projected stereo vision are usually more robust for harsh environment than passive vision systems. However, the performance is considerably decreased in proportion to the density of the particles. The RGI system provides 2D and range image data from several RGI images and it moreover provides clear images from low-visibility fog and smoke environment by using the sum of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays becoming more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of its compact portable configuration. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been

  18. Improvements in medium range weather forecasting system of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Medium range weather forecasts are being generated in real time using Global Data Assimilation Forecasting System (GDAFS) at NCMRWF since 1994. The system has been continuously upgraded in terms of data usage, assimilation and forecasting system. Recently this system was upgraded to a horizontal resolution of ...

  19. VOR Gain Is Related to Compensatory Saccades in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Eric R.; Bigelow, Robin T.; Carey, John P.; Xue, Qian-Li; Studenski, Stephanie; Schubert, Michael C.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain is well-suited for identifying rotational vestibular dysfunction, but may miss partial progressive decline in age-related vestibular function. Since compensatory saccades might provide an alternative method for identifying subtle vestibular decline, we describe the relationship between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 subjects age 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT). Saccades in each HIT were identified as either “compensatory” or “compensatory back-up,” i.e., same or opposite direction as the VOR response respectively. Saccades were also classified as “covert” (occurring during head movement) and “overt” (occurring after head movement). The relationship between VOR gain and percentage of HITs with saccades, as well as the relationship between VOR gain and saccade latency and amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and race. Results: In adjusted analyses, the percentage of HITs with compensatory saccades increased 4.5% for every 0.1 decrease in VOR gain (p saccade amplitude decreased 0.6° (p saccade amplitude increased 0.4° for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Conclusion: We observed significant relationships between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Lower VOR gain was associated with larger amplitude, shorter latency compensatory saccades. Compensatory saccades reflect underlying rotational vestibular hypofunction, and may be particularly useful at identifying partial vestibular deficits as occur in aging adults. PMID:27445793

  20. Laser system range calculations and the Lambert W function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove

    2009-02-01

    The knowledge of range performance versus atmospheric transmission, often given by the visibility, is critical for the design, use, and prediction of laser and passive electro-optic systems. I present a solution of the ladar-lidar equation based on Lambert's W function. This solution will reveal the dependence of the maximum range on the system and target parameters for different atmospheric attenuations and will also allow us to take the signal statistics into account by studying the influence on the threshold signal-to-noise ratio. The method is also applicable to many range calculations for passive systems where the atmospheric loss can be approximated by an exponential term.

  1. Long-range interactions in dilute granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.K

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, on purpose, we focussed on the most challenging, longest ranging potentials. We analyzed granular media of low densities obeying 1/r long-range interaction potentials between the granules. Such systems are termed granular gases and differ in their behavior from ordinary gases by

  2. High speed high dynamic range high accuracy measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibele, Craig E.; Curry, Douglas E.; Dickson, Richard W.; Xie, Zaipeng

    2016-11-29

    A measuring system includes an input that emulates a bandpass filter with no signal reflections. A directional coupler connected to the input passes the filtered input to electrically isolated measuring circuits. Each of the measuring circuits includes an amplifier that amplifies the signal through logarithmic functions. The output of the measuring system is an accurate high dynamic range measurement.

  3. Note: A wide temperature range MOKE system with annealing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahil, Narpinder Singh; Mankey, G. J.

    2017-07-01

    A novel sample stage integrated with a longitudinal MOKE system has been developed for wide temperature range measurements and annealing capabilities in the temperature range 65 K < T < 760 K. The sample stage incorporates a removable platen and copper block with inserted cartridge heater and two thermocouple sensors. It is supported and thermally coupled to a cold finger with two sapphire bars. The sapphire based thermal coupling enables the system to perform at higher temperatures without adversely affecting the cryostat and minimizes thermal drift in position. In this system the hysteresis loops of magnetic samples can be measured simultaneously while annealing the sample in a magnetic field.

  4. Range Information Systems Management (RISM) Phase 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    RISM investigated alternative approaches, technologies, and communication network architectures to facilitate building the Spaceports and Ranges of the future. RISM started by document most existing US ranges and their capabilities. In parallel, RISM obtained inputs from the following: 1) NASA and NASA-contractor engineers and managers, and; 2) Aerospace leaders from Government, Academia, and Industry, participating through the Space Based Range Distributed System Working Group (SBRDSWG), many of whom are also; 3) Members of the Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) subgroups, and; 4) Members of the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These diverse inputs helped to envision advanced technologies for implementing future Ranges and Range systems that builds on today s cabled and wireless legacy infrastructures while seamlessly integrating both today s emerging and tomorrow s building-block communication techniques. The fundamental key is to envision a transition to a Space Based Range Distributed Subsystem. The enabling concept is to identify the specific needs of Range users that can be solved through applying emerging communication tech

  5. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

  6. Hybrid gesture recognition system for short-range use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Akihiro; Fan, Wei; Katsuyama, Yutaka; Takebe, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Noriaki; Hotta, Yoshinobu; Sun, Jun

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, various gesture recognition systems have been studied for use in television and video games[1]. In such systems, motion areas ranging from 1 to 3 meters deep have been evaluated[2]. However, with the burgeoning popularity of small mobile displays, gesture recognition systems capable of operating at much shorter ranges have become necessary. The problems related to such systems are exacerbated by the fact that the camera's field of view is unknown to the user during operation, which imposes several restrictions on his/her actions. To overcome the restrictions generated from such mobile camera devices, and to create a more flexible gesture recognition interface, we propose a hybrid hand gesture system, in which two types of gesture recognition modules are prepared and with which the most appropriate recognition module is selected by a dedicated switching module. The two recognition modules of this system are shape analysis using a boosting approach (detection-based approach)[3] and motion analysis using image frame differences (motion-based approach)(for example, see[4]). We evaluated this system using sample users and classified the resulting errors into three categories: errors that depend on the recognition module, errors caused by incorrect module identification, and errors resulting from user actions. In this paper, we show the results of our investigations and explain the problems related to short-range gesture recognition systems.

  7. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60.

  8. Compact-range coordinate system established using a laser tracker.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, Floyd H.; Bryce, Edwin Anthony

    2006-12-01

    Establishing a Cartesian coordinate reference system for an existing Compact Antenna Range using the parabolic reflector is presented. A SMX (Spatial Metrix Corporation) M/N 4000 laser-based coordinate measuring system established absolute coordinates for the facility. Electric field characteristics with positional movement correction are evaluated. Feed Horn relocation for alignment with the reflector axis is also described. Reference points are established for follow-on non-laser alignments utilizing a theodolite.

  9. Long-Range Correlations in Physical and Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chung-Kang

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis, I explore a wide variety of physical and biological systems without any temporal (or spatial) characteristic scale. These systems are usually associated with the terms "fractal," "scale free," "1/f noise" and "long-range correlations." In the first part of the thesis, I discuss some general concepts of scale-free systems and introduce several useful analytic and numerical tools to describe and analyze them. In the second part, I study simple physical models that exhibit long-range correlations in their spatial or temporal sequences. Two concrete examples are the one -dimensional diffusion of hard-core particles and the diffusion of particles in a random velocity field. Although, both examples exhibit power-law behavior in their velocity auto -correlation function, higher order correlations are completely different. Furthermore, I apply a novel numerical algorithm for generating correlated stochastic variables to study numerically the behavior of a dynamical system in the presence of long-range correlated noise. In the last part, I present two biological systems with long-range correlations: The DNA sequences and the human heartbeat time series. Two observations are made: (1) By constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk--called a "DNA walk," one can show that long -range correlations exist in non-coding nucleotide sequences but not in cDNA (protein coding) sequences. (2) Under healthy conditions, cardiac interbeat interval dynamics exhibit long-term correlations; with severe pathology this correlation behavior breaks down. For both systems, I discuss possible origins of these correlations and their biological implications.

  10. Towards a medium-range coastal station fog forecasting system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available -1 29th Annual conference of South African Society for Atmospheric Sciences (SASAS) 2013 http://sasas.ukzn.ac.za/homepage.aspx Towards a Medium-Range Coastal Station Fog Forecasting System Stephanie Landman*1, Estelle Marx1, Willem A. Landman2...

  11. A novel track imaging system as a range counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Matsufuji, N. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Kanayama, S. [Chiba University (Japan); Ishida, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Kohno, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Koba, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    An image-intensified, camera-based track imaging system has been developed to measure the tracks of ions in a scintillator block. To study the performance of the detector unit in the system, two types of scintillators, a dosimetrically tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator EJ-240 and a CsI(Tl) scintillator, were separately irradiated with carbon ion ({sup 12}C) beams of therapeutic energy from HIMAC at NIRS. The images of individual ion tracks in the scintillators were acquired by the newly developed track imaging system. The ranges reconstructed from the images are reported here. The range resolution of the measurements is 1.8 mm for 290 MeV/u carbon ions, which is considered a significant improvement on the energy resolution of the conventional ΔE/E method. The detector is compact and easy to handle, and it can fit inside treatment rooms for in-situ studies, as well as satisfy clinical quality assurance purposes.

  12. Ranging Apparatus and Method Implementing Stereo Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Larry C. (Inventor); Cox, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A laser-directed ranging system for use in telerobotics applications and other applications involving physically handicapped individuals. The ranging system includes a left and right video camera mounted on a camera platform, and a remotely positioned operator. The position of the camera platform is controlled by three servo motors to orient the roll axis, pitch axis and yaw axis of the video cameras, based upon an operator input such as head motion. A laser is provided between the left and right video camera and is directed by the user to point to a target device. The images produced by the left and right video cameras are processed to eliminate all background images except for the spot created by the laser. This processing is performed by creating a digital image of the target prior to illumination by the laser, and then eliminating common pixels from the subsequent digital image which includes the laser spot. The horizontal disparity between the two processed images is calculated for use in a stereometric ranging analysis from which range is determined.

  13. Sirius: a long-range infrared search and track system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sirius is a long range infra red search and track system (LR- IRST) and intended to be used in an anti air warfare (AAW) multisensor suite on board of modern frigates. This Dutch/Canadian development program started 1/1/95 and includes also the evaluation of the system in warm and cold water scenarios. The operational requirements were drafted by both the national navies. The primary task is automatic detection, tracking and reporting of seaskimming missiles at long range. The design is based on recent experiences with IRSTs and the latest technological achievements in the areas of processing capabilities and IR-detectors. In this presentation design drivers and main technical choices are discussed.

  14. Decision Support Systems for Launch and Range Operations Using Jess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2007-01-01

    The virtual test bed for launch and range operations developed at NASA Ames Research Center consists of various independent expert systems advising on weather effects, toxic gas dispersions and human health risk assessment during space-flight operations. An individual dedicated server supports each expert system and the master system gather information from the dedicated servers to support the launch decision-making process. Since the test bed is based on the web system, reducing network traffic and optimizing the knowledge base is critical to its success of real-time or near real-time operations. Jess, a fast rule engine and powerful scripting environment developed at Sandia National Laboratory has been adopted to build the expert systems providing robustness and scalability. Jess also supports XML representation of knowledge base with forward and backward chaining inference mechanism. Facts added - to working memory during run-time operations facilitates analyses of multiple scenarios. Knowledge base can be distributed with one inference engine performing the inference process. This paper discusses details of the knowledge base and inference engine using Jess for a launch and range virtual test bed.

  15. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  16. UAV sensor systems for close-range operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, Clement-Serge; Thompson, Karl S.; Hickman, Duncan

    2002-07-01

    Although UAV systems have received much interest over the last few years, much of this has focused on either relatively large platforms with complex on-board equipment, or micro systems (typically 6' in every dimension). The operational use of low-cost lightweight UAVs as over-the- hill reconnaissance systems is a new concept offering additional flexibility, providing local knowledge and helping maintain operational tempo. An extensive modeling trade-off study has been performed for different sensor technologies and combinations. The model considered configurations including cooled and uncooled IR sensors, visible-band CCD sensors and image intensifiers. These mathematical models provide an evaluation of sensor performance for both navigation and the gathering of reconnaissance imagery, through Resolution Elements calculations (Johnson criteria) and Signal-to-Noise Ratios. Based upon this analysis, a system specification is presented that exploits next generation sensor technologies. Results obtained from a number of UAV trials are reported and used in order to provide model verification and validation of both the operational concepts and the sensor system modeling activities. Considering the sensor system itself, the low-altitude close-range environment ensures high ground resolved distance and signal-to-noise ratios, with low-cost sensors. Coupled with up-to-date image processing software, the imagery provided directly to the section-level units via a simple standard image interface allows a reduction of time response. Finally, future modeling and trials activities are discussed in the framework of the lightweight UAV system roadmap.

  17. Measuring Systems for Thermometer Calibration in Low-Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Kowal, A.; Grykałowska, A.; Jancewicz, D.

    2011-12-01

    The national temperature standard for the low-temperature range between 13.8033 K and 273.16 K has been established in Poland at the Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (INTiBS). The standard consists of sealed cells for realization of six fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) in the low-temperature range, an adiabatic cryostat and Isotech water and mercury triple-point baths, capsule standard resistance thermometers (CSPRT), and AC and DC bridges with standard resistors for thermometers resistance measurements. INTiBS calibrates CSPRTs at the low-temperature fixed points with uncertainties less than 1 mK. In lower temperature range—between 2.5 K and about 25 K — rhodium-iron (RhFe) resistance thermometers are calibrated by comparison with a standard which participated in the EURAMET.T-K1.1 comparison. INTiBS offers a calibration service for industrial platinum resistance thermometers and for digital thermometers between 77 K and 273 K. These types of thermometers may be calibrated at INTiBS also in a higher temperature range up to 550°C. The Laboratory of Temperature Standard at INTiBS acquired an accreditation from the Polish Centre for Accreditation. A management system according to EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 was established at the Laboratory and presented on EURAMET QSM Forum.

  18. Short range spread-spectrum radiolocation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-04-29

    A short range radiolocation system and associated methods that allow the location of an item, such as equipment, containers, pallets, vehicles, or personnel, within a defined area. A small, battery powered, self-contained tag is provided to an item to be located. The tag includes a spread-spectrum transmitter that transmits a spread-spectrum code and identification information. A plurality of receivers positioned about the area receive signals from a transmitting tag. The position of the tag, and hence the item, is located by triangulation. The system employs three different ranging techniques for providing coarse, intermediate, and fine spatial position resolution. Coarse positioning information is provided by use of direct-sequence code phase transmitted as a spread-spectrum signal. Intermediate positioning information is provided by the use of a difference signal transmitted with the direct-sequence spread-spectrum code. Fine positioning information is provided by use of carrier phase measurements. An algorithm is employed to combine the three data sets to provide accurate location measurements.

  19. Classical investigation of long-range coherence in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preto, Jordane

    2016-12-01

    Almost five decades ago, H. Fröhlich [H. Fröhlich, "Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 2(5), 641-649 (1968)] reported, on a theoretical basis, that the excitation of quantum modes of vibration in contact with a thermal reservoir may lead to steady states, where under high enough rate of energy supply, only specific low-frequency modes of vibration are strongly excited. This nonlinear phenomenon was predicted to occur in biomolecular systems, which are known to exhibit complex vibrational spectral properties, especially in the terahertz frequency domain. However, since the effects of terahertz or lower-frequency modes are mainly classical at physiological temperatures, there are serious doubts that Fröhlich's quantum description can be applied to predict such a coherent behavior in a biological environment, as suggested by the author. In addition, a quantum formalism makes the phenomenon hard to investigate using realistic molecular dynamics simulations (MD) as they are usually based on the classical principles. In the current paper, we provide a general classical Hamiltonian description of a nonlinear open system composed of many degrees of freedom (biomolecular structure) excited by an external energy source. It is shown that a coherent behaviour similar to Fröhlich's effect is to be expected in the classical case for a given range of parameter values. Thus, the supplied energy is not completely thermalized but stored in a highly ordered fashion. The connection between our Hamiltonian description, carried out in the space of normal modes, and a more standard treatment in the physical space is emphasized in order to facilitate the prediction of the effect from MD simulations. It is shown how such a coherent phenomenon may induce long-range resonance effects that could be of critical importance at the biomolecular level. The present work is motivated by recent experimental evidences of long-lived excited low

  20. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Smart Materials for Ranging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Franse, Jaap; Sirenko, Valentyna

    2006-01-01

    The problem of determining the location of an object (usually called ranging) attracts at present much attention in different areas of applications, among them in ecological and safety devices. Electromagnetic waves along with sound waves are widely used for these purposes. Different aspects of materials with specific magnetic, electric and elastic properties are considered in view of potential application in the design and manufacturing of smart materials. Progress is reported in the fabrication and understanding of in-situ formation and characterization of solid state structures with specified properties. Attention is paid to the observation and study of the mobility of magnetic structures and of the kinetics of magnetic ordering transitions. Looking from a different perspective, one of the outcomes of the ARW is the emphasis on the important role that collective phenomena (like spin waves in systems with a magnetically ordered ground state, or critical currents in superconductors) could play at the design ...

  1. Phobos laser ranging: Numerical Geodesy experiments for Martian system science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Laser ranging is emerging as a technology for use over (inter)planetary distances, having the advantage of high (mm-cm) precision and accuracy and low mass and power consumption. We have performed numerical simulations to assess the science return in terms of geodetic observables of a hypothetical Phobos lander performing active two-way laser ranging with Earth-based stations. We focus our analysis on the estimation of Phobos and Mars gravitational, tidal and rotational parameters. We explicitly include systematic error sources in addition to uncorrelated random observation errors. This is achieved through the use of consider covariance parameters, specifically the ground station position and observation biases. Uncertainties for the consider parameters are set at 5 mm and at 1 mm for the Gaussian uncorrelated observation noise (for an observation integration time of 60 s). We perform the analysis for a mission duration up to 5 years. It is shown that a Phobos Laser Ranging (PLR) can contribute to a better understanding of the Martian system, opening the possibility for improved determination of a variety of physical parameters of Mars and Phobos. The simulations show that the mission concept is especially suited for estimating Mars tidal deformation parameters, estimating degree 2 Love numbers with absolute uncertainties at the 10-2 to 10-4 level after 1 and 4 years, respectively and providing separate estimates for the Martian quality factors at Sun and Phobos-forced frequencies. The estimation of Phobos libration amplitudes and gravity field coefficients provides an estimate of Phobos' relative equatorial and polar moments of inertia with an absolute uncertainty of 10-4 and 10-7, respectively, after 1 year. The observation of Phobos tidal deformation will be able to differentiate between a rubble pile and monolithic interior within 2 years. For all parameters, systematic errors have a much stronger influence (per unit uncertainty) than the uncorrelated Gaussian

  2. Anticipatory VOR suppression induced by visual and nonvisual stimuli in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G R; Paige, G D

    2004-09-01

    We compared the predictive behavior of smooth pursuit (SP) and suppression of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) in humans by examining anticipatory smooth eye movements, a phenomenon that arises after repeated presentations of sudden target movement preceded by an auditory warning cue. We investigated whether anticipatory smooth eye movements also occur prior to cued head motion, particularly when subjects expect interaction between the VOR and either real or imagined head-fixed targets. Subjects were presented with horizontal motion stimuli consisting of a visual target alone (SP), head motion in darkness (VOR), or head motion in the presence of a real or imagined head-fixed target (HFT and IHFT, respectively). Stimulus sequences were delivered as single cycles of a velocity sinusoid (frequency: 0.5 or 1.0 Hz) that were either cued (a sound cue 400 ms earlier) or noncued. For SP, anticipatory smooth eye movements developed over repeated trials in the cued, but not the noncued, condition. In the VOR condition, no such anticipatory eye movements were observed even when cued. In contrast, anticipatory responses were observed under cued, but not noncued, HFT and IHFT conditions, as for SP. Anticipatory HFT responses increased in proportion to the velocity of preceding stimuli. In general, anticipatory gaze responses were similar in cued SP, HFT, and IHFT conditions and were appropriate for expected target motion in space. Anticipatory responses may represent the output of a central mechanism for smooth-eye-movement generation that operates during predictive SP as well as VOR modulations that are linked with SP even in the absence of real visual targets.

  3. Mating System of Free-Ranging Dogs (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen females belonging to five groups were selected for the study of mating system in free-ranging domestic dogs (Canis familiaris All the matings occurred between August and December with a peak in late monsoon months (September to November. Both males and females differed in their degree of attractiveness to the opposite sex. The duration of courting association increased with the number of courting males in an association. The females exhibited selectivity by readily permitting some males to mate and avoiding, or even attacking others, if they attempted to mount. Frequency of mounting in courting association increased with the number of males present. There was a positive correlation between the duration of courting association and the frequency of mounting. The young adult males were more likely to copulate successfully than the old adult males. There was a negative correlation between the number of males present in an association and the number of successful copulations. In this study, six types of mating (monogamy, polygyny, promiscuity, polyandry, opportunity and rape were recorded. Mean (±S.E. duration of copulatory ties was 25.65 (±1.43 min. Several natural factors influencing the duration of copulatory ties were identified.

  4. Variable Phase Propagation Velocity for Long Range Lightning Location System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Koh, K.; Mezentsev, A.; Enno, S. E.; Sugier, J.; Fullekrug, M.

    2016-12-01

    Lightning Location System (LLS) is of key importance to numerous meteorological, industrial and aviation systems worldwide. A crucial input parameter of a LLS which utilizes time-of-arrival (TOA) method is the wave propagation velocity at low frequencies. For example, the WWLLN network use group velocity approach, which is assumed to be constant near the speed of light [e.g. Dowden et al., 2002]. The detected lightning signals are normally a mixture of ground waves and sky waves (i.e. ionospheric hops), which are associated with different elevation angle of the incident wave [e.g., Fullekrug et al., 2015]. In this study, we introduce the new concept of "phase propagation velocity" as observed by the receiver considering the elevation angle. It is found that the radio waves from two submarine communication transmitters at 20.9 kHz and 23.4 kHz exhibit phase propagation velocities that are 0.51% slower and 0.64% faster than the speed of light as a result of sky wave contributions and ground effects. Here, we apply our new technique, using a variable phase propagation velocity, to the TOA method for the first time. This method was applied to electric field recordings from a long range LLS ( 500km) that consists of four radio receivers in Western Europe. The lightning locations inferred from variable velocities improve the accuracy of locations inferred from a fixed velocity by 0.89-1.06 km when compared to the lightning locations reported by the UK Met Office. The observed phase propagation velocities depend on the ground and ionosphere conditions along the propagation paths. The distribution of the observed phase propagation velocities in small geographic areas fit a normal distribution that is not centered at the speed of light. Consequently, representative velocities can be calculated for many small geographic areas to produce a velocity map over central France where numerous lightning discharges occurred. This map reflects the impact of sky waves and ground

  5. Computational study on monkey VOR adaptation and smooth pursuit based on the parallel control-pathway theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2002-04-01

    Much controversy remains about the site of learning and memory for vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) adaptation in spite of numerous previous studies. One possible explanation for VOR adaptation is the flocculus hypothesis, which assumes that this adaptation is caused by synaptic plasticity in the cerebellar cortex. Another hypothesis is the model proposed by Lisberger that assumes that the learning that occurs in both the cerebellar cortex and the vestibular nucleus is necessary for VOR adaptation. Lisberger's model is characterized by a strong positive feedback loop carrying eye velocity information from the vestibular nucleus to the cerebellar cortex. This structure contributes to the maintenance of a smooth pursuit driving command with zero retinal slip during the steady-state phase of smooth pursuit with gain 1 or during the target blink condition. Here, we propose an alternative hypothesis that suggests that the pursuit driving command is maintained in the medial superior temporal (MST) area based on MST firing data during target blink and during ocular following blank, and as a consequence, we assume a much smaller gain for the positive feedback from the vestibular nucleus to the cerebellar cortex. This hypothesis is equivalent to assuming that there are two parallel neural pathways for controlling VOR and smooth pursuit: a main pathway of the semicircular canals to the vestibular nucleus for VOR, and a main pathway of the MST-dorsolateral pontine nuclei (DLPN)-flocculus/ventral paraflocculus to the vestibular nucleus for smooth pursuit. First, we theoretically demonstrate that this parallel control-pathway theory can reproduce the various firing patterns of horizontal gaze velocity Purkinje cells in the flocculus/ventral paraflocculus dependent on VOR in the dark, smooth pursuit, and VOR cancellation as reported in Miles et al. at least equally as well as the gaze velocity theory, which is the basic framework of Lisberger's model. Second, computer simulations

  6. A short-range ensemble prediction system for southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Park, R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available numerical weather prediction system over southern Africa using the Conformal- Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM). An ensemble prediction system (EPS) combines several individual weather model setups into an average forecast system where each member... contributes to the final weather forecast (Atger, 1999). Four different EPSs were configured using lagged-average forecasting techniques (Kalnay, 2003) and two different cloud parameterisation schemes (McGregor, 2003; Rotstayn, 1997). Rainfall forecasts...

  7. Communication system features dual mode range acquisition plus time delay measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, S. W.; Kline, A. W., Jr.; Welter, N. E.

    1968-01-01

    Communication system combines range acquisition system and time measurement system for tracking high velocity aircraft and spacecraft. The range acquisition system uses a pseudonoise code to determine range and the time measurement system reduces uncontrolled phase variations in the demodulated signal.

  8. A proposed test area for the spaceborne geodynamic ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Precise geodetic measurements are proposed in which an orbiting laser obtains intersite distance between retroreflectors 25 to 100 km apart on the ground. The recommended area is a rectangle 200 by 400 km in southern California and adjacent Nevada, trending northeast. It includes the entire width of the San Andreas fault zone, the Garlock fault, the thrust faults of the Transverse Ranges, and the active strike-slip faults of the Mojave Desert.

  9. Long-range measurement system using ultrasonic range sensor with high-power transmitter array in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sahdev; Furuhashi, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    A long-range measurement system comprising an ultrasonic range sensor with a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array in air was investigated. The system is simple in construction and can be used under adverse conditions such as fog, rain, darkness, and smoke. However, due to ultrasonic waves are well absorbed by air molecules, the measurable range is limited to a few meters. Therefore, we developed a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array consisting of 144 transmitting elements. All elements are arranged in the form of a 12×12 array pattern. The sound pressure level at 5m from the transmitter array was >30dB higher than that of a single element. A measuring range of over 25m was achieved using this transmitter array in conjunction with a receiver array having 32 receiving elements. The characteristics of the transmitter array and range sensor system are discussed by comparing simulation and experimental results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure, stability, and formation pathways of colloidal gels in systems with short-range attraction and long-range repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schooneveld, Matti M; de Villeneuve, Volkert W A; Dullens, Roel P A; Aarts, Dirk G A L; Leunissen, Mirjam E; Kegel, Willem K

    2009-04-09

    We study colloidal gels formed upon centrifugation of dilute suspensions of spherical colloids (radius 446 nm) that interact through a long-range electrostatic repulsion (Debye length approximately 850 nm) and a short-range depletion attraction (approximately 12.5 nm), by means of confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). In these systems, at low colloid densities, colloidal clusters are stable. Upon increasing the density by centrifugation, at different stages of cluster formation, we show that colloidal gels are formed that significantly differ in structure. While significant single-particle displacements do not occur on the hour time scale, the different gels slowly evolve within several weeks to a similar structure that is at least stable for over a year. Furthermore, while reference systems without long-range repulsion collapse into dense glassy states, the repulsive colloidal gels are able to support external stress in the form of a centrifugal field of at least 9g.

  11. Improved cumulative probabilities and range accuracy of a pulsed Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode laser ranging system with turbulence effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hanjun; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Liu, Qiang; Lu, Zhenli; Li, Bin

    2017-10-10

    There exists a performance limitation in a pulsed Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode laser ranging system because of the echo intensity random fluctuation caused by turbulence effects. To suppress the influence of turbulence effects, we present a cumulative pulse detection technique with the ability to achieve improved cumulative probabilities and range accuracy. Based on the modulated Poisson model, the cumulative probabilities, range accuracy, and their influencing factors are investigated for a cumulative Q-switched laser pulse train. The results show that the improved cumulative probabilities and range accuracy can be obtained by utilizing cumulative pulse detection, with the condition that the echo intensity is 10, the echo pulse width is 10 ns, and the turbulence degree is 3, the target detection probability increases by 0.4, the false alarm probability decreases by 0.08, and the accuracy and precision increase by 46 cm and 27 cm, respectively.

  12. On a long range particle system with unbounded flip rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, R.; Quant, C.

    2000-01-01

    We consider an interacting particle system on f0; 1g Z with non-local, unbounded ip rates. Zeroes ip to one at a rate that depends on the number of ones to the right until we see a zero (the ip rate equals times one plus this number). The ip rate of the ones equals . We give motivation for models

  13. Entanglement Entropy of Quantum Hall Systems with Short Range Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Barry; Levine, Greg

    2015-03-01

    The critical value of the mobility for which the filling 5/2 quantum Hall effect is destroyed by short range disorder is determined from an earlier calculation of the entanglement entropy. The value agrees well with experiment; this agreement is particularly significant in that there are no adjustable parameters. Entanglement entropy vs. disorder strength for filling 1/2, filling 9/2 and filling 7/3 is calculated. For filling 1/2 there is no evidence for a transition for the disorder strengths considered; for filling 9/2 there appears to be a stripe-liquid transition. For filling 7/3 there again appears to be a transition at similar value of the disorder strength as the 5/2 transition but there are stronger finite size effects.

  14. Pairing and Short-Range Correlations in Nuclear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, A.; Polls, A.; Dickhoff, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    The structure and density dependence of the pairing gap in infinite matter is relevant for astrophysical phenomena and provides a starting point for the discussion of pairing properties in nuclear structure. Short-range correlations can significantly deplete the available single-particle strength around the Fermi surface and thus provide a reduction mechanism of the pairing gap. Here, we study this effect in the singlet and triplet channels of both neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter. Our calculations use phase-shift equivalent interactions and chiral two-body and three-body interactions as a starting point. We find an unambiguous reduction of the gap in all channels with very small dependence on the NN force in the singlet neutron matter and the triplet nuclear matter channel. In the latter channel, SRC alone provide a 50% reduction of the pairing gap.

  15. Hydrogeology of Pico Frentes Karst system (Iberian range, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, P.; Sanz, E.; Menendez-Pidal, I.

    2016-07-01

    The karst system of Pico Frentes has developed within an Upper Cretaceous calcareous series whose welldefined folded geometry determines that its aquifer reserves are held mainly in three hydraulically-connected synclines, with a groundwater capacity of between 5 and 7 hm3 . The recharge to this unconfined peneplain aquifer is autogenous and diffuse. On a large scale, groundwater flow is directed by the base of the synclines, while on a small scale, it flows along groundwater conduits towards the Fuentetoba Spring (210 l/s) and source of the River Mazos (50 l/s), following a highly variable flow regime of low inertia, with other smaller discharges emanating during periods of high water. Analysis of hydrographs of these springs indicates a very variable rate system and little power regulating natural, characteristic of a typical karstic aquifer, with great capacity for renewal and low residence time. Using hydrogram simulations of these upwellings using a mathematical rainfall-runoff model, a detailed quantification of the average water balance was made for a twenty-year time series. This water balance consists of 16,86 hm3 rainfall (100%); natural recharge, 8,35 hm3 (49,53%); EVT 8,50 hm3 (50,41%); pumped groundwater abstractions, 0,01hm3 (0,06%); surface runoff, 0 hm3, groundwater transfers to other aquifer, 0 hm3. (Author)

  16. Synaptic plasticity in medial vestibular nucleus neurons: comparison with computational requirements of VOR adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R W Menzies

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR gain adaptation, a longstanding experimental model of cerebellar learning, utilizes sites of plasticity in both cerebellar cortex and brainstem. However, the mechanisms by which the activity of cortical Purkinje cells may guide synaptic plasticity in brainstem vestibular neurons are unclear. Theoretical analyses indicate that vestibular plasticity should depend upon the correlation between Purkinje cell and vestibular afferent inputs, so that, in gain-down learning for example, increased cortical activity should induce long-term depression (LTD at vestibular synapses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we expressed this correlational learning rule in its simplest form, as an anti-Hebbian, heterosynaptic spike-timing dependent plasticity interaction between excitatory (vestibular and inhibitory (floccular inputs converging on medial vestibular nucleus (MVN neurons (input-spike-timing dependent plasticity, iSTDP. To test this rule, we stimulated vestibular afferents to evoke EPSCs in rat MVN neurons in vitro. Control EPSC recordings were followed by an induction protocol where membrane hyperpolarizing pulses, mimicking IPSPs evoked by flocculus inputs, were paired with single vestibular nerve stimuli. A robust LTD developed at vestibular synapses when the afferent EPSPs coincided with membrane hyperpolarization, while EPSPs occurring before or after the simulated IPSPs induced no lasting change. Furthermore, the iSTDP rule also successfully predicted the effects of a complex protocol using EPSP trains designed to mimic classical conditioning. CONCLUSIONS: These results, in strong support of theoretical predictions, suggest that the cerebellum alters the strength of vestibular synapses on MVN neurons through hetero-synaptic, anti-Hebbian iSTDP. Since the iSTDP rule does not depend on post-synaptic firing, it suggests a possible mechanism for VOR adaptation without compromising gaze-holding and VOR

  17. Damage assessment of long-range rocket system by electromagnetic pulse weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lingyu; Liu, Guoqing; Li, Jinming

    2017-08-01

    This paper analyzes the damage mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic pulse weapon, establishes the index system of survivability of long-range rocket launcher system, and uses AHP method to establish the combat effectiveness model of long-range rocket missile system. According to the damage mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic pulse weapon, the damage effect of the remote rocket system is established by using the exponential method to realize the damage efficiency of the remote rocket system.

  18. Research on risk long range identification for vessel traffic dynamic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Guo, Ruijuan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Hainan

    2017-09-01

    Vessel Long-range identification and tracking system has already been widely installed and applied in vessel. In this paper AIS system, vessel reporting system and LRIT in China are compared and analyzed based on the coverage area, confidentiality and accuracy of the LRIT information. Vessel Long-range identification and tracking model is established through a combination of AIS with LRIT system, which is applied to the research of vessel traffic dynamic system risk long range identification. Finally, the application of LRIT in the maritime field is discussed.

  19. Application of the NAVSTAR/GLOBAL positioning system on instrumented ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This report treats the application of the NAVSTAR/Global Positioning System as the Position/Location System in Real Time Casualty Assessment experiments. The desirable characteristics of a position/location system are listed. A current position/location system, the Range Measuring System, is used as a comparison reference for the Global Positioning System. Operation and parameters of the Global Positioning System are presented. A d...

  20. The effect of human-body shadowing on indoor UWB TOA-based ranging systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Y.; Ali, Ameenulla J.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Scanlon, W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its superior time resolution, ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) transmission can be a highly accurate technique for ranging in indoor localization systems. Nevertheless, the presence of obstructions may deteriorate the ranging performance of the system. Indoor environments are often densely

  1. The research of binocular vision ranging system based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shikuan; Yang, Xu

    2017-10-01

    Based on the study of the principle of binocular parallax ranging, a binocular vision ranging system is designed and built. The stereo matching algorithm is realized by LabVIEW software. The camera calibration and distance measurement are completed. The error analysis shows that the system fast, effective, can be used in the corresponding industrial occasions.

  2. 75 FR 43813 - Modification of VOR Federal Airways V-82, V-175, V-191, and V-430 in the Vicinity of Bemidji, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... (BJI) VOR, that forms a segment of these airways, has been out of service for over two years due to... intersection reporting point is being established in the same location as the BJI VOR to restore a navigable... ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS 0 1. The authority citation for part 71 continues to read as follows...

  3. Koppeling tussen de landelijke medische registratie LMR en de verkeersongevallenregistratie VOR van in ziekenhuizen opgenomen verkeersgewonden : resultaten van een proefkoppeling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokpoel, A. & Polak, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a test linkage that was conducted in 1987. The hospitalised traffic injuries recorded by both the Dutch National Medical Registration (LMR) and by the Dutch Department of Traffic Accident Registration (VOR) were linked to each other. The primary aim of the linkage is to

  4. Design and implementation of range-gated underwater laser imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wei-long; Zhang, Xiao-hui

    2014-02-01

    A range-gated underwater laser imaging system is designed and implemented in this article, which is made up of laser illumination subsystem, photoelectric imaging subsystem and control subsystem. The experiment of underwater target drone detection has been done, the target of distance 40m far from the range-gated underwater laser imaging system can be imaged in the pool which water attenuation coefficient is 0.159m-1. Experimental results show that the range-gated underwater laser imaging system can detect underwater objects effectively.

  5. Multi-objective optimization to improve the product range of baking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.; Boom, R.M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Esveld, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The operational range of a food production system can be used to obtain a variation in certain product characteristics. The range of product characteristics that can be simultaneously realized by an optimal choice of the process conditions is inherently limited. Knowledge of this feasible product

  6. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range... Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed before February 1, 1972... tax return in accordance with § 1.167(a)-11 of this chapter (relating to depreciation allowances using...

  7. Analysis of the exactness of mean-field theory in long-range interacting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    Relationships between general long-range interacting classical systems on a lattice and the corresponding mean-field models (infinitely long-range interacting models) are investigated. We study systems in arbitrary dimension d for periodic boundary conditions and focus on the free energy for fixed value of the total magnetization. As a result, it is shown that the equilibrium free energy of the long-range interacting systems are exactly the same as that of the corresponding mean-field models (exactness of the mean-field theory). Moreover, the mean-field metastable states can be also preserved in general long-range interacting systems. It is found that in the case that the magnetization is conserved, the mean-field theory does not give correct property in some parameter region.

  8. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Current fluctuations in stochastic systems with long-range memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. J.; Touchette, H.

    2009-08-01

    We propose a method to calculate the large deviations of current fluctuations in a class of stochastic particle systems with history-dependent rates. Long-range temporal correlations are seen to alter the speed of the large deviation function in analogy with long-range spatial correlations in equilibrium systems. We give some illuminating examples and discuss the applicability of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem.

  9. Technical Note: Range verification system using edge detection method for a scintillator and a CCD camera system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saotome, Naoya, E-mail: naosao@nirs.go.jp; Furukawa, Takuji; Hara, Yousuke; Mizushima, Kota; Tansho, Ryohei; Saraya, Yuichi; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji [Department of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional irradiation with a scanned carbon-ion beam has been performed from 2011 at the authors’ facility. The authors have developed the rotating-gantry equipped with the scanning irradiation system. The number of combinations of beam properties to measure for the commissioning is more than 7200, i.e., 201 energy steps, 3 intensities, and 12 gantry angles. To compress the commissioning time, quick and simple range verification system is required. In this work, the authors develop a quick range verification system using scintillator and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and estimate the accuracy of the range verification. Methods: A cylindrical plastic scintillator block and a CCD camera were installed on the black box. The optical spatial resolution of the system is 0.2 mm/pixel. The camera control system was connected and communicates with the measurement system that is part of the scanning system. The range was determined by image processing. Reference range for each energy beam was determined by a difference of Gaussian (DOG) method and the 80% of distal dose of the depth-dose distribution that were measured by a large parallel-plate ionization chamber. The authors compared a threshold method and a DOG method. Results: The authors found that the edge detection method (i.e., the DOG method) is best for the range detection. The accuracy of range detection using this system is within 0.2 mm, and the reproducibility of the same energy measurement is within 0.1 mm without setup error. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that the authors’ range check system is capable of quick and easy range verification with sufficient accuracy.

  10. Technical Note: Range verification system using edge detection method for a scintillator and a CCD camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saotome, Naoya; Furukawa, Takuji; Hara, Yousuke; Mizushima, Kota; Tansho, Ryohei; Saraya, Yuichi; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional irradiation with a scanned carbon-ion beam has been performed from 2011 at the authors' facility. The authors have developed the rotating-gantry equipped with the scanning irradiation system. The number of combinations of beam properties to measure for the commissioning is more than 7200, i.e., 201 energy steps, 3 intensities, and 12 gantry angles. To compress the commissioning time, quick and simple range verification system is required. In this work, the authors develop a quick range verification system using scintillator and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and estimate the accuracy of the range verification. A cylindrical plastic scintillator block and a CCD camera were installed on the black box. The optical spatial resolution of the system is 0.2 mm/pixel. The camera control system was connected and communicates with the measurement system that is part of the scanning system. The range was determined by image processing. Reference range for each energy beam was determined by a difference of Gaussian (DOG) method and the 80% of distal dose of the depth-dose distribution that were measured by a large parallel-plate ionization chamber. The authors compared a threshold method and a DOG method. The authors found that the edge detection method (i.e., the DOG method) is best for the range detection. The accuracy of range detection using this system is within 0.2 mm, and the reproducibility of the same energy measurement is within 0.1 mm without setup error. The results of this study demonstrate that the authors' range check system is capable of quick and easy range verification with sufficient accuracy.

  11. Helical CT of the paranasal sinuses prior to bone marrow transplantation; Klinische Relevanz der NNH-CT vor Knochenmarktransplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholzer, K. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie; Kauczor, H.U. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie; Heussel, C.P. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie; Derigs, G. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Haematologie; Thelen, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie

    1997-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical necessity of CT of the paranasal sinuses before bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Patients and methods: 80 patients with malignant disease underwent coronal CT of the paranasal sinuses prior to transplantation to exclude sinusitis. Results: CT revealed sinusitis requesting therapy in 17/80 patients (21%). Patients with leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were significantly more affected. Chronic sinusitis was found in two patients, mucosal swelling not requesting therapy in 22, and normal findings in 39. Conclusion: CT of the paranasal sinuses is advised in patients suffering haemoblastoses with an increased risk of infectious complications during the transplantation phase, because pathological findings can be expected in 21% of the patients. Diagnosis and therapy of an infectious focus within the paranasal sinuses is especially important prior to allogenous bone marrow transplantation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Die Studie ueberprueft die klinische Relevanz der computertomographischen Untersuchung der Nasennebenhoehlen (NNH) bei Patienten vor geplanter Knochenmarktransplantation oder peripherer Blutstammzelltransplantation. Patienten und Methode: 80 Patienten mit maligner Grunderkrankung wurden vor Transplantation zum Abschluss einer Sinusitis mit einer koronaren Spiral-CT untersucht und retrospektiv ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: In 17 Faellen (21%) zeigten sich bei der Screeninguntersuchung pathologische Befunde, die eine Therapie vor Transplantation erforderten. Patienten mit Leukaemien und Non-Hodgkin-Lymphomen waren am haeufigsten betroffen. 24 Patienten hatten eine geringgradige, nicht therapiebeduerftige Schleimhautschwellung, 39 einen Normalbefund. Schlussfolgerung: Patienten mit Haemoblastosen und erhoehtem Risiko fuer infektioese Komplikationen waehrend der Transplantationsphase sollten eine CT der NNH erhalten, da bei 21% der Patienten mit pathologischen Befunden zu rechnen ist. Die Diagnose und

  12. 10-decade wide-range neutron-monitoring system. Final test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, W.K.

    1970-10-01

    The objective of Project Agreement 49 was to design, fabricate, test, and evaluate under actual nuclear reactor operating conditions, one prototype counting-Campbelling wide-range type thermal neutron flux measurement channel. This report describes the basic system designed for PA 49, and describes and presents the results of tests conducted on the system. Individual module descriptions and schematics are contained in the instruction manual which was issued with the system.

  13. Improving Delay-Range-Dependent Stability Condition for Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the delay-range-dependent stability for systems with interval time-varying delay. Through defining the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and estimating the derivative of the LKF by introducing new vectors, using free matrices and reciprocally convex approach, the new delay-range-dependent stability conditions are obtained. Two well-known examples are given to illustrate the less conservatism of the proposed theoretical results.

  14. A Newly Developed X-Y Planar Nano-Motion Table System with Large Travel Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisaki, Yugo; Sawano, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Hayato; Shinno, Hidenori

    Precision motion control technology has been widely used in high accuracy applications such as advanced scientific instruments and semiconductor fabrication equipment. In particular, the nano-motion control system with multiple degrees of freedom positioning in large travel ranges has been required in the field of precision engineering. In order to realize such a system, it is necessary and indispensable to develop a planar motion table system based on a new design concept. This paper presents a newly developed X-Y planar nano-motion table system with large travel ranges. This system is composed of a fine motion table and a coarse motion mechanism. The fine motion table is supported by porous aerostatic bearings and driven by voice coil motors with a laser interferometer feedback in a perfect non-contact condition. In addition, the table is driven at the center of gravity during the X-Y planar motion. The coarse motion mechanism has the frame structure with the coils of voice coil motors for the fine motion table. In order to enlarge the table travel ranges, the coarse motion mechanism follows the fine table motion. Performance evaluation results confirm that the developed table system has a remarkable performance which includes nanometer positioning capability over large travel ranges.

  15. Mobile network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Hansen, Per

    In this report we have presented the network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system that allows utilization of mobile network connections without the use of static public IP addresses. The architecture mitigates the issues of additional fees and contractual obligations that are linked...... to the acquisition of the mobile network connections with static public IP addresses. The architecture consists of a hardware VPN solution based on the network appliances Z1 and MX60 from Cisco Meraki with additional 3G or 4G dongles. With the presented network architecture and appropriate configuration, we fulfill...... the requirements of running the long-range WindScanner system using a mobile network such as 3G. This architecture allows us to have the WindScanners and the master computer in different geographical locations, and in general facilitates deployments of the long-range WindScanner system....

  16. Equilibrium properties of quantum spin systems with nonadditive long-range interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    We study equilibrium states of quantum spin systems with nonadditive long-range interactions by adopting an appropriate scaling of the interaction strength, i.e., the so-called Kac prescription. In classical spin systems, it is known that the equilibrium free energy is obtained by minimizing the free-energy functional over the coarse-grained magnetization. Here we show that it is also true for quantum spin systems. From this observation, it is found that when the canonical ensemble and the microcanonical ensemble are not equivalent in some parameter region, it is not necessarily justified to replace the actual long-range interaction by the infinite-range interaction (Curie-Weiss-type interaction). On the other hand, in the parameter region where the two ensembles are equivalent, this replacement is always justified. We examine the Heisenberg XXZ model as an illustrative example and discuss the relation to experiments.

  17. A Multifrequency Radar System for Detecting Humans and Characterizing Human Activities for Short-Range Through-Wall and Long-Range Foliage Penetration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram M. Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multifrequency radar system for detecting humans and classifying their activities at short and long ranges is described. The short-range radar system operates within the S-Band frequency range for through-wall applications at distances of up to 3 m. It utilizes two separate waveforms which are selected via switching: a wide-band noise waveform or a continuous single tone. The long-range radar system operating in the W-Band millimeter-wave frequency range performs at distances of up to about 100 m in free space and up to about 30 m through light foliage. It employs a composite multimodal signal consisting of two waveforms, a wide-band noise waveform and an embedded single tone, which are summed and transmitted simultaneously. Matched filtering of the received and transmitted noise signals is performed to detect targets with high-range resolution, whereas the received single tone signal is used for the Doppler analysis. Doppler measurements are used to distinguish between different human movements and gestures using the characteristic micro-Doppler signals. Our measurements establish the ability of this system to detect and range humans and distinguish between different human movements at different ranges.

  18. The European Legislation Applicable to Medium-Range Inductive Wireless Power Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Broydé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medium-range inductive wireless power transmission systems allow a sufficient power transfer without requiring close proximity between a primary coil and a secondary coil. We briefly investigate the range of a typical system and its radiated emission, from the perspectives of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC and human exposure requirements. We then discuss the applicable legislation in the European Union, the main question being the applicability of the R&TTE or radio equipment directives. Our conclusion is that this applicability depends on multiple parameters, among which is the presence of a self-tuning capability or of a transmitter control based on telemetry.

  19. A correction method of encoder bias in satellite laser ranging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Peiyuan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a satellite laser ranging telescope system, well-aligned encoders of the elevation and azimuth axes are essential for tracking objects. However, it is very difficult and time-consuming to correct the bias between the absolute-position indices of the encoders and the astronomical coordinates, especially in the absence of a finder scope for our system. To solve this problem, a method is presented based on the phenomenon that all stars move anti-clockwise around Polaris in the northern hemisphere. Tests of the proposed adjustment procedure in a satellite laser ranging (SLR system demonstrated the effectiveness and the time saved by using the approach, which greatly facilitates the optimization of a tracking system.

  20. S-band radar calibration test of the Lightning Detection and Ranging system (LDAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    A calibration and an accuracy assessment of the Lightning Detection and Ranging System (LDAR) were attempted through a simultaneous track of an S Band radar transponder and a lightning simulator carried by the NASA 6 airplane on a test flight. Included in the report are the results of the calibration test, error analyses of the radar, and the LDAR systems, and recommendations for future calibration tests.

  1. Pilot Signal Design and Direct Ranging Methods for Radio Localization Using OFDM Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Lishuai

    Having accurate localization capability is becoming important for existing and future terrestrial wireless communication systems, in particular for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, such as WiMAX, wireless local area network, long-term evolution (LTE) and its extension LTE......-Advanced. To obtain accurate position estimates, not only advanced estimation algorithms are needed but also the transmitted signals should be scrutinized. In this dissertation, we investigate how to design OFDM pilot signals and propose and evaluate high accuracy ranging techniques with tractable computational....... For scenarios where the number of path components is unknown and these components are not necessary separable, we propose a direct ranging technique using the received frequency-domain OFDM pilot signals. Compared to conventional (two-step) ranging methods, which estimate intermediate parameters...

  2. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-12-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes.

  3. Functional framework and hardware platform for dependability study in short range wireless embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senouci, B.; Annema, Anne J.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2011-01-01

    A new direction in short-range wireless applications has appeared in the form of high-speed data communication devices for distances of a few meters. Behind these embedded applications, a complex Hardware/Software architecture is built. Dependability is one of the major challenges in these systems.

  4. Measurement based scenario analysis of short-range distribution system planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    feasible scenarios are performed based on a local distribution system at Støvring in Denmark. Simulation results provide more accurate and insightful information for the decision-maker when using the probabilistic analysis than using the worst-case analysis, so that a better planning can be achieved.......This paper focuses on short-range distribution system planning using a probabilistic approach. Empirical probabilistic distributions of load demand and distributed generations are derived from the historical measurement data and incorporated into the system planning. Simulations with various...

  5. Field System for Extended Range Continuous Monitoring of Near Surface CO2 Gas from Multiple Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, J.; Amonette, J.

    2007-12-01

    A novel system was developed for continuous measurement of near surface carbon dioxide gas concentrations associated with the monitoring of carbon dioxide capture and storage in geologic formations. In the current configuration, the battery powered system allows for near surface CO2 gas collection (0-300,000 ppm) from seven (expandable) independently located steady state chambers. Each chamber has an associated pump and metering valve attached to a control manifold that either directs the flow to the analyzer (test chamber) or to exhaust (all others). The uniquely large concentration range in which the system is capable of operating is achieved by using an auto-control system that senses when the LiCor LI-7000 analyzer is approaching saturation and then dilutes the incoming sample using a metered flow of nitrogen gas from the reference gas supply. The dilution is carried out in stages and is capable of increasing or decreasing on the fly to keep the analyzer within range. By reading in the sample flow rate, the dilution gas flow rate, and the output flow it is possible to calculate a dilution scalar that acts as a multiplier for the LiCor analyzer concentration, allowing for immediate read and record of true sampler concentrations. This system was tested and validated during a week of continuous operation and field use, monitoring the seven chambers 24 hours/day with CO2 concentrations ranging from background to over 130,000 ppm.

  6. The Ansel Adams zone system: HDR capture and range compression by chemical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J.

    2010-02-01

    We tend to think of digital imaging and the tools of PhotoshopTM as a new phenomenon in imaging. We are also familiar with multiple-exposure HDR techniques intended to capture a wider range of scene information, than conventional film photography. We know about tone-scale adjustments to make better pictures. We tend to think of everyday, consumer, silver-halide photography as a fixed window of scene capture with a limited, standard range of response. This description of photography is certainly true, between 1950 and 2000, for instant films and negatives processed at the drugstore. These systems had fixed dynamic range and fixed tone-scale response to light. All pixels in the film have the same response to light, so the same light exposure from different pixels was rendered as the same film density. Ansel Adams, along with Fred Archer, formulated the Zone System, staring in 1940. It was earlier than the trillions of consumer photos in the second half of the 20th century, yet it was much more sophisticated than today's digital techniques. This talk will describe the chemical mechanisms of the zone system in the parlance of digital image processing. It will describe the Zone System's chemical techniques for image synthesis. It also discusses dodging and burning techniques to fit the HDR scene into the LDR print. Although current HDR imaging shares some of the Zone System's achievements, it usually does not achieve all of them.

  7. Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

    2003-08-14

    Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

  8. Advanced technologies in the ASI MLRO towards a new generation laser ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Thomas; Bianco, Giuseppe

    1994-01-01

    Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO) is a high performance, highly automated optical and astronomical observatory currently under design and development by AlliedSignal for the Italian Space Agency (ASI). It is projected to become operational at the Centro Geodesia Spaziale in Matera, Italy, in 1997. MLRO, based on a 1.5-meter astronomical quality telescope, will perform ranging to spacecraft in earthbound orbits, lunar reflectors, and specially equipped deep space missions. The primary emphasis during design is to incorporate state-of-the-art technologies to produce an intelligent, automated, high accuracy ranging system that will mimic the characteristic features of a fifth generation laser ranging system. The telescope has multiple ports and foci to support future experiments in the areas of laser communications, lidar, astrometry, etc. The key features providing state-of-the-art ranging performance include: a diode-pumped picosecond (50 ps) laser, high speed (3-5 GHz) optoelectronic detection and signal processing, and a high accuracy (6 ps) high resolution (less than 2 ps) time measurement capability. The above combination of technologies is expected to yield millimeter laser ranging precision and accuracy on targets up to 300,000 km, surpassing the best operational instrument performance to date by a factor of five or more. Distributed processing and control using a state-of-the-art computing environment provides the framework for efficient operation, system optimization, and diagnostics. A computationally intelligent environment permits optimal planning, scheduling, tracking, and data processing. It also supports remote access, monitor, and control for joint experiments with other observatories.

  9. Spin segregation via dynamically induced long-range interactions in a system of ultracold fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebling, Ulrich [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Avenida Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Eckardt, Andre [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Avenida Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Avenida Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    We investigate theoretically the time evolution of a one-dimensional system of spin-1/2 fermions in a harmonic trap after, initially, a spiral spin configuration far from equilibrium is created. We predict a spin segregation building up in time already for weak interaction under realistic experimental conditions. The effect relies on the interplay between exchange interaction and the harmonic trap, and it is found for a wide range of parameters. It can be understood as a consequence of an effective, dynamically induced long-range interaction that is derived by integrating out the rapid oscillatory dynamics in the trap.

  10. Effective-range parameters and vertex constants for Λ-nuclear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakityansky, S. A.; Gopane, I. M.

    For a wide range of the core-nuclei (6 ≤ A ≤ 207), the scattering lengths, effective radii, and the other effective-range parameters (up to the order ˜ k8) for the angular momentum ℓ = 0, 1, 2 are calculated within a two-body ΛA-model. For the same hypernuclear systems, the S-matrix residues as well as the corresponding Nuclear-Vertex and Asymptotic-Normalization constants (NVC’s and ANC’s) for the bound states are also found.

  11. Long ranged interactions in computer simulations and for quasi-2D systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazars, Martial, E-mail: Martial.Mazars@th.u-psud.f

    2011-03-15

    Taking correctly into account long ranged interactions in molecular simulations of molecular models based on classical atomistic representations are essential to obtain reliable results on model systems and in simulations of biological systems. A lot of numerical methods have been developed to this end; the most important of them are reviewed in this paper. Particular attention is paid to the analytical relations between the methods, this allows comparisons on efficiency and accuracy between them and also to proceed to precise implementations of these techniques. While most of the methods have been developed for Coulomb interactions, we give also some analytical details to apply these methods to screened Coulomb (Yukawa interactions), inverse power law and dipolar interactions. Particular types of systems, the quasi-2D systems, are also considered in this paper. Quasi-2D systems represent a large class of physical systems where the spatial extension in one direction of the space is very small by comparison to the other two. These representations are very useful to describe the properties of interfaces, surfaces, fluids confined in slab geometry, etc. In computer simulations, these systems are studied with partial periodic boundary conditions: periodic boundary conditions are taken in directions where spatial extensions are large and some other boundary conditions are taken in directions with smaller extensions. In this review, we describe also the numerical methods developed to handle long ranged interactions in numerical simulations of quasi-2D systems. The properties of quasi-2D systems depend strongly on interactions between components; more specifically electrostatic and magnetic interactions and interactions with external fields are of particular interest in these systems.

  12. Measurement of peak impact loads differ between accelerometers - Effects of system operating range and sampling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Christina; Giangregorio, Lora M; Gibbs, Jenna C; Levine, Iris C; Tung, James; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-06-14

    A wide variety of accelerometer systems, with differing sensor characteristics, are used to detect impact loading during physical activities. The study examined the effects of system characteristics on measured peak impact loading during a variety of activities by comparing outputs from three separate accelerometer systems, and by assessing the influence of simulated reductions in operating range and sampling rate. Twelve healthy young adults performed seven tasks (vertical jump, box drop, heel drop, and bilateral single leg and lateral jumps) while simultaneously wearing three tri-axial accelerometers including a criterion standard laboratory-grade unit (Endevco 7267A) and two systems primarily used for activity-monitoring (ActiGraph GT3X+, GCDC X6-2mini). Peak acceleration (gmax) was compared across accelerometers, and errors resulting from down-sampling (from 640 to 100Hz) and range-limiting (to ±6g) the criterion standard output were characterized. The Actigraph activity-monitoring accelerometer underestimated gmax by an average of 30.2%; underestimation by the X6-2mini was not significant. Underestimation error was greater for tasks with greater impact magnitudes. gmax was underestimated when the criterion standard signal was down-sampled (by an average of 11%), range limited (by 11%), and by combined down-sampling and range-limiting (by 18%). These effects explained 89% of the variance in gmax error for the Actigraph system. This study illustrates that both the type and intensity of activity should be considered when selecting an accelerometer for characterizing impact events. In addition, caution may be warranted when comparing impact magnitudes from studies that use different accelerometers, and when comparing accelerometer outputs to osteogenic impact thresholds proposed in literature. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of a short-range ensemble precipitation prediction system over the Iberian Peninsula and Balearics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Muñoz, D.; Martin, M. L.; Valero, F.; Luna, M. Y.; Morata, A.; Sebastian, L. I.

    2009-09-01

    A short-range ensemble precipitation forecast system has been constructed over the Iberian Peninsula and Balearics by means of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Centre for Atmospheric Research Model (MM5). The ensemble system consists of ten members, each run with a different combination of two different initial conditions from global models, IFS-ECMWF and GFS-NCEP, and five different subgrid-scale physics configurations for three months period of 2006. The mesoscale verification is made by using observational precipitation data of the Spanish Climatic Network. To ensure the quality individual members the forecast distribution of each member has been studied, showing good agreement with the observed precipitation distribution. The created short-range ensemble shows high spread-skill correlation values for daily precipitation. However, the asymmetric shape of the rank histogram indicates some underdispersion, suggesting an under-forecasting behaviour. Talagrand diagrams have been created for different precipitation thresholds to analyze more deeply the system calibration, showing a nearly flat shape on the lower bins and a clear accumulation on the higher interval, indicating that the system is well bias affected. The Relative Operating Characteristic curves show a very outstanding area indicating the good discrimination capacity for each of the thresholds. The reliability diagrams are also indicative of the good reliability of the forecasting system, depicting in general good agreement between forecast probability and the mean observed frequency. Because of that, the verification proves the usefulness of the forecasting system over the study area.

  14. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-4 - Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depreciation range system. 1.167(l)-4 Section 1.167(l)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-4 Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system. (a) Application of section 167(l) to certain property subject to asset depreciation range system...

  15. Selecting among competing models of electro-optic, infrared camera system range performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jonathan M.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Range performance is often the key requirement around which electro-optical and infrared camera systems are designed. This work presents an objective framework for evaluating competing range performance models. Model selection based on the Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) is presented for the type of data collected during a typical human observer and target identification experiment. These methods are then demonstrated on observer responses to both visible and infrared imagery in which one of three maritime targets was placed at various ranges. We compare the performance of a number of different models, including those appearing previously in the literature. We conclude that our model-based approach offers substantial improvements over the traditional approach to inference, including increased precision and the ability to make predictions for some distances other than the specific set for which experimental trials were conducted.

  16. The Design Concept of the First Mobile Satellite Laser Ranging System (ARGO-M in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Jo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI launched the development project of two satellite laser ranging (SLR systems in early 2008 after the government fund approval of the SLR systems in 2007. One mobile SLR system and one permanent SLR station will be developed with the completion of the project. The main objectives of these systems will be focused on the Space Geodetic researches. A system requirement review was held in the second half of the same year. Through the following system design review meeting and other design reviews, many unsolved technical and engineering issues would be discussed and resolved. However, the design of the mobile SLR system is a corner stone of whole project. The noticeable characteristics of Korea’s first SLR system are 1 use of light weight main mirror, 2 design of compact optical assembly, 3 use of KHz laser pulse, 4 use of commercial laser generator, 5 remote operation capability, 6 automatic tracking, 7 state of art operation system, etc. In this paper, the major user requirement and pre-defined specification are presented and discussed.

  17. Continuous Symmetry Breaking in 1D Long-Range Interacting Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2017-07-01

    Continuous symmetry breaking (CSB) in low-dimensional systems, forbidden by the Mermin-Wagner theorem for short-range interactions, may take place in the presence of slowly decaying long-range interactions. Nevertheless, there is no stringent bound on how slowly interactions should decay to give rise to CSB in 1D quantum systems at zero temperature. Here, we study a long-range interacting spin chain with U (1 ) symmetry and power-law interactions V (r )˜1 /rα. Using a number of analytical and numerical techniques, we find CSB for α smaller than a critical exponent αc(≤3 ) that depends on the microscopic parameters of the model. Furthermore, the transition from the gapless X Y phase to the gapless CSB phase is mediated by the breaking of conformal and Lorentz symmetries due to long-range interactions, and is described by a universality class akin to, but distinct from, the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Signatures of the CSB phase should be accessible in existing trapped-ion experiments.

  18. LUMOS - A Sensitive and Reliable Optode System for Measuring Dissolved Oxygen in the Nanomolar Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehner, Philipp; Larndorfer, Christoph; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Most commercially available optical oxygen sensors target the measuring range of 300 to 2 mu mol L-1. However these are not suitable for investigating the nanomolar range which is relevant for many important environmental situations. We therefore developed a miniaturized phase fluorimeter based...... measurement system called the LUMOS (Luminescence Measuring Oxygen Sensor). It consists of a readout device and specialized "sensing chemistry" that relies on commercially available components. The sensor material is based on palladium(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorphenyl)-porphyrin embedded...... for read out of less sensitive optical oxygen sensors based on the same or similar indicator dyes, for example for monitoring oxygen at physiological conditions. The presented sensor system exhibits lower noise, higher resolution and higher sensitivity than the electrochemical STOX sensor previously used...

  19. Numerical analysis for finite-range multitype stochastic contact financial market dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun; Fang, Wen

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets, a random agent-based financial price model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in which the interaction and dispersal of different types of investment attitudes in a stock market are imitated by viruses spreading. With different parameters of birth rates and finite-range, the normalized return series are simulated by Monte Carlo simulation method and numerical studied by power-law distribution analysis and autocorrelation analysis. To better understand the nonlinear dynamics of the return series, a q-order autocorrelation function and a multi-autocorrelation function are also defined in this work. The comparisons of statistical behaviors of return series from the agent-based model and the daily historical market returns of Shanghai Composite Index and Shenzhen Component Index indicate that the proposed model is a reasonable qualitative explanation for the price formation process of stock market systems.

  20. Numerical analysis for finite-range multitype stochastic contact financial market dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Fang, Wen, E-mail: fangwen@bjtu.edu.cn [School of Economics and Management, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2015-04-15

    In an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets, a random agent-based financial price model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in which the interaction and dispersal of different types of investment attitudes in a stock market are imitated by viruses spreading. With different parameters of birth rates and finite-range, the normalized return series are simulated by Monte Carlo simulation method and numerical studied by power-law distribution analysis and autocorrelation analysis. To better understand the nonlinear dynamics of the return series, a q-order autocorrelation function and a multi-autocorrelation function are also defined in this work. The comparisons of statistical behaviors of return series from the agent-based model and the daily historical market returns of Shanghai Composite Index and Shenzhen Component Index indicate that the proposed model is a reasonable qualitative explanation for the price formation process of stock market systems.

  1. Long-range order between the planets in the Solar system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Olsen, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    The Solar System is investigated for positional correlations between the planets using a logarithmic distance scale. The pair correlation function for the logarithm of the semimajor axis shows a regular distribution with 5-7 consecutive peaks, and the Fourier transform hereof shows reciprocal peaks...... of first and second order. A procedure involving random permutations for the shuffling of the inter--logarithmic distances is employed to check for the significance of the presence of order of longer range than neighbor planets correlations. The use of permutations is a particular helpful analysis when...... the number of data points is small. The pair correlation function of the permutated planets lacks the sequence of equidistant peaks and its Fourier transform has no second order peak. This analysis demonstrates the existence of longer ranged correlations in the Solar System....

  2. Analog VLSI Models of Range-Tuned Neurons in the Bat Echolocation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiuchi Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat echolocation is a fascinating topic of research for both neuroscientists and engineers, due to the complex and extremely time-constrained nature of the problem and its potential for application to engineered systems. In the bat's brainstem and midbrain exist neural circuits that are sensitive to the specific difference in time between the outgoing sonar vocalization and the returning echo. While some of the details of the neural mechanisms are known to be species-specific, a basic model of reafference-triggered, postinhibitory rebound timing is reasonably well supported by available data. We have designed low-power, analog VLSI circuits to mimic this mechanism and have demonstrated range-dependent outputs for use in a real-time sonar system. These circuits are being used to implement range-dependent vocalization amplitude, vocalization rate, and closest target isolation.

  3. A Single-Phase Boost Rectifier System for Wide Range of Load Variations

    OpenAIRE

    R Ghosh; Narayanan, G.

    2007-01-01

    Converters operated in discontinuous-conduction-mode (DCM)and in continuous-conduction-mode (CCM) are suitable for lighter and higher loads, respectively. A new, constant switching frequency based single-phase rectifier system is proposed, which operates in DCM and in CCM for outputs less than and greater than 50% rated load, respectively, covering a wide range of load variation. The power circuit and the control circuit of the proposed rectifier are easily configurable for DCM and CCM operat...

  4. High density, multi-range analog output Versa Module Europa board for control system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kundan; Das, Ajit Lal

    2014-01-01

    A new VMEDAC64, 12-bit 64 channel digital-to-analog converter, a Versa Module Europa (VME) module, features 64 analog voltage outputs with user selectable multiple ranges, has been developed for control system applications at Inter University Accelerator Centre. The FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is the module's core, i.e., it implements the DAC control logic and complexity of VMEbus slave interface logic. The VMEbus slave interface and DAC control logic are completely designed and implemented on a single FPGA chip to achieve high density of 64 channels in a single width VME module and will reduce the module count in the control system applications, and hence will reduce the power consumption and cost of overall system. One of our early design goals was to develop the VME interface such that it can be easily integrated with the peripheral devices and satisfy the timing specifications of VME standard. The modular design of this module reduces the amount of time required to develop other custom modules for control system. The VME slave interface is written as a single component inside FPGA which will be used as a basic building block for any VMEbus interface project. The module offers multiple output voltage ranges depending upon the requirement. The output voltage range can be reduced or expanded by writing range selection bits in the control register. The module has programmable refresh rate and by default hold capacitors in the sample and hold circuit for each channel are charged periodically every 7.040 ms (i.e., update frequency 284 Hz). Each channel has software controlled output switch which disconnects analog output from the field. The modularity in the firmware design on FPGA makes the debugging very easy. On-board DC/DC converters are incorporated for isolated power supply for the analog section of the board.

  5. Development of a long-range naval gun :a system engineering appproach

    OpenAIRE

    Hagan, James D.

    1995-01-01

    The U. S. Navy needs a medium-caliber (5-inch) ship-mounted gun that can deliver a payload to a range five times farther than the present capability. Such an increase in performance requires major design changes to both the gun and its ammunition. A gun which can shoot beyond the visible horizon needs additional support from subsystems which provide targeting information and assessment of battle damage to the intended target. A system engineering approach to the fulfillment of ...

  6. BOCDA system enhanced by concurrent interrogation of multiple correlation peaks with a 10-km sensing range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Gukbeen; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Song, Kwang Yong; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil

    2017-04-01

    A Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (BOCDA) system using time-domain data processing for concurrently interrogating a plurality of sensing positions is proposed, where the time-domain data processing combined with differential measurement effectively enhances the measurement range and measurement time as much as the spatial resolution of the BOCDA system. In the experiment, the distribution of the Brillouin gain spectra (BGS) along a 10.15 km test fiber is successfully obtained with a spatial resolution less than 5 cm by concurrently interrogating 980 correlation peaks.

  7. A Recommendation on SLR Ranging to Future Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, J. L.; Miller, J. J.; Pearlman, M.

    2008-12-01

    The multi-agency US Geodetic Requirements Working Group has recommended that Satellite Laser Retro- reflectors be installed on GPS III satellites as a principal component of the Positioning, Navigation, and Timing mandate of the Global Positioning System. The Working Group, which includes NASA, NGA, NOAA, NRL, USGS, and the USNO, echoes the Global Geodetic Observing System recommendation that SLR retro- reflectors be installed on all GNSS satellites. It is further recommended that the retro-reflectors conform to and hopefully exceed the minimum standard of the International Laser Ranging Service for retro-reflector cross sections of 100 million square meters for the HEO GNSS satellites to insure sufficiently accurate ranging by the global network of satellite laser ranging systems. The objective of this recommendation is to contribute to the improvement in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, and its derivative the WGS84 reference frame, through continuing improvements in the characterization of the GPS orbits and clocks. Another objective is to provide an independent means of assessing the interoperability and accuracy of the GNSS systems and regional augmentation systems. The ranging to GNSS-mounted retro-reflectors will constitute a significant new means of space-based collocation to constrain the tie between the GPS and SLR networks that constitute over 50% of the data from which the ITRF is derived. The recommendation for the installation of SLR retro-reflectors aboard future GPS satellites is one of a number of efforts aimed at improving the accuracy and stability of ITRF. These steps are being coordinated with and supportive of the efforts of the GGOS and its services such at the VLBI2010 initiative, developing a next generation geodetic network, near real-time GPS positioning and EOP determination, and numerous efforts in the improvement of geodetic algorithms for GPS, SLR, VLBI, DORIS, and the determination of the ITRF. If past is prologue, the

  8. Report on the lunar ranging at McDonald Observatory. [spark gap configuration and photomultiplier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    Range measurements to an accuracy of 5 cm were achieved following improvements in the laser oscillator configuration and the photomultiplier system. Modifications to the laser include a redesigned pockel cell mount to eliminate stressing of the cell crystal; an improved electrically triggered spark gap for sharpening the electrical pulse; the use of a brewster plate in the cavity to eliminate pre-pulsing; improved alignment for the oscillator system; and increased cavity lifetime through thin film polarizer technology. Laser calibration data are presented along with the lunar laser operations log for June to October 1977.

  9. An interactive system for creating object models from range data based on simulated annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, W.A.; Hood, F.W.; King, R.H. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Robotics and Intelligent Systems

    1997-05-01

    In hazardous applications such as remediation of buried waste and dismantlement of radioactive facilities, robots are an attractive solution. Sensing to recognize and locate objects is a critical need for robotic operations in unstructured environments. An accurate 3-D model of objects in the scene is necessary for efficient high level control of robots. Drawing upon concepts from supervisory control, the authors have developed an interactive system for creating object models from range data, based on simulated annealing. Site modeling is a task that is typically performed using purely manual or autonomous techniques, each of which has inherent strengths and weaknesses. However, an interactive modeling system combines the advantages of both manual and autonomous methods, to create a system that has high operator productivity as well as high flexibility and robustness. The system is unique in that it can work with very sparse range data, tolerate occlusions, and tolerate cluttered scenes. The authors have performed an informal evaluation with four operators on 16 different scenes, and have shown that the interactive system is superior to either manual or automatic methods in terms of task time and accuracy.

  10. Polarized Imaging Lidar Using Underwater Range Gating in a Multifunctional Remote Sensing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, G.; Trees, C.

    2016-02-01

    This work describes the design of a compact imaging underwater polarized LIDAR system using a new modular laser beam shaping technology, which ensures eye safe operation at significant optical power levels that were previously unattainable in such an eye safe mode. The system is based on an existing battery powered high efficiency compact range-gated system which can be operated from a variety of underwater vehicles including AUV's. A detailed analysis is presented of the procedure required to successfully extract information on the depth distribution of the inherent optical properties along with the shape of the phase function in the near forward direction. The effect of polarization in helping to constrain and improve the retrieval of these fundamental optical properties of the water column is also discussed. The LIDAR mode is shown to be only one of the many functionalities useful to oceanographic research, which can be implemented using the beam shaping technology described above. Beyond the improvement in range and image quality of gated imaging over conventional imaging in turbid waters, the application of gated-structured imaging can be shown to significantly improve range and precision of 3D bottom mapping near the turbid seabed environment. We will show that the spatial precision that is available is sufficient for seabed habitat mapping and litter identification required for an environmental impact evaluation.

  11. An Extended-range Hydrometeorological Ensemble Prediction System for Alpine Catchments in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monhart, Samuel; Bogner, Konrad; Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark A.; Zappa, Massimiliano; Schär, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    In recent years meteorological ensemble prediction systems have increasingly be used to feed hydrological models in order to provide probabilistic streamflow forecasts. Such hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) have been analyzed for different lead times from short-term to seasonal predictions and are used for different applications. Especially at longer lead times both such forecasts exhibit systematic biases which can be removed by applying bias correction techniques to both the meteorological and/or the hydrological output. However, it is still an open question if pre- or post-processing techniques or both should be applied. We will present first results of the analysis of pre- and post-processed extended-range hydrometeorological forecasts. In a first step the performance of bias corrected and downscaled (using quantile mapping) extended-range meteorological forecasts provided by the ECMWF is assessed for approximately 1000 ground observation sites across Europe. Generally, bias corrected meteorological forecasts show positive skill in terms of CRPSS up to three (two) weeks for weekly mean temperature (precipitation) compared to climatological forecasts. For the Alpine region the absolute skill is generally lower but the relative gain in skill resulting from the bias correction is larger. These pre-processed meteorological forecasts of one year of ECMWF extended-range forecasts and corresponding hindcasts are used to feed a hydrological model for a selected catchment in the Alpine area in Switzerland. Furthermore, different post-processing techniques are tested to correct the resulting streamflow forecasts. This will allow to determine the relative effect of pre- and post-processing of extended-range hydrometeorological predictions in Alpine catchments. Future work will include the combination of these corrected streamflow forecasts with electricity price forecasts to optimize the operations and revenues of hydropower systems in the Alps.

  12. LUMOS - A Sensitive and Reliable Optode System for Measuring Dissolved Oxygen in the Nanomolar Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Philipp; Larndorfer, Christoph; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Larsen, Morten; Borisov, Sergey M.; Revsbech, Niels-Peter; Glud, Ronnie N.; Canfield, Donald E.; Klimant, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Most commercially available optical oxygen sensors target the measuring range of 300 to 2 μmol L-1. However these are not suitable for investigating the nanomolar range which is relevant for many important environmental situations. We therefore developed a miniaturized phase fluorimeter based measurement system called the LUMOS (Luminescence Measuring Oxygen Sensor). It consists of a readout device and specialized “sensing chemistry” that relies on commercially available components. The sensor material is based on palladium(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorphenyl)-porphyrin embedded in a Hyflon AD 60 polymer matrix and has a KSV of 6.25 x 10-3 ppmv-1. The applicable measurement range is from 1000 nM down to a detection limit of 0.5 nM. A second sensor material based on the platinum(II) analogue of the porphyrin is spectrally compatible with the readout device and has a measurement range of 20 μM down to 10 nM. The LUMOS device is a dedicated system optimized for a high signal to noise ratio, but in principle any phase flourimeter can be adapted to act as a readout device for the highly sensitive and robust sensing chemistry. Vise versa, the LUMOS fluorimeter can be used for read out of less sensitive optical oxygen sensors based on the same or similar indicator dyes, for example for monitoring oxygen at physiological conditions. The presented sensor system exhibits lower noise, higher resolution and higher sensitivity than the electrochemical STOX sensor previously used to measure nanomolar oxygen concentrations. Oxygen contamination in common sample containers has been investigated and microbial or enzymatic oxygen consumption at nanomolar concentrations is presented. PMID:26029920

  13. SpectraCAM SPM: a camera system with high dynamic range for scientific and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, S.; Baiko, D.; Lungu, G.; Pilon, M.; VanGorden, S.

    2005-08-01

    A scientific camera system having high dynamic range designed and manufactured by Thermo Electron for scientific and medical applications is presented. The newly developed CID820 image sensor with preamplifier-per-pixel technology is employed in this camera system. The 4 Mega-pixel imaging sensor has a raw dynamic range of 82dB. Each high-transparent pixel is based on a preamplifier-per-pixel architecture and contains two photogates for non-destructive readout of the photon-generated charge (NDRO). Readout is achieved via parallel row processing with on-chip correlated double sampling (CDS). The imager is capable of true random pixel access with a maximum operating speed of 4MHz. The camera controller consists of a custom camera signal processor (CSP) with an integrated 16-bit A/D converter and a PowerPC-based CPU running a Linux embedded operating system. The imager is cooled to -40C via three-stage cooler to minimize dark current. The camera housing is sealed and is designed to maintain the CID820 imager in the evacuated chamber for at least 5 years. Thermo Electron has also developed custom software and firmware to drive the SpectraCAM SPM camera. Included in this firmware package is the new Extreme DRTM algorithm that is designed to extend the effective dynamic range of the camera by several orders of magnitude up to 32-bit dynamic range. The RACID Exposure graphical user interface image analysis software runs on a standard PC that is connected to the camera via Gigabit Ethernet.

  14. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Hugh; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems that include bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to energy saving mechanisms, including convective processes that can be observed in many systems over both short and long time scales, as well as high collective output processes in which a form of collective position locking occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance Analysis of Frequency Shift Keyed Signals in a Sonar Ranging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Tetsuji; Nakahira, Kenji; Koyama, Yuu; Murakami, Junichi

    Pulsed ultrasonic distance measurement systems are frequently used in robotics applications, thanks to their low cost and small size. The pulse compression techniques, originally developed by radar engineers, were adopted to eliminate frequent misreadings caused by crosstalk or external ultrasound sources. High-performance computing systems for the implementation of pulse compression techniques enable reliable and accurate distance measurement. In most cases however, they significantly increase the complexity of the total system, cutting down one of the advantages of ultrasonic systems. The ultrasonic ranging using a digital polarity correlator can overcome this drawback, because the cost of realizing delay and multiplication for each point on the polarity correlation function as a parallel operation is very low. This paper presents an analysis of the binary coded frequency shift keyed signals for the ultrasonic ranging using a digital polarity correlator. The spectra of the frequency shift keyed signals have been observed to be narrow compared with the spectra of the corresponding phase shift keyed signals. This suggests the possibility of a more reliable and accurate distance measurement with the frequency shift keyed signals in terms of occupied bandwidth.

  16. Adaptation of primate vestibuloocular reflex to altered peripheral vestibular inputs. I. Frequency-specific recovery of horizontal VOR after inactivation of the lateral semicircular canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Hess, B. J.; Arai, Y.; Suzuki, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. The adaptive plasticity of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) following a selective lesion of the peripheral vestibular organs was investigated in rhesus monkeys whose lateral semicircular canals were inactivated by plugging of the canal lumen in both ears. Gain and phase of horizontal, vertical, and torsional slow-phase eye velocity were determined from three-dimensional eye movement recordings obtained acutely after the plugging operation, as well as in regular intervals up to 10 mo later. 2. Acutely after plugging, horizontal VOR was minimal during yaw rotation with gains of < 0.1 at all frequencies. Horizontal VOR gain gradually increased over time, reaching gains of 0.4-0.5 for yaw oscillations at 1.1 Hz approximately 5 mo after lateral canal inactivation. This response recovery was strongly frequency dependent: horizontal VOR gains were largest at the highest frequency tested and progressively decreased for lower frequencies. Below approximately 0.1 Hz, no consistent horizontal VOR could be elicited even 10 mo after plugging. 3. The frequency-dependent changes in gain paralleled changes in horizontal VOR phase. Below approximately 0.1-0.05 Hz large phase leads were present, similarly as in semicircular canal primary afferents. Smaller phase leads were also present at higher frequencies, particularly at 1.1 Hz (the highest frequency tested). 4. Consistent with the afferent-like dynamics of the adapted horizontal VOR, per- and postrotatory horizontal responses to constant-velocity yaw rotations were short lasting. Time constants of the slow-phase eye velocity envelope of the horizontal postrotatory nystagmus were approximately 2 s. Nonetheless, a consistent horizontal optokinetic afternystagmus was evoked in plugged animals. 5. A torsional component that was absent in intact animals was consistently present during yaw rotation acutely after lateral canal inactivation and remained approximately constant thereafter. The frequency response characteristics of this

  17. White noise analysis of Phycomyces light growth response system. I. Normal intensity range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, E D

    1975-10-01

    The Wiener-Lee-Schetzen method for the identification of a nonlinear system through white gaussian noise stimulation was applied to the transient light growth response of the sporangiophore of Phycomyces. In order to cover a moderate dynamic range of light intensity I, the imput variable was defined to be log I. The experiments were performed in the normal range of light intensity, centered about I0 = 10(-6) W/cm2. The kernels of the Wierner functionals were computed up to second order. Within the range of a few decades the system is reasonably linear with log I. The main nonlinear feature of the second-order kernel corresponds to the property of rectification. Power spectral analysis reveals that the slow dynamics of the system are of at least fifth order. The system can be represented approximately by a linear transfer function, including a first-order high-pass (adaptation) filter with a 4 min time constant and an underdamped fourth-order low-pass filter. Accordingly a linear electronic circuit was constructed to simulate the small scale response characteristics. In terms of the adaptation model of Delbrück and Reichardt (1956, in Cellular Mechanisms in Differentiation and Growth, Princeton University Press), kernels were deduced for the dynamic dependence of the growth velocity (output) on the "subjective intensity", a presumed internal variable. Finally the linear electronic simulator above was generalized to accommodate the large scale nonlinearity of the adaptation model and to serve as a tool for deeper test of the model.

  18. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Jiangwei; Li Ning; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Ren Junyan, E-mail: lining@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 x 0.28 mm{sup 2}. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  19. SLR2000: a microlaser-based single photoelectron satellite laser ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, John J.; McGarry, Jan F.

    1998-01-01

    SLR2000 is an autonomous and eyesafe satellite laser ranging (SLR) station with an expected single shot range precision of about one centimeter and a normal point (time-averaged) precision better than 3 mm. The system wil provide continuous 24 hour tracking coverage for a constellation of over twenty artificial satellites. Replication costs are expected to be roughly an order of magnitude less than current operational systems, and the system will be about 75% less expensive to operate and maintain relative to manned systems. Computer simulations have predicted a daylight tracking capability to GPS and lower satellites with telescope apertures of 40 cm and have demonstrated the ability of our current autotracking algorithm to extract mean signal strengths below .001 photoelectrons per pulse from daytime background noise. The dominant cost driver in present SLR systems is the onsite and central infrastructure manpower required to operate the system, to service and maintain the complex subsystems, and to ensure that the transmitted laser beam is not a hazard to onsite personnel or to overflying aircraft. To keep development, fabrication, and maintenance costs at a minimum, we adopted the following design philosophies: (1) use off the shelf commercial components wherever possible; this allows rapid component replacement and "outsourcing" of engineering support; (2) use smaller telescopes (less than 50 cm) since this constrains the cost, size, and weight of the telescope and tracking mount; and (3) for low maintenance and failsafe reliability, choose simple versus complex technical approaches and, where possible, use passive techniques and components rather than active ones. Adherence to these philosophies has led to the SLR2000 design described here.

  20. Development of Algorithms and Error Analyses for the Short Baseline Lightning Detection and Ranging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Stanley O.

    1998-01-01

    NASA, at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), developed and operates a unique high-precision lightning location system to provide lightning-related weather warnings. These warnings are used to stop lightning- sensitive operations such as space vehicle launches and ground operations where equipment and personnel are at risk. The data is provided to the Range Weather Operations (45th Weather Squadron, U.S. Air Force) where it is used with other meteorological data to issue weather advisories and warnings for Cape Canaveral Air Station and KSC operations. This system, called Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR), provides users with a graphical display in three dimensions of 66 megahertz radio frequency events generated by lightning processes. The locations of these events provide a sound basis for the prediction of lightning hazards. This document provides the basis for the design approach and data analysis for a system of radio frequency receivers to provide azimuth and elevation data for lightning pulses detected simultaneously by the LDAR system. The intent is for this direction-finding system to correct and augment the data provided by LDAR and, thereby, increase the rate of valid data and to correct or discard any invalid data. This document develops the necessary equations and algorithms, identifies sources of systematic errors and means to correct them, and analyzes the algorithms for random error. This data analysis approach is not found in the existing literature and was developed to facilitate the operation of this Short Baseline LDAR (SBLDAR). These algorithms may also be useful for other direction-finding systems using radio pulses or ultrasonic pulse data.

  1. Dynamics and thermodynamics of systems with long-range dipole-type interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atenas, Boris; Curilef, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    A Hamiltonian mean field model, where the potential is inspired by dipole-dipole interactions, is proposed to characterize the behavior of systems with long-range interactions. The dynamics of the system remains in quasistationary states before arriving at equilibrium. The equilibrium is analytically derived from the canonical ensemble and coincides with that obtained from molecular dynamics simulations (microcanonical ensemble) at only long time scales. The dynamics of the system is characterized by the behavior of the mean value of the kinetic energy. The significance of the results, compared to others in the recent literature, is that two plateaus sequentially emerge in the evolution of the model under the special considerations of the initial conditions and systems of finite size. The first plateau decays to a different second one before the system reaches equilibrium, but the dynamics of the system is expected to have only one plateau when the thermodynamics limit is reached because the difference between them tends to disappear as N tends to infinity. Hence, the first plateau is a type of quasistationary state the lifetime of which depends on a power law of N and the second seems to be a true quasistationary state as reported in the literature. We characterize the general behavior of the model according to its dynamics and thermodynamics.

  2. A Non-Contact Measurement System for the Range of Motion of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trieu Pham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and standardised tool to measure the active range of motion (ROM of the hand is essential to any progressive assessment scenario in hand therapy practice. Goniometers are widely used in clinical settings for measuring the ROM of the hand. However, such measurements have limitations with regard to inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and involve direct physical contact with the hand, possibly increasing the risk of transmitting infections. The system proposed in this paper is the first non-contact measurement system utilising Intel Perceptual Technology and a Senz3D Camera for measuring phalangeal joint angles. To enhance the accuracy of the system, we developed a new approach to achieve the total active movement without measuring three joint angles individually. An equation between the actual spacial position and measurement value of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint was established through the measurement values of the total active movement, so that its actual position can be inferred. Verified by computer simulations, experimental results demonstrated a significant improvement in the calculation of the total active movement and successfully recovered the actual position of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint angles. A trial that was conducted to examine the clinical applicability of the system involving 40 healthy subjects confirmed the practicability and consistency in the proposed system. The time efficiency conveyed a stronger argument for this system to replace the current practice of using goniometers.

  3. Prototype system for proton beam range measurement based on gamma electron vertex imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Rim [Neutron Utilization Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Jong Hoon [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Won Gyun [Heavy-ion Clinical Research Division, Korean Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hansang [Department of Electronics Convergence Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Hyeong, E-mail: chkim@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-11

    In proton therapy, for both therapeutic effectiveness and patient safety, it is very important to accurately measure the proton dose distribution, especially the range of the proton beam. For this purpose, recently we proposed a new imaging method named gamma electron vertex imaging (GEVI), in which the prompt gammas emitting from the nuclear reactions of the proton beam in the patient are converted to electrons, and then the converted electrons are tracked to determine the vertices of the prompt gammas, thereby producing a 2D image of the vertices. In the present study, we developed a prototype GEVI system, including dedicated signal processing and data acquisition systems, which consists of a beryllium plate (= electron converter) to convert the prompt gammas to electrons, two double-sided silicon strip detectors (= hodoscopes) to determine the trajectories of those converted electrons, and a plastic scintillation detector (= calorimeter) to measure their kinetic energies. The system uses triple coincidence logic and multiple energy windows to select only the events from prompt gammas. The detectors of the prototype GEVI system were evaluated for electronic noise level, energy resolution, and time resolution. Finally, the imaging capability of the GEVI system was tested by imaging a {sup 90}Sr beta source, a {sup 60}Co gamma source, and a 45-MeV proton beam in a PMMA phantom. The overall results of the present study generally show that the prototype GEVI system can image the vertices of the prompt gammas produced by the proton nuclear interactions.

  4. Bounding the Failure Probability Range of Polynomial Systems Subject to P-box Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a reliability analysis framework for systems subject to multiple design requirements that depend polynomially on the uncertainty. Uncertainty is prescribed by probability boxes, also known as p-boxes, whose distribution functions have free or fixed functional forms. An approach based on the Bernstein expansion of polynomials and optimization is proposed. In particular, we search for the elements of a multi-dimensional p-box that minimize (i.e., the best-case) and maximize (i.e., the worst-case) the probability of inner and outer bounding sets of the failure domain. This technique yields intervals that bound the range of failure probabilities. The offset between this bounding interval and the actual failure probability range can be made arbitrarily tight with additional computational effort.

  5. A numerical investigation on the efficiency of range extending systems using Advanced Vehicle Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnhagen, Scott; Same, Adam; Remillard, Jesse; Park, Jae Wan

    2011-03-01

    Series plug-in hybrid electric vehicles of varying engine configuration and battery capacity are modeled using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR). The performance of these vehicles is analyzed on the bases of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions on the tank-to-wheel and well-to-wheel paths. Both city and highway driving conditions are considered during the simulation. When simulated on the well-to-wheel path, it is shown that the range extender with a Wankel rotary engine consumes less energy and emits fewer greenhouse gases compared to the other systems with reciprocating engines during many driving cycles. The rotary engine has a higher power-to-weight ratio and lower noise, vibration and harshness compared to conventional reciprocating engines, although performs less efficiently. The benefits of a Wankel engine make it an attractive option for use as a range extender in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

  6. Ultrasonic Multiple-Access Ranging System Using Spread Spectrum and MEMS Technology for Indoor Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Segers

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Indoor localization of persons and objects poses a great engineering challenge. Previously developed localization systems demonstrate the use of wideband techniques in ultrasound ranging systems. Direct sequence and frequency hopping spread spectrum ultrasound signals have been proven to achieve a high level of accuracy. A novel ranging method using the frequency hopping spread spectrum with finite impulse response filtering will be investigated and compared against the direct sequence spread spectrum. In the first setup, distances are estimated in a single-access environment, while in the second setup, two senders and one receiver are used. During the experiments, the micro-electromechanical systems are used as ultrasonic sensors, while the senders were implemented using field programmable gate arrays. Results show that in a single-access environment, the direct sequence spread spectrum method offers slightly better accuracy and precision performance compared to the frequency hopping spread spectrum. When two senders are used, measurements point out that the frequency hopping spread spectrum is more robust to near-far effects than the direct sequence spread spectrum.

  7. Conduction of Complex Elements of Vacuum Systems in a Wide Range of Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Shemarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a statistical mathematical model of a rarefied gas flow based on the method of particles in cells. This approach enables to define basic parameters of gas flow and vacuum systems in a wide range of pressures, including such an important parameter as conductivity of the vacuum system.Key assumptions in designing a mathematical model are: describing the collision of the molecules as hard spheres of elastic collision; considering the collisions to be paired and instant; the molecules velocity distribution corresponding to the Maxwell distribution. The essential feature is simulation of waiting time for the next collision. It depends on the state of the entire system of particles and is independent of what pair is involved in collision.The paper presents a detailed algorithm for implementation of a mathematical model to calculate conductivity. It includes three main stages. The first stage simulates only collisions of particles within the fixed cell of grid. The second stage simulates displacement of particles in accordance with their speed and time step, as well as interaction with the internal surfaces of the vacuum system. The final stage determines system conductivity.As an example, numerical experiments were conducted to determine conductivity of the long cylindrical channel in a wide range of pressures and conductivity of chevron screens too. Obtained data are compared with experimental data, and an error is evaluated. In molecular and transient conditions of gas flow the method of particles in cells gives high accuracy. In the viscous conditions the accuracy decreases because of originating region of continuous medium.This model can be used not only to determine conductivity of vacuum systems, but also to calculate gas flow parameters in systems with large flows (no restrictions for the flow rate value for the channels and profiles with geometry of any complexity. An important feature is that it allows taking into account

  8. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C.; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates (n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA, ironA, and misL. There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella

  9. Functional renormalization group approach for inhomogeneous one-dimensional Fermi systems with finite-ranged interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Lukas; Bauer, Florian; von Delft, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an equilibrium formulation of the functional renormalization group (fRG) for inhomogeneous systems capable of dealing with spatially finite-ranged interactions. In the general third-order truncated form of fRG, the dependence of the two-particle vertex is described by O (N4) independent variables, where N is the dimension of the single-particle system. In a previous paper [Bauer et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 045128 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.045128], the so-called coupled-ladder approximation (CLA) was introduced and shown to admit a consistent treatment for models with a purely onsite interaction, reducing the vertex to O (N2) independent variables. In this work, we introduce an extended version of this scheme, called the extended coupled ladder approximation (eCLA), which includes a spatially extended feedback between the individual channels, measured by a feedback length L , using O (N2L2) independent variables for the vertex. We apply the eCLA in a static approximation and at zero temperature to three types of one-dimensional model systems, focusing on obtaining the linear response conductance. First, we study a model of a quantum point contact (QPC) with a parabolic barrier top and on-site interactions. In our setup, where the characteristic length lx of the QPC ranges between approximately 4-10 sites, eCLA achieves convergence once L becomes comparable to lx. It also turns out that the additional feedback stabilizes the fRG flow. This enables us, second, to study the geometric crossover between a QPC and a quantum dot, again for a one-dimensional model with on-site interactions. Third, the enlarged feedback also enables the treatment of a finite-ranged interaction extending over up to L sites. Using a simple estimate for the form of such a finite-ranged interaction in a QPC with a parabolic barrier top, we study its effects on the conductance and the density. We find that for low densities and sufficiently large interaction ranges the conductance

  10. HiRes camera and LIDAR ranging system for the Clementine mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledebuhr, A.G.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T. [and others

    1995-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed a space-qualified High Resolution (HiRes) imaging LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system for use on the DoD Clementine mission. The Clementine mission provided more than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth, and stars, including the first ever complete systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to near-infrared spectral regions. This article describes the Clementine HiRes/LIDAR system, discusses design goals and preliminary estimates of on-orbit performance, and summarizes lessons learned in building and using the sensor. The LIDAR receiver system consists of a High Resolution (HiRes) imaging channel which incorporates an intensified multi-spectral visible camera combined with a Laser ranging channel which uses an avalanche photo-diode for laser pulse detection and timing. The receiver was bore sighted to a light-weight McDonnell-Douglas diode-pumped ND:YAG laser transmitter that emmitted 1.06 {micro}m wavelength pulses of 200 mJ/pulse and 10 ns pulse-width, The LIDAR receiver uses a common F/9.5 Cassegrain telescope assembly. The optical path of the telescope is split using a color-separating beamsplitter. The imaging channel incorporates a filter wheel assembly which spectrally selects the light which is imaged onto a custom 12 mm gated image intensifier fiber-optically-coupled into a 384 x 276 pixel frame transfer CCD FPA. The image intensifier was spectrally sensitive over the 0.4 to 0.8 {micro}m wavelength region. The six-position filter wheel contained 4 narrow spectral filters, one broadband and one blocking filter. At periselene (400 km) the HiRes/LIDAR imaged a 2.8 km swath width at 20-meter resolution. The LIDAR function detected differential signal return with a 40-meter range accuracy, with a maximum range capability of 640 km, limited by the bit counter in the range return counting clock.

  11. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates ( n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA , ironA , and misL There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella serovars in

  12. Chaotic dynamics and thermodynamics of periodic systems with long-range forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj

    Gravitational and electromagnetic interactions form the backbone of our theoretical understanding of the universe. While, in general, such interactions are analytically inexpressible for three-dimensional infinite systems, one-dimensional modeling allows one to treat the long-range forces exactly. Not only are one-dimensional systems of profound intrinsic interest, physicists often rely on one-dimensional models as a starting point in the analysis of their more complicated higher-dimensional counterparts. In the analysis of large systems considered in cosmology and plasma physics, periodic boundary conditions are a natural choice and have been utilized in the study of one dimensional Coulombic and gravitational systems. Such studies often employ numerical simulations to validate the theoretical predictions, and in cases where theoretical relations have not been mathematically formulated, numerical simulations serve as a powerful method in characterizing the system's physical properties. In this dissertation, analytic techniques are formulated to express the exact phase-space dynamics of spatially-periodic one-dimensional Coulombic and gravitational systems. Closed-form versions of the Hamiltonian and the electric field are derived for single-component and two-component Coulombic systems, placing the two on the same footing as the gravitational counterpart. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a three-body variant of the spatially-periodic Coulombic or gravitational system may be reduced isomorphically to a periodic system of a single particle in a two-dimensional rhombic potential. The analytic results are utilized for developing and implementing efficient computational tools to study the dynamical and the thermodynamic properties of the systems without resorting to numerical approximations. Event-driven algorithms are devised to obtain Lyapunov spectra, radial distribution function, pressure, caloric curve, and Poincare surface of section through an N

  13. Performance analysis of a full-field and full-range swept-source OCT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, J.; Boettcher, T.; Körner, K.; Gronle, M.; Osten, W.; Passilly, N.; Froehly, L.; Perrin, S.; Gorecki, C.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) became gained importance in medical disciplines like ophthalmology, due to its noninvasive optical imaging technique with micrometer resolution and short measurement time. It enables e. g. the measurement and visualization of the depth structure of the retina. In other medical disciplines like dermatology, histopathological analysis is still the gold standard for skin cancer diagnosis. The EU-funded project VIAMOS (Vertically Integrated Array-type Mirau-based OCT System) proposes a new type of OCT system combined with micro-technologies to provide a hand-held, low-cost and miniaturized OCT system. The concept is a combination of full-field and full-range swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) detection in a multi-channel sensor based on a micro-optical Mirau-interferometer array, which is fabricated by means of wafer fabrication. This paper presents the study of an experimental proof-of-concept OCT system as a one-channel sensor with bulk optics. This sensor is a Linnik-interferometer type with similar optical parameters as the Mirau-interferometer array. A commercial wavelength tunable light source with a center wavelength at 845nm and 50nm spectral bandwidth is used with a camera for parallel OCT A-Scan detection. In addition, the reference microscope objective lens of the Linnik-interferometer is mounted on a piezo-actuated phase-shifter. Phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) techniques are applied for resolving the conjugate complex artifact and consequently contribute to an increase of image quality and depth range. A suppression ratio of the complex conjugate term of 36 dB is shown and a system sensitivity greater than 96 dB could be measured.

  14. 3D indoor modeling using a hand-held embedded system with multiple laser range scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Wang, Duhu; Xu, Shike

    2016-10-01

    Accurate three-dimensional perception is a key technology for many engineering applications, including mobile mapping, obstacle detection and virtual reality. In this article, we present a hand-held embedded system designed for constructing 3D representation of structured indoor environments. Different from traditional vehicle-borne mobile mapping methods, the system presented here is capable of efficiently acquiring 3D data while an operator carrying the device traverses through the site. It consists of a simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) module, a 3D attitude estimate module and a point cloud processing module. The SLAM is based on a scan matching approach using a modern LIDAR system, and the 3D attitude estimate is generated by a navigation filter using inertial sensors. The hardware comprises three 2D time-flight laser range finders and an inertial measurement unit(IMU). All the sensors are rigidly mounted on a body frame. The algorithms are developed on the frame of robot operating system(ROS). The 3D model is constructed using the point cloud library(PCL). Multiple datasets have shown robust performance of the presented system in indoor scenarios.

  15. Wide energy range personnel neutron dosemeter and its dose evaluation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisen, Y.; Eliau, A.; Faermann, S.; Karpinovitch, Z.; Ovadia, E.; Rosman, M.; Schlesinger, T.; Shamai, Y.; Tal, A. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne. Soreq Nuclear Research Center)

    1982-01-01

    A system composed of a Rem response personnel neutron dosemeter for monitoring dose equivalents in the energy range 1 eV to 14 MeV, an electrochemical etching system for revealing damage sites in solid state track etch detectors, a reader for magnifying the etched pits and a microprocessor for evaluating the dose equivalents and their uncertainties are described. The performance and directional dependence of the dosemeter when exposed to monoenergetic and polyenergetic neutron fields in the epithermal and fast energy regions are discussed. Saturation effects in polycarbonate foils are presented and a comparison is made between the response of polycarbonate and CR-39 foils, used as passive detectors in the dosemeter.

  16. Multi-channel, passive, short-range anti-aircraft defence system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapiński, Daniel; Krzysztofik, Izabela; Koruba, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for tracking several air targets simultaneously. The developed concept concerns a multi-channel, passive, short-range anti-aircraft defence system based on the programmed selection of air targets and an algorithm of simultaneous synchronisation of several modified optical scanning seekers. The above system is supposed to facilitate simultaneous firing of several self-guided infrared rocket missiles at many different air targets. From the available information, it appears that, currently, there are no passive self-guided seekers that fulfil such tasks. This paper contains theoretical discussions and simulations of simultaneous detection and tracking of many air targets by mutually integrated seekers of several rocket missiles. The results of computer simulation research have been presented in a graphical form.

  17. Close range ISR (PRISTA) and close quarters combat (CQC) with unmanned aerial systems (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynell, Jon

    2010-04-01

    Ironically, the final frontiers for the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are the closest spaces at hand. There is an urgent operational capability gap in the area of proximate reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (PRISTA) as well as close quarters combats (CQC). Needs for extremely close range functionality in land, sea and urban theaters remain unfilled, largely due to the challenges presented by the maneuverability and silent operating floor required to address these missions. The evolution of small, nimble and inexpensive VTOL UAV assets holds much promise in terms of filling this gap. Just as UAVs have evolved from large manned aircraft, so have MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) evolved from UAVs. As unmanned aviation evolves into aerial robotics, NAV (Nano Aerial Vehicle) research will become the next hotbed of unmanned aerial systems development as these systems continue to mature in response to the need to find robotic replacements for humans in PRISTA, CQC, and many other hazardous duties.

  18. Ramjet Application Possibilities for Increasing Fire Range of the Multiple Launch Rocket Systems Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zubov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a possibility to increase a flying range of the perspective rockets equipped with the control unit with aerodynamic controllers for the multiple launch rocket systems “Smerch”.To increase a flying range and reduce a starting mass of the rocket, the paper studies a possibility to replace the single-mode rocket engine used in the solid-fuel rocket motor for the direct-flow propulsion jet engine (DFPJE with not head sector air intakes. The DFPJE is implemented according to the classical scheme with a fuel charged in the combustion chamber. A separated solid propellant starting accelerator provides the rocket acceleration to reach a speed necessary for the DFPJE to run.When designing the DFPJE a proper choice of not head air intake parameters is one of the most difficult points. For this purpose a COSMOS Flow Simulation software package and analytical dependences were used to define the following: a boundary layer thickness where an air intake is set, maximum permissible and appropriate angles of attack and deviation angles of controllers at the section where the DFPJE works, and some other parameters as well.Calculation of DFPJE characteristics consisted in determining parameters of an air-gas path of the propulsion system, geometrical sizes of the pipeline flow area, sizes of a fuel charge, and dependence of the propulsion system impulse on the flight height and speed. Calculations were performed both in thermodynamic statement of problem and in using software package of COSMOS Flow Simulation.As a result of calculations and design engineering activities the air intake profile is created and mass-dimensional characteristics of DFPJE are defined. Besides, calculations of the starting solid fuel accelerator were carried out. Further design allowed us to create the rocket shape, estimate its mass-dimensional characteristics, and perform ballistic calculations, which proved that achieving a range of 120 km for the rocket is

  19. Fast methods for long-range interactions in complex systems. Lecture notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutmann, Godehard; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas (eds.)

    2011-10-13

    Parallel computing and computer simulations of complex particle systems including charges have an ever increasing impact in a broad range of fields in the physical sciences, e.g. in astrophysics, statistical physics, plasma physics, material sciences, physical chemistry, and biophysics. The present summer school, funded by the German Heraeus-Foundation, took place at the Juelich Supercomputing Centre from 6 - 10 September 2010. The focus was on providing an introduction and overview over different methods, algorithms and new trends for the computational treatment of long-range interactions in particle systems. The Lecture Notes contain an introduction into particle simulation, as well as five different fast methods, i.e. the Fast Multipole Method, Barnes-Hut Tree Method, Multigrid, FFT based methods, and Fast Summation using the non-equidistant FFT. In addition to introducing the methods, efficient parallelization of the methods is presented in detail. This publication was edited at the Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC) which is an integral part of the Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS). The IAS combines the Juelich simulation sciences and the supercomputer facility in one organizational unit. It includes those parts of the scientific institutes at Forschungszentrum Juelich which use simulation on supercomputers as their main research methodology. (orig.)

  20. Darwin: dose monitoring system applicable to various radiations with wide energy ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Satoh, D; Endo, A; Yamaguchi, Y

    2007-01-01

    A new radiation dose monitor, designated as DARWIN (Dose monitoring system Applicable to various Radiations with Wide energy ranges), has been developed for real-time monitoring of doses in workspaces and surrounding environments of high-energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN is composed of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, which consists of liquid organic scintillator BC501A coupled with ZnS(Ag) scintillation sheets doped with (6)Li, and a data acquisition system based on a Digital-Storage-Oscilloscope. DARWIN has the following features: (1) capable of monitoring doses from neutrons, photons and muons with energies from thermal energy to 1 GeV, 150 keV to 100 MeV and 1 MeV to 100 GeV, respectively, (2) highly sensitive with precision and (3) easy to operate with a simple graphical user-interface. The performance of DARWIN was examined experimentally in several radiation fields. The results of the experiments indicated the accuracy and wide response range of DARWIN for measuring dose rates from neutrons, photons and muons with wide energies. It was also found from the experiments that DARWIN enables us to monitor small fluctuations of neutron dose rates near the background level because of its high sensitivity. With these properties, DARWIN will be able to play a very important role for improving radiation safety in high-energy accelerator facilities.

  1. Disruptive discharge voltage test with 0,1-Hz-rectangle-voltage for the test of medium-voltage power cables with plastic insulation. Report on voltage tests on older 10 kV cables; Spannungspruefung von Mittelspannungs-Kabelanlagen vor Ort. Erfahrungsbericht zur Spannungspruefung an betriebsgealterten 10-kV-Kabeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M. [Dortmunder Energie und Wasser GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Since 1987, voltage tests on insulated medium-voltage cables have been carried out in the Dortmund 10 kV network using one of Germany's first 0.1 Hz rectangle-voltage test systems. By the end of 1999, a total of 4300 tests had been carried out. The author presents the results of the tests. [German] Seit Anfang 1987 wird die Spannungspruefung an kunststoffisolierten Mittelspannungskabeln vor Ort mit einer der ersten in Deutschland verkauften 0,1-Hz-Cosinus-Rechteck-Wechselspannung-Pruefanlage (VLF-Pruefanlage) im 10-kV-Netz des Stadtgebietes Dortmund durchgefuehrt. Bis Ende 1999 sind insgesamt 4300 Pruefungen durchgefuehrt worden. Der Verfasser stellt in diesem Erfahrungsbericht die hierbei gewonnenen Erfahrungen und die Auswertung der Pruefergebnisse vor. (orig.)

  2. Northwest Basin and Range tectonic deformation observed with the Global Positioning System, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W.C.; Thatcher, W.

    2005-01-01

    We use geodetic velocities obtained with the Global Positioning System (GPS) to quantify tectonic deformation of the northwest Basin and Range province of the western United States. The results are based on GPS data collected in 1999 and 2003 across five new quasi-linear networks in northern Nevada, northeast California, and southeast Oregon. The velocities show ???3 mm/yr westward movement of northern Nevada with respect to stable North America. West of longitude 119??W the velocities increase and turn northwest, parallel to Sierra Nevada/Great Valley microplate motion, and similar to velocities previously obtained to the south. The observations are explained by a kinematic model with three domains that rotate around Euler poles in eastern Oregon and western Idaho. Northeast California experiences internal dextral shear deformation (11.2 ?? 3.6 nstrain/yr) subparallel to Pacific/North America motion. Relative motions of the domains imply 2-5 mm/yr approximately east-west extension in northwest Nevada and 1-4 mm/yr approximately north-south contraction near the California/Oregon border. The northward decreasing approximately east-west extension in northwest Nevada is consistent with the northern termination of Basin and Range deformation, faulting and characteristic topography. No significant extension is detected in the Oregon Basin and Range. The Oregon Cascade arc moves north at ???3.5 mm/yr and is possibly influenced by the approximately eastward motion of the Juan de Fuca plate. These results disagree with secular northwest trenchward motion of the Oregon forearc inferred from paleomagnetic rotations. South of latitude 43??, however, trenchward motion exists and is consistent with block rotations, approximately east-west Basin and Range extension, and northwest Sierra Nevada translation. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. A plasmid-transposon hybrid mutagenesis system effective in a broad range of Enterobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita eMonson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Random transposon mutagenesis is a powerful technique used to generate libraries of genetic insertions in many different bacterial strains. Here we develop a system facilitating random transposon mutagenesis in a range of different Gram-negative bacterial strains, including Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Citrobacter rodentium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006, Serratia plymuthica, Dickeya dadantii and many more. Transposon mutagenesis was optimized in each of these strains and three studies are presented to show the efficacy of this system. Firstly, the important agricultural pathogen D. dadantii was mutagenized. Two mutants that showed reduced protease production and one mutant producing the previously cryptic pigment, indigoidine, were identified and characterized. Secondly, the enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006 was mutagenized and mutants incapable of producing gas vesicles, proteinaceous intracellular organelles, were identified. One of these contained a β-galactosidase transcriptional fusion within the gene gvpA1, essential for gas vesicle production. Finally, the system was used to mutate the biosynthetic gene clusters of the antifungal, anti-oomycete and anticancer polyketide, oocydin A, in the plant-associated enterobacterium, Dickeya solani MK10. The mutagenesis system was developed to allow easy identification of transposon insertion sites by sequencing, after facile generation of a replicon encompassing the transposon and adjacent DNA, post-excision. Furthermore, the system can also create transcriptional fusions with either β-galactosidase or β-glucuronidase as reporters, and exploits a variety of drug resistance markers so that multiple selectable fusions can be generated in a single strain. This system of various transposons has wide utility and can be combined in many different ways.

  4. Justification of Requirements to the Operating Area of the Doppler Short-Range Location System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kovrigin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers some issues of matching the operating area of the Doppler shortrange location system (SRLS with the destructing area of a fragmentation warhead in a wide range of applicability with no information about the angular position of the target.When action is against the low altitude aerial targets at the sea surface background Doppler SRLS are often used to provide frequency selection of a target owing to differences in the spectral characteristics of the required signal and interferences. However, Doppler systems have an inherent disadvantage i.e. the inability to estimate the angular position of the target wit respect to the SRLS.Consequently, an arising problem to ensure the effectiveness of the combat unit, which includes the guidance system, Doppler SRLS, and fragmentation warhead is of significant practical use, when acting against the low altitude aerial targets in a wide range of encounter environment with a lack of information about the angular position of the target. The article considers a practical method for ensuring the effectiveness of the combat unit by selecting the width of the destructing elements separation angle and its orientation in space.An approximate method of geometric matching the scopes of warhead and SRLS based on computer aided numerical calculation is used. With the geometric approach to the efficiency estimation in any desired angular position of the target, Doppler SRLS should form a command to burst the warhead ensuring the straddling of the target by the field of destructing elements in an arbitrary predetermined point of conditions.Algorithms of the warhead and SRLS functioning are developed and utilized as applied programs. A Doppler SRLS model is proposed. The SRLS is integrated with semi-active Doppler homing head in case there is small-sized radar target. The article presents a mathematical description of the fragmentation warhead for relatively small misses, ignoring the air resistance

  5. Assessing behavior in Aseel pullets under free-range, part-time free-range, and cage system during growing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, M S; Mahmud, A; Mehmood, S; Pasha, T N; Khan, M T; Hussain, J

    2017-12-13

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of free-range (FR), part-time free-range (PTFR), and cage system (CS) on behavioral repertoire in Lakha (LK), Mushki (MS), Peshawari (PW), and Sindhi (SN) varieties of Aseel chicken during the growing phase (9 to 18 wk of age). In total, 144 Aseel pullets were allotted to 12 treatment groups in a 3 × 4 (rearing system × Aseel variety) factorial arrangement, according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Each treatment group was replicated 3 times with 4 birds in each replicate (12 birds per treatment group). The pullets were randomly marked weekly for identification, and their behavior was observed through the focal animal sampling method. Time spent on different behavioral activities was recorded and converted to a percentage. The data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA under a factorial arrangement using SAS 9.1, and the behavioral parameters were evaluated. The results indicated greater (P time in walking and preening, and more time in sitting, drinking, and aggressiveness. Dustbathing was found to be similar in all Aseel varieties (P = 0.135). In conclusion, the PTFR system could be suggested as a substitute for conventional housing systems because it better accommodates normal behavior in Aseel pullets. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. GLACIERS IN THE MEYNYPILGYNSKY RANGE: CURRENT STATE AND DEVELOPMENT FORECAST OF GLACIER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ananicheva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SummaryPaper presents the results of interpretation of space images (from Landsat and World View-2, which made possible to estimate the areal extent of glaciers ofMeynypilgynskyRange, North-East of Koryak Upland, in the early 2000's. Assessments of glaciers were analyzed in comparison with the Glacier Inventory of the region, compiled by R.V. Sedov (2001, as a whole and for groups of glaciers belonging to the selected six glacial systems. After dozens of years since the compilation of the Inventory (1985 and from some glacier data referred to 1967, the glaciers ofMeynypilgynskyRangelost about 30% of the area, mainly due to drying that accompanies climate warming. The analysis of glaciers, which had retreated, was conducted for the groups by the same morphological type, and the same aspect. The largest retreat and area reduction is relevant to valley-corrie and hanging glaciers of eastern aspect. Glaciers facing north less suffered. As a result of application of the developed methodology for assessing the evolution of glacier systems under given climate scenario, the parameters for the state of the glacier systems ofMeynypilgynskyRangeup to the time span 2049–2060 were obtained. The AOGCM–ECHAM 5 (B1 was used as a scenario; it is the optimal for theNorthern Eurasia. It turned out that the glaciers reduction would be catastrophic (about 90%, but nevertheless they would not completely disappeared.

  7. Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing of a Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) System That Conforms to the Japanese Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) systems, designed to enhance the efficiency of highway travel, have been proposed for operation in the 5850- to 5925-MHz band. The successful operation of these communication systems depends upon their compa...

  8. Design of Range Adaptive Wireless Power Transfer System Using Non-coaxial Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Won, Sokhui; Hong, Huan

    2017-05-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is a remarkable technology because of its convenience and applicability in harsh environment. Particularly, Magnetic Coupling WPT (MC-WPT) is a proper method to midrange power transfer, but the frequency splitting at over-coupling range, which is related with transfer distance, is challenge of transmission efficiency. In order to overcome this phenomenon, recently the range adaptive WPT is proposed. In this paper, we aim to the type with a set of non-coaxial driving coils, so that this may remove the connection wires from PA (Power Amplifier) to driving coil. And, when the radius of driving coil is changed, on the different gaps between driving and TX coils, coupling coefficient between these is computed in both cases of coaxial and non-coaxial configurations. In addition, the designing steps for 4-coil WPT system using non-coaxial coils are described with the example. Finally, the reliability of this topology has been proved and simulated with PSPICE.

  9. Robust dead reckoning system for mobile robots based on particle filter and raw range scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhuohua; Cai, Zixing; Min, Huaqing

    2014-09-04

    Robust dead reckoning is a complicated problem for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs), where the robots are faulty, such as the sticking of sensors or the slippage of wheels, for the discrete fault models and the continuous states have to be estimated simultaneously to reach a reliable fault diagnosis and accurate dead reckoning. Particle filters are one of the most promising approaches to handle hybrid system estimation problems, and they have also been widely used in many WMRs applications, such as pose tracking, SLAM, video tracking, fault identification, etc. In this paper, the readings of a laser range finder, which may be also interfered with by noises, are used to reach accurate dead reckoning. The main contribution is that a systematic method to implement fault diagnosis and dead reckoning in a particle filter framework concurrently is proposed. Firstly, the perception model of a laser range finder is given, where the raw scan may be faulty. Secondly, the kinematics of the normal model and different fault models for WMRs are given. Thirdly, the particle filter for fault diagnosis and dead reckoning is discussed. At last, experiments and analyses are reported to show the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

  10. Robust Dead Reckoning System for Mobile Robots Based on Particle Filter and Raw Range Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuohua Duan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Robust dead reckoning is a complicated problem for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs, where the robots are faulty, such as the sticking of sensors or the slippage of wheels, for the discrete fault models and the continuous states have to be estimated simultaneously to reach a reliable fault diagnosis and accurate dead reckoning. Particle filters are one of the most promising approaches to handle hybrid system estimation problems, and they have also been widely used in many WMRs applications, such as pose tracking, SLAM, video tracking, fault identification, etc. In this paper, the readings of a laser range finder, which may be also interfered with by noises, are used to reach accurate dead reckoning. The main contribution is that a systematic method to implement fault diagnosis and dead reckoning in a particle filter framework concurrently is proposed. Firstly, the perception model of a laser range finder is given, where the raw scan may be faulty. Secondly, the kinematics of the normal model and different fault models for WMRs are given. Thirdly, the particle filter for fault diagnosis and dead reckoning is discussed. At last, experiments and analyses are reported to show the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

  11. A protein-dye hybrid system as a narrow range tunable intracellular pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anees, Palapuravan; Sudheesh, Karivachery V; Jayamurthy, Purushothaman; Chandrika, Arunkumar R; Omkumar, Ramakrishnapillai V; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2016-11-18

    Accurate monitoring of pH variations inside cells is important for the early diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. Even though a variety of different pH sensors are available, construction of a custom-made sensor array for measuring minute variations in a narrow biological pH window, using easily available constituents, is a challenge. Here we report two-component hybrid sensors derived from a protein and organic dye nanoparticles whose sensitivity range can be tuned by choosing different ratios of the components, to monitor the minute pH variations in a given system. The dye interacts noncovalently with the protein at lower pH and covalently at higher pH, triggering two distinguishable fluorescent signals at 700 and 480 nm, respectively. The pH sensitivity region of the probe can be tuned for every unit of the pH window resulting in custom-made pH sensors. These narrow range tunable pH sensors have been used to monitor pH variations in HeLa cells using the fluorescence imaging technique.

  12. Modeling of a narrow band pass filter for Bathymetry light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, M. A.; Fomchenkov, S. A.; Khonina, S. N.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a narrow band pass Fabry-Perot filter is designed which can be used in an airborne light detection (ALB) and ranging bathymetry. LIDAR is done by reflecting a pulse laser beam from a target and detecting the round-trip propagation time between the source and the target. ALB systems consist of Nd: YAG laser that emits the pulses at two different wavelengths such as 1064 nm and 532 nm. Infrared pulses at 1064 nm are reflected from the water surface and the green pulses at 532 nm which penetrates the water surface and are reflected from the ground. Filters are desirable to suppress the ambient light that is reflected by the surface of the water or an atmosphere which always enter the detector as a noise. The designed filter shows a high quality with an average transmission of more than 95 % at 532 nm which is considered as practically ideal for water penetration in typical coastal waters.

  13. Very-short range forecasting system for 2018 Pyeonchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ji-Eun; Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Minyou; Kim, Changhwan; Joo, Sangwon

    2016-04-01

    The 23rd Olympic Winter and the 13th Paralympic Winter Games will be held in Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea respectively from 9 to 25 February 2018 and from 9 to 18 February 2018. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the National Institute for Meteorological Science (NIMS) have the responsibility to provide weather information for the management of the Games and the safety of the public. NIMS will carry out a Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP) and a Research and Development Project (RDP) which will be called ICE-POP 2018. These projects will focus on intensive observation campaigns to understand severe winter weathers over the Pyeongchang region, and the research results from the RDP will be used to improve the accuracy of nowcasting and very short-range forecast systems during the Games. To support these projects, NIMS developed Very-short range Data Assimilation and Prediction System (VDAPS), which is run in real time with 1 hour cycling interval and up to 12 hour forecasts. The domain is covering Korean Peninsular and surrounding seas with 1.5km horizontal resolution. AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, and radar radial winds are assimilated by 3DVAR on 3km resolution inner domain. The rain rate is converted into latent heat and initialized via nudging. The visibility data are also assimilated with the addition of aerosol control variable. The experiments results show the improvement in rainfall over south sea of Korean peninsula. In order to reduce excessive rainfalls during first 2 hours due to the reduced cycling interval, the data assimilation algorithm is optimized.

  14. Local and regional characterisation of the diurnal mountain wind systems in the Guadarrama mountain range (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Cano, Darío; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Morales, Gema; Viana, Samuel; Inclán, Rosa M.; Fidel González-Roúco, J.; Santolaria, Edmundo; Durán, Luis; Yagüe, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Diurnal mountain wind systems that develop in the surroundings of the Guadarrama mountain range (Spain) are studied in this work. This area is highly interesting: the city of Madrid is located at approximately 50 km towards the SE; and on the other hand, unlike in other mountainous regions, the summers are characterised to be significantly dry, providing an interesting case study of energy balance in the context of complex orography. Slope and basin circulations formed play an important role in the development of fog and pollution episodes in the whole region. On top of that, when upslope basin winds strengthened by diurnal convection exceed 10 m s-1, the runway configuration at the airport of Madrid needs to be modified. Continuous meteorological data and turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapour, momentum and heat are provided since June 2016 from measurements at a 10 m tower at La Herrería site, which is located at the foot of the Guadarrama mountain range. Besides, a 4 m high portable station is available for complementary measurements. La Herrería is part of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet; www.ucm.es/gumnet/), an atmospheric and subsurface observational facility distributed over the Guadarrama mountain range. As a support for the analysis, data from conventional meteorological stations within the region and a wind profiler at the airport are also employed. The wind roses for the period analysed (summer 2016) show how the diurnal cycle of the flows is influenced by local slopes and by the configuration of the basin. The irruption of the downslope flow in the evening produces a significant increase of the turbulence intensity and the eventual breakdown of the surface-based thermal inversion. However, the severe drying out of the soil throughout the summer, evident from the evolution of the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes, seems to play a role in altering the characteristics of the mountain-breeze system and its impact on turbulence

  15. Purkinje cell activity in the primate flocculus during optokinetic stimulation, smooth pursuit eye movements and VOR-suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, U; Waespe, W

    1984-01-01

    Purkinje cell (PC) activity in the flocculus of trained monkeys was recorded during: 1) Vestibular stimulation in darkness. 2) Suppression of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR-supp) by fixation of a small light spot stationary with respect to the monkey. 3) Visual-vestibular conflict (i.e. the visual surround moves together with the monkey during vestibular stimulation), which leads to attenuation or suppression of vestibular nystagmus. 4) Smooth pursuit eye movements. 5) Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN). 6) Suppression of nystagmus during optokinetic stimulation (OKN-supp) by fixation of a small light spot; whereby stimulus velocity corresponds then to image slip velocity. Results were obtained from PCs, which were activated with VOR-supp during rotation to the ipsilateral side. The same PCs were also modulated during smooth pursuit and visual-vestibular conflict. No tonic modulation during constant velocity OKN occurred with slow-phase nystagmus velocities below 40-60 deg/s. Tonic responses were only seen at higher nystagmus velocities. Transient activity changes appeared at the beginning and end of optokinetic stimulation. PCs were not modulated by image slip velocity during OKN-supp. The results show that in primates the same population of floccular PCs is involved in different mechanisms of visual-vestibular interaction and that smooth pursuit and certain components of OKN slow-phase velocity share the same neural pathway. It is argued that the activity of these neurons can neither be related strictly to gaze, eye or image slip velocity; instead, their activity pattern can be best interpreted by assuming a modulation, which is complementary to that of central vestibular neurons of the vestibular nuclei, in the control of slow eye movements.

  16. Lithuania's heating industry confronted by new challenges; Litauens Waermewirtschaft vor neuen Herausforderungen. Von der Plan- zur Marktwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhland, F. [VNG-Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Lithuania's energy sector is one of the country's most important in terms of jobs (it represents around 14% of industrial employment), total energy industry assets (about 25% of total national industrial assets) and import expenditure. By European Union (EU) estimates, Lithuania has made significant progress in harmonising with European standards in the energy sectors since the estimate was made in 2001 (c.f. 2001 Regular Report on Lithuania's Progress Towards Accession). The decision to shut down block 2 of the Ignalina nuclear power station is particularly important, as it constitutes formal confirmation by Lithuania that block 1 will be shut down before 2005 and its official agreement to shut down block 2 by 2009. Further corporate upheavals are imminent in the Lithuanian heating industry, after decades of a centralised command economy and the changes in ownership following independence form the Soviet Union, arising from the passing of the Heating Act and the statutory instruments planned for summer 2003. The regulations, some of which stem from the days of the Russian occupation, and many individual heating utility procedures will be standardised for the first time. In particular, unified management of the heating industry assets in blocks of flats, fragmented by the sale of individual homes, will be possible again. Competition is to be encouraged in the field of heat generation, although it will be partially suspended under the new regulations. (orig.) [German] Im Bereich der Waermewirtschaft steht Litauen nach jahrzehntelanger zentraler Planwirtschaft und den eigentumsrechtlichen Veraenderungen nach der Unabhaengigkeit von der Sowjetunion vor gravierenden unternehmerischen Veraenderungen. Diese werden durch die voraussichtliche Verabschiedung des Waermegesetzes am 1. Juli 2003 und die geplanten Verordnungen hervorgerufen. Der Autor beschreibt die Herausforderungen der Waermewirtschaft Litauens vor dem Hintergrund dieser Veraenderungen. (orig.)

  17. Integrated thermal and micro Coriolis flow sensing system with a dynamic flow range of more than 4 decades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Haneveld, J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2011-01-01

    We have realized a micromachined single chip flow sensing system with an unprecedented ultra-wide dynamic flow range of more than 4 decades, from less than 0.1 up to more than 1000 μl/h. The system comprises both a thermal and a micro Coriolis flow sensor with partially overlapping flow ranges.

  18. Window for Efimov physics for few-body systems with finite-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Rasmussen, S.; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the two lowest-lying weakly bound states of N≤slant 8 bosons as functions of the strength of two-body Gaussian interactions. We observe the limit for validity of Efimov physics. We calculate energies and second radial moments as functions of scattering length. For identical bosons we find that two (N-1)-body states appear before the N-body ground states become bound. This pattern ceases to exist for N≥slant 7 where the size of the ground state becomes smaller than the range of the two-body potential. All mean-square-radii for N≥slant 4 remain finite at the threshold of zero binding, where they vary as {(N-1)}p with p=-3/2,-3 for ground and excited states, respectively. Decreasing the mass of one particle we find stronger binding and smaller radii. The identical particles form a symmetric system, while the lighter particle is further away in the ground states. In the excited states we find the identical bosons either surrounded or surrounding the light particle for few or many bosons, respectively. We demonstrate that the first excited states for all strengths resemble two-body halos of one particle weakly bound to a dense N-body system for N = 3, 4. This structure ceases to exist for N≥slant 5.

  19. A Practical, Robust and Fast Method for Location Localization in Range-Based Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiping; Wu, Zhifeng; Misra, Anil

    2017-12-11

    Location localization technology is used in a number of industrial and civil applications. Real time location localization accuracy is highly dependent on the quality of the distance measurements and efficiency of solving the localization equations. In this paper, we provide a novel approach to solve the nonlinear localization equations efficiently and simultaneously eliminate the bad measurement data in range-based systems. A geometric intersection model was developed to narrow the target search area, where Newton's Method and the Direct Search Method are used to search for the unknown position. Not only does the geometric intersection model offer a small bounded search domain for Newton's Method and the Direct Search Method, but also it can self-correct bad measurement data. The Direct Search Method is useful for the coarse localization or small target search domain, while the Newton's Method can be used for accurate localization. For accurate localization, by utilizing the proposed Modified Newton's Method (MNM), challenges of avoiding the local extrema, singularities, and initial value choice are addressed. The applicability and robustness of the developed method has been demonstrated by experiments with an indoor system.

  20. TRM4: Range performance model for electro-optical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keßler, Stefan; Gal, Raanan; Wittenstein, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    TRM4 is a commonly used model for assessing device and range performance of electro-optical imagers. The latest version, TRM4.v2, has been released by Fraunhofer IOSB of Germany in June 2016. While its predecessor, TRM3, was developed for thermal imagers, assuming blackbody targets and backgrounds, TRM4 extends the TRM approach to assess three imager categories: imagers that exploit emitted radiation (TRM4 category Thermal), reflected radiation (TRM4 category Visible/NIR/SWIR), and both emitted and reflected radiation (TRM4 category General). Performance assessment in TRM3 and TRM4 is based on the perception of standard four-bar test patterns, whether distorted by under-sampling or not. Spatial and sampling characteristics are taken into account by the Average Modulation at Optimum Phase (AMOP), which replaces the system MTF used in previous models. The Minimum Temperature Difference Perceived (MTDP) figure of merit was introduced in TRM3 for assessing the range performance of thermal imagers. In TRM4, this concept is generalized to the MDSP (Minimum Difference Signal Perceived), which can be applied to all imager categories. In this paper, we outline and discuss the TRM approach and pinpoint differences between TRM4 and TRM3. In addition, an overview of the TRM4 software and its functionality is given. Features newly introduced in TRM4, such as atmospheric turbulence, irradiation sources, and libraries are addressed. We conclude with an outlook on future work and the new module for intensified CCD cameras that is currently under development

  1. 75 FR 24504 - Proposed Modification of VOR Federal Airways V-82, V-175, V-191, and V-430 in the Vicinity of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...- 430 in the vicinity of Bemidji, MN. The Bemidji (BJI) VOR, navigation aid that forms a segment of... interference problems and is planned for decommissioning. An airway intersection reporting point is being... aircraft reaches a useable segment of the airways. To restore the navigable airway structure in the...

  2. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedford, Felicity E.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary climate change is driving widespread geographical range shifts among many species. If species are tracking changing climate successfully, then leading populations should experience similar climatic conditions through time as new populations establish beyond historical range margins. ...

  3. Development of a Compact Range-gated Vision System to Monitor Structures in Low-visibility Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Lyul; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Image acquisition in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, automatic vision system to monitor structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments such as the places of a fire and detonation is essential. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog and dust. To overcome the imaging distortion caused by obstacle materials, robust vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination through disturbance materials. One of active vision system is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from the blurred and darken light environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and range image data is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through disturbance materials, such as smoke particles and dust particles. In contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology enables operation even in harsh environments like low-visibility smoky environment. In this paper, a compact range-gated vision system is developed to monitor structures in low-visibility environment. The system consists of illumination light, a range-gating camera and a control computer. Visualization experiments are carried out in low-visibility foggy environment to see imaging capability.

  4. INSIDE in-beam positron emission tomography system for particle range monitoring in hadrontherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina; Attili, Andrea; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Belcari, Nicola; Camarlinghi, Niccolo'; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Coli, Silvia; Del Guerra, Alberto; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ferrero, Veronica; Fiorina, Elisa; Giraudo, Giuseppe; Kostara, Eleftheria; Morrocchi, Matteo; Pennazio, Francesco; Peroni, Cristiana; Piliero, Maria Antonietta; Pirrone, Giovanni; Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel D; Rosso, Valeria; Sala, Paola; Sportelli, Giancarlo; Wheadon, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The quality assurance of particle therapy treatment is a fundamental issue that can be addressed by developing reliable monitoring techniques and indicators of the treatment plan correctness. Among the available imaging techniques, positron emission tomography (PET) has long been investigated and then clinically applied to proton and carbon beams. In 2013, the Innovative Solutions for Dosimetry in Hadrontherapy (INSIDE) collaboration proposed an innovative bimodal imaging concept that combines an in-beam PET scanner with a tracking system for charged particle imaging. This paper presents the general architecture of the INSIDE project but focuses on the in-beam PET scanner that has been designed to reconstruct the particles range with millimetric resolution within a fraction of the dose delivered in a treatment of head and neck tumors. The in-beam PET scanner has been recently installed at the Italian National Center of Oncologic Hadrontherapy (CNAO) in Pavia, Italy, and the commissioning phase has just started. The results of the first beam test with clinical proton beams on phantoms clearly show the capability of the in-beam PET to operate during the irradiation delivery and to reconstruct on-line the beam-induced activity map. The accuracy in the activity distal fall-off determination is millimetric for therapeutic doses.

  5. Feasibility of Close-Range Photogrammetric Models for Geographic Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Luke; /Rice U.

    2011-06-22

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of using close-range architectural photogrammetry as an alternative three dimensional modeling technique in order to place the digital models in a geographic information system (GIS) at SLAC. With the available equipment and Australis photogrammetry software, the creation of full and accurate models of an example building, Building 281 on SLAC campus, was attempted. After conducting several equipment tests to determine the precision achievable, a complete photogrammetric survey was attempted. The dimensions of the resulting models were then compared against the true dimensions of the building. A complete building model was not evidenced to be obtainable using the current equipment and software. This failure was likely attributable to the limits of the software rather than the precision of the physical equipment. However, partial models of the building were shown to be accurate and determined to still be usable in a GIS. With further development of the photogrammetric software and survey procedure, the desired generation of a complete three dimensional model is likely still feasible.

  6. Evidence of Long Range Dependence and Self-similarity in Urban Traffic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Gautam S [ORNL; Helmy, Ahmed [University of Florida, Gainesville; Hui, Pan [Hong Kong University of Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Transportation simulation technologies should accurately model traffic demand, distribution, and assignment parame- ters for urban environment simulation. These three param- eters significantly impact transportation engineering bench- mark process, are also critical in realizing realistic traffic modeling situations. In this paper, we model and charac- terize traffic density distribution of thousands of locations around the world. The traffic densities are generated from millions of images collected over several years and processed using computer vision techniques. The resulting traffic den- sity distribution time series are then analyzed. It is found using the goodness-of-fit test that the traffic density dis- tributions follows heavy-tail models such as Log-gamma, Log-logistic, and Weibull in over 90% of analyzed locations. Moreover, a heavy-tail gives rise to long-range dependence and self-similarity, which we studied by estimating the Hurst exponent (H). Our analysis based on seven different Hurst estimators strongly indicate that the traffic distribution pat- terns are stochastically self-similar (0.5 H 1.0). We believe this is an important finding that will influence the design and development of the next generation traffic simu- lation techniques and also aid in accurately modeling traffic engineering of urban systems. In addition, it shall provide a much needed input for the development of smart cities.

  7. New Satellite Laser Ranging TRF and EOP Series for Mass Transport Studies in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, E. C.

    2001-12-01

    The new millennium has started on the right note for geodesy. We finally see a series of gravity mapping missions materialize. What now becomes important is that well-established geodetic techniques rise to the challenge of validating and complementing the data these new missions will deliver. An area where this is likely to be important is the temporal variations in the zonal gravitational field and its very low degree and order components in general. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) has for a long time monitored the continuous redistribution of mass within the Earth system through concomitant changes in the Stokes' coefficients of the terrestrial gravity field. Secular changes in J2 due to post-glacial relaxation have been observed since many years and similar changes in J3, J4 J5, etc. are attributed to changes in the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. Seasonal changes in these coefficients have also been closely correlated with mass transfer in the atmosphere and oceans. JCET's latest analysis of the 1993-present SLR data set from LAGEOS and LAGEOS 2 data for the IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) development, includes the weekly monitoring of such compound changes in the low degree and order harmonics. This latest solution (2001) incorporates several important changes in the modeling of SLR data with resulting improvements in the geophysical products. Along with the static parameters of the TRF we have determined a time series of variations of its origin with respect to the center of mass of the Earth system (geocenter). These estimates provide a measure of the total motion due to all sources of mass transport within the Earth system and can be used to either complement the estimates from the future missions or to validate them through comparisons with their estimates for the same quantities. The data were reduced using NASA Goddard's GEODYN/SOLVE II software, resulting to a final RMS error of ~8 mm - close to the

  8. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedford, Felicity E.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary climate change is driving widespread geographical range shifts among many species. If species are tracking changing climate successfully, then leading populations should experience similar climatic conditions through time as new populations establish beyond historical range margins. ...... species assemblage in responses to recent climate change. Even among the most mobile species and without anthropogenic barriers to dispersal, these pollinators have been unable to extend their ranges as fast as required to keep pace with climate change....

  9. Dynamic range compression in the honey bee auditory system toward waggle dance sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiya Tsujiuchi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey bee foragers use a "waggle dance" to inform nestmates about direction and distance to locations of attractive food. The sound and air flows generated by dancer's wing and abdominal vibrations have been implicated as important cues, but the decoding mechanisms for these dance messages are poorly understood. To understand the neural mechanisms of honey bee dance communication, we analyzed the anatomy of antenna and Johnston's organ (JO in the pedicel of the antenna, as well as the mechanical and neural response characteristics of antenna and JO to acoustic stimuli, respectively. The honey bee JO consists of about 300-320 scolopidia connected with about 48 cuticular "knobs" around the circumference of the pedicel. Each scolopidium contains bipolar sensory neurons with both type I and II cilia. The mechanical sensitivities of the antennal flagellum are specifically high in response to low but not high intensity stimuli of 265-350 Hz frequencies. The structural characteristics of antenna but not JO neurons seem to be responsible for the non-linear responses of the flagellum in contrast to mosquito and fruit fly. The honey bee flagellum is a sensitive movement detector responding to 20 nm tip displacement, which is comparable to female mosquito. Furthermore, the JO neurons have the ability to preserve both frequency and temporal information of acoustic stimuli including the "waggle dance" sound. Intriguingly, the response of JO neurons was found to be age-dependent, demonstrating that the dance communication is only possible between aged foragers. These results suggest that the matured honey bee antennae and JO neurons are best tuned to detect 250-300 Hz sound generated during "waggle dance" from the distance in a dark hive, and that sufficient responses of the JO neurons are obtained by reducing the mechanical sensitivity of the flagellum in a near-field of dancer. This nonlinear effect brings about dynamic range compression in the honey bee

  10. The quasilinear theory in the approach of long-range systems to quasi-stationary states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Alessandro; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2017-05-01

    We develop a quasilinear theory of the Vlasov equation in order to describe the approach of systems with long-range interactions to quasi-stationary states. The quasilinear theory is based on the assumption that, although the initial distribution is not Vlasov stable, nevertheless its evolution towards a Vlasov stable stationary state is such that it is always only slightly inhomogeneous. We derive a diffusion equation governing the evolution of the velocity distribution of the system towards a steady state. This steady state is expected to correspond to the space-averaged quasi-stationary distribution function reached by the Vlasov equation as a result of a collisionless relaxation. We compare the prediction of the quasilinear theory to direct numerical simulations of the Hamiltonian mean field model, starting from an unstable spatially homogeneous distribution, either Gaussian or semi-elliptical. In the Gaussian case, we find that the quasilinear theory works reasonably well for weakly unstable initial conditions (i.e. close to the critical energy ε_c=3/4=0.75 ) and that it is able to predict the energy ε_t≃ 0.735 marking the effective out-of-equilibrium phase transition between unmagnetized and magnetized quasi-stationary states found in the numerical simulations. Similarly, the quasilinear theory works well for energies close to the instability threshold of the semi-elliptical case ε^*c =5/8=0.625 , and it predicts an effective out-of-equilibrium transition at εt≃ 0.619 . In both situations, the quasilinear theory works less well at energies lower than the out-of-equilibrium transition, the disagreement with the numerical simulations increasing with decreasing energy. In that case, we observe, in agreement with our previous numerical study (Campa and Chavanis 2013 Eur. Phys. J. B 86 170), that the quasi-stationary states are remarkably well fitted by polytropic distributions (Tsallis distributions) with index n  =  2 (Gaussian case) or n

  11. A WiMAX Networked UAV Telemetry System for Net-Centric Remote Sensing and Range Surveillance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A WiMAX networked UAV Telemetry System (WNUTS) is designed for net-centric remote sensing and launch range surveillance applications. WNUTS integrates a MIMO powered...

  12. Das baden-württembergische Innovationssystem im Wandel:. Akteure vor neuen Herausforderungen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlecker, Thomas; Zenker, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Recently, new forms of innovation, new actors and actor constellations can be observed, especially in "mature" innovation systems like Baden-Wuerttemberg, that are flanked by new instruments of innovation support. Against the backdrop of an evolved innovation system heuristics, this paper outlines these new developments in Baden-Wuerttemberg. It uses examples to describe characteristic innovation actors, actors from the research landscape, education and the intermediary function of mediators, social actors as well as the aspect of innovation financing and to reveal current tendencies and trends. It becomes clear that the innovation system in Baden-Wuerttemberg has continuously evolved and become more differentiated. Its industries' research efforts and modernization activities as well as innovation-friendly policies contribute to the adaptability of the system and are major influencing factors for the ongoing success of the innovation system. This is supplemented by diverse innovations at the level of actors, institutions and measures. The question concerns the governance and capacity of this complex system given dynamic changing global circumstances.

  13. Development of HEROICs: High-Sensitivity, High-Dynamic Range Detector Systems for Ultraviolet Astronomy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We propose a four-year program for the fabrication and characterization of high dynamic range, low background photon counting detectors that will support the next...

  14. System Estimation of Panel Data Models under Long-Range Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre

    A general dynamic panel data model is considered that incorporates individual and interactive fixed effects allowing for contemporaneous correlation in model innovations. The model accommodates general stationary or nonstationary long-range dependence through interactive fixed effects and innovat...

  15. Voltage Stabilization Control of Wide-Speed-Range Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    DC power systems have a constant DC-link voltage, as well as the advantages such as high stability, high efficiency, small size and light weight; therefore, they are widely used in stand-alone power systems, e.g. the power systems in aircrafts and automobiles, isolated wind power generation systems, etc. Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSGs) possess the advantages including high power density, high efficiency, and high control precision, and have obtained great attention and have be...

  16. Receiver Design, Performance Analysis, and Evaluation for Space-Borne Laser Altimeters and Space-to-Space Laser Ranging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1996-01-01

    This progress report consists of two separate reports. The first one describes our work on the use of variable gain amplifiers to increase the receiver dynamic range of space borne laser altimeters such as NASA's Geoscience Laser Altimeter Systems (GLAS). The requirement of the receiver dynamic range was first calculated. A breadboard variable gain amplifier circuit was made and the performance was fully characterized. The circuit will also be tested in flight on board the Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA-02) next year. The second report describes our research on the master clock oscillator frequency calibration for space borne laser altimeter systems using global positioning system (GPS) receivers.

  17. The development of an information system master plan for the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollo, Rolando A.; Bennett, Paul D.

    1992-03-01

    This thesis provides a general description of the communication facilities and systems currently used by the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF). The system interface requirements to support current range operations are identified and a description of current communications system shortfalls is provided along with recommendations for short-term improvements. A vision of the future is also provided. It suggests that PMRF adopt a coordinated, integrated, and centralized approach to range communications. Current and future communications system technologies such as digital communications, applicability of different transmission media, and application of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) are mentioned as avenues for implementing a fully integrated data, voice, and video real-time information network that will support future PMRF users' requirements.

  18. Short-range wireless communication fundamentals of RF system design and application

    CERN Document Server

    Bensky, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Complete "Tool Kit” for the Hottest Area in RF/Wireless Design!Short-range wireless-communications over distances of less than 100 meters-is the most rapidly growing segment of RF/wireless engineering. Alan Bensky is an internationally recognized expert in short-range wireless, and this new edition of his bestselling book is completely revised to cover the latest developments in this fast moving field.You'll find coverage of such cutting-edge topics as: architectural trends in RF/wireless integrated circuits compatibility and conflict issues between differen

  19. Model simulation studies to clarify the effect on saccadic eye movements of initial condition velocities set by the Vestibular Ocular Reflex (VOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Winters, J. M.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    Voluntary active head rotations produced vestibulo-ocular reflex eye movements (VOR) with the subject viewing a fixation target. When this target jumped, the size of the refixation saccades were a function of the ongoing initial velocity of the eye. Saccades made against the VOR were larger in magnitude. Simulation of a reciprocally innervated model eye movement provided results comparable to the experimental data. Most of the experimental effect appeared to be due to linear summation for saccades of 5 and 10 degree magnitude. For small saccades of 2.5 degrees, peripheral nonlinear interaction of state variables in the neuromuscular plant also played a role as proven by comparable behavior in the simulated model with known controller signals.

  20. Shuttle communication systems compatibility and performance tests. [transponder, range error, and power amplifier problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, L. K.; Travis, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The compatibility and performance of the Shuttle communications system must be certified prior to operational missions. For this purpose, NASA has established the Electronics Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL) at the Johnson Space Center. This paper discusses the Shuttle communications system compatibility and performance testing being performed in the ESTL. The ESTL system verification test philosophy, including capabilities, procedures, and unique testing equipment are summarized. Summaries of the significant results of compatibility and performance tests of the Orbiter/Space-flight Tracking and Data Network, Orbiter/Air Force Remote Tracking Station, Orbiter/Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System and Orbiter/Shuttle Launch Support System interfaces are presented. The ESTL's unique ability to locate potential communication problems and participate in the resolution of these problems are discussed in detail.

  1. A medium-range air combat game solution by a pilot advisory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, J.; Siegel, A.W.; Gold, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    Air-to-air combat between two aggressive aircraft , both equipped with medium-range guided missiles, is .a key element of future air warfare. This dynamic coni lict can be viewed as an interaction of a twotarget diiferential game (between the air--craft) and two independent missileaircraft

  2. Ranging behaviour and socio-biology of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) on lowland mesotrophic river systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neill, Lughaidh O.; Veldhuizen, Tijmen; de Jongh, Addy; Rochford, John

    We examined the spatial structure and sociobiology of a native wild population of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) on mesotrophic rivers in a mild temperate climate. Radio-tracking of 20 individuals revealed exclusive intra-sexual adult home-ranges. Adult female homeranges (7.5 km, SD = 1.5 km, n = 7)

  3. Fluid–fluid coexistence in colloidal systems with short-ranged strongly directional attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, N.; Frenkel, D.

    2003-01-01

    We present a systematic numerical study of the phase behavior of square-well fluids with a "patchy" short-ranged attraction. In particular, we study the effect of the size and number of attractive patches on the fluid–fluid coexistence. The model that we use is a generalization of the hard sphere

  4. Advanced Tactical Booster Technologies: Applications for Long-Range Rocket Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRC 10 E. Saturn Blvd. Edwards AFB, CA 93524-7680 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY...include area code ) N/A Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 ADVANCED TACTICAL BOOSTER TECHNOLOGIES Applications for Long-Range

  5. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF HEAT PUMP STATION GAS COOLER AT THE WIDE RANGE OF HEAT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is examined the structure the of control system of gas cooler of heat pump station, which uses the carbon dioxide as the working fluid in the transctitical thermodynamical cycle. It is analiyed the structure of the complex: heat pump station – district heating system.

  6. Fire Behavior System for the Full Range of Fire Management Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Rothermel; Patricia L. Andrews

    1987-01-01

    An "integrated fire behavior/fire danger rating system" should be "seamless" to avoid requiring choices among alternate, independent systems. Descriptions of fuel moisture, fuels, and fire behavior should be standardized, permitting information to flow easily through the spectrum of fire management needs. The level of resolution depends on the...

  7. Optimal Detection Range of RFID Tag for RFID-based Positioning System Using the k-NN Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Heo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Positioning technology to track a moving object is an important and essential component of ubiquitous computing environments and applications. An RFID-based positioning system using the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN algorithm can determine the position of a moving reader from observed reference data. In this study, the optimal detection range of an RFID-based positioning system was determined on the principle that tag spacing can be derived from the detection range. It was assumed that reference tags without signal strength information are regularly distributed in 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional spaces. The optimal detection range was determined, through analytical and numerical approaches, to be 125% of the tag-spacing distance in 1-dimensional space. Through numerical approaches, the range was 134% in 2-dimensional space, 143% in 3-dimensional space.

  8. Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trumpold, H.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    geometry of basic bodies for compression and injection moulding of plastic negatives with different step height, sinusoidal-, triangular and arcuate profiles covering Pt-values from 0.05 µm up to 100 µm and PSm values from 0.8 µm up to 800 µm. For active calibration in Z-direction a small size vertical...... and for the calibration of filters. Existing ISO standards on calibration specimens are inadequate and limited in that they only cover contacting instruments and only partially the measuring ranges for these instruments. The whole range of non-contacting instruments are not covered despite their increasing use...... compression and injection moulded plastic negatives and Ni-negatives have been made from which again Ni-positives were produced. The replication processes showed negligible deviations from the Pt and Pa values compared to the primary standards. An important prerequisite is the cleanliness of the surfaces...

  9. Range Scheduling Automation for the Air Force Satellite Control Network: A Case Study in Computer System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    ECP Engineering Change Proposal FQT Functional Qualification Test GPS Globil Positioning System GTS Guam Tracking Station HTS Hawaii Tracking Station...operational environment for which the two range scheduling automation projects were developed, it is important to understand the AFSCN range scheduling...of the two efforts? The literature review in Chapter II discusses the software acquisition problem in the Department of Defense (DOD) environment and

  10. Quantum dynamics of long-range interacting systems using the positive-P and gauge-P representations

    OpenAIRE

    Wüster, S.; Corney, J. F.; Rost, J. M.; Deuar, P.

    2017-01-01

    We provide the necessary framework for carrying out stochastic positive-P and gauge-P simulations of bosonic systems with long range interactions. In these approaches, the quantum evolution is sampled by trajectories in phase space, allowing calculation of correlations without truncation of the Hilbert space or other approximations to the quantum state. The main drawback is that the simulation time is limited by noise arising from interactions. We show that the long-range character of these i...

  11. Preoperative and Postoperative Range of Motion: A Retrospective Comparison of Two Total Ankle Replacement Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigido, Stephen A; Mulhern, Jennifer L; Wobst, Garrett M; Protzman, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present report was to compare the range of motion between a total ankle replacement requiring arched bony resection and a total ankle replacement requiring a flat cut for implantation. We hypothesized that the arched contour would more closely mimic the patient's pre-existing anatomy and increase the range of motion. Pain was evaluated as a secondary outcome. Twenty-eight patients (age 55.95 ± 15.29 years) were included. Of the 28 patients, 14 were treated with an arch cut and 14 with a flat cut. Although no significant difference was found in dorsiflexion between the 2 implant groups (p = .38), preoperative dorsiflexion, body mass index, implant type, and preoperative plantarflexion emerged as significant predictors of postoperative plantarflexion (p = .04). This finding indicates that postoperative plantarflexion was significantly greater in patients treated with an arch cut (30.43° ± 10.01°) than a flat cut (21.79° ± 15.70°, p = .02), when controlling for the other explanatory variables. A statistically significant improvement in pain was observed after total ankle replacement (p range of motion after total ankle replacement. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of production system (barn and free range) and slaughter age on some production traits of guinea fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2018-01-01

    A total of 200 guinea fowl was reared in either barn or free-range systems and slaughtered at 14, 16, or 18 wk of age in order to determine the effects of production system on live weight, feed consumption, and some carcass and slaughter traits. Production system had a significant effect on live weight until 14 wk of age. Live weights were similar between free-range and indoor production systems at 16 (1,150 g vs. 1,152 g) and 18 (1,196 g vs. 1,203 g) wk of age. Guinea fowl reared in a free-range system consumed more feed (7,693 g vs. 6,983 g), and guinea fowl reared in a barn had better feed conversion ratio (5.80 vs. 6.43) (P slaughter age did not affect the dressing percentage. Guinea fowl reared in a free-range system had significantly less abdominal fat (P < 0.05). © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Condensation versus long-range interaction: Competing quantum phases in bosonic optical lattice systems at near-resonant Rydberg dressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Andreas; Vasić, Ivana; Hofstetter, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Recent experiments have shown that (quasi)crystalline phases of Rydberg-dressed quantum many-body systems in optical lattices (OL) are within reach. Rydberg systems naturally possess strong long-range interactions due to the large polarizability of Rydberg atoms. Thus a wide range of quantum phases has been predicted, such as a devil's staircase of lattice-incommensurate density wave phases as well as the more exotic lattice supersolid order for bosonic systems, as considered in our work. Guided by results in the "frozen"-gas limit, we study the ground-state phase diagram at finite hopping amplitudes and in the vicinity of resonant Rydberg driving while fully including the long-range tail of the van der Waals interaction. Simulations within real-space bosonic dynamical mean-field theory yield an extension of the devil's staircase into the supersolid regime where the competition of condensation and interaction leads to a sequence of crystalline phases.

  14. Improve Motor System Efficiency for a Broad Range of Motors with MotorMaster+ International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-05-01

    Available at no charge, MotorMaster+ International is designed to support motor systems improvement planning at industrial facilities by identifying the most cost-effective choice when deciding to repair or replace older motor models.

  15. Public Land Survey System (PLSS) Township Range Polygons, California, 2015, Bureau of Land Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PLSSTownship: This dataset represents the GIS Version of the Public Land Survey System including both rectangular and non-rectangular surveys. The primary source for...

  16. A portable mid-range localization system using infrared LEDs for visually impaired people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suhyeon; Choi, In-Mook; Kim, Sang-Soo; Kim, Sung-Mok

    2014-11-01

    A versatile indoor/outdoor pedestrian guidance system with good mobility is necessary in order to aid visually impaired pedestrians in indoor and outdoor environments. In this paper, distance estimation methods for portable wireless localization systems are verified. Two systems of a fixed active beacon and a receiver using an ultrasound time-of-flight method and a differential infrared intensity method are proposed. The infrared localization system was appropriate for the goal of this study. It was possible to use the infrared intensity method to generate a uniform signal field that exceeded 30 m. Valid distance estimations which were within 30 m of coverage indoors and within 20 m of coverage outdoors were made. Also, a pocket-sized receiver which can be adapted to a smartphone was found to be suitable for use as a portable device.

  17. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Trenchard, Hugh; Perc, Matjaz

    2016-01-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems including bacteria, spermatozoa, various aq...

  18. A UAV BASED CLOSE-RANGE RAPID AERIAL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Choi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As the occurrences and scales of disasters and accidents have been increased due to the global warming, the terrorists' attacks, and many other reasons, the demand for rapid responses for the emergent situations also has been thus ever-increasing. These emergency responses are required to be customized to each individual site for more effective management of the emergent situations. These requirements can be satisfied with the decisions based on the spatial changes on the target area, which should be detected immediately or in real-time. Aerial monitoring without human operators is an appropriate means because the emergency areas are usually inaccessible. Therefore, a UAV is a strong candidate as the platform for the aerial monitoring. In addition, the sensory data from the UAV system usually have higher resolution than other system because the system can operate at a lower altitude. If the transmission and processing of the data could be performed in real-time, the spatial changes of the target area can be detected with high spatial and temporal resolution by the UAV rapid mapping systems. As a result, we aim to develop a rapid aerial mapping system based on a UAV, whose key features are the effective acquisition of the sensory data, real-time transmission and processing of the data. In this paper, we will introduce the general concept of our system, including the main features, intermediate results, and explain our real-time sensory data georeferencing algorithm which is a core for prompt generation of the spatial information from the sensory data.

  19. A short-range multi-model ensemble weather prediction system for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available prediction system (EPS) at the South African Weather Service (SAWS) are examined. The ensemble consists of different forecasts from the 12-km LAM of the UK Met Office Unified Model (UM) and the Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) covering the South...

  20. Link Design Rules for Cost-Effective Short-Range Radio Over Multimode Fiber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visani, Davide; Tartarini, Giovanni; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2010-01-01

    parameters of the system are the finite detecting area of the photodiode and the laser frequency chirp. Furthemore, we show that the use of the central launch technique inherently determines a lower impact of modal noise fluctuations with respect to the offset launch one. This makes CL more convenient...

  1. Designing a Low-Resolution Face Recognition System for Long-Range Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Most face recognition systems deal well with high-resolution facial images, but perform much worse on low-resolution facial images. In low-resolution face recognition, there is a specific but realistic surveillance scenario: a surveillance camera monitoring a large area. In this scenario, usually

  2. Methods for Tier 1 Modeling within the Training Range Environmental Evaluation and Characterization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    guidelines for evaluating MEPAS input parameters for version 3.1. PNL -10395. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Dortch, M., Z...System (MEPAS): Version 1. PNL -7145. Richland, VA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Soil

  3. Long-range interactions and the sign of natural amplitudes in two-electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbertz, K.J.H.; Van Leeuwen, R.

    In singlet two-electron systems, the natural occupation numbers of the one-particle reduced density matrix are given as squares of the natural amplitudes which are defined as the expansion coefficients of the two-electron wave function in a natural orbital basis. In this work, we relate the sign of

  4. Diode laser systems for 1.8- to 2.3-μm wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Márc T.; Gilly, Jürgen; Moritz, Rudolf; Schleife, Jeanette; Fatscher, Mathias; Kaufmann, Melanie; Ahlert, Sandra; Biesenbach, Jens

    2010-04-01

    High-power diode lasers in the mid-infrared wavelength range between 1.8μm and 2.3μm have emerged new possibilities either for direct military applications or as efficient pump sources for laser sources in the 2-4μm wavelength range for infrared countermeasures. GaSb based diode lasers are naturally predestinated for this wavelength range and offer clear advantages in comparison to InP based diode lasers in terms of output power and wall-plug efficiency. We will present results on MBE grown (AlGaIn)(AsSb) quantum-well diode laser single emitters with emitter widths between 90μm and 200μm. In addition laser bars with 20% or 30% fill factor have been processed. More than 30% maximum wall-plug efficiency in cw operation for single emitters and laser bars has been reached. Even at 2200nm more than 15W have been demonstrated with a 30% fill factor bar. Due to an increasing interest in pulsed operation modes for these mid-infrared lasers, we have investigated single emitters and laser bars at 1940nm for different pulse times and duty cycles. More than 9W have been measured at 30A with 500ns pulse time and 1% duty cycle without COMD for a single emitter. Most applications mentioned before need fiber coupled output power, therefore fiber coupled modules based on single emitters or laser bars have been developed. Single-emitter based modules show 600mW out of a 200μm core fiber with NA=0.22 at different wavelengths between 1870nm and 1940nm. At 2200nm an output power of 450mW ex fiber impressively demonstrates the potential of GaSb based diode lasers well beyond wavelengths of 2μm. Combining several laser bars, 20W out of a 600μm core fiber have been established at 1870nm. Finally for a 7 bar stack at 1870nm we have demonstrated more than 85W at 50A in qcw mode.

  5. Measured electric field intensities near electric cloud discharges detected by the Kennedy Space Center's Lightning Detection and Ranging System, LDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    For a summer thunderstorm, for which simultaneous, airborne electric field measurements and Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System data was available, measurements were coordinated to present a picture of the electric field intensity near cloud electrical discharges detected by the LDAR System. Radar precipitation echos from NOAA's 10 cm weather radar and measured airborne electric field intensities were superimposed on LDAR PPI plots to present a coordinated data picture of thunderstorm activity.

  6. Entanglement entropy of fractional quantum Hall systems with short range disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, B. A.; Levine, G. C.

    2015-02-01

    The critical value of the mobility for which the ν = 5/2 quantum Hall effect is destroyed by short range disorder is determined from an earlier calculation of the entanglement entropy. The value μ = 2.0 ×106cm2/Vs agrees well with experiment. This agreement is particularly significant in that there are no adjustable parameters. Entanglement entropy versus disorder strength for ν = 1/2, ν = 9/2 and ν = 7/3 is calculated. For ν = 1/2 there is no evidence for a transition for the disorder strengths considered; for ν = 9/2 there appears to be a stripe-liquid transition. For ν = 7/3 there again appears to be a transition at similar value of the disorder strength as the ν = 5/2 transition but there are stronger finite size effects.

  7. A Static Displacement Monitoring System for VLBI Antenna Using Close-Range Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukgil Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a static displacement monitoring program was developed to maintain the accurate performance of a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI antenna by monitoring its structural stability. The monitoring program was designed to measure static displacement, among the many displacements of the antenna’s main reflector, which can directly affect its performance. The program measures the position of a monitored object with mm-level accuracy through close-range photogrammetry that uses high-resolution Charge Coupled Device (CCD cameras. The developed program will be used to evaluate the structural soundness of an antenna based on continuous displacement measurements, which can also be used as basic data for repair and reinforcement work in the future.

  8. Determining the bounds of skilful forecast range for probabilistic prediction of system-wide wind power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Dirk; Brayshaw, David; Methven, John; Drew, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    State-of-the-art wind power forecasts beyond a few hours ahead rely on global numerical weather prediction models to forecast the future large-scale atmospheric state. Often they provide initial and boundary conditions for nested high resolution simulations. In this work, both upper and lower bounds on forecast range are identified within which global ensemble forecasts provide skilful information for system-wide wind power applications. An upper bound on forecast range is associated with the limit of predictability, beyond which forecasts have no more skill than predictions based on climatological statistics. A lower bound is defined at the lead time beyond which the resolved uncertainty associated with estimating the future large-scale atmospheric state is larger than the unresolved uncertainty associated with estimating the system-wide wind power response to a given large-scale state. The bounds of skillful ensemble forecast range are quantified for three leading global forecast systems. The power system of Great Britain (GB) is used as an example because independent verifying data is available from National Grid. The upper bound defined by forecasts of GB-total wind power generation at a specific point in time is found to be 6-8 days. The lower bound is found to be 1.4-2.4 days. Both bounds depend on the global forecast system and vary seasonally. In addition, forecasts of the probability of an extreme power ramp event were found to possess a shorter limit of predictability (4.5-5.5 days). The upper bound on this forecast range can only be extended by improving the global forecast system (outside the control of most users) or by changing the metric used in the probability forecast. Improved downscaling and microscale modelling of the wind farm response may act to decrease the lower bound. The potential gain from such improvements have diminishing returns beyond the short-range (out to around 2 days).

  9. Density of states of two-dimensional systems with long-range logarithmic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoza, Andrés M.; Ortuño, Miguel; Baturina, Tatyana I.; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2015-08-03

    We investigate a single-particle density of states (DOS) in strongly disordered two- dimensional high dielectric permittivity systems with logarithmic Coulomb interaction between particles. We derive self-consistent DOS at zero temperature and show that it is appreciably suppressed as compared to the DOS expected from the Efros-Shklovskii approach.We carry out zero- and finite-temperature Monte Carlo numerical studies of the DOS and find the perfect agreement between the numerical and analytical results at zero temperature, observing, in particular, a hardening of the Coulomb gap with the increasing electrostatic screening length. At finite temperatures, we reveal a striking scaling of the DOS as a function of energy normalized to the temperature of the system.

  10. Confidence range estimate of extended source imagery acquisition algorithms via computer simulations. [in optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, CHIEN-C.; Hui, Elliot; Okamoto, Garret

    1992-01-01

    Spatial acquisition using the sun-lit Earth as a beacon source provides several advantages over active beacon-based systems for deep-space optical communication systems. However, since the angular extend of the Earth image is large compared to the laser beam divergence, the acquisition subsystem must be capable of resolving the image to derive the proper pointing orientation. The algorithms used must be capable of deducing the receiver location given the blurring introduced by the imaging optics and the large Earth albedo fluctuation. Furthermore, because of the complexity of modelling the Earth and the tracking algorithms, an accurate estimate of the algorithm accuracy can only be made via simulation using realistic Earth images. An image simulator was constructed for this purpose, and the results of the simulation runs are reported.

  11. GPS (Global Positioning System) Error Budgets, Accuracy and Applications Considerations for Test and Training Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    October 1974, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Silver Spring, Maryland. 25. J. A. Klobuchar , M. A. and J. A. Pearson, A Preliminary...Aerospace Cor., Los Angeles, Calif. 26. J. A. Klobuchar , Ionospheric Time Delay Corrections for Advanced Satellite Rancing Systems, Air Force Geophysics...Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA. 27. J. A. Klobuchar and J. M. Johnson, Correlation Distance of Mean Daytime Electron Content, AFGL-TR-77-0185, Air Force

  12. Determining position, velocity and acceleration of free-ranging animals with a low-cost unmanned aerial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Richard J; Roskilly, Kyle; Buse, Chris; Evans, Hannah K; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs), frequently referred to as 'drones', have become more common and affordable and are a promising tool for collecting data on free-ranging wild animals. We used a Phantom-2 UAS equipped with a gimbal-mounted camera to estimate position, velocity and acceleration of a subject on the ground moving through a grid of GPS surveyed ground control points (area ∼1200 m(2)). We validated the accuracy of the system against a dual frequency survey grade GPS system attached to the subject. When compared with GPS survey data, the estimations of position, velocity and acceleration had a root mean square error of 0.13 m, 0.11 m s(-1) and 2.31 m s(-2), respectively. The system can be used to collect locomotion and localisation data on multiple free-ranging animals simultaneously. It does not require specialist skills to operate, is easily transported to field locations, and is rapidly and easily deployed. It is therefore a useful addition to the range of methods available for field data collection on free-ranging animal locomotion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Intermediate frequency band digitized high dynamic range radiometer system for plasma diagnostics and real-time Tokamak control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W. A.; van Beveren, V.; Thoen, D. J.; Nuij, Pjwm; M.R. de Baar,; Donne, A. J. H.; Westerhof, E.; Goede, A. P. H.; Krijger, B.; van den Berg, M. A.; Kantor, M.; M. F. Graswinckel,; Hennen, B.A.; Schüller, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    An intermediate frequency (IF) band digitizing radiometer system in the 100-200 GHz frequency range has been developed for Tokamak diagnostics and control, and other fields of research which require a high flexibility in frequency resolution combined with a large bandwidth and the retrieval of the

  14. Intermediate frequency band digitized high dynamic range radiometer system for plasma diagnostics and real-time Tokamak control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, WA.; Van Beveren, V.; Thoen, D.J.; Nuij, P.J.W.M.; De Baar, M.R.; Donné, A.J.H.; Westerhof, E.; Goede, A.P.H.; Krijger, B.; Van den Berg, M.A.; Kantor, M.; Graswinckel, M.F.; Hennen, B.A.; Schüller, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    An intermediate frequency (IF) band digitizing radiometer system in the 100–200 GHz frequency range has been developed for Tokamak diagnostics and control, and other fields of research which require a high flexibility in frequency resolution combined with a large bandwidth and the retrieval of the

  15. Evolution of Compatibility Range in the Rice-Magnaporthe oryzae System: An Uneven Distribution of R Genes Between Rice Subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Romain; Fontaine, Colin; Bonnot, François; Milazzo, Joëlle; Tertois, Christophe; Adreit, Henri; Ravigné, Virginie; Fournier, Elisabeth; Tharreau, Didier

    2016-04-01

    Efficient strategies for limiting the impact of pathogens on crops require a good understanding of the factors underlying the evolution of compatibility range for the pathogens and host plants, i.e., the set of host genotypes that a particular pathogen genotype can infect and the set of pathogen genotypes that can infect a particular host genotype. Until now, little is known about the evolutionary and ecological factors driving compatibility ranges in systems implicating crop plants. We studied the evolution of host and pathogen compatibility ranges for rice blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete Magnaporthe oryzae. We challenged 61 rice varieties from three rice subspecies with 31 strains of M. oryzae collected worldwide from all major known genetic groups. We determined the compatibility range of each plant variety and pathogen genotype and the severity of each plant-pathogen interaction. Compatibility ranges differed between rice subspecies, with the most resistant subspecies selecting for pathogens with broader compatibility ranges and the least resistant subspecies selecting for pathogens with narrower compatibility ranges. These results are consistent with a nested distribution of R genes between rice subspecies.

  16. Multiple-Station Range Target System Operations Manual, Annex 2: Flying Target System Operations and Maintenance Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    in. music wire, threaded) "Expanded scale voltmeter used for measuring receiver and transmitter battery voltages " 12V DC battery and battery charger...32 oz (Iid) oS zt (%id) ENDURANCC AT MAX SPEED 30m 30min 14 min SPEED 35-110 MPH 40-95 MPH 15-75 MPH PAYLOAD 20 I1s 15 rs 6 Ibo CONTROL RANGE 15 km...100 MPH 15490 MPH PAYLOAD 25 Ibo 20 I#b 6 Ibm CONTR0L RANGE 18 km 3 km 2 km Figure A-6. Su-25 Frogfoot. A-3 , ,i SPECIFICATIONS C 15SU 17(3 C17SU 17(3

  17. Modeling Control Strategies and Range Impacts for Electric Vehicle Integrated Thermal Management Systems with MATLAB/Simulink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, Gene; Lustbader, Jason Aaron

    2017-03-28

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) CoolSim MATLAB/Simulink modeling framework was used to explore control strategies for an electric vehicle combined loop system. Three system variants of increased complexity and efficiency were explored: a glycol-based positive temperature coefficient heater (PTC), PTC with power electronics and electric motor (PEEM) waste heat recovery, and PTC with PEEM waste heat recovery plus heat pump versions. Additionally, the benefit of electric motor preheating was considered. A two-level control strategy was developed where the mode selection and component control were treated separately. Only the parameters typically available by vehicle sensors were used to control the system. The control approach included a mode selection algorithm and controllers for the compressor speed, cabin blower flow rate, coolant flow rate, and the front-end heat exchanger coolant bypass rate. The electric motor was bypassed by the cooling circuit until its temperature exceeded the coolant inlet temperature. The impact of these thermal systems on electric vehicle range during warmup was simulated for the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET2X) drive cycles weighted 45%/55% respectively. A range of ambient temperatures from -20 degrees C to +20 degrees C was considered. NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) vehicle modeling tool showed up to a 10.9% improvement in range for the full system over the baseline during warmup from cold soak. The full system with preheat showed up to 17% improvement in range.

  18. Dynamic magnetic susceptibility of systems with long-range magnetic order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannette, Matthew Dano [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The utility of the TDR as an instrument in the study of magnetically ordered materials has been expanded beyond the simple demonstration purposes. Results of static applied magnetic field dependent measurements of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility, χ, of various ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials showing a range of transition temperatures (1-800 K) are presented. Data was collected primarily with a tunnel diode resonator (TDR) at different radio-frequencies (~10-30 MHz). In the vicinity of TC local moment ferromagnets show a very sharp, narrow peak in χ which is suppressed in amplitude and shifted to higher temperatures as the static bias field is increased. Unexpectedly, critical scaling analysis fails for these data. It is seen that these data are frequency dependent, however there is no simple method whereby measurement frequency can be changed in a controllable fashion. In contrast, itinerant ferromagnets show a broad maximum in χ well below TC which is suppressed and shifts to lower temperatures as the dc bias field is increased. The data on itinerant ferromagnets is fitted to a semi-phenomenological model that suggests the sample response is dominated by the uncompensated minority spins in the conduction band. Concluding remarks suggest possible scenarios to achieve frequency resolved data using the TDR as well as other fields in which the apparatus may be exploited.

  19. Natural gels: crystal-chemistry of short range ordered components in Al, Fe, and Si systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ildefonse, Ph.; Calas, G. [Paris-6 et 7 Univ. and IPGP, Lab. de Mineralogie-Cristallographie, UA CNRS 09, 75 (France)

    1997-07-01

    In this review, the most important inorganic natural gels are presented: opal, aluminosilicate (allophanes) and hydrous iron oxides and silicates. It is demonstrated that natural gels are ordered at the atomic scale. In allophanes, Al is distributed between octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The amount of Al increases as Al/Si ratio decreases. Si-rich allophane have a local structure around Al and Si very different of that is known in kaolinite or halloysite. Transformation of Si-rich allophanes to crystallized minerals implies dissolution-recrystallization processes. On the contrary, in iron silicate with Fe/Si = 0.72, Si and Fe environments are close to those found in nontronite. The gel transformation to Fe-smectite may occur by long range ordering during ageing. In ferric silicate gels, the similarity of local structure around Fe in poorly ordered precursors and what is known in crystallized minerals suggests a solid transformation during ageing. This difference between iron and aluminium is mainly due to the ability of Al to enter both tetrahedral and octahedral sites, while the affinity of iron for octahedral sites is higher at low temperature.

  20. Medium range forecasting of hourly power system load by time series analysis using the Walsh transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, T.K.; Bhattacharya, T.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (IN). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Purkayastha, P. (Oil India Ltd., Duliajan (IN))

    1991-08-01

    Medium range forecasts of hourly load demand for a span of 24 h to 168h are required for the preparation of short term maintenance schedules of unit auxiliaries and peaking stations apart from maintaining security constraints and minimizing operational costs. Forecasts of the daily load for seven days by the available multiplicative SARIMA model suffer from divergent error levels of multistep ahead forecasts, and to take all the features of any particular day, the order of such models will be prohibitively large. In the present paper a unique approach has been made to the time series analysis of stochastic processes: multigrade periodicities present in the daily load curve have been gainfully exploited by grouping the data in seven subgroups characterizing each week day separately and then each group is replaced by an orthogonal transform known as a Walsh transform. The amplitudes of the transformed spectrum have been time series modelled by the Box-Jenkins approach and forecasts are made by taking inverse (Walsh) transforms. (author).

  1. Expected Range of Cooperation Between Transmission System Operators and Distribution System Operators After Implementation of ENTSO-E Grid Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pakulski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the prospects of cooperation between transmission system operators (TSO and distribution system operators (DSO after entry into force ENTSO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity grid codes. New areas of DSO activities, associated with offering TSO aggregated services for national power system regulation based on the regulation resources connected to the distribution grid, and services on the distribution system level as part of the creation of local balancing areas (LBA are presented. The paper also presents the possibilities of providing ancillary services by different types of distributed generation sources in the distribution network. The LBA concept, which involves integrated management of local regulation resources including generation, demand, and energy storage is described. The options of the renewable energy sources (RES using for voltage and reactive power control in the distribution network with the use of wind farms (WF connected to the distribution system are characterized.

  2. Multi-Range Conditional Random Field for Classifying Railway Electrification System Objects Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Railways have been used as one of the most crucial means of transportation in public mobility and economic development. For safe railway operation, the electrification system in the railway infrastructure, which supplies electric power to trains, is an essential facility for stable train operation. Due to its important role, the electrification system needs to be rigorously and regularly inspected and managed. This paper presents a supervised learning method to classify Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS data into ten target classes representing overhead wires, movable brackets and poles, which are key objects in the electrification system. In general, the layout of the railway electrification system shows strong spatial regularity relations among object classes. The proposed classifier is developed based on Conditional Random Field (CRF, which characterizes not only labeling homogeneity at short range, but also the layout compatibility between different object classes at long range in the probabilistic graphical model. This multi-range CRF model consists of a unary term and three pairwise contextual terms. In order to gain computational efficiency, MLS point clouds are converted into a set of line segments to which the labeling process is applied. Support Vector Machine (SVM is used as a local classifier considering only node features for producing the unary potentials of the CRF model. As the short-range pairwise contextual term, the Potts model is applied to enforce a local smoothness in the short-range graph; while long-range pairwise potentials are designed to enhance the spatial regularities of both horizontal and vertical layouts among railway objects. We formulate two long-range pairwise potentials as the log posterior probability obtained by the naive Bayes classifier. The directional layout compatibilities are characterized in probability look-up tables, which represent the co-occurrence rate of spatial relations in the horizontal and vertical

  3. Lehrerweiterbildung vor einem Entwicklungsschub

    OpenAIRE

    Landert, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Die Analyse des Weiterbildungsverhaltens der Lehrerinnen und Lehrer belegt, dass sich die Lehrpersonen bei weitem nicht nur über formelle, in einer spezialisierten Institution konsumierte Angebote für den pädagogischen Alltag à jour halten. Die im Berufsalltag eingebettete informelle Weiterbildung wird - im Vergleich mit der formellen Lehrerweiterbildung - nicht nur subjektiv als wichtiger beurteilt; sie ist auch quantitativ bedeutungsvoller. Im Vertrauen auf das Potential der individuell org...

  4. Implementation of a close range photogrammetric system for 3D reconstruction of a scoliotic torso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detchev, Ivan Denislavov

    Scoliosis is a deformity of the human spine most commonly encountered with children. After being detected, periodic examinations via x-rays are traditionally used to measure its progression. However, due to the increased risk of cancer, a non-invasive and radiation-free scoliosis detection and progression monitoring methodology is needed. Quantifying the scoliotic deformity through the torso surface is a valid alternative, because of its high correlation with the internal spine curvature. This work proposes a low-cost multi-camera photogrammetric system for semi-automated 3D reconstruction of a torso surface with sub-millimetre level accuracy. The thesis describes the system design and calibration for optimal accuracy. It also covers the methodology behind the reconstruction and registration procedures. The experimental results include the complete reconstruction of a scoliotic torso mannequin. The final accuracy is evaluated through the goodness of fit between the reconstructed surface and a more accurate set of points measured by a coordinate measuring machine.

  5. Application of a New Dynamic Heating System Model Using a Range of Common Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Fong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the overall heating energy consumptions using various control strategies, secondary heat emitters, and primary plant for a building. Previous research has successfully demonstrated that a dynamic distributed heat emitter model embedded within a simplified third-order lumped parameter building model is capable of achieving improved results when compared to other commercially available modelling tools. With the enhanced ability to capture transient effects of emitter thermal capacity, this research studies the influence of control strategies and primary plant configurations on the rate of energy consumption of a heating system. Four alternative control strategies are investigated: zone feedback; weather-compensated; a combination of both of these methods; and thermostatic control. The plant alternative configurations consist of conventional boilers, biomass boilers, and heat pumps supporting radiator heating and underfloor heating. The performance of the model is tested on a primary school building and can be applied to any residential or commercial building with a heating system. Results show that the new methods reported offer greater detail and rigor in the conduct of building energy modelling.

  6. Measurement of long-range particle correlations in small systems with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Milov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Study of particle correlations is an important instrument to understand the nature of relativistic heavy ion collisions. Using a wealth of new data available from the recent heavy ion runs of Large Hadron Collider at CERN it becomes possible to study particle correlations in different collisions systems under the same conditions. The results of several recent measurement performed by the ATLAS experiment are reviewed in this proceeding. Measurements are performed in various techniques in $pp$, $p+$Pb and PbPb collisions at the energies $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm{NN}}}}$, $\\sqrt{s}$ from 2.76 to 13 TeV. The results are compared between the systems having the same charged particle multiplicities in the final state, but different initial geometries. Results for multiplicity correlations, two-particle and muti-particle correlations measured in different techniques are presented and discussed. The goal of these comparison is to make further steps in understanding the nature of fluctuations observed in the small collisions sy...

  7. Data collection system for a wide range of gas-discharge proportional neutron counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskomov, V.; Sedov, A.; Saduyev, N.; Kalikulov, O.; Kenzhina, I.; Tautaev, E.; Mukhamejanov, Y.; Dyachkov, V.; Utey, Sh

    2017-12-01

    This article describes the development and creation of a universal system of data collection to measure the intensity of pulsed signals. As a result of careful analysis of time conditions and operating conditions of software and hardware complex circuit solutions were selected that meet the required specifications: frequency response is optimized in order to obtain the maximum ratio signal/noise; methods and modes of operation of the microcontroller were worked out to implement the objectives of continuous measurement of signal amplitude at the output of amplifier and send the data to a computer; function of control of high voltage source was implemented. The preliminary program has been developed for microcontroller in its simplest form, which works on a particular algorithm.

  8. Study of Acquisition Electronics with a High Dynamic Range for a Beam Loss Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Venturini, G; Dehning, B; Effinger, E

    2010-01-01

    The particles accelerated in CERN accelerator chain reach high energies, topped by the particle energy at collision in the LHC, 7 GeV. During the operation, an amount of particles is inevitably lost from the beam. Depending on the extent of the losses, physical damage to machine components may be caused and the shower of secondary emission particles deposits energy in the surrounding equipment constituting the accelerator. The hadronic cascade also activates their materials, representing a hazard to the workers at CERN. In the LHC, the superconducting magnets that constitute the synchrotron lattice are kept at an operating temperature of 1:9K through a cryogenic facility employing superliquid helium, the increase in their temperature potentially initiates a quench. In the SPS, the damage due to a lost beam is also visible. The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system has been developed to reliably protect the machines composing CERN’s accelerator chain and additionally provide information about the beam status: th...

  9. Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeluts, A A; Balakin, A V; Evdokimov, M G; Ozheredov, I A; Sapozhnikov, D A; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Esaulkov, M N; Nazarov, M M [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, O P [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-31

    This paper briefly examines methods for the generation of pulsed terahertz radiation and principles of pulsed terahertz spectroscopy, an advanced informative method for studies of complex biological and nanostructured systems. Some of its practical applications are described. Using a number of steroid hormones as examples, we demonstrate that terahertz spectroscopy in combination with molecular dynamics methods and computer simulation allows one to gain information about the structure of molecules in crystals. A 'terahertz colour vision' method is proposed for analysis of pulsed terahertz signals reflected from biological tissues and it is shown that this method can be effectively used to analyse the properties of biological tissues and for early skin cancer diagnosis. (laser biophotonics)

  10. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  11. Range 7 Scanner Integration with PaR Robot Scanning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Jason; Burns, Bradley; Carlson, Jeffrey; Minich, Mark

    2011-01-01

    An interface bracket and coordinate transformation matrices were designed to allow the Range 7 scanner to be mounted on the PaR Robot detector arm for scanning the heat shield or other object placed in the test cell. A process was designed for using Rapid Form XOR to stitch data from multiple scans together to provide an accurate 3D model of the object scanned. An accurate model was required for the design and verification of an existing heat shield. The large physical size and complex shape of the heat shield does not allow for direct measurement of certain features in relation to other features. Any imaging devices capable of imaging the entire heat shield in its entirety suffers a reduced resolution and cannot image sections that are blocked from view. Prior methods involved tools such as commercial measurement arms, taking images with cameras, then performing manual measurements. These prior methods were tedious and could not provide a 3D model of the object being scanned, and were typically limited to a few tens of measurement points at prominent locations. Integration of the scanner with the robot allows for large complex objects to be scanned at high resolution, and for 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) models to be generated for verification of items to the original design, and to generate models of previously undocumented items. The main components are the mounting bracket for the scanner to the robot and the coordinate transformation matrices used for stitching the scanner data into a 3D model. The steps involve mounting the interface bracket to the robot's detector arm, mounting the scanner to the bracket, and then scanning sections of the object and recording the location of the tool tip (in this case the center of the scanner's focal point). A novel feature is the ability to stitch images together by coordinates instead of requiring each scan data set to have overlapping identifiable features. This setup allows models of complex objects to be developed

  12. Performance Capabilities of Long-Range UWB-IR TDOA Localization Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Rao

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and practical performance limits of a 2D ultrawideband impulse-radio localization system operating in the far field are studied under the assumption that estimates of location are based on time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA measurements. Performance is evaluated in the presence of errors in both the TDOA measurements and the sensor locations. The performance of both optimal (maximum-likelihood and suboptimal location estimation algorithms is studied and compared with the theoretical performance limit defined by the Cramér-Rao lower bound on the variance of unbiased TDOA location estimates. A novel weighted total-least-squares algorithm is introduced that compensates somewhat for errors in sensor positions and reduces the bias in location estimation compared with a widely used weighted least-squares approach. In addition, although target tracking per se is not considered in this paper, performance is evaluated both under the assumption that sequential location estimates are not aggregated as well as under the assumption that some sort of tracker is available to aggregate a sequence of estimates.

  13. Long range excitonic transport in a biomimetic system inspired by the bacterial light-harvesting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Elad

    2012-05-01

    Photosynthesis, the process by which energy from sunlight drives cellular metabolism, relies on a unique organization of light-harvesting and reaction center complexes. Recently, the organization of light-harvesting LH2 complexes and dimeric reaction center-light-harvesting I-PufX core complexes in membranes of purple non-sulfur bacteria was revealed by atomic force microscopy [S. Bahatyrova et al., Nature (London) 430, 1058 (2004)]. Here, we discuss optimal exciton transfer in a biomimetic system closely modeled on the structure of LH2 and its organization within the membrane using a Markovian quantum model with dissipation and trapping added phenomenologically. In a deliberate manner, we neglect the high level detail of the bacterial light-harvesting complex and its interaction with the phonon bath in order to elucidate a set of design principles that may be incorporated in artificial pigment-scaffold constructs in a supramolecular assembly. We show that our scheme reproduces many of the most salient features found in their natural counterpart and may be largely explained by simple electrostatic considerations. Most importantly, we show that quantum effects act primarily to enforce robustness with respect to spatial and spectral disorder between and within complexes. The implications of such an arrangement are discussed in the context of biomimetic photosynthetic analogs capable of transferring energy efficiently across tens to hundreds of nanometers.

  14. Long-Range Interfacial Electrochemical Electron Transfer of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Azurin-Gold Nanoparticle Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Palle Skovhus; Chi, Qijin; Zhang, Jingdong

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared a "hybrid" of the blue copper protein azurin (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a 3 nm gold nanoparticle (AuNP). The AuNP/azurin hybrid was assembled on a Au(111)-electrode surface in a two-step process. The AuNP was first attached to the Au(111) electrode via Au-S chemisorption of a 4......,4'-biphenyidithiol (4,4'-BPDT) monolayer. This was followed by 1-decanethiol modification of the bound AuNP and hydrophobic binding of azurin to the AuNP. The Au(111)/AuNP/azurin system was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling...... microscopy (in situ STM). AFM and STM point to the feasibility of preparing both dense and sparsely populated AuNP monolayers. CV shows two pairs of voltammetric peaks at high scan rates, both around the azurin equilibrium potential. One pair of redox peaks follows closely that of azurin hydrophobically...

  15. Long-Range Untethered Real-Time Live Gas Main Robotic Inspection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf; Daphne D' Zurko

    2004-10-31

    Under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) developed an untethered, wireless remote controlled inspection robot dubbed Explorer. The project entailed the design and prototyping of a wireless self-powered video-inspection robot capable of accessing live 6- and 8-inch diameter cast-iron and steel mains, while traversing turns and Ts and elbows under real-time control with live video feedback to an operator. The design is that of a segmented actively articulated and wheel-leg powered robot design, with fisheye imaging capability and self-powered battery storage and wireless real-time communication link. The prototype was functionally tested in an above ground pipe-network, in order to debug all mechanical, electrical and software subsystems, and develop the necessary deployment and retrieval, as well as obstacle-handling scripts. A pressurized natural gas test-section was used to certify it for operation in natural gas at up to 60 psig. Two subsequent live-main field-trials in both cast-iron and steel pipe, demonstrated its ability to be safely launched, operated and retrieved under real-world conditions. The system's ability to safely and repeatably exidrecover from angled and vertical launchers, traverse multi-thousand foot long pipe-sections, make T and varied-angle elbow-turns while wirelessly sending live video and handling command and control messages, was clearly demonstrated. Video-inspection was clearly shown to be a viable tool to understand the state of this critical buried infrastructure, irrespective of low- (cast-iron) or high-pressure (steel) conditions. This report covers the different aspects of specifications, requirements, design, prototyping, integration and testing and field-trialing of the Explorer platform.

  16. Unconventional superconductivity in two-dimensional electron systems with long-range correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J.W.; Khodel, V.A.; Zverev, M.V.; Yakovenko, V.M

    2004-03-01

    We explore salient features of high-T{sub c} superconductivity in two-dimensional electron liquid, that are triggered by critical fluctuations enhanced in the vicinity of an impending second order phase transition. A simple theoretical explanation for the transition from d-wave to another type of superconducting pairing that has recently observed in the electron-doped cuprates is offered. The d{sub x{sup 2}}{sub -y{sup 2}} pairing potential {delta}, which has maximal magnitude at the hot spots on the Fermi surface, becomes suppressed under increase of electron doping, because the hot spots approach the Brillouin zone diagonals where the respective gap value vanishes, and pairing with d{sub x{sup 2}}{sub -y{sup 2}} symmetry is then replaced by either singlet s-wave or triplet p-wave pairing. We argue in favor of p-wave pairing and propose experiments to verify this assertion. The phenomenon of flattening of electron spectra in high-T{sub c} superconductors is discussed. We suggest that this phenomenon can be explained on the basis of the Fermi liquid approach, involving unconventional solutions emerging beyond the point where stability conditions for the traditional Landau state are violated. The problem of pairing in anisotropic electron systems possessing patches of fermion condensate in the vicinity of the van Hove points is analyzed. Attention is directed to opportunities for the occurrence of non-BCS pairing correlations between the states belonging to the fermion condensate. It is shown that the physical emergence of such pairing correlations would drastically alter the behavior of the single-particle Green function, the canonical pole of Fermi-liquid theory being replaced by a branch point.

  17. Temperature range extension of an organically crosslinked polymer system and its successful field application for water and gas shutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Julio; Eoff, Larry; Dalrymple, Dwyann [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro. RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Excessive water production from hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most serious problems in the oil industry. Water production greatly affects the economic life of producing wells and brings along secondary problems such as sand production, corrosion, and tubular scale. Remediation techniques for controlling water production, generally referred to as conformance control, include the use of polymer systems to reduce or plug permeability to water. This paper presents the laboratory evaluation of an organically crosslinked polymer (OCP) system used as a sealant for water control problems in hydrocarbon wells. Originally, the OCP system had a limited working temperature range (140 deg to 260 deg F). Recently, an alternative base polymer (for low temperatures) and a retarder (for high temperatures) have been introduced to expand the temperature range of applicability of the OCP system from 70 deg F to 350 deg F without compromising its effectiveness or thermal stability. More than 400 jobs have been performed with the OCP system around the world to address conformance problems such as water coning/cresting, high-permeability streaks, gravel pack isolation, fracture shutoff, and casing leak repairs. This paper presents an overview of case histories that used the OCP system in various regions of the world for a wide variety of applications. (author)

  18. Microstructure, a limiting parameter for determining the engineering range of compositions for light alloys: The Al-Cu-Si system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, D.; Pero-Sanz, J.A. [Univ. Politecnica, Madrid (Spain); Asensio, J.; Verdeja, J.I. [Univ. de Oviedo (Spain)

    1998-03-01

    Twelve as-cast alloys of the Al-Cu-Si ternary system were investigated. In all the cases, the microstructural phases observed were: {alpha} solid solution of Cu and Si in Al, CuAl{sub 2} ({theta} phase), and silicon crystals. The morphology and distribution of the {theta} and Si brittle constituents limit the percentages of Cu and Si added in the composition ranges of these commercial alloys.

  19. A Low Cost Automatic Detection and Ranging System for Space Surveillance in the Medium Earth Orbit Region and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danescu, Radu; Ciurte, Anca; Turcu, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    The space around the Earth is filled with man-made objects, which orbit the planet at altitudes ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of kilometers. Keeping an eye on all objects in Earth's orbit, useful and not useful, operational or not, is known as Space Surveillance. Due to cost considerations, the space surveillance solutions beyond the Low Earth Orbit region are mainly based on optical instruments. This paper presents a solution for real-time automatic detection and ranging of space objects of altitudes ranging from below the Medium Earth Orbit up to 40,000 km, based on two low cost observation systems built using commercial cameras and marginally professional telescopes, placed 37 km apart, operating as a large baseline stereovision system. The telescopes are pointed towards any visible region of the sky, and the system is able to automatically calibrate the orientation parameters using automatic matching of reference stars from an online catalog, with a very high tolerance for the initial guess of the sky region and camera orientation. The difference between the left and right image of a synchronized stereo pair is used for automatic detection of the satellite pixels, using an original difference computation algorithm that is capable of high sensitivity and a low false positive rate. The use of stereovision provides a strong means of removing false positives, and avoids the need for prior knowledge of the orbits observed, the system being able to detect at the same time all types of objects that fall within the measurement range and are visible on the image. PMID:24521941

  20. Vegetation pattern formation in semiarid systems induced by long-range competition in the absence of facilitation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo; Calabrese, Justin M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Lopez, Cristobal

    2014-05-01

    Regular patterns and spatial organization of vegetation have been observed in many arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide, covering a diverse range of plant taxa and soil types. A key common ingredient in these systems is that plant growth is severely limited by water availability, and thus plants likely compete strongly for water. The study of such patterns is especially interesting because their features may reveal much about the underlying physical and biological processes that generated them in addition to giving information on the characteristics of the ecosystem. It is possible, for instance, to infer their resilience against anthropogenic disturbances or climatic changes that could cause abrupt shifts in the system and lead it to a desert state. Therefore much research has focused on identifying the underlying mechanisms that can produce spatial patterning in water-limited systems (Klausmeier, 1999). They are believed to arise from the interplay between long-range competition and facilitation processes acting at smaller distances (Borgogno et al., 2009). This combination of mechanisms is justified by arguing that water percolates more readily through the soil in vegetated areas (short range), and that plants compete for water resources over greater distances via long lateral roots (long range). However, recent studies have shown that even in the limit of local facilitation patterns may still appear (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2013). In this work (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2013b), we show that, under rather general conditions, long-range competition alone is the minimal ingredient to shape gapped and stripped vegetation patterns typical of models that also account for facilitation in addition to competition. To this end we propose a simple, general model for the dynamics of vegetation, which includes only long-range competition between plants. Competition is introduced through a nonlocal term, where the kernel function quantifies the intensity of the interaction

  1. Digital predistortion of 75–110 GHz W-band frequency multiplier for fiber wireless short range access systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan

    2011-01-01

    We present a W-band fiber-wireless transmission system based on a nonlinear frequency multiplier for high-speed wireless short range access applications. By implementing a baseband digital signal predistortion scheme, intensive nonlinear distortions induced in a sextuple frequency multiplier can...... be effectively pre-compensated. Without using costly W-band components, a transmission system with 26km fiber and 4m wireless transmission operating at 99.6GHz is experimentally validated. Adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) improvements for IQ-modulated vector signals are guaranteed and transmission...

  2. Determining the bounds of skilful forecast range for probabilistic prediction of system-wide wind power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Cannon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art wind power forecasts beyond a few hours ahead rely on global numerical weather prediction models to forecast the future large-scale atmospheric state. Often they provide initial and boundary conditions for nested high resolution simulations. In this paper, both upper and lower bounds on forecast range are identified within which global ensemble forecasts provide skilful information for system-wide wind power applications. An upper bound on forecast range is associated with the limit of predictability, beyond which forecasts have no more skill than predictions based on climatological statistics. A lower bound is defined at the lead time beyond which the resolved uncertainty associated with estimating the future large-scale atmospheric state is larger than the unresolved uncertainty associated with estimating the system-wide wind power response to a given large-scale state.The bounds of skilful ensemble forecast range are quantified for three leading global forecast systems. The power system of Great Britain (GB is used as an example because independent verifying data is available from National Grid. The upper bound defined by forecasts of GB-total wind power generation at a specific point in time is found to be 6–8 days. The lower bound is found to be 1.4–2.4 days. Both bounds depend on the global forecast system and vary seasonally. In addition, forecasts of the probability of an extreme power ramp event were found to possess a shorter limit of predictability (4.5–5.5 days. The upper bound on this forecast range can only be extended by improving the global forecast system (outside the control of most users or by changing the metric used in the probability forecast. Improved downscaling and microscale modelling of the wind farm response may act to decrease the lower bound. The potential gain from such improvements have diminishing returns beyond the short-range (out to around 2 days.

  3. Validation of Attitude and Heading Reference System and Microsoft Kinect for Continuous Measurement of Cervical Range of Motion Compared to the Optical Motion Capture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Seop; Yang, Kyung Yong; Youn, Kibum; Yoon, Chiyul; Yeom, Jiwoon; Hwang, Hyeoncheol; Lee, Jehee; Kim, Keewon

    2016-08-01

    To compare optical motion capture system (MoCap), attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) sensor, and Microsoft Kinect for the continuous measurement of cervical range of motion (ROM). Fifteen healthy adult subjects were asked to sit in front of the Kinect camera with optical markers and AHRS sensors attached to the body in a room equipped with optical motion capture camera. Subjects were instructed to independently perform axial rotation followed by flexion/extension and lateral bending. Each movement was repeated 5 times while being measured simultaneously with 3 devices. Using the MoCap system as the gold standard, the validity of AHRS and Kinect for measurement of cervical ROM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot with 95% limits of agreement (LoA). MoCap and ARHS showed fair agreement (95% LoA10°) for measuring ROM in all directions. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values between MoCap and AHRS in -40° to 40° range were excellent for flexion/extension and lateral bending (ICC>0.9). ICC values were also fair for axial rotation (ICC>0.8). ICC values between MoCap and Kinect system in -40° to 40° range were fair for all motions. Our study showed feasibility of using AHRS to measure cervical ROM during continuous motion with an acceptable range of error. AHRS and Kinect system can also be used for continuous monitoring of flexion/extension and lateral bending in ordinary range.

  4. Beyond health gain: the range of health system benefits expressed by social groups in Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Block, M A; Sandiford, P; Ruiz, J A; Rovira, J

    2001-05-01

    Current health reform proposals in most developing countries stress health gain as the chief evaluation criterion. Essential service packages are formulated using cost-effectiveness methods for the selection of interventions without sufficient regard for other factors that are significant for successful implementation and acceptance by the needy. This paper presents the results of research undertaken in Mexico and Central America to test the hypothesis that population groups view health gain as only one among several benefits derived from health systems. The goal at this stage was two-fold: (a) to identify through qualitative methods the range of benefits that are significant for a wide cross-section of social groups and (b) to classify such benefits in types amenable to be used in the development of instruments to measure the benefits intended and actually produced by health systems. Fourteen focus groups were undertaken in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico and Nicaragua representing diverse age, gender, occupation and social conditions. Six major types of health system benefits were identified besides health gain: reassurance/uncertainty reduction, economic security, confidence in health system quality, financial benefits derived from the system, health care process utility and health system fairness. Benefits most often mentioned can be classed under health care process utility and confidence in system quality. They also have the most consensus across social groups. Other benefits mentioned have an affinity with social conditions. Human resource-derived utility stands out by its frequency in the range of benefits mentioned. Health systems and health sector reform proposals must emphasise those aspects of quality related to human resources to be in accord with population expectations.

  5. Which Factors Can Protect Against Range Stress in Everyday Usage of Battery Electric Vehicles? Toward Enhancing Sustainability of Electric Mobility Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to advance understanding of factors that can protect against range anxiety, specifically range stress in everyday usage of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Range anxiety is a major barrier to the broad adoption of sustainable electric mobility systems. To develop strategies aimed at overcoming range anxiety, a clear understanding of this phenomenon and influencing factors is needed. We examined range anxiety in the form of everyday range stress (ERS) in a field study setting. Seventy-two customers leased a BEV for 3 months. The field study was specifically designed to enable examination of factors that can contribute to lower ERS. In particular, study design and sample recruitment were targeted at generating vehicle usage profiles that would lead to relatively frequent experience of situations requiring active management of range resources and thereby potentially leading to experienced range stress. Less frequent encounter with critical range situations, higher practical experience, subjective range competence, tolerance of low range, and experienced trustworthiness of the range estimation system were related to lower ERS. Moreover, range stress was found to be related to range satisfaction and BEV acceptance. The results underline the importance of the human factors perspective to overcome range anxiety and enhance sustainability of electric mobility systems. Trustworthiness should be employed as a key benchmark variable in the design of range estimation systems, and assistance systems should target increasing drivers' adaptive capacity (i.e., resilience) to cope with critical range situations. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. Quantum dynamics of long-range interacting systems using the positive-P and gauge-P representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüster, S.; Corney, J. F.; Rost, J. M.; Deuar, P.

    2017-07-01

    We provide the necessary framework for carrying out stochastic positive-P and gauge-P simulations of bosonic systems with long-range interactions. In these approaches, the quantum evolution is sampled by trajectories in phase space, allowing calculation of correlations without truncation of the Hilbert space or other approximations to the quantum state. The main drawback is that the simulation time is limited by noise arising from interactions. We show that the long-range character of these interactions does not further increase the limitations of these methods, in contrast to the situation for alternatives such as the density matrix renormalization group. Furthermore, stochastic gauge techniques can also successfully extend simulation times in the long-range-interaction case, by making using of parameters that affect the noise properties of trajectories, without affecting physical observables. We derive essential results that significantly aid the use of these methods: estimates of the available simulation time, optimized stochastic gauges, a general form of the characteristic stochastic variance, and adaptations for very large systems. Testing the performance of particular drift and diffusion gauges for nonlocal interactions, we find that, for small to medium systems, drift gauges are beneficial, whereas for sufficiently large systems, it is optimal to use only a diffusion gauge. The methods are illustrated with direct numerical simulations of interaction quenches in extended Bose-Hubbard lattice systems and the excitation of Rydberg states in a Bose-Einstein condensate, also without the need for the typical frozen gas approximation. We demonstrate that gauges can indeed lengthen the useful simulation time.

  7. SU-E-T-189: Commission Range Shifter On a Spot Scanning Proton System Using Raystation Treatment Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, X; Wu, H [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Rosen, L [willis knighton medical center, Shreveport, Louisiana (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To treat superficial target e.g. chest wall, head&neck or cranial cases, we commissioned two range shifter(RS) in Raystation4.0 with 7.37cm(RS1) and 4.1cm(RS2) Water Equivalent Thickness(WET) respectively. However, current beam model has limitations due to the secondary scattered proton. This study provides a detailed and critical commission data and provides suggestions for using RS in clinic. Methods: RS’ WET was verified by Multi-Layer Ionization Chamber from 120MeV to 226.7MeV before TPS modeling. Spot characteristics were measured using 2D scintillate detector at ISO with different air gap. A 8×8×10cm3 cube is created in 8cm depth of water to verify the absolute dose accuracy. Plans were created with different air gap using both RS. Absolute dose verification was measured along the central axis from distal end to surface using PPC05. 10 clinical RS2 plans were measured using MatriXXPT in 3 planes (proximal, distal and midSOBP). Results: RS material’s proton stopping power is energy dependent(from 70MeV to 226.7MeV) ranging from 7.42 to 7.31cm and from 4.10 to 4.03cm respectively. We chose 7.37cm (RS1) and 4.10cm (RS2) to favor the low and median proton energy. With different air gap(3cm to 32cm), spot size expands from 3.2mm to 5.5mm(RS1) and from 3.1mm to 4.1mm(RS2) respectively(226.7MeV in air, 1-sigma). For the absolute dose verification, the larger air gap and shallower depth causes larger discrepancy between TPS and measurements. All 10 clinical plans with 5–10cm air gap passed gamma index 95% with 3%/3mm criteria and outputs differences were within 3%. Conclusion: We strongly recommend each institution to verify the WET independently and choose the value to fit the clinical needs. To minimize the output difference in Raystation4.0 while avoid potential collision to the patient, we recommend to use 5–10cm air gap to minimize the output difference within 2% and preferably use RS with smaller WET if possible.

  8. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  9. Proposed NRC portable target case for short-range triangulation-based 3D imaging systems characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Benjamin; MacKinnon, David; Cournoyer, Luc; Beraldin, J.-Angelo

    2011-03-01

    The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is currently evaluating and designing artifacts and methods to completely characterize 3-D imaging systems. We have gathered a set of artifacts to form a low-cost portable case and provide a clearly-defined set of procedures for generating characteristic values using these artifacts. In its current version, this case is specifically designed for the characterization of short-range (standoff distance of 1 centimeter to 3 meters) triangulation-based 3-D imaging systems. The case is known as the "NRC Portable Target Case for Short-Range Triangulation-based 3-D Imaging Systems" (NRC-PTC). The artifacts in the case have been carefully chosen for their geometric, thermal, and optical properties. A set of characterization procedures are provided with these artifacts based on procedures either already in use or are based on knowledge acquired from various tests carried out by the NRC. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T), a well-known terminology in the industrial field, was used to define the set of tests. The following parameters of a system are characterized: dimensional properties, form properties, orientation properties, localization properties, profile properties, repeatability, intermediate precision, and reproducibility. A number of tests were performed in a special dimensional metrology laboratory to validate the capability of the NRC-PTC. The NRC-PTC will soon be subjected to reproducibility testing using an intercomparison evaluation to validate its use in different laboratories.

  10. Evaluation of EIT systems and algorithms for handling full void fraction range in two-phase flow measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Mi; Faraj, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    In the aqueous-based two-phase flow, if the void fraction of dispersed phase exceeds 0.25, conventional electrical impedance tomography (EIT) produces a considerable error due to the linear approximation of the sensitivity back-projection (SBP) method, which limits the EIT’s wider application in the process industry. In this paper, an EIT sensing system which is able to handle full void fraction range in two-phase flow is reported. This EIT system employs a voltage source, conducts true mutual impedance measurement and reconstructs an online image with the modified sensitivity back-projection (MSBP) algorithm. The capability of the Maxwell relationship to convey full void fraction is investigated. The limitation of the linear sensitivity back-projection method is analysed. The MSBP algorithm is used to derive relative conductivity change in the evaluation. A series of static and dynamic experiments demonstrating the mean void fraction obtained using this EIT system has a good agreement with reference void fractions over the range from 0 to 1. The combination of the new EIT system and MSBP algorithm would significantly extend the applications of EIT in industrial process measurement.

  11. Integrated Land Data Assimilation System for Numerical Weather Prediction at the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosnay, Patricia; Hólm, Elias; Bonavita, Massimo; English, Steve

    2017-04-01

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) system relies on an Earth System approach focusing on atmosphere, ocean, waves, land, and sea ice. Different data assimilation methods are used for the each component of the Earth System. A hybrid 4D-Var is used for the atmosphere, a simplified sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea ice analysis is used for medium-range forecasts and for the reanalyses (ERA-Interim and ERA5). The ECMWF land and atmosphere data assimilation systems are weakly coupled, using a coupled land-atmosphere background forecast and separate analyses for the atmosphere and for the surface (soil moisture and snow). Conventional and satellite observations that inform on the state of both subsystems are assimilated. They are located at the land-atmosphere interface and include two-metre temperature and relative humidity, snow depth, and soil moisture. In this presentation we present the land-atmosphere weakly coupled assimilation currently used at ECMWF for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) purpose. Perspectives of coupling enhancement using Ensemble Data Assimilaton (EDA) and EDA-based cross correlation estimates with coupling at the outer loop level of the atmospheric 4D-Var are discussed.

  12. [Research on the range of motion measurement system for spine based on LabVIEW image processing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Deng, Linhong; Lu, Hu; He, Bin

    2014-08-01

    A measurement system based on the image processing technology and developed by LabVIEW was designed to quickly obtain the range of motion (ROM) of spine. NI-Vision module was used to pre-process the original images and calculate the angles of marked needles in order to get ROM data. Six human cadaveric thoracic spine segments T7-T10 were selected to carry out 6 kinds of loads, including left/right lateral bending, flexion, extension, cis/counterclockwise torsion. The system was used to measure the ROM of segment T8-T9 under the loads from 1 Nm to 5 Nm. The experimental results showed that the system is able to measure the ROM of the spine accurately and quickly, which provides a simple and reliable tool for spine biomechanics investigators.

  13. First operational experience with the LHC machine protection system when operating with beam energies beyond the 100MJ range

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Goddard, B; Lamont, M; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has made remarkable progress during 2011, surpassing its ambitious goal for the year in terms of luminosity delivered to the LHC experiments. This achievement was made possible by a progressive increase of beam intensities by more than 5 orders of magnitude during the first months of operation, reaching stored beam energies beyond the 100MJ range at the end of the year, less than a factor of 4 from the nominal design value. The correct functioning of the machine protection systems is vital during the different operational phases, for initial operation and even more when approaching nominal beam parameters where already a small fraction of the stored energy is sufficient to damage accelerator equipment or experiments in case of uncontrolled beam loss. Safe operation of the machine in presence of such high intensity proton beams is guaranteed by the interplay of many different systems: beam dumping system, beam interlocks, beam instrumentation, equipment monitoring, colli...

  14. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems: I. Growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarica, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigated the effect of incubation type and production system on geese growth traits. 2. A total of 216 geese were either naturally (114) or artificially (102) hatched and reared in intensive or free-range production systems (4 replicates each) until 18 weeks of age. 3. Weights of naturally hatched goslings (NHG) were significantly higher than artificially hatched goslings (AHG) at 2 weeks (644 vs. 536 g); however, weights of AHG were significantly higher than NHG at both 6 weeks (3245 vs. 3010 g) and 18 weeks (5212 vs. 4353 g). 4. AHG had better feed conversion ratios (FCRs) than NHG (6.21 vs. 6.46 at 18 weeks). Feed consumption of naturally hatched geese was found higher in first 4 weeks when compared to artificially hatched geese and artificially hatched geese consumed more feed than naturally hatched geese after 8 weeks. 5. Production system had insignificant effects on feed consumption, FCRs, viability and mutilation rates. 6. Slipped wings were more frequent in NHG than AHG (8.32% vs. 1.68% at 6 weeks; 23.84% vs. 5.12% between 7 and 18 weeks) and in free-range production when compared to intensive production (17.88% vs. 11.08% over the course of the production period). 7. The study results indicate that both artificially and NHG can be reared in free-range production systems without any loss in performance and in deference to animal welfare.

  15. Economic Viability Study of an On-Road Wireless Charging System with a Generic Driving Range Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic viability of on-road wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs strongly depends on the choice of the inductive power transfer (IPT system configuration (static or dynamic charging, charging power level and the percentage of road coverage of dynamic charging. In this paper, a case study is carried out to determine the expected investment costs involved in installing the on-road charging infrastructure for an electric bus fleet. Firstly, a generic methodology is described to determine the driving range of any EV (including electric buses with any gross mass and frontal area. A dynamic power consumption model is developed for the EV, taking into account the rolling friction, acceleration, deceleration, aerodynamic drag, regenerative braking and Li-ion battery behavior. Based on the simulation results, the linear dependence of the battery state of charge (SoC on the distance traveled is proven. Further, the impact of different IPT system parameters on driving range is incorporated. Economic implications of a combination of different IPT system parameters are explored for achieving the required driving range of 400 km, and the cost optimized solution is presented for the case study of an electric bus fleet. It is shown that the choice of charging power level and road coverage are interrelated in the economic context. The economic viability of reducing the capacity of the on-board battery as a trade-off between higher transport efficiency and larger on-road charging infrastructure is presented. Finally, important considerations, like the number of average running buses, scheduled stoppage time and on-board battery size, that make on-road charging an attractive option are explored. The cost break-up of various system components of the on-road charging scheme is estimated, and the final project cost and parameters are summarized. The specific cost of the wireless on-road charging system is found to be more expensive than the conventional

  16. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2003-04-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has already been designed, constructed and tested, having exceeded performance expectations. The full prototype system will be comprehensively tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NGA member utilities' pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its third six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The fabrication of the prototype is complete and is now been tested in the laboratory mainly focusing on the last system integration issues and on software development for the turning and launching routines. Testing of the prototype in the lab is expected to be completed by Summer 2003, to be followed by two field demonstrations in early Fall 2003.

  17. Multi-sensors multi-baseline mapping system for mobile robot using stereovision camera and laser-range device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faisal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Countless applications today are using mobile robots, including autonomous navigation, security patrolling, housework, search-and-rescue operations, material handling, manufacturing, and automated transportation systems. Regardless of the application, a mobile robot must use a robust autonomous navigation system. Autonomous navigation remains one of the primary challenges in the mobile-robot industry; many control algorithms and techniques have been recently developed that aim to overcome this challenge. Among autonomous navigation methods, vision-based systems have been growing in recent years due to rapid gains in computational power and the reliability of visual sensors. The primary focus of research into vision-based navigation is to allow a mobile robot to navigate in an unstructured environment without collision. In recent years, several researchers have looked at methods for setting up autonomous mobile robots for navigational tasks. Among these methods, stereovision-based navigation is a promising approach for reliable and efficient navigation. In this article, we create and develop a novel mapping system for a robust autonomous navigation system. The main contribution of this article is the fuse of the multi-baseline stereovision (narrow and wide baselines and laser-range reading data to enhance the accuracy of the point cloud, to reduce the ambiguity of correspondence matching, and to extend the field of view of the proposed mapping system to 180°. Another contribution is the pruning the region of interest of the three-dimensional point clouds to reduce the computational burden involved in the stereo process. Therefore, we called the proposed system multi-sensors multi-baseline mapping system. The experimental results illustrate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed system.

  18. Determining Home Range and Preferred Habitat of Feral Horses on the Nevada National Security Site Using Geographic Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Ashley V. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States)

    2014-05-30

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are free-roaming descendants of domesticated horses and legally protected by the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971, which mandates how feral horses and burros should be managed and protected on federal lands. Using a geographic information system to determine the home range and suitable habitat of feral horses on the federally managed Nevada National Security Site can enable wildlife biologists in making best management practice recommendations. Home range was estimated at 88.1 square kilometers. Site suitability was calculated for elevation, forage, slope, water presence and horse observations. These variables were combined in successive iterations into one polygon. Suitability rankings established that 85 square kilometers are most suitable habitat, with 2,052 square kilometers of good habitat 1,252 square kilometers of fair habitat and 122 square kilometers of least suitable habitat.

  19. A long-range and long-life telemetry data-acquisition system for heart rate and multiple body temperatures from free-ranging animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.; Miranda, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    The system includes an implantable transmitter, external receiver-retransmitter collar, and a microprocessor-controlled demodulator. The size of the implant is suitable for animals with body weights of a few kilograms or more; further size reduction of the implant is possible. The ECG is sensed by electrodes designed for internal telemetry and to reduce movement artifacts. The R-wave characteristics are then specifically selected to trigger a short radio frequency pulse. Temperatures are sensed at desired locations by thermistors and then, based on a heartbeat counter, transmitted intermittently via pulse interval modulation. This modulation scheme includes first and last calibration intervals for a reference by ratios with the temperature intervals to achieve good accuracy even over long periods. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and temperature pulses as well as RF interference.

  20. Superficial white matter fiber systems impede detection of long-range cortical connections in diffusion MR tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Colin; Seth, Anil K; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Silva, Afonso C; Yu, David; Saunders, Richard C; Leopold, David A; Ye, Frank Q

    2015-05-26

    In vivo tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has opened new doors to study structure-function relationships in the human brain. Initially developed to map the trajectory of major white matter tracts, dMRI is used increasingly to infer long-range anatomical connections of the cortex. Because axonal projections originate and terminate in the gray matter but travel mainly through the deep white matter, the success of tractography hinges on the capacity to follow fibers across this transition. Here we demonstrate that the complex arrangement of white matter fibers residing just under the cortical sheet poses severe challenges for long-range tractography over roughly half of the brain. We investigate this issue by comparing dMRI from very-high-resolution ex vivo macaque brain specimens with histological analysis of the same tissue. Using probabilistic tracking from pure gray and white matter seeds, we found that ∼50% of the cortical surface was effectively inaccessible for long-range diffusion tracking because of dense white matter zones just beneath the infragranular layers of the cortex. Analysis of the corresponding myelin-stained sections revealed that these zones colocalized with dense and uniform sheets of axons running mostly parallel to the cortical surface, most often in sulcal regions but also in many gyral crowns. Tracer injection into the sulcal cortex demonstrated that at least some axonal fibers pass directly through these fiber systems. Current and future high-resolution dMRI studies of the human brain will need to develop methods to overcome the challenges posed by superficial white matter systems to determine long-range anatomical connections accurately.

  1. Optical timing receiver for the NASA Spaceborne Ranging System. Part II: high precision event-timing digitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovar, Branko; Turko, Bojan

    1978-08-01

    Position-resolution capabilities of the NASA Spaceborne Laser Ranging System are essentially determined by the timeresolution capabilities of its optical timing receiver. The optical timing receiver consists of a fast photoelectric device; (e.g., photomultiplier or an avalanche photodiode detector), a timing discriminator, a high-precision event-timing digitizer, and a signal-processing system. The time-resolution capabilities of the receiver are determined by the photoelectron time spread of the photoelectric device, the time walk and resolution characteristics of the timing discriminator, and the resolution of the event-timing digitizer. It is thus necessary to evaluate available fast photoelectronic devices with respect to the time-resolution capabilities, and to develop a very low time walk timing discriminator and a high-resolution event-timing digitizer to be used in the high-resolution spaceborne laser ranging system receiver. This part of the report describes the development of a high precision event-timing digitizer. The event-timing digitizer is basically a combination of a very accurate high resolution real time digital clock and an interval timer. The timing digitizer is a high resolution multiple stop clock, counting the time up to 131 days in 19.5 ps increments.

  2. IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF A MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM BASED ON INTEGRATED RANGE AND INTENSITY IMAGES FOR TRAFFIC SIGNS LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahbazi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in positioning techniques have made it possible to develop Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS for detection and 3D localization of various objects from a moving platform. On the other hand, automatic traffic sign recognition from an equipped mobile platform has recently been a challenging issue for both intelligent transportation and municipal database collection. However, there are several inevitable problems coherent to all the recognition methods completely relying on passive chromatic or grayscale images. This paper presents the implementation and evaluation of an operational MMS. Being distinct from the others, the developed MMS comprises one range camera based on Photonic Mixer Device (PMD technology and one standard 2D digital camera. The system benefits from certain algorithms to detect, recognize and localize the traffic signs by fusing the shape, color and object information from both range and intensity images. As the calibrating stage, a self-calibration method based on integrated bundle adjustment via joint setup with the digital camera is applied in this study for PMD camera calibration. As the result, an improvement of 83 % in RMS of range error and 72 % in RMS of coordinates residuals for PMD camera, over that achieved with basic calibration is realized in independent accuracy assessments. Furthermore, conventional photogrammetric techniques based on controlled network adjustment are utilized for platform calibration. Likewise, the well-known Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF is applied to integrate the navigation sensors, namely GPS and INS. The overall acquisition system along with the proposed techniques leads to 90 % true positive recognition and the average of 12 centimetres 3D positioning accuracy.

  3. IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF A MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM BASED ON INTEGRATED RANGE AND INTENSITY IMAGES FOR TRAFFIC SIGNS LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahbazi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in positioning techniques have made it possible to develop Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS for detection and 3D localization of various objects from a moving platform. On the other hand, automatic traffic sign recognition from an equipped mobile platform has recently been a challenging issue for both intelligent transportation and municipal database collection. However, there are several inevitable problems coherent to all the recognition methods completely relying on passive chromatic or grayscale images. This paper presents the implementation and evaluation of an operational MMS. Being distinct from the others, the developed MMS comprises one range camera based on Photonic Mixer Device (PMD technology and one standard 2D digital camera. The system benefits from certain algorithms to detect, recognize and localize the traffic signs by fusing the shape, color and object information from both range and intensity images. As the calibrating stage, a self-calibration method based on integrated bundle adjustment via joint setup with the digital camera is applied in this study for PMD camera calibration. As the result, an improvement of 83% in RMS of range error and 72% in RMS of coordinates residuals for PMD camera, over that achieved with basic calibration is realized in independent accuracy assessments. Furthermore, conventional photogrammetric techniques based on controlled network adjustment are utilized for platform calibration. Likewise, the well-known Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF is applied to integrate the navigation sensors, namely GPS and INS. The overall acquisition system along with the proposed techniques leads to 90% true positive recognition and the average of 12 centimetres 3D positioning accuracy.

  4. Line-field swept source optical coherence tomography system for evaluating microstructure of objects in near-infrared spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, Igor; Margaryants, Nikita; Pimenov, Aleksei

    2017-06-01

    Peculiarities of optical design for optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with illumination by a swept-source in the spectral range 1.26-1.36 μm are considered. In the OCT system, an object is illuminated by light intensity distribution in the form of line providing high power efficiency of the light source when evaluating micro structure of objects. A linearray photo detector with the frame acquisition rate of a few tens of kilohertz is utilized that allows obtaining B-scans without mechanical lateral scanning. The illumination power density at each point of investigated object is much less with respect to conventional "flying spot" methods that is important when studying biological objects not resistant to intensive light. Results of experimental investigations utilizing the Linnik micro interferometer optical scheme are given. Experimental tomograms of different objects are presented.

  5. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George C. Vradis, Hagen Schempf

    2004-04-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its fifth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The prototype robot is undergoing extensive endurance testing in order to prepare for the field demonstrations planned for June 2004.

  6. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf

    2003-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate ''EXPLORER'', a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6- inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its fourth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The fabrication of the prototype is complete and is now been tested in the laboratory mainly focusing on endurance testing and testing of launching procedures. Testing of the prototype in the lab is expected to be completed by Fall 2003, to be followed by two field demonstrations in Winter 2003-2004.

  7. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASOLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George C. Vradis; Hagen Schempf

    2004-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate ''EXPLORER'', a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its sixth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The prototype robot completed its first field demonstration in June 2004 and is undergoing further extensive endurance testing and some minor modifications in order to prepare for the second and last field demonstration planned for October 2004.

  8. A theoretical study on directivity control of multiple-loudspeaker system with a quadrupole radiation pattern in low frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwansyah, Kuse, Naoyuki; Usagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Directivity pattern of an ordinary loudspeaker becomes more directive at higher frequencies. However, because a single loudspeaker tends to radiate uniformly in all directions at low frequencies, reverberation from surrounding building walls may affect speech intelligibility when installing a multiple-loudspeaker system at crossroads. As an alternative, a sharply directive sound source is recommended to be used, but in many cases the directivity of an ordinary loudspeaker is less sharp at lower frequencies. Therefore, in order to overcome such a limitation, this paper discusses the possibility of using four loudspeakers under active control to realize a quadrupole radiation pattern in low frequency range. In this study, the radiation pattern of a primary loudspeaker and three secondary loudspeakers has been modelled. By placing the loudspeakers close together in the direction of 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°, it was theoretically demonstrated that a quadrupole radiation pattern can be shaped in the target frequency range up to 600 Hz by simply controlling the directivity in three of four directions which are 45°, 135°, 225°, and 315°. Although, the radiation pattern model is far from realistic configurations and conditions, it is possible to realize a quadrupole radiation pattern in the low frequency range.

  9. Site-specific and time-dependent activation of the endocannabinoid system after transection of long-range projections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Kallendrusch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After focal neuronal injury the endocannabinioid system becomes activated and protects or harms neurons depending on cannabinoid derivates and receptor subtypes. Endocannabinoids (eCBs play a central role in controlling local responses and influencing neural plasticity and survival. However, little is known about the functional relevance of eCBs in long-range projection damage as observed in stroke or spinal cord injury (SCI. METHODS: In rat organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC as a relevant and suitable model for investigating projection fibers in the CNS we performed perforant pathway transection (PPT and subsequently analyzed the spatial and temporal dynamics of eCB levels. This approach allows proper distinction of responses in originating neurons (entorhinal cortex, areas of deafferentiation/anterograde axonal degeneration (dentate gyrus and putative changes in more distant but synaptically connected subfields (cornu ammonis (CA 1 region. RESULTS: Using LC-MS/MS, we measured a strong increase in arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA, oleoylethanolamide (OEA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA levels in the denervation zone (dentate gyrus 24 hours post lesion (hpl, whereas entorhinal cortex and CA1 region exhibited little if any changes. NAPE-PLD, responsible for biosynthesis of eCBs, was increased early, whereas FAAH, a catabolizing enzyme, was up-regulated 48hpl. CONCLUSION: Neuronal damage as assessed by transection of long-range projections apparently provides a strong time-dependent and area-confined signal for de novo synthesis of eCB, presumably to restrict neuronal damage. The present data underlines the importance of activation of the eCB system in CNS pathologies and identifies a novel site-specific intrinsic regulation of eCBs after long-range projection damage.

  10. Critical coupling and coherent perfect absorption for ranges of energies due to a complex gain and loss symmetric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammadhasan786@gmail.com [ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore-560017 (India); Ghatak, Ananya, E-mail: gananya04@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Mandal, Bhabani Prasad, E-mail: bhabani.mandal@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India)

    2014-05-15

    We consider a non-Hermitian medium with a gain and loss symmetric, exponentially damped potential distribution to demonstrate different scattering features analytically. The condition for critical coupling (CC) for unidirectional wave and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) for bidirectional waves are obtained analytically for this system. The energy points at which total absorption occurs are shown to be the spectral singular points for the time reversed system. The possible energies at which CC occurs for left and right incidence are different. We further obtain periodic intervals with increasing periodicity of energy for CC and CPA to occur in this system. -- Highlights: •Energy ranges for CC and CPA are obtained explicitly for complex WS potential. •Analytical conditions for CC and CPA for PT symmetric WS potential are obtained. •Conditions for left and right CC are shown to be different. •Conditions for CC and CPA are shown to be that of SS for the time reversed system. •Our model shows the great flexibility of frequencies for CC and CPA.

  11. Wireless wearable range-of-motion sensor system for upper and lower extremity joints: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yogaprakash; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Wangwei; Gao, Fan; Zhao, Ziyi; Li, Jingze; Hon, Benjamin; Tian-Ma Xu, Tim; Cheong, Angela; Koh, Karen; Ng, Yee-Sien; Chew, Effie; Koh, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Range-of-motion (ROM) assessment is a critical assessment tool during the rehabilitation process. The conventional approach uses the goniometer which remains the most reliable instrument but it is usually time-consuming and subject to both intra- and inter-therapist measurement errors. An automated wireless wearable sensor system for the measurement of ROM has previously been developed by the current authors. Presented is the correlation and accuracy of the automated wireless wearable sensor system against a goniometer in measuring ROM in the major joints of upper (UEs) and lower extremities (LEs) in 19 healthy subjects and 20 newly disabled inpatients through intra (same) subject comparison of ROM assessments between the sensor system against goniometer measurements by physical therapists. In healthy subjects, ROM measurements using the new sensor system were highly correlated with goniometry, with 95% of differences goniometry, with 95% of the differences being < 20° and 25° for most movements in the major joints of UE and LE, respectively. PMID:26609398

  12. Depositional Architecture of Late Pleistocene-Holocene Coastal Alluvial-fan System in the Coastal Range, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. T.; Chen, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    Since late Pleistocene, the Coastal Range (Philippine Sea plate) collided and overridden on the Central Range (Eurasian Plate) along the Longitudinal Valley Fault. Therefore, the Coastal Range is exposed widely the late Pleistocene-Holocene marine and fluvial terraces caused by the tectonic uplift. Based on the estimation of paleosea-level elevations (Δh), depositional paleodepth, altitude distribution of Holocene deposits (D), altitude of outcrops (H), and 14C dating of marine deposits (t), the uplift rate (=(Δh+H +d-D)/t) is about 5-10 mm/yr in the southern Coastal Range. In this study, we suggest through field logging that the deposits can be divided into alluvial, foreshore (intertidal), shoreface, and offshore environments. In Dulan area in the southern Coastal Range, the uplift rate was 6-7 mm/yr during 16,380-10,000 cal yr BP and 3-4 mm/yr after 7,000 cal yr BP. Results from the Dulan Coastal alluvial-fan system can be divided into five depositional stages: (1) 16,380-14,300 cal yr BP: The rate of global sea level rise (SLR) has averaged about 6-7 mm/yr, similar to the tectonic uplift rate. In this stage, the bedrock was eroded and formed a wide wave-cut platform. (2) 14,300-10,000 cal yr BP: SLR of about 14 mm/yr that was faster than tectonic uplift rate of 6-7 mm/yr. As a result of transgression, the beach-lagoon deposits about 5 m thick were unconformably overlain on the wave-cut platform. (3) 10,000-8,200 cal yr BP: The ongoing sea level rise (SLR: 11 mm/yr), the lagoon deposits were overlain by an offshore slump deposits representing a gradual deepening of the depositional environment. (4) 8,200-7,930 cal yr BP (SLR: 6-7 mm/yr): The tectonic uplift rate may occur at similar SLR. The alluvial-fan deposits have prograded over the shallow marine deposits. (5) After 7,000 cal yr BP (SLR: 1-0 mm/yr): SLR was much slower than tectonic uplift rate of 3-4 mm/yr. Thus, Holocene marine terraces are extensively developed in the coastal region, showing that the

  13. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2002-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6- inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has already been designed, constructed and tested, having exceeded performance expectations. The full prototype system will be comprehensively tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NYGAS member utilities' pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the New York Gas Group (NYGAS; a trade association of the publicly owned gas utilities in New York State), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The DOE's contribution to this current phase of the project is $499,023 out of a total of $780,735 (not including NASA's contribution). The

  14. Use of a cocktail of spin traps for fingerprinting large range of free radicals in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Valérie; Charlier, Nicolas; Verrax, Julien; Buc-Calderon, Pedro; Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that the formation of radical species centered on various atoms is involved in the mechanism leading to the development of several diseases or to the appearance of deleterious effects of toxic molecules. The detection of free radical is possible using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the spin trapping technique. The classical EPR spin-trapping technique can be considered as a "hypothesis-driven" approach because it requires an a priori assumption regarding the nature of the free radical in order to select the most appropriate spin-trap. We here describe a "data-driven" approach using EPR and a cocktail of spin-traps. The rationale for using this cocktail was that it would cover a wide range of biologically relevant free radicals and have a large range of hydrophilicity and lipophilicity in order to trap free radicals produced in different cellular compartments. As a proof-of-concept, we validated the ability of the system to measure a large variety of free radicals (O-, N-, C-, or S- centered) in well characterized conditions, and we illustrated the ability of the technique to unambiguously detect free radical production in cells exposed to chemicals known to be radical-mediated toxic agents.

  15. Multiterawatt femtosecond hybrid system based on a photodissociation XeF(C-A) amplifier in the visible range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, S V; Aristov, A I; Ivanov, N G; Kovalchuk, B N; Losev, V F; Mesyats, Gennadii A; Mikheev, L D; Panchenko, Yu N; Ratakhin, N A

    2012-05-31

    This paper describes a multiterawatt hybrid laser system based on a Ti : sapphire front end and 25-cm-aperture photodissociation XeF(C - A) amplifier. The front end generates 50-fs pulses with second-harmonic ({lambda} = 475 nm) energies of up to 5 mJ. The gainmedium of the amplifier is produced in a XeF{sub 2} - N{sub 2} mixture by VUV radiation excited in xenon by a high-power electron beam. Through amplification of a negatively chirped 1-ps pulse, followed by pulse compression in bulk fused silica, a peak power of 14 TW, record-high for the visible range, has been achieved.

  16. Considerations on fatigue stress range calculations in nuclear power plants using on-line monitoring systems and the ASME Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, R., E-mail: ciceror@unican.e [INESCO INGENIEROS S.L., Santander (Spain); Departamento de Ciencia e Ingenieria del Terreno y los Materiales, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Cicero, S. [Departamento de Ciencia e Ingenieria del Terreno y los Materiales, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gorrochategui, I. [Centro Tecnologico de Componentes, Santander (Spain); Lacalle, R. [INESCO INGENIEROS S.L., Santander (Spain); Departamento de Ciencia e Ingenieria del Terreno y los Materiales, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Nuclear power plants are generally designed and inspected according to the ASME Code. This code indicates stress intensity (S{sub INT}) as the parameter to be used in the stress analysis of components. One of the particularities of S{sub INT} is that it always takes positive values, independently of the nature of the stress (tensile or compressive). This circumstance is relevant in the Fatigue Monitoring Systems used in nuclear power plants, due to the manner in which the different variable stresses are combined in order to obtain the final total stress range. This paper describes some situations derived from the application of the ASME Code, shows different ways of dealing with them and illustrates their influence on the evaluation of the fatigue usage factor through a case study.

  17. An investigation into the transient behavior of a microreactor system for reforming of Diesel fuel in the kw range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, G.; Schelhaas, K.P.; Schuerer, J.; Tiemann, D.; Ziogas, A. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Hessel, V. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); O' Connell, M.

    2009-11-15

    A diesel reformer based on microreaction technology was developed for application in an auxiliary power unit (APU) system. The transient characteristics of this reactor for reforming of diesel fuel are reported. Diesel steam reforming was performed at various S/C ratios with load changes ranging from 30 % LL to 80 % LL, i.e., a 1.5 kW to a 4 kW electrical equivalent. The reactor itself was based on an integrated reformer/burner heat exchange reactor concept. The reforming was performed at temperatures above 750 C and at various S/C ratios, down to a minimum of 3.17. Variation of experimental parameters, such as O/C and S/C ratios, are critical for optimum and efficient operation of the reformer. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. A new scanning system for alpha decay events as calibration sources for range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, J., E-mail: jyoshida@gifu-u.ac.jp; Kinbara, S.; Mishina, A.; Nakazawa, K.; Soe, M.K.; Theint, A.M.M.; Tint, K.T.

    2017-03-01

    A new scanning system named “Vertex picker” has been developed to rapid collect alpha decay events, which are calibration sources for the range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion. A computer-controlled optical microscope scans emulsion layers exhaustively, and a high-speed and high-resolution camera takes their micrographs. A dedicated image processing picks out vertex-like shapes. Practical operations of alpha decay search were demonstrated by emulsion sheets of the KEK-PS E373 experiment. Alpha decays of nearly 28 events were detected in eye-check work on a PC monitor per hour. This yield is nearly 20 times more effective than that by the conventional eye-scan method. The speed and quality is acceptable for the coming new experiment, J-PARC E07.

  19. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the far infrasound range and emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, L A; Gorgo, Yu P; Dirckx, J J J; Bogdanov, V B; Buytaert, J A N; Lysenko, V A; Didyk, N P; Vershygora, A V; Erygina, V T

    2008-09-01

    This study examines whether a relation exists between rapid atmospheric pressure fluctuations, attributed to the far infrasound frequency range (APF), and a number of emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases (EEC). Over an entire year, the average integral amplitudes of APF in the range of periods from 3 s to 120 s over each hour (HA) were measured. Daily dynamics of HA averaged over the year revealed a wave shape with smooth increase from night to day followed by decrease from day to night. The total daily number of EEC within the city of Kiev, Ukraine, was related to the daily mean of HA (DHA) and to the ratio of HA averaged over the day time to HA averaged over the night time (Rdn), and was checked for confounding effects of classical meteorological variables through non-parametric regression algorithms. The number of EEC were significantly higher on days with high DHA (3.72-11.07 Pa, n = 87) compared to the low DHA (0.7-3.62 Pa, n = 260, p = 0.01), as well at days with low Rdn (0.21-1.64, n = 229) compared to the high Rdn (1.65-7.2, n = 118, p = 0.03). A difference between DHA and Rdn effects on the emergency events related to different categories of circulatory diseases points to a higher sensitivity of rheumatic and cerebro-vascular diseases to DHA, and ischaemic and hypertensive diseases to Rdn. Results suggest that APF could be considered as a meteorotropic factor capable of influencing circulatory system diseases.

  20. Implementation of a target volume design function for intrafractional range variation in a particle beam treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, S; Inaniwa, T; Miki, K; Shirai, T; Noda, K

    2014-11-01

    Treatment planning for charged particle therapy in the thoracic and abdominal regions should take account of range uncertainty due to intrafractional motion. Here, we developed a design tool (4Dtool) for the target volume [field-specific target volume (FTV)], which accounts for this uncertainty using four-dimensional CT (4DCT). Target and normal tissue contours were input manually into a treatment planning system (TPS). These data were transferred to the 4Dtool via the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Contours at the reference phase were propagated to other phases by deformable image registration. FTV was calculated using 4DCT on the 4Dtool. The TPS displays FTV contours using digital imaging and communications in medicine files imported from the PACS. These treatment parameters on the CT image at the reference phase were then used for dose calculation on the TPS. The tool was tested in single clinical case randomly selected from patients treated at our centre for lung cancer. In this clinical case, calculation of dose distribution with the 4Dtool resulted in the successful delivery of carbon-ion beam at the reference phase of 95% of the prescribed dose to the clinical target volume (CTV). Application to the other phases also provided sufficient dose to the CTV. The 4Dtool software allows the design of the target volume with consideration to intrafractional range variation and is now in routine clinical use at our institution. Our alternative technique represents a practical approach to four-dimensional treatment planning within the current state of charged particle therapy.

  1. Neck range of motion measurements using a new three-dimensional motion analysis system: validity and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Haruhi; Tojima, Michio; Mano, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Ogata, Naoshi; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Neck movement is important for many activities of daily living (ADL). Neck disorders, such as cervical spondylosis and whiplash can limit neck movement and ADL. The cervical range of motion (CROM) device has been recently used to measure neck range of motion (ROM); however, this measurement includes trunk motion, and therefore does not represent a pure neck ROM measurement. The authors aimed to develop a new method to establish pure neck ROM measurements during flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, VICON. Twelve healthy participants were recruited and neck ROMs during flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation were measured using VICON and the CROM device. Test-retest repeatability was assessed using interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC). Validity between two measurements was evaluated using a determination coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient. ICCs of neck ROM measured using VICON and the CROM device were all at substantial or almost perfect levels [VICON: ICC(1,2) = 0.786-0.962, the CROM device: ICC(1,2) = 0.736-0.950]. Both SEMs and MDCs were low in all measurement directions (VICON: SEM = 1.3°-4.5°, MDC = 3.6°-12.5°; the CROM device: SEM = 2.2°-3.9°, MDC = 6.1°-10.7°). Determination coefficients (R(2)s) and Pearson's correlation coefficients (rs) between the two measurement methods were high (R(2) = 0.607-0.745, r = 0.779-0.863). VICON is a useful system to measure neck ROMs and evaluate the efficacy of interventions, such as surgery or physiotherapeutic exercise.

  2. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2002-05-01

    retrieving the robot but through the use of auxiliaries, to be developed in a follow-on phase, that will allow insertion of additional antennas and battery recharge plugs into the pipe under live conditions through inexpensive keyhole sized excavations. The proposed system significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the New York Gas Group (NYGAS; a trade association of the publicly owned gas utilities in New York State), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The DOE's contribution to this project is $499,023 out of a total of $780,735 (not including NASA's contribution). The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during the first six months since funding from DOE commenced. The project has achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. Currently the fabrication of the prototype is in progress and it should be completed by late-summer 2002. Testing of the prototype in the lab is expected to be completed by November 2002, to be followed by two field demonstrations in early 2003.

  3. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  4. «Auferstehen müssen die Toten». Atomare Apokalypse in Kurt Becsis «Atom vor Christus»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Fiandra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The atomic play Atom vor Christus (1952 by the Viennese playwright Kurt Becsi (1920-1988 is one of the very numerous works on the subject of the nuclear threat that appeared in German-speaking countries in the 1950s and ’60s. This article investigates the complex Christian religious discourse that embeds the dramatization of atomic issues and apocalyp­tic ideas of the End in Becsi’s play. Special focus is given to such aspects as the struggle between generations and, in particular, the conflict between the unscrupulous scientist (and his hubris and the figure of the repentant bomber pilot that becomes a monk (Science versus love, logic versus Christian grace.

  5. Dynamical phase transitions in long-range Hamiltonian systems and Tsallis distributions with a time-dependent index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Alessandro; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Giansanti, Andrea; Morelli, Gianluca

    2008-10-01

    We study dynamical phase transitions in systems with long-range interactions, using the Hamiltonian mean field model as a simple example. These systems generically undergo a violent relaxation to a quasistationary state (QSS) before relaxing towards Boltzmann equilibrium. In the collisional regime, the out-of-equilibrium one-particle distribution function (DF) is a quasistationary solution of the Vlasov equation, slowly evolving in time due to finite- N effects. For subcritical energy densities, we exhibit cases where the DF is well fitted by a Tsallis q distribution with an index q(t) slowly decreasing in time from q approximately = 3 (semiellipse) to q=1 (Boltzmann). When the index q(t) reaches an energy-dependent critical value q_(crit) , the nonmagnetized (homogeneous) phase becomes Vlasov unstable and a dynamical phase transition is triggered, leading to a magnetized (inhomogeneous) state. While Tsallis distributions play an important role in our study, we explain this dynamical phase transition by using only conventional statistical mechanics. For supercritical energy densities, we report the existence of a magnetized QSS with a very long lifetime.

  6. Evaluation of Spatial Resolution for Heavy Ion CT System Based on the Measurement of Residual Range Distribution With HIMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraishi, H.; Nishimura, K.; Abe, S.; Satoh, H.; Hara, S.; Hara, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Mogaki, T.; Kawai, R.; Yokoyama, K.; Yasuda, N.; Tomida, T.; Ohno, Y.; Kanai, T.

    2009-10-01

    We report experimental results from a heavy ion CT system based on the measurement of residual range distribution using an X-ray intensifying screen and a charged coupled device (CCD) camera system. This technique was first investigated by Zygmanski (2000) for proton beams, and they reported that the spatial resolution was significantly degraded by multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) effects in the irradiated medium. Experiments were done on the spatial resolution phantom by using helium and carbon beams accelerated up to 120 MeV/u and 230 MeV/u by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), installed in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan, using a high performance intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. We show that the MCS blurring effect can be significantly reduced in the reconstructed image by using a carbon beam with this technique. Our results suggest that heavier particles such as carbon would be more useful if this technique is envisioned as a clinical tool to obtain data that would aid proton and/or heavy ion treatment planning.

  7. Additive N-step Markov chains as prototype model of symbolic stochastic dynamical systems with long-range correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayzelis, Z.A. [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 4 Svoboda Sq., Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine); Apostolov, S.S. [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 4 Svoboda Sq., Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine); Melnyk, S.S. [A. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukrainian Academy of Science, 12 Proskura Street, 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine); Usatenko, O.V. [A. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukrainian Academy of Science, 12 Proskura Street, 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: usatenko@ire.kharkov.ua; Yampol' skii, V.A. [A. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukrainian Academy of Science, 12 Proskura Street, 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2007-10-15

    A theory of symbolic dynamic systems with long-range correlations based on the consideration of the binary N-step Markov chains developed earlier in Phys Rev Lett 2003;90:110601 is generalized to the biased case (non-equal numbers of zeros and unities in the chain). In the model, the conditional probability that the ith symbol in the chain equals zero (or unity) is a linear function of the number of unities (zeros) among the preceding N symbols. The correlation and distribution functions as well as the variance of number of symbols in the words of arbitrary length L are obtained analytically and verified by numerical simulations. A self-similarity of the studied stochastic process is revealed and the similarity group transformation of the chain parameters is presented. The diffusion Fokker-Planck equation governing the distribution function of the L-words is explored. If the persistent correlations are not extremely strong, the distribution function is shown to be the Gaussian with the variance being nonlinearly dependent on L. An equation connecting the memory and correlation function of the additive Markov chain is presented. This equation allows reconstructing a memory function using a correlation function of the system. Effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method is demonstrated by simple model examples. Memory functions of concrete coarse-grained literary texts are found and their universal power-law behavior at long distances is revealed.

  8. Wide range instantaneous temperature measurements of convective fluid flows by using a schlieren system based in color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, A.; Moreno-Hernández, D.; Monzón-Hernández, D.; León-Rodríguez, M.

    2017-06-01

    In the schlieren method, the deflection of light by the presence of an inhomogeneous medium is proportional to the gradient of its refractive index. Such deflection, in a schlieren system, is represented by light intensity variations on the observation plane. Then, for a digital camera, the intensity level registered by each pixel depends mainly on the variation of the medium refractive index and the status of the digital camera settings. Therefore, in this study, we regulate the intensity value of each pixel by controlling the camera settings such as exposure time, gamma and gain values in order to calibrate the image obtained to the actual temperature values of a particular medium. In our approach, we use a color digital camera. The images obtained with a color digital camera can be separated on three different color-channels. Each channel corresponds to red, green, and blue color, moreover, each one has its own sensitivity. The differences in sensitivity allow us to obtain a range of temperature values for each color channel. Thus, high, medium and low sensitivity correspond to green, blue, and red color channel respectively. Therefore, by adding up the temperature contribution of each color channel we obtain a wide range of temperature values. Hence, the basic idea in our approach to measure temperature, using a schlieren system, is to relate the intensity level of each pixel in a schlieren image to the corresponding knife-edge position measured at the exit focal plane of the system. Our approach was applied to the measurement of instantaneous temperature fields of the air convection caused by a heated rectangular metal plate and a candle flame. We found that for the metal plate temperature measurements only the green and blue color-channels were required to sense the entire phenomena. On the other hand, for the candle case, the three color-channels were needed to obtain a complete measurement of temperature. In our study, the candle temperature was took as

  9. La idealización del amor y la mujer en La vorágine The idealization of love and woman in The Vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Daniel Ortiz Caraballo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo a realizar es un análisis sociocrítico de La vorágine (1924, de José Eustasio Rivera (Neiva, 1888-Nueva York, 1928. Su objetivo es dilucidar una de las tomas de posición presente en esta obra literaria, específicamente, la toma de posición romántica en relación con sus personajes femeninos y los valores socio-económicos de la modernidad y el capitalismo, para establecer su impacto en el campo literario colombiano. El análisis textual se encuentra ordenado a partir de los conceptos de posición romántica (Girard, 1963, cronotopo (Bajtín, 1986: 269 héroe novelesco (Lukács, 1974: 161-162 y sistema de personajes como ejes fundamentales en los que se despliega buena parte de la axiología de la novelaThis essay is a sociocritic analysis of the novel La vorágine (1924, written by José Eustasio Rivera (Neiva, 1888-New York, 1928. Its objective is to elucidate one of the existent axiological position presented in this literary work, specifically, the romantic one (Girard, 1963. The reading of the text is organized in two parts: first, the idealization of love, where it is established the construction of the romantic position taken in terms of love, the socioeconomic values of modernity and capitalism, taking into account the hero of the novel and the idealization of a woman, according to the women characters and their ideological voice.

  10. La vorágine del 9 de abril: J.E. Rivera, J.A. Osorio Lizarazo y el Bogotazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Martínez Pinzón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con su novela La vorágine J.E. Rivera construye un arsenal metafórico para referirse a la selva desde la ciudad; un arsenal que será retomado por J.A. Osorio Lizarazo casi treinta años después para incendiar la ciudad de Bogotá con su novela sobre el 9 de abril, El día del odio (1952. A estas dos novelas las une un mismo propósito: asaltar las murallas de un proyecto de nación encastillado en los Andes, atrincherado en la letra e inmune a una vasta geografía tropical y una diversidad racial que lo sigue amenazando con la idea de la invasión.With the novel La vorágine (1924 J.E Rivera constructs an arsenal of metaphors with which the jungle can be read from the city. Thirty years after Rivera’s novel, his arsenal was reapropriated by J.A. Osorio Lizarazo, who uses it to burn down Bogotá when writing El día del odio (1952, a novel about April 9th 1948, date in which the city was ransacked and largely burnt down by a mob enraged by the assassination of its leader: Jorge Eliécer Gaitán. Both texts are aligned in a tradition that stages invasion and violence as responses to an elite national project of exclusion and ethnocentrism.

  11. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  12. Characterization of the mutual influence of Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Range of frequencies systems on EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanczyk Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waves in the Ion Cyclotron (ICRF and Lower Hybrid (LH Range of Frequencies are efficient techniques respectively to heat the plasma and drive current. Main difficulties come from a trade-off between good RF coupling and acceptable level of impurities release. The mutual influence of both systems makes such equilibrium often hard to reach [1]. In order to investigate those interactions based on Scrape-Off Layer (SOL plasma parameters, a new reciprocating probe was designed allying a three tips Langmuir probe with an emissive wire. The emissive filament provides a precise measure of plasma potential [2], which can be used to calibrate Langmuir probe's results. This paper reports on experimental results obtained on EAST, where there are two ICRF antennas and two LH launchers. Among others diagnostics, the new reciprocating probe enabled to evidence the deleterious influence of ICRF power on LHWs coupling in L-mode plasmas. In areas connected with an active ICRF antenna, SOL potentials increase while densities tend to decrease, respectively enhancing impurities release and deteriorating LHWs coupling. This phenomenon has mostly been attributed to RF sheath; the one that forms on top of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs and causes ExB density convections [3]. From those experiments it seems ICRF has a strong influence on magnetically connected areas, both in the near field – influencing ICRF waves coupling – and in farther locations such as in front of LH grills. Moreover, influence of ICRF on LH system was observed both in L and H modes. Those results are consistent with RF sheath rectification process. Concerning the influence of LHWs on ICRF coupling, nothing was observed in L-mode. Besides during H-mode experiments, LHWs have been identified as having a mitigating effect on ELMs [4], which on average lowers the pedestal, increasing edge densities to the profit of ICRF waves coupling.

  13. TH-C-19A-07: Output Factor Dependence On Range and Modulation for a New Proton Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B; Zhao, T; Grantham, K; Goddu, S; Santanam, L; Klein, E [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Proton treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and do not calculate monitor units (MU) for proton fields. Output factors (cGy/MU) for patient-specific fields are usually measured in phantoms or modeled empirically. The purpose of this study is to predict the output factors (OFs) for a given proton (R90) and modulation width (Mod) for the first Mevion S250 proton therapy system. Methods: Using water phantoms and a calibrated ionization chamber-electrometer, over 100 OFs were measured for various R90 and Mod combinations for 24 different options. OFs were measured at the center of the Mod, which coincided with the isocenter. The measured OFs were fitted using an analytic model developed by Kooy (Phys.Med.Biol. 50, 2005) for each option and a derived universal empirical-based polynomial as a function of R90 and Mod for all options. Options are devised for ranges of R90 and Mod. The predicted OFs from both models were compared to measurements. Results: Using the empirical-based model, the values could be predicted to within 3% for at least 90% of measurements and within 5% for 98% of the measurements. Using the analytic model to fit each option with the same effective source position, the prediction is much more accurate. The maximal uncertainty between measured and predicted is within 2% and the averaged root-mean-square is 1.5%. Conclusion: Although the measured data was not exhaustive, both models predicted OFs within acceptable uncertainty. Both models are currently used for a sanity check of our continual patient field OF measurements. As we acquire more patient-field OFs, the model will be refined with an ultimate goal of eliminating the time-consuming patient-specific OF measurements.

  14. Characterization of the mutual influence of Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Range of frequencies systems on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk, Guillaume; Zhang, Xinjun; Qin, Chengming; Zhao, Yanping; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Ling; Li, Jiangang; Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Jiahui; Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Xiuda; Qian, Jinping

    2017-10-01

    Waves in the Ion Cyclotron (ICRF) and Lower Hybrid (LH) Range of Frequencies are efficient techniques respectively to heat the plasma and drive current. Main difficulties come from a trade-off between good RF coupling and acceptable level of impurities release. The mutual influence of both systems makes such equilibrium often hard to reach [1]. In order to investigate those interactions based on Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) plasma parameters, a new reciprocating probe was designed allying a three tips Langmuir probe with an emissive wire. The emissive filament provides a precise measure of plasma potential [2], which can be used to calibrate Langmuir probe's results. This paper reports on experimental results obtained on EAST, where there are two ICRF antennas and two LH launchers. Among others diagnostics, the new reciprocating probe enabled to evidence the deleterious influence of ICRF power on LHWs coupling in L-mode plasmas. In areas connected with an active ICRF antenna, SOL potentials increase while densities tend to decrease, respectively enhancing impurities release and deteriorating LHWs coupling. This phenomenon has mostly been attributed to RF sheath; the one that forms on top of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) and causes ExB density convections [3]. From those experiments it seems ICRF has a strong influence on magnetically connected areas, both in the near field - influencing ICRF waves coupling - and in farther locations such as in front of LH grills. Moreover, influence of ICRF on LH system was observed both in L and H modes. Those results are consistent with RF sheath rectification process. Concerning the influence of LHWs on ICRF coupling, nothing was observed in L-mode. Besides during H-mode experiments, LHWs have been identified as having a mitigating effect on ELMs [4], which on average lowers the pedestal, increasing edge densities to the profit of ICRF waves coupling.

  15. The concurrent validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Morales, Carlos; Calvo Lobo, César; Rodríguez Sanz, David; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Ruiz Ruiz, Beatriz; López López, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    New reliable devices for range of motion (ROM) measures in older adults are necessary to improve knowledge about the functional capability in this population. Dorsiflexion ROM limitation is associated with ankle injuries, foot pain, lower limb disorders, loss of balance, gait control disorders and fall risk in older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM in older adults. Adescriptive repeated-measures study was designed to test the reliability of Leg Motion in thirty-three healthy elderly patients older than 65 years. The subjects had to meet the following inclusion and exclusion criteria in their medical records: older than 65 years; no lower extremity injury for at least one year prior to evaluation (meniscopathy, or fractures) and any chronic injuries (e.g., osteoarthritis); no previous hip, knee or ankle surgery; no neuropathic alterations and no cognitive conditions (e.g., Alzheimer's disease or dementia). Participants were recruited through the person responsible for the physiotherapist area from a nursing center. The subjects were evaluated in two different sessions at the same time of day, and there was a break of two weeks between sessions. To test the validity of the Leg Motion system, the participants were measured in a weight-bearing lunge position using a classic goniometer with 1° increments, a smartphone with an inclinometer standard app (iPhone 5S®) with 1° increments and a measuring tape that could measure 0.1 cm. All testing was performed while the patients were barefoot. The researcher had ten years of experience as a physiotherapist using goniometer, tape measure and inclinometer devices. Mean values and standard deviations were as follows: Leg Motion (right 5.15 ± 3.08; left 5.19 ± 2.98), tape measure (right 5.12 ± 3.08; left 5.12 ± 2.80), goniometer (right 45.87° ± 4.98; left 44.50° ± 5.54) and inclinometer app (right

  16. The concurrent validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Morales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background New reliable devices for range of motion (ROM measures in older adults are necessary to improve knowledge about the functional capability in this population. Dorsiflexion ROM limitation is associated with ankle injuries, foot pain, lower limb disorders, loss of balance, gait control disorders and fall risk in older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM in older adults. Methods Adescriptive repeated-measures study was designed to test the reliability of Leg Motion in thirty-three healthy elderly patients older than 65 years. The subjects had to meet the following inclusion and exclusion criteria in their medical records: older than 65 years; no lower extremity injury for at least one year prior to evaluation (meniscopathy, or fractures and any chronic injuries (e.g., osteoarthritis; no previous hip, knee or ankle surgery; no neuropathic alterations and no cognitive conditions (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. Participants were recruited through the person responsible for the physiotherapist area from a nursing center. The subjects were evaluated in two different sessions at the same time of day, and there was a break of two weeks between sessions. To test the validity of the Leg Motion system, the participants were measured in a weight-bearing lunge position using a classic goniometer with 1° increments, a smartphone with an inclinometer standard app (iPhone 5S® with 1° increments and a measuring tape that could measure 0.1 cm. All testing was performed while the patients were barefoot. The researcher had ten years of experience as a physiotherapist using goniometer, tape measure and inclinometer devices. Results Mean values and standard deviations were as follows: Leg Motion (right 5.15 ± 3.08; left 5.19 ± 2.98, tape measure (right 5.12 ± 3.08; left 5.12 ± 2.80, goniometer (right 45.87° ± 4.98; left 44

  17. A Microbolometer System for Radiation Detection in the THz Frequency Range with a Resonating Cavity Fabricated in the CMOS Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesek, Aleksander; Zemva, Andrej; Trontelj, Janez

    2018-02-14

    The THz sensors using microbolometers as a sensing element are reported as one of the most sensitive room-temperature THz detectors suitable for THz imaging and spectroscopic applications. Microbolometer detectors are usually fabricated using different types of the MEMS technology. The patent for the detection system presented in this paper describes a method for microbolometer fabrication using a standard CMOS technology with advanced micromachining techniques. The measured sensitivity of the sensors fabricated by the patented method is 1000 V/W at an optimal frequency and is determined by the performance of a double-dipole antenna and quarter-wavelength resonant cavity. The paper presents a patented method for fabrication of a microbolometer system for radiation detection in the THz frequency range (16). The method is divided into several stages regarding the current silicon micromachining process. Main stages are fabrication of supporting structures for micro bridge, creation of micro cavities and fabrication of Aluminum antenna and Titanium microbolometer. Additional method for encapsulation in the vacuum is described which additionally improves the performance of bolometer. The CMOS technology is utilized for fabrication as it is cost effective and provides the possibility of larger sensor systems integration with included amplification. At other wavelengths (e.g. IR region) thermistors are usually also the receivers with the sensor resistance change provoked by self-heating. In the THz region the energy is received by an antenna coupled to a thermistor. Depending on the specific application requirement, two types of the antenna were designed and used; a narrow-band dipole antenna and a wideband log-periodic antenna. With method described in the paper, the microbolometer detector reaches sensitivities up to 500 V/W and noise equivalent power (NEP) down to 10 pW/√Hz. Additional encapsulation in the vacuum improves its performance at least by a factor of 2

  18. Evapotranspiration units in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Accurate estimates of ground-water discharge are crucial in the development of a water budget for the Basin and Range Carbonate-rock Aquifer System (BARCAS) study...

  19. Thermodynamic study of phase equilibrium of superionic alloys of Ag3SBr1-xClx system in the concentration range 0.0-0.4 and temperature range 370-395 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, M. V.; Prokhorenko, M. V.; Prokhorenko, S. V.; Reshetnyak, O. V.

    2017-03-01

    Thermodynamic assessment of the phase stability of the solid solutions of superionic alloys of the Ag3SBr1-xClx (I) system in the concentration range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4 and temperature range 370-395 K was performed. Partial functions of silver in the alloys of solid solution were used as the thermodynamic parameters. The values of partial thermodynamic functions were obtained with the use of the electromotive force method. Potential-forming processes were performed in electrochemical cells. Linear dependence of the electromotive force of cells on temperature was used to calculate the partial thermodynamic functions of silver in the alloys. The serpentine-like shape of the thermodynamic functions in the concentration range 0-4 is an evidence of the metastable state of solid solution. The equilibrium phase state of the alloys is predicted to feature the formation of the intermediate phase Ag3SBr0.76Cl0.24, and the solubility gap of the solid solution ranges of Ag3SBr0.76Cl0.24 and Ag3SBr.

  20. Consistent quantification of climate impacts due to biogenic carbon storage across a range of bio-product systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, Geoffrey, E-mail: geoffrey.guest@ntnu.no; Bright, Ryan M., E-mail: ryan.m.bright@ntnu.no; Cherubini, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.cherubini@ntnu.no; Strømman, Anders H., E-mail: anders.hammer.stromman@ntnu.no

    2013-11-15

    Temporary and permanent carbon storage from biogenic sources is seen as a way to mitigate climate change. The aim of this work is to illustrate the need to harmonize the quantification of such mitigation across all possible storage pools in the bio- and anthroposphere. We investigate nine alternative storage cases and a wide array of bio-resource pools: from annual crops, short rotation woody crops, medium rotation temperate forests, and long rotation boreal forests. For each feedstock type and biogenic carbon storage pool, we quantify the carbon cycle climate impact due to the skewed time distribution between emission and sequestration fluxes in the bio- and anthroposphere. Additional consideration of the climate impact from albedo changes in forests is also illustrated for the boreal forest case. When characterizing climate impact with global warming potentials (GWP), we find a large variance in results which is attributed to different combinations of biomass storage and feedstock systems. The storage of biogenic carbon in any storage pool does not always confer climate benefits: even when biogenic carbon is stored long-term in durable product pools, the climate outcome may still be undesirable when the carbon is sourced from slow-growing biomass feedstock. For example, when biogenic carbon from Norway Spruce from Norway is stored in furniture with a mean life time of 43 years, a climate change impact of 0.08 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year time horizon (TH)) would result. It was also found that when biogenic carbon is stored in a pool with negligible leakage to the atmosphere, the resulting GWP factor is not necessarily − 1 CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored. As an example, when biogenic CO{sub 2} from Norway Spruce biomass is stored in geological reservoirs with no leakage, we estimate a GWP of − 0.56 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year TH) when albedo effects are also included. The large variance in GWPs across the range of

  1. Practical Wide-speed-range Sensorless Control System for Permanent Magnet Reluctance Synchronous Motor Drives via Active Flux Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ancuti, Mihaela Codruta; Tutelea, Lucian; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a control strategy to obtain near-maximum available torque in a wide speed range with sensorless operation via the active flux concept for permanent magnet-reluctance synchronous motor drives. A new torque dq current reference calculator is proposed, with reference torque...

  2. Development of a Lidar System Based on an Infrared RangeFinder Sensor and SlipRing Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Bayar, Gokhan; Uludag, Alparslan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract-Lidar systems are one of the most important sensor infrastructures in autonomous vehicles and mobile robots. They are used for achieving indoor and outdoor mapping purposes. In the scope of this study, a new perspective to develop a lidar system is proposed. The system developed is constructed based on a low-cost infrared rangefinder sensor, low-cost slipring mechanism designed and manufactured, dc motor and microprocessor. The rangefinder sensor is mounted to a head-structure actuat...

  3. Demographics and practices of semi-intensive free-range farming systems in Australia with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Singh

    Full Text Available Baseline information on demographics and practices on semi-intensive free-range egg farms with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare in Australia is presented. Free-range egg production is changing the structure of the egg industry in Australia and a broad variety and tiers of free-range systems have emerged due to lack of concrete legislative standards on outdoor stocking densities in the past. Information was extracted from a pre-existing online free-range poultry survey dataset, consisting of a total of 79 questions related to nutrition, pasture management, welfare and health, animal housing, environmental impact and economics. Forty-one free-range egg farms, with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare, were identified in the dataset from all major Australian states. Two types of semi-intensive free-range housing systems were documented: mobile (modified caravan/trailer housing (56%, and fixed sheds (44%. Seventy-two percent of respondents reported >75% of the hens in the flock used the outdoor range. All respondents reported ingestion of range components by hens in the form of vegetation, insects, stones and grit. Up to 10% mortality was reported by 40% respondents with predation (34%, cannibalism (29%, heat stress (24% and grass impaction (19.5% as major causes. Biosecurity on farms was sub-optimal with 8 of the 10 actions implemented by <50% respondents. Customer demand, consumer sentiment and welfare were the major factors for farmers moving into free-range egg production. This study resulted in identification of current practices and key challenges on semi-intensive free-range egg farms. Applied research and communication of results to farmers is highly recommended to ensure optimum health and welfare of free-range laying hens and sustained egg production.

  4. Fear of China`s stacks. Power plant boom in the Far East: Bad news for the world climate; Bammel vor Chinas Schloten. Kraftwerk-Lawine in Fernost: Truebe Prognosen fuers Weltklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewe, T.

    1996-05-01

    There is a booming power plant industry in the People`s Republic of China. German power plant producers rejoice about high profits in the Far East, but climate experts warn of the impending consequences of China`s new stacks. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Volksrepublik China baut ihre Stromerzeugung gewaltig aus. Deutsche Kraftwerk-Firmen freuen sich ueber ihre wachsenden Umsaetze im Reich der Mitte. Doch schon warnen Klimaforscher vor drohenden Konsequenzen, wenn demnaechst die Schlote des Riesenreichs zu voller Form auflaufen. (orig.)

  5. Long range intermolecular forces in triatomic systems: connecting the atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations

    OpenAIRE

    Cvitas, Marko T.; Soldan, Pavel; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2005-01-01

    The long-range forces that act between three atoms are analysed in both atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations. Expressions for atom-diatom dispersion coefficients are obtained in terms of 3-body nonadditive coefficients. The anisotropy of atom-diatom C_6 dispersion coefficients arises primarily from nonadditive triple-dipole and quadruple-dipole forces, while pairwise-additive forces and nonadditive triple-dipole and dipole-dipole-quadrupole forces contribute significantly to atom-di...

  6. The concurrent validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Morales, Carlos; Calvo Lobo, C?sar; Rodr?guez Sanz, David; Sanz Corbal?n, Irene; Ruiz Ruiz, Beatriz; L?pez L?pez, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background New reliable devices for range of motion (ROM) measures in older adults are necessary to improve knowledge about the functional capability in this population. Dorsiflexion ROM limitation is associated with ankle injuries, foot pain, lower limb disorders, loss of balance, gait control disorders and fall risk in older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM in older adults. Methods A...

  7. Plasmonic resonances in hybrid systems of aluminum nanostructured arrays and few layer graphene within the UV–IR spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Campuzano, R.; Saniger, J. M.; Mendoza, D.

    2017-11-01

    The size-controllable and ordered Al nanocavities and nanodomes arrays were synthesized by electrochemical anodization of aluminum using phosphoric acid, citric acid and mixture both acids. Few layer graphene (FLG) was transferred directly on top of Al nanostructures and their morphology were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The interaction between FLG and the plasmonic properties of Al nanostructures arrays were investigated based on specular reflectivity in the ultraviolet–visible–infrared range and Raman spectroscopy. We found that their optical reflectivity was dramatically reduced as compared with unstructured Al. At the same time pronounced reflectivity dips were detectable in the 200–896 nm wavelength range, which were ascribed to plasmonic resonances. The plasmonic properties of these nanostructures do not exhibit evident changes by the presence of FLG in the UV–vis range of the electromagnetic spectrum. By contrast, the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of FLG was observed in nanocavities and nanodomes structures that result in an intensity increase of the characteristic G and 2D bands of FLG induced by the plasmonic properties of Al nanostructures.

  8. Charge-transfer excitations in low-gap systems under the influence of solvation and conformational disorder: Exploring range-separation tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Thiago B.; Kümmel, Stephan

    2014-08-01

    Charge transfer excitations play a prominent role in the fields of molecular electronics and light harvesting. At the same time they have developed a reputation for being hard to predict with time-dependent density functional theory, which is the otherwise predominant method for calculating molecular structure and excitations. Recently, it has been demonstrated that range-separated hybrid functionals, in particular with an "optimally tuned" range separation parameter, describe charge-transfer excitations reliably for different molecules. Many of these studies focused on molecules in vacuum. Here we investigate the influence of solvation on the electronic excitations of thiophene oligomers, i.e., paradigm low gap systems. We take into account bulk solvation using a continuum solvation model and geometrical distortions from molecular dynamics. From our study, three main findings emerge. First, geometrical distortions increase absorption energies by about 0.5 eV for the longer thiophene oligomers. Second, combining optimal tuning of the range separation parameter with a continuum solvation method is not straightforward and has to be approached with great care. Third, optimally tuned range-separated hybrids without a short-range exchange component tend to inherit undesirable characteristics of semi-local functionals: with increasing system size the range separation parameter takes a smaller value, leading to a functional of effectively more semi-local nature and thus not accurately capturing, e.g., the saturation of the optical gap with increasing system size.

  9. Demographics and practices of semi-intensive free-range farming systems in Australia with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mini; Ruhnke, Isabelle; de Koning, Carolyn; Drake, Kelly; Skerman, Alan G; Hinch, Geoff N; Glatz, Philip C

    2017-01-01

    Baseline information on demographics and practices on semi-intensive free-range egg farms with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare in Australia is presented. Free-range egg production is changing the structure of the egg industry in Australia and a broad variety and tiers of free-range systems have emerged due to lack of concrete legislative standards on outdoor stocking densities in the past. Information was extracted from a pre-existing online free-range poultry survey dataset, consisting of a total of 79 questions related to nutrition, pasture management, welfare and health, animal housing, environmental impact and economics. Forty-one free-range egg farms, with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare, were identified in the dataset from all major Australian states. Two types of semi-intensive free-range housing systems were documented: mobile (modified caravan/trailer) housing (56%), and fixed sheds (44%). Seventy-two percent of respondents reported >75% of the hens in the flock used the outdoor range. All respondents reported ingestion of range components by hens in the form of vegetation, insects, stones and grit. Up to 10% mortality was reported by 40% respondents with predation (34%), cannibalism (29%), heat stress (24%) and grass impaction (19.5%) as major causes. Biosecurity on farms was sub-optimal with 8 of the 10 actions implemented by intensive free-range egg farms. Applied research and communication of results to farmers is highly recommended to ensure optimum health and welfare of free-range laying hens and sustained egg production.

  10. RFID-over-Fiber system for agricultural exploitations - Wireless track and trace with range extension using optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Cavalcante, Lucas Costa Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes and demonstrates an RFIDover-Fiber wireless track and trace system using active RFID tags and operating over distances up to 30 km of optical fiber and 35 meters of wireless readability......This paper proposes and demonstrates an RFIDover-Fiber wireless track and trace system using active RFID tags and operating over distances up to 30 km of optical fiber and 35 meters of wireless readability...

  11. Range extension in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using femtosecond-nanosecond dual-beam laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei; Zeng, Bin; Li, Ziting; Yao, Jinping; Xie, Hongqiang; Li, Guihua; Wang, Zhanshan; Cheng, Ya

    2017-06-01

    We extend the detection range of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy by combining high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses with high-energy nanosecond CO2 laser pulses. The femtosecond laser pulses ionize the molecules and generate filament in air. The free electrons generated in the self-confined plasma channel by the femtosecond laser serve as the seed electrons which cause efficient avalanche ionization in the nanosecond CO2 laser field. We show that the detection distance has been extended by three times with the assistance of femtosecond laser filamentation.

  12. Trace Element Supplementation of Livestock in New Zealand: Meeting the Challenges of Free-Range Grazing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville D. Grace

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing the mineral nutrition of free-range grazing livestock can be challenging. On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates. In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent. Scientists and farmers have developed efficient strategies to monitor and treat these dietary deficiencies. Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms.

  13. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing, E-mail: yqwang@nju.edu.cn; Li, Fenfang [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ∼15 cm and range accuracy is ∼4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ∼40 m.

  14. An Efficiency-Optimized Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter with Extended Power Range for Energy Storage Systems in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel extended-single-phase shift (ESPS control strategy of isolated bidirectional full-bridge DC-DC converters (IBDCs which are a promising alternative as a power electronic interface in microgrids with an additional function of galvanic isolation. Based on the mathematical models of ESPS control under steady-state conditions, detailed theoretical and experimental analyses of IBDC under ESPS control are presented. Compared with conventional single-phase-shift (CSPS control, ESPS control can greatly improve the efficiency of IBDCs in microgrids through decreasing current stress and backflow power considerably over a wide input and output voltage range under light and medium loads. In addition, ESPS control only needs to adjust one single phase-shift angel to control transmission power, thus it retains implementation simplicity in comparison with dual-phase-shift (DPS control for microgrid applications. Furthermore, an efficiency-optimized modulation scheme based on ESPS and CSPS control is developed in the whole power range of IBDC for power distribution in microgrids. A 10 kW IBDC prototype is constructed and the experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, showing that the proposed strategy can enhance the overall efficiency up to 30%.

  15. An OTA-C filter for ECG acquisition systems with highly linear range and less passband attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihai, Duan; Chuang, Lan; Weilin, Xu; Baolin, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A fifth order operational transconductance amplifier-C (OTA-C) Butterworth type low-pass filter with highly linear range and less passband attenuation is presented for wearable bio-telemetry monitoring applications in a UWB wireless body area network. The source degeneration structure applied in typical small transconductance circuit is improved to provide a highly linear range for the OTA-C filter. Moreover, to reduce the passband attenuation of the filter, a cascode structure is employed as the output stage of the OTA. The OTA-based circuit is operated in weak inversion due to strict power limitation in the biomedical chip. The filter is fabricated in a SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The measured results for the filter have shown a passband gain of -6.2 dB, while the -3-dB frequency is around 276 Hz. For the 0.8 VPP sinusoidal input at 100 Hz, a total harmonic distortion (THD) of -56.8 dB is obtained. An electrocardiogram signal with noise interference is fed into this chip to validate the function of the designed filter. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61161003, 61264001, 61166004) and the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (No. 2013GXNSFAA019333).

  16. Diversity and Abundance of Beetle (Coleoptera) Functional Groups in a Range of Land Use System in Jambi, Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    SURYO HARDIWINOTO; INDRIYATI; FRANCISCUS XAVERIUS SUSILO

    2009-01-01

    Degradation of tropical rain forest might exert impacts on biodiversity loss and affect the function and stability of the related ecosystems. The objective of this study was to study the impact of land use systems (LUS) on the diversity and abundance of beetle functional groups in Jambi area, Sumatra. This research was carried out during the rainy season (May-June) of 2004. Inventory and collection of beetles have been conducted using winkler method across six land use systems, i.e. primary f...

  17. Digital Predistortion of 75-110GHzW-Band Frequency Multiplier for Fiber Wireless Short Range Access Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2011-01-01

    We present a digital predistortion technique to effectively compensate high nonlinearity of a sextuple multiplier operating at 99.6GHz. An 18.9dB adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) improvement is guaranteed and a W-band fiber-wireless system is experimentally investigated.......We present a digital predistortion technique to effectively compensate high nonlinearity of a sextuple multiplier operating at 99.6GHz. An 18.9dB adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) improvement is guaranteed and a W-band fiber-wireless system is experimentally investigated....

  18. Steady-state operational range evolution from a two-terminal to a multiterminal HVDC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irnawan, Roni; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    DC grids are anticipated to grow organically with one possible initial configuration being formed by interconnecting an additional HVDC converter into an existing shore-to-shore (StS) HVDC link. In order to ensure the performance of this MTDC system, the DC voltage at each converter terminal with...

  19. Economic viability study of an on-road wireless charging system with a generic driving range estimation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhar, A.; Prasanth, V.; Bauer, P.; Bolech, M.

    2016-01-01

    The economic viability of on-road wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs) strongly depends on the choice of the inductive power transfer (IPT) system configuration (static or dynamic charging), charging power level and the percentage of road coverage of dynamic charging. In this paper, a case

  20. Economic Viability Study of an On-Road Wireless Charging System with a Generic Driving Range Estimation Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhar, A.; Prasanth, V.; Bauer, P.; Bolech, M.

    2016-01-01

    The economic viability of on-road wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs) strongly depends on the choice of the inductive power transfer (IPT) system configuration (static or dynamic charging), charging power level and the percentage of road coverage of dynamic charging. In this paper, a case

  1. Range Systems Simulation for the NASA Shuttle: Emphasis on Disaster and Prevention Management During Lift-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Lisa; Sepulveda, Jose; Moraga, Reinaldo; Compton, Jeppie; Turner, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a decision-making system composed of a number of safety and environmental models for the launch phase of a NASA Space Shuttle mission. The components of this distributed simulation environment represent the different systems that must collaborate to establish the Expectation of Casualties (E(sub c)) caused by a failed Space Shuttle launch and subsequent explosion (accidental or instructed) of the spacecraft shortly after liftoff. This decision-making tool employs Space Shuttle reliability models, trajectory models, a blast model, weather dissemination systems, population models, amount and type of toxicants, gas dispersion models, human response functions to toxicants, and a geographical information system. Since one of the important features of this proposed simulation environment is to measure blast, toxic, and debris effects, the clear benefits is that it can help safety managers not only estimate the population at risk, but also to help plan evacuations, make sheltering decisions, establish the resources required to provide aid and comfort, and mitigate damages in case of a disaster.

  2. Modeling forest planning trade-offs on the Colorado Front Range using MAGIS, an optimization, spatial decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward B. Butler

    2005-01-01

    The fires of 2000 and 2002 catalyzed a national mandate for fuel treatment programs to facilitate wildfire mitigation, yet the issues that need to be considered when planning large landscape projects are daunting, often ending in gridlock due to planning conflicts. Hazardous fuels maps help little when planning for integrated, system-wide ecological objectives and fail...

  3. Genotype by environment interaction for carcass traits and intramuscular fat content in heavy Iberian pigs fattened in two different free-range systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. García Casco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genotype by environment interaction (G×E is a potential source of reduced efficiency in genetic improvement programs in livestock. The objective of the current work consisted of checking the existence of G×E interaction in carcass traits and in intramuscular fat content (IMF in Iberian pigs fattened in two free-range systems. Genetic component and estimated breeding values (EBV of the percentage of hams, shoulders and loins and IMF in loin were obtained from records of 4,348 and 1,818 pigs fattened in campo (C and montanera (M systems, respectively. A multitrait model where the performances of each system are considered as different traits was implemented. Three selection indexes were built with different treatments about the quality trait, two of them based in the optimal trait theory. The Pearson correlation between EBV and indexes and the Spearman correlation between the rankings of progenies of 21 boars fattened in both systems were calculated. Heritability results were different in both systems (h2 range from 0.43 to 0.66 and from 0.24 to 0.33 in C and M system, respectively and genetic correlation of same traits expressed in the two systems also pointed out to a weak G×E interaction (0.64, 0.67 and 0.66 in hams, shoulders and IMF, respectively. Pearson and Spearman correlations were always significantly different to 1. The obtained results advised to consider this G×E interaction in the analysis model of a breeding program focused on free range production system and to include IMF in the index selection assuming an optimum range for this quality trait, in order to avoid negative effects of selection for carcass performances.

  4. A ring graph method for approximating atomic short-range order in disordered multi-component systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong

    2007-03-01

    The atomic short-range order (ASRO) in an alloy provides valuable information on the atomic structure to which the disordered alloy is tending. Mean field models with Onsager corrections have been used to calculate the ASRO in lattice models of disordered multi-component alloys. The Onsager correction is composition and temperature dependent and corrects for the over-correlation inherent to mean-field methods so that ASRO calculated satisfies the sum rule. However, it is does not take into account the k-dependence of the corrections. We present an analytical method based on ring graphs which provides for a k-dependent correction to the mean field. The ASRO in a simple ternary Ising model in a FCC lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is calculated using our method and compared to the results obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. We find that, above the transition temperature, the analytical results are in good agreement with those obtained from simulations.

  5. Development of a Ranging System for the Forward Scattering Meteor Radio Echo Observation Using a GPS-Synchronized Multiple Receiving Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, T.; Yoshida, H.; Miyamoto, H.; Yaguchi, N.; Terasawa, T.; Yoshikawa, I.

    2012-05-01

    We are developing an instrument for teaching purpose to determine the trajectory of a meteor with the Ham-band Radio Observations(HRO) . In this work, we describe newly developed ranging system with using Frequency Modulated signals and show some results.

  6. A system to measure isomeric state half-lives in the 10 ns to 10 μs range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toufen, D. L., E-mail: dennis@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of São Paulo - IFSP, 07115-000 Guarulhos, São Paulo (Brazil); Allegro, P. R. P.; Medina, N. H.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Cybulska, E. W.; Seale, W. A.; Ribas, R. V. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Linares, R. [Fluminense Federal University, 24220-900 Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silveira, M. A. G. [Universitary Center of FEI, 09850-901 São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    The Isomeric State Measurement System (SISMEI) was developed to search for isomeric nuclear states produced by fusion-evaporation reactions. The SISMEI consists of 10 plastic phoswich telescopes, two lead shields, one NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, two Compton suppressed HPGe γ-ray detectors, and a cone with a recoil product catcher. The new system was tested at the 8 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator of the University of São Paulo with the measurement of two known isomeric states: {sup 54}Fe, 10{sup +} state (E = 6527.1 (11) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 364(7) ns) and the 5/2{sup +} state of {sup 19}F (E = 197.143 (4) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 89.3 (10) ns). The results indicate that the system is capable of identifying delayed transitions, of measuring isomeric state lifetimes, and of identifying the feeding transitions of the isomeric state through the delayed γ-γ coincidence method. The measured half-life for the 10{sup +} state was T{sub 1/2} = 365(14) ns and for the 5/2{sup +} state, 100(36) ns.

  7. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  8. Toward the Physical Basis of Complex Systems: Dielectric Analysis of Porous Silicon Nanochannels in the Electrical Double Layer Length Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mircea Ciuceanu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric analysis (DEA shows changes in the properties of
    a materials as a response to the application on it of a time dependent electric field. Dielectric measurements are extremely sensitive to small changes in materials properties, that molecular relaxation, dipole changes, local motions that involve the reorientation of dipoles, and so can be observed by DEA. Electrical double layer (EDL, consists in a shielding layer that is naturally created within the liquid near a charged surface. The thickness of the EDL is given by the characteristic Debye length what grows less with the ionic strength defined by half summ products of concentration with square of charge for all solvent
    ions (co-ions, counterions, charged molecules. The typical length scale for the Debye length is on the order of 1 nm, depending on the ionic contents in the solvent; thus, the EDL becomes significant for nano-capillaries that nanochannels. The electrokinetic e®ects in the nanochannels depend essentialy on the distribution of charged species in EDL, described by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation those solutions require the solvent dielectric permittivity. In this work we propose a model for solvent low-frequency permittivity and a DEA profile taking into account both the porous silicon electrode and aqueous solvent properties in the Debye length range.

  9. A laboratory-based Laue X-ray diffraction system for enhanced imaging range and surface grain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, William; Stock, Chris; Huxley, Andrew D

    2015-08-01

    Although CCD X-ray detectors can be faster to use, their large-area versions can be much more expensive than similarly sized photographic plate detectors. When indexing X-ray diffraction patterns, large-area detectors can prove very advantageous as they provide more spots, which makes fitting an orientation easier. On the other hand, when looking for single crystals in a polycrystalline sample, the speed of CCD detectors is more useful. A new setup is described here which overcomes some of the limitations of limited-range CCD detectors to make them more useful for indexing, whilst at the same time making it much quicker to find single crystals within a larger polycrystalline structure. This was done by combining a CCD detector with a six-axis goniometer, allowing the compilation of images from different angles into a wide-angled image. Automated scans along the sample were coupled with image processing techniques to produce grain maps, which can then be used to provide a strategy to extract single crystals from a polycrystal.

  10. Validation of the German Mid-Range Climate Prediction (MiKlip) decadal ensemble prediction system using radiosonde observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattantyús-Ábrahám, Margit; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    We report validation results for three simulations by the Max-Planck-Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) ensemble prediction system (EPS), which is used for hindcasts and predictions of global-scale decadal climate variability in the framework of the German MiKlip project. Three experiments were analyzed: Baseline0 simulations with ocean anomaly field initialization, Baseline1 simulations with additional atmospheric full field initialization, and Prototype simulations with full field initialization for both ocean and atmosphere. Our validation compares homogenized radiosonde observations to the decadal ensemble hindcast projections. So far, we focused on the European region. Comparison of observed and simulated European temperature profiles showed noticeable model cold bias, about 1 K near the surface, increasing to about 3 K near the tropopause. This has implications for atmospheric stability, which is underestimated in the simulations compared to the radiosonde profiles. The simulations also tend to overestimate humidity throughout the troposphere. Both biases combine to give, e.g., much larger simulated values for standard severe weather indices, which might be interpreted as higher severe weather probability in the simulations. While Baseline 0 and Baseline 1 simulations showed no dependence of temperature bias on simulation lead years, the temperature bias of Prototype simulations increased systematically with increasing lead years. Apart from bias and probability density functions, the predictive skills of the Ensemble Prediction System were also analyzed with respect to the radiosonde observations. Here the Mean Square Error Skill Score (MSESS) and Continuously Ranked Probability Skill Scores (CRPSS) were used. For tropospheric temperatures, the full-field initialized Prototype experiments showed the best skills (MSESS and CRPSS), compared to the Baseline 0 and 1 experiments. In the stratosphere predictive skills were comparable for all experiments.

  11. L/superscript-p/ stability /p ranging from 1 to infinity/ of multivariable non-linear time-varying feedback systems that are open-loop unstable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, F. M.; Desoer, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The loop transformation technique (Sandberg, 1965; Zames, 1966, Willems, 1971), and the fixed point theorem (Schwartz, 1970) are used to derive the L(superscript-p) stability for a class of multivariable nonlinear time-varying feedback systems which are open-loop unstable. The application of the fixed point theorem in L(superscript-p) shows that the nonlinear feedback system has one and only one solution for any pair of inputs in L(superscript-p), that the solutions are continuously dependent on the inputs, and that the closed loop system is L(superscript-p)-stable for any p ranging from 1 to infinity.

  12. Semiclassical approach to model quantum fluids using the statistical associating fluid theory for systems with potentials of variable range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos, Víctor M; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2012-05-14

    Thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids are described using an extended version of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR) that takes into account quantum corrections to the Helmholtz free energy A, based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We present the theoretical background of this approach (SAFT-VRQ), considering two different cases depending on the continuous or discontinuous nature of the particles pair interaction. For the case of continuous potentials, we demonstrate that the standard Wigner-Kirkwood theory for quantum fluids can be derived from the de Broglie-Bohm formalism for quantum mechanics that can be incorporated within the Barker and Henderson perturbation theory for liquids in a straightforward way. When the particles interact via a discontinuous pair potential, the SAFT-VR method can be combined with the perturbation theory developed by Singh and Sinha [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3645 (1977); and ibid. 68, 562 (1978)]. We present an analytical expression for the first-order quantum perturbation term for a square-well potential, and the theory is applied to model thermodynamic properties of hydrogen, deuterium, neon, and helium-4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium, liquid and vapor densities, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficients and inversion curves are predicted accurately with respect to experimental data. We find that quantum corrections are important for the global behavior of properties of these fluids and not only for the low-temperature regime. Predictions obtained for hydrogen compare very favorably with respect to cubic equations of state.

  13. Estland lebt die Zukunft vor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Raeapteegist, ID-kaardist. Artikli autor arvab, et Eestis elatakse nii nagu igapäeva elu tõenäoliselt võib välja näha 10 või 20 aasta pärast. Eestist kui e-riigist, kus praktiliselt kõik kasutavad oma igapäevaelus internetti. 18. sajandil ehitatud presidendilossi eletroonilisest seadistusest, e-hääletamisest, e-koolist. E-riigiga kaasnenud arvutiturbe probleemist, Skype'ist. Sals.a asutaja ja tegevdirektori Lauri Karp'i mõtteid

  14. La vorágine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Arturo Domínguez

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available Derechos territoriales indígenas y ecología en las selvas tropicales de América. Cerec-Gaia Fundation. Cerec: Serie Amerindia, num. 3, Editorial Presencia, Bogotá, 1992, 385 págs.

  15. Validation of the Low-Range Differential Pressure (LRDP) Leak Detection System for Small Leaks in Bulk Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    gal/h [TLR - CMDL (A2/A1)] > 0.1 or 0.1 for [TLR - CMDL (A2/A1)] < 0.1 PD – % 95% PFA - % < 5% *There may be more than one threshold...specification for system operation; TLR = target leak rate. **Define MDL and CMDL = MDL/2 for A1; S for A1; and A1...0.2 Threshold, C – gal/h [TLR-( CMDL /n0.5) (A2/A1)] > 0.1 such that 1 < n < 12 or 0.1 for [TLR- ( CMDL /n0.5) (A2/A1)] < 0.1 PD – % 95

  16. An improved scheme for Flip-OFDM based on Hartley transform in short-range IM/DD systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Qiao, Yaojun; Cai, Zhuo; Ji, Yuefeng

    2014-08-25

    In this paper, an improved Flip-OFDM scheme is proposed for IM/DD optical systems, where the modulation/demodulation processing takes advantage of the fast Hartley transform (FHT) algorithm. We realize the improved scheme in one symbol period while conventional Flip-OFDM scheme based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) in two consecutive symbol periods. So the complexity of many operations in improved scheme is half of that in conventional scheme, such as CP operation, polarity inversion and symbol delay. Compared to FFT with complex input constellation, the complexity of FHT with real input constellation is halved. The transmission experiment over 50-km SSMF has been realized to verify the feasibility of improved scheme. In conclusion, the improved scheme has the same BER performance with conventional scheme, but great superiority on complexity.

  17. Design and development of an injection-molded demultiplexer for optical communication systems in the visible range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höll, S; Haupt, M; Fischer, U H P

    2013-06-20

    Optical simulation software based on the ray-tracing method offers easy and fast results in imaging optics. This method can also be applied in other fields of light propagation. For short distance communications, polymer optical fibers (POFs) are gradually gaining importance. This kind of fiber offers a larger core diameter, e.g., the step index POF features a core diameter of 980 μm. Consequently, POFs have a large number of modes (>3 million modes) in the visible range, and ray tracing could be used to simulate the propagation of light. This simulation method is applicable not only for the fiber itself but also for the key components of a complete POF network, e.g., couplers or other key elements of the transmission line. In this paper a demultiplexer designed and developed by means of ray tracing is presented. Compared to the classical optical design, requirements for optimal design differ particularly with regard to minimizing the insertion loss (IL). The basis of the presented key element is a WDM device using a Rowland spectrometer setup. In this approach the input fiber carries multiple wavelengths, which will be divided into multiple output fibers that transmit only one wavelength. To adapt the basic setup to POF, the guidance of light in this element has to be changed fundamentally. Here, a monolithic approach is presented with a blazed grating using an aspheric mirror to minimize most of the aberrations. In the simulations the POF is represented by an area light source, while the grating is analyzed for different orders and the highest possible efficiency. In general, the element should be designed in a way that it can be produced with a mass production technology like injection molding in order to offer a reasonable price. However, designing the elements with regard to injection molding leads to some inherent challenges. The microstructure of an optical grating and the thick-walled 3D molded parts both result in high demands on the injection molding

  18. On the long-range offshore transport of organic carbon from the Canary Upwelling System to the open North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Elisa; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias; Lachkar, Zouhair

    2017-07-01

    A compilation of measurements of net community production (NCP) in the upper waters of the eastern subtropical North Atlantic had suggested net heterotrophic conditions, purportedly supported by the lateral export of organic carbon from the adjacent, highly productive Canary Upwelling System (CanUS). Here, we quantify and assess this lateral export using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a nutrient, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model. We employ a new Atlantic telescopic grid with a strong refinement towards the northwestern African shelf to combine an eddy-resolving resolution in the CanUS with a full Atlantic basin perspective. Our climatologically forced simulation reveals an intense offshore flux of organic carbon that transports about 19 Tg C yr-1 away from the nearshore 100 km over the whole CanUS, amounting to more than a third of the NCP in this region. The offshore transport extends beyond 1500 km into the subtropical North Atlantic, adding organic carbon along the way to the upper 100 m at rates of between 8 and 34 % of the alongshore average NCP as a function of offshore distance. Although the divergence of this lateral export of organic carbon enhances local respiration, the upper 100 m layer in our model remains net autotrophic in the entire eastern subtropical North Atlantic. However, the vertical export of this organic carbon and its subsequent remineralization at depth makes the vertically integrated NCP strongly negative throughout this region, with the exception of a narrow band along the northwestern African shelf. The magnitude and efficiency of the lateral export varies substantially between the different subregions. In particular, the central coast near Cape Blanc is particularly efficient in collecting organic carbon on the shelf and subsequently transporting it offshore. In this central subregion, the offshore transport adds as much organic carbon as nearly 60 % of the local NCP to the upper 100

  19. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    monoxide, the HTPEM fuel cell system can efficiently use a liquid methanol/water mixture of 60%/40% by volume, as fuel instead of compressed hydrogen, enabling potentially a higher volumetric energy density. In order to test the performance of such a system, the experimental validation conducted uses......This work presents the proof-of-concept of an electric traction power system with a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell range extender, usable for automotive class electrical vehicles. The hybrid system concept examined, consists of a power system where the primary power...... is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...

  20. Heavy metal and trace elements in riparian vegetation and macrophytes associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia Andean Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Andrea; Arribére, María A; Arcagni, Marina; Williams, Natalia; Rizzo, Andrea; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia was studied for heavy metal and trace element contents, regarding their elemental contribution to these aquatic ecosystems. The research focused on native species and exotic vascular plant Salix spp. potential for absorbing heavy metals and trace elements. The native species studied were riparian Amomyrtus luma, Austrocedrus chilensis, Chusquea culeou, Desfontainia fulgens, Escallonia rubra, Gaultheria mucronata, Lomatia hirsuta, Luma apiculata, Maytenus boaria, Myrceugenia exsucca, Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus dombeyi, Schinus patagonicus, and Weinmannia trichosperma, and macrophytes Hydrocotyle chamaemorus, Isöetes chubutiana, Galium sp., Myriophyllum quitense, Nitella sp. (algae), Potamogeton linguatus, Ranunculus sp., and Schoenoplectus californicus. Fresh leaves were analyzed as well as leaves decomposing within the aquatic bodies, collected from lakes Futalaufquen and Rivadavia (Los Alerces National Park), and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi (Nahuel Huapi National Park). The elements studied were heavy metals Ag, As, Cd, Hg, and U, major elements Ca, K, and Fe, and trace elements Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn. Geochemical tracers La and Sm were also determined to evaluate contamination of the biological tissues by geological particulate (sediment, soil, dust) and to implement concentration corrections.

  1. Site-specific deletions of chromosomally located DNA segments with the multimer resolution system of broad-host-range plasmid RP4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Claus; Eberl, Leo; Sanchezromero, Juan M.

    1995-01-01

    The multimer resolution system (mrs) of the broad-host-range plasmid RP4 has been exploited to develop a general method that permits the precise excision of chromosomal segments in a variety of gram-negative bacteria. The procedure is based on the site-specific recombination between two directly...... transposons inserted in the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida, This strategy permits the stable inheritance of heterologous DNA segments virtually devoid of the sequences used initially to select their insertion....

  2. Modification of streaming potential by precipitation of calcite in a sand-water system: laboratory measurements pH range from 4 to 12

    OpenAIRE

    Guichet, Xavier; Jouniaux, Laurence; Catel, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com; We acknowledge the Geophysical Journal International, the Royal Astronomical Society and Blackwell Publishing. Full bibliographic reference is : Guichet, X., L. Jouniaux, and N. Catel, Modification of streaming potential by precipitation of calcite in a sand-water system: laboratory measurements in the pH range from 4 to 12, Geophysical Journal International, 166, 445-460, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.02922.x, 2006; Spontaneous...

  3. Performance assessment of two whole-lake acoustic positional telemetry systems - is reality mining of free-ranging aquatic animals technologically possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Zajicek, Petr; Klefoth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    , a number of tow tests were conducted to simulate moving fish. Based on these data, we quantified system performance in terms of data yield, accuracy and precision as a function of structural complexity in relation to vegetation. Mean data yield of the two systems was 40%(Lake1) and 60%(Lake2). Average...... to mine the reality of free ranging fish in their natural environment. This opens important opportunities to advance several fields of study such as movement ecology and animal social networks in the wild. It is recommended that thorough performance tests are conducted in any study utilizing APTs...

  4. Island of Sylt. A partial project: social representations of developments in the nature and anthroposphere of Sylt with consideration of the global change. Final report; Fallstudie Sylt. Teilvorhaben: Soziale Repraesentationen von Entwicklungen in Natur- und Anthroposphaere auf Sylt vor dem Hintergrund globalen Wandels. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linneweber, V.; Hartmuth, G.; Deising, S.; Fritsche, I.; Linneweber, A.

    2001-04-01

    At the example of the potential dangers of future changes in the climate threatening the island of Sylt, the authors deal with the question of how global changes in the environment, their causes and effects and possible measures taken by local groups to prevent them can be perceived and assessed in the context of general developments. To do this, 70 key persons of the ''Sylt social system'' who had been selected systematically were questioned at two different times in semi-structured, open interviews. The minutes of the interviews were categorized and evaluated quantitatively, analysing their contents. The goal was to find out the social representations of possible changes in the climate and to prove that these mental models are group-specific. It was found that to the persons questioned, tourism industry and construction activities on the island were far more important subjects than changes in the climate or the subject of protecting the shores. Climate changes were referred to with relation to their effects which were seen in connection with natural events. As far as causes were concerned, traffic turned out to be very important to the persons questioned. As for the measures, preventing changes in the climate was found to be more important than adapting to its consequences. Differences in the social representation of the groups mainly corresponded with the subjects focussed on and the interests of each group. As a supplement to the interview study, 54 tourists were interviewed regarding various aspects of the main study with a standardized questionnaire. [German] Am Beispiel der moeglichen Bedrohung Sylts durch zukuenftige Klimaaenderungen wird untersucht, wie globale Umweltveraenderungen, deren Ursachen und Auswirkungen sowie moegliche Gegenmassnahmen von lokalen Akteursgruppen im Kontext allgemeiner Entwicklungen wahrgenommen und bewertet werden. Dazu wurden 70 systematisch ausgewaehlte Schluesselpersonen des 'sozialen Systems Sylt

  5. Development of a bait and baiting system for delivery of oral rabies vaccine to free-ranging African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, D L; du Toit, J T; Bingham, J

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a bait and baiting system capable of delivering one effective dose of oral rabies vaccine to each member of a free-ranging African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) pack. Trials were conducted between June and October 2000. The results of cafeteria-style bait preference trials testing seven candidate baits in captive wild dogs revealed a significant preference for chicken heads (June trials: P = 0.023, September trials: P = 0.021). Trials using a topical biomarker (rhodamine B) showed that chicken head baits were sufficiently chewed on most occasions to rupture the vaccine container. Free-ranging wild dogs and young pups ingested chicken head baits. Significant dominance of bait intake by a single individual was seen in four of six study packs and in the three packs in which an alpha pair could be distinguished, the dominant feeder was an alpha animal. Pattern of bait distribution and degree of satiation had no effect on pack coverage (proportion of pack ingesting at least one bait). Pack coverage was significantly related to trial number (r = 0.71, P wild dogs only two baits were lost to non-target species. A baiting system for the oral vaccination of captive and free-ranging wild dogs is proposed.

  6. WE-EF-303-03: A New Aperture-Based Imaging System for Prompt-Gamma Range Verification of Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ready, J; Pak, R [UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mihailescu, L [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, K [UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and characterize a novel aperture-based imaging system for high-energy gamma-rays. This collimated system will provide 2-dimensional imaging capability for verification of proton beam range and Bragg peak dose via prompt-gamma detection. Methods: A multi-knife-edge slit collimator has been designed, constructed, and characterized via simulations and experimental measurements. The 20×20×7.5 cm{sup 3} tungsten collimator and accompanying LSO scintillation detector were simulated using the TOPAS Geant4 -based Monte Carlo package. Iterative reconstruction methods were combined with point response functions to characterize the imaging performance of the system. The response of the system has begun to be characterized experimentally as well, using 2.6 MeV gamma-rays from Th-228. Results: Both simulation and experimental results indicate that this collimated system provides 2-D imaging capability in the energy range of interest for prompt-gamma dose verification. In the current configuration, with collimator to source distance of 13 cm, image reconstruction of point sources resulted in spatial resolution (FWHM) of approximately 4 mm in both x-and y-directions in the imaging plane. The accuracy of positioning the point sources is less than 1 mm. Conclusion: This work has characterized, via simulation and measurements, a novel multi-knife-edge slit collimator in front of a more conventional position-sensitive LSO scintillator detector. The multi-slit pattern is designed to increase detection efficiency and provide spatial information in 2-dimensions -- an improvement over a single-slit collimator design. The thickness and density of the collimator will allow this detection system to perform well in an environment with high gamma flux, while ultimately providing peak determination accuracy on the order of 1 mm. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number: DE-NA0000979

  7. Performance assessment of two whole-lake acoustic positional telemetry systems--is reality mining of free-ranging aquatic animals technologically possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Zajicek, Petr; Klefoth, Thomas; Svendsen, Jon C; Jacobsen, Lene; Pedersen, Martin Wæver; March Morla, David; Skov, Christian; Nakayama, Shinnosuke; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic positional telemetry systems (APTs) represent a novel approach to study the behaviour of free ranging aquatic animals in the wild at unprecedented detail. System manufactures promise remarkably high temporal and spatial resolution. However, the performance of APTs has rarely been rigorously tested at the level of entire ecosystems. Moreover, the effect of habitat structure on system performance has only been poorly documented. Two APTs were deployed to cover two small lakes and a series of standardized stationary tests were conducted to assess system performance. Furthermore, a number of tow tests were conducted to simulate moving fish. Based on these data, we quantified system performance in terms of data yield, accuracy and precision as a function of structural complexity in relation to vegetation. Mean data yield of the two systems was 40% (Lake1) and 60% (Lake2). Average system accuracy (acc) and precision (prec) were Lake1: acc = 3.1 m, prec = 1.1 m; Lake2: acc = 1.0 m, prec = 0.2 m. System performance was negatively affected by structural complexity, i.e., open water habitats yielded far better performance than structurally complex vegetated habitats. Post-processing greatly improved data quality, and sub-meter accuracy and precision were, on average, regularly achieved in Lake2 but remained the exception in the larger and structurally more complex Lake1. Moving transmitters were tracked well by both systems. Whereas overestimation of moved distance is inevitable for stationary transmitters due to accumulation of small tracking errors, moving transmitters can result in both over- and underestimation of distances depending on circumstances. Both deployed APTs were capable of providing high resolution positional data at the scale of entire lakes and are suitable systems to mine the reality of free ranging fish in their natural environment. This opens important opportunities to advance several fields of study such as movement ecology and animal social

  8. Performance assessment of two whole-lake acoustic positional telemetry systems--is reality mining of free-ranging aquatic animals technologically possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Baktoft

    Full Text Available Acoustic positional telemetry systems (APTs represent a novel approach to study the behaviour of free ranging aquatic animals in the wild at unprecedented detail. System manufactures promise remarkably high temporal and spatial resolution. However, the performance of APTs has rarely been rigorously tested at the level of entire ecosystems. Moreover, the effect of habitat structure on system performance has only been poorly documented. Two APTs were deployed to cover two small lakes and a series of standardized stationary tests were conducted to assess system performance. Furthermore, a number of tow tests were conducted to simulate moving fish. Based on these data, we quantified system performance in terms of data yield, accuracy and precision as a function of structural complexity in relation to vegetation. Mean data yield of the two systems was 40% (Lake1 and 60% (Lake2. Average system accuracy (acc and precision (prec were Lake1: acc = 3.1 m, prec = 1.1 m; Lake2: acc = 1.0 m, prec = 0.2 m. System performance was negatively affected by structural complexity, i.e., open water habitats yielded far better performance than structurally complex vegetated habitats. Post-processing greatly improved data quality, and sub-meter accuracy and precision were, on average, regularly achieved in Lake2 but remained the exception in the larger and structurally more complex Lake1. Moving transmitters were tracked well by both systems. Whereas overestimation of moved distance is inevitable for stationary transmitters due to accumulation of small tracking errors, moving transmitters can result in both over- and underestimation of distances depending on circumstances. Both deployed APTs were capable of providing high resolution positional data at the scale of entire lakes and are suitable systems to mine the reality of free ranging fish in their natural environment. This opens important opportunities to advance several fields of study such as movement ecology and

  9. Performance Assessment of Two Whole-Lake Acoustic Positional Telemetry Systems - Is Reality Mining of Free-Ranging Aquatic Animals Technologically Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Zajicek, Petr; Klefoth, Thomas; Svendsen, Jon C.; Jacobsen, Lene; Pedersen, Martin Wæver; March Morla, David; Skov, Christian; Nakayama, Shinnosuke; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic positional telemetry systems (APTs) represent a novel approach to study the behaviour of free ranging aquatic animals in the wild at unprecedented detail. System manufactures promise remarkably high temporal and spatial resolution. However, the performance of APTs has rarely been rigorously tested at the level of entire ecosystems. Moreover, the effect of habitat structure on system performance has only been poorly documented. Two APTs were deployed to cover two small lakes and a series of standardized stationary tests were conducted to assess system performance. Furthermore, a number of tow tests were conducted to simulate moving fish. Based on these data, we quantified system performance in terms of data yield, accuracy and precision as a function of structural complexity in relation to vegetation. Mean data yield of the two systems was 40 % (Lake1) and 60 % (Lake2). Average system accuracy (acc) and precision (prec) were Lake1: acc = 3.1 m, prec = 1.1 m; Lake2: acc = 1.0 m, prec = 0.2 m. System performance was negatively affected by structural complexity, i.e., open water habitats yielded far better performance than structurally complex vegetated habitats. Post-processing greatly improved data quality, and sub-meter accuracy and precision were, on average, regularly achieved in Lake2 but remained the exception in the larger and structurally more complex Lake1. Moving transmitters were tracked well by both systems. Whereas overestimation of moved distance is inevitable for stationary transmitters due to accumulation of small tracking errors, moving transmitters can result in both over- and underestimation of distances depending on circumstances. Both deployed APTs were capable of providing high resolution positional data at the scale of entire lakes and are suitable systems to mine the reality of free ranging fish in their natural environment. This opens important opportunities to advance several fields of study such as movement ecology and animal social

  10. Active Stand-off Detection of Gas Leaks Using a Short Range Hard-target Backscatter Differential Optical Absorption System Based on a Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Castillo, Paulo; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2016-06-01

    Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they can contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentration. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser open path system (QCLOPS). The system retrieves the pathaveraged concentration of N2O and CH4 by collecting the backscattered light from a scattering target. The gas concentration measurements have a high temporal resolution (68 ms) and are achieved at sufficient range (up to 40 m, ~ 130 feet) with a detection limit of 2.6 ppm CH4 and 0.4 ppm for N2O. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile/multidirectional remote detection and evaluation of gas leaks. The instrument is monostatic with a tunable QCL emitting at ~ 7.7 μm wavelength range. The backscattered radiation is collected by a Newtonian telescope and focused on an infrared light detector. Puffs of N2O and CH4 are released along the optical path to simulate a gas leak. The measured absorption spectrum is obtained using the thermal intra-pulse frequency chirped DFB QCL and is analyzed to obtain path averaged gas concentrations.

  11. Active Stand-off Detection of Gas Leaks Using a Short Range Hard-target Backscatter Differential Optical Absorption System Based on a Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they can contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentration. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser open path system (QCLOPS. The system retrieves the pathaveraged concentration of N2O and CH4 by collecting the backscattered light from a scattering target. The gas concentration measurements have a high temporal resolution (68 ms and are achieved at sufficient range (up to 40 m, ~ 130 feet with a detection limit of 2.6 ppm CH4 and 0.4 ppm for N2O. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile/multidirectional remote detection and evaluation of gas leaks. The instrument is monostatic with a tunable QCL emitting at ~ 7.7 μm wavelength range. The backscattered radiation is collected by a Newtonian telescope and focused on an infrared light detector. Puffs of N2O and CH4 are released along the optical path to simulate a gas leak. The measured absorption spectrum is obtained using the thermal intra-pulse frequency chirped DFB QCL and is analyzed to obtain path averaged gas concentrations.

  12. High resolution probabilistic precipitation forecast over Spain combining the statistical downscaling tool PROMETEO and the AEMET short range EPS system (AEMET/SREPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofino, A. S.; Santos, C.; Garcia-Moya, J. A.; Gutierrez, J. M.; Orfila, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Short-Range Ensemble Prediction System (SREPS) is a multi-LAM (UM, HIRLAM, MM5, LM and HRM) multi analysis/boundary conditions (ECMWF, UKMetOffice, DWD and GFS) run twice a day by AEMET (72 hours lead time) over a European domain, with a total of 5 (LAMs) x 4 (GCMs) = 20 members. One of the main goals of this project is analyzing the impact of models and boundary conditions in the short-range high-resolution forecasted precipitation. A previous validation of this method has been done considering a set of climate networks in Spain, France and Germany, by interpolating the prediction to the gauge locations (SREPS, 2008). In this work we compare these results with those obtained by using a statistical downscaling method to post-process the global predictions, obtaining an "advanced interpolation" for the local precipitation using climate network precipitation observations. In particular, we apply the PROMETEO downscaling system based on analogs and compare the SREPS ensemble of 20 members with the PROMETEO statistical ensemble of 5 (analog ensemble) x 4 (GCMs) = 20 members. Moreover, we will also compare the performance of a combined approach post-processing the SREPS outputs using the PROMETEO system. References: SREPS 2008. 2008 EWGLAM-SRNWP Meeting (http://www.aemet.es/documentos/va/divulgacion/conferencias/prediccion/Ewglam/PRED_CSantos.pdf)

  13. Wide-frequency range, dynamic matching network and power system for the "Shoelace" radio frequency antenna on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfinopoulos, Theodore; LaBombard, Brian; Burke, William; Parker, Ronald R; Parkin, William; Woskov, Paul

    2014-04-01

    A wide-frequency range (50-300 kHz) power system has been implemented for use with a new RF antenna - the "Shoelace" antenna - built to drive coherent plasma fluctuations in the edge of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. A custom, dynamically tunable matching network allows two commercial 1 kW, 50-Ω RF amplifiers to drive the low-impedance, inductive load presented by the antenna. This is accomplished by a discretely variable L-match network, with 81 independently selected steps available for each of the series and parallel legs of the matching configuration. A compact programmable logic device provides a control system that measures the frequency with better than 1 kHz accuracy and transitions to the correct tuning state in less than 1 ms. At least 85% of source power is dissipated in the antenna across the operational frequency range, with a minimum frequency slew rate of 1 MHz/s; the best performance is achieved in the narrower band from 80 to 150 kHz which is of interest in typical experiments. The RF frequency can be run with open-loop control, following a pre-programmed analog waveform, or phase-locked to track a plasma fluctuation diagnostic signal in real time with programmable phase delay; the amplitude control is always open-loop. The control waveforms and phase delay are programmed remotely. These tools have enabled first-of-a-kind measurements of the tokamak edge plasma system response in the frequency range and at the wave number at which coherent fluctuations regulate heat and particle transport through the plasma boundary.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Rev. No.: 0, April 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Coroporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-04-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) approximately 235 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 405 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-05-002-SW03, Septic Waste System (aka: Septic Waste System [SWS] 3); 03-05-002-SW04, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 4); 03-05-002-SW07, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 7). The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU, and this report provides specific information necessary to support this recommendation. The CAU consists of three leachfields and associated collection systems that were installed in or near Area 3 for wastewater disposal. These systems were used until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990. Historically, operations within various buildin gs in and near Area 3 of the TTR generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters. There is a potential that contaminants of concern (COCs) were present in the wastewaters and were disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. The justification for closure of this CAU without further action is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities. Closure activities were performed at these CASs between January 14 and February 2, 2002, and included the removal and proper disposal of media containing regulated constituents and proper closure of septic tanks. No further action is appropriate because all necessary activities have been completed. No use restrictions are required to be imposed for these sites since the investigation showed no evidence of COCs identified in the soil for CAU 405.

  15. Das Recht vor seinem Gesetz: Franz Kafka zur (Un‐Möglichkeit einer Selbstreflexion des Rechts / The Law before its Law: Franz Kafka on the (Im‐Possibility of Law’s Self‐Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Teubner

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Stellen wir uns vor, der Mann vom Lande in Kafkas Parabel „Vor dem Gesetz“ sei nicht, wie es in der vorschnellen Rollenfixierung zahlreicher Kafka‐Interpretationen heißt, das menschliche Individuum, das der Gewalt der institutionalisierten Gesetzlichkeit (der Macht, der Moral, der Religion etc. ausgeliefert ist. Er sei stattdessen ein Richter „vom Lande“, einer der draußen im Lande einen Rechtsfall nach Recht und Gesetz zu behandeln hat und der nun in seinen Entscheidungsqualen mit dem Gesetz nicht zu Recht kommt. Let us imagine that the man from the country in Kafka’s parable “Before the law” is not the human individual who has been delivered up to the force of institutionalised legalism (power, morality, religion etc, as we find in numerous Kafka interpretations with their somewhat over‐hasty role fixation. Let us suppose instead that he is a judge “from the country”, who – back there, in the country – has to deal with a legal case according to the law, and who now, in the torment of decision‐making, cannot find what is right according to the law.

  16. Frequency-resolved optical gating system with a tellurium crystal for characterizing free-electron lasers in the wavelength range of 10-30 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Hokuto; Nagai, Ryoji; Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Hajima, Ryoichi; Minehara, Eisuke J

    2009-12-01

    A second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating (SHG-FROG) system has been developed for the complete characterization of laser pulses in the wavelength range of 10-30 microm. A tellurium crystal is used so that spectrally resolved autocorrelation signals with a good signal-to-noise ratio are obtained. Pulses (wavelength approximately 22 microm) generated from a free-electron laser are measured by the SHG-FROG system. The SHG intensity profile and the spectrum obtained by FROG measurements are well consistent with those of independent measurements of the pulse length and spectrum. The pulse duration and spectral width determined from the FROG trace are 0.6 ps and 5.2 THz at full width half maximum, respectively.

  17. Half-metallic compensated ferrimagnetism with a tunable compensation point over a wide temperature range in the Mn-Fe-V-Al Heusler system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Stinshoff

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cubic Heusler compound Mn1.5FeV0.5Al with the L21 Heusler structure is the first fully compensated half-metallic ferrimagnet with 24 valence electrons. The ferrimagnetic state can be tuned by changing the composition such that the compensation point appears at finite temperatures ranging from 0 K up to 226 K, while retaining half-metallicity in the system. In this paper, the structural, magnetic and transport properties of the Mn-Fe-V-Al system are discussed. Magnetic reversal and a change of sign of the anomalous Hall effect were observed at the compensation point, which gives rise to a sublattice spin-crossing. These materials present new possibilities for potential spintronic devices because of their advantageous properties such as imperceptibility to external fields, lower power consumption and ultrafast switching in the THz region.

  18. HIV-1 evades virus-specific IgG2 and IgA responses by targeting systemic and intestinal B cells via long-range intercellular conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Santini, Paul A; Sullivan, John S; He, Bing; Shan, Meimei; Ball, Susan C; Dyer, Wayne B; Ketas, Thomas J; Chadburn, Amy; Cohen-Gould, Leona; Knowles, Daniel M; Chiu, April; Sanders, Rogier W; Chen, Kang; Cerutti, Andrea

    2009-09-01

    Contact-dependent communication between immune cells generates protection but also facilitates viral spread. Here we found that macrophages formed long-range actin-propelled conduits in response to negative factor (Nef), a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein with immunosuppressive functions. Conduits attenuated immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) and IgA class switching in systemic and intestinal lymphoid follicles by shuttling Nef from infected macrophages to B cells through a guanine-exchange factor-dependent pathway involving the amino-terminal anchor, central core and carboxy-terminal flexible loop of Nef. By showing stronger virus-specific IgG2 and IgA responses in patients with Nef-deficient virions, our data suggest that HIV-1 exploits intercellular 'highways' as a 'Trojan horse' to deliver Nef to B cells and evade humoral immunity systemically and at mucosal sites of entry.

  19. Half-metallic compensated ferrimagnetism with a tunable compensation point over a wide temperature range in the Mn-Fe-V-Al Heusler system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinshoff, Rolf; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Chadov, Stanislav; Nayak, Ajaya K.; Balke, Benjamin; Ouardi, Siham; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Felser, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    The cubic Heusler compound Mn1.5FeV0.5Al with the L21 Heusler structure is the first fully compensated half-metallic ferrimagnet with 24 valence electrons. The ferrimagnetic state can be tuned by changing the composition such that the compensation point appears at finite temperatures ranging from 0 K up to 226 K, while retaining half-metallicity in the system. In this paper, the structural, magnetic and transport properties of the Mn-Fe-V-Al system are discussed. Magnetic reversal and a change of sign of the anomalous Hall effect were observed at the compensation point, which gives rise to a sublattice spin-crossing. These materials present new possibilities for potential spintronic devices because of their advantageous properties such as imperceptibility to external fields, lower power consumption and ultrafast switching in the THz region.

  20. Visible-range hybrid femtosecond systems based on a XeF(C-A) amplifier: state of the art and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, S V; Aristov, A I; Grudtsyn, Ya V; Ivanov, N G; Koval' chuk, B M; Losev, B F; Mamaev, S B; Mesyats, Gennadii A; Mikheev, L D; Panchenko, Yu N; Polivin, A V; Stepanov, S G; Ratakhin, N A; Yalovoi, V I; Yastremskii, Arkadii G

    2013-03-31

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the hybrid (solid state/gas) visible-range femtosecond systems THL-100 (IHCE SB RAS) and THL-30 (P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute) based on a Ti : sapphire front end and a photochemical XeF(C-A) amplifier are reported. The front end generates 50-fs optical pulses with the second-harmonic (475 nm) energy of up to 5 mJ. The active medium of the amplifier is produced in a mixture XeF{sub 2} - N{sub 2} subjected to VUV radiation of xenon excited by an electron beam. The computer model is developed for calculating parameters of the XeF(C - A) amplifier, which is in a good agreement with experiments. In the THL-100 system with the 25-cm output aperture of the XeF(C-A) amplifier, a record visible-range femtosecond radiation peak power of 14 GW was obtained in a 50-fs pulse with the time contrast of above 10{sup 8}. The measured power of an amplified spontaneous emission of the XeF(C-A) amplifier in the angle of 0.2 mrad was 32 W. The result obtained testifies that the hybrid approach to the development of ultrahigh-power systems provides a high time contrast of radiation (greater than 10{sup 12} for the projected peak power of 100 TW). In the THL-30 system, prospects for shortening an amplified femtosecond pulse are studied and it is experimentally shown that by compensating a third-order dispersion in a hybrid system one can obtain pulses with duration of at least 27 fs with a recompression of amplified pulses in bulk glass. Also, a new phenomenon was observed of spectrum broadening and self-compression of negatively chirped femtosecond pulses in the visible range under a nonlinear interaction of wide-aperture beams with fused silica. This result opens prospects for development of the new methods of selfcompression for femtosecond pulses that are lacking physical limitations on pulse energy and realisation of self-compression of amplified pulses in the output window of the XeF(C-A) amplifier. (extreme light fields

  1. Evaluation of Hematocrit Influence on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Based on ISO 15197:2013: Comparison of a Novel System With Five Systems With Different Hematocrit Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattemer, Andrew; Wardat, Sami

    2018-01-01

    ISO 15197:2013 recommends testing procedures and acceptance criteria for the evaluation of influence quantities such as hematocrit on measurement results with systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). In this study, hematocrit influence was evaluated for a novel SMBG system (system A) and five other systems with different hematocrit ranges based on ISO 15197:2013. Test procedures were performed with one test strip lot for each system. Each system was tested within the hematocrit range indicated in the manufacturer's labeling (system A: 10-65%, B: 15-65%, C: 20-60%, D: 35-60%, E: 30-60%, F: 30-55%). According to ISO 15197:2013, clause 6.4.2, venous blood samples were used for the evaluation of hematocrit influence. The evaluation was performed for three glucose concentration categories (30-50 mg/dL, 96-144 mg/dL, and 280-420 mg/dL). For each glucose concentration category, at least five different hematocrit levels were investigated. The novel system A and systems B, E, and F complied with the tested lot with the defined criteria and showed ≤10 mg/dL and ≤10% difference between the test sample and the respective control sample with a hematocrit value of 42% ± 2% for BG concentrations 10% difference at glucose concentrations ≥100 mg/dL. Remarkable hematocrit influence within the labeled hematocrit range was obtained in two systems with the tested reagent system lot. Adequate SMBG systems should be carefully chosen by patients and their health care professionals, particularly for patients with increased and decreased hematocrit values.

  2. High-grade iron ore deposits of the Mesabi Range, Minnesota-product of a continental-scale proterozoic ground-water flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, G.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Mesabi Range along the north edge of the Paleoproterozoic Penokean orogen in northern Minnesota has produced 3.6 billion metric tons of ore since its discovery in 1890. Of that amount, 2.3 billion metric tons were extracted from hematite- or geothite-rich deposits generally referred to as 'high-grade' ores. The high-grade ores formed as the Biwabik Iron-Formation was oxidized, hydrated, and leached by solutions flowing along open faults and fractures. The source of the ore-forming solutions has been debated since it was first proposed that the ores were weathering products formed by descending meteoritic ground-water flowing in late Mesozoic time. Subsequently others believed that the ores were better explained by ascending solutions, possbily hydrothermal solutions of pre-Phanerzoic age. Neither Wolff nor Gruner could reconcile their observations with a reasonable source for the solutions. In this paper, I build on modern mapping of the Mesabi Range and mine-specific geologic observations summarized in the literature to propose a conceptual model in which the high-grade ores formed from ascending solutions that were part of continent-scale topographic or gravity-driven ground-water system. I propose that the ground-water system was active during the later stages of the development of a coupled fold and thrust belt and foreland basin that formed during the Penokean orogen.

  3. Osprey Range - CWHR [ds601

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  4. Free Range, Organic? Polish Consumers Preferences Regarding Information on Farming System and Nutritional Enhancement of Eggs: A Discrete Choice Based Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the structure of consumer preferences regarding information on farming system and nutritional enhancement of eggs to verify if consumers are willing to accept products combing sustainability and nutrition related claims. The data was collected within a CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interviews survey on a representative sample of 935 consumers responsible for food shopping. A discrete choice-based conjoint method was selected in eliciting consumer preferences among different product profiles with varying levels of attributes. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify four distinct clusters that differed significantly in terms of importance attached to production system attributes and socio-demographic profiles. The results of the experiment showed that price and farming system had the most significant mean relative importance in shaping consumers’ preferences, while other attributes such as nutrition and health claims, egg size, package size and hen breed were far less important. Free range eggs had the highest relative importance for consumers despite the fact that organic egg production systems are governed by much stricter animal welfare standards. Our segmentation revealed that two of our four clusters may be more easily reached by information on animal welfare related attributes in egg production than the others. The results of our study provide the policy makers and marketing practitioners with insights applicable for communication and pricing strategies for eggs with sustainability claims.

  5. Application of a wide-range yeast vector (CoMed™ system to recombinant protein production in dimorphic Arxula adeninivorans, methylotrophic Hansenula polymorpha and other yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze Gotthard

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms in combining ease of genetic manipulation and fermentation of a microbial organism with the capability to secrete and to modify proteins according to a general eukaryotic scheme. However, early restriction to a single yeast platform can result in costly and time-consuming failures. It is therefore advisable to assess several selected systems in parallel for the capability to produce a particular protein in desired amounts and quality. A suitable vector must contain a targeting sequence, a promoter element and a selection marker that function in all selected organisms. These criteria are fulfilled by a wide-range integrative yeast expression vector (CoMed™ system based on A. adeninivorans- and H. polymorpha-derived elements that can be introduced in a modular way. Results The vector system and a selection of modular elements for vector design are presented. Individual single vector constructs were used to transform a range of yeast species. Various successful examples are described. A vector with a combination of an rDNA sequence for genomic targeting, the E. coli-derived hph gene for selection and the A. adeninivorans-derived TEF1 promoter for expression control of a GFP (green fluorescent protein gene was employed in a first example to transform eight different species including Hansenula polymorpha, Arxula adeninivorans and others. In a second example, a vector for the secretion of IL-6 was constructed, now using an A. adeninivorans-derived LEU2 gene for selection of recombinants in a range of auxotrophic hosts. In this example, differences in precursor processing were observed: only in A. adeninivorans processing of a MFα1/IL-6 fusion was performed in a faithful way. Conclusion rDNA targeting provides a tool to co-integrate up to 3 different expression plasmids by a single transformation step. Thus, a versatile system is at hand that allows a comparative assessment of newly

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428, Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada, CAU 428 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-05-002-SW01, Septic Waste System 1 and (2) CAS 03-05-002- SW05, Septic Waste System 5. A corrective action investigation performed in 1999 detected analyte concentrations that exceeded preliminary action levels; specifically, contaminants of concern (COCs) included benzo(a) pyrene in a septic tank integrity sample associated with Septic Tank 33-1A of Septic Waste System 1, and arsenic in a soil sample associated with Septic Waste System 5. During this investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to contents of the septic tanks and distribution box, to subsurface soil containing COCs, and the spread of COCs beyond the CAU. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 3 of the TTR, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls; and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of the evaluation, the preferred CAA was Alternative 3. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5.

  7. Proposed additions to the National Wilderness Preservation System : Part 35 : Deferred Areas : Kofa Game Range - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range - Lake Mead National Recreation Area - Nunivak National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is one of the Presidential Transmittals proposing additions to the National Wilderness Preservation System. This particular transmittal focuses on the...

  8. Reliability and validity of CODA motion analysis system for measuring cervical range of motion in patients with cervical spondylosis and anterior cervical fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhongyang; Song, Hui; Ren, Fenggang; Li, Yuhuan; Wang, Dong; He, Xijing

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of the Cartesian Optoelectronic Dynamic Anthropometer (CODA) motion system in measuring the cervical range of motion (ROM) and verify the construct validity of the CODA motion system. A total of 26 patients with cervical spondylosis and 22 patients with anterior cervical fusion were enrolled and the CODA motion analysis system was used to measure the three-dimensional cervical ROM. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed by interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEm), Limits of Agreements (LOA) and minimal detectable change (MDC). Independent samples t-tests were performed to examine the differences of cervical ROM between cervical spondylosis and anterior cervical fusion patients. The results revealed that in the cervical spondylosis group, the reliability was almost perfect (intra-rater reliability: ICC, 0.87-0.95; LOA, -12.86-13.70; SEm, 2.97-4.58; inter-rater reliability: ICC, 0.84-0.95; LOA, -13.09-13.48; SEm, 3.13-4.32). In the anterior cervical fusion group, the reliability was high (intra-rater reliability: ICC, 0.88-0.97; LOA, -10.65-11.08; SEm, 2.10-3.77; inter-rater reliability: ICC, 0.86-0.96; LOA, -10.91-13.66; SEm, 2.20-4.45). The cervical ROM in the cervical spondylosis group was significantly higher than that in the anterior cervical fusion group in all directions except for left rotation. In conclusion, the CODA motion analysis system is highly reliable in measuring cervical ROM and the construct validity was verified, as the system was sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between the cervical spondylosis and anterior cervical fusion groups based on their ROM.

  9. Reactivity, interactions and transport of trace elements, organic carbon and particulate material in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point, David; Bareille, Gilles; Amouroux, David; Etcheber, Henri; Donard, Olivier F X

    2007-02-01

    The background levels, variability, partitioning and transport of eleven trace elements-Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and U-were investigated in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France). This particular river system displayed a turbulent hydrodynamic regime, characterized by flash-transient discharge conditions leading to fast shifts in suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations as high as two orders of magnitude (12 to 600 mg l(-1)). The distribution of SPM was accurately predicted with a "hysteresis" transport model, indicating that about 75% of the annual solids load was exported within 20 to 40 days. Dissolved and particulate concentrations of most trace elements were low compared to their concentrations in other reference river systems expect for Pb and Cr, associated with historical anthropogenic activities. Although dissolved and particulate metal concentrations were steady for most elements during low and average discharge conditions, significant changes were observed with increasing river discharge. The changes in trace element concentrations in the two compartments was found to induce a partitioning anomaly referred to as the particulate concentration effect. This anomaly was significant for Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and organic carbon (p < 0.03). The processes driving this anomaly were possibly linked to the modification and/or increase of colloidal organic and inorganic vectors, suggested by the significant increase of DOC (p < 0.001) and dissolved Al concentrations (p < 0.05) during flood conditions. A complementary process linked to the influence of coarse particles of low complexation capacity and transported mainly during high discharge may also effect trace element concentrations. Annual metal fluxes transported by this river system were estimated using the hysteresis SPM model with consideration of these fate processes. Metals in the Adour River system are primarily exported into the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean).

  10. Visualizing feasible operating ranges within tissue engineering systems using a "windows of operation" approach: a perfusion-scaffold bioreactor case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Ryan J; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2012-12-01

    Tissue engineering approaches to developing functional substitutes are often highly complex, multivariate systems where many aspects of the biomaterials, bio-regulatory factors or cell sources may be controlled in an effort to enhance tissue formation. Furthermore, success is based on multiple performance criteria reflecting both the quantity and quality of the tissue produced. Managing the trade-offs between different performance criteria is a challenge. A "windows of operation" tool that graphically represents feasible operating spaces to achieve user-defined levels of performance has previously been described by researchers in the bio-processing industry. This paper demonstrates the value of "windows of operation" to the tissue engineering field using a perfusion-scaffold bioreactor system as a case study. In our laboratory, perfusion bioreactor systems are utilized in the context of bone tissue engineering to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of cell-seeded scaffolds. A key challenge of such perfusion bioreactor systems is to maximize the induction of osteogenesis but minimize cell detachment from the scaffold. Two key operating variables that influence these performance criteria are the mean scaffold pore size and flow-rate. Using cyclooxygenase-2 and osteopontin gene expression levels as surrogate indicators of osteogenesis, we employed the "windows of operation" methodology to rapidly identify feasible operating ranges for the mean scaffold pore size and flow-rate that achieved user-defined levels of performance for cell detachment and differentiation. Incorporation of such tools into the tissue engineer's armory will hopefully yield a greater understanding of the highly complex systems used and help aid decision making in future translation of products from the bench top to the market place. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Investigations of coal ignition in a short-range flame burner using optical measuring systems; Untersuchungen zur Kohlezuendung am Flachflammenbrenner unter Verwendung optischer Messtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackert, G.; Kremer, H.; Wirtz, S. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik

    1999-09-01

    The short-range flame burner and the KOALA reactor of DMT are experimental facilities for realistic simulation of coal conversion processes at high temperatures and pressures in atmospheric conditions. The TOSCA system enable measurements of temperatures, sizes, shapes and velocities of the fuel particles, which serve as a basis for a three-dimensional simulation model of coal combustion. In the future, further parameter studies will deepen the present knowledge of coal dust combustion under pressure and enable optimisation of the numerical models for simulation of industrial-scale systems for coal dust combustion under pressure. [Deutsch] Mit dem Flachflammenbrenner und dem KOALA-Reaktor der DMT stehen Versuchsapparaturen zur Verfuegung, mit deren Hilfe die Kohleumwandlungsprozesse bei hohen Temperaturen unter Druck und unter atmosphaerischen Bedingungen realistisch wiedergegeben werden. Das TOSCA-System erlaubt dabei die Bestimmung von Temperaturen, Groessen, Formen und Geschwindigkeiten der Brennstoffpartikel. Diese Daten liefern die Grundlage fuer die Erstellung eines dreidimensionalen Simulationsmodells zur Modellierung der Kohleverbrennung. In Zukunft werden weitere Parameterstudien das Verstaendnis der Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennung vertiefen und ein Optimierung der numerischen Modelle ermoeglichen, so dass die Simulation grosstechnischer Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennungsanlagen realisiert werden kann. (orig.)

  12. Geochemical Characteristics of Overbank Deposits after a Flood Event in a Small, Mountainous River System in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, F. J.; Hatten, J. A.; Goni, M. A.; Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics of particulate organic matter (POM) transported by rivers has broad implications in our understanding of aquatic nutrient dynamics, the fate of contaminants, environmental change in watersheds, and carbon export to depositional environments. The major fraction of this POM is mobilized during storms, especially in small mountainous river systems (SMRS) producing complex spatial-temporal POM patterns poorly documented due to logistical difficulties. In this study, we examine the use of overbank flood deposits as a surrogate of a quasi-Lagrangian POM sampling scheme to supplement the conventional Eulerian sampling scheme for POM. We report on the geochemical characteristics of 11 overbank deposits created after a significant flood (10 X mean discharge) along 80 km in the Alsea River, a SMRS in the Oregon Coast Range. We measure organic carbon, nitrogen, stable isotopes, and biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols as well as particle size distribution and surface area of the deposited sediments. We compared those characteristics with the POM sampled during several storms at a fixed location. Our results suggest that despite the differences in local depositional conditions inferred from particle size distributions and texture, the geochemical properties of overbank deposits resemble the properties of the material in transport, mainly derived from a terrestrial source with a clear signal of gymnosperm wood. Furthermore, the normalized ranges of the geochemical indicators measured across space for one single event are comparable to, or even higher than, the normalized range of the same indicators measured along time at the fixed location. The implications of the amount and quality of the additional information offered by the overbank deposits in POM dynamics in watershed is discussed.

  13. Proton therapy treatment monitoring with the DoPET system: activity range, positron emitters evaluation and comparison with Monte Carlo predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, S.; Battistoni, G.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M. G.; Camarlinghi, N.; Cristoforetti, L.; Del Guerra, A.; Ferrari, A.; Fracchiolla, F.; Morrocchi, M.; Righetto, R.; Sala, P.; Schwarz, M.; Sportelli, G.; Topi, A.; Rosso, V.

    2017-12-01

    Ion beam irradiations can deliver conformal dose distributions minimizing damage to healthy tissues thanks to their characteristic dose profiles. Nevertheless, the location of the Bragg peak can be affected by different sources of range uncertainties: a critical issue is the treatment verification. During the treatment delivery, nuclear interactions between the ions and the irradiated tissues generate β+ emitters: the detection of this activity signal can be used to perform the treatment monitoring if an expected activity distribution is available for comparison. Monte Carlo (MC) codes are widely used in the particle therapy community to evaluate the radiation transport and interaction with matter. In this work, FLUKA MC code was used to simulate the experimental conditions of irradiations performed at the Proton Therapy Center in Trento (IT). Several mono-energetic pencil beams were delivered on phantoms mimicking human tissues. The activity signals were acquired with a PET system (DoPET) based on two planar heads, and designed to be installed along the beam line to acquire data also during the irradiation. Different acquisitions are analyzed and compared with the MC predictions, with a special focus on validating the PET detectors response for activity range verification.

  14. Generalized Mittag-Leffler functions in the theory of finite-size scaling for systems with strong anisotropy and/or long-range interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamati, H; Tonchev, N S [Institute of Solid State Physics, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-01-20

    The difficulties arising in the investigation of finite-size scaling in d-dimensional O(n) systems with strong anisotropy and/or long-range interaction, decaying with the interparticle distance r as r{sup -d-{sigma}}(0 < {sigma} {<=} 2), are discussed. Some integral representations aiming at the simplification of the investigations are presented for the classical and quantum lattice sums that take place in the theory. Special attention is paid to a more general form allowing to treat both cases on an equal footing and in addition cases with strong anisotropic interactions and different geometries. The analysis is simplified further by expressing this general form in terms of a generalization of the Mittag-Leffler special functions. This turned out to be very useful for the extraction of asymptotic finite-size behaviours of the thermodynamic functions.

  15. Examination of Enterococcus faecalis Toxin-Antitoxin System Toxin Fst Function Utilizing a Pheromone-Inducible Expression Vector with Tight Repression and Broad Dynamic Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Keith E; Chen, Yuqing; Miiller, Elly M; Johnson, Jake N; Dangler, Alex A; Manias, Dawn A; Clem, Aaron M; Schjodt, Daniel J; Dunny, Gary M

    2017-06-15

    Tools for regulated gene expression in Enterococcus faecalis are extremely limited. In this report, we describe the construction of an expression vector for E. faecalis, designated pCIE, utilizing the PQ pheromone-responsive promoter of plasmid pCF10. We demonstrate that this promoter is tightly repressed, responds to nanogram quantities of the peptide pheromone, and has a large dynamic range. To demonstrate its utility, the promoter was used to control expression of the toxic peptides of two par family toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci present in E. faecalis, parpAD1 of the pAD1 plasmid and parEF0409 located on the E. faecalis chromosome. The results demonstrated differences in the modes of regulation of toxin expression and in the effects of toxins of these two related systems. We anticipate that this vector will be useful for further investigation of par TA system function as well as the regulated expression of other genes in E. faecalisIMPORTANCEE. faecalis is an important nosocomial pathogen and a model organism for examination of the genetics and physiology of Gram-positive cocci. While numerous genetic tools have been generated for the manipulation of this organism, vectors for the regulated expression of cloned genes remain limited by high background expression and the use of inducers with undesirable effects on the cell. Here we demonstrate that the PQ pheromone-responsive promoter is repressed tightly enough to allow cloning of TA system toxins and evaluate their effects at very low induction levels. This tool will allow us to more fully examine TA system function in E. faecalis and to further elucidate its potential roles in cell physiology. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Effect of dispersive long-range corrections to the pressure tensor: The vapour-liquid interfacial properties of the Lennard-Jones system revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J., E-mail: felipe@uhu.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Centro de Investigación de Física Teórica y Matemática, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Mendiboure, B. [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes et leurs Réservoirs, UMR5150, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, B. P. 1155, Pau Cedex 64014 (France); Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I. [Centro de Investigación de Física Teórica y Matemática, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Departamento de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-11-14

    We propose an extension of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janeček [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264–6269 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] to account for the intermolecular potential energy of spherical, rigid, and flexible molecular systems, to deal with the contributions to the microscopic components of the pressure tensor due to the dispersive long-range corrections. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of spherical Lennard-Jones molecules with different cutoff distances, r{sub c} = 2.5, 3, 4, and 5σ. In addition, we have also considered cutoff distances r{sub c} = 2.5 and 3σ in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections proposed in this work. The normal and tangential microscopic components of the pressure tensor are obtained using the mechanical or virial route in combination with the recipe of Irving and Kirkwood, while the macroscopic components are calculated using the Volume Perturbation thermodynamic route proposed by de Miguel and Jackson [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164109 (2006)]. The vapour-liquid interfacial tension is evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the Test-Area methodology. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles, coexistence densities, vapour pressure, critical temperature and density, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying particular attention to the effect of the cutoff distance and the long-range corrections on these properties. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cutoff distance (at fixed temperature) is to sharpen the vapour-liquid interface, to decrease the vapour pressure, and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. As a result, the interfacial

  17. Is the Kinect system suitable for evaluation of the hip joint range of motion and as a screening tool for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Matthias; Mußhoff, Dennis; von Schulze Pellengahr, Christoph; Willburger, Roland; Hagen, Marco; Ficklscherer, Andreas; von Engelhardt, Lars Victor; Ackermann, Ole; Lahner, Nina; Vetter, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In the clinical evaluation of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), there is a lack of quantitative, reliable and informative assessment methods for the overall functional capability of an individual. We compared clinical and radiological measurements of the hip joint with a new methodology based on the concept of 3-dimensional reachable workspace using Microsoft Kinect. We assessed the correlation between the alpha angle of Nötzli on full-length radiographs and the clinical internal rotation. We evaluated the accuracy of joint positions and angles of the hip between the Kinect system and clinical examination including range of motion (ROM). The results of our clinical trial with 24 study participants showed a significant difference between normal internal rotation (> 21°) and reduced internal rotation (⩽ 21°) in comparison to the radiological alpha angle of Nötzli (P=0.026). The acquired reachable Kinect data demonstrated a moderate agreement between the Kinect and clinical examination (correlation coefficients between 0.230 and 0.375). The findings suggest that a higher grade alpha angle of Nötzli accompanies reduced clinical internal rotation. The Kinect system provides reliable results of hip ROM. However, further test series must be performed for the application of Kinect in the clinical evaluation of FAI.

  18. Modelling Spatio-Temporal Relevancy in Urban Context-Aware Pervasive Systems Using Voronoi Continuous Range Query and Multi-Interval Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Neysani Samany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Space and time are two dominant factors in context-aware pervasive systems which determine whether an entity is related to the moving user or not. This paper specifically addresses the use of spatio-temporal relations for detecting spatio-temporally relevant contexts to the user. The main contribution of this work is that the proposed model is sensitive to the velocity and direction of the user and applies customized Multi Interval Algebra (MIA with Voronoi Continuous Range Query (VCRQ to introduce spatio-temporally relevant contexts according to their arrangement in space. In this implementation the Spatio-Temporal Relevancy Model for Context-Aware Systems (STRMCAS helps the tourist to find his/her preferred areas that are spatio-temporally relevant. The experimental results in a scenario of tourist navigation are evaluated with respect to the accuracy of the model, performance time and satisfaction of users in 30 iterations of the algorithm. The evaluation process demonstrated the efficiency of the model in real-world applications.

  19. Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Interpretations and 2.5D Cross-Section Models over the Border Ranges Fault System and Aleutian Subduction Zone, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankhemthong, N.; Doser, D. I.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G.; Jones, S.; Eslick, B. E.; Budhathoki, P.

    2011-12-01

    Quaternary glacial covers and lack of dense geophysical data on the Kenai Peninsula cause a location and geometry of the Border Ranges fault system (BRFS) within a recent forearc-accretionary boundary of Aleutian subduction zone in southern Alaska are unclear. Using new ~1,300 gravity collections within the Anchorage and Kenai Peninsula regions complied with prior 1997 gravity and aeromagnetic data help us better imaging these fault and the subduction structures. Cook Inlet forearc basin is corresponded by deep gravity anomaly lows; basin boundaries are characterized by a strong gravity gradient, where are considered to be traces of Border Ranges fault system on the east and Castle Mountain and Bruin Bay fault system on the west and northwest of the forearc basin respectively. Gravity anomaly highs over accreted rocks generally increase southeastward to the Aleutian trench, but show a gravity depression over the Kenai Mountains region. The lineament between gravity high and low in the same terrenes over the Kenai Peninsula is may be another evidence to determine the Southern Edge of the Yakutat Microplate (SEY) as inferred by Eberhart-Phillips et al. (2006). Our 2.5-D models illustrate the main fault of the BRFS dips steeply toward the west with a downslip displacement. Gravity and Magnetic anomaly highs, on the east of the BRFS, probably present a slice of the ultramafic complex emplaced by faults along the boundary of the forearc basin and accretionary wedge terranes. Another magnetic high beneath the basin in the southern forearc basin support a serpentiznied body inferred by Saltus et al. (2001), with a decreasing size toward the north. Regional density-gravity models show the Pacific subducting slab beneath the foreacre-arc teranes with a gentle and flatted dip where the subducting plate is located in north of SEY and dips more steeply where it is located on the south of SEY. The gravity depression over the accreted terrene can be explained by a density low

  20. Infection with host-range mutant adenovirus 5 suppresses innate immunity and induces systemic CD4+ T cell activation in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Qureshi

    Full Text Available Ad5 is a common cause of respiratory disease and an occasional cause of gastroenteritis and conjunctivitis, and seroconversion before adolescence is common in humans. To gain some insight into how Ad5 infection affects the immune system of rhesus macaques (RM 18 RM were infected with a host-range mutant Ad5 (Ad5hr by 3 mucosal inoculations. There was a delay of 2 to 6 weeks after the first inoculation before plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC frequency and function increased in peripheral blood. Primary Ad5hr infection suppressed IFN-γ mRNA expression, but the second Ad5hr exposure induced a rapid increase in IFN-gamma mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Primary Ad5hr infection suppressed CCL20, TNF and IL-1 mRNA expression in PBMC, and subsequent virus exposures further dampened expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. Primary, but not secondary, Ad5hr inoculation increased the frequency of CXCR3+ CD4+ T cells in blood, while secondary, but not primary, Ad5hr infection transiently increased the frequencies of Ki67+, HLADR+ and CD95+/CCR5+ CD4+ T cells in blood. Ad5hr infection induced polyfunctional CD4 and CD8+ T cells specific for the Ad5 hexon protein in all of the animals. Thus, infection with Ad5hr induced a complex pattern of innate and adaptive immunity in RM that included transient systemic CD4+ T cell activation and suppressed innate immunity on re-exposure to the virus. The complex effects of adenovirus infection on the immune system may help to explain the unexpected results of testing Ad5 vector expressing HIV antigens in Ad5 seropositive people.

  1. Basin geometry and cumulative offsets in the Eastern Transverse Ranges, southern California: Implications for transrotational deformation along the San Andreas fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Powell, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Eastern Transverse Ranges, adjacent to and southeast of the big left bend of the San Andreas fault, southern California, form a crustal block that has rotated clockwise in response to dextral shear within the San Andreas system. Previous studies have indicated a discrepancy between the measured magnitudes of left slip on through-going east-striking fault zones of the Eastern Transverse Ranges and those predicted by simple geometric models using paleomagnetically determined clockwise rotations of basalts distributed along the faults. To assess the magnitude and source of this discrepancy, we apply new gravity and magnetic data in combination with geologic data to better constrain cumulative fault offsets and to define basin structure for the block between the Pinto Mountain and Chiriaco fault zones. Estimates of offset from using the length of pull-apart basins developed within left-stepping strands of the sinistral faults are consistent with those derived by matching offset magnetic anomalies and bedrock patterns, indicating a cumulative offset of at most ???40 km. The upper limit of displacements constrained by the geophysical and geologic data overlaps with the lower limit of those predicted at the 95% confidence level by models of conservative slip located on margins of rigid rotating blocks and the clockwise rotation of the paleomagnetic vectors. Any discrepancy is likely resolved by internal deformation within the blocks, such as intense deformation adjacent to the San Andreas fault (that can account for the absence of basins there as predicted by rigid-block models) and linkage via subsidiary faults between the main faults. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  2. Secondary neutron spectrum from 250-MeV passively scattered proton therapy: Measurement with an extended-range Bonner sphere system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Rebecca M., E-mail: rhowell@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Burgett, E. A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho 83201 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Secondary neutrons are an unavoidable consequence of proton therapy. While the neutron dose is low compared to the primary proton dose, its presence and contribution to the patient dose is nonetheless important. The most detailed information on neutrons includes an evaluation of the neutron spectrum. However, the vast majority of the literature that has reported secondary neutron spectra in proton therapy is based on computational methods rather than measurements. This is largely due to the inherent limitations in the majority of neutron detectors, which are either not suitable for spectral measurements or have limited response at energies greater than 20 MeV. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to measure a secondary neutron spectrum from a proton therapy beam using a spectrometer that is sensitive to neutron energies over the entire neutron energy spectrum. Methods: The authors measured the secondary neutron spectrum from a 250-MeV passively scattered proton beam in air at a distance of 100 cm laterally from isocenter using an extended-range Bonner sphere (ERBS) measurement system. Ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was calculated using measured fluence and fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results: The neutron fluence spectrum had a high-energy direct neutron peak, an evaporation peak, a thermal peak, and an intermediate energy continuum between the thermal and evaporation peaks. The H*(10) was dominated by the neutrons in the evaporation peak because of both their high abundance and the large quality conversion coefficients in that energy interval. The H*(10) 100 cm laterally from isocenter was 1.6 mSv per proton Gy (to isocenter). Approximately 35% of the dose equivalent was from neutrons with energies ≥20 MeV. Conclusions: The authors measured a neutron spectrum for external neutrons generated by a 250-MeV proton beam using an ERBS measurement system that was sensitive to neutrons over the entire

  3. Secondary neutron spectrum from 250-MeV passively scattered proton therapy: measurement with an extended-range Bonner sphere system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca M; Burgett, E A

    2014-09-01

    Secondary neutrons are an unavoidable consequence of proton therapy. While the neutron dose is low compared to the primary proton dose, its presence and contribution to the patient dose is nonetheless important. The most detailed information on neutrons includes an evaluation of the neutron spectrum. However, the vast majority of the literature that has reported secondary neutron spectra in proton therapy is based on computational methods rather than measurements. This is largely due to the inherent limitations in the majority of neutron detectors, which are either not suitable for spectral measurements or have limited response at energies greater than 20 MeV. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to measure a secondary neutron spectrum from a proton therapy beam using a spectrometer that is sensitive to neutron energies over the entire neutron energy spectrum. The authors measured the secondary neutron spectrum from a 250-MeV passively scattered proton beam in air at a distance of 100 cm laterally from isocenter using an extended-range Bonner sphere (ERBS) measurement system. Ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was calculated using measured fluence and fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. The neutron fluence spectrum had a high-energy direct neutron peak, an evaporation peak, a thermal peak, and an intermediate energy continuum between the thermal and evaporation peaks. The H*(10) was dominated by the neutrons in the evaporation peak because of both their high abundance and the large quality conversion coefficients in that energy interval. The H*(10) 100 cm laterally from isocenter was 1.6 mSv per proton Gy (to isocenter). Approximately 35% of the dose equivalent was from neutrons with energies ≥20 MeV. The authors measured a neutron spectrum for external neutrons generated by a 250-MeV proton beam using an ERBS measurement system that was sensitive to neutrons over the entire energy range being measured, i.e., thermal to

  4. Lightning detection and ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  5. Expression of Kisspeptins and Kiss Receptors Suggests a Large Range of Functions for Kisspeptin Systems in the Brain of the European Sea Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Sebastián; Servili, Arianna; Espigares, Felipe; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Brocal, Isabel; Felip, Alicia; Gómez, Ana; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Kah, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This study, conducted in the brain of a perciform fish, the European sea bass, aimed at raising antibodies against the precursor of the kisspeptins in order to map the kiss systems and to correlate the expression of kisspeptins, kiss1 and kiss2, with that of kisspeptin receptors (kiss-R1 and kiss-R2). Specific antibodies could be raised against the preprokiss2, but not the preoprokiss1. The data indicate that kiss2 neurons are mainly located in the hypothalamus and project widely to the subpallium and pallium, the preoptic region, the thalamus, the pretectal area, the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis, the mediobasal medial and caudal hypothalamus, and the neurohypophysis. These results were compared to the expression of kiss-R1 and kiss-R2 messengers, indicating a very good correlation between the wide distribution of Kiss2-positive fibers and that of kiss-R2 expressing cells. The expression of kiss-R1 messengers was more limited to the habenula, the ventral telencephalon and the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. Attempts to characterize the phenotype of the numerous cells expressing kiss-R2 showed that neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y and neuronal nitric oxide synthase are targets for kisspeptins, while GnRH1 neurons did not appear to express kiss-R1 or kiss-R2 messengers. In addition, a striking result was that all somatostatin-positive neurons expressed-kissR2. These data show that kisspeptins are likely to regulate a wide range of neuronal systems in the brain of teleosts. PMID:23894610

  6. A simple method for estimating basin-scale groundwater discharge by vegetation in the basin and range province of Arizona using remote sensing information and geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, F.D.; Callegary, J.B.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital water resource in the arid to semi-arid southwestern United States. Accurate accounting of inflows to and outflows from the groundwater system is necessary to effectively manage this shared resource, including the important outflow component of groundwater discharge by vegetation. A simple method for estimating basin-scale groundwater discharge by vegetation is presented that uses remote sensing data from satellites, geographic information systems (GIS) land cover and stream location information, and a regression equation developed within the Southern Arizona study area relating the Enhanced Vegetation Index from the MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite to measured evapotranspiration. Results computed for 16-day composited satellite passes over the study area during the 2000 through 2007 time period demonstrate a sinusoidal pattern of annual groundwater discharge by vegetation with median values ranging from around 0.3 mm per day in the cooler winter months to around 1.5 mm per day during summer. Maximum estimated annual volume of groundwater discharge by vegetation was between 1.4 and 1.9 billion m3 per year with an annual average of 1.6 billion m3. A simplified accounting of the contribution of precipitation to vegetation greenness was developed whereby monthly precipitation data were subtracted from computed vegetation discharge values, resulting in estimates of minimum groundwater discharge by vegetation. Basin-scale estimates of minimum and maximum groundwater discharge by vegetation produced by this simple method are useful bounding values for groundwater budgets and groundwater flow models, and the method may be applicable to other areas with similar vegetation types.

  7. The immediate effects of ankle balance taping with kinesiology tape on ankle active range of motion and performance in the Balance Error Scoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the changes in ankle active range of motion (AROM) and performance on the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) in cases in which no tape, placebo taping or ankle balance taping (ABT) with kinesiology tape was used. Randomized cross-over trial. University laboratory. Fifteen physically active individuals (7 men, 8 women). Postural control was assessed based on performances on the BESS. Active ankle flexibility was assessed by measuring the ankle AROM of both ankles under each taping condition in a random order at 1-week intervals. The ankle AROM among the taping conditions were not significantly different. There were no significant differences in the error scores of single-leg and tandem stances on a firm surface among the taping conditions. Compared to those obtained in the absence of taping, the error scores of the single-leg and tandem stances on a foam surface were significantly lower with ABT, but they did not significantly differ from the placebo taping scores. This study showed that ABT with kinesiology tape immediately improved postural control on unstable surfaces without changes in ankle AROM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and Construction of a Bilateral Haptic System for the Remote Assessment of the Stiffness and Range of Motion of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Oscari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of haptic devices in the rehabilitation of impaired limbs has become rather popular, given the proven effectiveness in promoting recovery. In a standard framework, such devices are used in rehabilitation centers, where patients interact with virtual tasks, presented on a screen. To track their sessions, kinematic/dynamic parameters or performance scores are recorded. However, as Internet access is now available at almost every home and in order to reduce the hospitalization time of the patient, the idea of doing rehabilitation at home is gaining wide consent. Medical care programs can be synchronized with the home rehabilitation device; patient data can be sent to the central server that could redirect to the therapist laptop (tele-healthcare. The controversial issue is that the recorded data do not actually represent the clinical conditions of the patients according to the medical assessment scales, forcing them to frequently undergo clinical tests at the hospital. To respond to this demand, we propose the use of a bilateral master/slave haptic system that could allow the clinician, who interacts with the master, to assess remotely and in real time the clinical conditions of the patient that uses the home rehabilitation device as the slave. In this paper, we describe a proof of concept to highlight the main issues of such an application, limited to one degree of freedom, and to the measure of the stiffness and range of motion of the hand.

  9. INFLUENCE OF RAW IMAGE PREPROCESSING AND OTHER SELECTED PROCESSES ON ACCURACY OF CLOSE-RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SYSTEMS ACCORDING TO VDI 2634

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Reznicek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of raw image preprocessing and other selected processes on the accuracy of close-range photogrammetric measurement. The examined processes and features includes: raw image preprocessing, sensor unflatness, distance-dependent lens distortion, extending the input observations (image measurements by incorporating all RGB colour channels, ellipse centre eccentricity and target detecting. The examination of each effect is carried out experimentally by performing the validation procedure proposed in the German VDI guideline 2634/1. The validation procedure is based on performing standard photogrammetric measurements of high-accurate calibrated measuring lines (multi-scale bars with known lengths (typical uncertainty = 5 μm at 2 sigma. The comparison of the measured lengths with the known values gives the maximum length measurement error LME, which characterize the accuracy of the validated photogrammetric system. For higher reliability the VDI test field was photographed ten times independently with the same configuration and camera settings. The images were acquired with the metric ALPA 12WA camera. The tests are performed on all ten measurements which gives the possibility to measure the repeatability of the estimated parameters as well. The influences are examined by comparing the quality characteristics of the reference and tested settings.

  10. Total and mesoscale long-range offshore transport of organic carbon from the Canary Upwelling System to the open North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Elisa; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias; Byrne, David; Lachkar, Zouhair

    2017-04-01

    The ocean's biological pump is often simplified to a purely vertical process. Nevertheless, the horizontal transport of organic carbon can be substantial, especially in coastal regions such as the Canary Upwelling System (CanUS), one of the four major Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems, characterized by high shelf productivity and an intense lateral exchange of mass and tracers with the adjacent oligotrophic waters. Despite its importance, the magnitude of this lateral flux has not yet been constrained. Here, we quantify the lateral export of organic carbon from the CanUS to the open North Atlantic using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a biogeochemical ecosystem module. The model is run on an Atlantic telescopic grid with a strong refinement towards the north-western African shelf, to combine an eddy-resolving resolution in the region of study with a full Atlantic basin perspective. Our results reveal that over the whole CanUS more than a third of the Net Community Production (NCP) in the nearshore 100 km is transported offshore, amounting to about 19 Tg C yr-1. The offshore transport dominates the lateral fluxes up to 1500 km into the subtropical North Atlantic, along the way adding organic carbon to the upper 100 m at rates of between 8% and 34% of the alongshore average NCP. The remineralization at depth of this extra organic carbon leads to strongly negative vertically-integrated NCP throughout the whole offshore region of the CanUS, i.e. it makes the offshore region net heterotrophic. Substantial subregional variability shapes the spatial pattern of the fluxes in the CanUS. In particular, the central subregion surrounding Cape Blanc is the most efficient in terms of collecting and laterally exporting the organic carbon, resulting in a sharp peak of watercolumn heterotrophy. A decomposition of the organic carbon fluxes into a time-mean component and a time-variable, i.e., mesoscale component reveals a large contribution of the mesoscale

  11. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Catherine J., E-mail: cjwalsh@mote.org [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Butawan, Matthew, E-mail: mattbutawan@outlook.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Yordy, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.e.balmer@gmail.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Ball, Ray, E-mail: Ray.Ball@lowryparkzoo.com [Lowry Park Zoo, 1101 W Sligh Ave, Tampa, FL 33604 (United States); Flewelling, Leanne, E-mail: Leanne.Flewelling@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Wit, Martine de, E-mail: Martine.deWit@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Bonde, Robert K., E-mail: rbonde@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Sirenia Project, 7920 NE 71st Street, Gainesville, FL 32653 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Sublethal brevetoxin exposure affects manatee immune function. • Plasma brevetoxin levels correlate with oxidative stress in rescued manatees. • Brevetoxin exposure affects lymphocyte proliferation in rescued manatees. • Plasma brevetoxin concentrations ranged from 0 to 19 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL. - Abstract: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida’s southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the

  12. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  13. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  14. Intravenous spiral CT angiography for assessment before orthotopic liver transplantation: Comparison between tomography, MIP, 3-dimensional surface imaging and intraarterial DSA; Intravenoese Spiral-CT-Angiographie zur Evaluation vor orthotoper Lebertransplantation: Vergleiche zwischen Schnittbilddarstellung, MIP, dreidimensionaler Oberflaechendarstellung und intraarterieller DSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidajat, N. [Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Vogl, T.J. [Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Moeller, M. [Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Bechstein, W.O. [Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemein- und Transplantationschirurgie; Felix, R. [Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik

    1996-11-01

    Purpose: To analyse the efficacy of intravenous spiral CT angiography (SCTA) for the evaluation before orthotopic liver transplantation (oLT) compared with DSA. Methods: Spiral CT was performed on 31 potential recipients of a liver graft in order to examine hepatic vessels, coeliac axis, splenic artery and superior mesenteric artery. The arterial vessels were reconstructed in `Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP)` and `Shaded Surface Display (SSD)`-technique. The axial images, MIP and SSD were compared in 25 patients with DSA with regard to the visualisation of the vascular anatomy, detectability of stenosis and vascular diameters. Results: The type of arterial liver supply could be determined via SCTA in all patients. Stenosis of the coeliac axis was seen in ten patients on the DSA, MIP and SSD and in eight patients on the axial images. Occlusion of the hepatic artery was clearly visualised in two patients on the DSA, axial images and MIP and in one patient on the SSD. There was no false positive diagnosis with SCTA. SSD was seen as the best technique to visualise the vessels without overshadowing. There were no significant differences between the diamters measured from the axial images, MIP and SSD images in transversal direction and the DSA images (p>0.05). Conclusion: SCTA is a greatly promising method for the imaging of vessels supplying the liver before oLT, and may convey more diagnostic information than DSA. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Bewertung der Einsetzbarkeit in intravenoesen Spiral-CT-Angiographie (SCTA) zur Evaluation vor orthotoper Lebertransplantation (oLT) im Vergleich zur DSA. Methoden: Es wurde bei 31 Patienten vor moeglicher oLT eine SCTA der Lebergefaesse einschliesslich des Truncus coeliacus, der A. lienalis und A. mesenterica superior durchgefuehrt. Die arteriellen Gefaesse wurden mittels `Maximum-Intensitaets-Projektion (MIP)`- und `Oberflaechenschattierungs(SSD)`-Technik rekonstruiert. Die Schnittbilder, MIP und SSD, wurden bei 25 Patienten

  15. Irrigated Acreage Within the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Accurate delineations of irrigated acreage are needed for the development of water-use estimates and in determining water-budget calculations for the Basin and Range...

  16. Two dose-ranging studies with PF-04937319, a systemic partial activator of glucokinase, as add-on therapy to metformin in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, N B; Aggarwal, N; Pall, D; Paragh, G; Denney, W S; Le, V; Riggs, M; Calle, R A

    2015-08-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of a range of doses of a systemic, partial, glucokinase activator, PF-04937319, as add-on therapy to metformin, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients were randomized to once-daily PF-04937319 doses of 10, 50, 100 mg, or matching placebo (Study B1621002); or PF-04937319 doses of 3, 20, 50, 100 mg, or matching placebo (Study B1621007). Titrated glimepiride (Study B1621002) or sitagliptin (Study B1621007) were included in a double-dummy manner. The primary measure was change from baseline in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at week 12. Key secondary measures included other glycaemic variables and safety and tolerability. In the 639 patients randomized, the minimally efficacious PF-04937319 dose was identified as 50 mg once daily. At the highest PF-04937319 dose tested (100 mg), on average, a clinically significant reduction in HbA1c [-4.94 or -5.11 mmol/mol (-0.45 or -0.47%), placebo-adjusted], which was similar to that achieved with sitagliptin [-4.69 mmol/mol (-0.43%)] but lower than that achieved with titrated glimepiride [-9.07 mmol/mol (-0.83%)], was observed. At this dose, the effect on fasting plasma glucose was not consistent between the two studies (Study B1621002 vs Study B1621007: placebo-adjusted mean change of -0.83 vs +0.50 mmol/l). PF-04937319 was well tolerated at doses up to 100 mg. Hypoglycaemia was reported in 2.5% of patients (on placebo), 5.1% of patients (on PF-04937319 100 mg), 1.8% of patients (on sitagliptin) and 34.4% of patients (on titrated glimepiride). In patients on metformin monotherapy, the addition of a 100-mg dose of PF-04937319 improved glycaemic control and was well tolerated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Range-Based Auto-Focus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maracel Systems and Software Technologies, LLC proposes a revolutionary Range-Based Auto Focus (RBAF) system that will combine externally input range, such as might...

  18. Evaluation of the operational and demonstration test of short-range weather forecasting decision support within an advanced rural traveler information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The Advanced Rural Traveler Information System (ARTIS) began development June 30, 1995. While a number of activities were underway to operationally test and evaluate metro or urban traveler information systems in the 75 target markets, ARTIS setout t...

  19. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  20. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  1. Global CO{sub 2} emissions 2015. Trend reversion is still waiting, despite hopeful approaches; Weltweite CO{sub 2}-Emissionen 2015. Trendwende laesst trotz hoffnungsvoller Ansaetze nach wie vor auf sich warten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziesing, Hans-Joachim

    2016-10-15

    By 2015, global CO{sub 2} emissions were virtually unchanged from 2014 according to provisional calculations. On the whole, a slight increase may have resulted, which has slowed the growth of the past few years. In the previous year alone, the weakest growth since the beginning of the century had been recorded, with only 0.7% of the upturn (with the exception of the crises in 2008/2009). As a result, CO{sub 2} emissions in 2015 were only slightly higher than in the previous year, at 33.1 billion tonnes. A global trend reversal is still likely, but the CO{sub 2} emissions have declined in many countries, particularly in some industrialized countries. [German] Im Jahr 2015 haben sich die weltweiten CO{sub 2}-Emissionen nach vorlaeufigen Berechnungen gegenueber 2014 praktisch nicht veraendert. Insgesamt duerfte sich allenfalls ein leichtes Plus ergeben haben, womit der Zuwachs der vergangenen Jahre erneut gebremst wurde. Schon im Vorjahr war mit einem Plus von nur 0,7 % der bis dahin (mit Ausnahme der Krisenjahre 2008/2009) schwaechste Anstieg seit Beginn des Jahrhunderts zu verzeichnen gewesen. Im Ergebnis blieben die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen 2015 mit reichlich 33,1 Mrd. t nur geringfuegig ueber dem Niveau des Vorjahres. Eine weltweite Trendwende steht wohl noch nach wie vor aus, doch sind immerhin die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen in zahlreichen Laendern, insbesondere in etlichen Industrielaendern, gesunken.

  2. HIV-1 evades virus-specific IgG2 and IgA responses by targeting systemic and intestinal B cells via long-range intercellular conduits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Weifeng; Santini, Paul A.; Sullivan, John S.; He, Bing; Shan, Meimei; Ball, Susan C.; Dyer, Wayne B.; Ketas, Thomas J.; Chadburn, Amy; Cohen-Gould, Leona; Knowles, Daniel M.; Chiu, April; Sanders, Rogier W.; Chen, Kang; Cerutti, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Contact-dependent communication between immune cells generates protection but also facilitates viral spread. Here we found that macrophages formed long-range actin-propelled conduits in response to negative factor (Nef), a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein with immunosuppressive

  3. DC power flow control for radial offshore multi-terminal HVDC transmission system by considering steady-state DC voltage operation range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irnawan, Roni; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    of this MTDC system due to the inherited limit from point-to-point (PtP) configuration. An analytic method is proposed in order to estimate the steady-state DC voltage operational points of this MTDC system. The proposed method has been confirmed with a conventional DC power flow study result....

  4. Combined climate- and prey-mediated range expansion of Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), a large marine predator in the California Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Julia S; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Foley, David G; Gilly, William F; Robison, Bruce H; Field, John C

    2014-06-01

    Climate-driven range shifts are ongoing in pelagic marine environments, and ecosystems must respond to combined effects of altered species distributions and environmental drivers. Hypoxic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in midwater environments are shoaling globally; this can affect distributions of species both geographically and vertically along with predator-prey dynamics. Humboldt (jumbo) squid (Dosidicus gigas) are highly migratory predators adapted to hypoxic conditions that may be deleterious to their competitors and predators. Consequently, OMZ shoaling may preferentially facilitate foraging opportunities for Humboldt squid. With two separate modeling approaches using unique, long-term data based on in situ observations of predator, prey, and environmental variables, our analyses suggest that Humboldt squid are indirectly affected by OMZ shoaling through effects on a primary food source, myctophid fishes. Our results suggest that this indirect linkage between hypoxia and foraging is an important driver of the ongoing range expansion of Humboldt squid in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Noble Gas Dimers as a Probe of the Energetic Contributions of Dispersion and Short-Range Electron Correlation in Weakly-Bound Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Housden, Michael Philip; Pyper, Nicholas Charles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The binding of the noble gas dimers is examined using a theory in which the Hartree-Fock interaction energy is augmented with both a short-range correlation term derived from the theory of a uniform electron-gas plus a dispersion energy damped according to the theory of Jabobi and Csanak. The good agreement between the predicted and experimental binding energies and equilibrium inter-nuclear separations confirms that this approach captures the essential physics of the int...

  6. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  7. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  8. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  9. The Effect of Magnetic Field on Positron Range and Spatial Resolution in an Integrated Whole-Body Time-Of-Flight PET/MRI System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Ying; Savic, Dragana; Yang, Jaewon; Shrestha, Uttam; Seo, Youngho

    2014-11-01

    Simultaneous imaging systems combining positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been actively investigated. A PET/MR imaging system (GE Healthcare) comprised of a time-of-flight (TOF) PET system utilizing silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and 3-tesla (3T) MRI was recently installed at our institution. The small-ring (60 cm diameter) TOF PET subsystem of this PET/MRI system can generate images with higher spatial resolution compared with conventional PET systems. We have examined theoretically and experimentally the effect of uniform magnetic fields on the spatial resolution for high-energy positron emitters. Positron emitters including 18F, 124I, and 68Ga were simulated in water using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit in the presence of a uniform magnetic field (0, 3, and 7 Tesla). The positron annihilation position was tracked to determine the 3D spatial distribution of the 511-keV gammy ray emission. The full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) of the positron point spread function (PSF) was determined. Experimentally, 18F and 68Ga line source phantoms in air and water were imaged with an investigational PET/MRI system and a PET/CT system to investigate the effect of magnetic field on the spatial resolution of PET. The full-width half maximum (FWHM) of the line spread function (LSF) from the line source was determined as the system spatial resolution. Simulations and experimental results show that the in-plane spatial resolution was slightly improved at field strength as low as 3 Tesla, especially when resolving signal from high-energy positron emitters in the air-tissue boundary.

  10. Application range affected by software failures in safety relevant instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants; Auswirkungsbereiche von Softwarefehlern in sicherheitstechnisch wichtigen Einrichtungen von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jopen, Manuela; Mbonjo, Herve; Sommer, Dagmar; Ulrich, Birte

    2017-03-15

    This report presents results that have been developed within a BMUB-funded research project (Promotion Code 3614R01304). The overall objective of this project was to broaden the knowledge base of GRS regarding software failures and their impact in software-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. To this end, relevant definitions and terms in standards and publications (DIN, IEEE standards, IAEA standards, NUREG publications) as well as in the German safety requirements for nuclear power plants were analyzed first. In particular, it was found that the term ''software fault'' is defined differently and partly contradictory in the considered literature sources. For this reason, a definition of software fault was developed on the basis of the software life cycle of software-based I and C systems within the framework of this project, which takes into account the various aspects relevant to software faults and their related effects. It turns out that software failures result from latent faults in a software-based control system, which can lead to a non-compliant behavior of a software-based I and C system. Hereby a distinction should be made between programming faults and specification faults. In a further step, operational experience with software failures in software-based I and C systems in nuclear facilities and in nonnuclear sector was investigated. The identified events were analyzed with regard to their cause and impacts and the analysis results were summarized. Based on the developed definition of software failure and on the COMPSIS-classification scheme for events related to software based I and C systems, the COCS-classification scheme was developed to classify events from operating experience with software failures, in which the events are classified according to the criteria ''cause'', ''affected system'', ''impact'' and ''CCF potential''. This

  11. Details on the formation of Ti2Cu3 in the Ag-Cu-Ti system in the temperature range 790-860 °C

    OpenAIRE

    Andrieux, J.; Dezellus, Olivier; Bosselet, F.; Sacerdote-Peronnet, M.; Sigala, C.; Chiriac, R.; Viala, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Silver-copper-titanium ternary alloys are often used as active braze alloys for joining ceramics to metals at temperatures ranging from 780 °C (the melting point of the Ag-Cu eutectic) up to 900 °C. When Ti/Ag-Cu joints are brazed at low temperature (near 800 °C), the intermetallic compound Ti2Cu3 (tetragonal, P4/nmm, a = 0.313nm, c = 1.395nm) is systematically missing from the interface reaction layer sequence. An experimental investigation based on isothermal diffusi...

  12. Evaluation of dynamic range for LLNL streak cameras using high contrast pulses and pulse podiatry'' on the Nova laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, J.B.; Weiland, T.L.; Prior, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    A standard LLNL streak camera has been used to analyze high contrast pulses on the Nova laser facility. These pulses have a plateau at their leading edge (foot) with an amplitude which is approximately 1% of the maximum pulse height. Relying on other features of the pulses and on signal multiplexing, we were able to determine how accurately the foot amplitude was being represented by the camera. Results indicate that the useful single channel dynamic range of the instrument approaches 100:1. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  14. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  15. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  16. Characteristics of individual reactions of the cardiovascular system of healthy people to changes in meteorological factors in a wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenchenko, T. A.; Skavulyak, A. N.; Khorseva, N. I.; Breus, T. K.

    2013-12-01

    Based on the results of 4-year observations of daily variations in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in seven healthy volunteers, two distinct types of reaction of physiological indicators (PIs) to changes in meteorological parameters (first and foremost, atmospheric temperature T atm) are revealed. The first type is a monotonic (but nonuniform with respect to speed) decrease in systolic BP with increasing temperature, which is most pronounced for T atm 15°C, with a weaker reaction of diastolic BP and no reaction of HR (in four volunteers). The second type is a two-phase nonmonotonic dependence of BP indicators on T atm, which coincides with the first type in the range T atm -5°C (in two volunteers). The physiological mechanisms that can provide the observed compensatory-adaptive reactions of healthy individuals to atmospheric factors in different temperature ranges are analyzed in detail. It has been shown that the revealed regularities can explain the results obtained by the authors in earlier studies.

  17. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for the evaluation of bone marrow microcirculation in hematologic malignancies before and during thalidomide therapy; Dynamische kontrastverstaerkte MRT zur Beurteilung der Knochenmarksmikrozirkulation bei malignen haematologischen Erkrankungen vor und waehrend einer Thalidomidtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, A.; Wittsack, H.J.; Engelbrecht, V.; Moedder, U. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Strupp, C.; Germing, U.; Gattermann, N.; Haas, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Haematologie, Onkologie und klinische Immunologie; Willers, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Universitaetsrechenzentrum

    2002-03-01

    Normalpersonen, 20 Patienten mit Myelodysplastischen Syndromen (MDS), 10 Patienten mit Osteomyelofibrose (OMF) und 10 Patienten mit Multiplem Myelom (MM) wurde eine schnelle Gradientenechosequenz (Turbo fast low angle shot 2D) mit pumpengesteuerter Gd-DTPA-Applikation vor und bei 18 davon durchschnittlich 4,3 Monate nach Therapiebeginn mit Thalidomid durchgefuehrt. Zwei Perfusionsparameter (Amplitude und Austauschratenkonstante) wurden berechnet und es erfolgten ein statistischer Vergleich der Werte zwischen Probanden und Patienten sowie eine Korrelation der klinischen Verlaufsparameter der Patienten mit den d-MRT-Ergebnissen. Ergebnisse. Bei den Patienten wurden im Vergleich zu den Normalpersonen durchschnittlich hoehere Amplituden (Normalpersonen 14,4{+-}5,2; MDS 24,8{+-}8,1; OMF 35,9{+-}4,3; MM 23,4{+-}3,6) und Austauschratenkonstanten (Normalpersonen 0,124{+-}0,042; MDS 0,136{+-}0,036; OMF 0,144{+-}0,068; MM 0,131{+-}0,034) gemessen. Bei 14 von 18 im Verlauf untersuchten Patienten konnte eine signifikante (p<0,005) Reduktion der Perfusionsparameter in der d-MRT unter Thalidomidtherapie nachgewiesen werden. Klinisch zeigten saemtliche dieser Patienten eine Krankheitsremission. Schlussfolgerungen. Bei den untersuchten haematologischen Erkrankungen liegen im Vergleich zu Normalpersonen signifikant hoehere d-MRT-Perfusionsparameter der Lendenwirbelsaeule vor. Unter antiangiogenetischer Therapie mit Thalidomid kommt es im Falle eines Therapieansprechens zum Abfall dieser Werte. (orig.)

  18. On a simple attack, limiting the range transmission of secret keys in a system of quantum cryptography based on coding in a sub-carrier frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, A. N.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.

    2017-03-01

    In the paper by Gleim et al (2016 Opt. Express 24 2619), it was declared that the system of quantum cryptography, exploiting quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol BB84 with the additional reference state and encoding in a sub-carrier, is able to distribute secret keys at a distance of 210 km. The following shows that a simple attack realized with a beam splitter results in a loss of privacy of the keys over substantially smaller distances. It turns out that the actual length of the secret key transmission for the QKD system encoding in the sub-carrier frequency is ten times less than that declared in Gleim et al (2016 Opt. Express 24 2619). Therefore it is impossible to safely use the keys when distributed at a larger length of the communication channel than shown below. The maximum communication distance does not exceed 22 km, even in the most optimistic scenario.

  19. Comparison of Rumen Fluid pH by Continuous Telemetry System and Bench pH Meter in Sheep with Different Ranges of Ruminal pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo F. Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the measurements of sheep ruminal pH using a continuous telemetry system or a bench pH meter using sheep with different degrees of ruminal pH. Ruminal lactic acidosis was induced in nine adult crossbred Santa Ines sheep by the administration of 15 g of sucrose per kg/BW. Samples of rumen fluid were collected at the baseline, before the induction of acidosis (T0 and at six, 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the induction for pH measurement using a bench pH meter. During this 72-hour period, all animals had electrodes for the continuous measurement of pH. The results were compared using the Bland-Altman analysis of agreement, Pearson coefficients of correlation and determination, and paired analysis of variance with Student’s t-test. The measurement methods presented a strong correlation (r=0.94, P<0.05 but the rumen pH that was measured continuously using a telemetry system resulted in lower values than the bench pH meter (overall mean of 5.38 and 5.48, resp., P=0.0001. The telemetry system was able to detect smaller changes in rumen fluid pH and was more accurate in diagnosing both subacute ruminal lactic acidosis and acute ruminal lactic acidosis in sheep.

  20. The peculiarity of the construction of an optical-electronic system for measurement of geometrical parameters of objects in the micrometer range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, Olga M.; Markin, Maksym O.; Filippova, Maryna V.; Harasim, Damian; Mussabekov, Kanat; Annabayev, Azamat

    2017-08-01

    The optical-electronic system for measuring of geometrical parameters of micrometrical objects is a difficult process that requires the observance of certain features designing or improvement. The observance of that will provide a higher measurement accuracy compared with the accuracy metrics of measurement that were developed without compliance with these design features. Every feature of the design reduces the error of the functioning of individual nodes of the system or errors in nodes under the influence of various internal or external factors. When reducing or eliminating each factor of occurrence of the error, respectively, will increase the overall measurement accuracy. In this work, the result of introducing measurement error for each factor is determined experimentally and proved the correctness of such actions. Experimental researches of the measurement error to the stage of compliance with subtleties in the improvement of the opto-electronic system was 10 ± 1.5 μm, and after improvement with considering of the specifics of the design measurement error of geometrical parameters was 10 ± 0,33 μm.

  1. Millimeter Wave Systems for Airports and Short-Range Aviation Communications: A Survey of the Current Channel Models at mmWave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Mahfuza; Mehrpouyan, Hani; Matolak, David; Guvenc, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications will play a key role in enhancing the throughput, reliability, and security of next generation wireless networks. These advancements are achieved through the large bandwidth available in this band and through the use of highly directional links that will be used to overcome the large pathloss at these frequencies. Although the terrestrial application of mmWave systems is advancing at a rapid pace, the use of mmWave communication systems in aviation systems or airports is still in its infancy. This can be attributed to the challenges related to radio technology and lack of development, and characterization of mmWave wireless channels for the aviation field and the airport environment. Consequently, one of our goals is to develop methodologies that support mmWave air to ground links, and various links at airports, by applying new localization schemes that allow for application of highly directional links that can be deployed over longer distances despite the high path loss at mmWave frequencies. However, a very thorough understanding of the mmWave channel models are needed to enable such new applications. To this end, in this paper, we present a survey of the current channel models in the mmWave band. The 3-dimensional statistical channel model is also reviewed and its parameters and typical characteristics for this model are identified and computed through simulation for the Boise metropolitan area.

  2. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  3. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  4. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  5. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  6. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  7. A serological survey of Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. in Iberian fattening pigs reared in free-range systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M; Gómez-Laguna, J; Tarradas, C; Luque, I; García-Valverde, R; Reguillo, L; Astorga, R J

    2014-10-01

    Zoonotic agents such as Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp., all considered high-risk zoonotic pathogens by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), may cause no symptoms of infection in free-range pigs yet still have a significant public health impact. A serological survey was therefore performed to determine the history of occurrence of these pathogens in such pigs in southern Spain. A total of 709 serum samples were collected at abattoir from pigs from 79 farms and analysed for specific antibodies against the above pathogens using commercially available ELISA kits. Encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were also sought following the artificial digestion method of diaphragm pillar muscle. The results showed Salmonella spp. to be widely distributed among the sampled herds [73.42%, 95% confidence interval (CI95 ) 65.6-81.78] and Toxoplasma gondii to be present in over half (58.23%, CI95 47.33-69.07). The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was very low (3.8%, CI95 0.18-7.42), and antibodies against Trichinella spp. were not detected. No encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were microscopically detected. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Phase diagram of the selenium-sulfur system in the pressure range 1 × 10-5-1 × 10-1 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. N.; Burabaeva, N. M.; Trebukhov, S. A.; Ersaiynova, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The partial pressures of the components in the saturated vapor of the Se-S system were determined and presented as the temperature-concentration dependences. Based on these data, the boundaries of the melt-vapor phase transition at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum (1350, 100, and 10 Pa) were calculated. A complete phase diagram was constructed, which included the vapor-liquid equilibrium fields at atmospheric and low pressures, whose boundaries allowed us to determine the behavior of sulfur and selenium during distillation separation.

  9. Polish and European SST Assets: the Solaris-Panoptes Global Network of Robotic Telescopes and the Borowiec Satellite Laser Ranging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konacki, M.; Lejba, P.; Sybilski, P.; Pawłaszek, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Suchodolski, T.; Litwicki, M.; Kolb, U.; Burwitz, V.; Baader, J.; Groot, P.; Bloemen, S.; Ratajczak, M.; Helminiak, K.; Borek, R.; Chodosiewicz, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present the assets of the Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Space Research Center (both of the Polish Academy of Sciences), two Polish companies Sybilla Technologies, Cillium Engineering and a non-profit research foundation Baltic Institute of Technology. These assets are enhanced by telescopes belonging to The Open University (UK), the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and in the future the Radboud University. They consist of the Solaris-Panoptes global network of optical robotic telescopes and the satellite laser ranging station in Borowiec, Poland. These assets will contribute to the Polish and European Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) program. The Solaris component is composed of four autonomous observatories in the Southern Hemisphere. Solaris nodes are located at the South African Astronomical Observatory (Solaris-1 and Solaris-2), Siding Spring Observatory, Australia (Solaris-3) and Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, Argentina (Solaris-4). They are equipped with 0.5-m telescopes on ASA DDM-160 direct drive mounts, Andor iKon-L cameras and housed in 3.5-m Baader Planetarium (BP) clamshell domes. The Panoptes component is a network of telescopes operated by software from Sybilla Technologies. It currently consists of 4 telescopes at three locations, all on GM4000 mounts. One 0.36-m (Panoptes-COAST, STL- 1001E camera, 3.5 BP clamshell dome) and one 0.43-m (Panoptes-PIRATE, FLI 16803 camera, 4.5-m BP clamshell dome, with planned exchange to 0.63-m) telescope are located at the Teide Observatory (Tenerfie, Canary Islands), one 0.6-m (Panoptes-COG, SBIG STX 16803 camera, 4.5-m BP clamshell dome) telescope in Garching, Germany and one 0.5-m (Panoptes-MAM, FLI 16803 camera, 4.5-m BP slit dome) in Mammendorf, Germany. Panoptes-COAST and Panoptes-PIRATE are owned by The Open University (UK). Panoptes-COG is owned by the Max Planck Institute

  10. "Obamacare" vor dem Supreme Court / Guy Beaucamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beaucamp, Guy

    2016-01-01

    USA tervishoiureformi ajaloost, 2010. a. ravikindlustusreformist ja USA ülemkohtu otsusest jätta jõusse oluline osa president Barack Obama tervishoiureformist (PPACA), hinnang kohtuotsusele ja võrdlused Saksamaaga

  11. Wer hat Angst vor Ayn Rand?

    OpenAIRE

    Brühwiler, Claudia Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Das Werk der amerikanischen Schriftstellerin Ayn Rand hat in den USA sowohl die Politik als auch die Populärkultur geprägt. Ihre Ideen finden sich im amerikanischen Kongress wie auch bei den Simpsons. Die neue Übersetzung ihres Hauptwerks macht sie nun auch im deutschsprachigen Raum wieder zugänglich.

  12. Warnung vor der Differenz Warning, Difference!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margret Nitsche

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Wiederentdeckung der Gleichheit ist ein vehementes Plädoyer für die Rückkehr zum Gleichheitsfeminismus und die Abkehr von jeglichem Differenzdenken.Die Wiederentdeckung der Gleichheit (The Rediscovery of Equality is a vehement parole for a return to equity feminism and the renunciation of any thoughts on difference.

  13. A versatile stereoscopic visual display system for vestibular and oculomotor research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, P D; Roberts, D C; Shelhamer, M; Zee, D S

    1998-01-01

    Testing of the vestibular system requires a vestibular stimulus (motion) and/or a visual stimulus. We have developed a versatile, low cost, stereoscopic visual display system, using "virtual reality" (VR) technology. The display system can produce images for each eye that correspond to targets at any virtual distance relative to the subject, and so require the appropriate ocular vergence. We elicited smooth pursuit, "stare" optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and after-nystagmus (OKAN), vergence for targets at various distances, and short-term adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), using both conventional methods and the stereoscopic display. Pursuit, OKN, and OKAN were comparable with both methods. When used with a vestibular stimulus, VR induced appropriate adaptive changes of the phase and gain of the angular VOR. In addition, using the VR display system and a human linear acceleration sled, we adapted the phase of the linear VOR. The VR-based stimulus system not only offers an alternative to more cumbersome means of stimulating the visual system in vestibular experiments, it also can produce visual stimuli that would otherwise be impractical or impossible. Our techniques provide images without the latencies encountered in most VR systems. Its inherent versatility allows it to be useful in several different types of experiments, and because it is software driven it can be quickly adapted to provide a new stimulus. These two factors allow VR to provide considerable savings in time and money, as well as flexibility in developing experimental paradigms.

  14. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  15. Oregon Spotted Frog Range - CWHR [ds597

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  16. Caspian Tern Range - CWHR [ds604

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  17. Willow Flycatcher Range - CWHR [ds594

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  18. Western Pond Turtle Range - CWHR [ds598

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  19. Great Blue Heron Range - CWHR [ds609

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  20. Black Swift Range - CWHR [ds605

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  1. Bank Swallow Range - CWHR [ds606

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  2. Northern Leopard Frog Range - CWHR [ds593

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  3. Yellow Warbler Range - CWHR [ds607

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  4. Great Egret Range - CWHR [ds610

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  5. Black Rail Range - CWHR [ds595

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  6. Cascades Frog Range - CWHR [ds591

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  7. Western spadefoot Range - CWHR [ds590

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  8. Bald Eagle Range - CWHR [ds600

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  9. Snowy Egret Range - CWHR [ds611

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  10. Giant Garter Snake Range - CWHR [ds599

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  11. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  12. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  13. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  14. Compact Range Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Measures electrical properties and characteristics of antenna systems and performs radar cross section (RCS) measurements of objects. These data are used...

  15. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine J; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; de Wit, Martine; Bonde, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida's southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p<0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the wild impacts some immune function components, and thus, overall health, in the Florida manatee. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined use of medium mass resolution and desolvation introduction system for accurate plutonium determination in the femtogram range by inductively coupled plasma-sector-field mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointurier, Fabien, E-mail: fabien.pointurier@cea.fr; Pottin, Anne-Claire; Hemet, Philippe; Hubert, Amelie

    2011-03-15

    Formation of a polyatomic species made of an atom of a heavy element like lead, mercury or iridium, and atoms abundant in plasma (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen) when using an inductively coupled plasma-sector-field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS) may lead to false detection of femtograms (fg) of plutonium or bias in the measured concentrations. Mathematical corrections, based on the measurement of heavy element concentrations in the sample solutions and determination of the extents of formation of the polyatomic interferences, are efficient but time-consuming and degrade detection limits. We describe and discuss a new method based on the combination of, on the one hand, medium mass resolution (MR) of the ICP-SFMS to separate plutonium isotopes physically from interfering polyatomic species, and, on the other, use of a desolvation introduction system (DIS) to enhance sensitivity, thus partly compensating for the loss of transmission due to use of a higher resolution. Plutonium peaks are perfectly separated from the major interfering species (PbO{sub 2}, HgAr, and IrO{sub 3}) with a mass resolution of {approx} 4000. The resulting nine-fold transmission loss is partly compensated by a five-fold increase in sensitivity obtained with the DIS and a lower background. The instrumental detection limits for plutonium isotopes, calculated for measurements of pure synthetic solutions, of the new method (known as MR-DIS method) and of the one currently used in the laboratory (LR method), based on a low mass resolution equal to 360, a microconcentric nebulizer and two in-line cooled spray chambers, are roughly equivalent, at around 0.2 fg ml{sup -1}. Regarding the measurement of real-life samples, the results obtained with both methods agree and the corresponding analytical detection limits for plutonium isotopes {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Pu are of a few fg.ml{sup -1} of sample solution, slightly lower with the MR-DIS method than with the current LR method

  17. A preliminary test of the application of the Lightning Detection and Ranging System (LDAR) as a thunderstorm warning and location device for the FHA including a correlation with updrafts, turbulence, and radar precipitation echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a test of the use of a Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) remote display in the Patrick AFB RAPCON facility are presented. Agreement between LDAR and radar precipitation echoes of the RAPCON radar was observed, as well as agreement between LDAR and pilot's visual observations of lightning flashes. A more precise comparison between LDAR and KSC based radars is achieved by the superposition of LDAR precipitation echoes. Airborne measurements of updrafts and turbulence by an armored T-28 aircraft flying through the thunderclouds are correlated with LDAR along the flight path. Calibration and measurements of the accuracy of the LDAR System are discussed, and the extended range of the system is illustrated.

  18. 3D CISS, 3D MP-PAGE and 2D TSE for MRI prior to Cochlear implantation; 3D CISS, 3D MP-RAGE und 2D TSE fuer die praeoperative MRT vor Cochlea Implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.; Held, P.; Voelk, M.; Lenhart, M.; Strotzer, M. [Klinikum der Univ. Regensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Waldeck, A. [Klinikum der Univ. Regensburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde

    2000-03-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the presurgical predictive value of high resolution MRI in patients scheduled for chochlear implantation. Method and material: The presurgical MRI (3D CISS, 3D MP-RAGE with and without i.v. contrast medium, 2D TSE) findings of 54 patients and the intraoperative situation reported by the surgeon were compared retrospectively. The surgical and functional success of the cochlear implantation was evaluated. Results: We found a high degree of correlation between MRI and intraoperative findings concerning the patency of the whole cochlea and anomalies as well as in the diagnosis of pathology of the cochlear, vestibular and facial nerves and in anomalies of the internal auditory canal. However, in four out of 54 patients there was a false negative prediction regarding the patency of the cochlea. The sensitivity was 50% (4/8), the specificity 100% (46/46). Concerning the surgical success the accuracy was 100%. In all patients MRI gave sufficient anatomical information to the surgeon concerning the jugular bulb and the facial nerve. Conclusion: A high-resolution MRI protocol consisting of coronal 2D T2w TSE, 3D T2*w transverse CISS; plain and contrast enhanced sagittal T1w 3D MP-RAGE is recommended for the evaluation of candidates scheduled for cochlear implantation. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Das Ziel dieser Studie war, den praeoperativen Vorhersagewert der hochaufloesenden MRT bei Patienten, welche fuer ein Cochlea Implant vorgesehen sind, zu ermitteln. Material und Methode: Die praeoperativen Befunde der MRT (3D CISS, 3D MP-RAGE vor und nach i.v. Gabe von Gadolinium, 2D TSE) von 54 Patienten und die vom Operateur vorgefundenen intraoperativen Verhaeltnisse wurden verglichen. Sowohl der chirurgische Erfolg der Implantation als auch die Funktion des Cochlea Implants wurden evaluiert. Ergebnisse: Es zeigte sich eine hohe Uebereinstimmung der MRT-Befunde sowie der intraoperativ vorgefundenen Situation bezueglich der Offenheit der

  19. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  20. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  1. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  2. Mandibular movement range in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Medeiros, Ana Paula Magalhães; Felício, Cláudia Maria de

    2009-01-01

    identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.

  3. Marine ASV Range Surveillance System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — United States spaceports carry out the impressive task of launching and recovering spacecrafts and payloads which represent extremely unique and expensive assets....

  4. Marine ASV Range Surveillance System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — United States spaceports carry out the critical task of launching and recovering vehicles and payloads. These are extremely unique and expensive assets, and their...

  5. Radio pill antenna range test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, W. F.; Kane, R. J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to investigate the potential of a proposed 'radio pill' beacon transmitter, a range test experiment was devised and carried out in the VHF frequency range. Calculations and previous work indicated that optimum sensitivity and, thus, distance would be obtained in this frequency range provided body radio-frequency (RF) absorption was not too great. A ferrite-core loop antenna is compatible with a pill geometry and has better radiation efficiency than an air core loop. The ferrite core may be a hollow cylinder with the electronics and batteries placed inside. However, this range test was only concerned with experimentally developing test range data on the ferrite core antenna itself. A one turn strap loop was placed around a 9.5 mm diameter by 18.3 mm long stack of ferrite cores. This was coupled to a 50 Omega transmission line by 76 mm of twisted pair line and a capacitive matching section. This assembly was excited by a signal generator at output levels of -10 to +10 dBm. Signals were received on a VHF receiver and tape recorder coupled to a 14 element, circularly polarized Yagi antenna at a height of 2.5 m. Field strength measurements taken at ranges of 440, 1100, and 1714 m. Maximum field strengths referenced to 0 dBm transmitter level were -107 to -110 dB at 440 m, -124 to -127 dBm at 1100 m, and -116 to -119 dBm at 1714 m when the antenna cylinder was horizontal. Field strengths with a vertical antenna were about 6 dB below these values. The latter transmit site was elevated and had a clear line-of-site path to the receiving site. The performance of this test antenna was better than that expected from method-of-moment field calculations. When this performance data is scaled to a narrow bandwidth receiving system, ground level receiving ranges of a few to 10 km can be expected. Clear line-of-sight ranges where either or both the transmitter and receiver are elevated could vary from several km to 100 km.

  6. Systematic characterization of a 1550 nm microelectromechanical (MEMS)-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with 7.92 THz tuning range for terahertz photomixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, M. T.; Preu, S.; Cesar, J.; Paul, S.; Hajo, A. S.; Neumeyr, C.; Maune, H.; Küppers, F.

    2018-01-01

    Continuous-wave (CW) terahertz (THz) photomixing requires compact, widely tunable, mode-hop-free driving lasers. We present a single-mode microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) featuring an electrothermal tuning range of 64 nm (7.92 THz) that exceeds the tuning range of commercially available distributed-feedback laser (DFB) diodes (˜4.8 nm) by a factor of about 13. We first review the underlying theory and perform a systematic characterization of the MEMS-VCSEL, with particular focus on the parameters relevant for THz photomixing. These parameters include mode-hop-free CW tuning with a side-mode-suppression-ratio >50 dB, a linewidth as narrow as 46.1 MHz, and wavelength and polarization stability. We conclude with a demonstration of a CW THz photomixing setup by subjecting the MEMS-VCSEL to optical beating with a DFB diode driving commercial photomixers. The achievable THz bandwidth is limited only by the employed photomixers. Once improved photomixers become available, electrothermally actuated MEMS-VCSELs should allow for a tuning range covering almost the whole THz domain with a single system.

  7. Documentation of hydrochemical-facies data and ranges of dissolved-solids concentrations for the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina supplement to Professional paper 1404-L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisler, Harold; Knobel, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrochemical-facies data and ranges of dissolved- solids concentrations used to construct hydrochemical-facies maps and sections for U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1404-L have not been previously published. In this report, the data are contained on a 3-1/2 high-density diskette in a file presented in American International Standard Code for Information Exchange (ASCII) format. The file requires about 0.2 megabyte of disk space on an IBM-compatible microcomputer using the MS-DOS operating system.

  8. „… zu den wunderlichsten Schlangen der Gelehrsamkeit zusammengegliedert“. Neue Materialien zu den ‚Kosmos-Vorträgen‘ Alexander von Humboldts, nebst Vorüberlegungen zu deren digitaler Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Erdmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Alexander von Humboldts 1827/28 gehaltene Kosmos-Vorträge stellen ebenso einen kanonischen Bezugspunkt wie einen weißen Fleck in der Rezeption seines Schaffens dar. Zahlreiche Deutungen basieren auf lediglich zwei unkommentierten Leseausgaben von Collegheften anonym gebliebener Zuhörer Humboldts. Seine 2009 wiedergefundenen eigenhändigen Vorlesungsmanuskripte versprechen, diese schmale Quellenbasis zu erweitern. Alfred Dove hatte bereits 1872 auf ihre Existenz verwiesen und interpretierte sie damals als Nukleus der schriftlichen Ausarbeitung des Kosmos. Diese Sichtweise hat sich in der Rezeption gehalten, während die Materialien, die Dove beschrieb, in Vergessenheit gerieten. Der Artikel stellt anhand ausgewählter Beispiele die Vorlesungsmanuskripte Humboldts und Nachschriften seiner Zuhörer in ihrem Zusammenhang vor, entwickelt die These von der Eigenständigkeit der sogenannten Kosmos-Vorträge gegenüber dem fünfbändigen Kosmos und umreißt die wichtigsten Ziele und Inhalte der geplanten digitalen Edition. Abstract Alexander von Humboldt’s famous Kosmos-Lectures, presented in 1827/28, constitute a major benchmark as well as a blind spot in the reception of his work. Numerous interpretations are based on merely two uncommented textbook editions of notes made by anonymous listeners. Humboldt’s own lecture manuscripts, rediscovered in 2009, promise to extend the sources of interpretation. Already in 1872, Alfred Dove gave a hint to the existence of these papers. At that time, he regarded them as the nucleus of the later published Kosmos. This perception persisted up to recent times, while the existence of the papers on which Dove alluded, fell into oblivion. The article presents examples of Humboldt’s own lecture manuscripts together with notes made by his listeners. It develops the thesis of the autonomy of Humboldt’s Kosmos-Lectures towards the Kosmos, but at the same time points to aspects of continuity

  9. Comparative analysis of planetary laser ranging concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Bauer, S.; Noomen, R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; Visser, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ranging is an emerging technology for tracking interplanetary missions, offering improved range accuracy and precision (mm-cm), compared to existing DSN tracking. The ground segment uses existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology, whereas the space segment is modified with an active system. In a one-way system, such as that currently being used on the LRO spacecraft (Zuber et al., 2010), only an active detector is required on the spacecraft. For a two-way system, such as that tested by using the laser altimeter system on the MESSENGER spacecraft en route to Mercury (Smith et al., 2006), a laser transmitter system is additionally placed on the space segment, which will asynchronously fire laser pulses towards the ground stations. Although the one-way system requires less hardware, clock errors on both the space and ground segments will accumulate over time, polluting the range measurements. For a two-way system, the range measurements are only sensitive to clock errors integrated over the the two-way light time.We investigate the performance of both one- and two-way laser range systems by simulating their operation. We generate realizations of clock error time histories from Allan variance profiles, and use them to create range measurement error profiles. We subsequently perform the orbit determination process from this data to quanitfy the system's performance. For our simulations, we use two test cases: a lunar orbiter similar to LRO and a Phobos lander similar to the Phobos Laser Ranging concept (Turyshev et al., 2010). For the lunar orbiter, we include an empirical model for unmodelled non-gravitational accelerations in our truth model to include errors ihe dynamics. We include the estimation of clock parameters over a number of arc lengths for our simulations of the one-way range system and use a variety of state arc durations for the lunar orbiter simulations.We perform Monte Carlo simulations and generate true error distributions for both

  10. An algorithm for segmenting range imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments of the FY96 Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project focused on developing algorithms for segmenting range images. The image segmentation algorithm developed during the project is described here. In addition to segmenting range images, the algorithm can fuse multiple range images thereby providing true 3D scene models. The algorithm has been incorporated into the Rapid World Modelling System at Sandia National Laboratory.

  11. Criminal law in the system of legal instruments under environmental law. Shown by examples of German and U.S. American clean air policy; Das Strafrecht im System umweltrechtlicher Instrumentarien. Am Beispiel deutscher und US-amerikanischer Luftreinhaltepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, B.M. von

    1995-12-31

    The authoress presents an analysis of the entire range of governmental instruments and measures and their systematic interlacement, as available under the German or the U.S. American law for protection of the environment. This analysis is the basis for the subsequent study aiming at clarifying the legitimacy and the required design of laws and regulations defining crimes and sanctions or penalties in the system of environmental law. The authoress derives a characterisation of legislative intent and mode of application of environmental criminal law which differs from that of the ``classic`` criminal law. Pursuing from this characterisation of legal instruments and methods, and from the framework of governmental action and related alternatives available under U.S. legislation, the authoress explains a number of appoaches recommended for reform and amendment of the current German system of environmental criminal law, which hitherto has shown low efficiency. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Autorin nimmt eine Analyse der Gesamtheit staatlicher Massnahmen und ihrer systematischen Beziehungen im deutschen und US-amerikanischen Umweltrecht vor. Diese Analyse bildet die Grundlage der zentralen Frage der Untersuchung nach der Legitimitaet und notwendigen Struktur umweltstrafrechtlicher Normen. Dabei kommt die Autorin zu einer vom klassischen Kernstrafrecht abweichenden Funktionsbestimmung des Umweltstrafrechts. Ausgehend von dieser Positionsbestimmung des Strafrechts und den in den USA vorgefundenen Handlungsalternativen entwickelt die Autorin eine Reihe von Reformvorschlaegen als Antwort auf die derzeitige Ineffizienz der des deutschen Umweltstrafrechts. (orig.)

  12. Phase relations and thermodynamics of the system Fe-Cr-0 in the temperature range of 1600 °C to 1825 °C (1873 to 2098 K) under strongly reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, N. Y.; Darken, L. S.; Muan, Arnulf

    1991-10-01

    Equilibrium relations involving alloy and oxide phases in the system Fe-Cr-O were determined in the temperature range from 1600 °C to 1825 °C (1873 to 2087 K). Compositions of coexisting alloy and spinel phases were established as a function of oxygen pressure by equilibrating liquid Fe-Cr alloys with iron chromite (Fe3-xCrxO4) solid solutions at 1600 °C and 1700 °C. Combinations of these experimental data and thermodynamic calculations were used to construct composition-oxygen pressure diagrams for the system at 1600 °C and 1700 °C. Additional runs for selected mixtures were made at still higher temperatures (1700 °C to 1825 °C), and thermodynamic parameters were derived for spinel-containing phase assemblages at temperatures up to 1865 °C. The spinel phases occurring in the present system are typically in the high-chromium range of the solid-solution series Fe3O4-Cr3O4, i.e., in the range between stoichiometric iron chromite (FeCr2O4) and Cr3O4. The activities of the various oxide components of the spinel solid solution at 1600 °C were calculated from experimentally determined parameters for coexisting alloy and spinel phases, as well as by statistical-mechanical modeling of the same spinel solid solution based on crystal-chemical considerations. The agreement between the two sets of results was excellent. Temperature variation of parameters characterizing the univariant equilibria spinel + Cr2O3 + alloy and spinel + alloy + liquid oxide was established. The univariant curves were found to display temperature maxima of 1715 °C ± 5 °C and approximately 1865 °C, respectively. In analogy with relations in the Cr-O system, the increase in divalent chromium of the liquid oxide phase with decreasing oxygen potential was identified as the main cause of the sharp decrease in liquidus temperatures of chromites in contact with Fe-Cr alloys of high Cr contents.

  13. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under this...

  14. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 2: Individual Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-20

    Little is known about broiler chicken ranging behaviour. Previous studies have monitored ranging behaviour at flock level but whether individual ranging behaviour varies within a flock is unknown. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 1200 individual ROSS 308 broiler chickens across four mixed sex flocks in two seasons on one commercial farm. Ranging behaviour was tracked from first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter flocks and 44 days of age in summer flocks. We identified groups of chickens that differed in frequency of range visits: chickens that never accessed the range (13 to 67% of tagged chickens), low ranging chickens (15 to 44% of tagged chickens) that accounted for <15% of all range visits and included chickens that used the range only once (6 to 12% of tagged chickens), and high ranging chickens (3 to 9% of tagged chickens) that accounted for 33 to 50% of all range visits. Males spent longer on the range than females in winter (p < 0.05). Identifying the causes of inter-individual variation in ranging behaviour may help optimise ranging opportunities in free-range systems and is important to elucidate the potential welfare implications of ranging.

  15. The vestibular implant: frequency-dependency of the electrically evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Berg, Raymond; Guinand, Nils; Nguyen, T A Khoa; Ranieri, Maurizio; Cavuscens, Samuel; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Stokroos, Robert; Kingma, Herman; Perez-Fornos, Angelica

    2014-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) shows frequency-dependent behavior. This study investigated whether the characteristics of the electrically evoked VOR (eVOR) elicited by a vestibular implant, showed the same frequency-dependency. Twelve vestibular electrodes implanted in seven patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) were tested. Stimuli consisted of amplitude-modulated electrical stimulation with a sinusoidal profile at frequencies of 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz. The main characteristics of the eVOR were evaluated and compared to the "natural" VOR characteristics measured in a group of age-matched healthy volunteers who were subjected to horizontal whole body rotations with equivalent sinusoidal velocity profiles at the same frequencies. A strong and significant effect of frequency was observed in the total peak eye velocity of the eVOR. This effect was similar to that observed in the "natural" VOR. Other characteristics of the (e)VOR (angle, habituation-index, and asymmetry) showed no significant frequency-dependent effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, at least at the specific (limited) frequency range tested, responses elicited by a vestibular implant closely mimic the frequency-dependency of the "normal" vestibular system.

  16. The vestibular implant: Frequency-dependency of the electrically evoked Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eVan De Berg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR shows frequency-dependent behavior. This study investigated whether the characteristics of the electrically evoked VOR (eVOR elicited by a vestibular implant, showed the same frequency-dependency.Twelve vestibular electrodes implanted in 7 patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction were tested. Stimuli consisted of amplitude-modulated electrical stimulation with a sinusoidal profile at frequencies of 0.5Hz, 1Hz, and 2Hz. The main characteristics of the eVOR were evaluated and compared to the natural VOR characteristics measured in a group of age-matched healthy volunteers who were subjected to horizontal whole body rotations with equivalent sinusoidal velocity profiles at the same frequencies.A strong and significant effect of frequency was observed in the total peak eye velocity of the eVOR. This effect was similar to that observed in the natural VOR. Other characteristics of the (eVOR (angle, habituation-index, and asymmetry showed no significant frequency-dependent effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, at least at the specific (limited frequency range tested, responses elicited by a vestibular implant closely mimic the frequency-dependency of the normal vestibular system.

  17. Individual differences in BEV drivers' range stress during first encounter of a critical range situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Krems, Josef F

    2016-11-01

    It is commonly held that range anxiety, in the form of experienced range stress, constitutes a usage barrier, particularly during the early period of battery electric vehicle (BEV) usage. To better understand factors that play a role in range stress during this critical period of adaptation to limited-range mobility, we examined individual differences in experienced range stress in the context of a critical range situation. In a field experiment, 74 participants drove a BEV on a 94-km round trip, which was tailored to lead to a critical range situation (i.e., small available range safety buffer). Higher route familiarity, trust in the range estimation system, system knowledge, subjective range competence, and internal control beliefs in dealing with technology were clearly related to lower experienced range stress; emotional stability (i.e., low neuroticism) was partly related to lower range stress. These results can inform strategies aimed at reducing range stress during early BEV usage, as well as contribute to a better understanding of factors that drive user experience in low-resource systems, which is a key topic in the field of green ergonomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  19. Network-independent electrification ranging from the Solar Home System via Alps Association Houses up to electric power supply of a whole village; Netzferne Elektrifizierung vom Solar Home System ueber Alpenvereinshaeuser bis hin zur Dorfstromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Holz, F.; Sauer, D.U. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    According to assessment of the European Union approximately two billion people live worldwide without having a connection to a public electric power grid, half of them even live in areas without any access to electricity at all. In the medium term, high investment costs along with a simultaneously low electric power demand (smaller than 1 KWh/day) will impede grid connection of these isolated, scattered populated areas for economic reasons. Photovoltaic plants are one of the most interesting technical options for the solution of this energy supply task. However, a lot painful experience gained in pilot projects, has shown, that various frame conditions must be taken into consideration for planning these plants. Apart from technical aspects, cultural, social, economic and financial aspects must be taken into account. While the pure electric power supply is improved, other central areas of living like food and water supply, the health system, education system and infrastructure measures must be improved as well in order to achieve lasting improvement of the living standard of the people living away from grid supply. (orig.)

  20. PLA2R Antibody Levels and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Membranous Nephropathy and Non-Nephrotic Range Proteinuria under Treatment with Inhibitors of the Renin-Angiotensin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Elion; Harendza, Sigrid; Pinnschmidt, Hans; Panzer, Ulf; Stahl, Rolf A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with primary membranous nephropathy (MN) who experience spontaneous remission of proteinuria generally have an excellent outcome without need of immunosuppressive therapy. It is, however, unclear whether non-nephrotic proteinuria at the time of diagnosis is also associated with good prognosis since a reasonable number of these patients develop nephrotic syndrome despite blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. No clinical or laboratory parameters are available, which allow the assessment of risk for development of nephrotic proteinuria. Phospholipase A2 Receptor antibodies (PLA2R-Ab) play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of primary MN and are associated with persistence of nephrotic proteinuria. In this study we analysed whether PLA2R-Ab levels might predict development of nephrotic syndrome and the clinical outcome in 33 patients with biopsy-proven primary MN and non-nephrotic proteinuria under treatment with blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. PLA2R-Ab levels, proteinuria and serum creatinine were measured every three months. Nephrotic-range proteinuria developed in 18 (55%) patients. At study start (1.2±1.5 months after renal biopsy and time of diagnosis), 16 (48%) patients were positive for PLA2R-Ab. A multivariate analysis showed that PLA2R-Ab levels were associated with an increased risk for development of nephrotic proteinuria (HR = 3.66; 95%CI: 1.39–9.64; p = 0.009). Immunosuppressive therapy was initiated more frequently in PLA2R-Ab positive patients (13 of 16 patients, 81%) compared to PLA2R-Ab negative patients (2 of 17 patients, 12%). PLA2R-Ab levels are associated with higher risk for development of nephrotic-range proteinuria in this cohort of non-nephrotic patients at the time of diagnosis and should be closely monitored in the clinical management. PMID:25313791