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Sample records for range village chickens

  1. Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease among free range village chickens in Tanzania

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    Yongolo, M.G.S.; Maeda Machangu, A.; Minga, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    Newcastle disease in free-range village chickens was confirmed by retrospective data analysis and epidemiological cross-sectional studies. The combination of serological survey and virus isolation and characterisation established seasonal occurrence of Newcastle disease (ND) in free-range village chickens. The highest sero-prevalence (81.5) and virus isolation frequency (18/27) were found in the period between June and October. The field isolates of Newcastle virus (NDV) were confirmed to be PMV-1 serotype by polyclonal PMV-1 antiserum and monoclonal antibody (mAb) U85. All isolates were not inhibited by mAb 716/161 specific for pigeon panzootic NDV, showing that the current Tanzanian field isolates have antigenic variation and were not involved in the recent pigeon NDV panzootic. Mean death time determination characterised isolates into velogenic, mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes. Isolation of NDV from apparently healthy ducks revealed the role of ducks in the epidemiology of ND in free-range village chickens in Tanzania. Studies are recommended to determine the similarities of the field isolates from different sources within Tanzania and to panzootic NDV from other countries. Strategic control of ND in free-range village chickens is recommended taking into consideration the presence of different age groups. Infectious bursal disease was histologically diagnosed in free-range village chickens. Therefore, there is a need of carrying out research on the role of other diseases and determine their prevalence and their contribution to the mortalities experienced in the free-range village chickens. (author)

  2. Growth performance of free-range village chickens fed dehydrated processed food waste

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    Hossein, S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dehydrated processed food waste (DPFW inclusion in the diets on the growth performance (feed intake, body weight gain, body weight change and feed conversion ratio of free-range village chickens was investigated. Food waste collected from 20 different restaurants of Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang Selangor was processed into DPFW containing 89.3% dry matter, 16% crude protein, 7.1% crude fat, 3.7% crude fiber, 7.4% crude ash, 3.07% NaCl, 1.56% Ca, 0.87% phosphorous and 4053 kcal/kg GE. A total of of 180 village chickens of the Arabian breed were randomly allocated into four dietary treatments of 0 (control, 20, 40 and 60% DPFW for 5-9 week grower and 10-14 week finisher periods with three replicates (15 birds for each replicate. The results showed that the highest feed intake in grower and finisher phases was observed in the control group by 634.0 g and 2,722.1 g, respectively, while the lowest was in 60% DPFW with 586.3 g for grower and 2,542.6 g for finisher phases (P0.05. Body weight gain and body weight change declined linearly with increasing levels of DPFW of more than 20% in the village chicken diets during both grower and finisher rearing phases. FAR increased (P0.05. In conclusion it seems that the dehydrated processed food waste could substitute 20% of formulated feed in grower and finisher phases of free-range village chickens without any adverse effects on growth performance.

  3. A serological survey for avian infectious bronchitis virus and Newcastle disease virus antibodies in backyard (free-range) village chickens in Mexico.

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    Gutierrez-Ruiz, E J; Ramirez-Cruz, G T; Camara Gamboa, E I; Alexander, D J; Gough, R E

    2000-12-01

    The commercial flocks in Yucatan, Mexico are free of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in its velogenic viscerotropic form, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A seroprevalence survey in 30 villages using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and NDV antibodies was carried out from December 1997 to June 1998. The seroprevalences were 56.5% (95% CI 50-63%) for IBV and 2.2% (95% CI 0.5-3.8%) for NDV. All the villages had chickens that were positive for antibodies to IBV and nine of the villages had chickens that were positive for antibodies to NDV. This suggests that IBV may be responsible for a large proportion of the respiratory disease observed in backyard chickens in Yucatan. The implications of these findings are discussed, including the highly susceptible status of the backyard chickens in Yucatan to NDV and the possibility of this virus being one cause of the syndrome known as mortandad by the local people.

  4. Evaluation of oral vaccination of village chickens against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the suitability of soaked parboiled cracked maize as a carrier of I-2 vaccine for oral immunization of village chickens. Chickens were vaccinated once via ocular route and orally with cracked maize at the second and fifth weeks of the experiment. Post vaccination serum was collected 4, 7, ...

  5. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa

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    Khulekhani Sedwell Khanyile

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterised and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population’s genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n =146, Malawi (n =30 and Zimbabwe (n =136 were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29-0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK and 0.24 (VD at SNP marker interval of 500kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective population

  6. Characterization of village chicken production performance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a total population size of about 65 million, chicken make up the largest share in terms of number ... each PA, 40 households were randomly selected, making a total sample size ..... Production potential and qualitative traits of indigenous ...

  7. Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondombo, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens

  8. Reconstructing the origin and dispersal patterns of village chickens across East Africa: insights from autosomal markers.

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    Mwacharo, J M; Nomura, K; Hanada, H; Han, J L; Amano, T; Hanotte, O

    2013-05-01

    Unravelling the genetic history of any livestock species is central to understanding the origin, development and expansion of agricultural societies and economies. Domestic village chickens are widespread in Africa. Their close association with, and reliance on, humans for long-range dispersal makes the species an important biological marker in tracking cultural and trading contacts between human societies and civilizations across time. Archaezoological and linguistic evidence suggest a complex history of arrival and dispersion of the species on the continent, with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop analysis revealing the presence of five distinct haplogroups in East African village chickens. It supports the importance of the region in understanding the history of the species and indirectly of human interactions. Here, through a detailed analysis of 30 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 657 village chickens from four East African countries (Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Sudan), we identify three distinct autosomal gene pools (I, II and III). Gene pool I is predominantly found in Ethiopia and Sudan, while II and III occur in both Kenya and Uganda. A gradient of admixture for gene pools II and III between the Kenyan coast and Uganda's hinterland (P = 0.001) is observed, while gene pool I is clearly separated from the other two. We propose that these three gene pools represent genetic signatures of separate events in the history of the continent that relate to the arrival and dispersal of village chickens and humans across the region. Our results provide new insights on the history of chicken husbandry which has been shaped by terrestrial and maritime contacts between ancient and modern civilizations in Asia and East Africa. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

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    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  10. Variation in village chicken production systems among agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe.

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    Muchadeyi, F C; Wollny, C B A; Eding, H; Weigend, S; Makuza, S M; Simianer, H

    2007-08-01

    The degree to which village chickens are integrated in the smallholder farming systems differs depending on the socio-economic, cultural and biological factors within each system. The objective of this study was to characterise the village chicken farming systems and identify possible threats to, and opportunities for, local chickens in the agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to households randomly selected from five districts, Risitu (n=97), Hurungwe (n=56), Gutu (n=77), Gokwe-South (n=104) and Beitbridge (n=37) in eco-zones I-V, respectively. Age of head of household averaged 47 years (SD = 14.3). Land holdings per household averaged 4.82 ha (SD = 3.6). Overall, 17.7 percent of the households ranked livestock as the major source of income compared to 70.8 percent who ranked crops as the main contributor. Chicken flock size averaged 16.7 (SD = 12.4), and the highest flock sizes were observed in eco-zones I and IV. Households owning cattle, goats and other livestock assigned less important ranks to chickens. Chickens were usedmainly for the provision of meat and eggs whilst the use of chicken feathers and investment were uncommon practises. Results indicate that more support is necessary for village chickens in the non-cropping regions of the country.

  11. Pathogenicity and molecular analysis of an infectious bursal disease virus isolated from Malaysian village chickens.

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    Tan, D Y; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Aini, I

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of the pathogenic infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) that infected avian species other than commercial chickens were largely unknown. In this study, by using in vivo and molecular methods, we had characterized an IBDV isolate (named 94268) isolated from an infectious bursal disease (IBD) outbreak in Malaysian village chickens--the adulterated descendant of the Southeast Asian jungle fowl (Gallus bankiva) that were commonly reared in the backyard. The 94268 isolate was grouped as the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strain because it caused severe lesions and a high mortality rate in village chickens (>88%) and experimentally infected specific-pathogen-free chickens (>66%). In addition, it possessed all of the vvIBDV molecular markers in its VP2 gene. Phylogenetic analysis using distance, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods revealed that 94268 was monophyletic with other vvIBDV isolates and closely related to the Malaysian vvIBDV isolates. Given that the VP2 gene of 94268 isolate was almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to other field IBDV isolates that affected the commercial chickens, we therefore concluded that IBD infections had spread across the farm boundary. IBD infection in the village chicken may represent an important part of the IBD epidemiology because these birds could harbor the vvIBDV strain and should not be overlooked in the control and prevention of the disease.

  12. Gene diversity, agroecological structure and introgression patterns among village chicken populations across North, West and Central Africa

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    Leroy Grégoire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickens represent an important animal genetic resource for improving farmers’ income in Africa. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of village chickens across a subset of African countries. Four hundred seventy-two chickens were sampled in 23 administrative provinces across Cameroon, Benin, Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and Morocco. Geographical coordinates were recorded to analyze the relationships between geographic distribution and genetic diversity. Molecular characterization was performed with a set of 22 microsatellite markers. Five commercial lines, broilers and layers, were also genotyped to investigate potential gene flow. A genetic diversity analysis was conducted both within and between populations. Results High heterozygosity levels, ranging from 0.51 to 0.67, were reported for all local populations, corresponding to the values usually found in scavenging populations worldwide. Allelic richness varied from 2.04 for a commercial line to 4.84 for one population from Côte d’Ivoire. Evidence of gene flow between commercial and local populations was observed in Morocco and in Cameroon, which could be related to long-term improvement programs with the distribution of crossbred chicks. The impact of such introgressions seemed rather limited, probably because of poor adaptation of exotic birds to village conditions, and because of the consumers’ preference for local chickens. No such gene flow was observed in Benin, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire, where improvement programs are also less developed. The clustering approach revealed an interesting similarity between local populations found in regions sharing high levels of precipitation, from Cameroon to Côte d’Ivoire. Restricting the study to Benin, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire, did not result in a typical breed structure but a south-west to north-east gradient was observed. Three genetically differentiated areas (P  Conclusions

  13. Serological evidence of avian encephalomyelitis virus and Pasteurella multocida infections in free-range indigenous chickens in Southern Mozambique.

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    Taunde, Paula; Timbe, Palmira; Lucas, Ana Felicidade; Tchamo, Cesaltina; Chilundo, Abel; Dos Anjos, Filomena; Costa, Rosa; Bila, Custodio Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    A total of 398 serum samples from free-range indigenous chickens originating from four villages in Southern Mozambique were tested for the presence of avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) and Pasteurella multocida (PM) antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. AEV and PM antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed. The proportion of positive samples was very high: 59.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 51.7-67.7%) for AEV and 71.5% (95% CI 67.7-77.3%) for PM. Our findings revealed that these pathogens are widespread among free-range indigenous chickens in the studied villages and may represent a threat in the transmission of AEV and PM to wild, broiler or layer chickens in the region. Further research is warranted on epidemiology of circulating strains and impact of infection on the poultry industry.

  14. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 2: Individual Variation.

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    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-20

    Little is known about broiler chicken ranging behaviour. Previous studies have monitored ranging behaviour at flock level but whether individual ranging behaviour varies within a flock is unknown. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 1200 individual ROSS 308 broiler chickens across four mixed sex flocks in two seasons on one commercial farm. Ranging behaviour was tracked from first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter flocks and 44 days of age in summer flocks. We identified groups of chickens that differed in frequency of range visits: chickens that never accessed the range (13 to 67% of tagged chickens), low ranging chickens (15 to 44% of tagged chickens) that accounted for range visits and included chickens that used the range only once (6 to 12% of tagged chickens), and high ranging chickens (3 to 9% of tagged chickens) that accounted for 33 to 50% of all range visits. Males spent longer on the range than females in winter ( p ranging behaviour may help optimise ranging opportunities in free-range systems and is important to elucidate the potential welfare implications of ranging.

  15. Farmer-driven research on village chicken production in Sanyati, Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, C.V.

    2002-01-01

    Studies on village chicken production in Sanyati, Zimbabwe, were initiated in 1998. The objective was, in cooperation with the farmers, to find means to improve chicken production by decreasing mortality and increasing growth. The aim is that more chickens should reach slaughter weight. Thus, household consumption and income can be increased. The improvements will facilitate women empowerment since women traditionally are responsible for chicken management. The studies are primarily carried out as on-farm trials but on-station support trials are also conducted. The approach has been practical and multi-factorial, while improvements in management and feeding have been subjects for research. The studies are on-going and, thus, no final results are presented in this paper. All figures shown on mortality and growth should be considered as indications and trends only. However, the results so far have shown that high mortality among young chickens is a major constraint. The causes of mortality are numerous, e.g. predation, diseases, parasites and accidents. (author)

  16. Village-based indigenous chicken production system in north-west Ethiopia.

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    Halima, H; Neser, F W C; Van Marle-Koster, E; De Kock, A

    2007-04-01

    Surveys using both purposive and random sampling methods was carried out in four zones of north-west Ethiopia to describe the village-based poultry production systems and constraints in order to design future improvement and conservation strategies. The majority of the respondents were female (74.16%). This indicated that most of the time the women, whether in male-headed or female-headed households, are responsible for chicken rearing while the men are responsible for crop cultivation and other off-farm activities. About 99% of the respondents gave supplementary feeds to their chickens. Almost all farmers provided night shelter for their chickens, in part of the kitchen (1.36%), in the main house (39.07%), in hand-woven baskets (7.29%), in bamboo cages (1.51%) or in a separate shed purpose-made for chickens (50.77%). The major causes of death of chickens during the study were seasonal outbreaks of Newcastle disease (locally known as fengele) and predation. It is important to collect and conserve local poultry breeds before they are fully replaced by the so-called improved breeds. As most of the poultry production is managed by women, focusing on training and education of women will enable not only the improvement of poultry production but also family planning and the overall living standards of the family and the community.

  17. Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Eimeria species in Ethiopian village chickens.

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    Luu, Lisa; Bettridge, Judy; Christley, Robert M; Melese, Kasech; Blake, Damer; Dessie, Tadelle; Wigley, Paul; Desta, Takele T; Hanotte, Olivier; Kaiser, Pete; Terfa, Zelalem G; Collins, Marisol; Lynch, Stacey E

    2013-10-15

    Coccidiosis, caused by species of the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria, is a major disease of chickens. Eimeria species are present world-wide, and are ubiquitous under intensive farming methods. However, prevalence of Eimeria species is not uniform across production systems. In developing countries such as Ethiopia, a high proportion of chicken production occurs on rural smallholdings (i.e. 'village chicken production') where infectious diseases constrain productivity and surveillance is low. Coccidiosis is reported to be prevalent in these areas. However, a reliance on oocyst morphology to determine the infecting species may impede accurate diagnosis. Here, we used cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to investigate the prevalence of Eimeria oocyst shedding at two rural sites in the Ethiopian highlands. Faecal samples were collected from 767 randomly selected chickens in May or October 2011. In addition, 110 chickens were sampled in both May and October. Eimeria oocysts were detected microscopically in 427 (56%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 52-59%) of the 767 faecal samples tested. Moderate clustering of positive birds was detected within households, perhaps suggesting common risk factors or exposure pathways. Seven species of Eimeria were detected by real time PCR in a subset of samples further analysed, with the prevalence of some species varying by region. Co-infections were common; 64% (23/36, 95% CI 46-79%) of positive samples contained more than one Eimeria spp. Despite frequent infection and co-infection overt clinical disease was not reported. Eimeria oocysts were detected significantly more frequently in October (248/384, 65%, 95% CI 60-69%), following the main rainy season, compared to May (179/383, 47%, 95% CI 42-52%, p Eimeria oocyst positivity in May did not significantly affect the likelihood of detecting Eimeria oocyst five months later perhaps suggesting infection with different species or immunologically distinct strains. Eimeria spp oocysts

  18. The chicken or the egg? Exploring bi-directional associations between Newcastle disease vaccination and village chicken flock size in rural Tanzania.

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    Julia de Bruyn

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators". This article evaluates the uptake and outcomes of fee-for-service ND vaccination programs in eight rural villages in the semi-arid central zone of Tanzania. It represents part of an interdisciplinary program seeking to address chronic undernutrition in children through improvements to existing poultry and crop systems. Newcastle disease vaccination uptake was found to vary substantially across communities and seasons, with a significantly higher level of vaccination amongst households participating in a longitudinal study of children's growth compared with non-participating households (p = 0.009. Two multivariable model analyses were used to explore associations between vaccination and chicken numbers, allowing for clustered data and socioeconomic and cultural variation amongst the population. Results demonstrated that both (a households that undertook ND vaccination had a significantly larger chicken flock size in the period between that vaccination campaign and the next compared with those that did not vaccinate (p = 0.018; and (b households with larger chicken flocks at the time of vaccination were significantly more likely to participate in vaccination programs (p < 0.001. Additionally, households vaccinating in all three vaccination campaigns held over 12 months were identified to have significantly larger chicken flocks at the end of this period (p < 0.001. Opportunities to

  19. Cross sectional epidemiological investigation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free range chickens in Narsingdi district, Bangladesh.

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    Ferdushy, Tania; Hasan, Mohammed Tabaruk; Golam Kadir, A K M

    2016-09-01

    Rural poultry production in Bangladesh is mainly based on the free range or backyard poultry production system. This backyard poultry plays a vital tool for poverty alleviation as well as for empowerment of poor women of this country. However, this production system has disadvantage of susceptibility to many diseases including higher burden of parasitic infection. Therefore this cross sectional epidemiological investigation was done to determine the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in Narsingdi district, Bangladesh. To conduct this study a total of 150 chickens from three different villages of Narsingdi district, Bangladesh (50 chickens per village) were collected by random sampling method and killed by cervical disarticulation. Thereafter, all the chickens were necropsied and gastrointestinal tracts were examined macroscopically for the presence helminth infection. In total two nematode (Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum,) and one cestode (Raillietina spp.) were identified by post mortem examination. Raillietina spp. was detected as the most prevalent helminth species (86-92 %) followed by A. galli (70-86 %), and H. gallinarum (70-76 %) in studied villages. In some chickens petechial hemorrhage were observed in the small intestinal wall which was associated with the A. galli infection and for some birds white tiny nodules were detected in case of H. gallinarum infection. No significant difference in parasite prevalence was observed between male and female bird as well as among three studied villages (P > 0.05). We observed that most of chickens were infected with more than one species of parasites. This finding suggests that the poultry production system in rural areas of Bangladesh and the environmental conditions are very favourable for the transmission and persistence of the parasite species in rural areas of Bangladesh.

  20. Economic analysis of interventions to improve village chicken production in Myanmar.

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    Henning, J; Morton, J; Pym, R; Hla, T; Sunn, K; Meers, J

    2013-07-01

    A cost-benefit analysis using deterministic and stochastic modelling was conducted to identify the net benefits for households that adopt (1) vaccination of individual birds against Newcastle disease (ND) or (2) improved management of chick rearing by providing coops for the protection of chicks from predation and chick starter feed inside a creep feeder to support chicks' nutrition in village chicken flocks in Myanmar. Partial budgeting was used to assess the additional costs and benefits associated with each of the two interventions tested relative to neither strategy. In the deterministic model, over the first 3 years after the introduction of the interventions, the cumulative sum of the net differences from neither strategy was 13,189Kyat for ND vaccination and 77,645Kyat for improved chick management (effective exchange rate in 2005: 1000Kyat=1$US). Both interventions were also profitable after discounting over a 10-year period; Net Present Values for ND vaccination and improved chick management were 30,791 and 167,825Kyat, respectively. The Benefit-Cost Ratio for ND vaccination was very high (28.8). This was lower for improved chick management, due to greater costs of the intervention, but still favourable at 4.7. Using both interventions concurrently yielded a Net Present Value of 470,543Kyat and a Benefit-Cost Ratio of 11.2 over the 10-year period in the deterministic model. Using the stochastic model, for the first 3 years following the introduction of the interventions, the mean cumulative sums of the net difference were similar to those values obtained from the deterministic model. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the cumulative net differences were strongly influenced by grower bird sale income, particularly under improved chick management. The effects of the strategies on odds of households selling and consuming birds after 7 months, and numbers of birds being sold or consumed after this period also influenced profitability. Cost variations for

  1. Effects of feeding the herb Borreria latifolia on the meat quality of village chickens in Malaysia.

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    Abbood, Ali A; Kassim, Azhar Bin; Jawad, Hasan S A; Manap, Yazid Abdul; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to estimate the meat quality characteristics of village chickens (Gallus gallus) fed diets supplemented with dry leaves of Borreria latifolia (BL) used as a potential antioxidant source in chicken feed. In this study, 252 sexed 9-week-old village chickens with mean live body weight of 1,525.4 g for males and 1,254.1 g for females were divided into 7 groups (each group 18 birds) for each sex represented in 2 experiments. The first experiment was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of BL and the effect on meat quality through a comparison with Rosmarinus officinalis (RO); hence, 3 groups were conducted and included: T1 (control), basal diet without supplementation; T2, basal diet with 1% of BL; T3, basal diet with 1% of RO. T2 and T3 significantly affect pH value, lipid oxidation, cooking loss, and overall acceptability compared to T1, while no significant difference was observed between the dietary groups in respect of drip loss, color, tenderness, fatty acid profile, and meat composition. Furthermore, a significant effect of sex on lipid oxidation, pH, yellowness, and fatty acid profile was observed. There was no significant effect of sex on WHC, tenderness, lightness, redness, and sensory evaluation. A significant influence of postmortem aging period was detected on lipid oxidation, pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and redness. The obtained result in this study revealed a significance in the interaction of herb by sex in pH parameter and between herb and sex, herb by aging period, sex by aging period, and the herb by sex by aging period interactions with regard to lipid oxidation test. The second experiment was to estimate the effect of 3 different levels of BL on meat quality. Four groups were provided and involved: T1 (control), basal diet without supplementation; T2, basal diet with 1.5% of BL; T3, basal diet with 2% of BL; and T4, basal diet with 2.5% of BL. The result of this study showed a significant effect (P < 0.05) of the

  2. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa

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    Dikeledi P. Malatji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39 and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48 provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%, Heterakis gallinarum (15.56% and Capillaria spp. (4.00%; tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10% and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00% and Eimeria spp. (29.46%. Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90% samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49% from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers. Keywords: Helminthes; Village chickens; Smallholder farming systems; Faecal samples

  3. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 1: Factors Related to Flock Variability.

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    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-20

    Little is known about the ranging behaviour of chickens. Understanding ranging behaviour is required to improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 300 individual broiler chickens in each of four mixed sex ROSS 308 flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. Ranging behaviour was tracked from the first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter and 44 days of age in summer. Range use was higher than previously reported from scan sampling studies. More chickens accessed the range in summer (81%) than winter (32%; p range use was greater in summer flocks (4.4 ± 0.1 visits for a total of 26.3 ± 0.8 min/day) than winter flocks (3.2 ± 0.2 visits for a total of 7.9 ± 1.0 min/day). Seasonal differences were only marginally explained by weather conditions and may reflect the reduction in range exposure between seasons (number of days, hours per day, and time of day). Specific times of the day ( p ranging and external factors that may explain ranging preferences.

  4. Prevalence of coccidiosis among village and exotic breed of chickens in Maiduguri, Nigeria

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    Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Coccidiosis is an important enteric parasitic disease of poultry associated with significant economic losses to poultry farmers worldwide. This survey was conducted from June 2014 through July 2015 with the main goal of investigating the prevalence and associated risk factors of coccidiosis among village and exotic breeds of chickens in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 fecal samples from live and slaughtered birds comprising 284 young, 141, growers and 175 adult birds; 379 male and 221 female birds; 450 exotic and 150 local breeds of birds were randomly collected either as bird’s fresh droppings or cutting open an eviscerated intestine of slaughtered birds, while noting their age, sex, and breeds. Samples were analyzed using standard parasitological methods and techniques. Results: An overall prevalence rate of 31.8% (95% confidence interval: 28.07-35.52 was obtained. Higher prevalence rates were recorded in growing birds 58.9% (50.78-67.02, female birds 35.3% (29.00-41.60, exotic birds 42.4% (37.83- 46.97, and broiler birds 68.7% (61.28-76.12. Similarly, higher infection rates were also observed among birds sampled from Mairi ward 66.7% (56.03-77.37, intensive management system 46.5% (41.61-51.39, and constructed local cages 54.0% (46.02-61.98. The difference in prevalence of coccidiosis among age groups, breeds, among exotic breeds, sampling locations, husbandry management systems, and litter management systems was statistically significant (0.05 of infection rates was observed in sex. Conclusion: Coccidiosis is endemic in both commercial and backyard poultry farms in Maiduguri due to poor management practices encouraging Eimeria oocysts build-up. It is therefore, recommended that poultry farmers should practice strict biosecurity measures on their farms, creating awareness on the prevalence of coccidiosis, routine vaccination against coccidiosis and educating poultry farmers on the need for

  5. Low-Input Intervention for Traditional Free-Range Indigenous Chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okitoi, L.O.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine the effects on productivity, flock dynamics and bird offtake of 3 low input interventions were evaluated in 4 locations in western Kenya representing different agro ecological zones (Butula (LM1); Malava (LM2); Uranga (LM3) and Sabatia (UM1)). These interventions were: (1) daytime confinement of chicks using a coop or pen while feeding them most of the day (CONF); (2) supplementation using locally available feed resources above scavenging levels for the rest of the flock (SUPP), and (3) vaccination against Newcastle disease (VACC) significantly improved survival rates by more than 60%, egg production improved by 48.3% and weekly losses of birds in flocks were reduced. Growth rates however were not affected. Intervention CONF significantly (p<0.05) improved survival rates; egg production per hen per year, growth rates and it reduced annual general losses of birds. The intervention SUPP in addition to CONF further improved productivity of village flocks.S Results confirm the general statement of that NCD is the number one killer in scavenging chicken production systems. Farmers observed that VACC had a negative effect on young chicks less than 3 weeks old, suggesting that vaccination of chickens should be carried at latter ages. Results further indicated that the existing village feed resource base limited growth rates, survival rates, and egg production in a scavenging system. It also suggests that there was a quantitative deficit of the village feed resource base in scavenging system. NCD vaccination had the highest average returns to labour (Ksh. 280 per man per day) with other interventions having less than Ksh. 280 pere man-day. The perception of farmers seen in proportion of farmers interested in the intervention showed that VACC was preferred more than other interventions because it delt with the most serious problem and results were immediately obvious. Subsequent choice of feeding and housing interventions further

  6. Fatty acid composition of cooked chicken meat and chicken meat products as influenced by price range at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D I

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine fatty acid composition of skinless chicken breast and leg meat portions and chicken burgers and nuggets from the economy price range, standard price range (both conventional intensive rearing) and the organic range from four leading supermarkets. Few significant differences in the SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition of breast and leg meat portions were found among price ranges, and supermarket had no effect. No significant differences in fatty acid concentrations of economy and standard chicken burgers were found, whereas economy chicken nuggets had higher C16:1, C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans and C18:3 n-3 concentrations than had standard ones. Overall, processed chicken products had much higher fat contents and SFA than had whole meat. Long chain n-3 fatty acids had considerably lower concentrations in processed products than in whole meat. Overall there was no evidence that organic chicken breast or leg meat had a more favourable fatty acid composition than had meat from conventionally reared birds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diseases of free-ranging chickens in the Qwa-Qwa district of the northeastern Free State province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.O. Thekisoe

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 177 free-ranging chickens from 19 Qwa-Qwa villages were bled from wing veins over a period of 6 months (June-November 2000. Serological tests indicated that 5 % of chickens tested had been exposed to Newcastle disease, 43 % to infectious bronchitis and 63 % to Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. McMaster and Visser sieve techniques were used to determine helminth and coccidia from pooled fresh faecal samples. Helminths isolated in 37 % of the villages investigated were Heterakis, Ascaridia and Capillaria species. Eimeria species were also isolated in 32 % of the villages investigated. The red fowl mite (Dermanyssus gallinae was isolated from some of the birds and their nests. Data from a questionnaire survey indicated that all farmers interviewed had never received any technical support and that their chickens had never been vaccinated against any avian diseases. Only 10.5 % of the owners interviewed had scientific knowledge on poultry diseases. There is an urgent need for the government to support free-ranging poultry farmers by providing subsidised vaccinations and technical support in order to develop and stimulate economic development in impoverished rural areas of South Africa.

  8. Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nigussie; van der Waaij, Liesbeth H; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A M

    2010-10-01

    To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers' choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a participatory group discussion. A total of 225 households (45 households from each of five Woredas) were interviewed. The questionnaire was designed to collect data covering general information on village poultry production such as socio-management characteristics, production objectives, population structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits, and farmers' selection practices. The participatory farmers' discussions were designed to involve stakeholders in defining the breeding objective "traits" and deriving their relative importance in the production environment based on the different functions of chickens and "traits" identified in the interviews. The results showed that production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions followed by the use as source of income and meat for home consumption. The production system in all geographic regions studied revealed similar features generally characterized by extensive scavenging management, absence of immunization programs, increased risk of exposure of birds to disease and predators, and reproduction entirely based on uncontrolled natural mating and hatching of eggs using broody hens. Farmers' ratings of indigenous chickens with respect to modern breeds showed the highest significance of the adaptive traits in general, and the superior merits of indigenous chickens to high yielding exotic breeds in particular. Adaptation to the production environment was the most

  9. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance patterns in enterococci from intensive and free range chickens in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Akua Serwaah; Rickard, Heather; Ndi, Olasumbo; Sexton, Margaret; Barton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Resistance to antimicrobials in enterococci from poultry has been found throughout the world and is generally recognized as associated with antimicrobial use. This study was conducted to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic profile of enterococcal isolates of intensive (indoor) and free range chickens from 2008/09 and 2000 in order to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance associated with different management systems. The minimum inhibitory concentrations in faecal enterococci isolates were determined by agar dilution. Resistance to bacitracin, ceftiofur, erythromycin, lincomycin, tylosin and tetracycline was more common among meat chickens (free range and intensive) than free range egg layers (Pfree range meat chickens.

  10. Natural infection of free-range chickens with the ascarid nematode Toxocara sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L

    2015-11-01

    Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs.

  11. Cross sectional epidemiological investigation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free range chickens in Narsingdi district, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdushy, T.; Hasan, Mohammed Tabaruk; Golam Kadir, A. K. M.

    2016-01-01

    of susceptibility to many diseases including higher burden of parasitic infection. Therefore this cross sectional epidemiological investigation was done to determine the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in Narsingdi district, Bangladesh. To conduct this study a total of 150 chickens from...... three different villages of Narsingdi district, Bangladesh (50 chickens per village) were collected by random sampling method and killed by cervical disarticulation. Thereafter, all the chickens were necropsied and gastrointestinal tracts were examined macroscopically for the presence helminth infection....... In total two nematode (Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum,) and one cestode (Raillietina spp.) were identified by post mortem examination. Raillietina spp. was detected as the most prevalent helminth species (86–92 %) followed by A. galli (70–86 %), and H. gallinarum (70–76 %) in studied villages...

  12. Effect of different energy to protein ratios in starter diet with dehydrated food waste, superworms and unfertilized eggs on growth performance of village chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia, N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted using 144 day-old chicks of Arabian strain village chicken to determine the effect of dietary protein and energy ratios in starter diets with dehydrated food waste, superworms and unfertilized eggs on growth performance in closed confinement system. Dehydrated food waste was the main energy source, superworms and unfertilized eggs were the main protein sources. Six experimental diets were formulated to have 3 energy to protein ratios (134, 150 and 164 with 150 energy to protein ratio as the control.. Every ratio had two different protein sources with the same inclusion level. Each treatment had 2 replicates with 12 birds each in a complete randomized design. Feed and water were provided ad libitum from 0 - 42 d. Proximate analysis of the main ingredients in the diet showed dehydrated food waste had 4,500.54 kcal/kg of gross energy and 25.18% of crude protein while superworms and unfertilized eggs had crude protein of 46.54 and 46.33%, respectively. The study showed that a single diet of energy:protein ratio of 134 kcal ME/kg protein supported optimum growth rate of Arabian strain village chicken from 1 to 42 d of rearing. Feed conversion ratio improved with increasing dietary energy level. These findings have implications on ration formulation for village chickens in Malaysia.

  13. Comparisons of management practices and farm design on Australian commercial layer and meat chicken farms: Cage, barn and free range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela Bullanday; Singh, Mini; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Barnes, Belinda; Glass, Kathryn; Moloney, Barbara; Lee, Amanda; Groves, Peter

    2017-01-01

    There are few published studies describing the unique management practices, farm design and housing characteristics of commercial meat chicken and layer farms in Australia. In particular, there has been a large expansion of free range poultry production in Australia in recent years, but limited information about this enterprise exists. This study aimed to describe features of Australian commercial chicken farms, with particular interest in free range farms, by conducting on-farm interviews of 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland. Comparisons between the different enterprises (cage, barn and free range) were explored, including stocking densities, depopulation procedures, environmental control methods and sources of information for farmers. Additional information collected for free range farms include range size, range characteristics and range access. The median number of chickens per shed was greatest in free range meat chicken farms (31,058), followed by barn meat chicken (20,817), free range layer (10,713), barn layer (9,300) and cage layer farms (9,000). Sheds had cooling pads and tunnel ventilation in just over half of both barn and free range meat chicken farms (53%, n = 8) and was least common in free range layer farms (16%, n = 4). Range access in free range meat chicken farms was from sunrise to dark in the majority (93%, n = 14) of free range meat chicken farms. Over half of free range layer farms (56%, n = 14) granted range access at a set time each morning; most commonly between 9:00 to 10.00am (86%, n = 12), and chickens were placed back inside sheds when it was dusk.

  14. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Free-Range Chicken in Sidi Thabet, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Kaboudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enteric diseases are an important concern to the poultry industry and coccidiosis is imposing a significant economic burden worldwide. Objectives. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in free-range chicken in Sidi Thabet, northeast Tunisia. Methods. Six hundred and thirty free-range chickens along with fecal samples were collected from 15 flocks in this region and two hundred chickens were found positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp. Intestines were dissected and examined for macroscopic lesions. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The mean lesion scores were usually low (2+ were attributed mainly to the caeca. Results. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%: E. tenella (61.5%, E. maxima (12%, and E. acervulina (1.5%. Mixed Eimeria species infection was observed with overall prevalence 26.5%. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05 among infection rates, age groups, season, diarrhea, and type of chicken. Conclusion. This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in free-range chicken in this region. Further additional studies are needed to develop better preventive measures against coccidiosis in the country.

  15. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Spencer, David; Hagen, Christian A.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Goodin, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the overall occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has declined by 84% commensurate with population trends. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Our objectives were to (1) document changes in the areal extent and connectivity of grasslands in the identified lesser prairie-chicken range in Kansas, USA, (>60% of extant lesser prairie-chicken population) from the 1950s to 2013 using remotely sensed data and (2) assess the potential of the Conservation Reserve Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP) to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs (1950s and 1960s). Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches. With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the 1950s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3.6% between the 1950s and 1985 from 18,455 km2 to 17,788 km2. Since 1985, the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased 11.9% to 19,898 km2 due to implementation of CRP, although the area of grassland decreased between 1994 and 2013 as CRP contracts were not renewed by landowners. Since 1986 grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP. While the CRP has been successful in

  16. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century, the overall occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus has declined by 84% commensurate with population trends. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Our objectives were to (1 document changes in the areal extent and connectivity of grasslands in the identified lesser prairie-chicken range in Kansas, USA, (>60% of extant lesser prairie-chicken population from the 1950s to 2013 using remotely sensed data and (2 assess the potential of the Conservation Reserve Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs (1950s and 1960s. Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches. With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the 1950s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3.6% between the 1950s and 1985 from 18,455 km2 to 17,788 km2. Since 1985, the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased 11.9% to 19,898 km2 due to implementation of CRP, although the area of grassland decreased between 1994 and 2013 as CRP contracts were not renewed by landowners. Since 1986 grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP. While the CRP has been successful

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Chang, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella , and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella , thereby posing a threat to public health.

  18. Comparison of three diagnostic methods for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidinejat, H; Nabavi, L; Mayahi, M; Ghourbanpoor, M; Pourmehdi Borojeni, M; Norollahi Fard, S; Shokrollahi, M

    2014-09-01

    Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens is an indicator of the prevalence and distribution pattern of T. gondii in the environment. For this purpose, serologic assays especially modified agglutination test (MAT) is the main approach in the literature. The main goal of this study was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on amplification of first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of ribosomal DNA gene, ELISA, and MAT to demonstrate T. gondii infection in free range chicken. A total of 106 adult free - range chickens were killed. Blood, whole heart and brain samples were taken. Sera were examined for the presence of T. gondii antibodies by ELISA and MAT as well. Selected tissues were used for PCR and bioassay in mice. The results revealed that 48.11%, 51.89%, 46.23% and 27.36% of chickens were positive in ELISA, MAT, PCR and bioassay in mice respectively. Good correlation between the results of PCR, ELISA and MAT were detected, but not with bioassay in mice. Compared with PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 92.16% and 96.36% respectively and also for MAT, the sensitivity was 81.81% and the specificity was 92.15%. The specific diagnosis of T. gondii infection in chickens is central to a better understanding of the epidemiology and dynamics of transmission among the various host population and is particularly important for planning effective optimal prevention and control programs. Our data in the present study demonstrated that PCR, ELISA and the MAT are helpful and precise methods to detect T. gondii in naturally infected free-range chickens.

  19. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal inclusion in free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasato, I; De Marco, M; Rotolo, L; Renna, M; Lussiana, C; Dabbou, S; Capucchio, M T; Biasibetti, E; Costa, P; Gai, F; Pozzo, L; Dezzutto, D; Bergagna, S; Martínez, S; Tarantola, M; Gasco, L; Schiavone, A

    2016-12-01

    Insects are currently being considered as a novel protein source for animal feeds, because they contain a large amount of protein. The larvae of Tenebrio molitor (TM) have been shown to be an acceptable protein source for broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, but till now, no data on histological or intestinal morphometric features have been reported. This study has had the aim of evaluating the effects of dietary TM inclusion on the performance, welfare, intestinal morphology and histological features of free-range chickens. A total of 140 medium-growing hybrid female chickens were free-range reared and randomly allotted to two dietary treatments: (i) a control group and (ii) a TM group, in which TM meal was included at 75 g/kg. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates, with 14 chicks per pen. Growth performance, haematological and serum parameters and welfare indicators were evaluated, and the animals were slaughtered at the age of 97 days. Two birds per pen (10 birds/treatment) were submitted to histological (liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney, heart, glandular stomach and gut) and morphometric (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) investigations. The inclusion of TM did not affect the growth performance, haematological or serum parameters. The morphometric and histological features were not significantly affected either, thus suggesting no influence on nutrient metabolization, performance or animal health. Glandular stomach alterations (chronic flogosis with epithelial squamous metaplasia) were considered paraphysiological in relation to free-range farming. The observed chronic intestinal flogosis, with concomitant activation of the lymphoid tissue, was probably due to previous parasitic infections, which are very frequently detected in free-range chickens. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that yellow mealworm inclusion does not affect the welfare, productive performances or morphological features of free-range chickens

  20. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Free-Range Chicken in Sidi Thabet, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboudi, Khaled; Umar, Sajid; Munir, Muhammad Tanveer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Enteric diseases are an important concern to the poultry industry and coccidiosis is imposing a significant economic burden worldwide. Objectives. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in free-range chicken in Sidi Thabet, northeast Tunisia. Methods. Six hundred and thirty free-range chickens along with fecal samples were collected from 15 flocks in this region and two hundred chickens were found positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp. Intestines were dissected and examined for macroscopic lesions. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The mean lesion scores were usually low (2+) were attributed mainly to the caeca. Results. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%: E. tenella (61.5%), E. maxima (12%), and E. acervulina (1.5%). Mixed Eimeria species infection was observed with overall prevalence 26.5%. There was a statistically significant difference (P free-range chicken in this region. Further additional studies are needed to develop better preventive measures against coccidiosis in the country.

  1. Serological evidence of egg drop syndrome’1976 (EDS’76) in free-range chickens at chicken market sites in Jos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    SALIHU, A. Elayo; JOANNIS, T. Mamuela; ONWULIRI, F. Chukwuemeka; IBU, J. Okpabi

    2010-01-01

    Serological evidence of EDS'76 virus in free-range chickens at the various chicken markets (Kasuwan kaji, New market, Gada biyu, and Kugiya) located in Jos and its environs was investigated through antibody detection. The serum samples randomly collected from chickens were assayed for antibodies against EDS'76 virus by haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. It was observed that 292 (15.2%) of the 1920 sera tested were positive for EDS'76 antibodies with HI titres r...

  2. Rangewide genetic analysis of Lesser Prairie-Chicken reveals population structure, range expansion, and possible introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; DeYoung, Randall W; Fike, Jennifer; Hagen, Christian A.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Larsson, Lena C.; Patten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has been markedly reduced due to loss and fragmentation of habitat. Portions of the historical range, however, have been recolonized and even expanded due to planting of conservation reserve program (CRP) fields that provide favorable vegetation structure for Lesser Prairie-Chickens. The source population(s) feeding the range expansion is unknown, yet has resulted in overlap between Lesser and Greater Prairie-Chickens (T. cupido) increasing the potential for hybridization. Our objectives were to characterize connectivity and genetic diversity among populations, identify source population(s) of recent range expansion, and examine hybridization with the Greater Prairie-Chicken. We analyzed 640 samples from across the range using 13 microsatellites. We identified three to four populations corresponding largely to ecoregions. The Shinnery Oak Prairie and Sand Sagebrush Prairie represented genetically distinct populations (F ST > 0.034 and F ST > 0.023 respectively). The Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic and Mixed Grass ecoregions appeared admixed (F ST = 0.009). Genetic diversity was similar among ecoregions and N e ranged from 142 (95 % CI 99–236) for the Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic to 296 (95 % CI 233–396) in the Mixed Grass Prairie. No recent migration was detected among ecoregions, except asymmetric dispersal from both the Mixed Grass Prairie and to a lesser extent the Sand Sagebrush Prairie north into adjacent Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic (m = 0.207, 95 % CI 0.116–0.298, m = 0.097, 95 % CI 0.010–0.183, respectively). Indices investigating potential hybridization in the Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic revealed that six of the 13 individuals with hybrid phenotypes were significantly admixed suggesting hybridization. Continued monitoring of diversity within and among ecoregions is warranted as are actions promoting genetic connectivity and range expansion.

  3. Nonbreeding home‐range size and survival of lesser prairie‐chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Plumb, Reid T.; Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Kraft, John D.; Lautenbach, Jonathan D.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    The lesser prairie‐chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a species of conservation concern with uncertain regulatory status, has experienced population declines over the past century. Most research on lesser prairie‐chickens has focused on the breeding season, with little research conducted during the nonbreeding season, a period that exerts a strong influence on demography in other upland game birds. We trapped lesser prairie‐chickens on leks and marked them with either global positioning system (GPS) satellite or very high frequency (VHF) transmitters to estimate survival and home‐range size during the nonbreeding season. We monitored 119 marked lesser prairie‐chickens in 3 study areas in Kansas, USA, from 16 September to 14 March in 2013, 2014, and 2015. We estimated home‐range size using Brownian Bridge movement models (GPS transmitters) and fixed kernel density estimators (VHF transmitters), and female survival using Kaplan–Meier known‐fate models. Average home‐range size did not differ between sexes. Estimated home‐range size was 3 times greater for individuals fitted with GPS satellite transmitters ( = 997 ha) than those with VHF transmitters ( = 286 ha), likely a result of the temporal resolution of the different transmitters. Home‐range size of GPS‐marked birds increased 2.8 times relative to the breeding season and varied by study area and year. Home‐range size was smaller in the 2013–2014 nonbreeding season ( = 495 ha) than the following 2 nonbreeding seasons ( = 1,290 ha and  = 1,158 ha), corresponding with drought conditions of 2013, which were alleviated in following years. Female survival () was high relative to breeding season estimates, and did not differ by study area or year ( = 0.73 ± 0.04 [SE]). Future management could remain focused on the breeding season because nonbreeding survival was 39–44% greater than the previous breeding season; however, considerations of total space

  4. Assessing range-wide habitat suitability for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Timmer, Jennifer M.; Boal, Clint W.; Butler, Matthew; Pitman, James C.; Kyle, Sean; Klute, David; Beauprez, Grant M.; Janus, Allan; Van Pelt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Population declines of many wildlife species have been linked to habitat loss incurred through land-use change. Incorporation of conservation planning into development planning may mitigate these impacts. The threatened Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is experiencing loss of native habitat and high levels of energy development across its multijurisdictional range. Our goal was to explore relationships of the species occurrence with landscape characteristics and anthropogenic effects influencing its distribution through evaluation of habitat suitability associated with one particular habitat usage, lekking. Lekking has been relatively well-surveyed, though not consistently, in all jurisdictions. All five states in which Lesser Prairie-Chickens occur cooperated in development of a Maxent habitat suitability model. We created two models, one with state as a factor and one without state. When state was included it was the most important predictor, followed by percent of land cover consisting of known or suspected used vegetation classes within a 5000 m area around a lek. Without state, land cover was the most important predictor of relative habitat suitability for leks. Among the anthropogenic predictors, landscape condition, a measure of human impact integrated across several factors, was most important, ranking third in importance without state. These results quantify the relative suitability of the landscape within the current occupied range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. These models, combined with other landscape information, form the basis of a habitat assessment tool that can be used to guide siting of development projects and targeting of areas for conservation.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii: prevalence and characterization of new genotypes in free-range chickens from south Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fernando Emmanuel Gonçalves; Sasse, João Pedro; Minutti, Ana Flávia; Miura, Ana Carolina; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Cardim, Sergio Tosi; Martins, Thais Agostinho; de Seixas, Mércia; Yamamura, Milton Issashi; Su, Chunlei; Garcia, João Luis

    2018-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals including humans. Recent studies showed that T. gondii strains from South America are genetically diverse. The present work aimed to determine T. gondii prevalence in free-ranging chicken in northwest Parana state in Brazil by two serological tests, to isolate the parasites from seropositive chickens and to genotype the isolates. Antibodies to T. gondii in 386 serum samples from 24 farms were investigated by immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) and modified agglutination test (MAT). Samples having titers ≥ 16 were considered positive for both tests. Among the 386 serum samples, 102 (26.4%) were positive for IFA, 64 (16.6%) were positive for MAT, 47 (12.2%) were positive in both tests, and 119 (30.8%) were positive in at least one of the two tests. Brain and pool of heart, lung, and liver from the 119 seropositive chickens were used for mouse bioassay to isolate the parasites. Thirty eight (31.9%) of these seropositive chickens were considered positives in mouse bioassay and 18 isolates were obtained. The isolates were characterized by 10 PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2, alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Results of genotyping were compared with the genotypes in ToxoDB database. It revealed ten genotypes, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotypes #6 (n = 2), #19 (n = 1), #21 (n = 2), #111 (n = 2), #152 (n = 1), and #175 (n = 1) and four new types not described before. Our results confirmed a high genetic diversity of this parasite in southern Brazil and also showed that the use of two serological tests in combination can improve the chance of T. gondii isolation. More studies should be taken to determine the zoonotic potential of chickens in the transmission of T. gondii.

  6. Free Dietary Choice and Free-Range Rearing Improve the Product Quality, Gait Score, and Microbial Richness of Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry welfare has been extensively studied; however, there is a lack of rigorous scientific knowledge relating to the different aspects of welfare factors and how this may contribute to the production quantity and product quality as well as the welfare of chickens. Therefore, we conducted an integrated study to compare welfare factors in chickens by providing free dietary choice under cage rearing, and further comparing cage rearing with free-range rearing. One hundred chickens each were allocated to a cage rearing group with conventional feeding (CC, a cage rearing group with free dietary choice of mealworms (FDM, a cage rearing group with free dietary choice of mealworms and fresh grass (FDMG, and a free-range rearing system group with free dietary choice of mealworms and fresh grass (FRMG. Results showed that under cage rearing, free dietary choice contributed to better meat quality and gait score, higher values of blood platelets, and a richer gut microbial composition, but poorer egg production than CC chickens. As compared to FDMG, FRMG chickens showed better meat quality, gait score, and feather conditions, as well as a richer gut microbial composition; however, they had poorer egg production and a poorer foot pad and foot feather condition. We conclude that free dietary choice and free-range rearing systems improve the product quality, gait score, and microbial richness of chickens.

  7. The need for a holistic view on disease problems in free-range chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permin, A.; Pedersen, G.

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to modern poultry production, village-based poultry production is often characterised by a range of diseases occurring at the same time. Most often free-range poultry have sub-clinical infections with a high number of endo- and ecto-parasites. The significance of these infections is not known in detail, but there are some indications that parasites have an immuno-suppressive effect on the animals thus enhancing the pathogenicity of other diseases. Further, it is postulated that other diseases than Newcastle disease (ND) are present in free-range poultry production systems and that a successful development of this production system is only achieved when the exact causes of death and the effect of concurrent diseases are known. (author)

  8. Performance of free-range chickens reared in production modules enriched with shade net and perches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJB Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment in a free-range chicken production system on live performance as a function of microclimate, physiological parameters, and performance parameters. Four production modules were divided into four pens with 10 birds each, totaling 60 birds. The following treatments were applied: access to a paddock (TEST, access to a paddock with perches (PER, access to a paddock with artificial shade (SHA, and access to the paddock with perches and artificial shade (PESH. The PESH production module presented the best globe temperature (Tbg,ºC and enthalpy (h, kJ/kg, and thereby, the best thermal environmental conditions, which ensured the longest permanence time of the birds in the paddock. The SHA and PESH modules promoted the lowest respiratory rate and shank and comb temperatures. Live performance was influenced by the presence of environmental enrichment (modules SHA and PESH, with the highest live weight (LW and weight gain (WG and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR and metabolizable energy intake (MEI. Parts yield, such as giblets, were not influenced by production modules, except for PESH, which promoted higher offal weight. In general, chickens reared in enriched production modules presented greatest performance and comfort results and were considered close to optimal rearing conditions.

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of two Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, C S; Franco, P S; Silva, N M; Silva, D A O; Ferro, E A V; Pena, H F J; Soares, R M; Gennari, S M; Mineo, J R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and characterize the genotypic and phenotypic features of two isolates of this parasite, considering the importance of these hosts in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 108 free-range chickens were obtained from ten different districts, and submitted to the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies, and brain and heart tissue samples from infected chickens were processed for mouse bioassay. An overall seroprevalence of 71·3% was found and antibody titres ranged from 16 to 4096. After confirmation of seropositivity by mouse bioassay, the determination of the T. gondii genotypes of two isolates was performed by PCR-RFLP, using primers for the following markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, new SAG2, Apico and CS3. These T. gondii isolates, designated TgChBrUD1and TgChBrUD2, were obtained from heart samples of free-range chickens. The TgChBrUD1 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 11 and the TgChBrUD2 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 6. Both isolates demonstrated high virulence in a rodent model, with the TgChBrUD1 isolate able to induce brain cysts, in accord with its pattern of multiplication rates in human fibroblast culture. Taken together, these results reveal high prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens throughout Uberlândia, indicating an important degree of oocyst environmental contamination and the existence of considerable risk for T. gondii transmission to humans by consumption of free-range chicken as a food source.

  10. A projection of lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) populations range-wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathan W.; Converse, Sarah J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, Clay T.; Allan, Nathan L.; O'Meilia, Chris M.

    2017-08-09

    We built a population viability analysis (PVA) model to predict future population status of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus, LEPC) in four ecoregions across the species’ range. The model results will be used in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Species Status Assessment (SSA) for the LEPC. Our stochastic projection model combined demographic rate estimates from previously published literature with demographic rate estimates that integrate the influence of climate conditions. This LEPC PVA projects declining populations with estimated population growth rates well below 1 in each ecoregion regardless of habitat or climate change. These results are consistent with estimates of LEPC population growth rates derived from other demographic process models. Although the absolute magnitude of the decline is unlikely to be as low as modeling tools indicate, several different lines of evidence suggest LEPC populations are declining.

  11. Use of prebiotics and probiotics of bacterial and yeast origin for free-range broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pelícia

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotics and prebiotics of bacterial and yeast origin on the performance, development of the digestive system, carcass yield and meat quality of free-range broiler chickens. Five hundred and sixty male chicks of the strain ISA S757-N were reared from one to 84 days old. The birds were distributed in four treatments according to a completely randomized block design: T1 = Control, T2 = Probiotics and Prebiotics of bacterial origin, T3 = Probiotics and prebiotics of yeast origin, T4 = Probiotics and prebiotics of bacterial origin + probiotics and prebiotics of yeast origin. There were four repetitions with 35 birds per repetition, and the birds had access to a pasture area after 35 days of age. Characteristics evaluated were performance, development of the digestive system, carcass and parts yield, abdominal fat, breast meat physical measurements (length, width and height and meat quality parameters (pH from breast and leg meat, cooking loss and shearing force from breast meat. Lower mortality (p<0.05 and higher weight gain from 64 to 77 and 64 to 84 days of age were seen in birds supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics of bacterial origin compared to the non-supplemented birds (control. There were significant differences (p<0.05 among treatments for carcass yield. Birds supplemented with both probiotics and prebiotics of microbial and yeast origin (T4 showed higher carcass yield than control birds. Supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics of bacterial origin (T2 or the supplementation of these together with those of yeast origin (T4 reduced mortality and increased the carcass yield in free-range broiler chickens.

  12. Effect of free-range access, shelter type and weather conditions on free-range use and welfare of slow-growing broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadig, Lisanne M.; Rodenburg, Bas; Ampe, Bart; Reubens, Bert; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Free-range access for broiler chickens can benefit animal welfare because the birds have access to a more natural environment and more opportunities to perform natural behaviours than in indoor systems. Also, they have more space and more environmental enrichment, which could lead to better leg

  13. New Toxoplasma gondii genotypes isolated from free-range chickens from the Fernando de Noronha, Brazil: unexpected findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide comparison of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free range chickens has indicated that T. gondii isolates from Brazil are phenotypically and genetically different than isolates from other countries; most strains from Brazil are pathogenic to mice, there is great genetic variability, most iso...

  14. Isolation and RFLP genotyping of toxoplasma gondii in free-range chicken(Gallus domesticus) in Grenada, West Indies, revealed widespread and dominance of clonal type III parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the present cross sectional study were to estimate the prevalence and to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens from Grenada, West Indies. Using the modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 39 (26.9%) of 145 free-range chickens with ...

  15. Risk of Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli from Commercial Broiler and Free-Range Retail Chicken in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hussain

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli infections are a growing public health concern. This study analyzed the possibility of contamination of commercial poultry meat (broiler and free-range with pathogenic and or multi-resistant E. coli in retail chain poultry meat markets in India. We analyzed 168 E. coli isolates from broiler and free-range retail poultry (meat/ceca sampled over a wide geographical area, for their antimicrobial sensitivity, phylogenetic groupings, virulence determinants, extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL genotypes, fingerprinting by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC PCR and genetic relatedness to human pathogenic E. coli using whole genome sequencing (WGS. The prevalence rates of ESBL producing E. coli among broiler chicken were: meat 46%; ceca 40%. Whereas, those for free range chicken were: meat 15%; ceca 30%. E. coli from broiler and free-range chicken exhibited varied prevalence rates for multi-drug resistance (meat 68%; ceca 64% and meat 8%; ceca 26%, respectively and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC contamination (5 and 0%, respectively. WGS analysis confirmed two globally emergent human pathogenic lineages of E. coli, namely the ST131 (H30-Rx subclone and ST117 among our poultry E. coli isolates. These results suggest that commercial poultry meat is not only an indirect public health risk by being a possible carrier of non-pathogenic multi-drug resistant (MDR-E. coli, but could as well be the carrier of human E. coli pathotypes. Further, the free-range chicken appears to carry low risk of contamination with antimicrobial resistant and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC. Overall, these observations reinforce the understanding that poultry meat in the retail chain could possibly be contaminated by MDR and/or pathogenic E. coli.

  16. Risk of Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli from Commercial Broiler and Free-Range Retail Chicken in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Arif; Shaik, Sabiha; Ranjan, Amit; Nandanwar, Nishant; Tiwari, Sumeet K; Majid, Mohammad; Baddam, Ramani; Qureshi, Insaf A; Semmler, Torsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Islam, Mohammad A; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli infections are a growing public health concern. This study analyzed the possibility of contamination of commercial poultry meat (broiler and free-range) with pathogenic and or multi-resistant E. coli in retail chain poultry meat markets in India. We analyzed 168 E. coli isolates from broiler and free-range retail poultry (meat/ceca) sampled over a wide geographical area, for their antimicrobial sensitivity, phylogenetic groupings, virulence determinants, extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) genotypes, fingerprinting by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) PCR and genetic relatedness to human pathogenic E. coli using whole genome sequencing (WGS). The prevalence rates of ESBL producing E. coli among broiler chicken were: meat 46%; ceca 40%. Whereas, those for free range chicken were: meat 15%; ceca 30%. E. coli from broiler and free-range chicken exhibited varied prevalence rates for multi-drug resistance (meat 68%; ceca 64% and meat 8%; ceca 26%, respectively) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) contamination (5 and 0%, respectively). WGS analysis confirmed two globally emergent human pathogenic lineages of E. coli , namely the ST131 ( H 30-Rx subclone) and ST117 among our poultry E. coli isolates. These results suggest that commercial poultry meat is not only an indirect public health risk by being a possible carrier of non-pathogenic multi-drug resistant (MDR)- E. coli , but could as well be the carrier of human E. coli pathotypes. Further, the free-range chicken appears to carry low risk of contamination with antimicrobial resistant and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Overall, these observations reinforce the understanding that poultry meat in the retail chain could possibly be contaminated by MDR and/or pathogenic E. coli.

  17. Quality characteristics of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Débora Cristina Fernandes; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the quality parameters of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system. Proximate composition, color, pH, shear force, microbial quality and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Both free-range and industrial chicken meat presented PSE (pale, soft and exudative) anomaly ( L * > 53). An inverse correlation between lightness, pH and shear force was observed. The free range broiler meat had higher yellow color ( b * 11.56) and shear force (2.75 kgf) and lower red color ( a * 1.65) and pH (5.75) in comparison to the industrial broiler meat, due intensive physical activity on growing phase and influence of the pre-slaughter stress on the rigor mortis. The thigh cut from free range broiler meat showed higher protein levels (18.00%), while to the thigh and drumstick cuts of industrial broiler meat showed higher total fat levels (3.4 and 5.0%, respectively). In general, each strain and chickens producing methods gave the peculiar characteristics to meat (chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial).

  18. Comparison of the measurement of heart rate in adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) by auscultation and electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C F; Gavaghan, B J; McSweeney, D; Powell, V; Lisle, A

    2014-12-01

    To compare the heart rates of adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) measured by auscultation with a stethoscope with those measured simultaneously using electrocardiography (ECG). With each bird in a standing position, estimation of the heart rate was performed by placing a mark on paper for every 4 beats for roosters and 8 beats for hens as detected by auscultation over 30 s, while simultaneous ECG was performed. Heart rates measured by auscultation showed a high correlation (r = 0.97) with those measured by ECG. There was a high correlation between the heart rates of adult free-range chickens measured by auscultation with a stethoscope and those measured simultaneously using ECG. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. Isolation and RFLP Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Range Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Grenada, West Indies, Revealed Widespread and Dominance of Clonal Type III Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikweto, Alfred; Sharma, Ravindra N; Tiwari, Keshaw P; Verma, Shiv K; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Kwok, Oliver C; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of the present cross-sectional study were to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from Grenada, West Indies. Using the modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 39 (26.9%) of 145 free-range chickens with titers of 25 in 7 chickens, 50 in 6 chickens, 100 in 2 chickens, and 200 or higher in 24 chickens. The hearts of the 39 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in mice; viable T. gondii was isolated from 20 and further propagated in cell culture. Genotyping of T. gondii DNA extracted from cell-cultured tachyzoites using the 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed 4 genotypes, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP no. 2 (Type III), no. 7, no. 13, and no. 259 (new). These results indicated that T. gondii population genetics in free-range chickens seems to be moderately diverse with ToxoDB no. 2 (Type III) as the most frequent (15/20 = 75%) compared to other genotypes in Grenada.

  20. Raptor community composition in the Texas Southern High Plains lesser prairie-chicken range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, A.C.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.; Lucia, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Predation can be a factor in preventing prey population growth and sustainability when prey populations are small and fragmented, and when predator density is unrelated to the density of the single prey species. We conducted monthly raptor surveys from February 2007 to May 2009 in adjacent areas of the Texas Southern High Plains (USA) that do and do not support lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act. During the summer period corresponding to prairie-chicken nesting and brood-rearing, Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) were the most abundant raptor. During the lekking and overwintering period, the raptor community was diverse, with northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) being the most abundant species. Raptor abundance peaked during the early autumn and was lowest during the spring. Utility poles were a significant predictor of raptor density at survey points and Swainson's hawks and all raptors, pooled, were found in greater densities in non-prairie-chicken habitat dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). Avian predation risk on prairie-chickens, based on presence and abundance of raptors, appears to be greatest during winter when there is a more abundant and diverse raptor community, and in areas with utility poles.

  1. Antibacterial power Village Fowl Egg Albumen (Gallus domesticus and Kate chicken (Gallus Bantam against fecal Coliform Bacteria Species at Eggshell Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur Abstract: This study aims to identify the species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and Bantam and analyze the influence of chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam on the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. This study is experimental with the independent variable in the form of chicken egg albumen and kate. The dependent variable in the form of growth inhibition zone fecal coliform bacteria. Tests performed by the agar diffusion method. Testing the antibacterial activity of chicken egg albumen and Bantam done by measuring the diameter of growth inhibition zone of each species colonies of fecal coliform bacteria in the medium Nutrient Agar. The research data is the measurement data growth inhibition zone diameter species of fecal coliform bacteria. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance single, and continued with LSD 1%. Results of the study are: (1 species fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and chicken egg is Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, ozaenae Klebsiella, and Escherichia vulneris; and (2 there is the effect of different chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam towards the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. Key Words: albumen of eggs, chicken, Bantam, antibacterial, fecal coliform bacteria Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate

  2. Inheritance of a new albino mutation in Brazilian free-range black chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Jorge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A genetically recessive albino mutation, which inhibits pigment development in the eyes, skin, and feathers of domestic chickens from Brazil, is described. This mutation appeared in a flock of completely black chickens of a private breeder. There are no information on the origin, breed, or specific line of the birds. Pigment inhibition is apparently complete in the feathers and eyes. Bird sight is very impaired, but no histological examination was carried out. Ratios obtained in F2 and backcrossed birds indicate that a single autosomal recessive gene is responsible for the condition. The data suggest that the absence of melanin in the eyes, skin, and feathers (symbol cc is a mutation of the pigmented C wild gene.

  3. Effect of a free-range raising system on growth performance, carcass yield, and meat quality of slow-growing chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K H; Shi, S R; Dou, T C; Sun, H J

    2009-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range raising systems on growth performance, carcass yield, and meat quality of slow-growing chickens. Slow-growing female chickens, Gushi chickens, were selected as the experimental birds. Two hundred 1-d-old female chicks were raised in a pen for 35 d. On d 36, ninety healthy birds, with similar BW (353.7+/-32.1g), were selected and randomly assigned to 2 treatments (indoor treatment and free-range treatment, P>0.05). Each treatment was represented by 3 groups containing 15 birds (45 birds per treatment). During the indoor treatment, the chickens were raised in floor pens in a conventional poultry research house (7 birds/m2). In the free-range treatment, the chickens were housed in a similar indoor house (7 birds/m2); in addition, they also had a free-range grass paddock (1 bird/m2). All birds were provided with the same starter and finisher diets and were raised for 112 d. Results showed that the BW and weight gain of the chickens in the free-range treatment were much lower than that of the chickens in the indoor floor treatments (Pfree-range raising system on eviscerated carcass, breast, thigh, and wing yield (P>0.05). However, the abdominal fat yield and tibia strength (P0.05) by the free-range raising system. The data indicated that the free-range raising system could significantly reduce growth performance, abdominal fat, and tibia strength, but with no effect on carcass traits and meat quality in slow-growing chickens.

  4. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  5. Effects of Hen Age and Egg Weight Class on the Hatchability of Free Range Indigenous Chicken Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Abudabos, AM; Aljumaah, RS; Algawaan, AS; Al-Sornokh, H; Al-Atiyat, RM

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In total, 806 eggs of free-range Hassawi indigenous chickens were collected from local farm in Saudi Arabia. Eggs were weekly collected for 11 weeks. Initial egg weight (IEW) was recorded, and eggs were graded into four classes (A: 35-40 g, B: 40-45 g, C: 45-50 g, and D: 50-55 g). Eggs were stored for seven days at 75-80% relative humidity and 14-16 C, after which egg weight losses (WL0) were calculated. During incubation, eggs were weighed on days 7 (W7) and 14 (W14), and egg weight...

  6. Effects of free-range access on production parameters and meat quality, composition and taste in slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, Lisanne M; Rodenburg, T Bas; Reubens, Bert; Aerts, Johan; Duquenne, Barbara; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-12-01

    Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality, composition, and taste of the meat. Because chickens normally do not use free-range areas optimally, it is possible that provision of more suitable shelter will lead to more pronounced differences between chickens raised indoors and outdoors. In this study, an experiment with 2 production rounds of 600 slow-growing broilers each was performed. In each round, 200 chickens were raised indoors (IN), 200 had free-range access to grassland with artificial shelter (AS), and 200 had free-range access to short-rotation coppice with willow (SRC). Free-range use, feed intake, and growth were monitored, and after slaughter (d72) meat quality, composition, and taste were assessed. Free-range use was higher in SRC than in AS chickens (42.8 vs. 35.1%, P free-range access was darker (P = 0.021) and yellower (P = 0.001) than that of IN chickens. Ultimate pH was lower (5.73 vs. 5.79; P = 0.006) and drip loss higher (1.29 vs. 1.09%; P = 0.05) in IN versus AS chickens. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in AS than in IN meat (35.84 vs. 34.59%; P = 0.021). The taste panel judged breast meat of SRC chickens to be more tender (P = 0.003) and less fibrous (P = 0.013) compared to that of AS and IN chickens, and juicier compared to the IN chickens (P = 0.017). Overall, free-range access negatively affected slaughter weight, but positively affected meat quality, taste, and composition. Only a few differences between AS and SRC were found, possibly due to limited differences in free-range use. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Differentiation of free-ranging chicken using discriminant analysis of phenotypic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed M. Al-Atiyat

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, we investigated the differentiation of five different chicken ecotypes - Center, North, South, West, and East - of Saudi Arabia using discriminate analysis. The analysis was based on nine important morphological and phenotypic traits: body color, beak color, earlobe color, eye color, shank color, comb color, comb type, comb size, and feather distribution. There was a strong significant relationship between the phenotype and effect of geographic height in terms of comb type and earlobe color in males as well as body, beak, eye, and shank color. In particular, the comb type and earlobe color differentiated the ecotypes of males. Among the females, the beak, earlobe, eye, shank color, and feather distribution had more differentiating power. Moreover, the discriminant analysis revealed that the five ecotypes were grouped into three clusters; the Center and the North in one cluster, the West and the South ecotypes in the second for males, and the East ecotype in the last cluster. The female dendogram branching was similar to the male dendrogram branching, except that the Center ecotype was grouped with the North instead of the South. The East ecotype was highly discriminated from the other ecotypes. Nevertheless, the potential of recent individual migration between ecotypes was also noted. Accordingly, the results of the utilized traits in this study might be effective in characterization and conservation of the genetic resources of the Saudi chicken.

  8. Effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range behaviour of slow-growing broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadig, L.M.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Ampe, B.; Reubens, B.; Tuyttens, F.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Free-range use by broiler chickens is often limited, whereas better use of the free-range area could benefit animal welfare. Use of free-range areas could be stimulated by more appropriate shelter or environmental enrichment (by decreasing birds’ fearfulness). This study aimed to assess the

  9. Antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella species isolated from free-range chicken samples in an informal settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Burtram C; Mnabisa, Amanda; Gouws, Pieter A; Morris, Thureyah

    2012-02-29

    Sub-therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents are administered routinely to poultry to aid growth and to prevent disease, with prolonged exposure often resulting in bacterial resistance. Crossover of antibiotic resistant bacteria from poultry to humans poses a risk to human health. In this study, 17 chicken samples collected from a vendor operating in an informal settlement in the Cape Town Metropolitan area, South Africa were screened for antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacilli using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion assay. IN TOTAL, SIX ANTIBIOTICS WERE SCREENED: ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and trimethoprim. Surprisingly, Klebsiella ozaenae was identified in 96 and K. rhinoscleromatis in 6 (n=102) of the samples tested. Interestingly, ∼40% of the isolated Klebsiella spp. showed multiple resistance to at least three of the six antibiotics tested. Klebsiella ozaenae and K. rhinoscleromatis cause clinical chronic rhinitis and are almost exclusively associated with people living in areas of poor hygiene.

  10. Effects of free-range access on production parameters and meat quality, composition and taste in slow-growing broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadig, Lisanne M.; Rodenburg, Bas; Reubens, Bert; Aerts, Johan; Duquenne, Barbara; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality,

  11. Free range and deep litter poultry production systems: effect on performance, carcass yield and meat composition of cockerel chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogunle, Olajide Mark; Olaniyi, Olagoke Ayobami; Egbeyale, Lawrence Tokunbo; Akinola, Olufemi Sunday; Shittu, Taofeek A; Abiola, Samuel Soladoye; Ladokun, Abimbola O; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out on 150 cockerel chickens each of Harco Black and Novogen strains to determine their performance, carcass yield and meat composition on free range and deep litter production systems. The birds were brooded for 4 weeks and thereafter allotted to the different production systems for a period of 12 weeks. Each production system was allotted 150 chicks (75 chicks per strain) with three replicates of 25 chicks. The birds on deep litter production system were fed ad libitum while each bird on free range was fed 50 % of its daily feed requirement. On the 84 th day, a total of 36 birds were randomly selected for analysis of the carcass yield and meat composition. The data generated were subjected to a two-way analysis of variance in a 2 × 2 factorial experimental arrangement. Novogen strain consumed less feed (P free range and had the best feed/gain (2.72). A higher (P free range. The tibia proximal length and breadth, and tibia distal length and breadth were significantly (P free range, Harco black had more meat (85.69 g) than bone (18.07 g) in the breast while Novogen had the lowest meat/bone (2.38). Conclusively, Novogen strain should be raised on free range for a better performance in terms of feed/gain, but for higher meat composition, Harco black is a better strain.

  12. Slaughter performance and meat quality of Milanino chickens reared according to a specific free-range program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, F; Zaniboni, L; Stella, S; Kuster, C A; Iaffaldano, N; Cerolini, S

    2018-04-01

    The study aimed to characterize meat quality traits of Milanino chickens reared according to a specific free-range farming program. A total of 120 birds was reared straight-run in outdoor pens (8 m2/bird) from 35 d of life and fed ad libitum a low (16%) protein diet. At 180 d of age, 20 birds (10 birds/sex) were slaughtered, and carcass weight data were recorded. After processing, carcasses were refrigerated at 4°C for 24 hours. Then, the right breast and thigh with skin were collected and color parameters, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), and chemical composition were determined. The left breast and thigh were stored at -20°C until cooking loss and tenderness evaluation. Milanino was confirmed to be a heavy breed with a sexual dimorphism in relation to adult body weight. A high general carcass yield was recorded. Milanino meat was characterized by high protein and low fat contents compared with the standard broiler meat. Differences in meat composition were recorded according to the sex: females presented higher values of dry matter (breast and thigh), protein (breast), and fat (breast and thigh) contents. The meat with skin presented an intense luminosity, and this trait was higher in the females. The muscle color was characterized by high redness and yellowness indices with differences according to the sex: Higher yellowness index was observed in female carcasses, while higher redness index was detected in male breast samples. The pH muscle values were similar to those reported in other autochthonous breeds. WHC values did not show variation between sexes. In contrast, cooking loss values recorded in thigh samples were lower in males compared to females. The degree of tenderness of Milanino meat was not affected by the sex. However, the potential loss of water and the toughness in Milanino meat were low compared to other local chicken breed meat. The present results support the breeding of Milanino chickens for meat production according to its specific

  13. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from grocery stores and farms in Maryland, Ohio and Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yuqing; Verma, Shiv K; Kwok, Oliver C H; Alibana, Fatima; Mcleod, Rima; Su, Chunlei; Dubey, Jitender P; Pradhan, Abani K

    2017-05-01

    Chickens are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii. Chicken hearts (n = 1185) obtained from grocery stores were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in fluid removed from the heart cavity using the modified agglutination test (MAT) at 1:5, 1:25, and 1:100 dilutions. MAT antibodies were detected in 222 hearts at 1:5 dilution and 8 hearts at 1:25 dilution, but none were positive at 1:100 dilution. Seropositive (n = 230, 19.4%) chicken hearts were bioassayed in mice and seronegative (n = 157) chickens were bioassayed in cats. Viable T. gondii was not isolated from any hearts by bioassays in mice. The 2 cats fed 60 and 97 hearts did not excrete T. gondii oocysts. The results indicate a low prevalence of viable T. gondii in chickens from grocery stores. Molecular typing of 23 archived T. gondii strains isolated from free-range chickens from Ohio and Massachusetts using the 10 PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and altSAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed that seven were ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1, 11 were genotype #2, one was genotype #3, three were genotype #170, and one was mixed genotype. These results indicate that the clonal genotypes #1 (type II), #2 (type III), and #3 (type II variant) are common in free-range chickens.

  14. Blood biochemistry and immune response in Aseel chicken under free range, semi-intensive, and confinement rearing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, M S; Mahmud, A; Mehmood, S; Pasha, T N; Hussain, J; Khan, M T

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of 3 different rearing systems [free range ( FR: ), semi-intensive ( SI: ), and confinement ( CF: )] on blood biochemical profile and immune response in 4 varieties of Aseel chicken [Lakha ( LK: ), Mushki ( MS: ), Peshawari ( PW: ) and Sindhi ( SN: )] for 10 wk duration (7 to 16 wk). At the age of 6 wk, in total, 180 cockerels were assigned to 12 treatment groups, 3 (rearing system) × 4 (Aseel chicken variety) factorial arrangement in 7 randomized complete blocks, replicated 3 times with 5 birds in each replicate (45 birds of each variety; 60 birds in each rearing system; 36 total replicates). Blood samples were collected through brachial vein at the end of wk 16. After laboratory analysis, the recorded data for blood biochemical profile and immune response were analyzed by using 2-way ANOVA under factorial arrangement. The results showed higher (P birds under CF. Titer against Newcastle disease virus ( NDV: ) and infectious bronchitis virus ( IBV: ) was found to be greater (P birds indicated higher (P Birds of LK and SN varieties also indicated maximum antibody titer against NDV and IBV, respectively. Cholesterol level was found to be greater (P birds of LK and SN. Interaction of SN with FR revealed maximum (P birds; SI and FR confer maximum antibody titers to NDV and IBV. Birds of PW variety indicated higher glucose, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and creatinine, the lowest cholesterol under FR and the enhanced antibody titer against NDV and IBV. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Establishment of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in free-range chickens: a longitudinal on farm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Daş, Gürbüz; Moors, Eva; Sohnrey, Birgit; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor establishment and development of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in chickens over two production years (PY) on a free-range farm in Lower Saxony, Germany. The data were collected between July 2010 and June 2011 (PY1) and July 2011 and January 2013 (PY2), respectively. During PY1, Lohmann Brown classic (LB classic, N = 450) was tested, while in PY2 two different genotypes (230 LB classic, 230 LB plus) were used. The hens were kept in two mobile stalls that were moved to a new position at regular intervals. In both PY1 and PY2, 20 individual faecal samples per stall were randomly collected at monthly intervals in order to calculate the number of internal parasite eggs per gram of faeces (EPG). At the end of the laying periods, approximately 10% (N = 42) or more than 50% (N = 265) of hens were subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations in PY1 and PY2, respectively. No parasite eggs were found in the faecal samples during PY1, whereas almost all of the hens (97.6%) were infected with Heterakis gallinarum (36 worms/hen) at the end of the period. In PY2, nematode eggs in faeces were found from the third month onwards at a low level, increasing considerably towards the final three months. There was no significant difference between the two genotypes of brown hens neither for EPG (P = 0.456) or for overall prevalence (P = 0.177). Mortality rate ranged from 18.3 to 27.4% but did not differ significantly between genotypes or production years. Average worm burden was 207 worms/hen in PY2. The most prevalent species were H. gallinarum (98.5%) followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Furthermore, three Capillaria species, C. obsignata, C. bursata and C. caudinflata were differentiated. In conclusion chickens kept on free-range farms are exposed to high risks of nematode infections and have high mortality rates with no obvious link to parasite infections. Once the farm environment is contaminated

  16. The impact of natural helminth infections and supplementary protein on growth performance of free-range chickens on smallholder farms in El Sauce, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Luna, Luz A; Johansen, Maria V

    2005-01-01

    Three on-farm studies were conducted in Nicaragua during three consecutive years (1999-2001) to assess the impact of natural helminth infections on growth performance of free-range chickens aged 3-4 months. On all participating farms, half of the chickens were treated regularly with anthelmintics...... to helminth infections seem to be pronounced. In 2001, the study set-up included an assessment of the effect of protein supplementation (soybean) on growth on six farms. Supplemented chickens (treated and non-treated with anthelmintics) had 17% higher weight gain than non-supplemented. Protein supplementation...... affected neither worm burdens nor faecal egg counts for any of the studied helminths. The post-mortem examinations showed that Trifen reduced burdens of Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, and cestodes (efficacies of 100, 100 and 67%, respectively). Albendazole reduced burdens of H. gallinarum (efficacy...

  17. Concentrations and human health risk assessment of DDT and its metabolites in free-range and commercial chicken products from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L A; Ikenaka, Y; Yohannes, Y B; van Vuren, J J; Wepener, V; Smit, N J; Darwish, W S; Nakayama, S M M; Mizukawa, H; Ishizuka, M

    2017-11-01

    Organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have been used in agriculture and for disease control purposes over many decades. Reports suggest that DDT exposure may result in a number of adverse effects in humans. In the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, DDT is sprayed annually in homes (indoor residual spraying) to control the mosquito vector of malaria. In the northern part of the Province, samples of free-range chicken meat (n = 48) and eggs (n = 13), and commercially produced chicken meat (n = 6) and eggs (n = 11), were collected and analysed. Of the free-range chicken meat samples, 94% (45/48) contained DDTs (ΣDDTs median 6.1 ng/g wet weight [ww], maximum 79.1 ng/g ww). Chicken egg contents were also contaminated (ΣDDTs in free-range eggs median 9544 ng/g ww, maximum 96.666 ng/g ww; and in commercial eggs median 1.3 ng/g ww, maximum 4.6 ng/g ww). The predominant DDT congener detected was p,p'-DDE in both free-range meat (>63%) and eggs (>66%), followed by p,p'-DDT and then p,p'-DDD. Based on estimated daily intake values, calculated human risk ratio (carcinogenic) values were >1 for DDTs detected in both free-range chicken products. Consumption of free-range eggs poses a particularly high health risk.

  18. The first study of molecular prevalence and species characterization of Cryptosporidium in free-range chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Maria Paula de Carvalho; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Caldart, Eloiza Teles; Vieira, Fernando Emmanuel Gonçalves; Yamamura, Milton Hissashi; Sasse, João Pedro; Barros, Luiz Daniel de; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis

    2017-01-01

    Rearing free-range chicken is based on grazing feeding patterns, and these animals could be potential environmental contaminants of Cryptosporidium oocysts for humans and other animals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the molecular prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in free-range chickens from Brazil. A total of 351 fecal samples from chickens were examined from 20 farms. For detection of Cryptosporidium spp., 18S rRNA gene fragments were amplified using a nested PCR reaction. Positive samples were sent for sequencing. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 25.6% (95% CI = 21.2% - 30.6%). Sequencing of the amplified fragments allowed for the identification of three species: C. meleagridis in 57 (62.6%), C. baileyi in 15 (16.4%), C. parvum in 3 (3.2%) samples, and a new Cryptosporidium genotype (C. genotype BrPR1) in 3 (3.2%) samples. Cryptosporidium genotype BrPR1 has not yet been classified as a species, and its host spectrum is not known. Cryptosporidium, including zoonotic species, exists at a high prevalence in free-range chickens within the region studied.

  19. The Prevalence of Toxoplasma Infection among Free-Ranging Chickens in Southern Iran Using IFA and Nested-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhR Hatam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: As consumption of chicken meat may be as one of the sources of human infection, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in farm chickens (Gallus gallus domesti­cus in Shiraz, southern Iran. "nMethods: Two hundred and thirty one blood samples were collected from farm chickens by a cluster ran­dom sampling method and tested for toxoplasmosis by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT. The samples of the brain, heart, and liver of the chickens were tested by a Nested PCR method. The re­sults were analyzed by SPSS software using Chi-Square test and a P value <0.05 was considered statically sig­nificant. "nResults: Out of 58 seropositive chickens, 29 (1:16 in eight, 1:32 in 14, 1:64 in five and 1:128 in two birds and out of seronegative chickens, three were enrolled in the study. The most infected tissue was liver (27 out of 29 and the lowest was the heart (16 out of 29 (α=0.05, P=0.002. None of the seronegative chick­ens was positive in PCR method. Only 2 out of 8 cases with a titer of 1:16 (as cut off point were negative in PCR method whereas the remained were positive. "nConclusion: Based on cultural and food habits in our area, the meat and viscera of chicken may be impor­tant sources of infection in human when consuming semi-cooked meats. Considering the high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in chickens, standards in chicken breeding, education of environmental health personnel and standardization for preparation and handling techniques are required by Health and Veterinary organizations.

  20. Assessment of helminth load in faecal samples of free range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helminths load in faecal sample of free range indigenous chicken in Port Harcourt Metropolis was examined. Faecal samples were collected from 224 birds in 15 homesteads and 4 major markets - Mile 3, Mile 1, Borokiri and Eneka Village market where poultry birds are gathered for sale. 0.2-0.5g of feacal sample was ...

  1. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ectoparasites of chickens in four areas of Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria, on 160 chickens raised under free-range ... 90% mortality of local free range chickens. Arthropod ... some cases premature death. ... from the birds by displaying the feathers.

  2. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.

  3. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  4. Performance and carcass characteristics of free-range broiler chickens fed diets containing alternative feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PB Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.

  5. Accumulation patterns and risk assessment of metals and metalloid in muscle and offal of free-range chickens, cattle and goat in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbomida, Emmanuel Temiotan; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Oroszlany, Balazs; Tongo, Isioma; Enuneku, Alex Ajeh; Ozekeke, Ogbeide; Ainerua, Martins Oshioriamhe; Fasipe, Iriagbonse Priscillia; Ezemonye, Lawrence Ikechukwu; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2018-04-30

    The use of free range animals for monitoring environmental health offers opportunities to detect exposure and assess the toxicological effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. Potential human health risk of dietary intake of metals and metalloid via consumption of offal and muscle of free range chicken, cattle and goats by the urban population in Benin City was evaluated. Muscle, gizzard, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) while Hg was determined using Hg analyzer. Mean concentrations of metals (mg/kg ww) varied significantly depending upon the tissues and animal species. Human health risk estimations for children and adults showed estimated daily intake (EDI) values of tissues below oral reference dose (RfD) threshold for non essential metals Cd, As, Pb and Hg thus strongly indicating no possible health risk via consumption of animal based food. Calculated Hazard quotient (THQ) was less than 1 (< 1) for all the metals analyzed for both adult and children. However, Cd and As had the highest value of THQ suggestive of possible health risk associated with continuous consumption of Cd and As contaminated animal based foods. Hazard Index (HI) for additive effect of metals was higher in chicken liver and gizzard for children and chicken liver for adults. Thus, HI indicated that chicken liver and gizzard may contribute significantly to adult and children dietary exposure to heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear species difference in metal accumulation between chickens and the ruminants. This study provides baseline data for future studies and also valuable evidence of anthropogenic impacts necessary to initiate national and international policies for control of heavy metal and metalloid content in food items. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Level changes and human dietary exposure assessment of halogenated flame retardant levels in free-range chicken eggs: A case study of a former e-waste recycling site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Chen; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Bin; Liu, Yin-E; Ren, Zi-He; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2018-04-06

    To assess the impacts of e-waste regulations on environmental pollution, we built on a previous study from 2010 to investigate the levels and human dietary exposure of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in free-range chicken eggs from Baihe village in 2013 and 2016. The concentrations of PBDEs, PBBs, HBCDs, and DBDPE showed a significant decrease (pexposure estimates suggested high dietary intake of HFRs via home-produced eggs. As for PBDEs, considering the worst situation (highly polluted eggs were consumed), the margin of exposure (MOE) of BDE99 for both adults and children were 1.5 and 0.3 in 2013, and 1.1 and 0.2 in 2016, respectively, which were below 2.5. According to the CONTAM panel, an MOE larger than 2.5 indicates no health concern. Therefore, these MOE values represent a significant potential health concern due to the adverse impacts of PBDEs on human neurodevelopment and fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Hen Age and Egg Weight Class on the Hatchability of Free Range Indigenous Chicken Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Abudabos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In total, 806 eggs of free-range Hassawi indigenous chickens were collected from local farm in Saudi Arabia. Eggs were weekly collected for 11 weeks. Initial egg weight (IEW was recorded, and eggs were graded into four classes (A: 35-40 g, B: 40-45 g, C: 45-50 g, and D: 50-55 g. Eggs were stored for seven days at 75-80% relative humidity and 14-16 C, after which egg weight losses (WL0 were calculated. During incubation, eggs were weighed on days 7 (W7 and 14 (W14, and egg weight losses on days 7 (WL7 and 14 (WL14, and total loss (WL0-14 were calculated. Hatchling weight (CW was measured. The proportion of CW relative to egg weight loss (WL on days0, 7 and 14 days of incubation (CW:WL0; CW:WL7 and CW:WL14, respectively, and break out analyses, fertility (F,total hatchability (HC and hatchability of fertile eggs (HF were also calculated. IEW decreased (p<0.05 with hen age. Stored egg weight (SEW were decreased as hen age increased (p<0.05. WL7, WL14 and WL0-14 showed significant differences (p<0.001 and increased up to first six-week of egg collection time. Hen age affected CW:WL before incubation, and on days 7 and 14 of incubation. Fertility (F was affected (p<0.05 in unpredicted way of increasing and decreasing by hen age. Egg weight class affected SEW, W7and W14 (p<0.001. Class D eggs were the highest weight. Class C eggs had highest HC. In summary, hatching eggs of Hassawi hens were affected by hen age and egg weight in randomly increase and decrease .

  8. Remains of mining in the territory of villages´ Červenica and Zlatá Baňa in the mountain range of Slanské vrchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Magula

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the territory that is recondite for mining activities. It is situated in a north part of the mountain range of Slanské vrchy. There are villages that were known as mining villages in the past. The mining activities for gold, silver and mercury had only a local economical importance, beside of the output or production of opal. The output of opal on this territory was world noted, in the past. The aim of this article is to remit at some historical facts about former mines and to draw our attention to some attempts for building up, the educational and touristic path on this territory.

  9. Remains of mining in the territory of villages´ Červenica and Zlatá Baňa in the mountain range of Slanské vrchy

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Magula; Ján Brehuv

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to the territory that is recondite for mining activities. It is situated in a north part of the mountain range of Slanské vrchy. There are villages that were known as mining villages in the past. The mining activities for gold, silver and mercury had only a local economical importance, beside of the output or production of opal. The output of opal on this territory was world noted, in the past. The aim of this article is to remit at some historical facts about former m...

  10. Genome Dynamics and Molecular Infection Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant Helicobacter pullorum Isolates Obtained from Broiler and Free-Range Chickens in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qumar, Shamsul; Majid, Mohammad; Kumar, Narender; Tiwari, Sumeet K; Semmler, Torsten; Devi, Savita; Baddam, Ramani; Hussain, Arif; Shaik, Sabiha; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2017-01-01

    Some life-threatening, foodborne, and zoonotic infections are transmitted through poultry birds. Inappropriate and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in the livestock industry has led to an increased prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria with epidemic potential. Here, we present a functional molecular epidemiological analysis entailing the phenotypic and whole-genome sequence-based characterization of 11 H. pullorum isolates from broiler and free-range chickens sampled from retail wet markets in Hyderabad City, India. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed all of the isolates to be resistant to multiple antibiotic classes such as fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, sulfonamides, and macrolides. The isolates were also found to be extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers and were even resistant to clavulanic acid. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of these isolates revealed the presence of five or six well-characterized antimicrobial resistance genes, including those encoding a resistance-nodulation-division efflux pump(s). Phylogenetic analysis combined with pan-genome analysis revealed a remarkable degree of genetic diversity among the isolates from free-range chickens; in contrast, a high degree of genetic similarity was observed among broiler chicken isolates. Comparative genomic analysis of all publicly available H. pullorum genomes, including our isolates (n = 16), together with the genomes of 17 other Helicobacter species, revealed a high number (8,560) of H. pullorum-specific protein-encoding genes, with an average of 535 such genes per isolate. In silico virulence screening identified 182 important virulence genes and also revealed high strain-specific gene content in isolates from free-range chickens (average, 34) compared to broiler chicken isolates. A significant prevalence of prophages (ranging from 1 to 9) and a significant presence of genomic islands (0 to 4) were observed in free-range and broiler chicken isolates

  11. Village poultry production in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafalla, A.I.; Awad, S.; Hass, W.

    2002-01-01

    A survey form provided by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division was used to collect data on village poultry production in the Sudan. The production system in the households was based on scavenging indigenous domestic chickens, at times accompanied by pigeons, guinea fowls, ducks or turkeys. The average flock size was 18.8 birds and included 44.3% hens, 10% cocks, 20% growers and 24.8% chicks. The hen to cock ratio was 4.4:1. Average egg production was 3.1 per hen per month, of which 76% were incubated by hens. About 78% of incubated eggs hatched of which 75% survived the brooding period. Approximately half of the households provided the chickens with housing. Around 25.7% of interviewed households used chicken manure as fertilizer. While scavenging, chickens fed on insects, grass, vegetables and kitchen wastes. Feed supplements included sorghum, millet and sometimes wheat bran and alfalfa. The ownership of village chickens was shared between all gender categories and all were involved in the management of the birds. The major constraints to village poultry production in the Sudan were identified and included inadequate health care, poor production, inappropriate housing and poor knowledge of poultry management. (author)

  12. Effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range behaviour of slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, L M; Rodenburg, T B; Ampe, B; Reubens, B; Tuyttens, F A M

    2017-06-01

    Free-range use by broiler chickens is often limited, whereas better use of the free-range area could benefit animal welfare. Use of free-range areas could be stimulated by more appropriate shelter or environmental enrichment (by decreasing birds' fearfulness). This study aimed to assess the effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range use. Three production rounds with 440 slow-growing broiler chickens (Sasso T451) were carried out. Birds were housed indoors in four groups (two with males, two with females) from days 0 to 25, during which two of the groups received environmental enrichment. At day 23 birds' fearfulness was assessed with a tonic immobility (TI) test (n=100). At day 25 all birds were moved (in mixed-sex groups) to mobile houses, and provided with free-range access from day 28 onwards. Each group could access a range consisting for 50% of grassland with 21 artificial shelters (ASs, wooden A-frames) and for 50% of short rotation coppice (SRC) with willow (dense vegetation). Free-range use was recorded by live observations at 0900, 1300 and 1700 h for 15 to 21 days between days 28 and 63. For each bird observed outside the shelter type (AS or SRC), distance from the house (0 to 2, 2 to 5, >5 m) and its behaviour (only rounds 2 and 3) were recorded. Weather conditions were recorded by four weather stations. On average, 27.1% of the birds were observed outside at any given moment of observation. Early environmental enrichment did not decrease fearfulness as measured by the TI test. It only had a minor effect on the percentage of birds outside (0.4% more birds outside). At all distances from the house, SRC was preferred over AS. In AS, areas closer to the house were preferred over farther ones, in SRC this was less pronounced. Free-range use increased with age and temperature and decreased with wind speed. In AS, rainfall and decreasing solar radiation were related to finding more birds outside, whereas the

  13. Effect of free-range days on a local chicken breed: growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H B; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Chang, L L; Fu, S Y

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 1,000 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were raised for 21 d. On d 21, 720 birds with similar BW (536 ± 36 g) were selected and randomly assigned to free-range treatment at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age (assigned to free-range treatment for 21, 14, 7, and 0 d, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 5 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (180 birds per treatment). All the birds were raised in indoor floor pens measuring 1.42 × 1.42 m (2 m(2), 18 birds/m(2)) in conventional poultry research houses before free-range treatment. In the free-range treatment, the chickens were raised in indoor floor houses measuring 3 × 5 m (15 m(2), 2.4 birds/m(2)). In addition, they also had an outdoor free-range paddock measuring 3 × 8 m (24 m(2), 1.5 birds/m(2)). The BW of birds after being assigned to free-range treatment for 7 d decreased significantly compared with that in the conventional treatment (P free-range days on the BW at 42 d of age (P > 0.05). The daily weight gain, feed per gain, daily feed intake, and mortality from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by free-range days (P > 0.05). At 42 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P free-range days (P free-range days (P 0.05). The absolute thymus weight and thymus:BW ratio showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P free-range days advantageously affects breast yield, but decreases thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields as well as the water-holding capacity of thigh. No evidence was found that increasing free-range days caused changes in growth performance, meat quality, and lymphoid organs except for changes in water-holding capacity and thymus. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Evidence of expanded host range and mammalian-associated genetic changes in a duck H9N2 influenza virus following adaptation in quail and chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Jaber Hossain

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza viruses continue to circulate worldwide; in Asia, H9N2 viruses have caused disease outbreaks and established lineages in land-based poultry. Some H9N2 strains are considered potentially pandemic because they have infected humans causing mild respiratory disease. In addition, some of these H9N2 strains replicate efficiently in mice without prior adaptation suggesting that H9N2 strains are expanding their host range. In order to understand the molecular basis of the interspecies transmission of H9N2 viruses, we adapted in the laboratory a wildtype duck H9N2 virus, influenza A/duck/Hong Kong/702/79 (WT702 virus, in quail and chickens through serial lung passages. We carried out comparative analysis of the replication and transmission in quail and chickens of WT702 and the viruses obtained after 23 serial passages in quail (QA23 followed by 10 serial passages in chickens (QA23CkA10. Although the WT702 virus can replicate and transmit in quail, it replicates poorly and does not transmit in chickens. In contrast, the QA23CkA10 virus was very efficient at replicating and transmitting in quail and chickens. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the QA23 and QA23CkA10 viruses compared to the WT702 virus indicated several nucleotide substitutions resulting in amino acid changes within the surface and internal proteins. In addition, a 21-amino acid deletion was found in the stalk of the NA protein of the QA23 virus and was maintained without further modification in the QA23CkA10 adapted virus. More importantly, both the QA23 and the QA23CkA10 viruses, unlike the WT702 virus, were able to readily infect mice, produce a large-plaque phenotype, showed faster replication kinetics in tissue culture, and resulted in the quick selection of the K627 amino acid mammalian-associated signature in PB2. These results are in agreement with the notion that adaptation of H9 viruses to land-based birds can lead to strains with expanded host range.

  15. Prevalence of helminth parasites in free-range chickens from selected rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localities were Heterakis gallinarum (prevalence range 80-94.4 %, Gongylonema ingluvicola (43.3-86.7 %, Tetrameres americana (53.3-66.7 % and Ascaridia galli (22.2-43.8 % and for cestode species, Raillietina tetragona(16.7-40 % and Skrijabinia cesticillus (3.3-13.3 % were the most prevalent in that order.Heterakis gallinarum and T. americana had the highest intensity of infection in chickens acrossall the rural areas compared with other helminth species. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05 observed in the sex distribution for As. galli, Baruscapillaria obsignata (syn. Capillaria obsignata, Eucoleus annulatus (syn. Capillaria annulata, Eucoleus contortus (syn. Capillaria contorta and Subulura suctoria among the 4 rural areas. However, a significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the intensity of infection of both males and females for H. gallinarum and T. americana across the 4 localities studied. Tetrameres americana, A. galli, C. obsignata and C. annulata had prevalence and number of females higher than that of males, while H. gallinarum showed the opposite. Prevalence of H. gallinarum and T. americana as determined by faecal egg count were much lower compared with the prevalence as determined by post mortem examination, confirming the limitation of using faecal samples in determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in chickens.

  16. Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoli IC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. Overall percentage anti-microbial resistance of the isolates against cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin (72–92% were very high. The organisms were highly sensitive to other antibiotics, especially gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. The 59.5% overall mean percentage resistance recorded at the urban area was significantly higher than the 46.8% recorded at the rural area (p<0.05. With the exception of the figures for cotrimoxazole and ampicillin, resistance values obtained against the other antibiotics at the urban sites were statistically higher than those obtained at the rural sites (p<0.05. Zero resistance was recorded against the fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin at all the rural sites except at Enyiogwugwu where a 28.6% resistance was obtained against norfloxacin. Since free-range chickens rarely receive antibiotic medication, it is concluded that the highly resistant E. coli organisms isolated from them may be reflecting consequences of human drug use in the study areas.

  17. Chicken Picadillo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/chickenpicadillo.html Chicken Picadillo To use the sharing features on this ... together on a busy weeknight Ingredients 1 pound chicken breast, boneless, skinless, cut into thin strips 2 ...

  18. Chicken Stew

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/chickenstew.html Chicken Stew To use the sharing features on this ... leftovers for lunch the next day! Ingredients 8 chicken pieces (breasts or legs) 1 cup water 2 ...

  19. Physical and chemical properties of meat from scavenging chickens and helmeted guinea fowls in response to age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, M T; Halimani, T E; Chimonyo, M

    2017-08-01

    1. The effects of age and sex on body weight, carcass traits, physical and chemical properties of breast muscle from chickens and helmeted guinea fowls managed under village free-range conditions were assessed in random samples of 48 guinea fowls and 48 chickens obtained from local markets. 2. Guinea fowls had higher body weight, hot carcass weight, cold dressed weight and breast weight than chickens. 3. Guinea fowls had more dry matter, protein and less fat than chickens. Ash content did not differ between guinea fowls and chickens. Protein and fat increased, whereas dry matter and ash decreased with age (P meat was lighter, less red and more yellow than guinea fowl meat. Cooking loss was higher in guinea fowls, male and grower birds than chickens, females and adult birds, respectively. Shear force was affected by age, as mature birds had a higher value than growers. 5. Guinea fowl carcasses contained more meat that was leaner, higher in protein and redder compared with chicken meat. As age increased the meat increased in protein and fat content and shear force, whereas colour became darker, redder and yellower.

  20. Modeling the dynamics of backyard chicken flows in traditional trade networks in Thailand: implications for surveillance and control of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Paul, Mathilde Cécile; Bicout, Dominique Joseph; Tiensin, Thanawat; Triampo, Wannapong; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine

    2014-06-01

    In Southeast Asia, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by epidemics caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) virus. In Thailand, the trade of live backyard chickens is based on the activities of traders buying chickens from villages and supplying urban markets with chicken meat. This study aims to quantify the flows of chickens traded during a 1-year period in a province of Thailand. A compartmental stochastic dynamic model was constructed to illustrate trade flows of live chickens from villages to slaughterhouses. Live poultry movements present important temporal variations with increased activities during the 15 days preceding the Chinese New Year and, to a lesser extent, other festivals (Qingming Festival, Thai New Year, Hungry Ghost Festival, and International New Year). The average distance of poultry movements ranges from 4 to 25 km, defining a spatial scale for the risk of avian influenza that spread through traditional poultry marketing chains. Some characteristics of traditional poultry networks in Thailand, such as overlapping chicken supply zones, may facilitate disease diffusion over longer distances through combined expansion and relocation processes. This information may be of use in tailoring avian influenza and other emerging infectious poultry disease surveillance and control programs provided that the cost-effectiveness of such scenarios is also evaluated in further studies.

  1. Sensory characteristics and consumer preference for chicken meat in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, T M A; Grongnet, J F

    2010-10-01

    This study identified the sensory characteristics and consumer preference for chicken meat in Guinea. Five chicken samples [live village chicken, live broiler, live spent laying hen, ready-to-cook broiler, and ready-to-cook broiler (imported)] bought from different locations were assessed by 10 trained panelists using 19 sensory attributes. The ANOVA results showed that 3 chicken appearance attributes (brown, yellow, and white), 5 chicken odor attributes (oily, intense, medicine smell, roasted, and mouth persistent), 3 chicken flavor attributes (sweet, bitter, and astringent), and 8 chicken texture attributes (firm, tender, juicy, chew, smooth, springy, hard, and fibrous) were significantly discriminating between the chicken samples (Pchicken, the live spent laying hen, and the ready-to-cook broiler (imported) were very well represented and clearly distinguished from the live broiler and the ready-to-cook broiler. One hundred twenty consumers expressed their preferences for the chicken samples using a 5-point Likert scale. The hierarchical cluster analysis of the preference data identified 4 homogenous consumer clusters. The hierarchical cluster analysis results showed that the live village chicken was the most preferred chicken sample, whereas the ready-to-cook broiler was the least preferred one. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) type 1 showed that 72% of the sensory data for the first 2 principal components explained 83% of the chicken preference. The PLSR1 identified that the sensory characteristics juicy, oily, sweet, hard, mouth persistent, and yellow were the most relevant sensory drivers of the Guinean chicken preference. The PLSR2 (with multiple responses) identified the relationship between the chicken samples, their sensory attributes, and the consumer clusters. Our results showed that there was not a chicken category that was exclusively preferred from the other chicken samples and therefore highlight the existence of place for development of

  2. Status of Indigenous Chicken Farming in Dhemaji District of Assam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in Dhemaji district of Assam, India comprising 15 villages and 300 households. Both purposive and random sampling methods were used to evaluate the socio-economic status of the farmers involved in rearing of indigenous chicken, systems of management of indigenous chicken, their ...

  3. Alternative fish feed production from waste chicken feathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Jumini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this This devotion has been done to provide education and training of the utilization of waste chicken manure, making flour chicken feathers as a fish feed alternative, that can overcome some of the problems that waste chicken feathers from the center cutting broiler chickens in the village Krasak enough, it causes pollution, and not used optimally; Low public awareness of awareness of environmental pollution; the lack of public knowledge about the utilization of waste chicken feathers, and processing technology, as well as to address the needs of fish feed more expensive, need alternative feed ingredients. This service program has provided insight to the public about waste chicken feathers so that it can be used as a new entrepreneurial startups. To achieve these objectives have been done of activity as follows: 1 Provide counseling and understanding of the community will be a negative impact on the environment of waste chicken feathers. 2 Provide counseling utilization of waste chicken feathers for people in nearby farms. 3 Make a chicken feather meal of chicken feather waste as an alternative fish feed to improve digestibility of chicken feathers. 3 The formation of the group for increasing the economic income of the family. This service activities program runs quite well with demonstrated some activity, namely: 1 Change Behavior Society (knowledge transfer; 2 Chicken Feather Extension Waste Utilization; 3 Making Unit Waste Chicken Feathers; 4 Establishment of New Business of Diversified Waste Chicken Feathers.

  4. VT Boundaries - village polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BNDHASH dataset depicts Vermont villages, towns, counties, Regional Planning Commissions (RPC), and LEPC (Local Emergency Planning Committee)...

  5. A village group, Trashibiola

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer

    2003-01-01

    158 x 111 mm. Woodburytype. A view showing a group of villagers seated in a paved courtyard in front of a stonewalled house (the principal house in the village). The village is near the town of Paphos. The photograph appears in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.2, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). Thomson states that the purpose of the gathering was twofold: to welcome strangers to the village and to discuss a point of law c...

  6. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  7. KWAKIUTL VILLAGE AND SCHOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOLCOTT, HARRY F.

    THE AUTHOR'S ONE-YEAR RESIDENCY AS TEACHER IN A KWAKIUTL INDIAN VILLAGE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FORMS THE BASIS OF THIS CASE STUDY. WITH EMPHASIS ON THE LIVES AND FAMILIES OF 5 SCHOOL CHILDREN, THE STUDY DEALS WITH THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE VILLAGE, DISINTEGRATION OF THE INDIAN CULTURE AND THE TRANSITION TOWARD THE…

  8. It Takes a Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuharic, Pam

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an art project that allows students to create a joint community on paper. Through this project, students create imaginary villages by looking first at various architectural styles and then look at the different ways contemporary artists portray communities or architecture focusing on village scenes. The inspiration for this…

  9. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Sundar, N.; Pineda, N.

    2006-01-01

    chickens with titers of 1:5 or less did not shed oocysts. T. gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from 47 chickens with MAT titers of 1:20 or higher. All infected mice from six isolates died of toxoplasmosis. Overall, 41 of 170 (24.1%) mice that became infected after inoculation with chicken tissues...... died of toxoplasmosis. Genotyping of these 48 isolates (47 from mice and 1 from pooled tissues) using polymorphisms at the loci SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB and GRA6 revealed eight genotypes. Six isolates had Type I alleles, three isolate had Type II alleles and six isolates had Type III alleles at all loci...

  10. Time-course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12-week-old free-range chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthia, P.G.; Njagi, L.W.; Nyaga, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve-week-old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immune-suppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322(T), and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS...

  11. Visiting 'J' Village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to entrance into twenty km evacuated zone of Fukushima Daiichi, there is so called 'J' Village. Until now, it was a centre used by the Japan football representation. Today, employees working at this locality as well as all visits pass this village. They can only enter the evacuated area in a bus, equipped with an electronic dosimeter, with a face mask, gloves, and shoe covers. (author)

  12. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  13. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2004-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  14. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2005-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  15. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  16. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriquez, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  17. Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoli I, Dr. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. O...

  18. Moving Towards Eco Cultural Tourism Village (A Case Study of Pondok Cabe Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Kurniawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies some eco-cultural tourism attraction potentials that exist in PondokCabeUdik Village Tangerang Selatan Indonesia. In addition, it investigates local people’s opinion on tourism development. The objective is to provide a preliminary overview of eco-tourism development. This study is a descriptive study that uses three types of instrument in data collection method, including questionnaire, interview and field observation. The data is then analyzed using SWOT analysis. The result indicated that natural potential include farming, lake and fish pond, and chicken hatchery. Cultural potentials include cultural diversity that depicted in praying houses and culinary. 194 respondents involved are the locals. The result showed thatthere is positive view from the local community on the availability of tourism potentials and development in the future. It is proposed that environmental awareness, education, ecotourism development, and consensus buildingare needed to implement eco cultural tourism concept. Keywords: Tourism, Eco-Cultural, Village, Planning and Development

  19. Village Power `97. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinal, J.; Flowers, L.; Taylor, R.; Weingart, J. [eds.

    1997-09-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-disciplinary, multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six key activities, including village application development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and an Internet-based village power project database. The current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. This document contains reports presented at the Proceedings of Village Power, 1997. Individual projects have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  20. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken offal at the retail level in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, C H; Goh, S G; Loo, Y Y; Chang, W S; Lye, Y L; Puspanadan, S; Tang, J Y H; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Mahyudin, N A; Radu, S

    2013-06-01

    A total of 216 chicken offal samples (chicken liver = 72; chicken heart = 72; chicken gizzard = 72) from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia, were examined for the presence and density of Listeria monocytogenes by using a combination of the most probable number and PCR method. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in 216 chicken offal samples examined was 26.39%, and among the positive samples, the chicken gizzard showed the highest percentage at 33.33% compared with chicken liver (25.00%) and chicken heart (20.83%). The microbial load of L. monocytogenes in chicken offal samples ranged from Malaysia.

  1. Pengaruh Frekuensi Pemutaran Telur terhadap Daya Tetas dan Bobot Badan DOC Ayam Kampung (The Effect of Egg Centrifugation Frequency on Hatchability and Body Weight DOC of Free-range Chicken)

    OpenAIRE

    Bachari, Irawati; Sembiring, Iskandar; Tarigan, Dedi Suranta

    2010-01-01

    The objective of research would be to assess the extent to which the effect of a good egg centrifugation frequency and interaction on hatchability of Free-range Chicken eggs.This research was conducted by using the factorial complete random sampling. The treatment was frequency of egg centrifugation with three levels of rotation, I, e., RI (4 times/day), R2 (8 times/day), R3 (12 times/day).The result of research indicated that highest hatchability was found in treatment of egg centrifuga...

  2. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection of unvaccinated backyard chickens in Mandlhakazi, Southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Taunde

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggested that AIV is widespread within backyard chickens in the studied villages. Further research is needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes and determine the potential role of backyard chickens in the zoonotic transmission of AIV in Mozambique.

  3. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  4. Recording Village Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cromwell, Jennifer Adele

    and economic changes happening at both the community and country-wide levels during the early years of Islamic rule in Egypt. Additionally, they offer a fascinating picture of the scribe’s role within this world, illuminating both the practical aspects of his work and the social and professional connections......Recording Village Life presents a close study of over 140 Coptic texts written between 724–756 CE by a single scribe, Aristophanes son of Johannes, of the village Djeme in western Thebes. These texts, which focus primarily on taxation and property concerns, yield a wealth of knowledge about social...... of late antique studies, papyrology, philology, early Islamic history, social and economic history, and Egyptology....

  5. Village power options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three different computer codes which have been written to model village power applications. The reasons which have driven the development of these codes include: the existance of limited field data; diverse applications can be modeled; models allow cost and performance comparisons; simulations generate insights into cost structures. The models which are discussed are: Hybrid2, a public code which provides detailed engineering simulations to analyze the performance of a particular configuration; HOMER - the hybrid optimization model for electric renewables - which provides economic screening for sensitivity analyses; and VIPOR the village power model - which is a network optimization model for comparing mini-grids to individual systems. Examples of the output of these codes are presented for specific applications.

  6. Thematic village Zalesie Royal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dombrowicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zalesie Królewskie is a village located in the district lay in the municipality of Swiekatowo. It is a town with well-preserved heritage Borowiakow Tucholskich. This heritage is rich and focused around the values of material culture, but also immaterial. People who live here have many features in common with neighboring Kociewiacy and Kashubian, but also have their own unique ethnographic, which is attractive for tourism.

  7. Analysis of Consumers' Preferences and Price Sensitivity to Native Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-A; Jung, Yoojin; Jo, Cheorun; Park, Ji-Young; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed consumers' preferences and price sensitivity to native chickens. A survey was conducted from Jan 6 to 17, 2014, and data were collected from consumers (n=500) living in Korea. Statistical analyses evaluated the consumption patterns of native chickens, preference marketing for native chicken breeds which will be newly developed, and price sensitivity measurement (PSM). Of the subjects who preferred broilers, 24.3% do not purchase native chickens because of the dryness and tough texture, while those who preferred native chickens liked their chewy texture (38.2%). Of the total subjects, 38.2% preferred fried native chickens (38.2%) for processed food, 38.4% preferred direct sales for native chicken distribution, 51.0% preferred native chickens to be slaughtered in specialty stores, and 32.4% wanted easy access to native chickens. Additionally, the price stress range (PSR) was 50 won and the point of marginal cheapness (PMC) and point of marginal expensiveness (PME) were 6,980 won and 12,300 won, respectively. Evaluation of the segmentation market revealed that consumers who prefer broiler to native chicken breeds were more sensitive to the chicken price. To accelerate the consumption of newly developed native chicken meat, it is necessary to develop a texture that each consumer needs, to increase the accessibility of native chickens, and to have diverse menus and recipes as well as reasonable pricing for native chickens.

  8. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  9. Status of Indigenous Chicken Farming in Dhemaji District of Assam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Status of Indigenous Chicken Farming in Dhemaji District of Assam, India. H Chutia, N Kalita, N Barua, P Hazarika. Abstract. A survey was conducted in Dhemaji district of Assam, India comprising 15 villages and 300 households.

  10. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  11. Effects of lighting pattern and photoperiod on egg production and egg quality of a native chicken under free-range condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, A L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Wang, H H; Chu, Q; Liu, H G

    2018-04-14

    The paper aimed to study the effects of lighting pattern and photoperiod alone and in combination on egg production, egg quality in Beijing You Chicken (BYC). A total of 630 19-wk-old BYC laying hens were randomly allocated to 6 groups with 105 birds each, 3 replicates per group, reared in individually lit floor pens with separate outdoor areas. A 2 × 3 factorial experiment (2 lighting patterns: continuous and intermittent lighting; 3 photoperiods: 16, 14, 12 h) was arranged, including 16L:8D (6:00 to 22:00) for group 1; 12L:2D:4L:6D (6:00 to 18:00, 20:00 to 24:00) for group 2; 14L:10D (6:00 to 20:00) for group 3; 10L:2D:4L:8D (6:00 to 16:00, 18:00 to 22:00) for group 4; 12L:12D (6:00 to 18:00) for group 5, and 8L:4D:4L:8D (6:00 to 14:00, 18:00 to 22:00) for group 6, respectively. Egg production parameters were calculated for 22 to 43, 44 to 57, and 22 to 57 wk, and egg quality parameters were measured at the end of 37 and 57 wk. The results showed that the egg production of BYC was not significantly affected by lighting pattern, photoperiod alone, or in combination during 22 to 43 and 22 to 57 wk (P > 0.05), but average feed intake in 12 h groups was significantly higher than those in 14 and 16 h groups during 22 to 43 and 22 to 57 wk (P Egg mass and feed egg ratio were significantly affected by lighting pattern, photoperiod alone, and in combination during 44 to 57 wk (P Egg mass was significantly higher (P = 0.05) and feed egg ratio was significantly lower (P = 0.03) in continuous groups than in intermittent groups. There were significant effects for eggshell thickness, albumen height, haugh unit, and egg grade by lighting pattern alone (P egg production was not significantly affected by lighting pattern alone during 22 to 57 wk (P > 0.05), but the photoperiod significantly affected average feed intake (P egg production during 44 to 57 wk, and intermittent lighting is better for egg quality of the native bird at 37 wk; 3) 12 h lighting is enough for meeting

  12. Village Power '98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinal, Julie; Flowers, Larry; Siegel, Judy; Taylor, Roger; Weingart, Jerome

    1999-03-24

    This is the fifth Village Power workshop sponsored by NREL. We have held these meetings every year since 1993, to focus, challenge, and provide a forum for interaction among practitioners working in the field of using renewable energy technologies as an economically viable pathway to electrification of rural populations throughout the world. Starting with a small group of 30 colleagues in 1993, this ''workshop'' has doubled in size every year. When the NREL staff was planning for this meeting, they were hoping for something around 400 participants. We are now looking at over 500, and we apologize for the somewhat cramped accommodations. This overwhelming response, however, shows that the use of renewable energy to solve some of the world's serious problems is coming of age. This meeting, this ''conference'' (it's clearly no longer a workshop) marks a transition. A transition from the viewpoint that renewables are, and forever will be a technology of the future; to the reality that renewables have come of age. We have technologies available today, at today's prices, that can make a substantive contribution to the pressing needs of environmentally sustainable development in the world. This is a collection of all the papers presented at the Village Power '98 conference.

  13. Prevalence of Antibodies to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Backyard Chickens around Maharlou Lake in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Hadipour*, Gholamhossein Habibi and Amir Vosoughi

    2011-01-01

    Backyard chickens play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 500 backyard chickens from villages around Maharlou lake in Iran, using the ...

  14. Tackling malaria, village by village: a report on a concerted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Can an information intervention facilitated by information technology and carried out by an interdisciplinary team comprising medical students, technical experts, and the community itself make a positive contribution in reducing the burden of malaria at the village level? In Mifumi village in Eastern Uganda, ...

  15. IN VOZDVIZHENSKOE VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetyrina Natalya Arkadevna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers civil engineering in retrospect. The paper presents the records of the two contracts that date back to 1837 and 1838. The contracts cover the two stages of construction of a famous church in Vozdvizhenskoe Village in the Moscow Province. These documents were stored in the Central Historic Archive, namely, in the collection of the town hall of Sergievskij Possad. These records of the two agreements in the collection of the brokers notes (or in other books of the same type are of particular value, as the majority of authentic contracts have been lost. One of the contracts covers the organizational procedure and pre-construction works, while the other one covers the construction of the church. The first document gives the idea of environmental protection, employment of ecological technologies, and safe disposal and recycling of human biowaste in the course of dismantling of an old structure in Vozdvizhenskoe village. The second document that dates back to 1838 covers the sequence of construction works, starting from the foundation and ending with the arches, the types of building materials used, and peculiarities of stone masonry. The information recorded in the contract includes the names of the counterparties, day-to-day mode of life of seasonal workers, remuneration of labour and procedures that assure the quality of construction. This agreement makes it possible to outline the construction process that includes workers, bricklayers, the foreman, the contractor, the architect, and the customer. On the whole, both documents help us outline and assess some of the building practices of the 19th century. This issue is relevant nowadays, as our society has entered the phase of the market economy, while the experience accumulated by the past generations is of undeniable value.

  16. Village Dogs in Coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two

  17. Special distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in brain tissues of free-range domestic hens and ducks from a village near an electronic waste recycling site in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Yong-Fang; Fu, Shan; Zhao, Xing-Ru

    2011-03-01

    The rural village, Taizhou of Zhejiang Province, had been exposed to e-waste recycling for years, the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in hens and ducks were high. The concentration of ∑PBDEs in the brain was the lowest among tissues of individual hens and ducks after correction for the respective lipid content. Also, the concentration ratio of BDE-153 versus BDE-154 (153/154) of brain was the highest among tissues of individual hens and ducks. Our results indicate that the hindrance of blood-brain barrier to compounds, such as high molecular weight and non-planar conformation (steric hindrance), contributed to the low concentration of PBDEs in the brain tissue of hens and ducks, especially in cases exposed to high levels of PBDE.

  18. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, A.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.) [de

  19. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  20. Efficiency of prebiotics and probiotics on the performance, yield, meat quality and presence of Salmonella spp in carcasses of free-range broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Takahashi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out in the present study. Trial I evaluated the performance, carcass yield and breast meat quality, whereas Trial II evaluated the efficacy of utilizing prebiotics + probiotics on the control of Salmonella spp incidence in the carcasses of free-range broilers. In Trial I, 688 one-day-old male chicks of the Naked Neck Label Rouge strain were used, distributed in a randomized block design arranged according to a 2 x 2 factorial: control diet or diet supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics; and two rearing systems (confined or with access to paddocks - 3m²/bird, using four replicates with 35 birds each. The birds were reared until 84 days of age following the recommendations of management and nutrition for free-range strains, and had access to paddocks after 35 days of age. Water and food were given inside the experimental poultry house. Birds fed probiotics and prebiotics in the diet and the confined birds showed better performance, carcass yield and meat quality compared to the birds of the other treatments. In Trial II, 128 one-day-old male chicks of the free-range Naked Neck Label Rouge strain were used. The birds were distributed into four treatments: NCC (non-challenged control, NCS (non-challenged supplemented, CC (challenged control and CS (challenged supplemented. There were no significant effects of adding probiotics and prebiotics in the diet in regard to Salmonella enteritidis recovery from the carcasses.

  1. First report of the concentrations and implications of DDT residues in chicken eggs from a malaria-controlled area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Bornman, Riana; van Dyk, Cobus; Barnhoorn, Irene

    2015-10-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, where DDT is still used for vector control by indoor residual spraying (IRS), the concentrations of DDT in human blood and breast milk are high, and there are indications of human health impacts. To identify the possible avenues of exposure reduction, we created the concept of a Total Homestead Environment Approach (THEA). THEA characterizes the interactions between DDT, humans, and the biota within and around homesteads. One dietary route of human exposure and uptake of DDT, namely, chicken egg consumption, has to our knowledge never been studied. The ΣDDT in eggs from a DDT-sprayed village ranged between 5200 and 48,000 ng/g wm (wet mass), with a median of 11,000 ng/g wm. On a lipid mass-basis (lm), the mean ΣDDT for eggs from the sprayed village was 100,000 ng/g lm. The maximum egg concentration observed was three orders of magnitude higher than the median. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) was not exceeded based on the consumption of three eggs per week for a 60 kg person. This equates to an intake of 0.089 g DDT per person per year. Chicken egg consumption is therefore a possible target for exposure reduction, probably best achieved by reducing the DDT concentrations in soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy supply and use in a rural West African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Nathan G.; Bryden, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Over three billion people live in the rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. Often rural households have many unmet energy needs, including cooking, lighting, heating, transportation, and telecommunication. Designing solutions to meet these needs requires an understanding of the human, natural, and engineered systems that drive village energy dynamics. This paper presents the results of a novel study of energy supply and use over a one year period in an isolated rural village of 770 people in Mali. Quantitative data and narrative descriptions from this study portray village energy supply and use. Annual village energy use is 6000 MJ cap −1 yr −1 . Domestic energy needs account for 93% of village energy use. Wood is the primary energy source and provides 94% of the village energy supply. Approximately 98% of the wood is used for domestic consumption. The uses of wood in the home are cooking (52.2%), heating water (22.2%), space heating (19.1%), and other activities (6.5%). This paper also reports variations in energy usage over the period of a year for a broad range of domestic, artisan, transport, and public energy uses. -- Highlights: ► Village energy supply and use is driven by human, natural, and engineered systems. ► Village energy use varies by 250% between the hot and cold seasons. ► Domestic wood consumption accounts for 92% of village energy. ► Solar PV cells and batteries supply power to pumps, lights, and personal electronics. ► Every household uses multiple energy sources to meet basic needs.

  3. Influence of Migrant Workers Returning to Hometown on the Changes of Village Social Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei; ZHANG Hong

    2012-01-01

    Based on field survey data of Village Z in Henan Province and from the perspective of the end of villages,we studied the influence of migrant workers returning to hometown on the changes of village social structure from village social interaction and village right reconstruction.Survey results show that social interaction centers of migrant workers returning to hometown for starting an undertaking move outside,which has exceeded the range of rural society of acquaintances and promoted the breaking of the traditional social relationship network " Differential Model of Association".In addition,migrant workers returning to hometown actively participate in building village rights and show more passionate political enthusiasm and practice of modern democratic concept.Furthermore,it not only speeds up disintegration of China’s small peasant economy and division of traditional farmers,but also is an important opportunity for realizing farmers’ self-ending and village ending,as well as urban and rural integration.

  4. Ranging behavior relates to welfare indicators pre- and post-range access in commercial free-range broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the effect of accessing an outdoor range on chicken welfare. We tracked individual ranging behavior of 538 mixed-sex Ross 308 chickens on a commercial farm across 4 flocks in winter and summer. Before range access, at 17 to 19 d of age, and post-range access, at 30 to 33 and 42 to 46 d of age in winter and summer flocks respectively, welfare indicators were measured on chickens (pre-range: winter N = 292; summer N = 280; post-range: winter N = 131; summer N = 140), including weight, gait score, dermatitis and plumage condition. Post-ranging autopsies were performed (winter: N = 170; summer: N = 60) to assess breast burn, leg health, and ascites. Fewer chickens accessed the range in winter flocks (32.5%) than summer flocks (82.1%). Few relationships between welfare and ranging were identified in winter, likely due to minimal ranging and the earlier age of post-ranging data collection compared to summer flocks. In summer flocks prior to range access, chickens that accessed the range weighed 4.9% less (P = 0.03) than chickens that did not access the range. Pre-ranging weight, gait score, and overall plumage cover predicted the amount of range use by ranging chickens in summer flocks (P ranging behavior. In summer flocks post-range access, ranging chickens weighed 12.8% less than non-ranging chickens (P range visits were associated with lower weight (P range was associated with lower weight (P range in summer is partly related to changes in broiler chicken welfare. Further investigations are required to determine causation.

  5. Campylobacter jejuni infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, A Singh; Shivaprasad, H L; Schaberg, D; Wier, F; Weber, S; Bandli, D

    2006-03-01

    Day-old, straight-run broiler chickens were procured from a hatchery located in the Pacific Northwest. The chickens were subdivided individually into nine groups of 20 chickens. The chickens were tagged, housed in isolation chambers on wire, fed commercial broiler feed, and given water ad libitum. Three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni of poultry origin and one of human origin were tested in this study. Various C. jejuni cultures were inoculated into 9-day-old chickens by crop gavage. Four groups of 20 chickens were inoculated at a dose level of 0.5 ml of 1 x 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The other four groups were inoculated with 0.5 ml of 1 X 10(4) CFU/ml. One group of 20 chickens was kept as an uninoculated control group. Four randomly selected chickens from each of the inoculated and uninoculated groups were necropsied at 5, 12, and 19 days postinoculation (DPI). The C. jejuni was cultured and enumerated from a composite of the upper and midintestine and the cecum. Body weights of all chicken groups at 7 days of age and at 5, 12, and 19 DPI were measured and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were present in the mean body weights (MBWs) of 7-day-old, 5 DPI, and 12 DPI male and female broiler chickens inoculated with C. jejuni at both dose levels compared with uninoculated controls. Differences in MBWs of the male and female broilers at 19 DPI were observed in some of the groups. Results of the C. jejuni culture enumeration mean (CEM) of composite intestine samples at 5 DPI from all inoculated chicken groups, irrespective of the dose level, ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(2) to (2.8 +/- 4.8) x 10(5) CFU/g (mean +/- SD). Results of cecum C. jejuni CEM at 5 DPI inoculated at both dose levels ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(6) to (1 +/- 0.0) x 10(7) CFU/g in all treatment groups irrespective of the dose level. CEM results from the composite intestine samples at 12 and 19 DPI increased by 1 log unit, or sometimes more. Results of cecum C. jejuni

  6. Improvement of bacteriological quality of frozen chicken by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, K.; Prachasitthisak, Y.; Charoen, S.; Kanarat, S.; Kanignunta, K.; Tangwongsupang, S.

    1986-12-01

    The possible use of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.6 to 4.0 kGy to improve bacteriological quality of frozen chicken was investigated. The effects of gamma irradiation on salmonella viability in frozen chicken and on sensory quality of frozen chicken were also evaluated. D 10 -values for different isolated strains of salmonella in frozen chicken varied from 0.41 to 0.57 kGy. A dose of 4 kGy is required for a seven log cycle reduction of salmonella contamination in frozen chicken. Approximately 21 per cent of frozen chicken examined were contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium, salmonella virchow, and salmonella java were predominant. Irradiation of frozen chicken at a minimum dose of 3.2 kGy eliminated salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and, in addition, reduced baterial load by 2 log cycles. Faecal streptococci was still present in a 3.2 kGy samples but in a very small percentage and the count was not over 100 colonies per g. Discoloring of chicken meat was noted after a 2 kGy treatment. The sensory quality of frozen chicken irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy tended to decrease during frozen storage but was within the acceptable range on a nine point hedonic scale even after eight months of frozen storage. Dosage at 3.2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality of frozen chicken

  7. Renewables for sustainable village power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, L.

    1997-03-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL's RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal

  8. Uses and flock management practices of scavenging chickens in Wolaita Zone of southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Takele Taye; Wakeyo, Oli

    2012-03-01

    Rearing of scavenging chickens is among the most commonly practiced farm activities in Ethiopia. This system is dominated by indigenous chickens. Output from indigenous chickens is low due to poor management and absence of intense selection that is intended to improve economically important traits. This showed that village chickens are rather evolved for adaptation traits. However, the level of risk is low, and this has made rearing of scavenging chickens a choice of farm activity for smallholder farmers. The objective of this study was to characterize the scavenging chickens' production system in Wolaita Zone. Single-visit survey involving individual interview of 119 farmers and 6 focus group discussions was used to collect the data. Our results showed that rearing of scavenging chickens was constrained especially by disease and predation problems. However, farmers proposed a set of solutions to minimize the effect of these problems. Rearing of scavenging chickens fulfils the multi-functional need of the society. This system has special features because it can sustain in its own without the need for modern commercial chicken farming facilities. However, farmers also reported the drawbacks of rearing of scavenging chickens and these mainly include uproot of garden crops and tiresomeness of the night watching. Selection of chickens was mainly depending on physically observed traits like body size and plumage colour. The initial foundation flock was mainly obtained from the local market. The ideal place for scavenging chickens production is the one that has intermediate weather condition and has some trees that can be used as shade; however, it was substantiated that it has to be free from bush and shrubs, weeds and wet lands. Therefore, these pieces of knowledge embedded among smallholder farmers need to be well documented and synthesized to design an appropriate type of technology packages that can be communicated back to farmers to improve productivity of the

  9. A comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Y.H.; Ogata, Kenji; Sugimura, Makoto

    1979-01-01

    Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R. (author)

  10. Comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Y H; Ogata, K; Sugimura, M [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1979-05-01

    Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R.

  11. Positive selection rather than relaxation of functional constraint drives the evolution of vision during chicken domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Shan; Zhang, Rong-Wei; Su, Ling-Yan; Li, Yan; Peng, Min-Sheng; Liu, He-Qun; Zeng, Lin; Irwin, David M; Du, Jiu-Lin; Yao, Yong-Gang; Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-05-01

    As noted by Darwin, chickens have the greatest phenotypic diversity of all birds, but an interesting evolutionary difference between domestic chickens and their wild ancestor, the Red Junglefowl, is their comparatively weaker vision. Existing theories suggest that diminished visual prowess among domestic chickens reflect changes driven by the relaxation of functional constraints on vision, but the evidence identifying the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for this change has not been definitively characterized. Here, a genome-wide analysis of the domestic chicken and Red Junglefowl genomes showed significant enrichment for positively selected genes involved in the development of vision. There were significant differences between domestic chickens and their wild ancestors regarding the level of mRNA expression for these genes in the retina. Numerous additional genes involved in the development of vision also showed significant differences in mRNA expression between domestic chickens and their wild ancestors, particularly for genes associated with phototransduction and photoreceptor development, such as RHO (rhodopsin), GUCA1A, PDE6B and NR2E3. Finally, we characterized the potential role of the VIT gene in vision, which experienced positive selection and downregulated expression in the retina of the village chicken. Overall, our results suggest that positive selection, rather than relaxation of purifying selection, contributed to the evolution of vision in domestic chickens. The progenitors of domestic chickens harboring weaker vision may have showed a reduced fear response and vigilance, making them easier to be unconsciously selected and/or domesticated.

  12. Welcome to The Green Village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A sustainable world can only be achieved by an open collaboration between science, business and the public. That is why we create the Green Village: an innovative, lively, interactive and challenging environment where entrepreneurs, innovators, companies, artists, teachers and visitors can meet,

  13. A Rhetorical Analysis of Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Pynt

    2011-01-01

    The award-winning TV spot Village is a creative example of NGO advertising using condensed visual stprytelling. The spot is analysed using rhetorical concepts and communication theory, and potential effects are discused in relation to contexts, strategy and communication ethics....

  14. Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Al-Saffar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old, from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village, for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 % and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae. One species of flies (1.4% (Pseudolynchia canariensis. One species of mites (4.3% (Dermanyssus gallinae were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8% (Argas persicus were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird. Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.

  15. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease.

  16. Towards a Moon Village : Community Workshops Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    attract private industry investments. Potential sources range from technology testing in the moon environment and private R&D funding from science and academia fields, to space tourism, and more ambitious endeavors such as building a prototype launcher site as a ground segment for debris de-orbiting and satellite recycling activities. The Science and Technology team has identified key technologies and possible major scientific disciplines for a Moon Village and ranked them by importance and by Technology Readiness Level (TRL). In terms of basic technologies and objectives, rover exploration, life support systems, navigation and surveying technologies resulted to have the highest importance and readiness. Technologies for the development of the habitats (materials, modules connections, power supply, alternative energy technologies and energy storage) ended up on having high importance with medium-low technology readiness. Technologies intended to help the astronauts or improve techniques had low-medium importance together with low-medium TRL (e.g. space lift to transfer resources, bio cybernetic augmentation "Exoskeleton", jumping rover, telescope). After brainstorming for required technologies, the focus was shifted to what kinds of science can be expected to be performed, once a functional and usable habitat would be available. The group has categorized studies of planetary formation and the Solar System as a highly important scientific discipline with a medium-high TRL. Scientific areas with high-medium importance, but low technological readiness, were found to be ISRU, psychological effects, adaptations of life to low gravity and plant cultivation. The physiological effects of low-gravity on the body were considered of medium importance and readiness. The Engaging Stakeholders working group started by identifying the main stakeholders and groups that play a role or that could play a role towards the Moon Village project. These stakeholders were classified on their

  17. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  18. Digital Citizenship in K-12: It Takes a Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Randy; Dowdy, Lena; Donovan, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Digital citizenship encompasses a wide range of behaviors with varying degrees of risk and possible negative consequences. Lack of digital citizenship awareness and education can, and has, led to problematic, even dangerous student conduct. If our educational village does not address these issues, the digital culture establishes its own direction,…

  19. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Purnomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial resources of the village that are sourced from a country or a Regional Finance Financial based Law Number 6 Year 2014 of The Village is the mandate of the law that must be allocated to the village. The interconnectedness of the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or Region concerned the Financial administrative and territorial relations, and there is no setting directly regarding the finances of the village as part of the financial system of the country or the financial area. In respect of the elements of the crime of corruption deeds against financial irregularities of the village there are still disagreements on the interpretation of the law in trapping the perpetrators of corruption on the village chief that implies not satisfy the principle of legality and legal certainty in the ruling of the matter of financial irregularities. In fact, many of the village chief or Councilor caught the criminal offence of corruption over the use of financial irregularities. This research analyzes How the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or region, as well as whether the financial resources of the village is derived from the state budget or region budget managed in village budget belongs to the category of village finances and whether tort against the financial management of the village can be categorized as a criminal act corruption. How To Cite: Purnomo, H. (2015. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 121-140. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.81

  20. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  1. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  2. Tourism Village Model Based on Local Indigenous: Case Study of Nongkosawit Tourism Village, Gunungpati, Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasih; Nihayah, Dyah Maya; Sudibyo, Syafitri Amalia; Winda, Fajri Nur

    2018-02-01

    Officially, Nongkosawit Village has become a tourism village since 2012. However, the economic impact has not been received by the society yet because of inappropriate tourism village model. Therefore, this study aims to find out the best model for the development of Nongkosawit Tourism Village. This research used Analytical Hierarchy Process method. The results of this research shows that the model of tourism village which was suitable to the local indigenous of Nongkosawit Tourism Village was the cultural based tourism village with the percentage of 58%. Therefore, it is necessary to do re-orientation from the natural-based village model into the cultural-based village model by raising and exploring the existing culture through unique and different tourism products.

  3. Rural electrification or village energization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D V

    1980-03-01

    Decentralized power generation using renewable energy resources is more appropriate to the energy needs of the rural Third World. These countries often look to the rural electrification programs of the US and Soviet Union as the answer to their problem even though studies consistently show this to be inefficient and frequently ineffective, often reinforcing existing social and economic inequities. When the uses of energy in rural villages are examined in detail, the only approach which will supply energy to the rural poor must be based on a local and regional match of need to indigenous energy sources and to the development of local talent and enthusiasm. 29 references. (DCK)

  4. [Incidence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in raw and roasted chicken in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ayala, A; Salas-Ubiarco, M G; Márquez-Padilla, M L; Osorio-Hernández, M D

    1993-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella was studied in 70 samples of fresh retail chicken pieces and in 40 samples of roast chicken. Total plate count was performed in every sample as well. Most of the samples of fresh chicken yielded total plate counts > 10(8)/piece (thigh), while in roast chicken these counts ranged from 10(3) to 10(5)/piece (leg and thigh). Campylobacter was isolated from 33% of fresh chicken and from no sample of roast chicken. Salmonella was isolated from 69% of fresh chicken and 2.5% of roast chicken. There was no relationship between total plate counts in fresh chicken and isolation of either Campylobacter or Salmonella. Sixty percent of the Salmonella isolates belonged to serotype S. anatum, and about 50% of the isolates of Campylobacter were identified as being C. coli. The only Salmonella-positive sample of roast chicken yielded three serotypes: S. give, S. muenster, and S. manhattan. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken is of concern, due to the risk of spreading from the raw food to other cooked foods. The isolation of pathogens from roast chicken indicates mishandling during processing and/or storage of the product.

  5. Lighting: The Killer App of Village Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper looks at lighting systems as the major market for village level power generation. To the consumer it is something which is needed, could come from a much friendlier source, and the issues of affordability, convenience, and reliability are important. To the supplier lighting has an enormous range of potential customers, it opens the opportunity for other services, and even small demand can give big returns. Because the efficiency of the light source is critical to the number of lights which a fixed power supply can drive, it is important to pick the proper type of bulb to use in this system. The paper discusses test results from an array of fluorescent and incadescent lamps, compared with a kerosene lamp. Low wattage fluorescents seem to perform the best.

  6. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  7. Measurement of Accountability Management of Village Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Yunita, Anggraeni; Christianingrum

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the accountability of village funds management in Kabupaten Bangka. In relation to the Village Funds program which is a government program, the measurement of accountability of Village Funds management uses accountability principles consisting of Transparency, Liability, Controlling, Responsibility and Responsiveness which are the principles of accountability developed by the United Nations Development Program in measuring bureaucratic accountability. T...

  8. The Management of Village Fund Finances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inten Meutia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the implementation of fund management of village fund in Ogan Ilir Regency, South Sumatera. The population in this study were 224 villages in Ogan Ilir Regency that received the allocation of Village Funds in 2016. The purposive sampling technique was applied to obtain samples and produce 26 villages. The analysis will be carried out with a quantitative and qualitative description process. Based on the data obtained, the researcher tries to describe or describe systematically, accurately, and factually about matters relating to the field as fact, nature, and relationship between phenomena. Quantitative techniques will also use frequency analysis that aims to provide an overview of the general condition. The results reveal that the financial management aspects are generally in accordance with those set out in Permendagri 113/2014 and have complied with the basic principles of financial management. Reporting and accountability remain a problem for some villages. Not all of the villages studied have aspects of human resource reporting and accountability. Taking into account the composition of village budgeting, the village does not meet the rules that require a ratio of 70:30, this results in inequality in the implementation of rural development. The conclusion of this research is that the implementation of village fund management in Ogan Ilur Regency has been running well according to Permendagri 113/2014.

  9. Asian-Style Chicken Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/asianstylechickenwraps.html Asian-Style Chicken Wraps To use the sharing features on this ... Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 limes) For chicken: 1 Tbsp peanut oil or vegetable oil 1 ...

  10. Housing system influences abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H D; Li, D Y; Zhang, L; Yang, M Y; Zhao, X L; Wang, Y; Liu, Y P; Zhu, Q

    2014-06-01

    Paired box (Pax) proteins 3 and 7 are associated with activation of muscle satellite cells and play a major role in hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of housing system on abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles. At 42 d, 1,200 chickens with similar BW were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range group. The mRNA abundance was measured in pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d 56, 70, and 84, and the protein expression was quantified at d 84. Increases in mRNA abundance of PAX3 and PAX7 with age were less pronounced in caged system chickens than in pen and free-range chickens from d 56 to 84, and free-range chickens showed a more pronounced increase in gene expression with age compared with penned chickens. At d 84, quantities of PAX3 and PAX7 mRNA and protein were highest in both pectoralis major and thigh muscle of chickens raised in the free-range group, lowest in penned chickens, and intermediate in caged chickens (P system may influence muscle fiber muscle accretion by coordinating the expression of Pax3 and Pax7 in adult chicken skeletal muscles. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Gamma radiation and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropilova, D.; Takac, L.; Toropila, M.; Tomko, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    In our work, we focused the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on metabolic parameters in chickens. In the first group of chickens we monitor changes of the concentration in glucose and cholesterol after whole body irradiation dose of chicken (3 Gy). In the second group of chickens we studied the combined effect of radiation and intraperitoneal application solution of zinc chloride to changes of the concentration in glucose and total cholesterol. In the tissues of organisms are found only in a very small amount of microelements however are of particular importance in a number of enzymatic catalytic and regulatory processes. Zinc is found in all cells of the body. However, it is the highest percentage of zinc contained in muscle and bone cells. Resorption takes place in the small intestine, especially in the duodenum. For both groups of chickens, we performed analyzes on the 3 rd , 7 th , 14 th , 21 st and 30 day. Results and an overview of the work can be helpful in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in preventing diseases from exposure to radiation, but also in the case of the consequences after nuclear accidents. (authors)

  12. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on fresh chicken. However, if chicken is processed, additives such as MSG, salt, or sodium erythorbate may be added but must be listed on the label. [ Top of Page ] Foodborne Organisms Associated with Chicken As on any perishable meat, fish, or poultry, bacteria can be found on raw ...

  13. Perceptions of Village Dogs by Villagers and Tourists in the Coastal Region of Rural Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the village dog-keeping system, and of perceptions of dog-related problems by villagers and tourists, in the coastal region of Oaxaca, Mexico. We conducted a survey of the inhabitants of three villages (Mazunte, Puerto Angel, and Río Seco),

  14. Institutional issues in Village Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents a view on renewable energy resource projects from one much closer to recipient of the services. The author argues that such programs aimed at development of village power situations need to keep certain points clearly in focus. These include the fact that electricity is not the goal, technology is not the problem, site selection involves more than just resource potential, the distinction between demonstration and pilot programs, and that such programs demand local involvement for success. The author recommends coordinating such projects with programs seeking competing funds such as health, education, and transportation. The projects must demonstrate a high economic benefit to justify the high economic cost, and one must use the benefits to leverage the program funding.

  15. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 μg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 μg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 μg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 μg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 μg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 μg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 μg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 μg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 μg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 μg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 μg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 μg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption

  16. MIRACLES SHOWN BY MARRIAGE CUSTOMS IN SOPA FISHING VILLAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sopa Village in Chushur County of Lhasa Municipality is the only village in Tibet with a fishing business.The unique culture of this village includes ancient traditional customs.One in particular is a strange marriage custom.

  17. Wildlife Presence and Interactions with Chickens on Australian Commercial Chicken Farms Assessed by Camera Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela Bullanday; Phalen, David; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Singh, Mini; Groves, Peter; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2018-03-01

    The types of wildlife and the frequency of their visits to commercial chicken farms in Australia were assessed using infrared and motion-sensing camera traps. Cameras were set up on 14 free-range layer farms, three cage layer farms, two barn layer farms, five non-free-range meat chicken farms, and six free-range meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin region and South East Queensland. Wildlife visits were found on every farm type and were most frequent on cage layer farms (73%), followed by free-range layer farms (15%). The common mynah ( Acridotheres tristis) was the most frequent wildlife visitor in the study (23.9%), followed by corvids (22.9%) and Columbiformes (7.5%). Most wildlife visits occurred during the day from 6 am to 6 pm (85%). There were infrequent observations of direct contact between chickens and wildlife, suggesting the indirect route of pathogen transfer may be more significant. The level of biosecurity on the farm is suggested to impact the frequency of wildlife visits more so than the farm type.

  18. Chicken Astrovirus Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    35 nm in diameter with a ... named chicken astrovirus (CAstV) isolated from broiler chicks (Baxendale and Mebatsion, 2004). CAstV has .... successfully used the RT-PCR method to detect CAstV in field samples from across the USA while Day et ...

  19. Management Restoration Plans for Coastal Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudianto Rudianto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The village is located in the coastal area up to this time has decreased the quality of the coastal environment either caused by the process of natural or anthropogenic processes. Coastal damage Persistent will affect people's lives. Based on studies conducted by Rudianto (2013 and continued research by Rudianto (2014 on the institutional model for implementing the strategy, the resulting output coast of research called restoration plan for coastal villages or R2DP coastal villages. The objective of R2DP is helping the village administration to alleviate the problems of coastal areas. R2DP is a guideline that will be used by the village government based on a legal framework called the village regulations. The method used to compile R2DP is descriptive method. By using the method of Miles and Huberman (1984 used data reduction techniques. This technique is to pick and choose which data is critical to focus on the purpose of research. the results of research to produce findings about the restoration plan or a coastal village called R2DP. The essence of the mechanism and procedure R2DP is doing the restoration work by using institutions as a means of restoration.

  20. The Participation Role of Villagers in Village Plan Implementation: A Comparative Study on Two Villages in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengzhi; YIN; Haitao; CHEN

    2013-01-01

    China is in a process of rapid urbanization. Meanwhile, building development in rural areas is also accelerating. The paper intends to illustrate an original study focusing on villagers’ role in participation in village plan implementation in rural areas of China. Case studies, comparative studies, interviews, and questionnaires have been applied to reveal the mechanism of villager participation in village plan imple-mentation. Two case villages, which are pioneer units in the transition in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, have been selected. The study outcome shows that the villager participation plays an extremely important role in implementing the official village plan. The ideal development regulation mode in village planning in rural China should be a local government-villager cooperating system formed by three pillars: financial and technical supports from local governments; the participation of rural autonomous organizations, non-governmental organizations, and 'able persons' in formulation, implementation, and monitoring of official village plans; village construction teams like developers.

  1. Sustainability of fisherman village in urban area case study : untia fisherman village, makassar, indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noegroho, N.; Ardiani, Y. M.

    2017-12-01

    Major cities in Indonesia, many of which have a fisherman village in the city area. One of them is the village of Untia in Makassar which keeps the story about relocation history of fishermen’s settlement in Makassar city. Initially, this village is very ‘friendly’ for the fishermen, especially the existence of canals that can be passed by the fishing boat to the front of the each house. However, the sustainability of this fisherman village is threatened by the development of urban functions that are urging towards it. From day to day, this village is segregated with the surrounding area, not only from its function but also from social point of view. This condition will be more severe related to the local government plan to reclaim sea far to the west side, thus threatening the sustainability of fisherman life in this village. How does a fisherman village in an urban area have to survive? The research begins by highlighting the conditions and problems that exist, data was collected by field survey. This data combined with some literatures then analyzed to propose a direction how fisherman’s village respond to the surrounding development. Become a Tourism village is a one way for fisherman’s village to survive in urban area.

  2. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for value-added chicken product attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-10-01

    A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application:  An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. The impact of circular migration on a village economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetler, C B

    1989-04-01

    The author examines the economy of a rural village in Indonesia in which a high proportion of households rely on remittances from urban informal sector earnings. Household income and per capita income are analyzed according to whether or not households have at least one temporary migrant, and by the sex and age of the household head. Findings indicate that "remittances from short-term circular migration push many households into the middle and upper income ranges. However, the wealthiest households continue to rely on traditional high earning activities and do not depend on remittances. The poorest households are scattered among those who rely on remittances and those still totally dependent upon traditional low earning village activities, regardless of the sex and age of the household head." excerpt

  4. Prevalence of Antibodies to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Backyard Chickens around Maharlou Lake in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Hadipour*, Gholamhossein Habibi and Amir Vosoughi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Backyard chickens play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 500 backyard chickens from villages around Maharlou lake in Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 7.73 and 81.6%, respectively.

  5. Development Planning of Tourist Village Using Participatory Mapping (Case study: Mambal Village, Badung Regency, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arida, I. N. S.; Wiguna, P. P. K.; Narka, I. W.; Febrianti, N. K. O.

    2017-12-01

    Tourism sector is the highest source of income in Badung Regency so it is interesting to see the development of tourist village as one of the alternative tourist destinations in Badung Regency. Most of the village areas in Badung Regency do not have policies, vision and mission as an effort to develop the village into a tourist village. As a result the role of tourist village does not grow in terms of economic and social community. The purpose of this research is to determine and to map the tourism development plan using participatory mapping. The methodology used in this research is field surveys and interviews for data collection and participatory mapping to map the development plan to support tourism. Mambal village is located in Sub-district of Abiansemal, Badung Regency, Indonesia. Mambal village has the potential to become a tourism village because it is supported by the uniqueness of nature and tradition. Mambal village passed by Ayung river, where along the river there are beautiful cliffs which potential to develop as adventure tourism. There is also Senaung Pengibul Cave with a length of more than 15 meters and is wide enough to pass. Mambal village also has a spiritual tour of Pura Demung and Pancoran Pitu, which has a magical story. Currently farmers in Mambal Village are focusing on developing organic farming, of which 38% of the rice fields present in Mambal are pure organic that produces organic rice. Around the rice field area is also created a jogging track for visitors while enjoying the natural beauty of rice fields. Farmers also cultivate oyster mushrooms. In addition, Mambal Village Community also produces handicraft products that are woven in the form of symmetrical Endek (traditional fabrics) and processed products from used goods such as bags, wallets, pencil boxes and others.

  6. Village poultry production in Madagascar: Production characteristics and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koko, M.; Maminiaina, O.F.; Ravaomanana, J.; Rakotonindrina, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the production characteristics of village poultry in Madagascar, a cross sectional survey was done in May, 1999 in zone 1 and in June 1999 in zone 2. Furthermore, a longitudinal survey was done in 33 farms in the two zones during a 12 month period providing information on flock dynamics and causes of mortality. The indigenous chicken in Madagascar represents 91% of the total poultry population. Each farm has on average 11 birds, which survive by scavenging. The average productivity is 33.3 eggs/hen/year and 2.76 clutches/hen/year. The average hatchability is 77.8% and 75% of the eggs are used for renewing the flock. Mortality figures are very high: 42.3% of the chicks die before weaning and 34.5% of the growers die before becoming adults. Mortality of adults is on average 3 1.4%. Mortality is due to various factors, but is mainly due to internal parasites in the chicks (38.5%), especially during the dry season. Newcastle disease (ND) is the most important infectious cause of mortality causing more than 68.8% of the deaths in growers and 75% in the adults. Post mortem results confirmed serological information using the indirect haemagglutination test indicating the importance of ND. However, further study is necessary to identify the wild strains of ND that might circulate in Madagascar. (author) [fr

  7. World chicken meat market – its development and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vladimirovna Belova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global meat market and primarily the chicken meat market represents a very dynamically developing area. The objective of the present article is the analysis of the chicken meat market in the world in order to identify the basic development trends associated with the development of production of and trade in chicken meat, and also in order to identify the individual entities controlling the global chicken meat market. In methodological terms, the article analyzes the development of production of, consumption of and trade (export and import in chicken meat in the years 1961–2009. The main sources of data necessary for the processing of the individual analyses are the FAOSTAT and UN COMTRADE databases. The results of the conducted analysis show the following findings. World production of poultry meat increased from 7.5 million tons to more than 86 million tons. The global market reacted in a flexible manner, in which there was an increase in volumes of executed trade from 271 thousand tons/year in the year 1961 to more than 10.7 million tons/year in the year 2010. Further, the value of world trade in chicken meat within the analyzed period increased from approximately USD 169 million to approximately USD 16 billion. If we analyze the global chicken meat market, it may be stated that it is very concentrated. The analysis of the global market further shows that Brazil, the USA and China represent, in terms of global production, consumption and trade, the main driving force on the chicken meat market. These three countries have a share in global production of approximately 46%, their share in global consumption ranges at a level of over 40%. The share of these countries in global export ranges at a level exceeding 50%.

  8. 25 CFR 91.11 - Domestic animals in village reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic animals in village reserves. 91.11 Section 91.11... VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.11 Domestic animals in village reserves. (a) No livestock shall... owner of the animal, if known, by certified mail or by posting in the village square. The notice shall...

  9. Measuring the Development Patterns of Urban Villages in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Hooimeijer, P.; Sliuzas, R.

    2011-01-01

    Urban villages are widespread in many Chinese cities, providing affordable and accessible housing for rural migrants. These urban villages are developed by the indigenous village population base on a self-help approach and in an unauthorized style. Consequently, urban villages are characterized by

  10. Community Participation and Domiciliary Occurrence of Infected Meccus longipennis in Two Mexican Villages in Jalisco State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Bosseno, Marie-France; Gastélum, Ezequiel Magallón; Margarita Soto Gutiérrez, María; de Jesús Kasten Monges, Marina; Horacio Barraza Salas, José; Justo Romero Paredes, José; de Jesús Lozano Kasten, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    The entomological features of Chagas disease in two western Mexican villages were analyzed through triatomines collection by the inhabitants and active research in the peridomicile. The inhabitant collections have the following comparable characteristics: 1) Meccus longipennis was the dominant species (> 91%), 2) around 43% of the insects were collected indoors, 3) about 70% of triatomines were adults, 4) cumulated rates of infestation of the dwellings reached 40–50%, 5) the triatomine infection rate by Trypanosoma cruzi was > 50%, and 6) the indoor triatomines frequently feed on humans (range 38.5–56.2%). However, the collection was twice as abundant in the first village and the peridomicile infestation, evaluated by the active collection, reached up to 60% and only 4.9% in the other village. Furthermore, females predominated in the first village, whereas males in the other. The current results allow discussing the course of action to prevent Chagas disease in this region. PMID:20682887

  11. Implementation of the biomass gasification project for community empowerment at Melani village, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamphweli, Ntshengedzeni S.; Meyer, Edson L. [University of Fort Hare, Institute of Technology, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    Eskom and the University of Fort Hare are engaged in a biomass gasification project using the System Johansson Biomass gasifier (SJBG). The SJBG installed at Melani village in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa is used to assess the viability and affordability of biomass gasification in South Africa. A community needs assessment study was undertaken at the village before the installation of the plant. The study revealed the need for low-cost electricity for small businesses including growing of crops, chicken broilers, manufacturing of windows and door frames, sewing of clothing, bakery etc. It was also found that the community had a problem with the socio-environmental aspects of burning biomass waste from the sawmill furnace as a means of waste management. The SJBG uses the excess biomass materials (waste) to generate low-cost electricity to drive community economic development initiatives. A study on the properties and suitability of the biomass materials resulting from sawmill operation and their suitability for gasification using the SJBG was undertaken. The study established that the biomass materials meet the requirements for the SJBG. A 300 Nm{sup 3}/h SJBG was then manufactured and installed at the village. (author)

  12. In vitro comparison of rat and chicken brain neurotoxic esterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, R.; Padilla, S.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic comparison was undertaken to characterize neurotoxic esterase (NTE) from rat and chicken brain in terms of inhibitor sensitivities, pH optima, and molecular weights. Paraoxon titration of phenyl valerate (PV)-hydrolyzing carboxylesterases showed that rat esterases were more sensitive than chicken to paraoxon inhibition at concentrations less than or equal to microM and superimposable with chicken esterases at concentrations of 2.5-1000 microM. Mipafox titration of the paraoxon-resistant esterases at a fixed paraoxon concentration of 100 microM (mipafox concentration: 0-1000 microM) resulted in a mipafox I50 of 7.3 microM for chicken brain NTE and 11.6 microM for rat brain NTE. NTE (i.e., paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive esterase activity) comprised 80% of chicken and 60% of rat brain paraoxon-resistant activity with the specific activity of chicken brain NTE approximately twice that of rat brain NTE. The pH maxima for NTE from both species was similar showing broad, slightly alkaline optima from pH 7.9 to 8.6. [ 3 H]Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP)-labeled NTE from the brains of both species had an apparent mol wt of 160,000 measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, NTE from both species was very similar, with the mipafox I50 for rat NTE within the range of reported values for chicken and human NTE, and the inhibitor parameters of the chicken NTE assay were applicable for the rat NTE assay

  13. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  14. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. SUSTAINABLE CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: THE FATE OF BALINESE ADAT VILLAGE POSTERIOR THE ENACTMENT OF LAW NUMBER 6 YEAR 2014 CONCERNING VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Nurjaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of indigenous peoples existence is very dependent on the will of the Government. The village government as formulated in Act number 6/2014 of the village, as well as Government Regulation number 43/2014 about Implementation of the Act number 6/2014 has naturally become a bureaucratic and legal officials law, that the village is set in the system of local government under the supervision of State law. In the case of Bali and the local Government of Bali, there is legal consequences with the fate and the future existence and life of indigenous village/pakraman village as a social and cultural system of the Hindu society, it is the law on the development basis of the indigenous village/pakraman village will not remain be ”the awig-awig” as Balinese traditional society customary law; philosophy and the essence, function and role of the indigenous village/pakraman village changed physically as well as community life of Balinese people loss; traditional customs and Government system should be changed in accordance with the system of the village Government; on one side the customs affairs village should organize pakraman village administration and bureaucracy under the structure of local governments, and on the other hand the indigenous village is at the same time responsible to organize and responsible about the culture, traditions, customs and ritual as Hindu affairs, village understanding of pakraman village customs and traditions should be completely ignored in Balinese village daily community life.

  16. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R.

    2015-01-01

    Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. gall infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases incr...

  17. The village as a ‘community of practice’ Constitution of village belonging through leisure sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Barlocco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the formation and display of a form of identification alternative to the national one, the belonging to the village, within the leisure practices of Kadazan villagers in Sabah, East Malaysia, both constituted by the regular meetings of peer groups and by festive events. The analysis of the paper applies the concept of ‘community of practice’ to the group of villagers who regularly invest most of their resources of free time, but also money, in interacting between themselves and in organising celebrations for various life-cycle events or for other occasions, and argues that a strong sense of belonging to the village is developed through this engagement. These practices are informed by a powerful and widely spread local ideology, positing the village as the central point of reference for its inhabitants’ sense of belonging and as the locus of a traditionalist ‘way of life’, based on cooperation, sharing and egalitarian principles, and rejecting the modern, multi-ethnic urban world from which the majority of the villagers derive their livelihood. This ideology defines the village as Kadazan and Christian, determining a rootedness in everyday life of ethnic identity as well as a general rejection of government-led nationalist propaganda and of its policies. This ideology is an essential part of the affirmation by the villagers of the primacy of the local and of direct involvement and participation over their sense of belonging to collective categories.

  18. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.

    1998-01-01

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  19. Host choice and human blood index of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in a village of the Andean valleys of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchité Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Human Blood Index (HBI, proportion of bloodmeals of a mosquito population obtained from man is relevant to epidemiological assessment and to the modification of measures to interrupt malaria transmission since the vectorial capacity of the vector varies as the square of the HBI. Anopheles pseudopunctipennis is a main malaria vector in South America. Unfortunately, few data exist concerning HBI values in its range of distribution and none from Bolivia where this species is considered as an important malaria vector in the central Andes. Methods The host choice of An. pseudopunctipennis has been studied in Mataral, a characteristic village of the central Andes of Bolivia. Mosquito host feeding preference experiments (equal accessibility to host in homogenous environment were monitored using baited mosquito nets in latin square designs. Host feeding selection experiments (natural feeding pattern in heterogeneous environment was measured by bloodmeal analysis, using ELISA to determine the origin of blood. Mosquito bloodmeals were collected on various occasions, using various techniques in a variety of sampling sites. A survey of the possible blood sources has also been carried out in the village. Data were analysed with the forage ratio method. Results An. pseudopunctipennis chooses amongst hosts. Sheep, goats, donkeys and humans are the preferred hosts, while dogs, pigs and chicken are rarely bitten. An. pseudopunctipennis has an opportunistic behaviour, in particular within the preferred hosts. The HBI in Mataral is ≈40% and in the central Andes, may range from 30–50%, in accordance to other findings. A high proportion of mixed meals were encountered (8%, and cryptic meals are likely more numerous. There was no difference amongst the HBI from parous and nulliparous mosquitoes. Conclusion Forage ratio analysis is a powerful tool to interpret mosquito host choices. However, refinements in sampling strategies are still

  20. "The Moon Village and Journey to Mars enable each other"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    with the addition of resource recovery from asteroids at industrial operations in cislunar space. Preliminary conclusions indicate that by doing more that the cost and risk of individual operations lessens. The cost and risk of the Journey to Mars will be significantly less if a parallel effort is underway with Moon Village. Moon Village is aimed at lunar exploration with a view towards enabling lunar ISRU. Success with lunar ISRU creates sources of fuel, water, and other materials required for missions to Mars. This creates a supplier- customer relationship. This economic aspect is further enhanced with space-based solar power first piloted for lunar applications then applied to terrestrial needs starting with disaster relief. The benefits of shared infrastructure are further augmented through development of industrial operations in cislunar space for asteroid and or lunar materials processing expanding the range of materials that become available for processing into products that do not have to be lifted out of the Earth's gravity well creating the basis for a space economy. The idea of an International Lunar Decade serving as a framework for coordination of international collaboration across multiple missions and fields is explored. [1] http://arstechnica.com/science/2016/02/space-experts-warn-congress-that-nasas-journey-to-mars-is-illusory/ [2] http://www.nap.edu/catalog/18801/pathways-to-exploration-rationales-and-approaches-for-a-us-program [3] http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/nexgen/Nexgen_Downloads/NexGen_ELA_Report_FINAL.pdf [4] http://strategic.mit.edu/JSR_Final_Manuscript_Ishimatsu.pdf [5] Lunar COTS: An Economical and Sustainable Approach to Reaching Mars, http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/nexgen/Nexgen_Downloads/AIAA2015-4408ZunigaLunarCOTS.pdf

  1. Towards A Moon Village: Vision and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The new DG of ESA, Jan Wörner, has expressed from the very beginning of his duty a clear ambition towards a Moon Village, where Europe could have a lead role. The concept of Moon Village is basically to start with a robotic lunar village and then develop a permanent station on the Moon with different countries and partners that can participate and contribute with different elements, experiments, technologies, and overall support. ESA's DG has communicated about this programme and invited inputs from all the potential stakeholders, especially member states, engineers, industry, scientists, innovators and diverse representatives from the society. In order to fulfill this task, a series of Moon Village workshops have been organized first internally at ESA and then at international community events, and are also planned for the coming months, to gather stakeholders to present their ideas, their developments and their recommendations on how to put Moon Village into the minds of Europeans, international partners and prepare relevant actions for upcoming International Lunar Decade. Moon Village Workshop: The Moon Village Workshop in ESTEC on the 14th December was organized by ILEWG & ESTEC Staff Association in conjunction with the Moon 2020-2030 Symposium. It gathered people coming from all around the world, with many young professionals involved, as well as senior experts and representatives, with a very well gender balanced and multidisciplinary group. Engineers, business experts, managers, scientists, architects, artists, students presented their views and work done in the field of Lunar Exploration. Participants included colleagues from ESA, SGAC Space Generation Advisory Council, NASA, and industries such as OHB SE, TAS, Airbus DS, CGI, etc… and researchers or students from various Universities in Europe, America, and Asia. Working groups include: Moon Habitat Design, Science and Technology potentials on the Moon Village, and Engaging Stakeholders. The Moon

  2. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  3. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term in...

  4. Clinical significance of neurocysticercosis in endemic villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, H.H.; Gilman, R.H.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Gonzalez, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral cysticercosis is the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in most developing countries. Data on the neuroepidemiology of cysticercosis in endemic populations is scarce. In an endemic village on the northern coast of Peru, 49 individuals with neurological symptomatology (41 epileptic and 8 non-epileptic) were screened for antibodies to Taenia solium, using a serum electroimmuno transfer blot assay. Fifteen subjects were seropositive, 14 (34%) of those with epilepsy but only one (13%) of those who were non-epileptic. A history of passing proglottides was associated with positive serology. Thirteen of the 15 seropositive individuals underwent cerebral computed tomography; only 7 (54%) were abnormal. A randomly selected sample of 20 pigs from the village was also tested, and 6 (30%) were seropositive. This study demonstrated the importance of cysticercosis in the aetiology of epilepsy in endemic villages and the close relationship between porcine and human infection

  5. Optimal Time to Enter a Retirement Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the financial planning problem of a retiree wishing to enter a retirement village at a future uncertain date. The date of entry is determined by the retiree’s utility and bequest maximisation problem within the context of uncertain future health states. In addition, the retiree must choose optimal consumption, investment, bequest and purchase of insurance products prior to their full annuitisation on entry to the retirement village. A hyperbolic absolute risk-aversion (HARA utility function is used to allow necessary consumption for basic living and medical costs. The retirement village will typically require an initial deposit upon entry. This threshold wealth requirement leads to exercising the replication of an American put option at the uncertain stopping time. From our numerical results, active insurance and annuity markets are shown to be a critical aspect in retirement planning.

  6. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, S.; Bergman, M.; Sklan, D.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [ 14 C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  7. Sustainable brooder for supporting local chicken in North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, N.; Hidayat, R.

    2018-02-01

    Demand for local chicken has lasted for ages in Sumatera Utara Province, Indonesia. Demand is higher than supply because local chicken has low productivity which caused by several factors, for example heater or brooder for day old chicken (DOC). People who live in villages where mostly local chicken are raised have difficulty in serving brooder as electricity is expensive. In Biological Laboratory, Animal Production Programme Study, University of Sumatera Utara, a study has been conducted from August until November 2016. The objective of this study is to investigate sustainable brooder for local chicken. A study of 300 local DOC with designs: T1) local DOC + electric lamp brooder, T2) local DOC + biogas lamp brooder, T3) local DOC + propane lamp brooder has conducted. The key parameters measured were temperature stability, DOC spread, body weight gain, and mortality. Designs T1, T2 and T3 were almost equal in temperature stability, DOC spread, body weight gain and mortality while T2 was superior as it was environmentally friendly. A recommendation for local people to use biogas brooder instead of electric or LPG brooder.

  8. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Household surveys were conducted in the three administrative cells ... In order to be more concise, only those villages (settlements) within 5-10 km radius .... Market. 3. 1.9. Firewood collection from public land consumed a lot of time from ... in order to assess the extent of agroforestry practice so as to guide in planning.

  9. Communicative and narrative sound in Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2010-01-01

    The soundtrack of the TV spot Village tells a story of its own. Some of the sounds communicate meaning very close to the visuals, for example by creating an African soundscape. But the soundtrack also supplies narrative elements of its own, which is most remarkable when it adds a happy ending...

  10. Radon variations in a Hungarian village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, E.; Deak, F.; Marx, G.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    A steady radon exhalation is assumed in most publications. In a village of North-East Hungary, however, high radon concentrations have been measured, differing strongly in neighbouring houses and varying in time, due to the interplay of geochemical phenomena. (orig.)

  11. Space architecture for MoonVillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2017-10-01

    The concept of a multinational MoonVillage, as proposed by Jan Wörner of ESA, is analyzed with respect to diverse factors affecting its implementation feasibility: potential activities and scale as a function of location, technology, and purpose; potential participants and their roles; business models for growth and sustainability as compared to the ISS; and implications for the field of space architecture. Environmental and operations constraints that govern all types of MoonVillage are detailed. Findings include: 1) while technically feasible, a MoonVillage would be more distributed and complex a project than the ISS; 2) significant and distinctive opportunities exist for willing participants, at all evolutionary scales and degrees of commercialization; 3) the mixed-use space business park model is essential for growth and permanence; 4) growth depends on exporting lunar material products, and the rate and extent of growth depends on export customers including terrestrial industries; 5) industrial-scale operations are a precondition for lunar urbanism, which goal in turn dramatically drives technology requirements; but 6) industrial viability cannot be discerned until significant in situ operations occur; and therefore 7) government investment in lunar surface operations is a strictly enabling step. Because of the resources it could apply, the U.S. government holds the greatest leverage on growth, no matter who founds a MoonVillage. The interplanetary business to be built may because for engagement.

  12. Biogas Production from Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dalkılıç

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal manures are burned for heating in Turkey. It is also used as soil conditioner which has adverse environmental effects. Although, the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey is very limited, the application studies on biogas production from animal manure are increasing. 25-30% of total animal manures produced in Turkey are composed of chicken manure. The works on biogas production from chicken manure are very limited in Turkey. In this paper, biogas production studies from chicken manure in Turkey and in the World are reviewed.

  13. Village operator feasibility framework: A recommended method for assessing the viability of village operator sites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Staden, R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available model will serve to enhance local industry and government services, and contribute directly to the local economy through job creation. The proposed model empowers local ICT service providers, known as Village Operators, to implement broadband...

  14. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  15. Barefoot in Afghanistan: solar electrification of villages in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Bunker [Barefoot Coll., Rajasthan (India); Synnevag, Gry [Norwegian Church Aid (Norway)

    2006-05-15

    In the mountains of Afghanistan, villagers must walk long distances and pay high prices to buy fuel to survive. The authors report on an innovative solar electrification scheme that has enabled villagers to be self-reliant installers. (Author)

  16. Alaska Native Villages and Rural Communities Water Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant human health and water quality problems exist in Alaska Native Village and other rural communities in the state due to lack of sanitation. To address these issues, EPA created the Alaska Rural and Native Villages Grant Program.

  17. Feasibility of freight villages in the NYMTC region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    This report summarizes the work conducted to analyze the site impact of freight villages. The analysis included assessing traffic, : logistics and economic impacts, which are then used to determine the extent to which freight village development has ...

  18. Towards a Moon Village: Young Lunar Explorers Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard; Batenburg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    facilitate the progress of the Moon Village initiative it is necessary to attract private industry investments. Potential sources range from technology testing in the moon environment and private R&D funding from science and academia fields, to space tourism, and more ambitious endeavors such as building a prototype launcher site as a ground segment for debris de-orbiting and satellite recycling activities. The Science and Technology team has identified key technologies and possible major scientific disciplines for a Moon Village and ranked them by importance and by Technology Readiness Level (TRL). In terms of basic technologies and objectives, rover exploration, life support systems, navigation and surveying technologies resulted to have the highest importance and readiness. Technologies for the development of the habitats (materials, modules connections, power supply, alternative energy technologies and energy storage) ended up on having high importance with medium-low technology readiness. Technologies intended to help the astronauts or improve techniques had low-medium importance together with low-medium TRL (e.g. space lift to transfer resources, bio cybernetic augmentation "Exoskeleton", jumping rover, telescope). After brainstorming for required technologies, the fo-cus was shifted to what kinds of science can be ex-pected to be performed, once a functional and usable habitat would be available. The group has categorized studies of planetary formation and the Solar System as a highly important scientific discipline with a medi-um-high TRL. Scientific areas with high-medium im-portance, but low technological readiness, were found to be ISRU, psychological effects, adaptations of life to low gravity and plant cultivation. The physiological effects of low-gravity on the body were considered of medium importance and readiness. The Engaging Stakeholders working group started by identifying the main stakeholders and groups that play a role or that could play a role towards

  19. Sustainable Architecture Analyses of Walls in Miyaneh Village Houses, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Salavatizadeh; Feridoun NahidiAzar; Sara Salavatizadeh; Seyyed Hossein Salehi; Ahadollah Azami

    2012-01-01

    Even though so many efforts have been taken to renovate and renew the architecture of Miyaneh villages in cold and dry regions of Iran-s northwest, these efforts failed due to lack of significant study and ignoring the past and sustainable history of those villages. Considering the overpopulation of Iran-s villages as well as the importance in preventing their immigration to cities, recognizing village architecture and its construction technology is of great significance ...

  20. Socio economic community mapping around Dumai Timur (case study: Tanjung Palas Village)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilham, Ami; Putra, M. Umar Maya

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze the socio economic community mapping around Dumai Timur Sub District with a case study: Tanjung Palas Village. The problem in this research is to analyze community needs and potential contained there. The data used are primary data that have been obtained to do data entry based on the guidance from the actors concerned, there is a transfer in the form of qualitative data into quantitative measurement techniques reference instrument of socio economic mapping activities. From the results of this study indicate that the necessary empowerment of social management in which short-term policy for the addition of water discharge, training on the concept of raising entrepreneurial innovation. For the long term necessary to make a business innovation and sustainability development pattern with operational assistance in the form of seeds, the manufacture of cages and chicken feed.

  1. Pilot study of long-term anaesthesia in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Peter M; Connerton, Ian F; White, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    To provide stable anaesthesia of long duration in broiler chickens in order to perform a terminal caecal ligated loop procedure. Prospective experimental study. Seven clinically healthy broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) aged 27-36 days, weighing 884-2000 g. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. All birds underwent intermittent positive pressure ventilation for the duration. End-tidal carbon dioxide, peripheral haemoglobin oxygen saturation, heart rate and oesophageal temperature were monitored continuously. All birds received intraosseous fluids. Butorphanol (2 mg kg(-1)) was administered intramuscularly at two hourly intervals. Euthanasia by parenteral pentobarbitone was performed at the end of procedure. Stable anaesthesia was maintained in four chickens for durations ranging from 435 to 510 minutes. One bird died and one was euthanized after 130 and 330 minutes, respectively, owing to surgical complications and another died from anaesthetic complication after 285 minutes. Long-term, stable anaesthesia is possible in clinically healthy chickens, provided complications such as hypothermia and hypoventilation are addressed and vital signs are carefully monitored. There are no known previous reports describing monitored, controlled anaesthesia of this duration in chickens. © 2015 The Authors Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  2. Aerobic degradation of tylosin in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Teeter, Jerold; Meyerhoff, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Tylosin, a fermentation-derived macrolide antibiotic, was tested to determine its aerobic degradation rate in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta. For chicken, excreta from a hen administered 14 C-tylosin as part of a metabolism study were used. For cattle and swine, 14 C-tylosin was added to control excreta. The formation of 14 C volatile breakdown products and 14 CO 2 was not observed throughout the study. Material balance for the cabon-14 label ranged between 94% and 104%. Initial, day-0, concentrations of tylosin-A averaged 119.52±4.39, 35.01±1.34, and 62.82±2.11 μg/g (dry weight basis) for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta samples, respectively. After 30 days, samples averaged 4.16±0.69 and 4.11±0.69 μg/g tylosin-A in cattle and swine excreta, respectively. No residues of tylosin-A or its factors were apparent in the chicken excreta samples after 30 days of incubation. In each case, tylosin declined to less than 6.5% of the initial level after 30 days. Calculated first-order half-lives under the test conditions were 6.2 days, <7.6 days, and 7.6 days for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta, respectively. The results indicate that tylosin residues degrade rapidly in animal excreta. Therefore, tylosin residues should not persist in the environment

  3. Genetic architecture of gene expression in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The annotation of many genomes is limited, with a large proportion of identified genes lacking functional assignments. The construction of gene co-expression networks is a powerful approach that presents a way of integrating information from diverse gene expression datasets into a unified analysis which allows inferences to be drawn about the role of previously uncharacterised genes. Using this approach, we generated a condition-free gene co-expression network for the chicken using data from 1,043 publically available Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays. This data was generated from a diverse range of experiments, including different tissues and experimental conditions. Our aim was to identify gene co-expression modules and generate a tool to facilitate exploration of the functional chicken genome. Results Fifteen modules, containing between 24 and 473 genes, were identified in the condition-free network. Most of the modules showed strong functional enrichment for particular Gene Ontology categories. However, a few showed no enrichment. Transcription factor binding site enrichment was also noted. Conclusions We have demonstrated that this chicken gene co-expression network is a useful tool in gene function prediction and the identification of putative novel transcription factors and binding sites. This work highlights the relevance of this methodology for functional prediction in poorly annotated genomes such as the chicken.

  4. Serum levels, ontogeny and heritability of chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S.B.; Hedemand, J.E.; Nielsen, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    in opsonization or direct complement-mediated killing. To gain further knowledge about the physiology and function of the protein, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chicken MBL and used this to investigate the level of MBL in different chicken strains during embryogenesis, early and adult life....... The MBL concentrations in 308 chickens, representing 14 different strains, showed a non-Gaussian, unimodal distribution profile with a mean concentration of 5.8 mu g/ml (range 0.4-37.8 mu g/ml). No difference between the strains could be demonstrated and no chickens were found deficient in MEL....... Ontogenetic studies showed that MBL is already detectable in embryos at a gestational age of IO days (11 days before hatching). At hatching, the level is comparable to the level found in adult chickens. This level is fairly stable during the first weeks of life, but a deficiency state develops at 4 weeks...

  5. Genetic evidence of Roavirus in chicken in Nigeria. | Oyetunde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the presence of rotavirus in some poultry flocks in Abeokuta and Oyo, using the reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. A total of 49 fecal samples in form of cloacal swabs were collected from chickens and turkeys with age groups ranging between 5days ...

  6. Frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric properties of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielectric properties of chicken breast meat were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at temperatures ranging from -20 degree C to +25 degree C. At a given temperature, the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant reveals two relaxations while those of th...

  7. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTER FROM CHICKEN FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from chicken fat waste using ZnO/SiO fatty acid ethyl ester ... obtained in the range of 56−88%and a second order quadratic polynomial regression model that established the ... Transesterification is a chemical.

  8. Spatial diversity of urban village development in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341235814; Geertman, S.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072392924; Hooimeijer, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073398578; Sliuzas, R.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic urbanization in China during the reform period has led to the emergence and proliferation of so-called urban villages in many cities. The development of urban villages, based on a self-help approach of indigenous villagers, has been satisfying great demand for migrant housing and space for

  9. Village health volunteers: key issues facing agencies in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participants discussed recruitment, training, rewards, retention, and roles of village health volunteers. This paper presents background data on village health volunteers in Malawi and elsewhere and reviews the key issues facing health care providers in working with village health volunteers. A copy of the workshop ...

  10. Site-specific recombination in the chicken genome using Flipase recombinase-mediated cassette exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Kim, Young Min; Hwang, Young Sun; Park, Young Hyun; Park, Tae Sub; Han, Jae Yong

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genome recombination has been applied in diverse research fields and has a wide range of possible applications. In particular, the discovery of specific loci in the genome that support robust and ubiquitous expression of integrated genes and the development of genome-editing technology have facilitated rapid advances in various scientific areas. In this study, we produced transgenic (TG) chickens that can induce recombinase-mediated gene cassette exchange (RMCE), one of the site-specific recombination technologies, and confirmed RMCE in TG chicken-derived cells. As a result, we established TG chicken lines that have, Flipase (Flp) recognition target (FRT) pairs in the chicken genome, mediated by piggyBac transposition. The transgene integration patterns were diverse in each TG chicken line, and the integration diversity resulted in diverse levels of expression of exogenous genes in each tissue of the TG chickens. In addition, the replaced gene cassette was expressed successfully and maintained by RMCE in the FRT predominant loci of TG chicken-derived cells. These results indicate that targeted genome recombination technology with RMCE could be adaptable to TG chicken models and that the technology would be applicable to specific gene regulation by cis-element insertion and customized expression of functional proteins at predicted levels without epigenetic influence. © FASEB.

  11. Towards Conservation of Omani Local Chicken: Phenotypic Characteristics, Management Practices and Performance Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Al-Qamashoui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05. A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05, being 1.3±0.65 kg and 1.1±0.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 22±7.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.3±2.85 and annual production 64.5±2.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 88±6.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 16±1.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations.

  12. The Contribution of Scavenging Indigenous Chicken to the Socio-Economic Welfare of the Rural Households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenkari, J.

    2002-01-01

    Most than 90% of farmers in Western Kenya keep chicken which are mainly indigenous breeds. The most common production system is extensive free-range production. chickens are ranked second to cattle in the livestock industry of which but since they readily fetch cash they play a role as a source of security to most households. Apart from this chicken have a special place in the social and cultural practices of the people of this region and it is difficult to attach monetary value to these practices. Local breeds are believed to be resistance to diseases, cheap to maintain, increase rapidly after calamities and are a resource of available to even the poorest families. The main production constraints are disease, lack of feed, predation and bad weather. The purpose of this trial was to increase consumption and enhance family income through sales of eggs and chicken meat. To achieve these local communities were trained on improved management technologies. Evaluation of the trial showed the technologies could greatly enhance production, translating into higher consumption and sales of chickens and chicken products, thus substantially benefiting the farmers. Trial results showed that the cost of input in chicken production is far below the value of output as most chickens scavenge for feed. Simple financial analyses have shown that with minimal inputs, a farmer could get between Ksh. 3600 and Ksh. 4100 per single hen in one year

  13. Perspectives on renewable energy and Village Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    The author provides a brief overview of the role the Department of Energy has been playing in the area of renewable energy sources and their applications at a village level. Energy demand is rising sharply, and shortages are becoming more acute. Developing countries will present a large demand, and market opportunity over the next 40 years. Environmental concerns are a factor in the choice for what sources to promote and develop. The author touches on the features of renewable sources which makes them attractive to DOE for some applications, and what the goals of the department are in supporting this technology. Examples of applications at the level of village power are presented for both the US and abroad.

  14. Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Hadipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 700 backyard chickens from villages around the Caspian Sea, Northern Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The mean antibody titers found were 6.8, 7.5, 5.9, 7.2, 5.7, 6.4, 6.2 and the seroprevalence was 76.2%, 79.5%, 68.18%, 78.27%, 65%, 72.31% and 71.4% as found in seven villages. Overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 6.52 and 72.98%, respectively.

  15. Human–dog interactions and behavioural responses of village dogs in coastal villages in Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Ortolani, A.; Ortega-Pacheco, A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In Mexican villages, most households keep dogs that roam freely. Therefore, socialisation of village dogs occurs in a different context than that of companion dogs in developed countries. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess village dogs’ behavioural responses towards familiar and

  16. Encouraging girl child education in my village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Entongwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available My critical reflection will be drawn from an experience I had just a year after my graduation from the university where I was appointed as one of the X-students to lead a student cultural week in my village with the theme “raising awareness on education”. At the university, I was a member of my association in which students from my tribe generally come together to promote unity and encourage others in education. My role was to present a discourse on girl child education all the entire villagers who were gathered at the village square that evening. A high dropout rate at school and illiteracy are major problems in my region, in which there is still a great deal of gender disparity when it comes to educating children, especially the girl child. This programme is in line with the government’s policy of promoting education in my country, whose priority is for education to reach the grass-roots communities.

  17. Research on the historic preservation of Zhaojiashan village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Li

    2018-03-01

    Through field investigation and field visiting, we studied and analyzed the ancient villages of Zhaojiashan in Jiancaoping District, Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province. We learned that Zhaojiashan Village is on the only way of the Shanxi Merchants The Tea Road starting from Taiyuan to Xinzhou. It occupies an indispensable and important position in camel road. There are many historical and cultural relics in the village. The analysis of the historical value and the environment of the village has provided the basis for the protection and exploitation of ancient villages.

  18. Natural radioactivity of thermal spring in village Banja, Municipality Fojnica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalj, A.; Saracevic, L.; Samek, D.; Gradascevic, N.; Lokmic, E.

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed in 2003 at the spring of a thermal water in the village of Banja, district of Fojnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina. This water is used for hydrotherapy and recreation in the Centre for Medical Rehabilitation REUMAL in Fojnica. This paper describes the levels of natural radioactivity in water and in the surrounding soil. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine the most significant natural radionuclides in the water and soil. Natural radioactivity of radium in water ranged from 30.91 mBq/l for 2 28R a to 261.03 mBq/l for 2 26R a. In the soil surrounding the spring, radioactivity ranged from 31.92 Bq/kg for 2 32T h to 735.59 Bq/kg for 2 38U .(author)

  19. Modelling the impact of interventions on the dynamics in village poultry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.; Asgedom, A.H.; Viets, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    There are many technical possibilities to improve free-range and backyard poultry keeping. Rural households, however, are not adopting these technologies widely. This paper presents a model approach for ex ante evaluation of interventions in village poultry systems. The dynamic deterministic

  20. Local village heating. Final rapport; Landsby Naervarme. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojesen, C.

    2012-04-15

    Local Village Heating project relates to smaller villages which are located outside existing or planned district heating areas in Denmark. The analysis phase of Local Village Heating has shown that the concept can be the most feasible common heating system for villages that: 1. has a high building density - the buildings must be placed close together; 2. at least one large heat consumer, school, elder home or company is present in the village; 3. the number of buildings/households in the village is less than approx. 100. The analysis has shown that it is theoretical possible to establish a controlling system for the combined supplier/consumer option and an overall system for prioritizing the primary heat suppliers. A feasible Local Village Heating organisation could be a cooperative similar to other supply systems, such as common water supply and waste water cooperative. (Author)

  1. Níveis de cloreto de sódio para aves de corte da linhagem Colonial criadas em semiconfinamento Sodium chloride levels for Colonial broiler chickens reared in free-range system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Freitas Pinheiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar níveis de inclusão de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em rações para aves machos e fêmeas da linhagem Colonial nas fases inicial (1 a 28 dias, de crescimento (28 a 56 dias e final (56 a 84 dias criadas em semiconfinamento. Em cada ensaio, 480 aves com idade correspondente à fase de criação foram alojadas em 24 unidades experimentais contendo áreas de abrigo e de pastejo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2 (níveis de NaCl e sexos, totalizando oito tratamentos e três repetições de 20 aves. Os níveis de NaCl avaliados foram: 0,20; 0,40; 0,60 e 0,80% na fase inicial; 0,10; 0,30; 0,50 e 0,70% na fase de crescimento e 0,10; 0,25; 0,40 e 0,55% na fase final. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a ingestão de água, a conversão alimentar, o potencial hidrogeniônico, a pressão parcial de gás carbônico no sangue, a concentração de hematócritos e os teores de sódio e cloro no sangue. Para a fase inicial, o nível recomendado é de 0,53% de NaCl na ração para aves de ambos os sexos. Para a fase de crescimento, os níveis de 0,40 e 0,43% de NaCl, respectivamente, para machos e fêmeas e, para a fase final, de 0,25% para aves de ambos os sexos, atendem às exigências nutricionais.The objective of this work was to determine inclusion levels of sodium chloride (NaCl in diets for male and female Colonial strain birds in the starter (from one to 28 days of age, growing (from 28 to 56 days of age and finisher (from 56 to 84 days of age phases reared in free-range system. In each trial, 480 birds at age corresponding to the rearing phase were housed in 24 experimental units containing areas of shelter and pasture. The experimental design used was a completely randomized in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (NaCl levels × sex, totaling eight treatments and three replications of 20 birds. Levels of NaCl evaluated were: 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80% in

  2. Survey of radon activity at ground level in village houses of Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, E.; Selmeczi, D.

    1996-01-01

    Our national survey in Hungary began in 1992, in the most beautiful European village: Matraderecske. In the dwellings of Matraderecske there is a wide range of radon activity concentration from 50 Bq/m3 to 2600 Bq/m3 in yearly average. In the first two years we have learnt the whole process of the measurement in this village: how to communicate with the local people with the help of the local students and their physics teacher, how to handle CR 39 track detectors in a reliable way, and how to evaluate the detectors by a home made semi-automaton. The results in this village encouraged us to extend our survey to find a much wider statistics to see better the correlation between cancer cases and low dose radiation

  3. Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-10-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  4. Changes of lipids in irradiated chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moersel, J.T.; Wende, I.; Schwarz, K.

    1991-01-01

    Chickens were irradiated in a 6 deg Co gamma irradiation source. The irradiation has been done to reduce or eliminate Salmonella. The experiments were done to test this decontamination method of chickens if changes of lipids take place. It was to be seen, that peroxidation of lipids was more rapidly as in control. The time of storage of irradiated chickens has to be shorter because of changes in lipids. After irradiation the chickens had trade quality. (orig.) [de

  5. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  6. Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...

  7. Use of enrichment real-time PCR to enumerate salmonella on chicken parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, T P

    2014-07-01

    Salmonella bacteria that survive cooking or that cross-contaminate other food during meal preparation and serving represent primary routes of consumer exposure to this pathogen from chicken. In the present study, enrichment real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to enumerate Salmonella bacteria that contaminate raw chicken parts at retail or that cross-contaminate cooked chicken during simulated meal preparation and serving. Whole raw chickens obtained at retail were partitioned into wings, breasts, thighs, and drumsticks using a sterilized knife and cutting board, which were then used to partition a cooked chicken breast to assess cross-contamination. After enrichment in buffered peptone water (400 ml, 8 h, 40°C, 80 rpm), subsamples were used for qPCR and cultural isolation of Salmonella. In some experiments, chicken parts were spiked with 0 to 3.6 log of Salmonella Typhimurium var. 5- to generate a standard curve for enumeration by qPCR. Of 10 raw chickens examined, 7 (70%) had one or more parts contaminated with Salmonella. Of 80 raw parts examined, 15 (19%) were contaminated with Salmonella. Of 20 cooked chicken parts examined, 2 (10%) were cross-contaminated with Salmonella. Predominant serotypes identified were Typhimurium (71%) and its variants (var. 5-, monophasic, and nonmotile) and Kentucky (18%). The number of Salmonella bacteria on contaminated parts ranged from one to two per part. Results of this study indicated that retail chicken parts examined were contaminated with low levels of Salmonella, which resulted in low levels of cross-contamination during simulated meal preparation and serving. Thus, if consumers properly handle and prepare the chicken, it should pose no or very low risk of consumer exposure to Salmonella.

  8. Millennium Global Village-Net: bringing together Millennium Villages throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Andrew S; Negin, Joel; Olayo, Bernard; Bukachi, Frederick; Johnson, Edward; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich

    2009-12-01

    The Millennium Villages Project (MVP), based at The Earth Institute at Columbia University, is a bottom-up, community led approach to show how villages in developing countries can get out of the poverty trap that afflicts more than a billion people worldwide. With well-targeted, practical inputs can help the community invest in a path leading to self-sustaining development. There are 80 Millennium Villages clustered in 10 countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa. MVP is an important development process for empowering communities to invest in a package of integrated interventions aiming to increase food production, improve access to safe water, health care, education and infrastructure. The process benefits from synergies of the integrated approach and relies on community leadership as empowered by proven technological inputs. MVP is committed to a science-based approach to assess and monitor the progress of the communities towards clear objectives; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to do so with mechanisms that are scalable and sustainable. This approach offers much more than simply collecting and analyzing data since the mechanism used for recording progress would provide a bridge over the divide which separates the haves and the have-nots (by facilitating the sharing of solutions from one community to another bidirectionally). By so doing, it allows people to enhance their own futures in a sustainable manner. Solutions found in one community are transferable to similar communities in other MVP villages. To achieve this goal, the MVP requires an information and communication system which can provide both necessary infrastructure for monitoring and evaluation, and tools for communicating among the villages, cities and countries. This system is called the Millennium Global Village-Net (MGV-Net). It takes advantage of the latest in open source software (OpenMRS), databases (MySQL), interface terminology, a centralized concept dictionary, and uses appropriate

  9. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF DESI CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Sahota, B. M. Bhatti and L. A. Akhtar

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine performance and carcass characteristics of different varieties of first generation Desi chickens. The parent Desi chickens were procured from different villages of Mianwali and Bhakkar districts of Punjab, Pakistan and were maintained at Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi. Nine hundred day-old chicks (of the first progeny, 300 each of black, dark brown and light brown colour, were obtained from this parent flock. The birds in each variety were divided into 3 equal replicates. They were maintained in 9 separate pens on deep litter under optima.l managemental conditions. The birds were fed ad-libitum a chick starter ration from day-old to 8 weeks and then subsequently a grower mash upto 12 weeks of age. The birds had free access to clean and fresh drinking water. The results showed significant (p<0.0 I variation in dressing percentage, shank and neck length and breast width between different varieties of Desi chickens, whereas, they differed non-significantly in growth rate and keel length. The light brown variety had significantly better dressing percentage, shank length and breast width than other two varieties. whereas neck length in both the brown varieties was significantly better than black Desi chickens. Both the brown varieties differed non-significantly from each other in neck length.

  10. Genome-wide analysis reveals the extent of EAV-HP integration in domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, David; Mason, Andrew S; Yu, Le; Kuo, Richard; Lawal, Raman A; Desta, Takele Taye; Mwacharo, Joram M; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kemp, Steve; Burt, David W; Hanotte, Olivier

    2015-10-14

    EAV-HP is an ancient retrovirus pre-dating Gallus speciation, which continues to circulate in modern chicken populations, and led to the emergence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J causing significant economic losses to the poultry industry. We mapped EAV-HP integration sites in Ethiopian village chickens, a Silkie, Taiwan Country chicken, red junglefowl Gallus gallus and several inbred experimental lines using whole-genome sequence data. An average of 75.22 ± 9.52 integration sites per bird were identified, which collectively group into 279 intervals of which 5 % are common to 90 % of the genomes analysed and are suggestive of pre-domestication integration events. More than a third of intervals are specific to individual genomes, supporting active circulation of EAV-HP in modern chickens. Interval density is correlated with chromosome length (P < 2.31(-6)), and 27 % of intervals are located within 5 kb of a transcript. Functional annotation clustering of genes reveals enrichment for immune-related functions (P < 0.05). Our results illustrate a non-random distribution of EAV-HP in the genome, emphasising the importance it may have played in the adaptation of the species, and provide a platform from which to extend investigations on the co-evolutionary significance of endogenous retroviral genera with their hosts.

  11. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken meat and chicken skin by combined or sequential application of lytic bacteriophage with chemical antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2015-08-17

    The effectiveness of recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh™) in reducing Salmonella in vitro and on chicken breast fillets was examined in combination with lauric arginate (LAE) or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). In another experiment, a sequential spray application of this bacteriophage (phage) solution on Salmonella inoculated chicken skin after a 20s dip in chemical antimicrobials (LAE, CPC, peracetic acid, or chlorine) was also examined in reducing Salmonella counts on chicken skin. The application of phage in combination with CPC or LAE reduced S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and S. Enteritidis up to 5 log units in vitro at 4 °C. On chicken breast fillets, phage in combination with CPC or LAE resulted in significant (p<0.05) reductions of Salmonella ranging from 0.5 to 1.3 log CFU/g as compared to control up to 7 days of refrigerated storage. When phage was applied sequentially with chemical antimicrobials, all the treatments resulted in significant reductions of Salmonella. The application of chlorine (30 ppm) and PAA (400 ppm) followed by phage spray (10(9)PFU/ml) resulted in highest Salmonella reductions of 1.6-1.7 and 2.2-2.5l og CFU/cm(2), respectively. In conclusion, the surface applications of phage in combination with LAE or CPC significantly reduced Salmonella counts on chicken breast fillets. However, higher reductions in Salmonella counts were achieved on chicken skin by the sequential application of chemical antimicrobials followed by phage spray. The sequential application of chlorine, PAA, and phage can provide additional hurdles to reduce Salmonella on fresh poultry carcasses or cut up parts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of Free-Range Chicken Production in Ogun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    landlord

    The poultry sub-sector is the most commercialized in the livestock sector of ... often have an important role in the development of family poultry production ... extension in providing linkage services to farmers in Ogun state, Nigeria. ... knowledge of its value and production efficiency. ..... Guide to the sourcing of viable chicks.

  13. Lessons learned -- NREL Village Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, a workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to discuss the issues of applying renewable energy in a sustainable manner to international rural development. One of the summary recommendations was that NREL could assist in the renewable energy for rural electrification effort by developing and supplying six related activities: resource assessment, comparative analysis and modeling, performance monitoring and analysis, pilot project development, internet-based project data, communications, and training. In response to this recommendation, NREL launched its Village Power Program consisting of these activities that cut across NREL technologies and disciplines. Currently NREL is active in 20 countries, with pilot projects in 12 of those countries. At this time the technologies include photovoltaics, wind, biomass, and hybrids. The rural applications include home lighting and communications, water pumping, schools and health posts, battery charging stations, ecotourism, and village systems. These pilot projects are central to the renewable energy village power development through the demonstration of three aspects critical to replication and implementation of the projects on a significant scale. The three aspects are technical functionality, economic competitiveness, and institutional sustainability. It is important to note that the pilot projects from which NREL's experience has been gained were funded and, in many cases, developed by other organizations and agencies. NREL's role has been one of technical assistance or project management or both. The purpose of this paper is to describe the lessons NREL staff has gleaned from their participation in the various pilot projects. The author hopes that these lessons will help the Renewable Energy-Based Rural Electrification (RERE) community in implementing sustainable projects that lead to replication.

  14. Shrinking villages – trajectories for local development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    The New Rural Paradigm was introduced in 2006 as a policy emphasising investments rather than subsidies and aimed at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. The new rural paradigm also stresses a place-based approach...... and services e.g. schools as well as investment. Rural municipalities are challenged due to shrinking villages but by focussing on place bound resources there is a risk of reinforcing disparities between ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ communities as placed bound resources are unevenly distributed. This paper will address...

  15. Ritual Change in a Turkish Alevi Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas McElwain

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a documentation and analysis of change in ritual in the village of Sarilar, on the west bank of the Euphrates River near Yavuseli, Gaziantep. The research problem posed was identification of ritual change within the consultants' memory and some tentative ways of situating such change within the socio-economic context. The mysticism of the dervish lodge remains as a certain life attitude along with the new views of modernization that have been so well inculcated. Although modernization, at least in the Turkish Alevi context, tends to conflict with the mystical experience of the Bektashi dervish in some areas, a democratized inner core remains.

  16. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF WEB GOVERNMENT AS MEDIA INFORMATION POTENTIAL VILLAGE SUKARAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Irawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of information technology is so rapid that one of them in the form of the Internet. E-government In village Sukaraja is one of the most exciting sites in Sukaraja, the village of Sukaraja, the governance structure of the village of Sukaraja and all related information in the village of Sukaraja. System development Life Cycle (SDLC approach includes planning stages, analysis, in and system implementation, tools in system development process using DAD (Data Flow Diagram, DFD (Data Flow Diagram, and flowchart. In the making of this website use HTML programming language (Hypertext Markup Language, PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor, CSS (Cascading Style Sheet, JQUERY, Java script and presentation of data in the form of MySQL. With the existence of E-government In the Village Sukaraja aims to provide benefits for the wider community about obtaining Village information in a way easily, quickly, effectively and efficiently without knowing the deadline anytime and anywhere.

  18. Model strategy for village development in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav ROLÍNEK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The model strategies discussed in this article represent different ways of possible village development in the Czech Republic. We used typologies of strategies from business strategic management for their definition. Twenty municipalities, where structured interviews were carried out with their mayors, were chosen randomly from among 100 villages where a questionnaire survey was conducted in 2012 (Faltová Leitmanová, et al., 2012. Based on the qualitative analysis of the structured interview summaries, eight model strategies were ascertained. These include integration strategy, service differentiation, spending cuts, usage of municipal property, stabilization of village population, business support, fundraising, and identification of the inhabitants with the village (village pride. The most commonly applied model strategy is integration, followed by village population stabilization.

  19. A visit to the village of Saye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This brief article describes the changes in the village of Saye, Burkina Faso which were recognizable after 20 years absence. Rainfall was plentiful and it was the best season for agriculture in 20 years; the sorghum swayed in the breezes ready for harvest. There are 28 women and village elders who still recognized their visitor, Ramata. The changes in family planning attitudes and sexuality were evident in the way men and women freely joke and laugh about sexual issues in a good humored but not superficial way. The respected El Hadj (meaning that he had visited Mecca) Sawadogo, president of the local Naam group, was the one who cracked jokes which brought laughter to the audience. The taboos are still there, but everyone agrees that family planning is a good idea because it reduces suffering and the people do not still have enough food to eat. Birth spacing is generally accepted, but there is resistance to stopping births. There is growing tolerance toward premarital pregnancies, and polygamy among younger women, which leads to fractious polygamous wives. 20 years ago it was a radical act to show a film on sex education, where pen and ink outlines gave shape to a naked teenaged boy and girl next to each other on the screen. The audience response was a roar of disbelief and the author feared that the local prefet would put him in jail for disturbing public order and violating a taboo.

  20. The Ohrberg solar village; Solarsiedlung am Ohrberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanoli, K.; Christoffers, D.; Rockendorf, G. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany). Abt. Systemtechnik von Solarenergieanlagen; Kranz, R. [Elektrizitaetswerke Wesertal GmbH, Hameln (Germany). Abt. Energieberatung/Energiekonzepte

    1998-02-01

    As an officially approved regional project of the EXPO 2000, the Ohrberg Solar Village will demonstrate an integrated energy concept - combining customer information and counseling, modern energy technologies and energy services rendered by utilities - which reduces the consumption of conventional energy ressources and the CO{sub 2}-emissions. The local utility Wesertal GmbH will equip the 82 low-energy solar houses of the village with reliable, cost-effective and innovative energy technologies and will provide energy services on the basis of a user-friendly contract. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Solarsiedlung am Ohrberg demonstriert als registriertes Regionalprojekt der EXPO 2000, wie ein integriertes Energiekonzept - bestehend aus umfassender Energieberatung, Einsatz moderner Energietechnologien und einem Nutz-Energie-Dienstleistungsangebot der Energieversorger - einen substantiellen Beitrag zur Ressourcenschonung und zur Reduzierung der klimarelevanten Umweltbelastung leisten kann. Das regionale Energieversorgungsunternehmen Wesertal GmbH wird innovative, erprobte, kostenguenstige, rationelle und regenerative Energieversorgungstechniken in den 82 solaren Niedrigenergiehaeusern dieser Siedlung installieren und die Waermeversorgung im Rahmen eines Waermedienstleistungskonzeptes uebernehmen. (orig.)

  1. Community energy plan : village of Burns Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, B.

    2008-09-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on the lives of Canadians and their economies. In northern British Columbia, the ability to grow, process and transport food will likely change. The rising cost of fuel and other natural resources will create a need for more resilient communities. This report presented a community energy plan for Burns Lake in order to provide the first steps toward building on an already resilient community. The report answered questions about Burns Lake's energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as the community's views on energy issues. The report provided background information on the Village of Burns Lake and discussed climate change in Burns Lake, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions. The report also described community engagement by way of a questionnaire on fuel prices, homes and public opinion in Burns Lake. A strategy was also outlined. It was concluded that the village of Burns Lake is well positioned to face challenges regarding future energy use. The community is looking to the municipality for support and leadership, in order to deliver through active opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  2. Village registers for vital registration in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singogo, E; Kanike, E; van Lettow, M; Cataldo, F; Zachariah, R; Bissell, K; Harries, A D

    2013-08-01

    Paper-based village registers were introduced 5 years ago in Malawi as a tool to measure vital statistics of births and deaths at the population level. However, usage, completeness and accuracy of their content have never been formally evaluated. In Traditional Authority Mwambo, Zomba district, Malawi, we assessed 280 of the 325 village registers with respect to (i) characteristics of village headmen who used village registers, (ii) use and content of village registers, and (iii) whether village registers provided accurate information on births and deaths. All village headpersons used registers. There were 185 (66%) registers that were regarded as 95% completed, and according to the registers, there were 115 840 people living in the villages in the catchment area. In 2011, there were 1753 births recorded in village registers, while 6397 births were recorded in health centre registers in the same catchment area. For the same year, 199 deaths were recorded in village registers, giving crude death rates per 100 000 population of 189 for males and 153 for females. These could not be compared with death rates in health centre registers due to poor and inconsistent recording in these registers, but they were compared with death rates obtained from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey that reported 880 and 840 per 100 000 for males and females, respectively. In conclusion, this study shows that village registers are a potential source for vital statistics. However, considerable inputs are needed to improve accuracy of births and deaths, and there are no functional systems for the collation and analysis of data at the traditional authority level. Innovative ways to address these challenges are discussed, including the use of solar-powered electronic village registers and mobile phones, connected with each other and the health facilities and the District Commissioner's office through the cellular network and wireless coverage. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The physical impoverishment and decay of Danish villages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    For the latest 30 years the physical environment (buildings, gardens, roads and spaces, etc.) in the Danish villages has undergone drastic changes. Many villages near the large towns are drowned in growth and modern buildings, and other villages in the Danish outskirts are hit by decline and phys......, a regional and local authority level as well as the local level, including a discussion of the Danish rural district policy before and after the re-adjustment of the farm subsidypolicy in the EU....

  4. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken shawirma (gyro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Olaimat, Amin N; Jaradat, Ziad W; Holley, Richard A

    2013-08-16

    This study explored the thermal characteristics (D- and z-values) of Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken shawirma. Marinated and non-marinated chicken breasts with skin were inoculated with S. Typhimurium 112 or S. Typhimurium 144. Inoculated samples were ground, packed in sterile bags and submerged in a water bath at 54, 56, 58 and 60°C for 2.5 to 72min. The mean D-values of S. Typhimurium strains in inoculated, non-marinated, ground raw chicken breast, as well as those of S. Typhimurium 15h after exposure to the marinade (inoculated before marinating, IBM) or after brief exposure (30min) to the marinade (inoculated after marinating, IAM) ranged from 9.15 to 12.44, 2.89 to 3.92, 1.06 to 1.30 and 0.32 to 0.52min at 54, 56, 58 and 60°C, respectively. Generally, no significant differences (P>0.05) were found among the D-values of S. Typhimurium in all chicken samples. However, the D-values of S. Typhimurium in raw ground chicken shawirma IBM were the lowest. The z-values of S. Typhimurium in all products ranged from 3.78 to 4.58°C. It was concluded that thorough cooking of the outside of the shawirma meat cylinder or cone before removal of slices at foodservice counters can enhance the safety of the product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  6. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  7. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  8. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  9. The response of ducks to V4 Newcastle disease virus and its transmission to contact ducks and domestic chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Bouzari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of Muscovy ducks with V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was undertaken to determine the response of the ducks to the virus and the possibility of virus transmission to ducks and chickens in village like conditions. Twelve ducks were randomly and equally divided into three groups of control, inoculated and in-contact. Additionally, the chickens were placed into two groups of four animals each, namely in-contact and control. The inoculated and in-contact ducks and in-contact chickens were kept together. The eye drop route was used for inoculation and hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies were measured for assessment of antibody response and cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were used for detection of the virus. The primary antibody response of inoculated ducks was very high and rapid (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 5.75 ± 0.50. The in-contact ducks showed antibody response with the same pattern but lower titers than the inoculated ducks (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 3.25 ± 1.70. The in-contact chickens showed a slight increase of HI antibody (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 2.25 ± 1.25 while the control chickens did not show any increase. The antibody response indicated the transmission of the virus to contact ducks and chickens. A single isolation of virus confirmed the ability of ducks to excrete the virus. It was concluded that the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was highly antigenic for ducks, and ducks can transmit it to other ducks and also in-contact chickens.

  10. The hydrogen village: building hydrogen and fuel cell opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation addressed the progress the Hydrogen Village Program has made in its first 24 months of existence and will provide an understanding of the development of new markets for emerging Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies based on first hand, real world experience. The Hydrogen Village (H2V) is an End User driven, Market Development Program designed to accelerate the sustainable commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies through awareness, education and early deployments throughout the greater Toronto area (GTA). The program is a collaborative public-private partnership of some 35 companies from a broad cross section of industry administered through Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada and funded by the Governments of Canada and Ontario. The intent of the H2V is to develop markets for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies that benefit the local and global community. The following aspects of market development are specifically targeted: 1) Deployments: of near market technologies in all aspects of community life (stationary and mobile). All applications must be placed within the community and contact peoples in their day-to-day activity. End user involvement is critical to ensure that the applications chosen have a commercial justification and contribute to the complementary growth of the market. 2) Development: of a coordinated hydrogen delivery and equipment service infrastructure. The infrastructure will develop following the principles of conservation and sustainability. 3) Human and societal factors: - Public and Corporate policy, public education, Codes/ Standards/ Regulations - Opportunity for real world implementation and feedback on developing codes and standards - Build awareness among regulatory groups, public, and the media. The GTA Hydrogen Village is already well under way with strategically located projects covering a wide range of hydrogen and fuel cell applications including: Residential heat and power generation using solid oxide

  11. Analysis on Sustainable Development Management Model of Village Banks - Based on Bayan Rongxing Village Bank in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang shuang; Wang Ji-heng; Liu Bing; Yu Xiao-wen

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarized the management models of village banks in China. We compared and analyzed different management models of four village banks in different regions on four aspects: regional agriculture feature, loan for farmers, loan for enterprises and the construction of network, then came to the conclusion that, if the village banks' health development can realize, they must pay attention to innovating in loan patterns as well as material loan and starting out the network development.

  12. Avaliação de materiais genéticos visando à produção de frango caipira em diferentes sistemas de alimentação Evaluation of genetic populations of chicken to different diets in free-range broiler production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente José Maria Savino

    2007-06-01

    ês. O desempenho dos oito genótipos avaliados foi condicionado pelos fatores genética e alimentação.The aim of the current study was to evaluate the performance of experimental and commercial genotypes of chicken recommended for free-range rearing system submitted to two diet programs (conventional and alternative. The experimental design consisted of a randomized design applied until 28 days and a randomized factorial 8x2 design (eight genotypes: Paraíso Pedrês, Caipirão da ESALQ, 7 P, Embrapa 041, Label Rouge, Paraíso Pelado, Caipirinha da ESALQ and Carijó Barbada and two diet programs, using two replicates with 30 chickens/box as experimental unit, from 29 to 84 days of age. Average body weight and feed:gain ratio were recorded during three periods: 1 0-28, 2 0-56 and 3 0-84 days and submitted to the analysis of variance. The effect of diet was evidenced for all traits in periods 2 and 3. The effect of genotype was verified for all variables in period 1, but only for average body weight in periods 2 and 3. The interaction genotype and diet was observed for feed:gain ratio in period 2 and for all traits in period 3. Paraíso Pedrês and Caipirão from ESALQ presented higher average body weight than the other genotypes in period 1. In period 2, Paraíso Pedrês presented the highest average body weight and all genotypes differed for feed:gain ratio. Caipirão from ESALQ, Paraíso Pedrês and 7 P presented higher average body weight than the other genotypes and all strains differed for feed:gain ratio in period 3. The full substitution of conventional diet by corn led to a worse chicken performance. Overall performance of the evaluated genotypes was conditioned by genetic and nutrition factors, with the lowest negative effects of substitution of conventional diet by corn on all traits in the Paraíso Pedrês genotype.

  13. Oviduct-Specific Expression of Human Neutrophil Defensin 4 in Lentivirally Generated Transgenic Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongxin; Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Li, Qingyuan; Zhang, Yaqiong; Li, Ning; Hu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    The expression of oviduct-specific recombinant proteins in transgenic chickens is a promising technology for the production of therapeutic biologics in eggs. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector encoding an expression cassette for human neutrophil defensin 4 (HNP4), a compound that displays high activity against Escherichia coli, and produced transgenic chickens that expressed the recombinant HNP4 protein in egg whites. After the antimicrobial activity of the recombinant HNP4 protein was tested at the cellular level, a 2.8-kb ovalbumin promoter was used to drive HNP4 expression specifically in oviduct tissues. From 669 injected eggs, 218 chickens were successfully hatched. Ten G0 roosters, with semens identified as positive for the transgene, were mated with wild-type hens to generate G1 chickens. From 1,274 total offspring, fifteen G1 transgenic chickens were positive for the transgene, which was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. The results of the Southern blotting and genome walking indicated that a single copy of the HNP4 gene was integrated into chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 of the chickens. As expected, HNP4 expression was restricted to the oviduct tissues, and the levels of both transcriptional and translational HNP4 expression varied greatly in transgenic chickens with different transgene insertion sites. The amount of HNP4 protein expressed in the eggs of G1 and G2 heterozygous transgenic chickens ranged from 1.65 μg/ml to 10.18 μg/ml. These results indicated that the production of transgenic chickens that expressed HNP4 protein in egg whites was successful. PMID:26020529

  14. The occurrence of Toxocara species in naturally infected broiler chickens revealed by molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaei, M; Sadjjadi, S M; Maraghi, S

    2017-09-01

    Consuming raw and undercooked meat is known to enhance the risk of human toxocariasis because Toxocara species have a wide range of paratenic hosts, including chickens. The aim of this study was to identify species of Toxocara in naturally infected broiler chickens using molecular approaches. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the differentiation of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati larvae recovered from tissues and organs, and identified by microscopic observations. Thirty-three 35- to 47-day-old broiler chickens were used for examination of Toxocara larvae. The duodenum, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, skeletal muscles and brain of each chicken were examined using the pepsin method, and DNA from each tissue was extracted as the template for PCR assay. The findings revealed that 5 of 33 (15.2%) broiler chickens were infected with Toxocara larvae. Larvae were recovered from the liver (n = 19), duodenum (n = 8), skeletal muscles (n = 8) and brain (n = 2) of broiler chickens naturally infected with Toxocara spp. The results showed that the frequencies of the species in the chickens were T. canis larvae (n = 5, 83.3%) and T. cati larvae (n = 1, 16.7%). Our data from the present study demonstrated the importance of broiler chickens as a paratenic host for the parasite's life cycle in the environment. The implementation of DNA amplification as a routine diagnostic technique is a specific and alternative method for identification of Toxocara larvae, and allowed the observation of specific species under field conditions within the locations where broiler chickens are typically raised and exposed to Toxocara spp. eggs or larvae.

  15. [Health care. From village to concrete suburb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrup, G H

    1992-07-29

    In the middle of the city of Arhus, Denmark, in a building playground, teachers use the natural elements and raise animals to teach about nature. The 175 children who attend this institution are responsible for the care of the animals, and no pedagogical problems exist. Similarly, in the village of Sarkisla, in the province of Siva in central Turkey, children are responsible for the care of animals and other chores, and have no problems in growing up. However, when these children move to Gellerup, Denmark, their environment changes radically from village to concrete jungle. The mothers are confused about the upbringing and feeding of their children in the new land, as old customs die hard. A group in Gellerup near Arhus comprised of 3 health nurses, 2 social counselors, and 2 club assistants have worked for 1.5 years together in order to develop new methods for Turkish immigrants via the project on immigrant children's health situation, health education, and nutrition. This project is supported by the Ministry of Social Affairs, an insurance firm, the Arhus research fund, and Nestle. The club called Bentesvej 7 was started in Gellerup in 1983 exclusively for Turkish women and children as a complement to individual counseling, providing basic health care and Danish language instruction to acquaint them with the Danish way of life. A study circle with 7 Turkish women of different ages met 3 times a week for 8 months to learn about illness and health, child nutrition and rearing, language, and social conduct. A 16-day study trip was also taken later to Turkey, including the village of Sarkisla, in order to study Turkish state policy on health, social, and educational problems. After returning the study circle was continued for another 3 months, and then all the experiences were recorded in a report, and 2 videos were made. 200 women and children took part in a final meeting where Turkish women showed pictures and recounted the trip, and the Danish members talked about

  16. The village and the city: a diagnostic study of the spatial embedding patterns in villages absorbed by cities in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Ghatam, W.

    2009-01-01

    During the growth of cities villages are frequently absorbed into the fabric of that conurbation. But what are the consequences of this? To what extent and how well do these villages become part of the overall fabric of the city? What is the effect on the village and the wider city? How do these villages interact with the configuration of the city to create a rich spatial urban structure? This study focuses on the spatial distribution of the internal and edge commercial activity w...

  17. Are Retirement Villages Promoting Active Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Annie; Lee, Andy H; Jancey, Jonine; Kerr, Deborah; Howat, Peter

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated physical activity (PA) facilities of retirement villages (RVs) and neighborhood PA barriers identified by RV residents in Perth, Australia. An environmental audit of PA facilities was undertaken on 50 RV with 50+ independent living units, using the Audit of Physical Activity Resources for Seniors. Telephone interviews with 200 RV residents were conducted to identify neighborhood barriers to walking, and to obtain information on utilization of facilities and attendance of PA programs. Larger size RV appeared to provide significantly more PA facilities and programs. Utilization of PA facilities and program attendance were low (≈ 50%) and not associated with the RV environment (size, age, and facilities). Neighborhood barriers to walking were unsafe streets and hills. RV offers an attractive residential option with facilities that support active aging, but it is important to understand the barriers and enablers to use such facilities and attend programs offered.

  18. [Blood pressure in 6 Yanomami villages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilha-Carvalho, J J; Sousa e Silva, N A; Carvalho, J V; Lima, J A

    1991-06-01

    To investigate in Yanomami Indians that not add salt to food, the relationship between blood pressure (BP), biological variables (age, body weight, height and pulse) and urinary electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca++ and Mg++). We studied 125 males and 129 females from six villages on Surucuru plateau and on Catrimani and Ajarani rivers region in the state of Roraima, north Brazil. Two BP measurements were made and the mean of them were used in data analysis. None hypertensive was found. Systolic BP decreased with age and correlated with body weight, pulse and urinary Na+. Diastolic BP only correlated with body weight. Height, urinary K+, Ca++ and Mg++ did not correlate with BP. There was no hypertension nor increase of BP with increasing age in these isolated Yanomami.

  19. BERCENI VILLAGE - A SOCIAL-ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina IORGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural modernization aims at maintaining rural societies through occupational diversification that will improvequality of life and avoid rural exodus. It aims to acquire some features of the modern world such as those related totechnical, increased productivity, infrastructure, whereby rural community enriches its identity, acquiring newmeanings.This study is a close social-economical analysis of the countryside households of Berceni village. Berceniis in the southern county of Ilfov near Bucharest. It is based on the statistical data provided by National Institute ofStatistics. The data have been processed into the following indicators:age structure and gender, births and deaths,feminization, migration .Considering that human resources is the main factor in developing and moderinization ofrural space, this study is aimed to investigate as well, the posibility of diversifying inhabitants’ occupationsaccording to pshicologycal, social and economical resources.

  20. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Exposure Risk Assessment in Australian Commercial Chicken Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Bullanday Scott

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the pathways of exposure to low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI virus among Australian commercial chicken farms and estimated the likelihood of this exposure occurring using scenario trees and a stochastic modeling approach following the World Organization for Animal Health methodology for risk assessment. Input values for the models were sourced from scientific literature and an on-farm survey conducted during 2015 and 2016 among Australian commercial chicken farms located in New South Wales and Queensland. Outputs from the models revealed that the probability of a first LPAI virus exposure to a chicken in an Australian commercial chicken farms from one wild bird at any point in time is extremely low. A comparative assessment revealed that across the five farm types (non-free-range meat chicken, free-range meat chicken, cage layer, barn layer, and free range layer farms, free-range layer farms had the highest probability of exposure (7.5 × 10−4; 5% and 95%, 5.7 × 10−4—0.001. The results indicate that the presence of a large number of wild birds on farm is required for exposure to occur across all farm types. The median probability of direct exposure was highest in free-range farm types (5.6 × 10−4 and 1.6 × 10−4 for free-range layer and free-range meat chicken farms, respectively and indirect exposure was highest in non-free-range farm types (2.7 × 10−4, 2.0 × 10−4, and 1.9 × 10−4 for non-free-range meat chicken, cage layer, and barn layer farms, respectively. The probability of exposure was found to be lowest in summer for all farm types. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the proportion of waterfowl among wild birds on the farm, the presence of waterfowl in the range and feed storage areas, and the prevalence of LPAI in wild birds are the most influential parameters for the probability of Australian commercial chicken farms being exposed to avian influenza (AI virus

  1. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Exposure Risk Assessment in Australian Commercial Chicken Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela Bullanday; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Singh, Mini; Groves, Peter; Barnes, Belinda; Glass, Kathryn; Moloney, Barbara; Black, Amanda; Hernandez-Jover, Marta

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the pathways of exposure to low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus among Australian commercial chicken farms and estimated the likelihood of this exposure occurring using scenario trees and a stochastic modeling approach following the World Organization for Animal Health methodology for risk assessment. Input values for the models were sourced from scientific literature and an on-farm survey conducted during 2015 and 2016 among Australian commercial chicken farms located in New South Wales and Queensland. Outputs from the models revealed that the probability of a first LPAI virus exposure to a chicken in an Australian commercial chicken farms from one wild bird at any point in time is extremely low. A comparative assessment revealed that across the five farm types (non-free-range meat chicken, free-range meat chicken, cage layer, barn layer, and free range layer farms), free-range layer farms had the highest probability of exposure (7.5 × 10−4; 5% and 95%, 5.7 × 10−4—0.001). The results indicate that the presence of a large number of wild birds on farm is required for exposure to occur across all farm types. The median probability of direct exposure was highest in free-range farm types (5.6 × 10−4 and 1.6 × 10−4 for free-range layer and free-range meat chicken farms, respectively) and indirect exposure was highest in non-free-range farm types (2.7 × 10−4, 2.0 × 10−4, and 1.9 × 10−4 for non-free-range meat chicken, cage layer, and barn layer farms, respectively). The probability of exposure was found to be lowest in summer for all farm types. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the proportion of waterfowl among wild birds on the farm, the presence of waterfowl in the range and feed storage areas, and the prevalence of LPAI in wild birds are the most influential parameters for the probability of Australian commercial chicken farms being exposed to avian influenza (AI) virus. These results

  2. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Exposure Risk Assessment in Australian Commercial Chicken Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela Bullanday; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Singh, Mini; Groves, Peter; Barnes, Belinda; Glass, Kathryn; Moloney, Barbara; Black, Amanda; Hernandez-Jover, Marta

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the pathways of exposure to low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus among Australian commercial chicken farms and estimated the likelihood of this exposure occurring using scenario trees and a stochastic modeling approach following the World Organization for Animal Health methodology for risk assessment. Input values for the models were sourced from scientific literature and an on-farm survey conducted during 2015 and 2016 among Australian commercial chicken farms located in New South Wales and Queensland. Outputs from the models revealed that the probability of a first LPAI virus exposure to a chicken in an Australian commercial chicken farms from one wild bird at any point in time is extremely low. A comparative assessment revealed that across the five farm types (non-free-range meat chicken, free-range meat chicken, cage layer, barn layer, and free range layer farms), free-range layer farms had the highest probability of exposure (7.5 × 10 -4 ; 5% and 95%, 5.7 × 10 -4 -0.001). The results indicate that the presence of a large number of wild birds on farm is required for exposure to occur across all farm types. The median probability of direct exposure was highest in free-range farm types (5.6 × 10 -4 and 1.6 × 10 -4 for free-range layer and free-range meat chicken farms, respectively) and indirect exposure was highest in non-free-range farm types (2.7 × 10 -4 , 2.0 × 10 -4 , and 1.9 × 10 -4 for non-free-range meat chicken, cage layer, and barn layer farms, respectively). The probability of exposure was found to be lowest in summer for all farm types. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the proportion of waterfowl among wild birds on the farm, the presence of waterfowl in the range and feed storage areas, and the prevalence of LPAI in wild birds are the most influential parameters for the probability of Australian commercial chicken farms being exposed to avian influenza (AI) virus. These results

  3. Improving child nutrition at the village level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, J P

    1981-01-01

    The decision was made about 12 years ago in the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health of Makerere University to see if childhood malnutrition could be cured and prevented in a rural area of Uganda, surrounding a small 10-bedded maternity center some 20 miles north of Kampala. The staff included 2 midwives and another midwife who had had training in health visiting, and a community development foreman. There were weekly visits from the Church of Uganda Mengo Hospital by a doctor and sister and a similar visit from an agricultural assistant from Makerere University Department of Agriculture. A small shelter was built on the grounds of the maternity center for the purpose of conducting antenatal and children's clinics. From the beginning the intention was to involve the community, and this was done through the local pastor and the community development foreman assisted by the midwife with health-visiting experience. A local club was formed, and members decided to start by improving and cleaning the local sources of water. At the clinic infants and children were weighed and seen every fortnight until they had been immunized, and thereafter at any time their mothers were anxious about them. Any child who showed early signs of faltering in weight or of clinical malnutrition was followed by a midwife health visitor from the large children's clinic. The mothers were taught about mixing the food to give the children adequate calories and protein. The principles which appeared to be significant in the improvement of child nutrition at the village level were the following: identification; involvement of mothers; communication with the people; involvement of influential persons; indoctrination; integration in village life; and staff effectiveness.

  4. The development status and protection of traditional qiang ethnic minority villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yanping; He, Yunxiao; Yu, Chunhua; Chen, Mengxin

    2018-03-01

    This study is to focus on the protection of development countermeasures on the development status of Yinling village,and to provide beneficial suggestions for the development of the village. It is approached by analyzing the traditional village deeply from the situation of Yinling village, development status and protection countermeasures,taking the traditional Qiang Ethnic Minority village of Yinling village in Pinwu county, Sichuan province as an example,which is under the background that the protection and development of traditional ethnic villages have became the focus of attention,because traditional ethnic villages are living villages of traditional Chinese culture, retaining old and historic material remains.

  5. Serotyping of Campylobacter jejuni from an outbreak of enteritis implicating chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, J A; Arnold, G J; Davey, G R; Archer, R S; Woods, W H

    1985-09-01

    An outbreak of campylobacter enteritis involving 7 of 17 people over a period of 5 days followed a dinner at a restaurant. A chicken casserole dish was implicated with a food-specific attack rate of 58%. Campylobacter jejuni Penner serotype 18/21/29, resistant to metronidazole, was isolated from 3 of 4 symptomatic patients and from three raw fresh chicken samples closely associated with the implicated chicken. Numbers of C. jejuni in the chicken ranged from 5.3 X 10(1) to 7.5 X 10(2) colony forming units per square centimeter of surface area. This is the first outbreak of campylobacter enteritis reported in Australia in which C. jejuni has been isolated from both human and food sources and the isolates serologically confirmed as identical.

  6. Carcass characteristics of South African native chicken lines | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venda and Ovambo chicken lines were evaluated. The highest dressed-carcass mass was recorded for Ovambo chickens and the highest percentage breast muscle was recorded for Naked-Neck chickens. Percentage fat and fatty acid ...

  7. Genomic characterization of recent chicken anemia virus isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  8. Dose determination in irradiated chicken meat by ESR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, M.

    1996-01-01

    In this work, the properties of the radicals produced in chicken bones have been investigated by ESR technique to determine the amount of dose applied to the chicken meats during the food irradiation. For this goal, the drumsticks from 6-8 weeks old chickens purchased from a local market were irradiated at dose levels of 0; 2; 4; 6; 8 and 10 kGy. Then, the ESR spectra of the powder samples prepared from the bones of the drumsticks have been investigated. Unirradiated chicken bones have been observed to show a weak ESR signal of single line character. CO-2 ionic radicals of axial symmetry with g=1.9973 and g=2.0025 were observed to be produced in irradiated samples which would give rise to a three peaks ESR spectrum. In addition, the signal intensities of the samples were found to depend linearly on the irradiation dose in the dose range of 0-10 kGy. The powder samples prepared from chicken leg bones cleaned from their meats and marrow and irradiated at dose levels of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, B, 10, 12,14, 16, 1B, 20 and 22 kGy were used to get the dose-response curve. It was found that this curve has biphasic character and that the dose yield was higher in the 12-1B kGy dose range and a decrease appears in this curve over 18 kGy. The radical produced in the bones were found to be the same whether the irradiation was performed after stripping the meat and removing the marrow from the bone or before the stripping. The ESR spectra of both irradiated and non irradiated samples were investigated in the temperature range of 100 K-450 K and changes in the ESR spectra of CO-2 radical have been studied. For non irradiated samples (controls). the signal intensities were found to decrease when the temperature was increased. The same investigation has been carried out for irradiated samples and it was concluded that the signal intensities relative to the peaks of the radical spectrum increase in the temperature range of 100 K-330 K, then they decrease over 330 K. The change in the

  9. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Van de Weerd, H.A.; de Jong, I.C.

    2018-01-01

    to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never...... benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler...... chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw (“point-source enrichment”), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges (“complex enriched environments”). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably...

  10. Distributions of soil phosphorus in China's densely populated village landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaguo Jiao; Erle C. Ellis; Ian Yesilonis; Junxi Wu; Hongqing Wang; Huixin Li; Linzhang. Yang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Village landscapes, which integrate small-scale agriculture with housing, forestry and a host of other land use practices, cover more than 2x106 km2 across China. Village lands tend to be managed at very fine spatial scales (≤30 m), with managers altering soil fertility and even terrain by terracing,...

  11. Design for sustainability: rural connectivity with village operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has approximately 26500 primary and secondary schools, of which at least 17000 are in remote rural villages. None of these rural schools have any form of Internet connectivity. The same rural villages may have one health facility...

  12. Comparative pathology of chickens experimentally inoculated with avian influenza viruses of low and high pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, I P; Brugh, M; Fletcher, O J; Rowland, G N; Swayne, D E

    1997-01-01

    Pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigen as determined by immunohistochemistry were compared among 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated intratracheally with avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates of either low or high pathogenicity. Viruses of low pathogenicity, previously characterized as mildly pathogenic (MP), included A/chicken/Pennsylvania/21525/83 (H5N2) (MP-Penn) and A/chicken/Alabama/7395/75 (H4N8) (MP-Alab). Viruses of high pathogenicity included A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 (H5N2), A/chicken/Victoria/A185/85 (H7N7), and A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66 (H5N9). Extremely variable clinical signs ranging from mild respiratory distress to high mortality were present among chickens inoculated with these viruses. Chickens inoculated with highly pathogenic (HP) virus had histologic lesions of necrosis and inflammation in cloacal bursa, thymus, spleen, heart, pancreas, kidney, brain, trachea, lung, and skeletal muscle, whereas chickens inoculated with MP virus had histologic lesions most frequently in lung and trachea or lacked histologic lesions. Immunospecific staining for avian influenza viral proteins was most common in cells within heart, lung, kidney, brain, and pancreas of chicken inoculated with HP viruses, but immunospecific staining was present only and infrequently in trachea and lung of chickens inoculated with MP-Penn AIV. MP-Alab did not produce lesions nor have viral antigen in inoculated chickens but did produce serologic evidence of infection. The pattern of organ involvement and viral antigen distribution in chickens intratracheally inoculated with HP AIV isolates indicates a common capability to spread beyond the respiratory tract and confirms the pantrophic replicative, pathobiologic, and lethal nature of the viruses. However, variability in severity and lesion distribution exists between different HP AIVs. By contrast, MP viruses had the ability to replicate in respiratory or enteric tracts or both and produce lesions

  13. A Resilience Pattern in Village level: The Case Babalan Village, Pati, Central Java Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurwahyudi Ragil; Maryono Maryono

    2018-01-01

    Based on the Indonesia Disaster Prone Index 2013, Pati Regency is a high risk area of disaster and is ranked 11th level Central Java province while nationally ranked 156. Babalan Village located on the edge of Juwana River has disaster history from 2006-2014 shows flood disaster Giving the greatest probability and impact followed by rat pest, tornado, drought, fire. The public recognizes the signs of a continuous flooding of heavy rains accompanied by clouds all over the edge, the continuous ...

  14. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    P.K. Pathak; B.G. Nath

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  15. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  16. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tianmu; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT) alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR). Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types. PMID:28486516

  17. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR. Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types.

  18. The hydrogen village in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A Hydrogen Village (H2V) is a public/private partnership with an objective to accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in Canada and firmly position Canada as the international leader in this sector. The first Hydrogen Village is planned for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and will make use of existing hydrogen and fuel cell deployments to assist in its creation. This five year GTA Hydrogen Village program is planned to begin operations in 2004. The Hydrogen Village will demonstrate and deploy various hydrogen production and delivery techniques as well as fuel cells for stationary, transportation (mobile) and portable applications. This paper will provide an overview of the Hydrogen Village and identify the missions, objectives, members and progress within the H2V. (author)

  19. A Comparison of the Essential Amino Acid Content and the Retention Rate by Chicken Part according to Different Cooking Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Honggyun; Do, Hyun Wook; Chung, Heajung

    2017-01-01

    This study set out to identify the changes in the nutrient contents during the chicken cooking process as basic data for the establishment of a national health nutrition policy. Samples were produced using 3 chicken parts (wing, breast, and leg) and 7 cooking methods (boiling, pancooking, pan-frying, deep-frying, steaming, roasting, and microwaving), and the essential amino acid contents, principal components, and retention rates were analyzed. Weight loss was observed in all chicken parts with all cooking methods. The protein and essential amino acid contents of the chicken samples differed significantly according to the part and the cooking method ( p chicken parts showed ranges of 16.81-32.36 and 0.44-2.45, respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) clearly demonstrated that the cooking methods and chicken parts produced similar trends for the essential amino acid contents. The retention rates of the chicken parts varied with the cooking methods, yielding a minimum value of 83% for isoleucine in a roasted wing, 91% for protein in a steamed breast, and 77% for isoleucine and lysine in a roasted leg. Therefore, the protein and amino acid contents of the roasted breast were higher than those of the other cooked chicken parts.

  20. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L.; Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G.; Berghman, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and γ- 32 P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32 P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32 P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  1. A radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulomaa, M.S.; Elo, H.A.; Tuohimaa, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with 125 I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the [ 14 C]biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the [ 14 C]biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin. (author)

  2. Public health risk of trace metals in fresh chicken meat products on the food markets of a major production region in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Zhang, Wenfeng; Chen, Gang; Cheng, Hefa; Tao, Shu

    2018-03-01

    Because most chickens are reared in intensive farms, where a range of feed additives are used routinely, concerns have been raised on the potential public health risk of chicken product consumption. This study was conducted to characterize the contents of trace metals in fresh chicken tissues (354 samples) on the food markets in Guangdong province of southern China, a major region of chicken production with heavy per capita chicken consumption, and to assess the public health risk from chronic dietary exposure to the trace metals through chicken consumption. With the exception of Cr, Ni, and Pb, the contents of trace metals were generally higher in the chicken giblets (livers, gizzards, hearts, and kidneys) compared to muscles (breasts and drumsticks). Chicken tissues from the urban markets generally contained higher levels of As, Cu, Mn, and Zn than those from the rural markets, while the contents of Pb were typically higher in the chicken muscles from the rural markets. Results of statistical analyses indicate that Cu, Zn, and As in the chicken tissues derived mainly from the feeds, which is consistent with the widespread use of Cu, Zn, and phenylarsenic compounds as feed supplements/additives in intensive poultry farming. No non-carcinogenic risk is found with the consumption of fresh chicken meat products on the food markets, while approximately 70% of the adult population in Guangzhou and 30% of those in Lianzhou have bladder and lung cancer risk above the serious or priority level (10 -4 ), which arises from the inorganic arsenic contained in the chicken tissues. These findings indicate that the occurrence of inorganic arsenic at elevated levels in chicken tissues on the food markets in Guangdong province poses a significant public health risk, thus the use of phenylarsenic feed additives in China's poultry farming should be significantly reduced and eventually phased out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relégation au village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Renahy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les thèses de l’individualisation des sociétés occidentales, ou de l’exclusion de ceux qui resteraient en marge d’une vaste classe moyenne aux modes de vie homogénéisés, ont sans doute permis de sortir d’une grille de lecture rigide héritée du marxisme. Mais elles résistent aujourd’hui mal aux faits et sont vivement contredites par le renouvellement des études sur les inégalités sociales pensées en termes de stratification. Enquêtant la population ouvrière d’un village industriel de Bourgogne au cours des années 1990, l’auteur a pu mesurer tout autant la force socialisatrice continue du groupe ouvrier sur sa jeunesse que le lent processus de délitement de ses cadres de références, longtemps stabilisés autour d’une mono-industrie métallurgique, provoquant une crise dans la reproduction de ce monde ouvrier. C’est cette crise de reproduction qui est évoquée ici. Dans un premier temps sont explicitées les formes passées de la présence industrielle au village, qui n’a jamais été celle d’un bastion de la grande industrie – la population locale n’est pas structurellement différenciée de celle de son environnement rural immédiat. L’exemple d’une lignée familiale d’artisans montre pour finir l’étroit maillage entre usine et structures sociales plus classiquement rurales, favorisant la constitution d’un capital d’autochtonie, déclinaison populaire du capital social.Relegation to the villageArguments demonstrating the individualisation of western societies, or the exclusion of those who stay on the margins of a vast middle class homogeneous life style, have no doubt allowed the move away from the rigid interpretations inherited from Marxism. However, these arguments resist today in spite of the facts and they are even keenly contradicted by the renewal of stratification studies on social inequalities. Analyzing the working population of an industrial village in Bourgogne during the

  4. Are happy chickens safer chickens? Poultry welfare and disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Tom

    2006-08-01

    1. Contaminated chicken meat remains an internationally important vehicle for human infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, the last 20 years has seen an international pandemic of human salmonellosis caused by the contamination of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis. 2. It has been a long held scientific view that Campylobacter spp. and most, if not all of the common zoonotic salmonella, are essentially commensal in chickens. They usually form part of the gut flora and contaminate chicken carcases, for example, by faecal spillage at slaughter. Even when certain salmonella serovars like S. Enteritidis are invasive in laying hens overt evidence of clinical disease is rare and the birds appear to behave normally. 3. Are these bacteria just 'passing through' the avian host and only transient members of the bacterial flora or is there a more dynamic perspective to this infection/colonisation process? Chickens mount antibody responses to both pathogens, which indicate something other than commensalism. Such immune responses, however, do not always result in the clearance of the pathogen. 4. Not all animals in a group will carry salmonella or campylobacter, even under experimental conditions, and will vary, especially those that are outbred, in their responses to pathogen challenge. Identifying the reasons behind this could have important implications for disease control. 5. Both salmonella and campylobacter are more likely to be found in animals, which are compromised and this may explain at least part of the variations seen. Animals are more susceptible to infection when they are in a poor environment, fed a poor diet and/or under physical or psychological stress. 6. Work in this area has naturally focused on pathogens of medical significance and has shown that neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline can markedly alter pathogen behaviour. Other host responses like Interferon gamma can also affect host tissues in a way, which facilitates invasion by

  5. New Energy Villages in Taiwan and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. S.; Wang, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan locates in the active tectonic subdution and collision belts, therefore, the geothermal gradient is very high and have found 128 sites of high geothermal areas; 20% of them have the temperature between 75 - 200 degree C in which they can be directly used for the electricity generation; 50% of them are in 50 - 74 degree C and the rest 30% are below 50 degree C. These areas need the deep drillings to get into higher temperature for power energy. The first 20% high temperature areas are mostly located in the coastal or mountain regions. The government is interesting to develop these areas as the "New Energy Villages" so that they can not only become self-energy sufficient sites, but also to protect themself from being the loss of electricity and water during the typhoon and earthquake hazards. The multiple usages of hot water (such as the first power generation and then the hot spring utilization) have its merits. China, in the other hand, is not within the present-day active tectonic zone. However, the recent Sino Probe Experiments (Deep Exploration in China) have mapped the Cetaceous plate boundaries in the coast of China. The heat is still possibly migrating to near the surface through the existing structures. For example, the Feng Shun Geothermal Power Station in north of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, used the 96 degree C hot water from a well of 800 m producing a small amount of 300 KW power since 1984. The Guangdong Province is located in the edge of Mesozoic South China Plate. Further in land, the Huang Mountain, one of the world heritage sites, is located at the boundary of another Mesozoic Yangtze River Plate. There is not a geothermal power plant; however, a number of hot springs are in a booming tour business at the foot hill of the mountain. The electricity has to come from a long way of net working. If China develops the local, small, but sufficient power plants by using the modern geothermal exploration and drilling techniques. The "New Energy

  6. Astronomy Village Reaches for New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.; Pompea, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    We are developing a set of complex, multimedia-based instructional modules emphasizing technical and scientific issues related to Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope project. The modules" pedagogy will be open-ended and problem-based to promote development of problem-solving skills. Problem- based-learning modules that emphasize work on open-ended complex real world problems are particularly valuable in illustrating and promoting a perspective on the process of science and engineering. Research in this area shows that these kinds of learning experiences are superior to more conventional student training in terms of gains in student learning. The format for the modules will be based on the award-winning multi-media educational Astronomy Village products that present students with a simulated environment: a mountaintop community surrounded by a cluster of telescopes, satellite receivers, and telecommunication towers. A number of "buildings" are found in the Village, such as a library, a laboratory, and an auditorium. Each building contains an array of information sources and computer simulations. Students navigate through their research with a mentor via imbedded video. The first module will be "Observatory Site Selection." Students will use astronomical data, basic weather information, and sky brightness data to select the best site for an observatory. Students will investigate the six GSMT sites considered by the professional site selection teams. Students will explore weather and basic site issues (e.g., roads and topography) using remote sensing images, computational fluid dynamics results, turbulence profiles, and scintillation of the different sites. Comparison of student problem solving with expert problem solving will also be done as part of the module. As part of a site selection team they will have to construct a case and present it on why they chose a particular site. The second module will address aspects of system engineering and optimization for a GSMT

  7. Crowing Sound Analysis of Gaga' Chicken; Local Chicken from South Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma; Ashari, Fachri

    2008-01-01

    Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

  8. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  9. Flavour chemistry of chicken meat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-05-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers' meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  10. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  11. Biomass District Heat System for Interior Rural Alaska Villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, William A.; Parker, Charles R.

    2014-09-01

    Alaska Village Initiatives (AVI) from the outset of the project had a goal of developing an integrated village approach to biomass in Rural Alaskan villages. A successful biomass project had to be ecologically, socially/culturally and economically viable and sustainable. Although many agencies were supportive of biomass programs in villages none had the capacity to deal effectively with developing all of the tools necessary to build a complete integrated program. AVI had a sharp learning curve as well. By the end of the project with all the completed tasks, AVI developed the tools and understanding to connect all of the dots of an integrated village based program. These included initially developing a feasibility model that created the capacity to optimize a biomass system in a village. AVI intent was to develop all aspects or components of a fully integrated biomass program for a village. This meant understand the forest resource and developing a sustainable harvest system that included the “right sized” harvest equipment for the scale of the project. Developing a training program for harvesting and managing the forest for regeneration. Making sure the type, quality, and delivery system matched the needs of the type of boiler or boilers to be installed. AVI intended for each biomass program to be of the scale that would create jobs and a sustainable business.

  12. TOURISM WAS BORN IN THE VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana CIOBAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statistical data certifies that tourism is one of the most profitable and dynamic sectors of the economy, occupying the second position in international trade, after oil. By extrapolation results that rural tourism also has major implications for the economic, social and cultural development of the villages. This study presents an analysis of the factors contributing to the practice of rural tourism in Romania during 2000-2015. Using data provided by the National Statistics Institute was possible to analyze the number of employees and number of units specific to rural tourism. In the structure of this study, the methods of improving and developing rural tourism are defined by the concept of volunteer tourism by developing national portals presenting the vacant jobs in tourism and developing human capital by attracting European Funds 2014-2010. The importance of these methods have as a starting point the alignment with the current requirements of tourists and human resources due to the fact that workers in tourism are the main connection point between services and tourist.

  13. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the chicken basic helix-loop-helix factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Yi; Zhao, Chun-Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors play important roles in a wide range of developmental processes. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide survey using the chicken (Gallus gallus) genomic database, and identified 104 bHLH sequences belonging to 42 gene families in an effort to characterize the chicken bHLH transcription factor family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that chicken has 50, 21, 15, 4, 8, and 3 bHLH members in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while three members belonging to none of these groups were classified as ''orphans". A comparison between chicken and human bHLH repertoires suggested that both organisms have a number of lineage-specific bHLH members in the proteomes. Chromosome distribution patterns and phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the bHLH members should have arisen through gene duplication at an early date. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment statistics showed 51 top GO annotations of biological processes counted in the frequency. The present study deepens our understanding of the chicken bHLH transcription factor family and provides much useful information for further studies using chicken as a model system.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the Chicken Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-yi Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH family of transcription factors play important roles in a wide range of developmental processes. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide survey using the chicken (Gallus gallus genomic database, and identified 104 bHLH sequences belonging to 42 gene families in an effort to characterize the chicken bHLH transcription factor family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that chicken has 50, 21, 15, 4, 8, and 3 bHLH members in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while three members belonging to none of these groups were classified as ‘‘orphans’’. A comparison between chicken and human bHLH repertoires suggested that both organisms have a number of lineage-specific bHLH members in the proteomes. Chromosome distribution patterns and phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the bHLH members should have arisen through gene duplication at an early date. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment statistics showed 51 top GO annotations of biological processes counted in the frequency. The present study deepens our understanding of the chicken bHLH transcription factor family and provides much useful information for further studies using chicken as a model system.

  15. Experimental-confirmation and functional-annotation of predicted proteins in the chicken genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Fiona M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chicken genome was sequenced because of its phylogenetic position as a non-mammalian vertebrate, its use as a biomedical model especially to study embryology and development, its role as a source of human disease organisms and its importance as the major source of animal derived food protein. However, genomic sequence data is, in itself, of limited value; generally it is not equivalent to understanding biological function. The benefit of having a genome sequence is that it provides a basis for functional genomics. However, the sequence data currently available is poorly structurally and functionally annotated and many genes do not have standard nomenclature assigned. Results We analysed eight chicken tissues and improved the chicken genome structural annotation by providing experimental support for the in vivo expression of 7,809 computationally predicted proteins, including 30 chicken proteins that were only electronically predicted or hypothetical translations in human. To improve functional annotation (based on Gene Ontology, we mapped these identified proteins to their human and mouse orthologs and used this orthology to transfer Gene Ontology (GO functional annotations to the chicken proteins. The 8,213 orthology-based GO annotations that we produced represent an 8% increase in currently available chicken GO annotations. Orthologous chicken products were also assigned standardized nomenclature based on current chicken nomenclature guidelines. Conclusion We demonstrate the utility of high-throughput expression proteomics for rapid experimental structural annotation of a newly sequenced eukaryote genome. These experimentally-supported predicted proteins were further annotated by assigning the proteins with standardized nomenclature and functional annotation. This method is widely applicable to a diverse range of species. Moreover, information from one genome can be used to improve the annotation of other genomes and

  16. Avian metapneumovirus subtype B experimental infection and tissue distribution in chickens, sparrows, and pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, S; Shamoun, M

    2012-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respiratory virus that infects a range of avian hosts, including chickens and turkeys. Migratory and local wild birds are implicated in aMPV spread among farms, countries, and seasonal outbreaks of the disease. A subtype B aMPV isolate from commercial chicken flocks suffering from respiratory disease was experimentally inoculated oculonasally into 7-week old chickens, young pigeons, and sparrows. Chickens showed minimal tracheal rales, whereas pigeons and sparrows were asymptomatic. Shedding of aMPV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on homogenates from nasal turbinates. At 5 days postinfection, 5 of 5 chickens, 2 of 5 pigeons, and 1 of 5 sparrows were positive; at 10 or 15 days, none were positive. At 2 and 5 days, aMPV antigens were localized at the ciliated boarder of respiratory epithelium in nasal cavity and trachea of chickens, as well as to the conjunctival epithelium. Pigeons had detectable viral antigens in only the trachea at 2 and 5 days; sparrow tissues did not show any positive staining. At the end of the experiment, at 21 days postinfection, 14 of 15 inoculated chickens seroconverted against aMPV, but none of the inoculated pigeons or sparrows did. The authors believe that pigeons and sparrows have the ability to transmit the virus between chicken farms, although they do not consider pigeons and sparrows as natural hosts for aMPV, given that they failed to seroconvert. In conclusion, pigeons and sparrows are partially susceptible to aMPV infection, probably acting more as mechanical vectors because infection is only temporary and short-lived.

  17. Biosecurity practices on Australian commercial layer and meat chicken farms: Performance and perceptions of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela Bullanday; Singh, Mini; Groves, Peter; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Barnes, Belinda; Glass, Kathryn; Moloney, Barbara; Black, Amanda; Toribio, Jenny-Ann

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the level of adoption of biosecurity practices performed on Australian commercial chicken meat and layer farms and farmer-perceived importance of these practices. On-farm interviews were conducted on 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland. There was a high level of treatment of drinking water across all farm types; town water was the most common source. In general, meat chicken farms had a higher level of adoption of biosecurity practices than layer farms. Cage layer farms had the shortest median distance between sheds (7.75m) and between sheds and waterbodies (30m). Equipment sharing between sheds was performed on 43% of free range meat chicken farms compared to 92% of free range layer farms. There was little disinfection of this shared equipment across all farm types. Footbaths and visitor recording books were used by the majority of farms for all farm types except cage layer farms (25%). Wild birds in sheds were most commonly reported in free range meat chicken farms (73%). Dogs and cats were kept across all farm types, from 56% of barn layer farms to 89% of cage layer farms, and they had access to the sheds in the majority (67%) of cage layer farms and on the range in some free range layer farms (44%). Most biosecurity practices were rated on average as 'very important' by farmers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that for most biosecurity practices, performing a practice was significantly associated with higher perceived farmer importance of that biosecurity practice. These findings help identify farm types and certain biosecurity practices with low adoption levels. This information can aid decision-making on efforts used to improve adoption levels.

  18. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, A B; van de Weerd, H A; de Jong, I C; Steenfeldt, S

    2018-02-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw ("point-source enrichment"), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges ("complex enriched environments"). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably in commercial trials, with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and on other welfare aspects such as leg health, and the interaction with genotype, production system, stocking density, light, and flock size. In addition, information on the practical application and the economics of the production system is often lacking, although it is important for application in practice. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Polyphenol Extracts from Punica granatum and Terminalia chebula are anti-inflammatory and increase the survival rate of chickens challenged with Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes avian colibacillosis, inflammation in multi-organs of chickens, and results in serious economic loss to the chicken industry. Polyphenolic compounds possess a wide range of physiological activities that may contribute to their beneficial effects again...

  20. Genetic Polymorphisms of The Chicken Antiviral Mx Gene in A Variety of Indonesian Indigenous Chicken Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sulandari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that a G/A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP at nucleotideposition 1,892 of coding sequence of chicken Mx gene confers susceptibility/resistance to avian viral diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the geographical distribution of G/A alleles in relation to differentgenetic backgrounds of a wide range of chicken populations. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction- RestrictionFragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods, 492 samples from 15 breeds of indigenous chickenpopulations from Java, Sumatera, Kalimantan and Sulawesi islands were genotyped. Allele and genotypefrequencies of each population were calculated. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were testedand inbreeding coefficient FIS estimated. Overall, the susceptible allele G had a frequency of 37.27% whilethe resistant allele A had a corresponding frequency of 62.73%. No clear relation of the geographicaldistribution of the G/A alleles to genetic backgrounds was found. The distribution of this SNP acrosspopulations seems to be affected by genetic drift rather than selection.

  1. The Vertical Village: indigenous mixture in Rio de Janeiro city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bevilaqua

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon a place called the Vertical Village, a building in the center of Rio de Janeiro inhabited exclusively by indigenous peoples from different ethnic groups belonging to different parts of the country. In this paper, we discuss questions related to the experience of being indigenous in a city, the construction of a residential space as a village, and the constitution of indigenous identity in the urban context. Following the paths of three inhabitants of the building, the questions considered emerge from their transiting between cities and villages, frontiers either real or imaginary, prejudices and expectations of indigenous identity.

  2. Changing Traditions and Village Development in Kalotaszentkirály

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Kraft

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of village traditions depends on the stability and cohesion of village communities. Since the opening of Transylvania after the fall of Nicolae Ceauşescu, there has been a sort of revival of Hungarian village dance and music, on the one hand, but, on the longer term, the communities themselves are threatened by economic challenges and by consequent demographic changes. This essay is based on field research conducted in Kalotaszentkirály (Sincraiu from 1995 to 2010.

  3. Human energy and work in a European village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberger, H

    1998-09-01

    In order to understand the problem of poverty its historical background must be elucidated. Since in the past most people in Europe were peasants living in small villages, a useful, initial way to examine the question of poverty is to investigate the villagers' condition of life. A basic contribution to this endeavor is to compile a food balance sheet that includes the food energy necessary for a healthy population, the amount of food in terms of calories that was available and the human energy required for the production of the nutriments. This essay is a case-study, incorporating these variables for the village Unterfinning (Bavaria) in 1721.

  4. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Native Chicken Populations from Myanmar, Thailand and Laos by Using 102 Indels Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Maw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of native chicken populations from Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos was examined by using 102 insertion and/or deletion (indels markers. Most of the indels loci were polymorphic (71% to 96%, and the genetic variability was similar in all populations. The average observed heterozygosities (HO and expected heterozygosities (HE ranged from 0.205 to 0.263 and 0.239 to 0.381, respectively. The coefficients of genetic differentiation (Gst for all cumulated populations was 0.125, and the Thai native chickens showed higher Gst (0.088 than Myanmar (0.041 and Laotian (0.024 populations. The pairwise Fst distances ranged from 0.144 to 0.308 among populations. A neighbor-joining (NJ tree, using Nei’s genetic distance, revealed that Thai and Laotian native chicken populations were genetically close, while Myanmar native chickens were distant from the others. The native chickens from these three countries were thought to be descended from three different origins (K = 3 from STRUCTURE analysis. Genetic admixture was observed in Thai and Laotian native chickens, while admixture was absent in Myanmar native chickens.

  5. Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Feldmeier, Hermann; Waiswa, Charles; Mencke, Norbert; Sentongo, Elizabeth; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Background Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda. Methods and Findings To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3–37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0–64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (panimal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, panimals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, pAnimal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3–11.4, pAnimal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals. PMID:26473360

  6. Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea model in infant chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanyal, S. C.; Islam, K. M.; Neogy, P. K.; Islam, M.; Speelman, P.; Huq, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro

  7. Ectoparasites and Haemoparasites of Indigenous Chicken ( Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research undertook the study of ectoparasites and haemoparasites found on and in the body of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus). Six hundred and nineteen ectoparasites were collected from 375 chicken from 28 households in and around Ibadan city between February and November, 1999. Of these, 455 ...

  8. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  9. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  10. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific 125 I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of 125 I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific 125 I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens

  11. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  12. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the

  13. Distribution and dynamics of radionuclides and stable elements in the coastal waters off Rokkasho Village, Japan, prior to the opening of a nuclear reprocessing facility. Part 3. Concentration levels of radionuclides in seawater off Rokkasho Village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Kawabata, H.; Ueda, S.; Akata, N.; Inaba, J.; Ohmomo, Y.; Mitamura, O.; Seike, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the concentration levels of 3 H, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, and 234,235,238 U in seawater off Rokkasho Village, Japan, before the start-up of a nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. The level, fluctuation range and distribution characteristics of each radionuclide was determined. (author)

  14. THE FEASIBILITY OF VILLAGE FOREST PROGRAM IN TANJUNG AUR II VILLAGE, PINO RAYA SUBDISTRICT, SOUTH BENGKULU REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmantoro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility study toward the prerequisite conditions is required for the successful implementation of the Village Forest program in Tanjung Aur II Village. This study aims to: 1 identify bio-geophysical conditions of the work area; 2 analyze the conditions of sosioeconomic-cultural society/institutional; 3 analyze the support of stakeholders; and 4 formulate appropriate implementation strategies. The study was using survey method and qualitative studies with multiple analysis techniques. The results showed that: 1 the biogeophysical conditions was eligible and suitable to be proposed as village forest working area; 2 conditions of socio-economic-cultural communities enable to form village forest management institution, through collaboration between state forest encroachers and the villager representatives; 3 stakeholders were ready to provide support facilitation and assistance according to their capacity and capabilities. Key stakeholder were among others BPDAS Ketahun, Dishut Provinsi Bengkulu, Dishut ESDM Bengkulu Selatan, NGOs Ulayat, and officials of the Village; 4 the implementation strategy of village forest program that suitable for Tanjung Aur II was a competitive strategy or diversification (S-T strategy, with the main priority of the strategy, among others by seeking and asking for support from relevant stakeholders or other parties who had capacity and capability to undertake facilitation and assistance.

  15. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Hirpurkar, S D; Kumar, Ashish; Naik, Surendra Kumar; Sahu, Tarini

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the virus is confirmed by clinical findings of affected birds, pock morphology and histopathology of infected CAM. In addition one field isolate and vaccine strain of FPV was adapted to CEF cell culture. CEF cell culture was prepared from 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. Clinical symptoms observed in affected birds include pox lesion on comb, wattle, eyelids and legs, no internal lesions were observed. All field isolates produced similar findings in CAM. Pocks produced by field isolates ranged from 3 mm to 5 mm at the third passage while initial passages edematous thickening and necrosis of CAM was observed. Pocks formed by lyophilized strain were ranges from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm in diameter scattered all over the membrane at the first passage. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are found on histopathology of CAM. At third passage level, the CEF inoculated with FPV showed characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) included aggregation of cells, syncytia and plaque formation. FPV field isolates and vaccine strain produced distinct pock lesions on CAMs. Infected CAM showed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The CEF inoculated with FPV field isolate as well as a vaccine strain showed characteristic CPE at third passage level.

  16. High concentrations of the carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo- [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) occur in chicken but are dependent on the cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R; Rothman, N; Brown, E D; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Swanson, C A; Rossi, S C; Mark, S D; Levander, O A; Felton, J S

    1995-10-15

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds found in meats cooked at high temperatures. Although chicken is consumed in large quantities in the United States, there is little information on its HAA content. The objective of this study was to measure the five predominant HAAs (IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and PhIP) in chicken cooked by various methods to different degrees of doneness. Chicken breasts were panfried, oven-broiled, or grilled/barbecued. Whole chickens were roasted or stewed. Skinless, boneless chicken breasts were cooked to three degrees of doneness: just until done, well done, or very well done. High levels of PhIP (ranging from 12 to 480 ng/g cooked meat) were found in chicken breasts when panfried, oven-broiled, and grilled/barbecued but not in while roasted or stewed chicken. PhIP concentration increased in skinless, boneless chicken breast with longer cooking time, higher internal temperature, and greater degree of surface browning. PhIP concentration was also high in chicken breasts cooked with skin and bones. MeIQx and DiMeIQx levels increased with the degree of doneness, whereas IQ and MeIQ were not detectable in any of these chicken samples. Certain cooking methods produce PhIP, a known colon and breast carcinogen in rodents and possibly a human carcinogen, at substantially higher levels in chicken than has been reported previously in red meat.

  17. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...

  18. Natural radioactivity levels in some villages near Nagarjuna Sagar, Nalgonda, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Sreenath Reddy, M.; Ch Gopal Reddy; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2003-01-01

    Indoor radon/thoron and natural background radiation levels were estimated in and surrounding villages of Mallapur area near Nagarjuna Sagar, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Mallapur village is about 10 km away from the Lambapur and Peddagattu areas, which are identified for uranium mining by Atomic Minerals Directorate of Exploration and Research (AMD), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Mallapur area has been proposed for milling and processing of uranium ore. As the present study is undertaken to establish the baseline data before the actual milling operation starts, the observed indoor radon and thoron levels are found to be in the range of 28 to 195 Bq/m 3 and 5 to 277 Bq/m 3 respectively. (author)

  19. Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saudamini; Vincent, Jeffrey R

    2009-05-05

    Protection against coastal disasters has been identified as an important service of mangrove ecosystems. Empirical studies on this service have been criticized, however, for using small samples and inadequately controlling for confounding factors. We used data on several hundred villages to test the impact of mangroves on human deaths during a 1999 super cyclone that struck Orissa, India. We found that villages with wider mangroves between them and the coast experienced significantly fewer deaths than ones with narrower or no mangroves. This finding was robust to the inclusion of a wide range of other variables to our statistical model, including controls for the historical extent of mangroves. Although mangroves evidently saved fewer lives than an early warning issued by the government, the retention of remaining mangroves in Orissa is economically justified even without considering the many benefits they provide to human society besides storm-protection services.

  20. 'Of peasants, peacocks and priests; a Portuguese village'

    OpenAIRE

    Iturra, Raul

    2009-01-01

    Made on very early equipment, silent 8mm film and tape recorder. Narration by Sarah Harrison. An early product of the Rivers Video Project. A film about a north Portuguese village in 1985, based on the fieldwork of Raul Iturra

  1. Perceptions of forest resource use and management in two village ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions of forest resource use and management in two village ... parts of the developing world in terms of their use and management of natural forest resources ... Neither group was aware of current or future management strategies for the ...

  2. 427 knowledge, attitude and perceptions of village residents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-07-04

    Jul 4, 2013 ... This study sought to assess the knowledge, attitude and perceptions of the residents of Kadhodeki village on the ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.4 ..... World Bank Report. Dupler, D.

  3. Sustainability literacy of older people in retirement villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bo; Zuo, Jian; Skitmore, Martin; Buys, Laurie; Hu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    With many developed countries experiencing the aging of the population, older people play a large role in contributing to environmental problems but also to environmental solutions. The purpose of this research is to understand the awareness and behavior of current older people living in retirement villages towards sustainability development. To achieve this, a sustainability literacy survey was conducted with 65 older residents of a private retirement village located 10 Km outside the Brisbane, Australia's central business district (CBD). Most of residents recognized the importance of environment protection and would like to lead a more environmentally friendly lifestyle. In addition, the majority were willing to pay higher prices for a living environment with sustainable features. The importance of positive social communications was emphasized with most residents having established good relationships with others in the village. The findings provide an important insight into consumer perspectives regarding the sustainable features that should and can be incorporated into the village planning and development.

  4. Village Health Volunteers: Key Issues Facing Agencies in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the key issues facing health care providers in ... gral part of community-based health programmes ... health care services more accessible to everyone s. , .... health; villagers are often more willing to help meet the costs of services they value. 2.

  5. Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi. ... Sera from 160 game ranger volunteers and from 82 suspected cases_of Rhodesian sleeping sickness were tested by use of ELISA, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Rural Villagers and Urban Residents Exposure to Poultry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection. PMID:24769673

  7. Determination of Radon Level in Drinking Water in Mehriz Villages and Evaluation the Annual Effective Absorbed Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2015-03-01

    Results: Radon concentrations of samples ranged from 0.187 BqL-1 to 14.8 BqL-1.These results were related to samples No.12 and 9 and also to aqueducts of Tang-e-chenar and Malekabad village respectively. Based on the amount of radon in the sample, the lowest annual effective absorbed dose through drinking water or breathing(In an environment where water was used was 0.0005msv/y and the maximum amount was 0.04msv/y. Conclusion: Apart from samples No.9 and 16 that were elated to the aqueduct of Malekabad village and a private well in Dare Miankoohvillagehaving48 persons as total population, Radon concentrations of other samples used by people of Mehriz villages as drinking water was low and less than permitted limit set by the Environmental Protection Agency of United States of America.

  8. Impacts of mesquite distribution on seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggie, Matthew A.; Strong, Cody R.; Lusk, Daniel; Carleton, Scott A.; Gould, William R.; Howard, Randy L.; Nichols, Clay T.; Falkowski, Michael J.; Hagen, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of native grasslands by anthropogenic disturbances has reduced availability and connectivity of habitat for many grassland species. A primary threat to contiguous grasslands is the encroachment of woody vegetation, which is spurred by disturbances that take on many forms from energy development, fire suppression, and grazing. These disturbances are exacerbated by natural- and human-driven cycles of changes in climate punctuated by drought and desertification conditions. Encroachment of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) into the prairies of southeastern New Mexico has potentially limited habitat for numerous grassland species, including lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). To determine the magnitude of impacts of distribution of mesquite and how lesser prairie-chickens respond to mesquite presence on the landscape in southeastern New Mexico, we evaluated seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. We derived several remotely sensed spatial metrics to characterize the distribution of mesquite. We then used these data to create population-level resource utilization functions and predict intensity of use of lesser prairie-chickens across our study area. Home ranges were smaller in the breeding season compared with the nonbreeding season; however, habitat use was similar across seasons. During both seasons, lesser prairie-chickens used areas closer to leks and largely avoided areas with mesquite. Relative to the breeding season, during the nonbreeding season habitat use suggested a marginal increase in mesquite within areas of low intensity of use, yet aversion to mesquite was strong in areas of medium to high intensity of use. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate a negative behavioral response by lesser prairie-chickens to woody encroachment in native grasslands. To mitigate one of the possible limiting factors for lesser prairie-chickens, we suggest future conservation

  9. Remote sensing and conservation of isolated indigenous villages in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Groth, Aaron A

    2014-11-01

    The vast forests on the border between Brazil and Peru harbour a number of indigenous groups that have limited contact with the outside world. Accurate estimates of population sizes and village areas are essential to begin assessing the immediate conservation needs of such isolated groups. In contrast to overflights and encounters on the ground, remote sensing with satellite imagery offers a safe, inexpensive, non-invasive and systematic approach to provide demographic and land-use information for isolated peoples. Satellite imagery can also be used to understand the growth of isolated villages over time. There are five isolated villages in the headwaters of the Envira River confirmed by overflights that are visible with recent satellite imagery further confirming their locations and allowing measurement of their cleared gardens, village areas and thatch roofed houses. These isolated villages appear to have population densities that are an order of magnitude higher than averages for other Brazilian indigenous villages. Here, we report on initial results of a remote surveillance programme designed to monitor movements and assess the demographic health of isolated peoples as a means to better mitigate against external threats to their long-term survival.

  10. Microbial Hazards of Street-Vended Grilled Chicken Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Patricia Azanza

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial hazards associated with street-vended grilled chicken intestine (isaw were studied. Grilling of isaw effected ≥89.00% decrease in the total microbial load of the sample. Cooked isaw contained about 105-106 cfu/g aerobic plate counts and 103-104 MPN/g coliform counts. Salmonella per 25 g sample was isolated from cooked isaw samples. Grilling eliminated Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes cells initially present in pre-cooked samples. Different sauces of isaw showed increasing numbers of total aerobic microorganisms and coliform during vending operations. The total plate counts and coliform counts of the sour sauce, which ranged from 103-105 cfu/g and 101 MPN/g, respectively, were observed to be lower than those found in the sweet sauce. Sources of microbial contaminants of grilled chicken isaw included the natural flora of the raw materials, contaminations from food-contact surfaces, bamboo skewers, and the hands of the food handlers. Among the critical control points identified in the street-vending operation of chicken isaw were the control of time and temperature during cooking and hold-on periods during vending operations.

  11. Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-03-01

    Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas. The production system practised was mainly low-input and small-scale free range, with mean flock size of 22.40 chickens per household. The mean effective population size was 16.02, translating to high levels of inbreeding (3.12%). Provision for food and cash income were the main reasons for raising IC, whilst high mortality due to diseases, poor nutrition, housing and marketing channels were the major constraints faced by farmers. Management strategies targeting improved healthcare, nutrition and housing require urgent mitigation measures, whilst rural access road network needs to be developed for ease of market accessibility. Sustainable genetic improvement programmes that account for farmers' multiple objectives, market requirements and the production circumstances should be developed for a full realization of IC productivity.

  12. Tissue expression and developmental regulation of chicken cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanta Mallika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cathelicidins are a major family of antimicrobial peptides present in vertebrate animals with potent microbicidal and immunomodulatory activities. Four cathelicidins, namely fowlicidins 1 to 3 and cathelicidin B1, have been identified in chickens. As a first step to understand their role in early innate host defense of chickens, we examined the tissue and developmental expression patterns of all four cathelicidins. Real-time PCR revealed an abundant expression of four cathelicidins throughout the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts as well as in all primary and secondary immune organs of chickens. Fowlicidins 1 to 3 exhibited a similar tissue expression pattern with the highest expression in the bone marrow and lung, while cathelicidin B1 was synthesized most abundantly in the bursa of Fabricius. Additionally, a tissue-specific regulatory pattern was evident for all four cathelicidins during the first 28 days after hatching. The expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 showed an age-dependent increase both in the cecal tonsil and lung, whereas all four cathelicidins were peaked in the bursa on day 4 after hatching, with a gradual decline by day 28. An abrupt augmentation in the expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 was also observed in the cecum on day 28, while the highest expression of cathelicidin B1 was seen in both the lung and cecal tonsil on day 14. Collectively, the presence of cathelicidins in a broad range of tissues and their largely enhanced expression during development are suggestive of their potential important role in early host defense and disease resistance of chickens.

  13. Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoro, J; Muasya, T K; Mbuza, F; Habimana, R; Kahi, A K

    2017-12-01

    Characterization of indigenous chicken (IC) production systems in Rwanda was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 with the aim of understanding socio-economic characteristics, management of IC, production parameters, feed resources, and constraints faced by farmers rearing IC. A survey involving 206 households was carried out in 5 districts with the highest populations of IC using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SAS software. The results showed that the majority of respondents (62.4%) were males and 37.6% were females. The majority of respondents (83.6%) had formal education. All family members were involved in the chicken husbandry practices. However, women (78%) were highly responsible for IC management activities. The family size averaged 5 persons (ranging 2 to 13) per household. Land was privately owned by farmers (84%) with a mean holding of 0.87 ha per household. The production system was mainly extensive with minimum provision of supplementary feeds. Chickens were being housed in separate houses at night and mating was uncontrolled. Breeding and replacement stocks were mainly sourced from the hatching of eggs using broody hens (60.68% of respondents). There were no vaccination programs, and ecto- and endo-parasites control was done when need arose. Egg production, income generation, meat production, and production of breeding stock were the main reasons of keeping IC. The first 3 main challenges facing IC production were diseases outbreaks, lack of investment capital, and predators. Others challenges, such as feed shortage, thieves, fluctuation of market price, lack of information on poultry rearing, and lack of chicken houses, also were mentioned. The IC production constraints mentioned need urgent mitigation measures to sustain utilization of IC against the changing climatic and economic conditions. Therefore, individual, public institution, and non-governmental organization efforts are required to develop sustainable breeding

  14. Heritability and Repeatability Estimates of Some Measurable Traits in Meat Type Chickens Reared for Ten Weeks in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. Sanda; O. Olowofeso; M. A. Adeleke; A. O Oso; S. O. Durosaro; M. O. Sanda

    2014-01-01

    A total of 150 meat type chickens comprising 50 each of Arbor Acre, Marshall and Ross were used for this study which lasted for 10 weeks at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Growth performance data were collected from the third week through week 10 and data obtained were analysed using the Generalized Linear Model Procedure. Heritability estimates (h2) for body dimensions carried out on the chicken strains ranged from low to high. Marshall broiler ...

  15. Culture of ceriodaphnia cornuta, using chicken manure as fertilizer: conversion of waste product into highly nutritive animal protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, K.; War, M.U.D.

    2010-01-01

    For finding a cheap and suitable feed for culture of Ceriodaphnia cornuta studies were carried out for 21 days using chicken manure as fertilizer whereupon C. cornuta population ranged between 50 +- 2 and 10,232 +- 202 Ind./L. (individuals/L). The culture peaked on the 17th day producing the maximum density of 10,232 +- 202 Ind./L. Thus chicken manure can be used as a fertilizer for mass culture of cladocerans, specially C. cornuta. (author)

  16. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  17. Utilization of services provided by village based ethnic minority midwives in mountainous villages of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan DTT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Doan Thi Thuy Duong,1 Bui Thi Thu Ha,1 Le Minh Thi,1 Duong Minh Duc,1 Luu Thi Hong,2 Tuan Anh Dinh,2 Tolib Mirzoev3 1Department of Reproductive Health, Hanoi School of Public Health, 2Department of Maternal and Child Health, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 3Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development, Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Introduction: Since 2011, the Vietnam’s Ministry of Health implemented the ethnic minority midwives (EMMs scheme in order to increase the utilization of maternal health services by women from ethnic minorities and those living in hard-to-reach mountainous areas. This paper analyzes the utilization of antenatal, delivery, and postpartum care provided by EMMs and reports the key determinants of utilization of EMM services as perceived by service users. Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered in 2015 to all mothers (n=320 who gave birth to a live-born during a 1-year period in 31 villages which had EMM in two provinces, Dien Bien and Kon Tum. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the association between all potential factors and the use of services provided by EMMs. Results: We found that EMMs provided more antenatal care and postnatal care as compared with delivery services, which corresponded to their job descriptions. The results also showed that utilization of antenatal care provided by EMMs was lower than that of postnatal care. The proportion of those who never heard about EMM was high (24%. Among the mothers who knew about EMM services, 33.4% had antenatal checkups, 20.1% were attended during home deliveries, and 57.3% had postnatal visits by an EMM. Key factors that determined the use of EMM services included knowledge of the location of EMM’s house, being aware about EMMs by health workers, trust in services provided by EMMs, and perception that many others mothers in a village also knew about EMM services. Conclusion

  18. Communicating new ideas to traditional villagers (an Indonesian case).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, A

    1984-01-01

    Recent cases derived from a series of communication research projects conducted in remote villages on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, are presented. These cases, which indicate the tremendously complex problem of communicating new ideas to traditional villages, also reflect the equally complex problem of social marketing. Indonesian, villagers remain very traditional, but their communication environment has been undergoing marked changes over the past decade or so. Overwhelming media exposure has pushed these people towards a modern environment filled with new knowledge and experiences. In view of the importance of changing attitudes and behavior of traditional villagers -- to realize modernization for the rural society -- the government of Indonesia has been using a host of communication means and channels. These include all the viable traditional or indigenous communication systems, but mainly face-to-face communication. Traditional dances, story-telling, and music are no longer interesting to the rural people themselves, and, apparently, no real developmental message can be transmitted by traditional "mass media." Among the 50 respondents randomly selected from the isolated village of Gelang (Case I), only 17% claimed to have listened to news in addition to music and songs. 67% of the respondents explained that information carrying novel ideas or methods usually attract them, but they are always reluctant to accept the new ideas for real application. Case II is about the effect of movie exposure on traditional villagers. As many as 73% of 50 respondents explained that the knowledge of the peasant-fisherman has increased considerably with regard to the urban way of life, as a result of movie attendance. The informants indicated that many villagers were disgusted by feature films or theatrical ones and that 62% of the villagers had yet to go to a movie. Case III involved the communication of new methods of medication to rural societies, including traditional

  19. Immunization of chickens with an agonistic monoclonal anti-chicken CD40 antibody-hapten complex: rapid and robust IgG response induced by a single subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Hsin; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Chou, Wen-Ko; Farnell, Morgan B; Mwangi, Waithaka; Berghman, Luc R

    2012-04-30

    Producing diagnostic antibodies in chicken egg yolk represents an alternate animal system that offers many advantages including high productivity at low cost. Despite being an excellent counterpart to mammalian antibodies, chicken IgG from yolk still represents an underused resource. The potential of agonistic monoclonal anti-CD40 antibodies (mAb) as a powerful immunological adjuvant has been demonstrated in mammals, but not in chickens. We recently reported an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 mAb (designated mAb 2C5) and showed that it may have potential as an immunological adjuvant. In this study, we examined the efficacy of targeting a short peptide to chicken CD40 [expressed by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs)] in enhancing an effective IgG response in chickens. For this purpose, an immune complex consisting of one streptavidin molecule, two directionally biotinylated mAb 2C5 molecules, and two biotinylated peptide molecules was produced. Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with doses of this complex ranging from 10 to 90 μg per injection once, and relative quantification of the peptide-specific IgG response showed that the mAb 2C5-based complex was able to elicit a strong IgG response as early as four days post-immunization. This demonstrates that CD40-targeting antigen to chicken APCs can significantly enhance antibody responses and induce immunoglobulin isotype-switching. This immunization strategy holds promise for rapid production of hapten-specific IgG in chickens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...

  1. Primary care in the village. An approach to village self-help health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyadi, A; Sadjimin, T; Rohde, J E

    1977-07-01

    The health clinic run in Kalirandu, Indonesia, by Foster Parents Plan, a private philanthropic welfare organization is described. In 1974 the Plan was serving 3000 families through 4 clinics, providing general curative services, pre- and postnatal services, family planning, dental care, and referral to the local urban hospital where needed. Each clinic treated about 100 patients per day at a cost of $1 per client family per month. However, few inocculations were given and few preventive health checks were requested. When the number of Plan families grew to 9500 while the population of the served communities grew to 400,000 with no increase in clinic budget, a different approach was tried. Instead of serving only the families helped direactly by the Plan, a total community service was developed. Plan personnel began to encourage use of the government health clinics. A rural health insurance system was developed which entitles the families to preventive health services. Plan medical staff and the local health center trained volunteers from Kalirandu in the use of a few simple medicines. The volunteers were selected by the village headmen and generally have elementary school education and a position of responsibility. This health "kader" works without payment and has 10-15 families living near him for whom he is responsible. At the time of writing there were over 500 kaders trained. Inservice courses are conducted to keep them up-to-date. An acceptors club was formed to motivate use of family planning. Seeking a more active role in village life, the acceptors club then took on child nutrition as a project, weighing children and reminding mothers of inoculations. The self-help momentum is spreading to housing and better farming practices, which is providing more vegetable gardens and better sources of Vitamin A. It is emphasized that this type of group responsibility cannot be imposed from outside. It is community leaders within that provide the motivation for self

  2. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (pchicken nuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets. PMID:26761796

  3. Genetic diversity of Guangxi chicken breeds assessed with microsatellites and the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuying; Mo, Guodong; Sun, Junli; Wei, Fengying; Liao, Dezhong Joshua

    2016-05-01

    The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is an excellent model for genetic studies of phenotypic diversity. The Guangxi Region of China possesses several native chicken breeds displaying a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme hot-and-wet environments in the region. We thus evaluated the genetic diversity and relationships among six native chicken populations of the Guangxi region and also evaluated two commercial breeds (Arbor Acres and Roman chickens). We analyzed the sequences of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 18 microsatellite loci of 280 blood samples from six Guangxi native chicken breeds and from Arbor Acres and Roman chickens, and used the neighbor-joining method to construct the phylogenetic tree of these eight breeds. Our results showed that the genetic diversity of Guangxi native breeds was relatively rich. The phylogenetic tree using the unweighed pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGAM) on microsatellite marks revealed two main clusters. Arbor Acres chicken and Roman chicken were in one cluster, while the Guangxi breeds were in the other cluster. Moreover, the UPGAM tree of Guangxi native breeds based on microsatellite loci was more consistent with the genesis, breeding history, differentiation and location than the mtDNA D-loop region. STRUCTURE analysis further confirmed the genetic structure of Guangxi native breeds in the Neighbor-Net dendrogram. The nomenclature of mtDNA sequence polymorphisms suggests that the Guangxi native chickens are distributed across four clades, but most of them are clustered in two main clades (B and E), with the other haplotypes within the clades A and C. The Guangxi native breeds revealed abundant genetic diversity not only on microsatellite loci but also on mtDNA D-loop region, and contained multiple maternal lineages, including one from China and another from Europe or the Middle East.

  4. Lesser prairie-chicken avoidance of trees in a grassland landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Plumb, Reid T.; Robinson, Samantha G.; Hagen, Christian A.; Haukos, David A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Grasslands are among the most imperiled ecosystems in North America. Reasons that grasslands are threatened include conversion to row-crop agriculture, fragmentation, and changes in fire regimes. The reduction of fire processes in remaining prairies has resulted in tree encroachment and establishment in grasslands, further reducing grassland quantity and quality. Grassland birds have been experiencing precipitous population declines in recent decades, commensurate with landscape changes to grasslands. The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus Ridgway) is a declining species of prairie grouse of conservation concern. We used second- and third-order habitat selection metrics to test if female lesser prairie-chickens avoid grasslands where trees were present. Our results indicated that female lesser prairie-chickens selected habitats avoiding the nearest trees by 283 m on average, nearly twice as far as would be expected at random. Lesser prairie-chickens were 40 times more likely to use habitats with tree densities of 0 trees ∙ ha− 1 than habitats with 5 trees ∙ ha− 1. Probability of use indicated that lesser prairie-chickens were 19 times more likely to use habitats 1000 m from the nearest tree when compared with using habitats 0 m from the nearest tree. Nest survival was not affected at densities 2 trees ∙ ha− 1. Avoidance of trees could be due to perceived increased predation risk, reduced habitat quality, or a combination of these potentially confounding factors. Preventing further establishment and expansion of trees in landscapes occupied by lesser prairie-chickens could contribute to the continued persistence of the species. Additionally, restoring grasslands through tree removal may facilitate conservation efforts for grassland species such as the lesser prairie-chicken by improving habitat quality and promoting expansion of occupied range.

  5. Community involvement in constructing village health buildings in Uganda and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M

    1995-11-01

    Three public health projects in Uganda and Sierra Leone are used to illustrate a new approach to construction of health buildings in villages. Emphasis is placed on community involvement. The health projects were comprehensive and relied on health education, employment of local village health workers, and establishment of village health committees. The objective of community involvement was described as encouragement of people to change their own diets and living conditions. This approach to primary health care is considered to be a strong basis for sustainable social development. Each of the three communities initiated the building projects slightly differently. There was a range of structures: traditional meeting halls, simple rooms with imported materials and a pit latrine, new buildings combining local and imported materials and labor, new nontraditional buildings, rehabilitated existing nontraditional buildings with imported labor and materials, and temporary mobile clinics. Community involvement was at different levels. All three projects were the result of a combined effort of national governments or mission hospitals, nongovernmental organizations, and the host community. The following should be considered before beginning construction: a suitable site, appropriate staff accommodation, the likely motivation of the host community, seasonality, local materials available, availability of skilled labor, and design. A plan of work during construction should include a building design, site supervision, transportation of local and non-local materials, unskilled labor, and skilled labor. Village health committees with or without government help would be responsible for maintenance of buildings after construction. A key feature of this approach is the assessment of the community's ability and capacity to contribute.

  6. Human Mercury Exposure in Yanomami Indigenous Villages from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Vega

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Amazon, where the majority of Yanomami villages are settled, mercury (Hg exposure due to artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM has been reported since the 1980s. This study assessed mercury exposure in the Yanomami reserve and whether the level of contamination was related to the ASGM geographical location. It was conducted using a cross-sectional study of 19 villages. Direct interviews were performed and hair samples were used as a bioindicator of Hg exposure. The Prevalence-Ratio (PR was estimated as an indicator of association between ASGM geographical locations and human exposure to mercury. Mercury levels (239 hair samples ranged between 0.4 and 22.1 μg·g−1 and presented substantial differences amongst the villages. In the Waikas-Aracaça region, where current ASGM was reported, we observed the highest Hg concentrations (median = 15.5 μg·g−1. Almost all participants presented with hair-Hg levels >6 μg·g−1 (prevalence = 92.3%. In the Paapiu region, we observed the lowest concentrations (median = 3.2 μg·g−1; prevalence = 6.7%. Our findings showed that the Waikas Ye’kuana and Waikas Aracaca villages presented with 4.4 (PR = 4.4; Confidence Interval (CI 95% = 2.2–9.0 and 14.0 (PR = 14.0; CI 95% = 7.9–24.9 times higher prevalence of hair-Hg concentration, respectively, compared with Paapiu. Considering seasonal variation of Hg-exposure, the lowest concentrations were observed during the wet season (June–September and the highest in the dry season (December–April. Our study suggests that there is an association between mercury exposure and ASGM geographical locations.

  7. Human Mercury Exposure in Yanomami Indigenous Villages from the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Claudia M; Orellana, Jesem D Y; Oliveira, Marcos W; Hacon, Sandra S; Basta, Paulo C

    2018-05-23

    In the Brazilian Amazon, where the majority of Yanomami villages are settled, mercury (Hg) exposure due to artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been reported since the 1980s. This study assessed mercury exposure in the Yanomami reserve and whether the level of contamination was related to the ASGM geographical location. It was conducted using a cross-sectional study of 19 villages. Direct interviews were performed and hair samples were used as a bioindicator of Hg exposure. The Prevalence-Ratio (PR) was estimated as an indicator of association between ASGM geographical locations and human exposure to mercury. Mercury levels (239 hair samples) ranged between 0.4 and 22.1 μg·g -1 and presented substantial differences amongst the villages. In the Waikas-Aracaça region, where current ASGM was reported, we observed the highest Hg concentrations (median = 15.5 μg·g -1 ). Almost all participants presented with hair-Hg levels >6 μg·g -1 (prevalence = 92.3%). In the Paapiu region, we observed the lowest concentrations (median = 3.2 μg·g -1 ; prevalence = 6.7%). Our findings showed that the Waikas Ye'kuana and Waikas Aracaca villages presented with 4.4 (PR = 4.4; Confidence Interval (CI) 95% = 2.2⁻9.0) and 14.0 (PR = 14.0; CI 95% = 7.9⁻24.9) times higher prevalence of hair-Hg concentration, respectively, compared with Paapiu. Considering seasonal variation of Hg-exposure, the lowest concentrations were observed during the wet season (June⁻September) and the highest in the dry season (December⁻April). Our study suggests that there is an association between mercury exposure and ASGM geographical locations.

  8. Characterization of human exposure to mineral sands dust in a brazilian village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, K. Dias da; Santos, M.S.; Medeiros, G.; Dalia, K.C.; Lima, C.; Leite, Barros C. V.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize human exposure to mineral dust particles using PIXE (Particle Induced X rays Emission) and 252 Cf-PDMS (Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry) techniques. The dust particles were generated during the separation process of mineral sands to obtain rutile, ilmenite, zircon and monazite concentrates. The aerosol samples were collected at the village and during the process to concentrate ilmenite. A cascade impactor with six stages was used to collect mineral dust particles with aerodynamic diameter in the range of 0.64 to 19.4 μm. The particles impacted on each stage of the cascade impactor were analyzed by PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission) and the elemental mass concentration and the MMAD (Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter) were determined. Employing the 252 Cf-PDMS technique the chemical compound present in aerosols particles and in urine samples were identified. The mass spectra ( 252 Cf-PDMS technique) of dust samples showed the presence of the thorium silicate, thorite and zircon in the fine fraction of aerosol. The 252 Cf-PDMS technique was, also, used to characterize urine sample from a inhabitant of the village. The results show that Buena village inhabitants inhale mineral sands dust particles. Based on the results from the lichen samples it could be concluded that at least during the last 15 years the inhabitants of the village have been exposed to monazite particles. Results suggest that the there is natural source of aerosol particles containing 226 Ra and 210 Pb (probably the swamp) besides the mineral sands dust. (author)

  9. A measure for the promotion of mountain ecological villages in South Korea: focus on the national mountain ecological village investigation of 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo Im; Kang, Hag Mo; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Chang Heon; Lee, Chong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Although South Korean mountain villages occupy 44 and 55?% of land and forest areas, respectively, these villages account for only 3?% of the national population and they suffer from a declining workforce owing to aging, wage inflation, and low forestry productivity. As a result, the South Korean government implemented a mountain ecological village development project from 1995 to 2013 in 312 of the 4972 mountain villages and investigated project performance in 2014. The present st...

  10. The Millennium Villages Project: a retrospective, observational, endline evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Shira; Gelman, Andrew; Ross, Rebecca; Chen, Joyce; Bari, Sehrish; Huynh, Uyen Kim; Harris, Matthew W; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Feller, Avi; Makela, Susanna; Zaslavsky, Alan M; McClellan, Lucy; Ohemeng-Dapaah, Seth; Namakula, Patricia; Palm, Cheryl A; Sachs, Jeffrey D

    2018-05-01

    The Millennium Villages Project (MVP) was a 10 year, multisector, rural development project, initiated in 2005, operating across ten sites in ten sub-Saharan African countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In this study, we aimed to estimate the project's impact, target attainment, and on-site spending. In this endline evaluation of the MVP, we retrospectively selected comparison villages that best matched the project villages on possible confounding variables. Cross-sectional survey data on 40 outcomes of interest were collected from both the project and the comparison villages in 2015. Using these data, as well as on-site spending data collected during the project, we estimated project impacts as differences in outcomes between the project and comparison villages; target attainment as differences between project outcomes and prespecified targets; and on-site spending as expenditures reported by communities, donors, governments, and the project. Spending data were not collected in the comparison villages. Averaged across the ten project sites, we found that impact estimates for 30 of 40 outcomes were significant (95% uncertainty intervals [UIs] for these outcomes excluded zero) and favoured the project villages. In particular, substantial effects were seen in agriculture and health, in which some outcomes were roughly one SD better in the project villages than in the comparison villages. The project was estimated to have no significant impact on the consumption-based measures of poverty, but a significant favourable impact on an index of asset ownership. Impacts on nutrition and education outcomes were often inconclusive (95% UIs included zero). Averaging across outcomes within categories, the project had significant favourable impacts on agriculture, nutrition, education, child health, maternal health, HIV and malaria, and water and sanitation. A third of the targets were met in the project sites. Total on-site spending decreased from US$132

  11. The Millennium Villages Project: a retrospective, observational, endline evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Mitchell, PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The Millennium Villages Project (MVP was a 10 year, multisector, rural development project, initiated in 2005, operating across ten sites in ten sub-Saharan African countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. In this study, we aimed to estimate the project's impact, target attainment, and on-site spending. Methods: In this endline evaluation of the MVP, we retrospectively selected comparison villages that best matched the project villages on possible confounding variables. Cross-sectional survey data on 40 outcomes of interest were collected from both the project and the comparison villages in 2015. Using these data, as well as on-site spending data collected during the project, we estimated project impacts as differences in outcomes between the project and comparison villages; target attainment as differences between project outcomes and prespecified targets; and on-site spending as expenditures reported by communities, donors, governments, and the project. Spending data were not collected in the comparison villages. Findings: Averaged across the ten project sites, we found that impact estimates for 30 of 40 outcomes were significant (95% uncertainty intervals [UIs] for these outcomes excluded zero and favoured the project villages. In particular, substantial effects were seen in agriculture and health, in which some outcomes were roughly one SD better in the project villages than in the comparison villages. The project was estimated to have no significant impact on the consumption-based measures of poverty, but a significant favourable impact on an index of asset ownership. Impacts on nutrition and education outcomes were often inconclusive (95% UIs included zero. Averaging across outcomes within categories, the project had significant favourable impacts on agriculture, nutrition, education, child health, maternal health, HIV and malaria, and water and sanitation. A third of the targets were met in the

  12. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  13. Wellbeing in retirement villages: eudaimonic challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Rebecca C; Robinson, Oliver C

    2014-12-01

    A retirement village consists of a collection of privately owned or leased flats or maisonettes for elderly adults that are supported by a central hub that provides catering, medical care and social activities. There have been studies of the psychological experience and impacts of such environments, however, there is lack of research that links the retirement village experience to overarching theories of eudaimonic wellbeing, and that uses qualitative methods to find out about how wellbeing manifests for the individual. This study used Ryff's (1989) model of wellbeing as a framework for analysis, while aiming to gain an in-depth understanding of the experiences and sources of wellbeing in residents of two retirement villages in the South East of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 18 residents. Thematic analysis revealed a dialectical tension to retirement village living: while facilitating all six core components of eudaimonic wellbeing as conceptualized by Ryff's model, individuals living within the retirement villages also experience challenges to wellbeing on the same dimensions. An integrative model of these tensions between positive and negative experiences is presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Socio-Cultural Impacts in the Formation of Urban Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2017-03-01

    In Indonesia, a group of village people tends to move from one place to another and develops a living space to create a settlement. This research is conducted by taking an example of a particular ethnic group that leaves the forestry area to a new place in the city. After some time, this group of people creates a similar or adapted socio-cultural system adapted from their origin place. The purpose of this research is to examine the socio-cultural aspects that significantly influence the emergence of urban village. This influence is interpreted as social and cultural relations with the establishment of space and significance of urban village. By focusing on this issue, this research will trace the process of how a new and unplanned settlement could emerge. The process and elements are indispensable from social and cultural factors. Essentially, the shape of bulit space is a non-physical manifestation of local people, which is established from time to time. In this case, the research’s challenge lies on the circumstance in Indonesia where society and culture influence the emergence of urban village. Physical appearance can be identified as a tipology of settlement and morphology of urban village.

  15. The chicken foot digital replant training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung

    2015-01-01

    A simple, readily available digital replantation model in the chicken foot is described. This high fidelity model will hopefully allow trainees in hand surgery to gain further experience in replant surgery prior to clinical application.

  16. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds res...

  17. Microbiological and chemical properties of litter from different chicken types and production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omeira, N.; Barbour, E.K.; Nehme, P.A.; Hamadeh, S.K.; Zurayk, R.; Bashour, I.

    2006-01-01

    Chicken litter is produced in large quantities from all types of poultry raising activities. It is primarily used for land application, thus it is essential to analyze its properties before it is released to the environment. The objective of this study is to compare the microbiological and chemical properties of litter generated from layer and broiler chickens reared under intensive and free-range production systems. The microbiological analysis consisted of the enumeration of total bacteria, total coliforms, Staphylococcus species, Salmonella species and Clostridium perfringens. Chicken litter from layers reared under intensive and free range systems showed lower mean total bacterial count than the litter collected from chicken broilers reared under either of the two systems (P = 0.0291). The litter from intensive layers had the lowest mean total coliform counts (P = 0.0222) while the lowest Staphylococcus species count was observed in the litter from free-range layers (P = 0.0077). The C. perfringens count was the lowest in chicken litter from intensively raised broilers and layers (P = 0.0001). The chemical properties of litter from the different chicken types and production systems were compared based on determination of pH, electrical conductivity, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, cadmium and zinc. Litter from free-range broilers showed the highest pH value (P = 0.0005); however, the electrical conductivity was higher in the litter from both intensive and free-range layers compared to the litter from both broiler production systems (P = 0.0117). Chicken litter from intensive systems had higher nitrogen content than litter from free-range systems (P = 0.0000). The total phosphorus was the lowest in free-range broiler litter (P = 0.0001), while the total potassium was the lowest in litter from intensively managed broilers (P = 0.0000). Zinc appeared higher in litter from layers compared to that from broilers (P = 0.0101). The cadmium content was higher

  18. Microbiological and chemical properties of litter from different chicken types and production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeira, N. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Barbour, E.K. [Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)]. E-mail: eb01@aub.edu.lb; Nehme, P.A. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Hamadeh, S.K. [Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Zurayk, R. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Bashour, I. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2006-08-15

    Chicken litter is produced in large quantities from all types of poultry raising activities. It is primarily used for land application, thus it is essential to analyze its properties before it is released to the environment. The objective of this study is to compare the microbiological and chemical properties of litter generated from layer and broiler chickens reared under intensive and free-range production systems. The microbiological analysis consisted of the enumeration of total bacteria, total coliforms, Staphylococcus species, Salmonella species and Clostridium perfringens. Chicken litter from layers reared under intensive and free range systems showed lower mean total bacterial count than the litter collected from chicken broilers reared under either of the two systems (P = 0.0291). The litter from intensive layers had the lowest mean total coliform counts (P = 0.0222) while the lowest Staphylococcus species count was observed in the litter from free-range layers (P = 0.0077). The C. perfringens count was the lowest in chicken litter from intensively raised broilers and layers (P = 0.0001). The chemical properties of litter from the different chicken types and production systems were compared based on determination of pH, electrical conductivity, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, cadmium and zinc. Litter from free-range broilers showed the highest pH value (P = 0.0005); however, the electrical conductivity was higher in the litter from both intensive and free-range layers compared to the litter from both broiler production systems (P = 0.0117). Chicken litter from intensive systems had higher nitrogen content than litter from free-range systems (P = 0.0000). The total phosphorus was the lowest in free-range broiler litter (P = 0.0001), while the total potassium was the lowest in litter from intensively managed broilers (P = 0.0000). Zinc appeared higher in litter from layers compared to that from broilers (P = 0.0101). The cadmium content was higher

  19. Microbiological and chemical properties of litter from different chicken types and production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeira, N; Barbour, E K; Nehme, P A; Hamadeh, S K; Zurayk, R; Bashour, I

    2006-08-15

    Chicken litter is produced in large quantities from all types of poultry raising activities. It is primarily used for land application, thus it is essential to analyze its properties before it is released to the environment. The objective of this study is to compare the microbiological and chemical properties of litter generated from layer and broiler chickens reared under intensive and free-range production systems. The microbiological analysis consisted of the enumeration of total bacteria, total coliforms, Staphylococcus species, Salmonella species and Clostridium perfringens. Chicken litter from layers reared under intensive and free range systems showed lower mean total bacterial count than the litter collected from chicken broilers reared under either of the two systems (P=0.0291). The litter from intensive layers had the lowest mean total coliform counts (P=0.0222) while the lowest Staphylococcus species count was observed in the litter from free-range layers (P=0.0077). The C. perfringens count was the lowest in chicken litter from intensively raised broilers and layers (P=0.0001). The chemical properties of litter from the different chicken types and production systems were compared based on determination of pH, electrical conductivity, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, cadmium and zinc. Litter from free-range broilers showed the highest pH value (P=0.0005); however, the electrical conductivity was higher in the litter from both intensive and free-range layers compared to the litter from both broiler production systems (P=0.0117). Chicken litter from intensive systems had higher nitrogen content than litter from free-range systems (P=0.0000). The total phosphorus was the lowest in free-range broiler litter (P=0.0001), while the total potassium was the lowest in litter from intensively managed broilers (P=0.0000). Zinc appeared higher in litter from layers compared to that from broilers (P=0.0101). The cadmium content was higher in the litter from

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serovars of Salmonella from chickens and humans in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, K; Ogunsola, F; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study determines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella serovars from humans and chickens in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 2004-2007. METHODOLOGY: A total of 991 blood samples were collected from patients in 2004 to 2005 and 641 fecal samples were collected from poultry farms......% were (S. Typhi). The majority of serovars from humans were S. Enteritidis (33%), S. Dublin (18%), and S. Typhimurium (18%). Resistance to chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and ampicillin ranged from 36% to 59% for the human isolates. Eight different serovars were obtained from chickens...

  1. Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochieng Justus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76% dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80% which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2% adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Wani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the genetic relationships and diversity and to estimate the amount of gene flow among the five chicken populations from Sudan and South Sudan and commercial strain of egg line White Leghorn chickens. The chicken populations were genotyped using mtDNA D-loop as a molecular marker. PCR product of the mtDNA D-loop segment was 600 bp and 14 haplotypes were identified. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that the indigenous Sudanese chickens can be grouped into two clades, IV and IIIa only. Median joining networks analysis showed that haplotype LBB49 has the highest frequency. The hierarchal analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed that genetic variation within the population was 88.6% and the differentiation among the population was 11.4%. When the populations was redefined into two geographical zones, rich and poor Savanna, the results were fractioned into three genetic variations: between individuals within population 95.5%, between populations within the group 0.75%, and genetic variation between groups 3.75%. The pair wise Fst showed high genetic difference between Betwil populations and the rest with Fst ranging from 0.1492 to 0.2447. We found that there is large number of gene exchanges within the Sudanese indigenous chicken (Nm=4.622.

  3. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  4. Insights into the chicken IgY with emphasis on the generation and applications of chicken recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Warren; Syed Atif, Ali; Tan, Soo Choon; Leow, Chiuan Herng

    2017-08-01

    The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics in the chicken inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Eric C; Park, Debra L; Durham, Dianne; Girod, Douglas A

    2004-06-01

    Avians have the unique ability to regenerate cochlear hair cells that are lost due to ototoxins or excessive noise. Many methodological techniques are available to damage the hair cells for subsequent scientific study. A recent method utilizes topical application of an ototoxic drug to the round window membrane. The current study examines the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear of chickens following topical application to the round window membrane or a single systemic high dose given intraperitoneally. Chickens were given gentamicin topically or systemically and survived for 1, 4, 12, 24, or 120 h (controls at 4 and 120 h). Serum and perilymph samples were obtained prior to sacrifice and measured for gentamicin levels. Results revealed higher levels of gentamicin in the perilymph of topically treated chickens than systemically treated chickens, with significant amounts of gentamicin still present in both at the latest survival time of 5 days. As expected, systemically treated chickens had much higher levels of gentamicin in the serum than topically treated chickens. Advantages and disadvantages to each method of drug administration are discussed.

  6. Measuring changes of radio-frequency dielectric properties of chicken meat during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in dielectric properties of stored chicken meat were tracked by using a radio-frequency dielectric spectroscopy method. For this purpose, the dielectric properties were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and vector network analyzer over a broad frequency range from 200 MHz to 20...

  7. Additive scaling law for structural organization of chromatin in chicken erythrocyte nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iashina, E.G.; Velichko, E.; Filatov, M.V.; Bouwman, W.G.; Duif, C.P.; Brulet, A.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on nuclei of chicken erythrocytes demonstrates the cubic dependence of the scattering intensity Q−3 in the range of momentum transfer Q∈10−3–10−2nm−1. Independent spin-echo SANS measurements give the spin-echo function, which is well described by the exponential

  8. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in home and commercially produced chicken eggs from the Netherlands and Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Hoogenboom, R.L.A.P.; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake is a major route of human exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). However, the available information on PFAS levels in food, including chicken eggs, is limited. In the present study, home produced and commercially produced eggs (organic, battery and free range eggs) were

  9. Salmonella Pathogenicity and Host Adaptation in Chicken-Associated Serovars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Ricke, Steven C.; Nayak, Rajesh; Danzeisen, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Enteric pathogens such as Salmonella enterica cause significant morbidity and mortality. S. enterica serovars are a diverse group of pathogens that have evolved to survive in a wide range of environments and across multiple hosts. S. enterica serovars such as S. Typhi, S. Dublin, and S. Gallinarum have a restricted host range, in which they are typically associated with one or a few host species, while S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium have broad host ranges. This review examines how S. enterica has evolved through adaptation to different host environments, especially as related to the chicken host, and continues to be an important human pathogen. Several factors impact host range, and these include the acquisition of genes via horizontal gene transfer with plasmids, transposons, and phages, which can potentially expand host range, and the loss of genes or their function, which would reduce the range of hosts that the organism can infect. S. Gallinarum, with a limited host range, has a large number of pseudogenes in its genome compared to broader-host-range serovars. S. enterica serovars such as S. Kentucky and S. Heidelberg also often have plasmids that may help them colonize poultry more efficiently. The ability to colonize different hosts also involves interactions with the host's immune system and commensal organisms that are present. Thus, the factors that impact the ability of Salmonella to colonize a particular host species, such as chickens, are complex and multifactorial, involving the host, the pathogen, and extrinsic pressures. It is the interplay of these factors which leads to the differences in host ranges that we observe today. PMID:24296573

  10. The rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocev, Kiril; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Tugjarov, Gjorgji

    2002-01-01

    Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel genset. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

  11. World Heritage Site Designation Impacts on a Historic Village: A Case Study on Residents’ Perceptions of Hahoe Village (Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonki Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between World Heritage Site (WHS designation and the community sustainability of a historic village, focusing on Hahoe Village, Korea, which was inscribed in 2010. It examines residents’ perceptions of increasing tourism at Hahoe Village by adopting a questionnaire and using an interview as research methods. This study examined both the positive and negative impacts that Hahoe Village’s WHS designation has had on its sustainability. Of all of the impacts examined in this research, the three most noteworthy issues are identified: (1 the acceleration of the change of the village’s industrial base and the influx of strangers; (2 the degradation of quality of life (in the physical aspects caused by increasing tourism; and (3 the collision predicated by the tension between conserving the village’s historic environments and developing tourism. In conclusion, the WHS designation impacts on Hahoe Village, which local residents perceived, have both positive and negative aspects. WHS designation needs to be accompanied by a management plan that is more concerned about the impact from tourism after the designation. In this context, Hahoe Village must not only have a comprehensive preservation plan that balances with the demand for tourism development, but also secure the village’s community sustainability as a living place other than a tourist destination.

  12. Diversity and utilization of bamboo species in Tigawasa Village, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS KETUT ARINASA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tigawasa is one of the famous traditional villages as a center of bamboo handicraft in Buleleng regency-Bali. As a center of bamboo handicraft its have been wrestled since centuries. Their peoples have done traditionally bamboo conservation surrounding their house and garden too. The marginal area, river flow area and stiff slope that are outskirts of village become to focus of bamboo conservation by their peoples, too. This research conducted at Tigawasa village in June 2003 by stripe and interview methods. Two kilometers stripe length by 50 meters width; follow the direction north south of the river was investigated. To know the utilization of kind of bamboo and their product conducted by interview to craftsman and community figure. The result of inventory knew about four genus consist of 19 species planted in this village. To know those bamboo species will be presented their key of determination. The genus of Gigantochloa and Schizostachyum to dominate of their species, and have many uses of it’s, also. Not less than 54 kind of bamboos handicraft product was produced in this village. The diversity of bamboos handicraft product, develop according progress of the technology and demand of period. Many of new products composed and use of color or paint develop to produce varieties of fixed product. Two-kind of product that is traditional boxes (“sokasi” handicraft and woven bamboo (“bedeg” to become this village famous at Bali, even though in foreign countries Energetic development of bamboos home industry to come to decrease stock of raw materials. About two trucks supply from east Java regularly to anticipation of decrease local stock of raw materials every week.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  14. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  15. EcoVillage: A Net Zero Energy Ready Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-02-01

    CARB is working with the EcoVillage co-housing community in Ithaca, New York, on their third neighborhood called the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience (TREE). This community scale project consists of 40 housing units --15 apartments and 25 single family residences. The community is pursuing certifications for DOE Zero Energy Ready Home, U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold, and ENERGY STAR for the entire project. Additionally, seven of the 25 homes, along with the four-story apartment building and community center, are being constructed to the Passive House (PH) design standard.

  16. Lessons learned from the NREL village power program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Renewable energy solutions for village power applications can be economical, functional, and sustainable. Pilot projects are an appropriate step in the development of a commercially viable market for rural renewable energy solutions. Moreover, there are a significant number of rural electrification projects under way that employ various technologies, delivery mechanisms, and financing arrangements. These projects, if properly evaluated, communicated, and their lessons incorporated in future projects and programs, can lead the way to a future that includes a robust opportunity for cost-effective, renewable-based village power systems. This paper summarizes some of NREL`s recent experiences and lessons learned.

  17. Lessons Learned from the NREL Village Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.

    1998-07-01

    Renewable energy solutions for village power applications can be economical, functional, and sustainable. Pilot projects are an appropriate step in the development of a commercially viable market for rural renewable energy solutions. Moreover, there are a significant number of rural electrification projects under way that employ various technologies, delivery mechanisms, and financing arrangements. These projects, if properly evaluated, communicated, and their lessons incorporated in future projects and programs, can lead the way to a future that includes a robust opportunity for cost-effective, renewable-based village power systems. This paper summarizes some of NRELs recent experiences and lessons learned.

  18. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  19. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry’s survival rate...... than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption...

  20. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate...... than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption...

  1. presence of cryptococcus species in domestic chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-25

    May 25, 2009 ... POSSIBLE RISK IT POSED TO HUMANS IN KABIGERIET VILLAGE, NAKURU COUNTY, KENYA. E.K. Kemoi, BSc, MSc, ... tree in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest (7). ... Sample collection: Environmental collection of domestic ...

  2. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Young Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  4. A Resilience Pattern in Village level: The Case Babalan Village, Pati, Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwahyudi, Ragil; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Based on the Indonesia Disaster Prone Index 2013, Pati Regency is a high risk area of disaster and is ranked 11th level Central Java province while nationally ranked 156. Babalan Village located on the edge of Juwana River has disaster history from 2006-2014 shows flood disaster Giving the greatest probability and impact followed by rat pest, tornado, drought, fire. The public recognizes the signs of a continuous flooding of heavy rains accompanied by clouds all over the edge, the continuous rise of the Juwana River surface to overflow, ants, isoptera, and animals out of its nest, "Yuyu Bule", earthworms out, clear water for "Rowo floods ", Brownish water for the flash floods. Most residents have boats and can make rafts from makeshift materials (jerry cans, bamboo, banana stems). Make "Ranggon" at home for those who do not evacuate for a place to stay during the flood. Citizens elevate the kitchen (to evacuate people and goods / household furniture). Breeding Tyto Alba owl for rats pest control post-flood and controllers in the fields. Develop vegetable crops in the yard with viticulture pattern (upstairs) if flood can be moved and can eat vegetables during flood. Have food reserves for stock before outside help comes. Citizens initiate "Water Bath honesty" to meet the water needs during the dry season.

  5. A Resilience Pattern in Village level: The Case Babalan Village, Pati, Central Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwahyudi Ragil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Indonesia Disaster Prone Index 2013, Pati Regency is a high risk area of disaster and is ranked 11th level Central Java province while nationally ranked 156. Babalan Village located on the edge of Juwana River has disaster history from 2006-2014 shows flood disaster Giving the greatest probability and impact followed by rat pest, tornado, drought, fire. The public recognizes the signs of a continuous flooding of heavy rains accompanied by clouds all over the edge, the continuous rise of the Juwana River surface to overflow, ants, isoptera, and animals out of its nest, “Yuyu Bule”, earthworms out, clear water for “Rowo floods ”, Brownish water for the flash floods. Most residents have boats and can make rafts from makeshift materials (jerry cans, bamboo, banana stems. Make “Ranggon” at home for those who do not evacuate for a place to stay during the flood. Citizens elevate the kitchen (to evacuate people and goods / household furniture. Breeding Tyto Alba owl for rats pest control post-flood and controllers in the fields. Develop vegetable crops in the yard with viticulture pattern (upstairs if flood can be moved and can eat vegetables during flood. Have food reserves for stock before outside help comes. Citizens initiate “Water Bath honesty” to meet the water needs during the dry season.

  6. SOIL FERTILITY STATUS AND POTENTIAL LANDSLIDE DISASTER HAZARDS AT AGRIBUSINESS CENTER IN JUHUT VILLAGE OF PANDEGLANG, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin Muhlisin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Juhut village is the agribusiness center of Sheep Integrated Village, as the field laboratory, and the locus of Banten Provincial Innovation System.Many programs provided at the site, ranging from seedlings, funding, and community assistance. However, the environmental conditions that support these activities and the potential for landslides has not been widely studied yet. Therefore, identification of soil fertility status and potential landslides disaster hazard in the Juhut Village needs to be done. The survey was conducted on July-October 2015 by taking soil samples at six locations around Juhut Village: Kadu Salak, Kadu Limus, Canggoang, Cinyurup, Sanim, and Balangendong. Soil samples were analyzed at the Laboratory of Land Resources Research and Development, Ministry Agricultural in Bogor. Potential landslides were analyzed using RBI Map of Indonesia overlied by Google Earth using Watershed Modeling System software, and the category is determined according Kusratmoko (2002. Based on the results of the study note that soil fertility in  the Juhut Village of Pandeglang range of low to high. Zoning areas vulnerable to landslides in the area juhut showed mostly a temperate zone with detailed granularity: landslide zonation high, medium, and low respectively covering 245.3, 707.1 and 126.1 hectares. High avalanche zones are located mainly in the central region and the northwest region, which is part slopes of Mount Karang. High avalanche zones are located mainly in the region of Central and Northwest region, which is part slopes of Mount Karang. High landslide zone area is in forest areas, but also there are some places that are on land use mixed garden, farm / field. Efforts need to be done at high risk zone is to increase community capacity by providing The landslide dissaster dissemination and training, and application LEWS (Land Slide Early Warning System. While in the area of agribusiness centers of sheep and goats for a very open area

  7. Assessment of liver steatosis in chicken by using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman Aroca, Florentina; Serrano, Laura; Berna-Serna, Juan D.; Reus, Manuel [Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, Department of Radiology, El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Ayala, Ignacio [University of Murcia, Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, Murcia (Spain); Castell, Maria T. [University of Murcia, Department of Cell Biology, Murcia (Spain); Garcia-Perez, Bartolome [Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, Internal Medicine Service, El Palmar, Murcia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    To evaluate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging as a non-invasive tool for quantification of the grades of liver steatosis in chickens. We used two different diets: a standard diet (SD group) and a hyperlipidaemic diet (HD group). The ARFI technique was performed in all the animals in the right hepatic lobe and shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured and expressed in metres per second (m/s). Plasma lipid levels were analysed. Steatosis was quantified by using semiquantitative analysis. Statistical analysis was used and Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. Mean SWV was 0.94 {+-} 0.16 m/s (range 0.8-1.3 m/s) in the SD group and 1.91 {+-} 0.25 m/s (range 1.3-2.2 m/s) in the HD group (p < 0.001). The lowest SWVs ({<=}1.3 m/s) corresponded to the chickens in the SD group, with 100% of the animals returning a score of 0, whereas the range of SWV in the HD group chickens was between 1.6 and 2.2 m/s. A substantial correlation was observed between SWVs with histological semiquantitative analysis of steatosis (r = 0.85, p < 0.001). ARFI imaging is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that allows discrimination between the grades of liver steatosis in chickens. (orig.)

  8. Assessment of liver steatosis in chicken by using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Aroca, Florentina; Serrano, Laura; Berna-Serna, Juan D.; Reus, Manuel; Ayala, Ignacio; Castell, Maria T.; Garcia-Perez, Bartolome

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging as a non-invasive tool for quantification of the grades of liver steatosis in chickens. We used two different diets: a standard diet (SD group) and a hyperlipidaemic diet (HD group). The ARFI technique was performed in all the animals in the right hepatic lobe and shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured and expressed in metres per second (m/s). Plasma lipid levels were analysed. Steatosis was quantified by using semiquantitative analysis. Statistical analysis was used and Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. Mean SWV was 0.94 ± 0.16 m/s (range 0.8-1.3 m/s) in the SD group and 1.91 ± 0.25 m/s (range 1.3-2.2 m/s) in the HD group (p < 0.001). The lowest SWVs (≤1.3 m/s) corresponded to the chickens in the SD group, with 100% of the animals returning a score of 0, whereas the range of SWV in the HD group chickens was between 1.6 and 2.2 m/s. A substantial correlation was observed between SWVs with histological semiquantitative analysis of steatosis (r = 0.85, p < 0.001). ARFI imaging is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that allows discrimination between the grades of liver steatosis in chickens. (orig.)

  9. How the oxygen isotope ratio of rain water influences the isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.

  10. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  11. Antiviral Activity of Lambda Interferon in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Antje; Soubies, Sebastien; Härtle, Sonja; Schusser, Benjamin; Kaspers, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are essential components of the antiviral defense system of vertebrates. In mammals, functional receptors for type III IFN (lambda interferon [IFN-λ]) are found mainly on epithelial cells, and IFN-λ was demonstrated to play a crucial role in limiting viral infections of mucosal surfaces. To determine whether IFN-λ plays a similar role in birds, we produced recombinant chicken IFN-λ (chIFN-λ) and we used the replication-competent retroviral RCAS vector system to generate mosaic-transgenic chicken embryos that constitutively express chIFN-λ. We could demonstrate that chIFN-λ markedly inhibited replication of various virus strains, including highly pathogenic influenza A viruses, in ovo and in vivo, as well as in epithelium-rich tissue and cell culture systems. In contrast, chicken fibroblasts responded poorly to chIFN-λ. When applied in vivo to 3-week-old chickens, recombinant chIFN-λ strongly induced the IFN-responsive Mx gene in epithelium-rich organs, such as lungs, tracheas, and intestinal tracts. Correspondingly, these organs were found to express high transcript levels of the putative chIFN-λ receptor alpha chain (chIL28RA) gene. Transfection of chicken fibroblasts with a chIL28RA expression construct rendered these cells responsive to chIFN-λ treatment, indicating that receptor expression determines cell type specificity of IFN-λ action in chickens. Surprisingly, mosaic-transgenic chickens perished soon after hatching, demonstrating a detrimental effect of constitutive chIFN-λ expression. Our data highlight fundamental similarities between the IFN-λ systems of mammals and birds and suggest that type III IFN might play a role in defending mucosal surfaces against viral intruders in most if not all vertebrates. PMID:24371053

  12. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  13. Performance of Chickens under Semi-scavenging Conditions: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of Chickens under Semi-scavenging Conditions: A Case Study of ... per household was lost per year due to diseases, predators, accidents, and theft. ... as well as chicken house construction so as to avoid the risks of predators.

  14. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated ... Key words: Chicken embryonic stem cells, in vitro, directional differentiation, .... synthesized by using the Revert Aid first strand cDNA synthesis kit.

  15. Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...

  16. MoonVillage: Frame & Opportunity for Space Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    2017-09-01

    We shall discuss the frame and opportunity for space economy in the context of elaborating the concept of a Moon Village with the goal of a sustainable human presence and activity on the lunar surface as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. This enterprise can federate all interested Nations and partners, in particular from terrestrial and non space commercial sectors .

  17. K'qizaghetnu Ht'ana (Stories from Lime Village).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby, Pete; And Others

    A cross section of Athabascan life as related by eight inhabitants of Lime Village, Alaska, is given in this document. The short narratives are printed in English and in Dena'ina. Illustrations accompany the text. The stories tell of making eagle feather robes, birchbark or mooseskin boats, a raincoat from black bear intestines, and boots from…

  18. Structural-functional development policies for converted villages to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After scoring each item and placing in a SWOT matrix it could be possible to propose special policies and plans for each settlements. The method can be easily applied in rural centers and small cities to help local authorities to make proper developmental decisions. Keywords: Converted villages to city centers, urban ...

  19. Analysis of Edible Mushroom Marketing in Three Villages in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the marketing of edible mushroom in three villages (Alesi, Ekukunela ... The socio-economic characteristics of sellers, profit margin and marketing ... One hundred and twenty respondents were interviewed at three different markets in three selected ... The concentration of sellers is low while entry is free.

  20. Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site: Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

    This guide provides history and social studies teachers, at all grade levels, with information and activities about the American Indians of the Northern Plains who lived in the area of the Knife River where it enters the Missouri River. Located in what is now North Dakota, this area is the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The…

  1. Village facilities and social place attachment in the rural Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, J.; Haartsen, T.; Vermeij, Lotte; Svels, Kristina

    Economies of scale and increased mobility have led to the closure of many village facilities. Most residents do not rely on locally available facilities anymore for their primary function. However, facilities are also meeting places. A decline in facilities may therefore negatively influence

  2. State-owned versus township and village enterprises in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Sun, L.; Zou, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are at a disadvantage in areas such as technology, labor skills, education levels of staff access to bank loans and government

  3. State-owned versus township and village enterprises in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Sun, L.; Zou, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are disadvantaged in areas such as technology, labour skills, education levels of staff, access to bank loans and government

  4. Market Segmentation: An Application to the Schist Village Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martinho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The Schist Village network is a sustainable development project in Portugal’s Pinhal Interior region that includes 27 villages located in the central inland area of the country. Overall, this study sets out evidence about the motivations, interests, behaviors, and images of visitors/tourists (tourism consumers regarding the Schist Villages in the area. Design/Methodology/Approach – The sample of individuals interviewed includes a total of 223 individuals (59 international and 164 national tourists, all of whom personally answered the questionnaire. Findings and implications – Through analysis of the survey results obtained, it is possible to chart a profile of Schist Village visitors/tourists, ascertain their preferences and the key attributes associated with the image of this tourist destination and, based on these, put forward strongly focused orientations and guidelines to help develop future marketing plans for this territory. Limitations – One limitation stems from how the data was gathered and analyzed constitutes but a mere “moment” in a fairly vast and dynamic universe given that the questionnaires were completed across a defined and fairly brief period of time. The fact that the questionnaires were handed out by network partners effectively excluded from the study all those tourism consumers who travel and visit the territory without any direct recourse to the services of the aforementioned partners. Originality – This study presents an easy and clear way to segment the market that could be used by several stakeholders in order to improve their targeting activities.

  5. Children of Deb Koh: Young Life in an Iranian Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Erika

    This book is based on ethnographic research carried out between 1965 and 1994 during eight visits to a tribal region in southwest Iran. The book weaves together local practices, cognitive categories, folklore, and anecdotes concerning all aspects of growing up to illuminate the world of children in the village of Deh Koh. The book describes how…

  6. Morphological diversity in fourteen cultivars Tiron village, Kediri, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azis Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiron village, Kediri is one of central mangoes in Indonesia. Many cultivar of mangoes encountered at this location. This study aims to look at the diversity of mango cultivars in the Tiron Village, Kediri, Indonesia. Mangoes diversity is based on qualitative and quantitative character of each cultivar. The diversity among cultivar indicated by the standard deviation and variance in the eleven quantitative characters of mango. Mango cultivars categorized by phylogeny morphological characters. The method used for phylogeny analysis is an UPGMA method (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Phylogenic analysis is based by the qualitative character of the plant. The results showed there were fourteen cultivars of mango in the village of Tiron Kediri have high diversity. Fourteen mango cultivars were categorized four groups. Based on a qualitative character, there are four classes of mango. The first group is the Katul, Podang Urang, and Podang Lumut. The second group is the Gadung, Jaran, Madu, Endog, Pakel, Dodonilo, Ireng, Lanang and Cantek. Santok Kapur into groups to form groups of three and Kopyor fourth. The high diversity in the village mango Tiron Kediri potential for resource in situ germplasm.

  7. Community Development Agency in Developing Village in The Lamongan District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Muhtarom

    2017-03-01

    Privileges Institute for Community Empowerment  In Development In Rural System In the Village Administration is (1 Plan development by consensus, (2 Mobilize and increase community participation in the implementation of development, (3 Cultivate dynamic condition of society and increase resilience in the district that studied to perform the function and role in the development of the Institute for Community Empowerment must comply with the rules villages and villages that have been made. However, there are some good functions to be executed to enhance the development of the Institute for Community Empowerment, namely (1 As a means of community participation in planning and implementing development; (2 Cultivating understanding and appreciation and awareness of the Pancasila; (3 Digging, harness, potential and mobilize self-help mutual aid societies to develop; (4 As a means of communication between the Government and the community and between citizens themselves; (5 Improving the knowledge and skills of the community; (6 To foster and mobilize the potential of the youth in development; (7 Fostering cooperation between institutions in society for development; (8 Implementation of other tasks in order to help the village government to build resilience established. Keywords: Role of the Institute of Community and Rural Development.

  8. Menopausal challenges as perceived by women in rural villages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the challenges of menopause as perceived by participants in rural villages of Vhembe District. A cross-sectional study involved a sample of 500 women between the ages of 40 years and above. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and was analysed descriptively. The results indicated that ...

  9. Life in Remote Villages, Book A, Explorations in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Kansas City, MO.

    The booklet is part of a series which tests some skills biologists use in their investigations. A series of drawings of the inhabitants of two fictional villages, and a number of extracts of literature concerning congenital malformations, introduce the first question in this test, which asks students to identify an unusual event shown in the…

  10. Marin Solar Village: feasibility study and technical analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-31

    The energy needs of Hamilton Air Force Base's Solar Village for electricity and heating and cooling of buildings are considered and alternative ways of meeting the Village's requirements for these forms of energy are evaluated. First, Solar Village's energy demand is calculated and compared to a base case representing calculations for typical energy usage for a development of similar size and density that is in conformance with current state and local ordinances. The potential of selected alternative technologies to meet the Solar Village projected demand for electrical power and natural gas is evaluated. Scenarios were developed to reduce demand, particularly in the building sector. Four alternative on-site energy technologies have been evaluated: wind, solar thermal electric, biomass conversion, photovoltaics. Each alternative is analyzed in detail. Of the four alternatives considered, the one with the greatest present potential is biomass conversion. Two technologies have been incorporated into the design. A 3-acre land fill is covered with a mantle of soil. A network of pipes carries off the methane gas which is a natural product of anaerobic decomposition of the materials in the land fill. The second technology involves the planting of rapidly-growing trees on denuded and unused portions of the site; 50 acres devoted to tree production could yield 12% of the back-up energy required for home heating on a sustainable basis.

  11. medicinal plant use of villagers in the mopani district, limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alinah Chauke

    These studies may guide the regulation of herbal medicine industry in South. Africa. Key words: Ethnobotanical, Medicinal plants, Mashishimale village. Introduction. Reviews of literature involving research of medicinal plants suggest that scientists follow more or less the same general strategy to investigate plant materials ...

  12. Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.E.

    1997-04-01

    An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

  13. Conceptualizing responsible innovation in craft villages in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.; de Haan, J.A.C.; Roome, N.; de Groot, G.A.; Nguyen Thi, Huong; van den Hoven, J.; Doorn, N.; Swierstra, T.; Koops, B.-J.; Romijn, H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research by the authors has explored small-scale innovations in poor craft producers’ clusters in villages in the Red River Delta in northern Vietnam. Although these innovations resulted in value creation and increased incomes, they also often gave rise to negative environmental or social

  14. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plants remain an integral part of the lives of people in rural areas. The aim of this study was to document information about the medicinal plants used by Shangaan people in villages under Jongilanga tribal council, Bushbuckridge municipality, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Materials and ...

  15. Ekspansif soil solution in the villages at Trenggalek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triastuti, Nusa Setiani

    2017-11-01

    District 2/3 hills with easy sliding and land survey results showed the soil because it consists of expansive soil Survey some villages who experience insatiability or failure, a secondary analysis of the data gathered from the expert on geology, Trenggalek geological map, Trenggalek geography. Ground location researched several villages, the Terbis village of focus discussion of the landslides and plan of relocation. In the watching a black. Colored soil and easily slide, showed very expansive soil due to montmorrelite. While soil relocation contour relative is more stable because the land of kaolin and invisible water sources that could push the land. Expansive soil in the village of solution should be cheap, easily obtainable, not damaging the fertility of the soil, groundwater should be awake to the source of life, ease of implementation, utilizing local materials and use modest tools and equipment. Under the soil surface do not get there water stored in the soil until deep the water because it will slide the ground. The analysis must meet the 7 items above and steady the contour. Design of building installed sub drain, the shallow bore foundations tied tie beam, floor plate into the unity of the structure.

  16. Pennsylvania Village to Get Safe, Reliable Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Pennsylvania village whose unfiltered, contaminated water source made it the top violator of federal and state drinking water laws will be connected to a public water system in 2015 with $2.2 million from EPA’s Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

  17. Sustainability Literacy of Older People in Retirement Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With many developed countries experiencing the aging of the population, older people play a large role in contributing to environmental problems but also to environmental solutions. The purpose of this research is to understand the awareness and behavior of current older people living in retirement villages towards sustainability development. To achieve this, a sustainability literacy survey was conducted with 65 older residents of a private retirement village located 10 Km outside the Brisbane, Australia’s central business district (CBD. Most of residents recognized the importance of environment protection and would like to lead a more environmentally friendly lifestyle. In addition, the majority were willing to pay higher prices for a living environment with sustainable features. The importance of positive social communications was emphasized with most residents having established good relationships with others in the village. The findings provide an important insight into consumer perspectives regarding the sustainable features that should and can be incorporated into the village planning and development.

  18. Economics of fuel energy in an Indian village ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisanka, S.K.; Misra, M.K.; Sahu, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel energy consumption pattern and its associated socio-economic factors have been intensively studied in the Bhabinarayanpur village ecosystem, Orissa, located on the east coast of India. About 21% of the gross annual income of the village is devoted to the fuels. Biomass, which is mostly collected free from the environment, is the major source of fuel energy. It constitutes 94.1% of the total fuel consumption. Family size and consumption of cereals and legumes significantly influence fuel use. However, there is no significant correlation between fuel consumption and other variables such as farm size, income and number of earning members in the family. The efficiency of the traditional stove is low in respect of all the biomass fuels for which more than three-quarters of the total energy is lost in the village. There is scope for improving the efficiency of fuel consumption and for ensuring a continuous supply of fuel energy to the village, for which suggestions have been made. (author)

  19. Higher Education in the Global Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume is about higher education in the context of globalization. Universities are rapidly becoming internationalized, and far from being just' a question of the English language replacing local languages as the working language, this process has introduced a whole range of sociolinguistic...... processes and resources have to be made which will aff ect every level and type of academic, social and administrative practice. The aim of the research represented by this anthology is to develop a new theoretical understanding of the internationalization process, in which - inspired by Bourdieu - we see...

  20. Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality of Ready-to-eat Chicken Products by Total Viable Count Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiz Raja; Asif Iqbal; Yasir Hafiz; Mehboob Willayet; Shakoor Bhat; Mudasir Rather

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation describes the total viable count of ready-to-eat chicken products (chicken patties and chicken rolls) in Srinagar city during two seasons viz. autumn and winter. A total of 120 ready-to-eat chicken products comprising of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls were tested. The mean bacterial count of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls was 5.1281 and 4.9395 log10 cfu/g. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 25 of chicken patties and 22 of the chicken rolls r...

  1. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIVE CHICKEN QUEEN PINEAPPLE-CURED HAM

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas; Nikko A. Roxas

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP) crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injectio...

  2. Evidence for a role of biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the spoilage of fresh aerobically stored chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Glen E; Bentley, Jessica A; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-08-01

    Fresh chicken meat is a fat-rich environment and we therefore hypothesised that production of biosurfactants to increase bioavailability of fats may represent one way in which spoilage bacteria might enhance the availability of nutrients. Numbers of Pseudomonas were determined on a total of 20 fresh and 20 spoiled chicken thighs with skin. A total of 400 randomly isolated Pseudomonas colonies from fresh (200) and spoiled (200) chicken were screened for the presence of biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant producing strains represented 5% and 72% of the Pseudomonas spp. isolates from fresh (mean count 2.3 log(10) cfu g(-1)) and spoiled (mean count 7.4 log(10) cfu g(-1)) chicken skin, respectively. Partially-purified biosurfactants derived from a subgroup of four Pseudomonasfluorescens strains obtained through the screening process were subsequently used to investigate the role that the addition of these compounds plays in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken. Emulsification potential of the four selected biosurfactants was measured against a range of hydrocarbons and oils. All four biosurfactants displayed a greater ability to emulsify rendered chicken fat than hydrocarbons (paraffin liquid, toluene and hexane) and oils (canola, olive, sunflower and vegetable). Storage trials (4 °C) of chicken meat treated with the four selected biosurfactants revealed a significantly greater (P increase in total aerobic count (1.3-1.7 log(10) cfu g(-1)) occurred following one day of incubation. These results indicate that biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas spp. may play an important role in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken meat by making nutrients more freely available and providing strains producing them with a competitive advantage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Village power hybrid systems development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.; Green, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, M. [Bergey Windpower Co., Norman, OK (United States); Lilley, A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mott, L. [Northern Power Systems, Moretown, VT (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The energy demand in developing countries is growing at a rate seven times that of the OECD countries, even though there are still 2 billion people living in developing countries without electricity. Many developing countries have social and economic development programs aimed at stemming the massive migration from the rural communities to the overcrowded, environmentally problematic, unemployment-bound urban centers. To address the issue of providing social, educational, health, and economic benefits to the rural communities of the developing world, a number of government and nongovernment agencies are sponsoring pilot programs to install and evaluate renewable energy systems as alternatives to line extension, diesels, kerosene, and batteries. The use of renewables in remote villages has yielded mixed results over the last 20 years. However, recently, photovoltaics, small wind turbines, and microhydro system shave gained increasing recognition as reliable, cost-effective alternatives to grid extension and diesel gensets for village-electricity applications. At the same time, hybrid systems based on combinations of PV/wind/batteries/diesel gensets have proven reliable and economic for remote international telecommunications markets. With the growing emphasis on environmentally and economically sustainable development of international rural communities, the US hybrid industry is responding with the development and demonstration of hybrid systems and architectures that will directly compete with conventional alternatives for village electrification. Assisting the US industry in this development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has embarked on a program of collaborative technology development and technical assistance in the area of hybrid systems for village power. Following a brief review of village-power hybrid systems application and design issues, this paper presents the present industry development activities of three US suppliers and the NREL.

  4. Self-reliance in health among village women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M L; Chen, P C

    1991-01-01

    A project in a remote region in Sarawak, Malaysia, in which village women were mobilized to plan and implement a kindergarten and child feeding program, illustrates the potential of carefully conceptualized community participation. Permission was obtained from village elders to train 18 mothers (all of whom has at least 4 years of education) to conduct a community needs survey. III health among children emerged as the problem of greatest concern to villagers and a health committee was formed to plan an intervention. Although a team of outside professionals was available for technical support, the emphasis from he onset was on developing self-reliance and community involvement in all decisions. To build confidence and develop leadership, a month-long participatory training course in promotive health care was organized by village health volunteers. Preparation for the project included conversion of an unused hut into a kindergarten and construction of furniture by village men, registration of preschool children, preparation of educational materials, and organization of a kitchen and duty roster for the feeding program. Project funding came from local bake sales and kindergarten subscriptions. Monitoring during the initial phase identified several problems, such as food shortages brought about by drought, some parents' inability to pay for kindergarten services, and a lack of trust in the teacher's abilities. These problems were corrected by the field team, but subsequent supervisory visits focused on teaching problem-solving skills to the local women. An evaluation conducted 1 year after program implementation revealed dramatic increases in the proportion of households producing fruits and vegetables, a higher percentage of breastfeeding mothers, and improvements in weight-for-age among kindergartners.

  5. RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.

  6. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....

  7. Comparative developmental trajectory of four strains of chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated egg traits, embryonic growth, and early growth rate in four strains of chicken. A total of 1200 hatching eggs, 300 each from four strains of chicken were used for this study. The strains included Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC), Arbor acre, Hubbard, and Marshall broiler strains. Embryonic weights, yolk ...

  8. Chicken astrovirus as an aetiological agent of runting-stunting syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Il; Linnemann, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Sellers, Holly S

    2018-04-01

    Despite descriptions of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens dating back over 40 years, the aetiology has not yet been described. A novel chicken astrovirus (CkAstV) was isolated in an LMH liver cell line from the intestines of chickens affected with RSS. Clinical RSS is characterized by retarded growth and cystic crypt lesions in the small intestine. In 1-day-old broiler chickens infected with the CkAstV isolate, virus was only detected in the intestinal epithelial cells during the first few days after infection. Notably, the preferred host cells are the crypt epithelial cells following initial replication in the villous epithelial cells, thus implying viral preference for immature intestinal cells. Nevertheless, the CkAstV isolate did not induce remarkable pathological changes, despite the presence of the virus in situ. Serial chicken-to-chicken passages of the virus induced increased virulence, as displayed by decreased weight gain and the presence of cystic lesions in the small intestine reproducing clinical RSS in chickens. The analysis of the full-length genome sequences from the isolated CkAstV and the CkAstV from the bird-to-bird passages showed >99 % similarity. The data obtained in this study suggest that the CkAstV isolate is capable of inducing RSS following serial bird-to-bird passages in broilers and is as an aetiological agent of the disease.

  9. Landscape composition creates a threshold influencing Lesser Prairie-Chicken population resilience to extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and degradation compound the effects of climate change on wildlife, yet responses to climate and land cover change are often quantified independently. The interaction between climate and land cover change could be intensified in the Great Plains region where grasslands are being converted to row-crop agriculture concurrent with increased frequency of extreme drought events. We quantified the combined effects of land cover and climate change on a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus  ). We combined extreme drought events and land cover change with lek count surveys in a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify changes in abundance of male Lesser Prairie-Chickens from 1978 to 2014 in Kansas, the core of their species range. Our estimates of abundance indicate a gradually decreasing population through 2010 corresponding to drought events and reduced grassland areas. Decreases in Lesser Prairie-Chicken abundance were greatest in areas with increasing row-crop to grassland land cover ratio during extreme drought events, and decreased grassland reduces the resilience of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations to extreme drought events. A threshold exists for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in response to the gradient of cropland:grassland land cover. When moving across the gradient of grassland to cropland, abundance initially increased in response to more cropland on the landscape, but declined in response to more cropland after the threshold (δ=0.096, or 9.6% cropland). Preservation of intact grasslands and continued implementation of initiatives to revert cropland to grassland should increase Lesser Prairie-Chicken resilience to extreme drought events due to climate change.

  10. Occurrence of Aviadenovirus in chickens from the poultry industry of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Aviadenovirus (FAdV was investigated in chickens from the poultry industry of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The investigation was conducted due to the scarcity of recent data in the country and its description in neighboring countries. For this purpose, livers were collected from layer chicks (n=25, older layers (n=25, broilers (n=300, and livers (n=25 and stool (n=25 samples from broiler breeders, representing the major poultry regions of the state. FAdV DNA was demonstrated using a previously described PCR protocol for amplifying part of the hexon gene encoding sequence. FAdV was found in layer chicks (36%, widespread (100% in older layers, and with regional differences in broilers (24-86%. Although all broiler breeder stools were negative, FAdV DNA was detected in livers (16%, 4/25 of stool-negative birds. In order to obtain additional information on the circulation of the infection, livers of subsistence chickens collected from one poultry intensive region, were evaluated (n = 12, with FAdV being detected in all samples. FAdV was found in young and old layers, broilers, broiler breeders and free-range chickens, and results suggest the circulation of FAdV among different types of chickens. The detection in older layer chickens may indicate an extended risk of horizontal transmission in regions of Minas Gerais with mixed activity of egg and meat type chickens and poor biosecurity strategies. The infection in breeders may indicate vertical transmission and the continuous production of infected progenies. The hexon-gene-targeted PCR amplicon sequences aligned with FAdV of species D of Aviadenovirus. Results indicate the necessity for biosecurity, especially for breeders, separating flocks according to origin, age and health status, which will be an advantage regarding any pathogen.

  11. Lead sorption characteristics of various chicken bone part-derived chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Wang, Jim J; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Cho, Ju-Sik; Delaune, Ronald D; Ok, Yong Sik; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2018-01-18

    Recycling food waste for beneficial use is becoming increasingly important in resource-limited economy. In this study, waste chicken bones of different parts from restaurant industry were pyrolyzed at 600 °C and evaluated for char physicochemical properties and Pb sorption characteristics. Lead adsorption isotherms by different chicken bone chars were carried out with initial Pb concentration range of 1-1000 mg L -1 at pH 5. The Pb adsorption data were better described by the Langmuir model (R 2  = 0.9289-0.9937; ARE = 22.7-29.3%) than the Freundlich model (R 2  = 0.8684-0.9544; ARE = 35.4-72.0%). Among the chars derived from different chicken bone parts, the tibia bone char exhibited the highest maximum Pb adsorption capacity of 263 mg g -1 followed by the pelvis (222 mg g -1 ), ribs (208 mg g -1 ), clavicle (179 mg g -1 ), vertebrae (159 mg g -1 ), and humerus (135 mg g -1 ). The Pb adsorption capacities were significantly and positively correlated with the surface area, phosphate release amount, and total phosphorus content of chicken bone chars (r ≥ 0.9711). On the other hand, approximately 75-88% of the adsorbed Pb on the chicken bone chars was desorbable with 0.1 M HCl, indicating their recyclability for reuse. Results demonstrated that chicken bone char could be used as an effective adsorbent for Pb removal in wastewater.

  12. Host and Environmental Factors Affecting the Intestinal Microbiota in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kers, Jannigje G; Velkers, Francisca C; Fischer, Egil A J; Hermes, Gerben D A; Stegeman, J A; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used. Furthermore, part of this variation in microbiota composition may also be explained by different host characteristics and environmental factors. To facilitate the improvement of design, reproducibility and interpretation of poultry microbiota studies, we have reviewed the literature on confounding factors influencing the observed intestinal microbiota in chickens. First, it has been identified that host-related factors, such as age, sex, and breed, have a large effect on intestinal microbiota. The diversity of chicken intestinal microbiota tends to increase most during the first weeks of life, and corresponding colonization patterns seem to differ between layer- and meat-type chickens. Second, it has been found that environmental factors, such as biosecurity level, housing, litter, feed access and climate also have an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As microbiota studies have to deal with many of these unknown or hidden host and environmental variables, the choice of study designs can have a great impact on study outcomes and interpretation of the data. Providing details on a broad range of host and environmental factors in articles and sequence data repositories is highly recommended. This creates opportunities to

  13. Host and Environmental Factors Affecting the Intestinal Microbiota in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannigje G. Kers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used. Furthermore, part of this variation in microbiota composition may also be explained by different host characteristics and environmental factors. To facilitate the improvement of design, reproducibility and interpretation of poultry microbiota studies, we have reviewed the literature on confounding factors influencing the observed intestinal microbiota in chickens. First, it has been identified that host-related factors, such as age, sex, and breed, have a large effect on intestinal microbiota. The diversity of chicken intestinal microbiota tends to increase most during the first weeks of life, and corresponding colonization patterns seem to differ between layer- and meat-type chickens. Second, it has been found that environmental factors, such as biosecurity level, housing, litter, feed access and climate also have an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As microbiota studies have to deal with many of these unknown or hidden host and environmental variables, the choice of study designs can have a great impact on study outcomes and interpretation of the data. Providing details on a broad range of host and environmental factors in articles and sequence data repositories is highly recommended. This creates

  14. Enrofloxacin degradation in broiler chicken manure under various laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, Marko; Sollner-Dolenc, Marija

    2016-03-01

    The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin in broiler chicken manure has been characterized in the laboratory according to the CVMP guideline on determining the fate of veterinary medicinal products in manure. Degradation was followed in a flow-through system under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, in the dark and in the presence of light. The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin and the formation of its degradation products are dependent on laboratory conditions. A rapid degradation of enrofloxacin in the dark was noticed, where a shorter degradation half-life under aerobic (DT50 = 59.1 days), comparing to anaerobic conditions (DT50 = 88.9 days), was determined. The presence of light slowed down the enrofloxacin degradation half-life, which was significantly shorter under aerobic (DT50 = 115.0 days), comparing to anaerobic conditions (DT50 = 190.8 days). Desethylene-enrofoxacin was the only degradation product formed, its concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 14.9 %. The concentration of the degradation product was approximately 2.5-fold higher under aerobic conditions. Enrofloxacin degradation in sterile manure incubated under sterile conditions was marginal comparing to non-sterile conditions; after 120 days of incubation, approximately 80 % of enrofloxacin was still present in manure and only 1 % of desethylene-enrofloxacin was formed. The present work demonstrates that enrofloxacin degradation in chicken manure is relatively fast when incubated in the dark under aerobic conditions which is the recommended incubation system for chicken manure according to CVMP guideline.

  15. Leg disorders in broiler chickens: prevalence, risk factors and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby G Knowles

    Full Text Available Broiler (meat chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection. In the past 50 years, broiler growth rates have increased by over 300% (from 25 g per day to 100 g per day. There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens. We assessed the walking ability of 51,000 birds, representing 4.8 million birds within 176 flocks. We also obtained information on approximately 150 different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over 27.6% of birds in our study showed poor locomotion and 3.3% were almost unable to walk. The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks. We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird (older birds, visit (second visit to same flock, bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets. The welfare implications are profound. Worldwide approximately 2 x 10(10 broilers are reared within similar husbandry systems. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production. A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required.

  16. Marek’s disease in the holland white crested chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spalević Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marek’s disease is a viral lymphoproliferative disease of poultry characterized by the creation of lymphoma in muscle, skin, eye or internal organs. Virus maturing into infective forms in follicular epithelium from where enters in the external environment where long time remains infectious. Poultry are infected by dust and remains the holder of the virus throughout their lives. The virus is transmitted vertically. The disease can occur in three forms: nervous, visceral and skin. Affected poultry may have any shape or combination of these. The aim of this study was to determine the cause of the disorder the health status in the flock of holland white crested chickens. Flock had 25 chickens whose ages ranged from 4-16 weeks. Observation, we noticed that the chickens are cachectic, showing signs of sporadic diarrhea and died 3 hens and 2 roosters. Pathoanatomical examination is ascertained changes in certain internal organs. The liver was enlarged with lymphoid proliferate on the surface and in the parenchyma, spleen increased several times and marbled, glandular stomach (proventriculus dilated with petechial hemorrhages on mucose. Changed organs was examination histopathological. In the liver were observed multifocal lymphoid infiltration with subsequent atrophy of the parenchyma, in addition to spleen lymphoid proliferation heterophyllus and histiocytic infiltrates, in proventriculus lymphoblastic infiltration with congestion of capillaries and small haemorrhages. In samples pathologically altered organs PCR method proved the genome of Marek’s disease virus serotype 1 . Based on these results we concluded that the livestock were sick from Marek’s disease, which is expressed in visceral form.

  17. Research on the localization method of protecting traditional village landscape: a case study on Tangyin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available China has over 271 million villages and less than the number in ten years ago in which there are 363 million villages. New rural construction indeed do some good for common villages but still destroy hundreds and thousands traditional village which contain great cultural, science, artistic values. In addition, traditional villages can't meet the increasing needs in more convenient and comfortable living conditions. Increasing population also makes traditional villages out of control in construction. With the background of this, we have to set up in traditional village protection. This article put forward an idea in protection which make use of landscape localization to pursue the sustainable development and vernacular landscape protection. Tangyin Town is a famous trade center in history and left many cultural heritage, especially historical buildings. Take Tangyin as a case study to apply the localization method which could guide other similar villages to achieve same goals.

  18. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipman Tandjiria

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

  19. Household prevalence of seropositivity for Trypanosoma cruzi in three rural villages in northwest Argentina: environmental, demographic, and entomologic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, R E; Chuit, R; Cécere, M C; Castañera, M B; Cohen, J E; Segura, E L

    1998-11-01

    Environmental, demographic, and entomologic variables were analyzed by logistic multiple regression analysis for their association with the likelihood of being seropositive for Trypanosoma cruzi in three highly infested rural villages of northwest Argentina. The prevalence of seropositivity for T. cruzi, as determined by the composite results of three serologic tests, was 34% among 338 persons in 1992. The strongest positive predictors of the adjusted odds of being infected were the household number of dogs, the density of T. cruzi-infected Triatoma infestans in bedroom areas, and each person's age. Dwellers from houses with roofs made completely or partly with a grass called simbol, or which used insecticides rudimentarily and nonsystematically, had a significantly lower odds of being seropositive for T. cruzi than residents from other types of dwellings. The adjusted odds of infection also increased with the number of T. cruzi-infected dogs or cats and the presence of chickens in bedroom areas. No significant effects on the adjusted odds of infection of a community-wide deltamethrin spraying carried out in one of the villages seven years before were detected. Socioeconomic indicators, such as domiciliary area, and numbers of corrals and livestock, were inversely related to being infected. Our study identified several manageable variables suitable for control actions, most of them not examined before in univariate or multivariate analyses. Environmental management based on low-cost housing with appropriate local materials and removal of domestic animals from domiciliary areas have a crucial role to play in the control of Chagas' disease in rural areas.

  20. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  1. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  2. Specificity of chicken and mammalian transferrins in myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, R.L.; Popiela, Heinz; Festoff, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Chicken transferrins isolated from eggs, embryo extract, serum or ischiatic-peroneal nerves are able to stimulate incorporation of ( 3 H)thymidine, and promote myogenesis by primary chicken muscles cells in vitro. Mammalian transferrins (bovine, rat, mouse, horse, rabbit, and human) do not promote ( 3 H)thymidine incorporation or myotube development. Comparison of the peptide fragments obtained after chemical or limited proteolytic cleavage demonstrates that the four chicken transferrins are all indistinguishable, but they differ considerably from the mammalian transferrins. The structural differences between chicken and mammalian transferrins probably account for the inability of mammalian transferrins to act as mitogens for, and to support myogenesis of, primary chicken muscle cells. (author)

  3. Prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in some coastal villages of Ganjam, Orissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Chand, S K

    1990-09-01

    The endemicity of filariasis was assessed in 42 villages of coastal Keluapalli PHC in Ganjam District of Orissa. Prevalence was found to vary greatly between extreme coastal and subcoastal villages. The infection was non existent in 12 coastal villages. Age and sexwise distribution of filariasis cases have been analysed and presented.

  4. 78 FR 77009 - Section 306D Water Systems for Rural and Native Villages in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... CFR Part 1784 RIN 0572-AC28 Section 306D Water Systems for Rural and Native Villages in Alaska AGENCY... Alaskan Village or jointly with either DEC or ANTHC for the development and construction of water and... construct sanitation and water supply facilities for native villages, and to enter into agreements and...

  5. Effluent Gas Flux Characterization During Pyrolysis of Chicken Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. C.; Ryals, R.; Miller, D. J.; Mullen, C. A.; Pan, D.; Zondlo, M. A.; Boateng, A. A.; Hastings, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is a viable option for the production of agricultural resources from diverted organic waste streams and renewable bioenergy. This high temperature thermochemical process yields material with beneficial reuses, including bio-oil and biochar. Gaseous forms of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are also emitted during pyrolysis. The effluent mass emission rates from pyrolysis are not well characterized, thus limiting proper evaluation of the environmental benefits or costs of pyrolysis products. We present the first comprehensive suite of C and N mass emission rate measurements of a biomass pyrolysis process using chicken manure as feedstock to produce biochar and bio-oil. Two chicken manure fast pyrolysis experiments were conducted at controlled temperature ranges of 450 - 485 °C and 550 - 585 °C. Mass emission rates of N2O, NO, CO, CO2, CH4 and NH3 were measured using trace gas analyzers. Based on the system mass balance, 23-25% of the total mass of the manure feedstock was emitted as gas, while 52-55% and 23% were converted to bio-oil and biochar, respectively. CO2 and NH3 were the dominant gaseous species by mass, accounting for 58 - 65% of total C mass emitted and 99% of total reactive N mass emitted, respectively. Our gas flux measurements suggest that 1.4 to 2.7 g NH3 -N would be produced from the pyrolysis of one kg of manure. Conservatively scaling up these NH3 pyrolysis emissions in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, where an estimated 8.64 billion kg of poultry manure is applied to agricultural soils every year, as much as 1.2 x 107 kg of NH3 could be emitted into the atmosphere annually, increasing the potential impact of atmospheric N deposition without a mechanism to capture the gas exhaust during pyrolysis. However, this is considerably less than the potential emissions from NH3 volatilization of raw chicken manure applications, which can be 20-60% of total N applied, and amount to 3.4 x 107 - 1.0 x 108 kg NH3-N yr-1. Pyrolysis has the potential to

  6. Evaluation of Meat and Egg Traits of Beijing-you Chickens Rotationally Grazing on Chicory Pasture in a Chestnut Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Meng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Barn and cage-fed chickens have presented several problems, such as high rates of infectious disease and consequent antibiotic abuse, poorer chicken health and welfare, and often poorer meat and egg quality compared with free-range chickens. The poultry agroforestry system is becoming increasingly popular in many poultry farms nowadays. In this study, to evaluate the contribution of poultry agroforestry system to enhance some meat and egg traits of Beijing-you chickens, some indexes of meat and egg qualities, some indexes of slaughter traits, and the feed conversion efficiency were investigated in rotational grazing Beijing-you chickens on chicory (Cichorium intybus L. pasture (CGRG group and only free-ranging chickens on bare land without forage (control group in chestnut forest. Results showed that the live body weight, the dressing weight, the thigh muscle weight, and the breast muscle weight were increased (p<0.05 based on the decrease of 15% feed concentration in the CGRG group relative to the control. Furthermore, compared with the control, the crude ash, the essential amino acid content, and the inosinic acid content were increased (p<0.05, and the crude fat contents were decreased (p<0.05 in the thigh and breast muscles, while the yolk cholesterol and the feed conversion ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.05 in the CGRG group. This study would provide a scientific basis and technological support for the large-scale demonstration and application of rotational grazing chickens on the artificial pasture in forest.

  7. Enzyme-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for the determination of arsenic species in chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Le, X Chris

    2015-08-12

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in North America. Concentrations of arsenic in chicken range from μg kg(-1) to mg kg(-1). However, little is known about the speciation of arsenic in chicken meat. The objective of this research was to develop a method enabling determination of arsenic species in chicken breast muscle. We report here enzyme-enhanced extraction of arsenic species from chicken meat, separation using anion exchange chromatography (HPLC), and simultaneous detection with both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESIMS). We compared the extraction of arsenic species using several proteolytic enzymes: bromelain, papain, pepsin, proteinase K, and trypsin. With the use of papain-assisted extraction, 10 arsenic species were extracted and detected, as compared to 8 detectable arsenic species in the water/methanol extract. The overall extraction efficiency was also improved using a combination of ultrasonication and papain digestion, as compared to the conventional water/methanol extraction. Detection limits were in the range of 1.0-1.8 μg arsenic per kg chicken breast meat (dry weight) for seven arsenic species: arsenobetaine (AsB), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), inorganic arsenate (As(V)), 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone), and N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (NAHAA). Analysis of breast meat samples from six chickens receiving feed containing Roxarsone showed the presence of (mean±standard deviation μg kg(-1)) AsB (107±4), As(III) (113±7), As(V) (7±2), MMA (51±5), DMA (64±6), Roxarsone (18±1), and four unidentified arsenic species (approximate concentration 1-10 μg kg(-1)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Alteration of Diastereoisomeric and Enantiomeric Profiles of Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in Adult Chicken Tissues, Eggs, and Hatchling Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Qiao, Lin; Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Zheng, Jing; Xie, Qilai; Sun, Yuxin; Mai, Bixian

    2017-05-16

    The concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-, β-, and γ-hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were measured in chicken diet sources (soil and chicken feed), home-raised adult chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues, eggs during incubation, and hatchling chicken tissues. HBCD concentrations were not detected-0.69 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 25.6-48.4 ng/g dw in chicken feed and soil, respectively. HBCDs were detected in all adult chicken tissues, except the brain, at median levels of 13.1-44.0 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The proportions of α-HBCD in total HBCDs increased from 51% in soil to more than 87% in adult chicken tissues. The accumulation ratios (ARs) of α-HBCD from diet to adult chicken tissues were 4.27 for liver, 11.2 for fat, and 7.64-12.9 for other tissues, respectively. The AR and carry-over rate (COR) of α-HBCD from diet to eggs were 22.4 and 0.226, respectively. The concentrations of α-HBCD in hatchling chicken liver (median: 35.4 ng/g lw) were significantly lower than those in hatchling chicken pectoral muscle (median: 130 ng/g lw). The EFs of α-HBCD decreased from soil to adult chicken tissues and from eggs to hatchling chicken liver. Meanwhile, the EFs of γ-HBCD increased from soil to adult chicken tissues. These results indicate the preferential enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD and (+)-γ-HBCD in chickens. The alteration of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric patterns of HBCDs might be influenced by the different absorption and elimination rates of the six HBCD enantiomers as well as variations in HBCD metabolism in chickens.

  9. Investigation some characteristics of chicken feather’s rachis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paşayev, N.; Kocatepe, S.; Maraş, N.; Soylak, M.; Erol, M.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, obtaining the natural protein fibers from chicken feathers, which are obtained as a by-product in the production of chicken meat and which cause environmental pollution and important part is waste, has been drawn to the perspective of scientists. So, the investigations about the chicken feather fibers reveal important properties of these fibers. Chicken feather fibers are obtained by mechanical cutting of the barbs which have fibrous structure, the structure branched from rachis and constitute the body of the feather. The rachis part of chicken feather constitutes approximately half of the weight of the feathers. So, it is necessary to examine the properties of the chicken feathers in order to gain their industrialization. This study is concerned with the mechanical and physical properties of the material that is taken as a by-product in the production of fibers from chicken feathers and constitutes the rachis part of the feathers.

  10. PIXE analysis of chinese chicken-blood stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.K.; Wang, C.W.; Yu, Y.C.; Liu, T.Y.; Cheng, H.S.; Zhu, H.X.; Yang, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)

  11. Genotypes and oxacillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from chicken and chicken meat in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, P; Bystroń, J; Bania, J; Podkowik, M; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A

    2014-12-01

    The genotypes and oxacillin resistance of 263 Staphylococcus aureus isolates cultured from chicken cloacae (n = 138) and chicken meat (n = 125) was analyzed. Fifteen spa types were determined in the studied S. aureus population. Among 5 staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) types detected in S. aureus from chicken, t002, t3478, and t13620 were the most frequent. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from meat were assigned to 14 spa types. Among them, the genotypes t002, t056, t091, t3478, and t13620 were dominant. Except for 4 chicken S. aureus isolates belonging to CC398, the remaining 134 isolates were clustered into multilocus sequence clonal complex (CC) 5. Most of meat-derived isolates were assigned to CC5, CC7, and CC15, and to the newly described spa-CC12954 complex belonging to CC1. Except for t011 (CC398), all other spa types found among chicken isolates were also present in isolates from meat. Four S. aureus isolated from chicken and one from meat were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations from 16 to 64 μg/mL. All MRSA were assigned to spa types belonging to ST398, and included 4 animal spa t011 SCCmecV isolates and 1 meat-derived spa t899, SCCmecIV isolate. Borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA) isolates, shown to grow on plates containing 2 to 3 μg/mL of oxacillin, were found within S. aureus isolates from chicken (3 isolates) and from meat (19 isolates). The spa t091 and t084 dominated among BORSA from chicken meat, whereas t548 and t002 were found within animal BORSA. We report for the first time the presence of MRSA in chicken in Poland. We demonstrate that MRSA CC398 could be found in chicken meat indicating potential of introduction of animal-associated genotypes into the food chain. We also report for the first time the possibility of transmission of BORSA isolates from chicken to meat. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Endemic malaria in four villages in Attapeu Province, Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetsouvanh, R; Vythilingam, I; Sivadong, B; Hakim, S Lokman; Chan, S T; Phompida, S

    2004-09-01

    A study was conducted in four villages in Attapeu Province, Lao PDR in 2002 to determine malaria endemicity. The study villages were Mixay, Beng Phoukham, Phou Vong and Pier Geo. Mass blood surveys were conducted in May, August, and October. Finger prick blood was collected for thick and thin blood film as well as for dipstick. The slide positivity rate was highest in Phou Hom in October (41.7%). Plasmodium falciparum was the dominant species comprising more than 80% of the cases. As a whole, the distribution of malaria was similar among males and females. Children below 15 years accounted for a large percentage of the cases. The sensitivity of the optimal dipstick was 62.36 and the specificity was 61.7. Microscopy was taken as the gold standard. Anopheles dirus was found to be the main vector and the vectorial capacity correlated well with the cases.

  13. CERN’s role in the scientific global village

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    We’re proud of saying that there are over 100 nationalities at CERN, proof that people can overcome cultural boundaries in pursuit of common goals. We’re also proud of saying that our goals are noble ones: the understanding of the Universe, training of the highest quality, pushing the frontiers of technology and bringing nations together. For over 50 years, CERN has pursued these goals as part of the global scientific village. We have enjoyed healthy collaboration, and competition, with other laboratories in other regions of the world. The flow of scientists around the world has been balanced, enriching all regions. Today, however, the landscape is changing for particle physics, and as responsible citizens of our global village, we also have to evolve. The research facilities for CERN’s melting pot of nationalities are supported financially largely by the Organization’s 20 Member States. Other countries that make significant c...

  14. Optical mathematical model of medical tourism village at Euan Mousa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faten H Fahmy

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a computer simulation model of the main components of the designed photovoltaic energy system to feed the suggested whole load of the presented medical village. The main topic of this paper is to serve a medical services for special patients who need benefits of natural water spots, and special sand that exist in Euan Mousa, Safaga, South of Sinai. For that, a healthy PV medical tourism village contains all the necessary requirements for these patients and tourists is designed. Also, it presents full hospitality for tourists. The energy flow through the photovoltaic system is determined as time-integrated value of power being produced during each hour. The energy balance model, which governs the behaviour of the different components (array, battery and load), is obtained by considering the energy flow at each component of the system

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM THE VILLAGE EMPOWERMENT IN RIAU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    trio saputra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Village empowerment program Implementation (PPD is a program of the Riau provincial government and the community empowerment directed to rural villages to accelerate poverty reduction through economic development and rural communities. The method used in this research is qualitative discriftif, collecting data through interviews, observation and documentation. The theory used is Edward III of policy implementation. Four variables in the analysis of public policies is Communications, Resources, attitudes and bureaucratic structures. PPD Communications implemented in two ways, namely as a reference guide book uniformity of language policy and technical meetings Tiered as form of direct communication between stakeholders in dealing with problems that arise. Resources consist of human resources and budget. The attitude and commitment of the determination visible implementing decree on the implementation team, commitment to cooperation and commitment duplication of programs by the district / city. While PPD graded organizational structure that is provincial, district / city and district. Each level has a structure and job descriptions of each.

  16. A measure for the promotion of mountain ecological villages in South Korea: focus on the national mountain ecological village investigation of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Im; Kang, Hag Mo; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Chang Heon; Lee, Chong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Although South Korean mountain villages occupy 44 and 55 % of land and forest areas, respectively, these villages account for only 3 % of the national population and they suffer from a declining workforce owing to aging, wage inflation, and low forestry productivity. As a result, the South Korean government implemented a mountain ecological village development project from 1995 to 2013 in 312 of the 4972 mountain villages and investigated project performance in 2014. The present study establishes a measure for the promotion of mountain ecological villages by comparing the situation before and after the project. The analysis found a threefold increase in the inflow of farm/rural-returning and multicultural households compared with before the project, while the average income per farm, local product sales, and experience tourism revenue also grew remarkably every year. In addition, households utilizing forest resources increased by about 30 %, but 45.8 % of the 312 villages had no long-term plan for village development and villagers experienced low satisfaction with job creation and village income. A systematic revision of agroforestry production and forest administration is needed to define the characteristics of farm/rural-returning populations clearly, reorganize urban-rural exchange and experience programs, and reinforce tangible/intangible cultural assets and religious traditions.

  17. Determination of the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus type 1 in Zambian backyard chicken flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimuka Musako

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces and 11 districts of Zambia to determine the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks. Of the chickens sampled, 73.9% tested positive for avian paramyxovirus type 1 antibodies by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seroprevalence varied amongst the five provinces sampled, ranging from 82.6% in the Eastern Province to 48.3% in Luapula Province. Seroprevalence also varied amongst the 11 districts sampled, ranging from 91.3% in Monze district of Southern Province to 22.8% in Mufulira district of the Copperbelt province. Overall, the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks has increased since the previous study conducted in 1994.

  18. Direct solid phase radioimmunoassay for chicken lipoprotein lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, A.H.; Bensadoun, A.; Cheng, C.

    1979-01-01

    A direct, noncompetitive immunoassay for chicken lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was developed. Antibodies to LPL were purified by immunoadsorption chromatography of goat antisera on an LPL-Sepharose column. Purified anti-LPL immunoglobulins were coupled covalently to hydrophilic polyacrylamide beads by a carbodiimide reagent. An excess amount of these beads was incubated with the sample on the standard to be assayed. The amount of LPL immobilized by the heads was then detected by an excess amount of 125 I-labeled anti-LPL immunoglobulin. A linear relationship was obtained between the radioactivity bound and the amount of highly purified LPL used as a standard. The range of the assay was from 0.1 to 1.1 ng PLP. The assay was specific for chicken LPL and showed no cross-reactivity with liver lipase. It does not distinguish heat-inactivated from catalytically active enzyme species. This assay should be useful in studies of lipoprotein lipase where both catalytic activity and enzyme mass need to be quantitated

  19. Effect of cooking on enrofloxacin residues in chicken tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolo, M; Pedreira, S; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different cooking processes (microwaving, roasting, boiling, grilling and frying) on naturally incurred enrofloxacin residues in chicken muscle. Enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were analysed using a validated LC-MS method with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), respectively, of 2 and 5 ng g-1 quinolones in muscle samples. The method was shown to be linear over the range 5-500 ng g-1. Mean intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) at a concentration of 50 ng g-1 (n = 6) was 6%; inter-day RSD was 12%. A recovery study demonstrated that 65-101%, of the drug and metabolite could be recovered from the tissue. The RSD with naturally incurred roasted chicken breast was 9.18% at a concentration of 11 +/- 1.01 ng g-1 (n = 6). In water, enrofloxacin remained stable for 3 h when heated at 100 degrees C. It was concluded that residue data from raw tissue are valid for estimation of consumer exposure to this drug, as well as the ADI calculations because cooking procedures did not affect enrofloxacin residues, which remained stable during heating. However, there was an apparent decrease in quinolone concentration in tissue because some was lost by exudation into the liquid used for cooking. Conversely, for a cooking procedure with water loss, there was an apparent increase in residue concentration.

  20. Assessment of Broiler Chicken Welfare in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JF Federici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific literature on broiler chicken welfare in Brazilian industrial systems is scarce. This study aimed at assessing broiler chicken welfare on industrial farms in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, using the Welfare Quality(r assessment protocol for poultry, to provide directly applicable scientific information. Results are presented as criteria scores ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better welfare; and percentages of prevalence. The scores classified as excellent (above 80 were absence of prolonged thirst, absence of prolonged hunger, litter quality, breast blister and touch test. Enhanced scores (between 55 and 80 were comfort around resting, plumage cleanliness and dust sheet test. Acceptable scores (between 20 and 55 were thermal comfort, stocking density, absence of injuries, footpad dermatitis and hock burn; and unacceptable scores (below 20 were lameness and qualitative behavioral assessment. The median percentage of mortality and culled birds were 5.2% and 0.6%, respectively. This study provides useful information to select priorities of action on assessed farms and may contribute for setting up legal standards and guiding decisions related to animal welfare issues in Brazil.

  1. Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken.

    OpenAIRE

    Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic a...

  2. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Economic viability of biogas technology in a Bangladesh village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, W.K.; Lucas, N.J.D.

    1997-01-01

    We estimate energy consumption for domestic cooking and biogas energy resources for 21 clusters of households in a village. Data were analyzed on a cluster basis, with investments shared. Under the present conditions, biogas technology would not be economically viable. Economic analysis involving viability tools including additional benefits of biogas technology indicate that creating a market for local biogas would make such a project feasible. (Author)

  4. Are 'Village Doctors' in Bangladesh a curse or a blessing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahed Tania

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh is one of the health workforce crisis countries in the world. In the face of an acute shortage of trained professionals, ensuring healthcare for a population of 150 million remains a major challenge for the nation. To understand the issues related to shortage of health workforce and healthcare provision, this paper investigates the role of various healthcare providers in provision of health services in Chakaria, a remote rural area in Bangladesh. Methods Data were collected through a survey carried out during February 2007 among 1,000 randomly selected households from 8 unions of Chakaria Upazila. Information on health-seeking behaviour was collected from 1 randomly chosen member of a household from those who fell sick during 14 days preceding the survey. Results Around 44% of the villagers suffered from an illness during 14 days preceding the survey and of them 47% sought treatment for their ailment. 65% patients consulted Village Doctors and for 67% patients Village Doctors were the first line of care. Consultation with MBBS doctors was low at 14%. Given the morbidity level observed during the survey it was calculated that 250 physicians would be needed in Chakaria if the patients were to be attended by a qualified physician. Conclusions With the current shortage of physicians and level of production in the country it was asserted that it is very unlikely for Bangladesh to have adequate number of physicians in the near future. Thus, making use of existing healthcare providers, such as Village Doctors, could be considered a realistic option in dealing with the prevailing crisis.

  5. Quality Management of Lontar Village Coastal Waters, Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Rahmawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal waters of Lontar Village is located in Tirtayasa District, Banten. The coastal waters of Lontar Village is also used for fishing activities that become the livelihood of the surrounding community. Communities around the coast of Lontar village dispose of household waste directly into the waters so that the waters become dirty. The existence of these activities can cause the condition of the waters to decrease even can lead to contamination. Decrease in water conditions will affect the living biota inside. Waters quality can be determined by measuring physical, chemical, biological and heavy metal parameters. Physical parameters include brightness, turbidity, and temperature. Chemical parameters are salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, BOD, TSS. The biological parameter is total coliform. The parameters of heavy metals are lead and copper. The purpose of this study is to analyze the quality of coastal waters of Lontar Village based on physical, chemical, biological and heavy metal parameters. The results showed that most of the parameters of water quality (physics, chemistry, biology and heavy metals are still in accordance with the value of water quality standards (Decree of the Minister of Environment No. 51 of 2004 only the value of lead metals exceeding the standard quality. It must be overcome so as not to disrupt the life of biota in the waters. Management that can be done is utilize aquatic biota that can absorb heavy metal content such as green shell (shell should not be consumed, reducing oil spilled from the activity of motor boats (giving box shelter under motor boat engines so that oil does not directly spill into the waters.

  6. CAN WE TREAT THEMATIC VILLAGES AS SOCIAL INNOVATIONS?

    OpenAIRE

    Kloczko-Gajewska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The term “social innovation” gained popularity within scholars, however its definitions differ to a large extent; the most promising one says about a change in attitudes and behaviour of a group of people that in relation to the group’s horizon leads to new and improved ways of collaborative action. This paper tries to answer the question whether thematic villages, where the inhabitants jointly decide on a topic and prepare unique tourist attractions based mainly on local cultural, natural, a...

  7. Foreign Language Acquisition Of Souvenir Seller In Bawomataluo Village

    OpenAIRE

    Saniago Dakhi; Nur Intan Zagoto

    2016-01-01

    This research is addresses language functional and lexical acquisition domains of souvenir seller in Bawomataluo village, South Nias, North Sumatera. The reasons of lexical items acquired by souvenir seller is regarded as the function of language acquisition. On the contrary, form and process of lexical items acquired are totally viewed as language lexical domains. To obtain the whole accurate data of these research problems interview and observation were conducted. The research ...

  8. The Effect of Addition Super Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus Costaricensis Peels Concentrate to Physico Chemical and Microstucture by SEM of Chicken Saussage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Eka Oktaviningsih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this reasearch was to determine SRDF (Super Red Dragon Fruit peel concentrate added on Physico-chemical quality and Microstucture by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope of chicken sausages. The method research was experimental and designed using completely randomized design (CRD, which consists of 5 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were T0: Chicken Sausage +  0% of SRDF peels concentrate (control, T1: Chicken Sausage +  5% SRDF peels concentrate,  T2: Chicken Sausage +  10% of SRDF peels concentrate, T3: Chicken Sausage +  15% of SRDF peels concentrate, T4: Chicken Sausage +  20% of SRDF peels concentrate. The variables measured were moisture content, fat content, color measure L*a*b*, texture and microstructure. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova, if there were a significant effect between the treatments then continued with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The addition 20% of SRDF peels concentrate on chicken sausage could decreasing color L* 43.56± 1.30, increasing the color a* 33.78± 2.36, decreasing color b* 12.96±0.48, decreasing fat content 40.87 ± 0.68, decreasing texture 3.16± 0.35, and increasing moisture 44.75 ± 8.7.

  9. Effects of irradiation on bacterial load and Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varabioff, Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Nottingham, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    After irradiation of chickens to a dose of 2.5 kGy, the decrease in the standard plate count (SPC) was similar in air and in vacuum-packaged chickens. During storage at 4 degrees C for 15 d, the SPC increased progressively in both types of packaged chickens. At the end of the storage period, the SPC was higher in air-packaged chicken than in vacuum-packaged chickens. In irradiated chickens, Listeria monocytogenes was only recovered from the vacuum-packaged chickens after 7 d cold storage. In unirradiated chickens, L. monocytogenes proliferated similarly in both air- and vacuum-packaged chickens

  10. Cross-reactivity to fish and chicken meat - a new clinical syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Codreanu-Morel, F; Lehners-Weber, C

    2016-01-01

    fish and chicken meat in patients with allergy to chicken meat without sensitization to hen's eggs. METHODS: Patients with food allergy to fish and chicken meat (n = 29) or chicken meat only (n = 7) were recruited. IgE-reactive chicken proteins were identified (Edman, MS analysis) and quantified (ELISA...... for the fish homologues as well. Fish and chicken meat allergens were highly cross-reactive while high inhibition rates with fish or chicken allergens correlated with the patients' primary sensitization to fish or chicken. In cooked or roasted foods, enolase and aldolase were detectable in chicken breast while...

  11. Village Building Identification Based on Ensemble Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiling; Chen, Qi; Xu, Yongwei; Shibasaki, Ryosuke; Shao, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present the Ensemble Convolutional Neural Network (ECNN), an elaborate CNN frame formulated based on ensembling state-of-the-art CNN models, to identify village buildings from open high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS) images. First, to optimize and mine the capability of CNN for village mapping and to ensure compatibility with our classification targets, a few state-of-the-art models were carefully optimized and enhanced based on a series of rigorous analyses and evaluations. Second, rather than directly implementing building identification by using these models, we exploited most of their advantages by ensembling their feature extractor parts into a stronger model called ECNN based on the multiscale feature learning method. Finally, the generated ECNN was applied to a pixel-level classification frame to implement object identification. The proposed method can serve as a viable tool for village building identification with high accuracy and efficiency. The experimental results obtained from the test area in Savannakhet province, Laos, prove that the proposed ECNN model significantly outperforms existing methods, improving overall accuracy from 96.64% to 99.26%, and kappa from 0.57 to 0.86. PMID:29084154

  12. Simulation of socio-ecological impacts: Modeling a fishing village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Philip C.

    1982-03-01

    The interrelationship of society and environment is addressed here through the study of a remote fishing village of 750 people. An interdisciplinary study evaluated demographic, economic, and social aspects of the community, and simulation modeling was used to integrate these societal characteristics with environmental factors. The population of the village had grown gradually until the 1960's, when a decline began. Out-migration correlated with declining fish harvests and with increased communications with urban centers. Fishing had provided the greatest economic opportunity, followed by logging. A survey was conducted to investigate the costs and revenues of village fishermen. Diversification characterized the local fleet, and analysis showed that rates of return on investment in the current year were equal between vessel types. The variable levels and rate parameters of the demographic, economic, and social components of the model were specified through static and time series data. Sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of uncertainty, and validation tests against known historical changes were also conducted. Forecast scenarios identified the development options under several levels of fish abundance and investment. The weight given to ecological versus economic resource management registered disproportionate effects due to the interaction between investment and migration rates and resource stochasticity. This finding argues against a “golden mean” rule for evaluating policy trade-offs and argues for the importance of using a dynamic, socio-ecological perspective in designing development policies for rural communities.

  13. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Bell, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village is the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff, and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. These measures include increased wall and attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. The report discusses how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10-month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  14. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Bell, C.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village, the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. The energy efficiency measures that are incorporated into these apartments include increased wall & attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. Results discuss how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10 month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  15. Isolation of chicken embryonic stem cell and preparation of chicken chimeric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yani; Yang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhentao; Shi, Qingqing; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Mengmeng; Li, Bichun; Song, Jiuzhou

    2013-03-01

    Chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were separated from blastoderms at stage-X and cultured in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase activity and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 staining was conducted to detect ESCs. Then, chicken ESCs were transfected with linearized plasmid pEGFP-N1 in order to produce chimeric chicken. Firstly, the optimal electrotransfection condition was compared; the results showed the highest transfection efficiency was obtained when the field strength and pulse duration was 280 V and 75 μs, respectively. Secondly, the hatchability of shedding methods, drilling a window at the blunt end of egg and drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg was compared, the results showed that the hatchability was the highest for drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg. Thirdly, the hatchability of microinjection (ESCs was microinjected into chick embryo cavity) was compared too, the results showed there were significant difference between the injection group transfected with ESCs and that of other two groups. In addition, five chimeric chickens were obtained in this study and EGFP gene was expressed in some organs, but only two chimeric chicken expressed EGFP gene in the gonad, indicating that the chimeric chicken could be obtained through chick embryo cavity injection by drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg.

  16. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rosyidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken

  17. Comparison of non-volatile umami components in chicken soup and chicken enzymatic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan; Yang, Xiao; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Umami taste is an important part to the taste of chicken. To isolate and identify non-volatile umami compounds, fractions from chicken soup and hydrolysate were prepared and analyzed. Amino acids were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. Organic acids and nucleotides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Separation procedures utilizing ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate umami taste peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation and LC-Q-TOF-MS, the amino acid sequences of 12 oligopeptides were determined. The amount of taste compounds was higher in chicken enzymatic hydrolysate than that of chicken soup. Eight oligopeptides from chicken enzymatic hydrolysate were identified, including Ala-Asp, Ala-Met, His-Ser, Val-Glu, Ala-Glu, Asp-Ala-Gly, Glu-Asp and Ala-Glu-Ala. Four oligopeptides from chicken soup were identified, including Val-Thr, Ala-His, Ala-Phe and Thr-Glu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental induction of chicken amyloid A amyloidosis in white layer chickens by inoculation with inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Wazir Ahmad; Hirai, Takuya; Niazmand, Mohammad Hakim; Okumura, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the amyloidogenic potential of inactivated vaccines and the localized production of serum amyloid A (SAA) at the injection site in white layer chickens. Hens in the treated group were injected intramuscularly three times with high doses of inactivated oil-emulsion Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and multivalent viral and bacterial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines at two-week intervals. Chickens in the control group did not receive any inoculum. In the treated group, emaciation and granulomas were present, while several chickens died between 4 and 6 weeks after the first injection. Hepatomegaly was seen at necropsy, and the liver parenchyma showed inconsistent discolouration with patchy green to yellowish-brown areas, or sometimes red-brown areas with haemorrhage. Amyloid deposition in the liver, spleen, duodenum, and at injection sites was demonstrated using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Congo red, and immunohistochemistry. The incidence of chicken amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis was 47% (28 of 60) in the treated group. In addition, RT-PCR was used to identify chicken SAA mRNA expression in the liver and at the injection sites. Furthermore, SAA mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in fibroblasts at the injection sites, and also in hepatocytes. We believe that this is the first report of the experimental induction of systemic AA amyloidosis in white layer chickens following repeated inoculation with inactivated vaccines without the administration of amyloid fibrils or other amyloid-enhancing factors.

  19. Labour migration and rural development in Egypt. A study of return migration in six villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, C

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of labor migration on social change in 6 rural villages (Shanawan and Kafr Shanawan north of Cairo, Kafr Yusuf and Tambul el Kubra near Simbalaween, and Abu Girg and Bani Walims in Minya governate) in Egypt was conducted in 1987-88. Since the 1991 Gulf war, the political environment, the labor markets, and the structure of migration opportunities have changed. An estimated 5% of rural households might have been directly affected by migrants' departure from Kuwait and Iraq. Data collection involved a household census survey of 8620 households, of which 2483 were migrants, including 1765 return migrants. A sample of return migrant (639) was interviewed about their migration experiences. Participant observation was also conducted among migrants and nonmigrants, and case studies were developed. Villages were demographically and socioeconomically very different; migration ranged from 18.5-434.2%. Structural change was measured on a scale of 1 to 6 in terms of population size, literacy of household heads, share of agricultural occupations, share of new red brick houses, and availability of infrastructural or institutional facilities. The probability of having a household with a migrant member increased with the rural character of the village. Landholdings or other major household variables were unrelated to migration. Rural outmigration was almost exclusively male, the average age was 29.6 years, and the average stay was 2.6 years. Migration destination was specific to individuals but affected by occupation and family or village resources. Professionals were overrepresented in Saudi Arabia, and farm and unskilled laborers or the unemployed were overrepresented in Iraq. Remittances from international migration have contributed along with the economic reforms of Sadat to new, private initiatives from all strata in rural society. 74.3% of returnees stated that improvement in income and living standards was the motivation for migration; many motives

  20. Quality of drinking water from ponds in villages of Kolleru Lake region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A S; Rao, P R; Rao, N S

    2001-01-01

    Kolleru Lake is the largest natural freshwater lake in the districts of East and West Godavari of Andhra Pradesh. The major population centres in the Kolleru Lake region are the 148 villages of which 50 bed villages and 98 belt villages. All bed and belt villages in lake region have at least one drinking water pond. Drinking water ponds are filled with lake water during monsoon season and directly supplied to the public throughout the year. The water samples were collected from village drinking water ponds in a year by covering three seasons and analysed for different physico-chemical parameters to assess the quality of drinking water.