WorldWideScience

Sample records for range usa electronic

  1. Long range coherence in free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    The simple free electron laser (FEL) design uses a static, periodic, transverse magnetic field to undulate relativistic electrons traveling along its axis. This allows coupling to a co-propagating optical wave and results in bunching to produce coherent radiation. The advantages of the FEL are continuous tunability, operation at wavelengths ranging from centimeters to angstroms, and high efficiency resulting from the fact that the interaction region only contains light, relativistic electrons, and a magnetic field. Theoretical concepts and operational principles are discussed.

  2. Geothermal segmentation of the Cascade Range in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Muffler, L.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, James G.; Blackwell, D.D.; Weaver, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of the crustal thermal regime of the Quaternary Cascades vary systematically along the range. Spatially congruent changes in volcanic vent distribution, volcanic extrusion rate, hydrothermal discharge rate, and regional conductive heat flow define 5 geothermal segments. These segments are, from north to south: (1) the Washington Cascades north of Mount Rainier, (2) the Cascades from Mount Rainier to Mount Hood, (3) the Oregon Cascades from south of Mount Hood to the California border, (4) northernmost California, including Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcano, and (5) the Lassen region of northern California. This segmentation indicates that geothermal resource potential is not uniform in the Cascade Range. Potential varies from high in parts of Oregon to low in Washington north of Mount Rainier.

  3. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  4. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Deahn Donner; Carol I. Bocetti; Steve Sjogren

    2003-01-01

    The threatened Kirtland`s warbler Dendroica kirtlandii breeds in stands of young jack pine Pinus banksiana growing on well-drained soils in Michigan, USA. We summarize information documenting the range expansion of Kirtland`s warbler due to increased habitat management in the core breeding range in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan...

  5. Electronic holographic moire in the micron range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Sciammarella, Federico M.

    2001-06-01

    The basic theory behind microscopic electronic holographic moire is presented. Conditions of observation are discussed, and optimal parameters are established. An application is presented as an example where experimental result are statistically analyzed and successfully correlated with an independent method of measurement of the same quantity.

  6. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  7. 76 FR 65710 - Decision and Order Amending Waivers Granted to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Case No. CAC-037] Decision and Order Amending Waivers Granted to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From the Department... Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Decision and Order In the Matter of: Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA...

  8. Range Expansion and the Origin of USA300 North American Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Challagundla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The USA300 North American epidemic (USA300-NAE clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has caused a wave of severe skin and soft tissue infections in the United States since it emerged in the early 2000s, but its geographic origin is obscure. Here we use the population genomic signatures expected from the serial founder effects of a geographic range expansion to infer the origin of USA300-NAE and identify polymorphisms associated with its spread. Genome sequences from 357 isolates from 22 U.S. states and territories and seven other countries are compared. We observe two significant signatures of range expansion, including decreases in genetic diversity and increases in derived allele frequency with geographic distance from the Pennsylvania region. These signatures account for approximately half of the core nucleotide variation of this clone, occur genome wide, and are robust to heterogeneity in temporal sampling of isolates, human population density, and recombination detection methods. The potential for positive selection of a gyrA fluoroquinolone resistance allele and several intergenic regions, along with a 2.4 times higher recombination rate in a resistant subclade, is noted. These results are the first to show a pattern of genetic variation that is consistent with a range expansion of an epidemic bacterial clone, and they highlight a rarely considered but potentially common mechanism by which genetic drift may profoundly influence bacterial genetic variation.

  9. Properties of short-range and long-range correlation energy density functionals from electron-electron coalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Savin, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The combination of density-functional theory with other approaches to the many-electron problem through the separation of the electron-electron interaction into a short-range and a long-range contribution is a promising method, which is raising more and more interest in recent years. In this work some properties of the corresponding correlation energy functionals are derived by studying the electron-electron coalescence condition for a modified (long-range-only) interaction. A general relation for the on-top (zero electron-electron distance) pair density is derived, and its usefulness is discussed with some examples. For the special case of the uniform electron gas, a simple parametrization of the on-top pair density for a long-range only interaction is presented and supported by calculations within the ''extended Overhauser model.'' The results of this work can be used to build self-interaction corrected short-range correlation energy functionals

  10. History of development of acceleration weapons with relativistic electron beam in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    Technological aspects of creating in the USA the accelerating weapon (AW) on the intensive electron beams is discussed. The analysis of the works process on the accelerating topics with priority studies on creating the means for destruction of intercontinental ballistic missiles at 500 km distance is given. Projects on creating perspective board electron high-gradient purposeful accelerators are elucidated and data on the accomplished cosmic experiments with electron beams in the USA are presented

  11. 76 FR 40714 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... and Order Granting a Waiver to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From the Department of... Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. (Mitsubishi) a waiver from the existing DOE test procedures... Matter of: Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. (Mitsubishi) (Case No. CAC-030). Background Title...

  12. Electron beam generation in the fore-vacuum pressure range

    CERN Document Server

    Burachevskij, Y A; Kuzemchenko, M N; Mytnikov, A V; Oks, E M

    2001-01-01

    One presents the results of investigations to generate electron beams within 0.01-0.1 Torr gas pressure range. To generate a beam one used a plasma source based on a hollow cathode discharge in combination with a plane accelerating gap. Peculiar features of electron emission and acceleration within the mentioned pressure range are associated with high probability of gas ionization in an accelerating gap and with generation of ion flow meeting electron beam. It results in reduction of discharge combustion intensification, as well as, in plasma concentration range. The developed design of an electron source enables to generate cylindrical beams with up to 1 A current and with up to 10 keV energy

  13. STARCODES, Stopping Power and Ranges for Electrons, Protons, He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The 'STAR CODES', ESTAR, PSTAR, and ASTAR, calculate stopping-power and range tables for electrons, protons, and helium ions (alphas), according to methods described in ICRU Reports 37 and 39. 2 - Method of solution: Collision stopping powers are calculated from the theory of Bethe (1930, 1932), with a density-effect correction evaluated according to Sternheimer (1952, 1982). The stopping-power formula contains an important parameter, the mean excitation energy (I-value), which characterizes the stopping properties of a material. The codes provide output for electrons in any stopping material (279 provided) and for protons and helium ions in 74 materials. The calculations include the 1) Collision stopping power, 2) Radiative stopping power (electrons only), 3) Nuclear stopping power (protons and helium ions), 4) Total stopping power, 5) CSDA range, 6) Projected range (protons and helium ions), 7) Density effect parameter (electrons), 8) Radiation yield (electrons), and 9) Detour factor (protons and helium ions). Standard energy grids and files of elements w/ionization-excitation information are included with lookup table capabilities. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The minimum energies used in the calculations are at 1 KeV (protons and helium ions) and 10 KeV (electrons), and the maximum are 1 GeV. The standard energy grids are set at 81 for electrons, equally spaced (logarithmically), 133 for protons, and 122 for helium ions. The lower energy electron calculations (< 10 KeV) have up to 5-10% errors and are considered too fallable

  14. Medium-range dielectric order in systems with collectivized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismagilov, A.M.; Kopaev, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of formation of a medium-range dielectric order (on a scale much larger than the interatomic one) due to electron-electron correlations and to scattering by an impurity in a system near a phase transition into a long-range order state is solved by a microscopic approach. It is shown that for a weak impurity potential the effect of medium-range order formation is stronger than the effect of long-range order suppression related to scattering by an impurity. The influence of medium-range order on the one-particle excitation spectrum and on the density of states is considered. It is found that since the medium-range order in a system is due to correlations of electron and hole states open-quotes coupledclose quotes by a continuous set of inhomogeneity vectors (in contrast to the long-range order formed on a discrete set of such vectors), the density of states varies on an energy scale determined by the mean absolute value of these vectors. Therefore in a system undergoing phase transition into an inhomogeneous state with the modulus q 0 of inhomogeneity vectors the medium-range order forms in the density of states a pseudogap of scale length v F q 0 (v F is the Fermi velocity). This distinguishes such a system substantially from one, which tends to a phase transition into a homogeneous state (q 0 ≡0), where the medium-range order forms a pseudogap of scale length v F /ξ much-lt v F q 0 (ξ is the correlation length). The possible role of medium dielectric order effects in high-T c superconductors is discussed. 30 refs., 6 figs

  15. The effect of electron range on electron beam induced current collection and a simple method to extract an electron range for any generation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahreche, A.; Beggah, Y.; Corkish, R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electron range on electron beam induced current (EBIC) is demonstrated and the problem of the choice of the optimal electron ranges to use with simple uniform and point generation function models is resolved by proposing a method to extract an electron range-energy relationship (ERER). The results show that the use of these extracted electron ranges remove the previous disagreement between the EBIC curves computed with simple forms of generation model and those based on a more realistic generation model. The impact of these extracted electron ranges on the extraction of diffusion length, surface recombination velocity and EBIC contrast of defects is discussed. It is also demonstrated that, for the case of uniform generation, the computed EBIC current is independent of the assumed shape of the generation volume. -- Highlights: → Effect of electron ranges on modeling electron beam induced current is shown. → A method to extract an electron range for simple form of generation is proposed. → For uniform generation the EBIC current is independent of the choice of it shape. → Uses of the extracted electron ranges remove some existing literature ambiguity.

  16. Characteristics of different frequency ranges in scanning electron microscope images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Tan, T. L.; Tso, C. P.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to characterize the frequency range in general scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. First, pure frequency images are generated from low frequency to high frequency, and then, the magnification of each type of frequency image is implemented. By comparing the edge percentage of the SEM image to the self-generated frequency images, we can define the frequency ranges of the SEM images. Characterization of frequency ranges of SEM images benefits further processing and analysis of those SEM images, such as in noise filtering and contrast enhancement

  17. Characteristics of different frequency ranges in scanning electron microscope images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, K. S., E-mail: kssim@mmu.edu.my; Nia, M. E.; Tan, T. L.; Tso, C. P.; Ee, C. S. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    We demonstrate a new approach to characterize the frequency range in general scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. First, pure frequency images are generated from low frequency to high frequency, and then, the magnification of each type of frequency image is implemented. By comparing the edge percentage of the SEM image to the self-generated frequency images, we can define the frequency ranges of the SEM images. Characterization of frequency ranges of SEM images benefits further processing and analysis of those SEM images, such as in noise filtering and contrast enhancement.

  18. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Ellen; Spiker, Harry; Driscoll, Cindy P

    2014-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA, live in forested areas in close proximity to humans and their domestic pets. From 1999 to 2011, we collected 84 serum samples from 63 black bears (18 males; 45 females) in five Maryland counties and tested them for exposure to infectious, including zoonotic, pathogens. A large portion of the bears had antibody to canine distemper virus and Toxoplasma gondii, many at high titers. Prevalences of antibodies to zoonotic agents such as rabies virus and to infectious agents of carnivores including canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus were lower. Bears also had antibodies to vector-borne pathogens common to bears and humans such as West Nile virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Antibodies were detected to Leptospira interrogans serovars Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, and Bratislava. We did not detect antibodies to Brucella canis or Ehrlichia canis. Although this population of Maryland black bears demonstrated exposure to multiple pathogens of concern for humans and domesticated animals, the low levels of clinical disease in this and other free-ranging black bear populations indicate the black bear is likely a spillover host for the majority of pathogens studied. Nevertheless, bear populations living at the human-domestic-wildlife interface with increasing human and domestic animal exposure should continue to be monitored because this population likely serves as a useful sentinel of ecosystem health.

  19. Range expansion of invasive shrubs: implication for crown fire risk in forestlands of the southern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L; Grant, William E; Rogers, William E

    2016-01-01

    Non-native plant invasions and changing management activities have dramatically altered the structure and composition of forests worldwide. Invasive shrubs and fire suppression have led to increased densification and biomass accumulation in forest ecosystems of the southeastern USA. Notably, Chinese and European privets are rapid growing, shade-tolerant shrubs which number among the most aggressive invasive species in these forests. Privet encroachment has caused losses of native diversity, alteration of ecosystem processes and changes in community structure. The latter has become manifest through decreases in fine herbaceous fuels concurrent with increases in coarse woody fuels in forest understoreys. These alterations in fuel structure will potentially lead to less frequent, but more severe forest fires, which threaten important forest resources during extreme weather conditions. Drawing on extensive data sets compiled by the US Forest Service, we integrated statistical forecasting and analytical techniques within a spatially explicit, agent-based, simulation framework to predict potential range expansion of Chinese and European privet (Ligustrum sinenseandL. vulgare) and the associated increase in crown fire risk over the next two decades in forestlands of Mississippi and Alabama. Our results indicate that probability of invasion is positively associated with elevation, adjacency (within 300 m) to water bodies, mean daily maximum temperature, site productivity and private land ownership, and is negatively associated with slope, stand age, artificial regeneration, distance to the nearest road and fire disturbance. Our projections suggest the total area invaded will increase from 1.36 to ≈31.39% of all forestlands in Mississippi and Alabama (≈7 million hectares) and the annual frequency of crown fires in these forestlands will approximately double within the next two decades. Such time series projections of annual range expansions and crown fire frequency

  20. 75 FR 13484 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE [Docket T-1-2010] Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc. (Cell Phones); Notice of.../ interim manufacturing (T/IM) authority, on behalf of LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc. (LGEMU), to...

  1. Legal ecotones: A comparative analysis of riparian policy protection in the Oregon Coast Range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisjolie, Brett A; Santelmann, Mary V; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Duncan, Sally L

    2017-07-15

    Waterways of the USA are protected under the public trust doctrine, placing responsibility on the state to safeguard public resources for the benefit of current and future generations. This responsibility has led to the development of management standards for lands adjacent to streams. In the state of Oregon, policy protection for riparian areas varies by ownership (e.g., federal, state, or private), land use (e.g., forest, agriculture, rural residential, or urban) and stream attributes, creating varying standards for riparian land-management practices along the stream corridor. Here, we compare state and federal riparian land-management standards in four major policies that apply to private and public lands in the Oregon Coast Range. We use a standard template to categorize elements of policy protection: (1) the regulatory approach, (2) policy goals, (3) stream attributes, and (4) management standards. All four policies have similar goals for achieving water-quality standards, but differ in their regulatory approach. Plans for agricultural lands rely on outcome-based standards to treat pollution, in contrast with the prescriptive policy approaches for federal, state, and private forest lands, which set specific standards with the intent of preventing pollution. Policies also differ regarding the stream attributes considered when specifying management standards. Across all policies, 25 categories of unique standards are identified. Buffer widths vary from 0 to ∼152 m, with no buffer requirements for streams in agricultural areas or small, non-fish-bearing, seasonal streams on private forest land; narrow buffer requirements for small, non-fish-bearing perennial streams on private forest land (3 m); and the widest buffer requirements for fish-bearing streams on federal land (two site-potential tree-heights, up to an estimated 152 m). Results provide insight into how ecosystem concerns are addressed by variable policy approaches in multi-ownership landscapes, an

  2. Safeguarding patient privacy in electronic healthcare in the USA: the legal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diana; Passerini, Katia; Varshney, Upkar; Fjermestad, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The conflict between the sweeping power of technology to access and assemble personal information and the ongoing concern about our privacy and security is ever increasing. While we gradually need higher electronic access to medical information, issues relating to patient privacy and reducing vulnerability to security breaches surmount. In this paper, we take a legal perspective and examine the existing patchwork of laws and obligations governing health information in the USA. The study finds that as Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) increase in scope and dissemination, privacy protections gradually decrease due to the shortcomings in the legal system. The contributions of this paper are (1) an overview of the legal EMR issues in the USA, and (2) the identification of the unresolved legal issues and how these will escalate when health information is transmitted over wireless networks. More specifically, the paper discusses federal and state government regulations such as the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and judicial intervention. Based on the legal overview, the unresolved challenges are identified and suggestions for future research are included.

  3. Microscale patterns of tree establishment near upper treeline, Snowy Range, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. H. Moir; Shannon G. Rochelle; A. W. Schoettle

    1999-01-01

    We report tree seedling (mostly Picea engelmannii, some Abies lasiocarpa, very infrequent Pinus contorta) invasion into meadows at upper timberline in the Snowy Range, Wyoming, from 1994 to 1996. We used gradient analysis to relate this to environmental patterns, particularly plant community structure (as aggregates of plant life-forms) and persistence of snowpack in...

  4. Climate change effects on historical range and variability of two large landscapes in western Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Russell A. Parsons; Kathy Gray

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying the historical range and variability of landscape composition and structure using simulation modeling is becoming an important means of assessing current landscape condition and prioritizing landscapes for ecosystem restoration. However, most simulated time series are generated using static climate conditions which fail to account for the predicted major...

  5. A case study of contaminants on military ranges: Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Jay; Robb, Joe; Curry, Diane; Korte, Nic

    2004-01-01

    An extensive investigation at the Camp Edwards, Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) demonstrates that assessment of groundwater and soil contamination at military ranges can be limited primarily to explosive-related compounds such as RDX, HMX, perchlorate, TNT and their transformation products. A modified analytical method is recommended to expand the list of explosives and to improve the detection limits. Analyses of metals, VOCs, SVOCs, and TICs are unnecessary. Soil samples may require the analyses of PAHs and PCNs for burn areas. Camp Edwards, as one of the few military ranges that have been exhaustively investigated for contaminants, is an ideal point of departure for evaluating other ranges. The permeable site soils promote leaching of contaminants and inhibit biotic and abiotic transformations. Moreover, the site has experienced an unusual extent of activities in its more than ninety years of active use. The recommendations in this report are based on data obtained for more than 200 analytes from more than 15,000 environmental samples. - Assessment of groundwater and soil contamination at US military ranges can be limited primarily to explosive-related compounds

  6. Metabolic Potential and Activity in Fluids of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, T.; Som, S.; Schrenk, M.; McCollom, T.; Cardace, D.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic potential and activity associated with hydrogen and carbon monoxide were characterized in fluids sampled from the the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO). CROMO consists of two clusters of science-dedicated wells drilled to varying depths up to 35m in the actively serpentinizing, Jurassic-age Coast Range Ophiolite of Northern California, along with a suite of pre-existing monitoring wells at the same site. Consistent with the fluid chemistry observed in other serpentinizing systems, CROMO fluids are highly alkaline, with pH up to 12.5, high in methane, with concentrations up 1600 micromolar, and low in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), with concentrations of 10's to 100's of micromolar. CROMO is conspicuous for fluid H2 concentrations that are consistently sub-micromolar, orders of magnitude lower than is typical of other systems. However, higher H2 concentrations (10's -100's of micromolar) at an earlier stage of fluid chemical evolution are predicted by, or consistent with: thermodynamic models for fluid chemistry based on parent rock composition equivalent to local peridotite and with water:rock ratio constrained by observed pH; the presence of magnetite at several wt% in CROMO drill cores; and concentrations of formate and carbon monoxide that would require elevated H2 if formed in equilibrium with H2 and DIC. Calculated Gibbs energy changes for reaction of H2 and CO in each of several metabolisms, across the range of fluid composition encompassed by the CROMO wells, range from bioenergetically feasible (capable of driving ATP synthesis) to thermodynamically unfavorable. Active consumption relative to killed controls was observed for both CO and H2 during incubation of fluids from the pre-existing monitoring wells; in incubations of freshly cored solids, consumption was only observed in one sample set (corresponding to the lowest pH) out of three. The specific metabolisms by which H2 and CO are consumed remain to be determined.

  7. Historic Frequency and Severity of Fire in Whitebark Pine Forests of the Cascade Mountain Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Murray

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. is a foundation species of high elevation forest ecosystems in the Cascade Mountain Range of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. We examined fire evidence on 55 fire history sites located in the Cascade Range. To estimate dates of historic fires we analyzed 57 partial cross-sections from fire-scarred trees plus 700 increment cores. The resulting 101 fire events indicate fire has been a widespread component of Cascadian whitebark pine stands. Results are site specific and vary considerably. Whitebark pine stands appear to burn in a variety of severities and frequencies. Sites where fire intervals were detected ranged from 9 to 314 years, with a median of 49 years, and averaging 67 years. Fire intervals shortened significantly with higher latitudes. In assessing the most recent fire event at each site, overall, 56 percent burned as stand replacing events. In the 20th century, the number of fires diminished significantly. Due to conservation imperatives, re-introducing fire should be undertaken with extreme care to avoid substantial mortality of this endangered species.

  8. On the Range of the Electrons in Meson Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberger, J

    1949-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out both at Chicago and on Mt. Evans, Colorado, to determine the absorption of the electrons emitted in the decay of cosmic-ray mesons. Approximately 8000 counts have been obtained, using a hydrocarbon as the absorbing material. These data are used to deduce some features of the energy spectrum of the decay electrons. The resolution of the apparatus is calculated, taking the geometry, scattering, and radiation into account. The results indicate that the spectrum is either continuous, from 0 to about 55 Mev with an average energy ~32 Mev or consists of three or more discrete energies. No variation of the lifetime with the thickness of the absorber is observed. The experiment, therefore, offers some evidence in favor of the hypothesis that the µ-meson disintegrates into 3 light particles.

  9. Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Charles W.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Ingebritsen, Steven; Thatcher, Wayne; Lu, Zhong; Iverson, Justin

    2002-04-01

    Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three Sisters volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The last eruption in the volcanic center occurred ~1500 years ago. Multiple satellite images from 1992 through 2000 indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted during 1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a crustal magma reservoir prior to the uplift. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km.

  10. Pelletron-based MeV-range electron beam recirculation

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, A C; Sharapa, A N; Shemyakin, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe the successful recirculation of a DC electron beam at energies 1-1.5 MeV and currents up to 0.7 A with typical relative losses of 5-20x10 sup - sup 6. Currents of 200 mA were maintained for periods of up to five hours without a single breakdown. We found that the aperture-limiting diaphragm in the gun anode significantly increased the stability of the recirculation. We also found that the stability depended strongly on vacuum pressure in the beamline. The performance of the collector with transverse magnetic fields was found to be adequate for beam currents up to 0.6 A, which is in agreement with our low-energy bench test results. (author)

  11. Enzymatic cellulose oxidation is linked to lignin by long-range electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westereng, Bjorge; Cannella, David; Wittrup Agger, Jane

    2015-01-01

    in biological systems are only partly understood. We show here that insoluble high molecular weight lignin functions as a reservoir of electrons facilitating LPMO activity. The electrons are donated to the enzyme by long-range electron transfer involving soluble low molecular weight lignins present in plant...... cell walls. Electron transfer was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showing that LPMO activity on cellulose changes the level of unpaired electrons in the lignin. The discovery of a long-range electron transfer mechanism links the biodegradation of cellulose and lignin and sheds...

  12. Enzymatic cellulose oxidation is linked to lignin by long-range electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westereng, Bjorge; Cannella, David; Wittrup Agger, Jane

    2015-01-01

    cell walls. Electron transfer was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showing that LPMO activity on cellulose changes the level of unpaired electrons in the lignin. The discovery of a long-range electron transfer mechanism links the biodegradation of cellulose and lignin and sheds...

  13. Wide-range tunable magnetic lens for tabletop electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    A tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes permanent magnets as condenser lenses to minimize its size, but this sacrifices the tunability of condenser lenses such that a tabletop system can only be operated with a fixed accelerating voltage. In contrast, the traditional condenser lens utilizes an electromagnetic coil to adjust the optical properties, but the size of the electromagnetic lens is inevitably larger. Here, we propose a tunable condenser lens for a tabletop SEM that uses a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnetic coils. The overall dimensions of the newly designed lens are the same as the original permanent magnet lens, but the new lens allows the tabletop SEM to be operated at different accelerating voltages between 1 kV and 15 kV. - Highlights: • A compact condenser lens combines both permanent magnet and coils. • A tunable lens is designed to keep the same focal point for voltage 1 to 15 kV. • A miniature tunable lens which can directly fit into tabletop SEM.

  14. Wide-range tunable magnetic lens for tabletop electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Fu-Rong, E-mail: fchen1@me.com

    2016-12-15

    A tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes permanent magnets as condenser lenses to minimize its size, but this sacrifices the tunability of condenser lenses such that a tabletop system can only be operated with a fixed accelerating voltage. In contrast, the traditional condenser lens utilizes an electromagnetic coil to adjust the optical properties, but the size of the electromagnetic lens is inevitably larger. Here, we propose a tunable condenser lens for a tabletop SEM that uses a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnetic coils. The overall dimensions of the newly designed lens are the same as the original permanent magnet lens, but the new lens allows the tabletop SEM to be operated at different accelerating voltages between 1 kV and 15 kV. - Highlights: • A compact condenser lens combines both permanent magnet and coils. • A tunable lens is designed to keep the same focal point for voltage 1 to 15 kV. • A miniature tunable lens which can directly fit into tabletop SEM.

  15. Seventy years of stream‐fish collections reveal invasions and native range contractions in an Appalachian (USA) watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Joseph D.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Angermeier, Paul L.; Barney, Jacob N.

    2018-01-01

    AimKnowledge of expanding and contracting ranges is critical for monitoring invasions and assessing conservation status, yet reliable data on distributional trends are lacking for most freshwater species. We developed a quantitative technique to detect the sign (expansion or contraction) and functional form of range‐size changes for freshwater species based on collections data, while accounting for possible biases due to variable collection effort. We applied this technique to quantify stream‐fish range expansions and contractions in a highly invaded river system.LocationUpper and middle New River (UMNR) basin, Appalachian Mountains, USA.MethodsWe compiled a 77‐year stream‐fish collections dataset partitioned into ten time periods. To account for variable collection effort among time periods, we aggregated the collections into 100 watersheds and expressed a species’ range size as detections per watershed (HUC) sampled (DPHS). We regressed DPHS against time by species and used an information‐theoretic approach to compare linear and nonlinear functional forms fitted to the data points and to classify each species as spreader, stable or decliner.ResultsWe analysed changes in range size for 74 UMNR fishes, including 35 native and 39 established introduced species. We classified the majority (51%) of introduced species as spreaders, compared to 31% of natives. An exponential functional form fits best for 84% of spreaders. Three natives were among the most rapid spreaders. All four decliners were New River natives.Main conclusionsOur DPHS‐based approach facilitated quantitative analyses of distributional trends for stream fishes based on collections data. Partitioning the dataset into multiple time periods allowed us to distinguish long‐term trends from population fluctuations and to examine nonlinear forms of spread. Our framework sets the stage for further study of drivers of stream‐fish invasions and declines in the UMNR and is widely transferable to

  16. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: adult use and awareness of the 'e-cigarette' in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Annette K; Promoff, Gabbi; Dube, Shanta R; Arrazola, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), also referred to as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes, were introduced into the US market in 2007. Despite concerns regarding the long-term health impact of this product, there is little known about awareness and use of ENDS among adults in the USA. A consumer-based mail-in survey (ConsumerStyles) was completed by 10,587 adults (≥ 18 years) in 2009 and 10,328 adults in 2010. Data from these surveys were used to monitor awareness, ever use and past month use of ENDS from 2009 to 2010 and to assess demographic characteristics and tobacco use of ENDS users. In this US sample, awareness of ENDS doubled from 16.4% in 2009 to 32.2% in 2010 and ever use more than quadrupled from 2009 (0.6%) to 2010 (2.7%). Ever use of ENDS was most common among women and those with lower education, although these were not the groups who had heard of ENDS most often. Current smokers and tobacco users were most likely to try ENDS. However, current smokers who had tried ENDS did not say they planned to quit smoking more often than smokers who had never tried them. Given the large increase in awareness and ever use of ENDS during this 1-year period and the unknown impact of ENDS use on cigarette smoking behaviours and long-term health, continued monitoring of these products is needed.

  17. Forecasting inundation from debris flows that grow during travel, with application to the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Brien, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Many debris flows increase in volume as they travel downstream, enhancing their mobility and hazard. Volumetric growth can result from diverse physical processes, such as channel sediment entrainment, stream bank collapse, adjacent landsliding, hillslope erosion and rilling, and coalescence of multiple debris flows; incorporating these varied phenomena into physics-based debris-flow models is challenging. As an alternative, we embedded effects of debris-flow growth into an empirical/statistical approach to forecast potential inundation areas within digital landscapes in a GIS framework. Our approach used an empirical debris-growth function to account for the effects of growth phenomena. We applied this methodology to a debris-flow-prone area in the Oregon Coast Range, USA, where detailed mapping revealed areas of erosion and deposition along paths of debris flows that occurred during a large storm in 1996. Erosion was predominant in stream channels with slopes > 5°. Using pre- and post-event aerial photography, we derived upslope contributing area and channel-length growth factors. Our method reproduced the observed inundation patterns produced by individual debris flows; it also generated reproducible, objective potential inundation maps for entire drainage networks. These maps better matched observations than those using previous methods that focus on proximal or distal regions of a drainage network.

  18. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  19. Holocene alluvial stratigraphy and response to climate change in the Roaring River valley, Front Range, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madole, Richard F.

    2012-09-01

    Stratigraphic analyses and radiocarbon geochronology of alluvial deposits exposed along the Roaring River, Colorado, lead to three principal conclusions: (1) the opinion that stream channels in the higher parts of the Front Range are relics of the Pleistocene and nonalluvial under the present climate, as argued in a water-rights trial USA v. Colorado, is untenable, (2) beds of clast-supported gravel alternate in vertical succession with beds of fine-grained sediment (sand, mud, and peat) in response to centennial-scale changes in snowmelt-driven peak discharges, and (3) alluvial strata provide information about Holocene climate history that complements the history provided by cirque moraines, periglacial deposits, and paleontological data. Most alluvial strata are of late Holocene age and record, among other things, that: (1) the largest peak flows since the end of the Pleistocene occurred during the late Holocene; (2) the occurrence of a mid- to late Holocene interval (~ 2450-1630(?) cal yr BP) of warmer climate, which is not clearly identified in palynological records; and (3) the Little Ice Age climate seems to have had little impact on stream channels, except perhaps for minor (~ 1 m) incision.

  20. Electronic cigarettes in the USA: a summary of available toxicology data and suggestions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael S

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the toxicological profiles of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users and the public health. Systematic literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and October 2013 using five electronic databases. Search terms such as 'e-cigarettes' and 'electronic delivery devices' were used to identify the toxicology information for e-cigarettes. As of October 2013, the scientific literature contains very limited information regarding the toxicity of e-cigarettes commercially available in the USA. While some preliminary toxicology data suggests that e-cigarette users are exposed to lower levels of toxicants relative to cigarette smokers, the data available is extremely limited at this time. At present, there is insufficient toxicological data available to perform thorough risk assessment analyses for e-cigarettes; few toxicology studies evaluating e-cigarettes have been conducted to date, and standard toxicological testing paradigms have not been developed for comparing disparate types of tobacco products such as e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes. Overall, the limited toxicology data on e-cigarettes in the public domain is insufficient to allow a thorough toxicological evaluation of this new type of tobacco product. In the future, the acquisition of scientific datasets that are derived from scientifically robust standard testing paradigms, include comprehensive chemical characterisation of the aerosol, provide information on users' toxicant exposure levels, and from studies replicated by independent researchers will improve the scientific community's ability to perform robust toxicological evaluations of e-cigarettes.

  1. Electron transport in furfural: dependence of the electron ranges on the cross sections and the energy loss distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Gibbings, L.; Krupa, K.; Colmenares, R.; Blanco, F.; Muńoz, A.; Mendes, M.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Limá Vieira, P.; Jones, D. B.; Brunger, M. J.; García, G.

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies have provided a complete set of differential and integral electron scattering cross section data from furfural over a broad energy range. The energy loss distribution functions have been determined in this study by averaging electron energy loss spectra for different incident energies and scattering angles. All these data have been used as input parameters for an event by event Monte Carlo simulation procedure to obtain the electron energy deposition patterns and electron ranges in liquid furfural. The dependence of these results on the input cross sections is then analysed to determine the uncertainty of the simulated values.

  2. Structure and dendroecology of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct stands south of its contiguous range in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Kincaid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Information on forest structure, growth, and disturbance history is essential for effective forest management in a dynamic landscape. Because most of our research concerning the ecology and growth of Thuja occidentalis comes from sites in northern portions of its range, highly contextual biotic and abiotic factors that affect the species in more southern locales may not be fully accounted for. This research characterized the structural attributes and growth dynamics of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct forest stands south of its contiguous range margin. Methods The Thuja occidentalis forests examined in this research were located in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA, approximately 440 km south of the contiguous range margin of the species. Forest structural attributes were characterized in two Thuja occidentalis forest stands, which are rare in the region. Tree-ring chronologies were used to examine the influences of disturbance and climate on the growth of Thuja occidentalis. Results The forests contained a total of 13 tree species with Thuja occidentalis contributing substantially to the basal area of the sites. Thuja occidentalis stems were absent in the smallest size class, while hardwood species were abundant in the smallest classes. Thuja occidentalis stems also were absent from the < 70 years age class. By contrast, Thuja occidentalis snags were abundant within stands. Growth-release events were distributed across the disturbance chronology and generally affected a small number of trees. The Thuja occidentalis tree-ring chronology possessed an interseries correlation of 0.62 and mean sensitivity of 0.25. The correlation between mean temperature and Thuja occidentalis growth was weak and variable. Growth and moisture variables were more strongly correlated, and this relationship was predominantly positive. Conclusions Structural attributes indicate the forests are in the understory reinitiation stage of forest development

  3. Initial response of small ground-dwelling mammals to forest alternative buffers along headwater streams in the Washington Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Wilk; Martin G. Raphael; Christopher S. Nations; Jeffrey D. Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of alternative designs of forested buffer treatments along headwater streams on small ground-dwelling mammals in managed forests in western Washington, USA. Over three summers (one pretreatment and two posttreatment), we trapped 19 mammalian species along 23 streams in the northern Coast Range. We compared faunal communities in...

  4. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in n......The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than...

  5. Understanding Contrasting Approaches to Nationwide Implementations of Electronic Health Record Systems: England, the USA and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Morrison

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As governments commit to national electronic health record (EHR systems, there is increasing international interest in identifying effective implementation strategies. We draw on Coiera's typology of national programmes - ‘top-down’, ‘bottom-up’ and ‘middle-out’ - to review EHR implementation strategies in three exemplar countries: England, the USA and Australia. In comparing and contrasting three approaches, we show how different healthcare systems, national policy contexts and anticipated benefits have shaped initial strategies. We reflect on progress and likely developments in the face of continually changing circumstances. Our review shows that irrespective of the initial strategy, over time there is likely to be convergence on the negotiated, devolved middle-out approach, which aims to balance the interests and responsibilities of local healthcare constituencies and national government to achieve national connectivity. We conclude that, accepting the current lack of empirical evidence, the flexibility offered by the middle-out approach may make this the best initial national strategy.

  6. Electron beam absorption in solid and in water phantoms: depth scaling and energy-range relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosswendt, B.; Roos, M.

    1989-01-01

    In electron dosimetry energy parameters are used with values evaluated from ranges in water. The electron ranges in water may be deduced from ranges measured in solid phantoms. Several procedures recommended by national and international organisations differ both in the scaling of the ranges and in the energy-range relations for water. Using the Monte Carlo method the application of different procedures for electron energies below 10 MeV is studied for different phantom materials. It is shown that deviations in the range scaling and in the energy-range relations for water may accumulate to give energy errors of several per cent. In consequence energy-range relations are deduced for several solid phantom materials which enable a single-step energy determination. (author)

  7. Magnetic collimation and metal foil filtering for electron range and fluence modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaisangittisakul, N.; D'Souza, W.D.; Ma Lijun

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the use of magnetically collimated electron beams together with metal filters for electron fluence and range modulation. A longitudinal magnetic field collimation method was developed to reduce skin dose and to improve the electron beam penumbra. Thin metal foils were used to adjust the energies of magnetically collimated electrons. The effects for different types of foils such as Al, Be, Cu, Pb, and Ti were studied using Monte Carlo calculations. An empirical pencil beam dose calculation model was developed to calculate electron dose distributions under magnetic collimation and foil modulation. An optimization method was developed to produce conformal dose distributions for simulated targets such as a horseshoe-shaped target. Our results show that it is possible to produce an electron depth dose enhancement peak using similar techniques of producing a spread-out Bragg peak. In conclusion, our study demonstrates new aspects of using magnetic collimation and foil filtration for producing fluence and range modulated electron dose distributions

  8. Rapid long range intramolecular electron transfer within a steroid molecule with two electron binding groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddleston, R.K.; Miller, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer has been observed to have occurred in less than 100 ns in a steroid molecule having two distinct electron binding groups separated by distances distributed from 7--11 A. Experiments were carried out in organic glasses at 77 K with pulse radiolysis techniques to create trapped electrons which were captured by a group on one end of the steroid molecule. Although one of the groups, benzoate, is held to the steroid spacer by a flexible linkage, the rigidity of the glassy matrices prevented movement to alter the initial distance. Interestingly, no effects of distance were seen: all ET processes appeared to have occurred much faster than our 100 ns time resolution, consistent with measurements of the rate of intermolecular electron transfer between the same functional groups in random solutions. Solvation energetics, on the other hand, had a remarkable influence on the extent and direction of electron transfer. A change in solvent polarity was observed to reverse the direction of electron transfer. Evidence was obtained for a distribution of solvation environments for ions in glasses which may be as broad as 0.15 eV

  9. Numerical simulation on range of high-energy electron moving in accelerator target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Wencheng; Sun Punan; Dai Wenjiang

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the range of high-energy electron moving in accelerator target, the range of electron with the energy range of 1 to 100 MeV moving in common target material of accelerator was calculated by Monte-Carlo method. Comparison between the calculated result and the published data were performed. The results of Monte-Carlo calculation are in good agreement with the published data. Empirical formulas were obtained for the range of high-energy electron with the energy range of 1 to 100 MeV in common target material by curve fitting, offering a series of referenced data for the design of targets in electron accelerator. (authors)

  10. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  11. Anticipating forest and range land development in central Oregon (USA) for landscape analysis, with an example application involving mule deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Alissa Moses; Theresa Burcsu

    2010-01-01

    Forest policymakers, public lands managers, and scientists in the Pacific Northwest (USA) seek ways to evaluate the landscape-level effects of policies and management through the multidisciplinary development and application of spatially explicit methods and models. The Interagency Mapping and Analysis Project (IMAP) is an ongoing effort to generate landscape-wide...

  12. High dynamic range isotope ratio measurements using an analog electron multiplier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Williams, P.; Lorinčík, Jan; Franzreb, K.; Herwig, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2013), s. 549-552 ISSN 0142-2421 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 894 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Isotope ratios * electron multiplier * dynamic range Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.393, year: 2013

  13. Generalized empirical equation for the extrapolated range of electrons in elemental and compound materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, W. de; Poli CR, D. de

    1999-01-01

    The extrapolated range R ex of electrons is useful for various purposes in research and in the application of electrons, for example, in polymer modification, electron energy determination and estimation of effects associated with deep penetration of electrons. A number of works have used empirical equations to express the extrapolated range for some elements. In this work a generalized empirical equation, very simple and accurate, in the energy region 0.3 keV - 50 MeV is proposed. The extrapolated range for elements, in organic or inorganic molecules and compound materials, can be well expressed as a function of the atomic number Z or two empirical parameters Zm for molecules and Zc for compound materials instead of Z. (author)

  14. van der Waals forces in density functional theory: Perturbational long-range electron-interaction corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angyan, Janos G.; Gerber, Iann C.; Savin, Andreas; Toulouse, Julien

    2005-01-01

    Long-range exchange and correlation effects, responsible for the failure of currently used approximate density functionals in describing van der Waals forces, are taken into account explicitly after a separation of the electron-electron interaction in the Hamiltonian into short- and long-range components. We propose a 'range-separated hybrid' functional based on a local density approximation for the short-range exchange-correlation energy, combined with a long-range exact exchange energy. Long-range correlation effects are added by a second-order perturbational treatment. The resulting scheme is general and is particularly well adapted to describe van der Waals complexes, such as rare gas dimers

  15. Valence electronic structure of cobalt phthalocyanine from an optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumboiu, Iulia Emilia; Prokopiou, Georgia; Kronik, Leeor; Brena, Barbara

    2017-07-28

    We analyse the valence electronic structure of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) by means of optimally tuning a range-separated hybrid functional. The tuning is performed by modifying both the amount of short-range exact exchange (α) included in the hybrid functional and the range-separation parameter (γ), with two strategies employed for finding the optimal γ for each α. The influence of these two parameters on the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of CoPc is thoroughly investigated. The electronic structure is found to be very sensitive to the amount and range in which the exact exchange is included. The electronic structure obtained using the optimal parameters is compared to gas-phase photo-electron data and GW calculations, with the unoccupied states additionally compared with inverse photo-electron spectroscopy measurements. The calculated spectrum with tuned γ, determined for the optimal value of α = 0.1, yields a very good agreement with both experimental results and with GW calculations that well-reproduce the experimental data.

  16. Test results for triple-modulation radar electronics with improved range disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollastrone, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.pollastrone@enea.it; Neri, Carlo

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A new digital radar electronic system based on triple-modulation has been developed. • The triple-modulation system uses an improved algorithm for the range-disambiguation. • The new radar electronics has been applied in the IVVS optical radar prototype for ITER. • The performances obtained with IVVS double and triple-modulation were compared. - Abstract: The In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) is an optical radar with sub milimetrical resolution that will be used for imaging and metrology pourposes in ITER. The electronics of the system is based on a Digital Radar Electronics developed in ENEA Frascati laboratories during the past years. Until the present study, the system was based on amplitude modulation technique having double-modulation frequency. The power of the laser is sinusoidally modulated and the distance of the points scanned by the laser beam is obtained measuring the phase difference between outgoing and echo signals. Recently a triple-modulation radar electronics version and an algorithm able to solve the range disambiguation were developed. The aim of the upgrade was the increase of the robustness in the range disambiguation. The paper briefly describes the updates carried out on the Digital Radar Electronics and extensively the test results obtained by comparing the performance of the triple modulation versus the double modulation techniques.

  17. Electron-beam buncher to operate over the frequency range 1-4 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Arthur, A.A.; Flood, W.S.; Voelker, F.

    1983-03-01

    We present a description of an electron buncher to be installed in the terminal of a Van de Graaff, which is to produce a modulated beam over the frequency range 1-4 GHz. The modulator geometry has been optimized so that the modulation amplitude should be nearly constant over the frequency ranges 1-2 GHz and 2-4 GHz. Preliminary results indicate the device works as predicted

  18. Electron density values of various human tissues: in vitro Compton scatter measurements and calculated ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate direct measurements of electron density have been performed on specimens from 10 different tissue types of the human body, representing the major organs, using a Compton scatter technique. As a supplement to these experimental values, calculations have been carried out to determine the electron densities expected for these tissue types. The densities observed are in good agreement with the broad ranges deduced from the basic data previously published. The results of both the in vitro sample measurements and the approximate calculations indicate that the electron density of most normal healthy soft tissue can be expected to fall within the fairly restricted range of +- 5% around 3.4 X 10 23 electrons per cm 3 . The obvious exception to this generalisation is the result for lung tissue, which falls considerably below this range owing to the high air content inherent in its construction. In view of such an overall limited variation with little difference between tissues, it would appear that electron density alone is likely to be a rather poor clinical parameter for tissue analysis, with high accuracy and precision being essential in any in vivo Compton measurements for imaging or diagnosis on specific organs. (author)

  19. Density matrix renormalization group with efficient dynamical electron correlation through range separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Knecht, Stefan; Kielberg, Jesper Skau

    2015-01-01

    We present a new hybrid multiconfigurational method based on the concept of range-separation that combines the density matrix renormalization group approach with density functional theory. This new method is designed for the simultaneous description of dynamical and static electroncorrelation...... effects in multiconfigurational electronic structure problems....

  20. Electronically driven short-range lattice instability: Possible role in superconductive pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, A.

    1991-01-01

    A superconducting pairing mechanism is suggested, mediating by collective and coherent cluster fluctuations in the materials. The model, based on a geometrical frustration, proposes a dynamic effect driven by a special short-range electronic instability. Experimental support for this model is discussed

  1. Electronically driven short-range lattice instability: Cluster effects in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, A.

    1991-01-01

    In the first part of this series, short- and medium-range interactions in superconductors were investigated. In this paper a discussion is made on the cluster-mass dependence of the superconductive transition temperature and the relevant phenomenon of electron localization. A comparison with experiments is given; the predictions fit well to the observations

  2. Surface treatment by the ion flow from electron beam generated plasma in the forevacuum pressure range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimov Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of peculiarities of gas ion flows usage and their generation from large plasma formation (>50 sq.cm obtained by electron beam ionization of gas in the forevacuum pressure range. An upgraded source was used for electron beam generation, which allowed obtaining ribbon electron beam with no transmitting magnetic field. Absence of magnetic field in the area of ion flow formation enables to obtain directed ion flows without distorting their trajectories. In this case, independent control of current and ion energy is possible. The influence of electron beam parameters on the parameters of beam plasma and ion flow – current energy and density – was determined. The results of alumina ceramics treatment with a beam plasma ions flow are given.

  3. Prototype system for proton beam range measurement based on gamma electron vertex imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Rim [Neutron Utilization Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Jong Hoon [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Won Gyun [Heavy-ion Clinical Research Division, Korean Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hansang [Department of Electronics Convergence Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Hyeong, E-mail: chkim@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-11

    In proton therapy, for both therapeutic effectiveness and patient safety, it is very important to accurately measure the proton dose distribution, especially the range of the proton beam. For this purpose, recently we proposed a new imaging method named gamma electron vertex imaging (GEVI), in which the prompt gammas emitting from the nuclear reactions of the proton beam in the patient are converted to electrons, and then the converted electrons are tracked to determine the vertices of the prompt gammas, thereby producing a 2D image of the vertices. In the present study, we developed a prototype GEVI system, including dedicated signal processing and data acquisition systems, which consists of a beryllium plate (= electron converter) to convert the prompt gammas to electrons, two double-sided silicon strip detectors (= hodoscopes) to determine the trajectories of those converted electrons, and a plastic scintillation detector (= calorimeter) to measure their kinetic energies. The system uses triple coincidence logic and multiple energy windows to select only the events from prompt gammas. The detectors of the prototype GEVI system were evaluated for electronic noise level, energy resolution, and time resolution. Finally, the imaging capability of the GEVI system was tested by imaging a {sup 90}Sr beta source, a {sup 60}Co gamma source, and a 45-MeV proton beam in a PMMA phantom. The overall results of the present study generally show that the prototype GEVI system can image the vertices of the prompt gammas produced by the proton nuclear interactions.

  4. Highly Sensitive Multifilament Fiber Strain Sensors with Ultrabroad Sensing Range for Textile Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehong; Shin, Sera; Lee, Sanggeun; Song, Jaekang; Kang, Subin; Han, Heetak; Kim, SeulGee; Kim, Seunghoe; Seo, Jungmok; Kim, DaeEun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2018-05-22

    Highly stretchable fiber strain sensors are one of the most important components for various applications in wearable electronics, electronic textiles, and biomedical electronics. Herein, we present a facile approach for fabricating highly stretchable and sensitive fiber strain sensors by embedding Ag nanoparticles into a stretchable fiber with a multifilament structure. The multifilament structure and Ag-rich shells of the fiber strain sensor enable the sensor to simultaneously achieve both a high sensitivity and largely wide sensing range despite its simple fabrication process and components. The fiber strain sensor simultaneously exhibits ultrahigh gauge factors (∼9.3 × 10 5 and ∼659 in the first stretching and subsequent stretching, respectively), a very broad strain-sensing range (450 and 200% for the first and subsequent stretching, respectively), and high durability for more than 10 000 stretching cycles. The fiber strain sensors can also be readily integrated into a glove to control a hand robot and effectively applied to monitor the large volume expansion of a balloon and a pig bladder for an artificial bladder system, thereby demonstrating the potential of the fiber strain sensors as candidates for electronic textiles, wearable electronics, and biomedical engineering.

  5. Long-Range Electron Effects upon Irradiation of Molecular Solids and Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Long-range electron effects are responsible for specific localization and selectivity of the radiation-induced chemical transformations occurring in molecular solids and polymers, when the classic diffusion mobility is essentially restricted. In particullar, understanding of the effects of this kind may be of key significance for establishing new ways to control the radiation sensitivity of macromolecules and organized polymeric systems, nanomaterials and biopolymers. This talk will present an overview of model studies of the long-range electron effects with the characteristic scale from several angstroms to ten nanometers. The following aspects of the problem will be analyzed: (1) Positive hole delocalization in ionized molecules. This phenomenon has been demonstrated experimentally and confirmed by quantum chemical calculations for a number of various-type molecules (alkanes, conjugated polyenes, bifunctional compounds). The effective delocalization length was found to be up to 2 nm (or even larger). The role of this effect in site-selective radiation chemistry will be discussed in the frame of concepts of distributed reactivity and 'switching' between delocalized and localized states. (2) Trap-to-trap positive hole and electron migration between isolated molecules or functional groups. The characteristic distance for this process was estimated to be 2 to 4 nm. Special impact will be made on the possible role of this process in selection of specific isomers or conformers upon irradiation of complex systems and macromolecules. (3) The effects of long-range scavenging of low-energy secondary electrons in polymers and organized polymeric systems. As revealed by model experiments, the radius of electron capture in solid polymers may be in the range of 1 to 10 nm. Possible implications of scavenging effects for controlling the radiation chemistry of polymers and organized polymeric systems will be considered

  6. Electron-nucleon scattering experiments in the GeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glawe, U.B.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis a computer code systems was developed which describes the inclusive electron scattering on bound nucleons in the impact approximation. It could be shown that the structure functions for the quasi-free scattering can be represented as an incoherent superposition of the structure functions of the free processes. The structure functions of the free processes were determined from experimental cross sections. From the comparison of the calculations with electron scattering experiments on the nuclei 6 Li, 9 Be, 12 C, 27 Al, and 28 Si in the kinematic range 0.0 2 2 and W [de

  7. Improved atomic data for electron-transport predictions by the codes TIGER and TIGERP: II. Electron stopping and range data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, J.M.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1983-04-01

    The electron stopping and range data now used in the TIGER and TIGERP electron-transport codes are extracted and compared with other data for these processes. At the smallest collision energies treated by these codes, E approx. 1 keV, the stopping-power is estimated to be accurate for small-Z targets, to be about 25 percent too small for Z near 36 and to be a factor of three too small for Z > 79. These errors decrease with increasing E and the largest error for any target is roughly 20 percent for E = 10 keV. The closely related continuous-slowing-down range is estimated, at 1 keV, to be about 25 percent too small for small-Z targets and a factor of 2 too large for large-Z targets. The electron-transport problem of reflection from planer surfaces is re-investigated with improved stopping-power data. The effects of this change for the examples considered were about the size of the statistical uncertainties in the calculation, 1 to 2 percent

  8. Electronic cigarettes in the USA: a summary of available toxicology data and suggestions for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the toxicological profiles of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users and the public health. Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and October 2013 using five electronic databases. Search terms such as ‘e-cigarettes’ and ‘electronic delivery devices’ were used to identify the toxicology information for e-cigarettes. Results As ...

  9. Characteristics of a paleosol and its implication for the Critical Zone development, Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopold, Matthias; Voelkel, Joerg; Dethier, David; Huber, Juliane; Steffens, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We dated a sediment section (USA) including an 8000 years old paleosol by OSL and Radiocarbon. → Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to characterize the paleosols' organic matter. → High amounts of aromatic structures (charcoal) indicate fire events that influenced the soil. → The section represents geomorphic stability and instability phases. → We use these geomorphic changes to reconstruct the Critical Zone development. - Abstract: Activity and stability phases as well as geomorphic processes within the Critical Zone are well known. Erosion and deposition of sediments represent activity; soils represent geomorphic stability phases. Data are presented from a 4 m deep sediment section that was dated by luminescence techniques. Upslope erosion and resulting sedimentation started in the late Pleistocene around 18 ka until 12 ka. Conditions at the study site then changed, which led to the formation of a well-developed soil. Radiocarbon dating of the organic matter yielded ages between 8552 and 8995 cal. BP. From roughly 6.2 to 5.4 ka another activity phase accompanied by according sediment deposition buried the soil and a new soil, a Cambisol, was formed at the surface. The buried soil is a strongly developed Luvisol. The black colors in the upper part of the buried soil are not the result of pedogenic accumulation of normal organic matter within an A-horizon. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy clearly documents the high amount of aromatic components (charcoal), which is responsible for the dark color. This indicates severe burning events at the site and the smaller charcoal dust (black carbon) was transported to deeper parts of the profile during the process of clay translocation.

  10. Characteristics of a paleosol and its implication for the Critical Zone development, Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopold, Matthias, E-mail: leopold@wzw.tum.de [Geomorphology and Soil Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Voelkel, Joerg [Geomorphology and Soil Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Dethier, David [Williams College, Dept. Geoscience, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States); Huber, Juliane [Geomorphology and Soil Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Steffens, Markus [Soil Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We dated a sediment section (USA) including an 8000 years old paleosol by OSL and Radiocarbon. > Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to characterize the paleosols' organic matter. > High amounts of aromatic structures (charcoal) indicate fire events that influenced the soil. > The section represents geomorphic stability and instability phases. > We use these geomorphic changes to reconstruct the Critical Zone development. - Abstract: Activity and stability phases as well as geomorphic processes within the Critical Zone are well known. Erosion and deposition of sediments represent activity; soils represent geomorphic stability phases. Data are presented from a 4 m deep sediment section that was dated by luminescence techniques. Upslope erosion and resulting sedimentation started in the late Pleistocene around 18 ka until 12 ka. Conditions at the study site then changed, which led to the formation of a well-developed soil. Radiocarbon dating of the organic matter yielded ages between 8552 and 8995 cal. BP. From roughly 6.2 to 5.4 ka another activity phase accompanied by according sediment deposition buried the soil and a new soil, a Cambisol, was formed at the surface. The buried soil is a strongly developed Luvisol. The black colors in the upper part of the buried soil are not the result of pedogenic accumulation of normal organic matter within an A-horizon. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy clearly documents the high amount of aromatic components (charcoal), which is responsible for the dark color. This indicates severe burning events at the site and the smaller charcoal dust (black carbon) was transported to deeper parts of the profile during the process of clay translocation.

  11. Electronic Publishing Issues in the USA: What Would Gutenberg Have Thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Richard A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the rapid changes in publishing, especially electronic publishing, and reviews current trends including digital imaging, PDF (portable document format), color production, and XML. Considers the perceived valuation of the electronic submission of academic work within higher education and the need to be lifelong learners, especially…

  12. Electrical, optical, and electronic properties of Al:ZnO films in a wide doping range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, Ilaria; Valeri, Sergio; Benedetti, Stefania; Bona, Alessandro di; Lollobrigida, Valerio; Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola; Lupi, Stefano; Torelli, Piero

    2015-01-01

    The combination of photoemission spectroscopies, infrared and UV-VIS absorption, and electric measurements has allowed to clarify the mechanisms governing the conductivity and the electronic properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films in a wide doping range. The contribution of defect-related in-gap states to conduction has been excluded in optimally doped films (around 4 at. %). The appearance of gap states at high doping, the disappearance of occupied DOS at Fermi level, and the bands evolution complete the picture of electronic structure in AZO when doped above 4 at. %. In this situation, compensating defects deplete the conduction band and increase the electronic bandgap of the material. Electrical measurements and figure of merit determination confirm the high quality of the films obtained by magnetron sputtering, and thus allow to extend their properties to AZO films in general

  13. Electrical, optical, and electronic properties of Al:ZnO films in a wide doping range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, Ilaria; Valeri, Sergio [CNR, Istituto Nanoscienze, S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Benedetti, Stefania, E-mail: stefania.benedetti@unimore.it; Bona, Alessandro di [CNR, Istituto Nanoscienze, S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Lollobrigida, Valerio [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome, Italy and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola [INSTM Udr Trieste-ST and Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Area Science Park, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Lupi, Stefano [CNR-IOM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Torelli, Piero [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-10-28

    The combination of photoemission spectroscopies, infrared and UV-VIS absorption, and electric measurements has allowed to clarify the mechanisms governing the conductivity and the electronic properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films in a wide doping range. The contribution of defect-related in-gap states to conduction has been excluded in optimally doped films (around 4 at. %). The appearance of gap states at high doping, the disappearance of occupied DOS at Fermi level, and the bands evolution complete the picture of electronic structure in AZO when doped above 4 at. %. In this situation, compensating defects deplete the conduction band and increase the electronic bandgap of the material. Electrical measurements and figure of merit determination confirm the high quality of the films obtained by magnetron sputtering, and thus allow to extend their properties to AZO films in general.

  14. Fiber optic probe of free electron evanescent fields in the optical frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Jin-Kyu, E-mail: js1m10@orc.soton.ac.uk; MacDonald, Kevin F. [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zheludev, Nikolay I. [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2014-05-19

    We introduce an optical fiber platform which can be used to interrogate proximity interactions between free-electron evanescent fields and photonic nanostructures at optical frequencies in a manner similar to that in which optical evanescent fields are sampled using nanoscale aperture probes in scanning near-field microscopy. Conically profiled optical fiber tips functionalized with nano-gratings are employed to couple electron evanescent fields to light via the Smith-Purcell effect. We demonstrate the interrogation of medium energy (30–50 keV) electron fields with a lateral resolution of a few micrometers via the generation and detection of visible/UV radiation in the 700–300 nm (free-space) wavelength range.

  15. Modulation of auroral electron fluxes in the frequency range 50 kHz to 10 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiger, R. J.; Murphree, J. S.; Anderson, H. R.; Loewenstein, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    A sounding rocket-borne electron detector of high time resolution is used to search for modulation of auroral electron fluxes in the frequency range 50 kHz to 10 MHz and energy range 5-7 keV. Data were telemetered to ground via a 93-kHz subcarrier. A cross-correlation analysis of the data collected indicates low-level modulation near the detection threshold of the instrument. Two U-1 events are observed which are interpreted as indications of modulation. The two modulation events occur during a period of increasing flux for a region marking the boundary between two current sheets detected by the payload magnetometer. The strongest argument against interference contamination is the lack of any observable modulation at times other than those mentioned in the study.

  16. Short Range Correlations in Nuclei at Large xbj through Inclusive Quasi-Elastic Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhihong [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The experiment, E08-014, in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab aims to study the short-range correlations (SRC) which are necessary to explain the nuclear strength absent in the mean field theory. The cross sections for 2H, 3He, 4He, 12C, 40Ca and 48Ca, were measured via inclusive quasi-elastic electron scattering from these nuclei in a Q2 range between 0.8 and 2.8 (GeV/c)2 for x>1. The cross section ratios of heavy nuclei to 2H were extracted to study two-nucleon SRC for 1

  17. Development of GM tube electronic personal dosimeter with wide range and multi-purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Weng Puyu; Chen Mingjun; Hu Zunsu; Huang Chenguang; Lei Jindian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the main design features and basic properties of a GM tube electronic personal dosimeter with wide range and multi-purposes. the dosimeter can display dose-rate or accumulative dose or the maximum dose-rate, record accumulative dose and the maximum dose-rate as well as the time of its appearance and at most 160 historical dose values within 8 h. All recorded data can directly be sent to PC by the infrared communication

  18. Configurable Electronics with Low Noise and 14-bit Dynamic Range for Photodiode-based Photon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Yin, Z; Zhou, D; Cao, X; Li, Q; Liu, Y; Zou, F; Skaali, B; Awes, T C

    2006-01-01

    We describe the principles and measured performance characteristics of custom configurable 32-channel shaper/digitizer Front End Electronics (FEE) cards with 14-bit dynamic range for use with gain-adjustable photon detectors. The electronics has been designed for the PHOS calorimeter of ALICE with avalanche photodiode (APD) readout operated at -25 C ambient temperature and a signal shaping time of $1 {\\mu}s$. The electronics has also been adopted by the EMCal detector of ALICE with the same APD readout, but operated at an ambient temperature of +20 C and with a shaping time of 100ns. The CR-RC2 signal shapers on the FEE cards are implemented in discrete logic on a 10-layer board with two shaper sections for each input channel. The two shaper sections with gain ratio of 16:1 are digitized by 10-bit ADCs and provide an effective dynamic range of 14 bits. Gain adjustment for each individual APD is available through 32 bias voltage control registers of 10-bit range. The fixed gains and shaping times of the pole-z...

  19. Using epiphytic lichens to monitor nitrogen deposition near natural gas drilling operations in the Wind River Range, WY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. McMurray; Dave W. Roberts; Mark E. Fenn; Linda H. Geiser; Sarah Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of natural gas drilling in Sublette County, WY (1999-present), has raised concerns about the potential ecological effects of enhanced atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the Wind River Range (WRR) including the Class I BridgerWilderness. We sampled annual throughfall (TF) N deposition and lichen thalli N concentrations under forest canopies in four...

  20. Fermi-edge singularity in one-dimensional electron systems with long-range Coulomb interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, H.; Ogawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of long-range Coulomb interactions on the Fermi-edge singularity in optical spectra are investigated theoretically for one-dimensional spin-1/2 fermion systems with the use of the Tomonaga-Luttinger bosonization technique. Low-energy excitation spectrum near the Fermi level shows that dispersion of the charge-density fluctuation remains gapless but is nonlinear when the electron-electron (e-e) Coulomb interaction is of the x -1 type (i.e., an infinite force range). Temporal behavior of the current-current correlation function is calculated analytically for arbitrary force ranges, λ e and λ h , of the e-e and the electron-hole (e-h) Coulomb interactions. (i) When both the e-e and the e-h interactions have large but finite force ranges (λ e h max[λ e ,λ h ]/v F . Corresponding optical spectrum near the Fermi edge (within an energy range of ℎv F /max[λ e ,λ h ]) exhibits the power-law divergence or the power-law convergence, which is an ordinary Fermi-edge singularity. (ii) When either the e-e or the e-h interaction is of the x -1 type (i.e., λ e →∞ and/or λ h →∞), an exponent of the correlation function is dependent on time to lead the faster decay than that of any power laws. Then the optical spectra show no power law dependence and always converge (become zero) at the Fermi edge, which is in striking contrast to the ordinary power-law singularity

  1. EEDL. Evaluated Electron Data Library of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. Summary documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmel, H D [ed.; Perkins, S T; Cullen, D E; Seltzer, S M

    1994-09-01

    A brief summary documentary of the LLNL Evaluated Electron-Interaction Data Library EEDL is given. The data library is available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section on magnetic tape, costfree, upon request. (author).

  2. EEDL. Evaluated Electron Data Library of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Perkins, S.T.; Cullen, D.E.; Seltzer, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    A brief summary documentary of the LLNL Evaluated Electron-Interaction Data Library EEDL is given. The data library is available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section on magnetic tape, costfree, upon request. (author)

  3. Efficient Long - Range Electron Transfer Processes in Polyfluorene – Perylene Diimide Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Isakova, Anna

    2018-05-17

    In bulk heterojunction donor-acceptor (D-A) blends, high photovoltaic yields require charge carrier separation to outcompete geminate recombination. Recently, evidence for long-range electron transfer mechanisms has been presented, avoiding strongly-bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states. However, due to the lack of specific optical probes at the D-A interface, a detailed quantification of the long-range processes has not been feasible, until now. Here, we present a transient absorption study of long-range processes in a unique phase consisting of perylene diimide (PDI) crystals intercalated with polyfluorene (PFO), as widely used non-fullerene electron acceptor and donor, respectively. The intercalated PDI:PFO phase possesses specific well-separated spectral features for the excited states at the D-A interface. By use of femtosecond spectroscopy we reveal the excitation dynamics in this blend. PDI excitons undergo a clear symmetry-breaking charge separation in the PDI bulk, which occurs within several hundred femtoseconds, thus outcompeting excimer formation, known to limit charge separation yields when PDI is used as an acceptor. In contrast, PFO excitons are dissociated with very high yields in a one-step long-range process, enabled by large delocalization of the PFO exciton wavefunction. Moreover, both scenarios circumvent the formation of strongly-bound interfacial CT states and enable a targeted interfacial design for bulk heterojunction blends with near unity charge separation yields.

  4. Efficient Long - Range Electron Transfer Processes in Polyfluorene – Perylene Diimide Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Isakova, Anna; Karuthedath, Safakath; Arnold, Thomas; Howse, Jonathan; Topham, Paul D.; Toolan, Daniel Thomas William; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Lü er, Larry

    2018-01-01

    In bulk heterojunction donor-acceptor (D-A) blends, high photovoltaic yields require charge carrier separation to outcompete geminate recombination. Recently, evidence for long-range electron transfer mechanisms has been presented, avoiding strongly-bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states. However, due to the lack of specific optical probes at the D-A interface, a detailed quantification of the long-range processes has not been feasible, until now. Here, we present a transient absorption study of long-range processes in a unique phase consisting of perylene diimide (PDI) crystals intercalated with polyfluorene (PFO), as widely used non-fullerene electron acceptor and donor, respectively. The intercalated PDI:PFO phase possesses specific well-separated spectral features for the excited states at the D-A interface. By use of femtosecond spectroscopy we reveal the excitation dynamics in this blend. PDI excitons undergo a clear symmetry-breaking charge separation in the PDI bulk, which occurs within several hundred femtoseconds, thus outcompeting excimer formation, known to limit charge separation yields when PDI is used as an acceptor. In contrast, PFO excitons are dissociated with very high yields in a one-step long-range process, enabled by large delocalization of the PFO exciton wavefunction. Moreover, both scenarios circumvent the formation of strongly-bound interfacial CT states and enable a targeted interfacial design for bulk heterojunction blends with near unity charge separation yields.

  5. Northern range expansion of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus): Analysis of mosquito data from Connecticut, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Shepard, John J; Thomas, Michael C

    2017-05-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an invasive species and important arbovirus vector that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1980's where it continues to expand its range. Winter temperature is an important constraint to its northward expansion, with potential range limits located between the 0° and -5°C mean cold month isotherm. Connecticut is located within this climatic zone and therefore, Ae. albopictus was monitored statewide to assess its northern range expansion and to delineate where populations can stably persist. Ae. albopictus females were monitored at fixed trapping sites throughout Connecticut from June-October over a 20-year period, 1997-2016. In addition, Ae. albopictus larvae and pupae were collected from tire habitats and tires were retrieved from the field in the spring and flooded to evaluate overwintering success of hatching larvae. Ae. albopictus was first detected during statewide surveillance when a single adult female was collected in 2006. This species was not collected again until 2010 and was subsequently detected each successive year with increasing abundance and distribution except following the unusually cold winters of 2014 and 2015. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were most abundant in urban and suburban locations along the southwestern shoreline of Connecticut; however, single specimens were occasionally detected in central parts of the state. Field-collected females were also screened for arbovirus infection yielding two isolations of Cache Valley virus and one isolation of West Nile virus, highlighting the threat posed by this mosquito. Ae. albopictus overwintered in Connecticut under mild winter conditions as shown by recovery of hatched larvae from field collected tires in spring and by early season detection of larvae and pupae. This study documents the establishment and expansion of Ae. albopictus at the northern boundary of its range in the northeastern U.S. and provides a baseline for monitoring the future spread

  6. Northern range expansion of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus: Analysis of mosquito data from Connecticut, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Armstrong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is an invasive species and important arbovirus vector that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1980's where it continues to expand its range. Winter temperature is an important constraint to its northward expansion, with potential range limits located between the 0° and -5°C mean cold month isotherm. Connecticut is located within this climatic zone and therefore, Ae. albopictus was monitored statewide to assess its northern range expansion and to delineate where populations can stably persist.Ae. albopictus females were monitored at fixed trapping sites throughout Connecticut from June-October over a 20-year period, 1997-2016. In addition, Ae. albopictus larvae and pupae were collected from tire habitats and tires were retrieved from the field in the spring and flooded to evaluate overwintering success of hatching larvae. Ae. albopictus was first detected during statewide surveillance when a single adult female was collected in 2006. This species was not collected again until 2010 and was subsequently detected each successive year with increasing abundance and distribution except following the unusually cold winters of 2014 and 2015. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were most abundant in urban and suburban locations along the southwestern shoreline of Connecticut; however, single specimens were occasionally detected in central parts of the state. Field-collected females were also screened for arbovirus infection yielding two isolations of Cache Valley virus and one isolation of West Nile virus, highlighting the threat posed by this mosquito. Ae. albopictus overwintered in Connecticut under mild winter conditions as shown by recovery of hatched larvae from field collected tires in spring and by early season detection of larvae and pupae.This study documents the establishment and expansion of Ae. albopictus at the northern boundary of its range in the northeastern U.S. and provides a baseline for monitoring

  7. Epiphytic lichen diversity and biomass in low-elevation forests of the eastern Washington Cascade range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Lehmkuhl

    2004-01-01

    cover types in the eastern Washington Cascade range. Cover types represented a temperature/moisture and stand structural complexity gradient. Lichen litterfall biomass increased with increasing stand complexity and moisture. Lichen litterfall biomass was 3.42 kg/ha in open pine stands, 7.51 kg/ha in young mixed-species stands, 8.55 kg/ha in mature mixed-species stands...

  8. Deeply trapped electrons in imaging plates and their utilization for extending the dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, Hiroko; Kondo, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The absorption spectra of deep centers in an imaging plate (IP) made of BaFBr 0:85 I 0:15 :Eu 2+ have been studied in the ultraviolet region. Electrons trapped in deep centers are considered to be the cause of unerasable and reappearing latent images in IPs over-irradiated with X-rays. Deep centers showed a dominant peak at around 320 nm, followed by two small peaks at around 345 and 380 nm. By utilizing deeply trapped electrons, we have attempted to extend the dynamic range of an IP. The IP was irradiated by 150-kV X-rays with doses from 8.07 mGy to 80.7 Gy. Reading out the latent image by the stimulation of Eu 2+ luminescence with a 633-nm He-Ne laser light from a conventional Fuji reader showed a linear relationship with irradiated dose up to 0.8 Gy, but then becoming non-linear. After fully erasing with visible light, unerasable latent images were read out using 635-nm semi-conductor laser light combined with a photon-counting detection system. The dose-response curve so obtained gave a further two orders of magnitude extending the dynamic range up to 80.7 Gy. Comprehensive results indicate that electrons supplied from deep centers to the F centers provided the extended dynamic range after the F centers became saturated. Based on these facts, a model of the excitation of deeply trapped electrons and PSL processes is proposed.

  9. Weathering and transport of chromium and nickel from serpentinite in the Coast Range ophiolite to the Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Breit, George N.; Hooper, Robert L.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Ranville, James F.

    2015-01-01

    A soil geochemical study in northern California was done to investigate the role that weathering and transport play in the regional distribution and mobility of geogenic Cr and Ni, which are both potentially toxic and carcinogenic. These elements are enriched in ultramafic rocks (primarily serpentinite) and the soils derived from them (1700–10,000 mg Cr per kg soil and 1300–3900 mg Ni per kg soil) in the Coast Range ophiolite. Chromium and Ni have been transported eastward from the Coast Range into the western Sacramento Valley and as a result, valley soil is enriched in Cr (80–1420 mg kg−1) and Ni (65–224 mg kg−1) compared to median values of U.S. soils of 50 and 15 mg kg−1, respectively. Nickel in ultramafic source rocks and soils is present in serpentine minerals (lizardite, antigorite, and chrysotile) and is more easily weathered compared to Cr, which primarily resides in highly refractory chromite ([Mg,Fe2+][Cr3+,Al,Fe3+]2O4). Although the majority of Cr and Ni in soils are in refractory chromite and serpentine minerals, the etching and dissolution of these minerals, presence of Cr- and Ni-enriched clay minerals and development of nanocrystalline Fe (hydr)oxides is evidence that a significant fractions of these elements have been transferred to potentially more labile phases.

  10. Seeded free-electron and inverse free-electron laser techniques for radiation amplification and electron microbunching in the terahertz range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sung

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analysis is presented that describes amplification of a seed THz pulse in a single-pass free-electron laser (FEL driven by a photoinjector. The dynamics of the radiation pulse and the modulated electron beam are modeled using the time-dependent FEL code, GENESIS 1.3. A 10-ps (FWHM electron beam with a peak current of 50–100 A allows amplification of a ∼1  kW seed pulse in the frequency range 0.5–3 THz up to 10–100 MW power in a relatively compact 2-m long planar undulator. The electron beam driving the FEL is strongly modulated, with some inhomogeneity due to the slippage effect. It is shown that THz microbunching of the electron beam is homogeneous over the entire electron pulse when saturated FEL amplification is utilized at the very entrance of an undulator. This requires seeding of a 30-cm long undulator buncher with a 1–3 MW of pump power with radiation at the resonant frequency. A narrow-band seed pulse in the THz range needed for these experiments can be generated by frequency mixing of CO_{2} laser lines in a GaAs nonlinear crystal. Two schemes for producing MW power pulses in seeded FELs are considered in some detail for the beam parameters achievable at the Neptune Laboratory at UCLA: the first uses a waveguide to transport radiation in the 0.5–3 THz range through a 2-m long FEL amplifier and the second employs high-gain third harmonic generation using the FEL process at 3–9 THz.

  11. Mass Dependent Fractionation of Hg Isotopes in Source Rocks, Mineral Deposits and Spring Waters of the California Coast Ranges, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. N.; Kesler, S. E.; Blum, J. D.; Rytuba, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    We present here the first study of the isotopic composition of Hg in rocks, ore deposits, and active hydrothermal systems from the California Coast Ranges, one of Earth's largest Hg-depositing systems. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence, which form the bedrock in the California Coast Ranges, are intruded and overlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks including the Clear Lake Volcanic Sequence. These rocks contain two types of Hg deposits, hot-spring deposits that form at shallow depths (<300 m) and silica-carbonate deposits that extend to greater depths (200 to 1000 m), as well as active springs and geothermal systems that release Hg to the present surface. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence contain clastic sedimentary rocks with higher concentrations of Hg than volcanic rocks of the Clear Lake Volcanic Field. Mean Hg isotope compositions for all three rock units are similar, although the range of values in Franciscan Complex rocks is greater than in either Great Valley or Clear Lake rocks. Hot spring and silica-carbonate Hg deposits have similar average isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from averages for the three rock units, although δ202Hg values for the Hg deposits have a greater variance than the country rocks. Precipitates from dilute spring and saline thermal waters in the area have similarly large variance and a mean δ202Hg value that is significantly lower than the ore deposits and rocks. These observations indicate there is little or no isotopic fractionation during release of Hg from its source rocks into hydrothermal solutions. Isotopic fractionation does appear to take place during transport and concentration of Hg in deposits, especially in their uppermost parts. Boiling of hydrothermal fluids is likely the most important process causing of the observed Hg isotope fractionation. This should result in the release of Hg with low δ202Hg values into the atmosphere from the top of these hydrothermal systems and a

  12. Investigation of Multiconfigurational Short-Range Density Functional Theory for Electronic Excitations in Organic Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubert, Mickaël; Hedegård, Erik D.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa

    2016-01-01

    -srDFT for a selected benchmark set of electronic excitations of organic molecules, covering the most common types of organic chromophores. This investigation confirms the expectation that the MC-srDFT method is accurate for a broad range of excitations and comparable to accurate wave function methods such as CASPT2......Computational methods that can accurately and effectively predict all types of electronic excitations for any molecular system are missing in the toolbox of the computational chemist. Although various Kohn-Sham density-functional methods (KS-DFT) fulfill this aim in some cases, they become...... and double excitations have been promising, it is nevertheless important that the accuracy of MC-srDFT is at least comparable to the best KS-DFT methods also for organic molecules that are typically of single-reference character. In this paper we therefore systematically investigate the performance of MC...

  13. Short-Range Electron Transfer in Reduced Flavodoxin: Ultrafast Nonequilibrium Dynamics Coupled with Protein Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Mainak; He, Ting-Fang; Lu, Yangyi; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping

    2018-05-03

    Short-range electron transfer (ET) in proteins is an ultrafast process on the similar timescales as local protein-solvent fluctuations thus the two dynamics are coupled. Here, we use semiquinone flavodoxin and systematically characterized the photoinduced redox cycle with eleven mutations of different aromatic electron donors (tryptophan and tyrosine) and local residues to change redox properties. We observed the forward and backward ET dynamics in a few picoseconds, strongly following a stretched behavior resulting from a coupling between local environment relaxations and these ET processes. We further observed the hot vibrational-state formation through charge recombination and the subsequent cooling dynamics also in a few picoseconds. Combined with the ET studies in oxidized flavodoxin, these results coherently reveal the evolution of the ET dynamics from single to stretched exponential behaviors and thus elucidate critical timescales for the coupling. The observed hot vibration-state formation is robust and should be considered in all photoinduced back ET processes in flavoproteins.

  14. Climate Drives Episodic Conifer Establishment after Fire in Dry Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica T. Rother

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, warming climate and increased fire activity have raised concern about post-fire recovery of western U.S. forests. We assessed relationships between climate variability and tree establishment after fire in dry ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. We harvested and aged over 400 post-fire juvenile ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii trees using an improved tree-ring based approach that yielded annually-resolved dates and then assessed relationships between climate variability and pulses of tree establishment. We found that tree establishment was largely concentrated in years of above-average moisture availability in the growing season, including higher amounts of precipitation and more positive values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Under continued climate change, drier conditions associated with warming temperatures may limit forest recovery after fire, which could result in lower stand densities or shifts to non-forested vegetation in some areas.

  15. Oxygen isotope studies of early Precambrian granitic rocks from the Giants Range batholith, northeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S.

    1974-01-01

    Oxygen isotope studies of granitic rocks from the 2.7 b.y.-old composite Giants Range batholith show that: (1) ??(O18)quartz values of 9 to 10 permil characterize relatively uncontaminated Lower Precambrian, magmatic granodiorites and granites; (2) granitic rocks thought to have formed by static granitization have ??(O18)quartz values that are 1 to 2 permil higher than magmatic granitic rocks; (3) satellite leucogranite bodies have values nearly identical to those of the main intrusive phases even where they transect O18-rich metasedimentary wall rocks; (4) oxygen isotopic interaction between the granitic melts and their O18-rich wall rocks was minimal; and (5) O18/O18 ratios of quartz grains in a metasomatic granite are largely inherited from the precursor rock, but during the progression - sedimentary parent ??? partially granitized parent ??? metasomatic granite ??? there is gradual decrease in ??(O18)quartz by 1 to 2 permil. ?? 1974.

  16. Long-Range Intramolecular Electronic Communication in a Trinuclear Ruthenium Tropolonate Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Jun; Kuwahara, Kyohei; Suzuki, Kota; Yuge, Hidetaka

    2017-02-20

    (trop) 3 ] units in 3 seems to be enhanced upon oxidation, resulting in the long-range intramolecular electronic communication.

  17. An accurate energy-range relationship for high-energy electron beams in arbitrary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Brahme, A.

    1994-01-01

    A general analytical energy-range relationship has been derived to relate the practical range, R p to the most probable energy, E p , of incident electron beams in the range 1 to 50 MeV and above, for absorbers of any atomic number. In the present study only Monte Carlo data determined with the new ITS.3 code have been employed. The standard deviations of the mean deviation from the Monte Carlo data at any energy are about 0.10, 0.12, 0.04, 0.11, 0.04, 0.03, 0.02 mm for Be, C, H 2 O, Al, Cu, Ag and U, respectively, and the relative standard deviation of the mean is about 0.5% for all materials. The fitting program gives some priority to water-equivalent materials, which explains the low standard deviation for water. A small error in the fall-off slope can give a different value for R p . We describe a new method which reduces the uncertainty in the R p determination, by fitting an odd function to the descending portion of the depth-dose curve in order to accurately determine the tangent at the inflection point, and thereby the practical range. An approximate inverse relation is given expressing the most probable energy of an electron beam as a function of the practical range. The resultant relative standard error of the energy is less than 0.7%, and the maximum energy error ΔE p is less than 0.3 MeV. (author)

  18. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  19. Nonlinear ionization of many-electron systems over a broad photon-energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamatskou, Antonia

    2015-11-01

    Rapid developments in laser technology and, in particular, the advances in the realm of free-electron lasers have initiated tremendous progress in both theoretical and experimental atomic, molecular and optical physics. Owing to high intensities in combination with short pulse durations we can enter the utterly nonlinear regime of light-matter interaction and study the dynamics and features of matter under extreme conditions. The capabilities of X-ray free-electron laser sources have promoted the importance of nonlinear optics also in the X-ray regime. I show in my thesis how we can exploit the nonlinear response regime to reveal hidden information about resonance structures that are not resolved in the weak-field regime. This prospect points to many applications for future investigations of various complex systems with free-electron lasers. In the present thesis the interaction of atomic closed-shell systems with ultrashort and strong laser pulses is investigated. Over a broad photon-energy range the characteristics of the atomic shell are studied with a particular focus on the nonlinear response regime and on electron correlation effects. Several computational extensions of the XCID package for multi-electron dynamics are presented and their applications in various studies are demonstrated; a completely new capability of the numerical method is realized by implementing the calculation of photoelectron spectra and by calculating eigenstates of the many-electron Hamiltonian. The field of study within the present work encompasses (1) the strong-field regime, where the question of the adiabatic character in tunneling ionization is discussed and analyzed, especially for the case of few-cycle pulses; (2) the XUV regime, in which we show for the first time that the collectivity in resonant excitation reveals new information; and (3) the (hard) x-ray regime, which is highly relevant for x-ray free-electron laser experiments, and where we show how important two

  20. Competition on the range: science vs. perception in a bison-cattle conflict in the western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Durham, Susan; du Toit, Johan T

    2015-04-01

    1. Competition between livestock and wild ungulates is commonly perceived to occur on shared rangelands. In the Henry Mountains (HM) of Utah, a free-ranging population of bison Bison bison has raised concerns among ranchers holding grazing permits on these public lands. Bison are the most conspicuous potential competitors with cattle, but lagomorphs (mainly jackrabbits Lepus californicus ) are also abundant in this area. The local ranching community is applying political pressure on state and federal agencies to resolve 'the bison problem', but the relative grazing impacts of bison, cattle and lagomorphs have not previously been quantified. 2. We constructed 40 grazing exclosures (each 5·95 m 2 ) in the conflict area: 20 excluded bison + cattle ('partial') and 20 excluded bison + cattle + lagomorphs ('full'). All exclosures, each with a paired open reference plot, were monitored for 1 year, and above-ground plant production was measured. GPS telemetry (bison) and scheduled grazing (cattle) allowed visitation to be quantified for each ungulate species based on the number of 'animal days' in the area. Rancher perceptions of wildlife-cattle interactions were recorded in a questionnaire survey. 3. Ranchers perceived bison as a high-level competitor with cattle, whereas lagomorphs were perceived as low-level competitors. 4. Grazed reference plots yielded an average (±SE) of 22·7 g m -2 (±5·16) of grass, compared to 36·5 g m -2 (±7·33) in the partial exclosures and 43·7 g m -2 (±7·61) in the full exclosures. Exclusion of large herbivores thus resulted in a 13·8 g m -2 increase in grass biomass relative to the reference plots ( P = 0·005), with the additional exclusion of lagomorphs resulting in a further 7·18 g m -2 increase ( P = 0·048). 5. Overall, lagomorphs accounted for 34·1%, bison 13·7% and cattle 52·3% of the total grass biomass removed by all herbivores on the shared range. 6. Synthesis and applications . Cattle face a greater competitive

  1. RF-field generation in wide frequency range by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanovich, B.; Nesterovich, A.; Minaev, S.

    1996-01-01

    A simple device for generating powerful RF oscillations in the frequency range of 100-250 MHz is considered. The two-gaps cavity is based on the quarter-wavelength coaxial line loaded by drift tubes. Frequency tuning is accomplished by using the movable shorting plunger. A permanent electron beam being modulated at the first gap return the energy at the second one. The additional tube with the permanent decelerating potential, introduced into the main drift tube, allows to decrease the drift tube length and keep the excitation conditions in frequency tuning. Both autogeneration and amplification modes are under consideration. RF-parameters of the cavity and experimental results are described. (author)

  2. Calculation of Bremsstrahlung radiation of electrons on atoms in wide energy range of photons

    CERN Document Server

    Romanikhin, V P

    2002-01-01

    The complete spectra of the Bremsstrahlung radiation on the krypton atoms within the range of the photon energies of 10-25000 eV and lanthanum near the potential of the 4d-shell ionization is carried out. The atoms summarized polarizability is calculated on the basis of the simple semiclassical approximation of the local electron density and experimental data on the photoabsorption. The comparison with the calculational results is carried out through the method of distorted partial waves (PDWA) for Kr and with the experimental data on La

  3. Oribatid Mite Community Decline Two Years after Low-Intensity Burning in the Southern Cascade Range of California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Gillette

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess effects of low-intensity fire, we combined two silvicultural prescriptions with prescribed fire in the California Cascade Range. In the first treatment, two 100-ha stands were thinned to reduce density while retaining old-growth structural characteristics, yielding residual stands with high structural diversity (HSD. Two other 100-ha plots were thinned to minimize old growth structure, producing even-aged stands of low structural diversity (LSD, and one 50-ha split-plot from each treatment was burned. In addition, two 50 ha old-growth Research Natural Areas (RNA were selected as untreated reference plots, one of which was also burned. Fire treatments profoundly altered mite assemblages in the short term, and forest structure modification likely exacerbated that response. Sampling conducted two years following treatment confirmed a continuing decline in oribatid mite abundance. Oribatid species richness and assemblage heterogeneity also declined, and community dominance patterns were disrupted. Oribatid responses to fire were either more intense or began earlier in the LSD treatments, suggesting that removal of old-growth structure exacerbated mite responses to fire. Prostigmatids recovered quickly, but their populations nonetheless diminished significantly in burned split-plots. Mite assemblage responses to prescribed fire were continuing nearly two years later, with no clear evidence of recovery.

  4. Magmatic Activity Beneath the Quiescent Three Sisters Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, Inferred from Satellite InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, C. W.; Dzurisin, D.; Ingebritsen, S.; Thatcher, W.; Lu, Z.; Iverson, J.

    2001-12-01

    Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three Sisters volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The uplift is centered ~5 km west of South Sister volcano, the youngest stratovolcano in the volcanic center. The center has been volcanically inactive since the last eruption ~1500 years ago. Multiple European Space Agency ERS-1 and 2 satellite images from 1992 through 2000, used in this study, were selected based on orbital separation and time of year. Summer and early autumn scenes were necessary to avoid decorrelation from snow cover. Interferograms generated from these images indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an apparently ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted ~1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a magma reservoir prior to the uplift. High chloride and sulfate concentrations, and a positive correlation between chloride concentration and spring temperature were found within the uplift area, with larger SO4/Cl ratios in springs at higher elevations. These findings are indicative of a high-temperature hydrothermal system driven by magma intrusions. The current inflation episode observed with InSAR may lead to an eruption, but the more persistent geochemical evidence suggests that the episode is likely the latest in a series of hitherto undetected magma intrusions. We do not yet know if the inflation has abated, is continuing, or has accelerated since October 2000--we only know that the highest rate of uplift occurred in the last year for which ERS-2 data was available (1999- 2000). In May of 2001, a continuous GPS receiver and seismometer were installed by the USGS within the Three Sisters Wilderness to monitor the

  5. Variable range hopping in TiO2 insulating layers for oxide electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films are of importance in oxide electronics, e.g., Pt/TiO2/Pt for memristors and Co-TiO2/TiO2/Co-TiO2 for spin tunneling devices. When such structures are deposited at a variety of oxygen pressures, how does TiO2 behave as an insulator? We report the discovery of an anomalous resistivity minimum in a TiO2 film at low pressure (not strongly dependent on deposition temperature. Hall measurements rule out band transport and in most of the pressure range the transport is variable range hopping (VRH though below 20 K it was difficult to differentiate between Mott and Efros-Shklovskii's (ES mechanism. Magnetoresistance (MR of the sample with lowest resistivity was positive at low temperature (for VRH but negative above 10 K indicating quantum interference effects.

  6. Cobamide-mediated enzymatic reductive dehalogenation via long-range electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Cindy; Bommer, Martin; Hagen, Wilfred R; Uksa, Marie; Dobbek, Holger; Schubert, Torsten; Diekert, Gabriele

    2017-07-03

    The capacity of metal-containing porphyrinoids to mediate reductive dehalogenation is implemented in cobamide-containing reductive dehalogenases (RDases), which serve as terminal reductases in organohalide-respiring microbes. RDases allow for the exploitation of halogenated compounds as electron acceptors. Their reaction mechanism is under debate. Here we report on substrate-enzyme interactions in a tetrachloroethene RDase (PceA) that also converts aryl halides. The shape of PceA's highly apolar active site directs binding of bromophenols at some distance from the cobalt and with the hydroxyl substituent towards the metal. A close cobalt-substrate interaction is not observed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Nonetheless, a halogen substituent para to the hydroxyl group is reductively eliminated and the path of the leaving halide is traced in the structure. Based on these findings, an enzymatic mechanism relying on a long-range electron transfer is concluded, which is without parallel in vitamin B 12 -dependent biochemistry and represents an effective mode of RDase catalysis.

  7. Design of planar electron gun for UHF range, CW power inductive output tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Meenu; Joshi, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Inductive Output Tube (lOT) is an amplifier which is now-a-days in demand for scientific applications. For every vacuum tube, electron gun is an important part and in fact considered as the heart of the tube. Hence, designing of this component is very crucial for efficient operation of the device throughout its lifetime. This paper is all about the electromagnetic (EM) design of planar electron gun of 40 kV, 3.5 A beam voltage and beam current respectively, for a 100 kW CW power lOT operating in UHF range. The design considerations and basic equations involved in its design are included in the paper. The gun structure has been optimized for getting the desired beam characteristics. The simulation results including the beam profile along with the beam current are shown using two commercial codes namely TRAK and MAGIC code. Planar shape of electron beam reduces space charge forces in the beam itself and consequently beam energy spread for a given current. The magnetic focusing of planar beam is easier comparative to spherical beam hence, this structure has been adopted for this particular device design. (author)

  8. Electronic structure of disordered binary alloys with short range correlation in Bethe lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, I.F.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of the electronic structure of a disordered material along the tight-binding model when applied to a Bethe lattice. The diagonal as well as off-diagonal disorder, are considered. The coordination number on the Bethe is fixed lattice to four (Z=4) that occurs in most compound semiconductors. The main proposal was to study the conditions under which a relatively simple model of a disordered material, i.e, a binary alloy, could account for the basic properties of transport or more specifically for the electronic states in such systems. By using a parametrization of the pair probability the behaviour of the electronic density of states (DOS) for different values of the short range order parameter, σ, which makes possible to treat the segregated, random and alternating cases, was analysed. In solving the problem via the Green function technique in the Wannier representation a linear chain of atoms was considered and using the solution of such a 1-D system the problem of the Bethe lattice which is constructed using such renormalized chains as elements, was solved. The results indicate that the obtained DOS are strongly dependent on the correlation assumed for the occupancy in the lattice. (author) [pt

  9. Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.; Endo, Elliot T.

    2006-02-01

    intruding the upper crust along the brittle-ductile interface — a process that must occur episodically beneath the Cascade Range but in the past would have escaped detection in the absence of unusual seismicity. We speculate that such intrusive episodes last from days to years and are separated by quiescent periods of decades to centuries. The likelihood that the current episode at Three Sisters will culminate in an eruption is judged to be low, but the impact of an eruption could be great. The USGS has updated its volcano hazards assessment for the Three Sisters region, notified appropriate agencies and the public, and is helping to prepare an emergency coordination and communication plan.

  10. Validating a 1-D SVAT model in a range of USA and Australian ecosystems: evidence towards its use as a tool to study Earth's system interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, G. P.; North, M. R.; Ireland, G.; Srivastava, P. K.; Rendall, D. V.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the validation of the SimSphere SVAT model conducted at different ecosystem types in the USA and Australia. Specific focus was given to examining the models' ability in predicting Shortwave Incoming Solar Radiation (Rg), Net Radiation (Rnet), Latent Heat (LE), Sensible Heat (H), Air Temperature at 1.3 m (Tair 1.3 m) and Air Temperature at 50 m (Tair 50 m). Model predictions were compared against corresponding in situ measurements acquired for a total of 72 selected days of the year 2011 obtained from 8 sites belonging to the AmeriFlux (USA) and OzFlux (Australia) monitoring networks. Selected sites were representative of a variety of environmental, biome and climatic conditions, to allow for the inclusion of contrasting conditions in the model evaluation. The application of the model confirmed its high capability in representing the multifarious and complex interactions of the Earth system. Comparisons showed a good agreement between modelled and measured fluxes, especially for the days with smoothed daily flux trends. A good to excellent agreement between the model predictions and the in situ measurements was reported, particularly so for the LE, H, T1.3 m and T 50 m parameters (RMSD = 39.47, 55.06 W m-2, 3.23, 3.77 °C respectively). A systematic underestimation of Rg and Rnet (RMSD = 67.83, 58.69 W m-2, MBE = 67.83, 58.69 W m-2 respectively) was also found. Highest simulation accuracies were obtained for the open woodland savannah and mulga woodland sites for most of the compared parameters. Very high values of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index were also reported for all parameters ranging from 0.720 to 0.998, suggesting a very good model representation of the observations. To our knowledge, this study presents the first comprehensive validation of SimSphere, particularly so in USA and Australian ecosystem types. Findings are important and timely, given the rapidly expanding use of this model worldwide both as an educational and research

  11. Shared responsibility for managing electronic waste: A case study of Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Travis P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on high disposal and low recycling rates of electronic waste (e-waste) and continued exportation to developing countries, reliance on municipal responsibility for e-waste management has been unsuccessful in the United States. This case study examines Maine's program, which was the first US state to mandate producer responsibility for recycling household e-waste. Maine's program established a shared cost responsibility among producers, municipalities, and consumers. The study found that Maine's program resulted in a significant reduction in disposal and a corresponding increase in environmentally sound recycling. In the first 3 years of the program, 6.406 million kg of household e-waste was collected and recycled for a population of 1.32 million. The new program, implemented in 2006, increased the number of e-waste items collected and recycled by 108% in the first year, 170% in the second year, and 221% in the third year. The program decreased direct economic costs to municipalities and households because of the shared cost approach and for the first time established costs for producers. There was no empirical evidence indicating that producers have or will improve the recyclability of electronic products to reduce recycling costs. While other weaknesses were that found potentially limit the adoption of Maine's program, its positive aspects warrant consideration by other governments.

  12. Sphene and zircon in the Highland Range volcanic sequence (Miocene, southern Nevada, USA): Elemental partitioning, phase relations, and influence on evolution of silicic magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, L.L.; Miller, C.F.; Gualda, G.A.R.; Wooden, J.L.; Miller, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Sphene is prominent in Miocene plutonic rocks ranging from diorite to granite in southern Nevada, USA, but it is restricted to rhyolites in coeval volcanic sequences. In the Highland Range volcanic sequence, sphene appears as a phenocryst only in the most evolved rocks (72-77 mass% SiO2; matrix glass 77-78 mass% SiO2). Zr-in-sphene temperatures of crystallization are mostly restricted to 715 and 755??C, in contrast to zircon (710-920??C, Ti-in-zircon thermometry). Sphene rim/glass Kds for rare earth elements are extremely high (La 120, Sm 1200, Gd 1300, Lu 240). Rare earth elements, especially the middle REE (MREE), decrease from centers to rims of sphene phenocrysts along with Zr, demonstrating the effect of progressive sphene fractionation. Whole rocks and glasses have MREE-depleted, U-shaped REE patterns as a consequence of sphene fractionation. Within the co-genetic, sphene-rich Searchlight pluton, only evolved leucogranites show comparable MREE depletion. These results indicate that sphene saturation in intruded and extruded magmas occurred only in highly evolved melts: abundant sphene in less silicic plutonic rocks represents a late-stage 'bloom' in fractionated interstitial melt. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Electron response of some low-Z scintillators in wide energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiderski, L; Marcinkowski, R; Moszynski, M; Czarnacki, W; Szawlowski, M; Szczesniak, T; Pausch, G; Plettner, C; Roemer, K

    2012-01-01

    Light yield nonproportionality and the intrinsic resolution of some low atomic number scintillators were studied by means of the Wide Angle Compton Coincidence (WACC) technique. The plastic and liquid scintillator response to Compton electrons was measured in the energy range of 10 keV up to 4 MeV, whereas a CaF 2 :Eu sample was scanned from 3 keV up to 1 MeV. The nonproportionality of the CaF 2 :Eu light yield has characteristics typical for inorganic scintillators of the multivalent halides group, whereas tested organic scintillators show steeply increasing nonproportionality without saturation point. This is in contrast to the behavior of all known inorganic scintillators having their nonproportionality curves at saturation above energies between tens and several hundred keV.

  14. Electron response of some low-Z scintillators in wide energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, L.; Marcinkowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Szawlowski, M.; Szczesniak, T.; Pausch, G.; Plettner, C.; Roemer, K.

    2012-06-01

    Light yield nonproportionality and the intrinsic resolution of some low atomic number scintillators were studied by means of the Wide Angle Compton Coincidence (WACC) technique. The plastic and liquid scintillator response to Compton electrons was measured in the energy range of 10 keV up to 4 MeV, whereas a CaF2:Eu sample was scanned from 3 keV up to 1 MeV. The nonproportionality of the CaF2:Eu light yield has characteristics typical for inorganic scintillators of the multivalent halides group, whereas tested organic scintillators show steeply increasing nonproportionality without saturation point. This is in contrast to the behavior of all known inorganic scintillators having their nonproportionality curves at saturation above energies between tens and several hundred keV.

  15. Design, commissioning and operational results of wide dynamic range BPM switched electrode electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, T.; Doolittle, L.; Ursic, R.; Wagner, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is a high-intensity, continuous-wave electron accelerator for nuclear physics. Total acceleration of 4 GeV is achieved by recirculating the beam through two 400-MeV linacs. The operating currents over which the linac beam position monitoring system must meet specifications are 1 μA to 1000 μA. A system was developed in 1994 and installed in the spring of 1995 that switches four electrode signals at 120 kHz through two signal-conditioning chains that use computer-controlled variable gain amplifiers with a dynamic range greater than 80 dB. The system timing was tuned to the machine recirculation period of 4.2 μs so that components of the multipass beam could be resolved in the linacs. Other features of this VME-based system include long-term stability and high-speed data acquisition, which make it suitable for use as both a time-domain diagnostic tool and as part of a variety of beam feedback systems. The computer interface has enough control over the hardware to make a thorough self-calibration and verification-of-operation routine possible. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Tyrosine oxidation in heme oxygenase: examination of long-range proton-coupled electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Valeriy V; Roth, Justine P

    2014-10-01

    Heme oxygenase is responsible for the degradation of a histidine-ligated ferric protoporphyrin IX (Por) to biliverdin, CO, and the free ferrous ion. Described here are studies of tyrosyl radical formation reactions that occur after oxidizing Fe(III)(Por) to Fe(IV)=O(Por(·+)) in human heme oxygenase isoform-1 (hHO-1) and the structurally homologous protein from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (cdHO). Site-directed mutagenesis on hHO-1 probes the reduction of Fe(IV)=O(Por(·+)) by tyrosine residues within 11 Å of the prosthetic group. In hHO-1, Y58· is implicated as the most likely site of oxidation, based on the pH and pD dependent kinetics. The absence of solvent deuterium isotope effects in basic solutions of hHO-1 and cdHO contrasts with the behavior of these proteins in the acidic solution, suggesting that long-range proton-coupled electron transfer predominates over electron transfer.

  17. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA Great Plains: Part I. Spatial trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their substantial spatio-temporal behavior, long-term quantification and analyses of important hydrological variables are essential for practical applications in water resources planning, evaluating the water use of agricultural crop production and quantifying crop evapotranspiration patterns and irrigation management vs. hydrologic balance relationships. Observed data at over 800 sites across the Great Plains of USA, comprising of 9 states and 2,307,410 km2 of surface area, which is about 30% of the terrestrial area of the USA, were used to quantify and map large-scale and long-term (1968-2013) spatial trends of air temperatures, daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) at monthly, growing season and annual time steps. Air temperatures had a strong north to south increasing trend, with annual average varying from -1 to 24 °C, and growing season average temperature varying from 8 to 30 °C. DTR gradually decreased from western to eastern parts of the region, with a regional annual and growing season averages of 14.25 °C and 14.79 °C, respectively. Precipitation had a gradual shift towards higher magnitudes from west to east, with the average annual and growing season (May-September) precipitation ranging from 163 to 1486 mm and from 98 to 746 mm, respectively. ETo had a southwest-northeast decreasing trend, with regional annual and growing season averages of 1297 mm and 823 mm, respectively. AI increased from west to east, indicating higher humidity (less arid) towards the east, with regional annual and growing season averages of 0.49 and 0.44, respectively. The spatial datasets and maps for these important climate variables can serve as valuable background for climate change and hydrologic studies in the Great Plains region. Through identification of priority areas from the developed maps, efforts of the concerned personnel and agencies and resources can be diverted towards development

  18. The impacts of Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) invasion on wetland plant richness in the Oregon Coast Range, USA, depend on beavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, T.; Wilson, M.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive plants can threaten diversity and ecosystem function. We examined the relationship between the invasive Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) and species richness in beaver wetlands in Oregon, USA. Four basins (drainages) were chosen and three sites each of beaver impoundments, unimpounded areas and areas upstream of debris jams were randomly chosen in each basin for further study (n = 36). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that the relationship between Phalaris and species richness differed significantly (p = 0.01) by site type. Dam sites (beaver impoundments) exhibited a strong inverse relationship between Phalaris and species richness (bD = a??0.15), with one species lost for each 7% increase in Phalaris cover. In contrast, there was essentially no relationship between Phalaris cover and species richness in jam sites (debris jam impoundments formed by flooding; bJ = +0.01) and unimpounded sites (bU = a??0.03). The cycle of beaver impoundment and abandonment both disrupts the native community and provides an ideal environment for Phalaris, which once established tends to exclude development of herbaceous communities and limits species richness. Because beaver wetlands are a dominant wetland type in the Coast Range, Phalaris invasion presents a real threat to landscape heterogeneity and ecosystem function in the region.

  19. Improved Models and Tools for Prediction of Radiation Effects on Space Electronics in Wide Temperature Range, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All NASA exploration systems operate in the extreme environments of space and require reliable electronics capable of handling a wide temperature range (-180ºC to...

  20. Overpotential-induced lability of the electronic overlap factor in long-range electrochemical electron transfer: charge and distance dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornyshev, A. A.; Kuznetsov, A. M.; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    Long-distance electrochemical electron transfer exhibits approximately exponential dependence on the electron transfer distance. On the basis of a jellium model of the metal surface we show that the slope of the logarithm of the current vs. the transfer distance also depends strongly...

  1. Direct-Bandgap InAs Quantum-Dots Have Long-Range Electron--Hole Exchange Whereas Indirect Gap Si Dots Have Short-Range Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juo, J.W.; Franceschetti, A.; Zunger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Excitons in quantum dots manifest a lower-energy spin-forbidden 'dark' state below a spin-allowed 'bright' state; this splitting originates from electron-hole (e-h) exchange interactions, which are strongly enhanced by quantum confinement. The e-h exchange interaction may have both a short-range and a long-range component. Calculating numerically the e-h exchange energies from atomistic pseudopotential wave functions, we show here that in direct-gap quantum dots (such as InAs) the e-h exchange interaction is dominated by the long-range component, whereas in indirect-gap quantum dots (such as Si) only the short-range component survives. As a result, the exciton dark/bright splitting scales as 1/R 2 in InAs dots and 1/R 3 in Si dots, where R is the quantum-dot radius.

  2. Long-range intramolecular electron transfer in aromatic radical anions and binuclear transition metal complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A. M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    1981-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer (ET) over distances up to about 10 Å between states in which the electron is localized on donor and acceptor groups by interaction with molecular or external solvent nuclear motion occurs, in particular, in two classes of systems. The excess electron in anionic ra...

  3. Variable-range hopping in 2D quasi-1D electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teber, S.

    2005-12-01

    A semi-phenomenological theory of variable-range hopping (VRH) is developed for two-dimensional (2D) quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) systems such as arrays of quantum wires in the Wigner crystal regime. The theory follows the phenomenology of Efros, Mott and Shklovskii allied with microscopic arguments. We first derive the Coulomb gap in the single-particle density of states, g(ε), where ε is the energy of the charge excitation. We then derive the main exponential dependence of the electron conductivity in the linear (L), i.e. σ(T) ∼ exp [-(T L /T) γL ], and current in the non-linear (NL), i.e. j(E) ∼ [-(E NL /E) γNL ], response regimes (E is the applied electric field). Due to the strong anisotropy of the system and its peculiar dielectric properties we show that unusual, with respect to known results, Coulomb gaps open followed by unusual VRH laws, i.e. with respect to the disorder-dependence of T L and E NL and the values of γ L and γ NL . (author)

  4. Electron spin resonance for the detection of long-range spin nematic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shunsuke C.; Momoi, Tsutomu

    2018-03-01

    Spin nematic phase is a quantum magnetic phase characterized by a quadrupolar order parameter. Since the quadrupole operators are directly coupled to neither the magnetic field nor the neutron, currently, it is an important issue to develop a method for detecting the long-range spin nematic order. In this paper, we propose that electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements enable us to detect the long-range spin nematic order. We show that the frequency of the paramagnetic resonance peak in the ESR spectrum is shifted by the ferroquadrupolar order parameter together with other quantities. The ferroquadrupolar order parameter is extractable from the angular dependence of the frequency shift. In contrast, the antiferroquadrupolar order parameter is usually invisible in the frequency shift. Instead, the long-range antiferroquadrupolar order yields a characteristic resonance peak in the ESR spectrum, which we call a magnon-pair resonance peak. This resonance corresponds to the excitation of the bound magnon pair at the wave vector k =0 . Reflecting the condensation of bound magnon pairs, the field dependence of the magnon-pair resonance frequency shows a singular upturn at the saturation field. Moreover, the intensity of the magnon-pair resonance peak shows a characteristic angular dependence and it vanishes when the magnetic field is parallel to one of the axes that diagonalize the weak anisotropic interactions. We confirm these general properties of the magnon-pair resonance peak in the spin nematic phase by studying an S =1 bilinear-biquadratic model on the square lattice in the linear flavor-wave approximation. In addition, we argue applications to the S =1/2 frustrated ferromagnets and also the S =1/2 orthogonal dimer spin system SrCu2(BO3)2, both of which are candidate materials of spin nematics. Our theory for the antiferroquadrupolar ordered phase is consistent with many features of the magnon-pair resonance peak experimentally observed in the low

  5. Assessment of oscillator strengths with multiconfigurational short-range density functional theory for electronic excitations in organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan

    2017-01-01

    considered the large collection of organic molecules whose excited states were investigated with a range of electronic structure methods by Thiel et al. As a by-product of our calculations of oscillator strengths, we also obtain electronic excitation energies, which enable us to compare the performance......We have in a series of recent papers investigated electronic excited states with a hybrid between a complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function and density functional theory (DFT). This method has been dubbed the CAS short-range DFT method (CAS–srDFT). The previous papers...

  6. Cluster analyses of 20th century growth patterns in high elevation Great Basin bristlecone pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T. J.; Bruening, J. M.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a useful climate proxy because of the species' long lifespan (up to 5000 years) and the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Past studies have shown that growth of individual trees can be limited by temperature, soil moisture, or a combination of the two depending on biophysical setting at the scale of tens of meters. We extend recent research suggesting that trees vary in their growth response depending on their position on the landscape to analyze how growth patterns vary over time. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to examine the growth of 52 bristlecone pine trees near the treeline of Mount Washington, Nevada, USA. We classified growth of individual trees over the instrumental climate record into one of two possible scenarios: trees belonging to a temperature-sensitive cluster and trees belonging to a precipitation-sensitive cluster. The number of trees in the precipitation-sensitive cluster outnumbered the number of trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster, with trees in colder locations belonging to the temperature-sensitive cluster. When we separated the temporal range into two sections (1895-1949 and 1950-2002) spanning the length of the instrumental climate record, we found that most of the 52 trees remained loyal to their cluster membership (e.g., trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster in 1895-1949 were also in the temperature sensitive cluster in 1950-2002), though not without exception. Of those trees that do not remain consistent in cluster membership, the majority changed from temperature-sensitive to precipitation-sensitive as time progressed. This could signal a switch from temperature limitation to water limitation with warming climate. We speculate that topographic complexity in high mountain environments like Mount Washington might allow for climate refugia where growth response could remain constant over the Holocene.

  7. Evaluation of Heterotrophy in in Serpentinite-Associated Waters from the Coast Range Ophiolite, Northern California, USA and the Zambales Ophiolite, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, T. J.; Arcilla, C. A.; Cardace, D.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T. M.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    The deep biosphere in cold, dark sub-seafloor ultramafic rocks (i.e., those rocks rich in Fe and Mg) is stressed by exceedingly high pH, transient, if any, inorganic carbon availability, and little known organic carbon inventories. As a test of heterotrophic carbon use, serpentinite-associated waters (from groundwater sampling wells and associated surface seepages in tectonically uplifted mantle units in ophiolites) were tested for differences with respect to aqueous geochemistry and performance in EcoPlates™ - Biolog Inc. .. This work focuses on two field locations for water sampling: the Coast Range Ophiolite, CA, USA, and the Zambales Ophiolite, Philippines. Characteristics of each sampling site are presented (pH, mineral substrate, Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio, aqueous metal loads, etc.). Complementary EcoPlate™ results [prefabricated 96-well plates, seeded with triplicate experiments for determining microbiological community response to difference organic carbon sources; a triplicate control experiment with just water is built in to the plate also] are also presented. We found that waters from selected California [groundwater wells (7 discrete wells) and related surface seeps (5 hydrologically connected sites)] and Philippines [4 Zambales Ophiolite springs/seepages] sourced in serpentinites were analyzed. EcoPlate™ average well-color development (AWCD), which demonstrates microbial activities averaged per plate (as in Garland and Mills, 1991), differs across sites. Correlations of AWCD with environmental data (such as pH, oxidation-reduction potential or ORP, Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio, and Fe contents) are evaluated. Clarifying the geochemical-biological relationships that bear out in these analyses informs discourse on the energetic limits of life in serpentinizing systems, with relevance to ultramafic-hosted life on continents and in the seabed.

  8. Role of electron correlation and long range magnetic order in the electronic structure of Ca(Sr)RuO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ravi Shankar; Medicherla, V.R.R.; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2008-01-01

    The room temperature photoemission spectra collected at different surface sensitivities reveal qualitatively different surface and bulk electronic structures in CaRuO 3 and SrRuO 3 . The extracted bulk spectra are dominated by the coherent feature intensity with a weak correlation induced feature at higher binding energies. The First principle calculations provide a wonderful representation of the bulk spectra for the effective electron correlation strength, U/W∼0.2 as expected for highly extended 4d systems. This resolves a long-standing issue that arose due to the prediction of large U/W similar to 3d systems. Photoemission spectra across the magnetic phase transition reveal unusual evolution exhibiting a large reduction in the coherent feature intensity in the bulk spectrum of SrRuO 3 , while the bulk spectrum in CaRuO 3 remains almost the same down to the lowest temperature studied

  9. Electron scattering from alkenes in the energy range 200-4500 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramarachchi, P.; Palihawadana, P.; Villela, G.; Ariyasinghe, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Total electron scattering cross sections (TCS) of C 2 H 4 (ethylene), C 3 H 6 (propene), C 4 H 8 (butene) and C 4 H 6 (1,3-butadiene) have been obtained for 200-4500 eV electrons by the measurement of electron-beam intensity attenuation through a gas cell. An analytical expression is deduced to predict the intermediate energy TCS of chain-like hydrocarbons with C-C single and double bonds. The present experimental TCS are compared with the previous experimental measurements and the predictions by theoretical models.

  10. Mode-conversion process and overdense-plasma heating in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, S.; Abe, H.

    1988-01-01

    Through a particle-simulation investigation, a new mode-conversion process, through which an incident fast extraordinary mode (fast X mode) is converted into an electron Bernstein mode (B mode) via a (slow extraordinary mode slow X mode), is discovered in plasmas whose maximum density exceeds the cutoff density of the slow X mode. The converted B mode is found to heat the electrons efficiently in an overdense plasma region, when the plasma has the optimum density gradient at the plasma surface

  11. Single-molecule Mapping of Long-range Electron Transfer for a Cytochrome b562 Variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Chi, Qijin; Jones, D. Dafydd

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome b562 was engineered to introduce a cysteine residue at a surface-exposed position to facilitate direct self-assembly on a Au(111) surface. The confined protein exhibited reversible and fast electron exchange with a gold substrate over a distance of 20 Å between the heme redox center an...

  12. A measurement of auroral electrons in the 1–10 MeV range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, J.N. van; Beek, H.F. van; Fetter, L.D. de; Hendrickx, R.V.

    Particle fluxes have been measured by means of shielded Geiger-Müller telescopes mounted m a rocket, which was launched from ESRANGE(Kiruna) into a diffuse aurora. The analysis of the dependence of the counting rates on altitude indicates that a weak flux of energetic electrons, 1–10 MeV, has been

  13. ECR [electron cyclotron resonance] discharges maintained by radiation in the millimeter wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, Yu.V.; Golubev, S.V.; Eremeev, A.G.; Zorin, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that plasmas formed by microwave breakdown of gases under electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) conditions can serve as an efficient source for ion beams. The major disadvantage of this type of source is relatively low ion beam currents which generally do not exceed 1 A (for an electron density of ∼10 12 cm -3 in the discharge). Raising the current density in the ion beams requires a higher plasma density, which can be obtained by using higher frequencies. Thus, a study has recently been made of the parameters of the plasma formed by ECR breakdown in a linear confinement system employing pulsed radiation at a frequency of 60 GHz. The maximum electron densities obtained in the experiment were 2·10 13 cm -3 at a gas pressure of 3·10 -4 torr. In this paper the authors describe some experiments on the creation of plasmas by means of quasi-cw electromagnetic radiation at a frequency of 100 GHz under electron cyclotron resonance conditions

  14. Axial anomaly in e+e- → γγ and the long-range electron attraction in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teryaev, O.V.

    1991-12-01

    The spin-dependent total cross-section of e + e - → γγ is shown to have a δ(q 2 ) singularity for m e → 0. The corresponding massless excitation provides a long-range pairing force between transverse polarized electrons moving in a plane. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs

  15. Single-Nanoparticle Resolved Biomimetic Long-Range Electron Transfer and Electrocatalysis of Mixed-Valence Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Hao, Xian; Ulstrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Long-range electron transfer (LRET) is a core elementary step in a wealth of processes central to chemistry and biology, including photosynthesis, respiration, and catalysis. In nature, biological catalysis is performed by enzymes. However, enzymes are structurally fragile and have limited stabil...

  16. Coupled quantum-classical method for long range charge transfer: relevance of the nuclear motion to the quantum electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, Robson; Hoff, Diego A; Rego, Luis G C

    2015-01-01

    Charge and excitonic-energy transfer phenomena are fundamental for energy conversion in solar cells as well as artificial photosynthesis. Currently, much interest is being paid to light-harvesting and energy transduction processes in supramolecular structures, where nuclear dynamics has a major influence on electronic quantum dynamics. For this reason, the simulation of long range electron transfer in supramolecular structures, under environmental conditions described within an atomistic framework, has been a difficult problem to study. This work describes a coupled quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method that aims at describing long range charge transfer processes in supramolecular systems, taking into account the atomistic details of large molecular structures, the underlying nuclear motion, and environmental effects. The method is applied to investigate the relevance of electron–nuclei interaction on the mechanisms for photo-induced electron–hole pair separation in dye-sensitized interfaces as well as electronic dynamics in molecular structures. (paper)

  17. Wide Temperature Range DC-DC Boost Converters for Command/Control/Drive Electronics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We shall develop wide temperature range DC-DC boost converters that can be fabricated using commercial CMOS foundries. The boost converters will increase the low...

  18. ESTAR, PSTAR, ASTAR. A PC package for calculating stopping powers and ranges of electrons, protons and helium ions. Version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A PC package is documented for calculating stopping powers and ranges of electrons, protons and helium ions in matter for energies from 1 keV up to 10 GeV. Stopping powers and ranges for electrons can be calculated for any element, compound or mixture. Stopping powers and ranges of protons and helium ions can be calculated for 74 materials (26 elements and 48 compounds and mixtures). The files are stored on two HD diskettes in compressed form. Both executable files for IBM PC and Fortran-77 source files are provided. All three programs require 5.2 Mb of disk space. This set of two diskettes with detailed documentation is available upon request, cost free, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author). 25 refs, 4 tabs

  19. Detection of electrons in the 10 MeV range by plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudoin, G; Champagne, A; Jeremie, H; Lessard, L

    1986-09-10

    Response functions for electrons from 1 to 12 MeV have been measured with a plastic scintillator telescope. A parametrization model for these response functions has been found to give good results at all energies. Furthermore it was established that the type of reflector used for the scintillator has a considerable influence on the response functions. A mechanism for this influence has been proposed and tested by Monte Carlo calculations.

  20. Detour factors in water and plastic phantoms and their use for range and depth scaling in electron-beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Varea, J.M.; Andreo, P.; Tabata, T.

    1996-01-01

    Average penetration depths and detour factors of 1-50 MeV electrons in water and plastic materials have been computed by means of analytical calculation, within the continuous-slowing-down approximation and including multiple scattering, and using the Monte Carlo codes ITS and PENELOPE. Results are compared to detour factors from alternative definitions previously proposed in the literature. Different procedures used in low-energy electron-beam dosimetry to convert ranges and depths measured in plastic phantoms into water-equivalent ranges and depths are analysed. A new simple and accurate scaling method, based on Monte Carlo-derived ratios of average electron penetration depths and thus incorporating the effect of multiple scattering, is presented. Data are given for most plastics used in electron-beam dosimetry together with a fit which extends the method to any other low-Z plastic material. A study of scaled depth - dose curves and mean energies as a function of depth for some plastics of common usage shows that the method improves the consistency and results of other scaling procedures in dosimetry with electron beams at therapeutic energies. (author)

  1. Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Manero, F.

    1996-01-01

    Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO 2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV have been measured with experimental errors of ∼3%. The present results have been compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The dependence of the total cross sections on electron energy shows an asymptotic behavior with increasing energies, in agreement with the Born-Bethe approximation. In addition, an analytical formula is provided to extrapolate total cross sections to higher energies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Wave propagation and absorption in the electron cyclotron frequency range for TCA and TCV machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinali, A.

    1990-01-01

    The main theoretical aspects of the propagation and absorption of electron cyclotron frequency waves are reviewed and applied to TCA and TCV tokamak plasmas. In particular the electromagnetic cold dispersion relation is solved analytically and numerically in order to recall the basic properties of mode propagation and to calculate the ray-trajectories by means of geometric optics. A numerical code which integrates the coupled first order differential ray-equations, has been developed and applied to the cases of interest. (author) 4 figs., 23 refs

  3. Testing and Comparison of Imaging Detectors for Electrons in the Energy Range 10-20 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, J.; Moldovan, G.; Kirkland, A.; Allinson, N.; Abrahams, J. P.

    2017-11-01

    Interest in direct detectors for low-energy electrons has increased markedly in recent years. Detection of electrons in the energy range up to low tens of keV is important in techniques such as photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) on scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). The PEEM technique is used both in the laboratory and on synchrotron light sources worldwide. The ubiquity of SEMs means that there is a very large market for EBSD detectors for materials studies. Currently, the most widely used detectors in these applications are based on indirect detection of incident electrons. Examples include scintillators or microchannel plates (MCPs), coupled to CCD cameras. Such approaches result in blurring in scintillators/phosphors, distortions in optical systems, and inefficiencies due the limited active area of MCPs. In principle, these difficulties can be overcome using direct detection in a semiconductor device. Growing out of a feasibility study into the use of a direct detector for use on an XPEEM, we have built at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory a system to illuminate detectors with an electron beam of energy up to 20 keV . We describe this system in detail. It has been used to measure the performance of a custom back-thinned monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS), a detector based on the Medipix2 chip, and a commercial detector based on MCPs. We present a selection of the results from these measurements and compare and contrast different detector types.

  4. Ellipsometry and energy characterization of the electron impact polymerization in the range 0–20 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyn, V.I.

    2016-01-01

    The electron impact polymerization of adsorbed vapors of a hydrocarbon vacuum oil with molecular mass 450 Da (C 32 H 66 ) has been studied in-situ in the range 0–20 eV using ellipsometry and a servo system with the Kelvin's vibrating probe. This allowed registering at the same time the two energy-dependent characteristics (spectra) of the process: the film growth rate and the electrical potential of the irradiated surface. The first spectrum has two resonance maxima near 2.5 and 9.5 eV while the surface potential has only one weak extremum near 9.5 eV. The first growth rate peak at 2.5 eV was connected with a creation of radicals through a resonant process of the dissociative electron attachment and beginning polymerization. The peaks at 9.5 eV in both the spectra mean accelerating polymerization and decreasing surface charge owing to simultaneous birth of highly active radicals and free electrons. The single resonant process controlling both the processes simultaneously is the dissociative attachment of an electron to an anti-bonding molecular orbital, almost the same as at the 2.5 eV but differing by deeper decomposition of the transient anion, among the products of which are now not the radicals only but also free electrons. The kinetic curves obtained in pulsed regimes of the electron bombardment were qualitatively identical for different precursors and were used for calculations of cross sections of these processes. - Highlights: • Obtaining spectra of activated polymerization using ellipsometry and Kelvin probe. • Identified: two resonant and one non-resonant mechanisms of the activation. • The resonances are due to the action of the dissociative electron attachment. • Kinetics of transient processes in adsorbed layer under 20 eV pulsed electron beam.

  5. Photoinduced electron transfer for an eosin-tyrosine conjugate. Activity of the tyrosinate anion in long-range electron transfer in a protein-like polymer matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G. II; Feng, Z.; Oh, C. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1995-03-23

    The Xanthene dye eosin Y has been modified via a thiohydantoin link to the amine terminus of the amino acid L-tyrosine. Photochemical electron transfer involving the singlet state of the dye and the attached phenol-containing residue led to a reduction in eosin fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime for aqueous solutions at elevated pH. The conjugate provided an electron transfer product of relatively long lifetime (1 {mu}s range) observed by flash photolysis of solutions at pH 12.0, conditions under which the tyrosine moiety is ionized. The effects of binding of the conjugate in the polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) on the rates of electron transfer of species of different charge type were examined. 30 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Using the Medipix3 detector for direct electron imaging in the range 60 keV to 200 keV in electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, J. A.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; dos Santos, J. M. F.

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid pixel sensor technology such as the Medipix3 represents a unique tool for electron imaging. We have investigated its performance as a direct imaging detector using a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) which incorporated a Medipix3 detector with a 300 μm thick silicon layer compromising of 256×256 pixels at 55 μm pixel pitch. We present results taken with the Medipix3 in Single Pixel Mode (SPM) with electron beam energies in the range, 60-200 keV . Measurements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) were investigated. At a given beam energy, the MTF data was acquired by deploying the established knife edge technique. Similarly, the experimental data required to determine DQE was obtained by acquiring a stack of images of a focused beam and of free space (flatfield) to determine the Noise Power Spectrum (NPS).

  7. Rabbit System. Low cost, high reliability front end electronics featuring 16 bit dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, G.; Droege, T.F.; Nelson, C.A. Jr.; Turner, K.J.; Ohska, T.K.

    1985-10-01

    A new crate-based front end system has been built which features low cost, compact packaging, command capability, 16 bit dynamic range digitization, and a high degree of redundancy. The crate can contain a variety of instrumentation modules, and is designed to be situated close to the detector. The system is suitable for readout of a large number of channels via parallel multiprocessor data acquisition

  8. Modular Power Electronic Converters in the Power Range 1 to 10 kW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel

    Thanks to CO2 emission reduction policies and increasing prices of fossil fuels a significant growth in field of sustainable energy sources (SES) is being observed during last decade. A government support and take-off projects in Europe and US shall ensure an increasing trend in future too. Some...... of SES based plants , like hydro-, geothermal-, biofuel-plants, use synchronous generators directly connected to the grid. But some other SES technologies, like fuel cell or photovoltaic, require a power electronic converter between the energy source and the load or the grid. Work presented...... in this thesis concentrates on dc-dc non-isolated converters suitable for high voltage gain applications, like uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and some of sustainable energy sources. A special attention is on reduction of power losses and efficiency improvements in non-isolated dc-dc step-up converters...

  9. Electron irradiation effect on short-range ordering in Cu-Al and Ag-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, N.P.; Mel'nikova, N.A.; Petrenko, P.V.; Ryabishchuk, A.L.; Tatarov, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Method of X-ray diffuse scattering is used to study short-range order variation in Cu-Al and Ag-Al alloys under radiation effect and the following heat treatment. Irradiation was carried out at -40 deg C by 1.6 MeV electrons, fluence of 5x10 7 cm -2 and 0.5 MeV gamma-rays, the dose being 10 7 pH

  10. Dynamic Confinement of ITER Plasma by O-Mode Driver at Electron Cyclotron Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2009-05-01

    A low B-field side launched electron cyclotron O-Mode driver leads to the dynamic rf confinement, in addition to rf turbulent heating, of ITER plasma. The scaling law for the local energy confinement time τE is evaluated (τE ˜ 3neTe/2Q, where (3/2) neTe is the local plasma thermal energy density and Q is the local rf turbulent heating rate). The dynamics of unstable dissipative trapped particle modes (DTPM) strongly coupled to Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for gyrotron frequency 170GHz; power˜24 MW CW; and on-axis B-field ˜ 10T. In the case of dynamic stabilization of DTPM turbulence and for the heavily damped T-G modes, the energy confinement time scales as τE˜(I0)-2, whereby I0(W/m^2) is the O-Mode driver irradiance. R. Prater et. al., Nucl. Fusion 48, No 3 (March 2008). E. P. Velikhov, History of the Russian Tokamak and the Tokamak Thermonuclear Fusion Research Worldwide That Led to ITER (Documentary movie; Stefan Studios Int'l, La Jolla, CA, 2008; E. P. Velikhov, V. Stefan.) M N Rosenbluth, Phys. Scr. T2A 104-109 1982 B. B. Kadomtsev and O. P. Pogutse, Nucl. Fusion 11, 67 (1971).

  11. Long-range electron transfer in zinc-phthalocyanine-oligo(phenylene-ethynylene)-based donor-bridge-acceptor dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson, Erik; Boixel, Julien; Fortage, Jérôme; Jacquemin, Denis; Becker, Hans-Christian; Blart, Errol; Hammarström, Leif; Odobel, Fabrice

    2012-11-05

    In the context of long-range electron transfer for solar energy conversion, we present the synthesis, photophysical, and computational characterization of two new zinc(II) phthalocyanine oligophenylene-ethynylene based donor-bride-acceptor dyads: ZnPc-OPE-AuP(+) and ZnPc-OPE-C(60). A gold(III) porphyrin and a fullerene has been used as electron accepting moieties, and the results have been compared to a previously reported dyad with a tin(IV) dichloride porphyrin as the electron acceptor (Fortage et al. Chem. Commun. 2007, 4629). The results for ZnPc-OPE-AuP(+) indicate a remarkably strong electronic coupling over a distance of more than 3 nm. The electronic coupling is manifested in both the absorption spectrum and an ultrafast rate for photoinduced electron transfer (k(PET) = 1.0 × 10(12) s(-1)). The charge-shifted state in ZnPc-OPE-AuP(+) recombines with a relatively low rate (k(BET) = 1.0 × 10(9) s(-1)). In contrast, the rate for charge transfer in the other dyad, ZnPc-OPE-C(60), is relatively slow (k(PET) = 1.1 × 10(9) s(-1)), while the recombination is very fast (k(BET) ≈ 5 × 10(10) s(-1)). TD-DFT calculations support the hypothesis that the long-lived charge-shifted state of ZnPc-OPE-AuP(+) is due to relaxation of the reduced gold porphyrin from a porphyrin ring based reduction to a gold centered reduction. This is in contrast to the faster recombination in the tin(IV) porphyrin based system (k(BET) = 1.2 × 10(10) s(-1)), where the excess electron is instead delocalized over the porphyrin ring.

  12. A wide dynamic range BF3 neutron monitor with front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrarini, M.; Varoli, V.; Favalli, A.; Caresana, M.; Pedersen, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a wide dynamic range neutron monitor based on a BF 3 neutron detector. The detector is used in current mode, and front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier are used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many orders of magnitude. The system has been calibrated at the Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude, being able to measure single neutron pulses and showing saturation-free response for a reaction rate up to 10 6 s -1 . It has also proved effective in measuring the PUNITA facility pulse integral fluence.

  13. A wide dynamic range BF{sub 3} neutron monitor with front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrarini, M., E-mail: michele.ferrarini@polimi.i [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Fondazione CNAO, via Caminadella 16, 20123 Milano (Italy); Varoli, V. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP 800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Caresana, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP 800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a wide dynamic range neutron monitor based on a BF{sub 3} neutron detector. The detector is used in current mode, and front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier are used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many orders of magnitude. The system has been calibrated at the Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude, being able to measure single neutron pulses and showing saturation-free response for a reaction rate up to 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. It has also proved effective in measuring the PUNITA facility pulse integral fluence.

  14. Highly accurate nuclear and electronic stopping cross sections derived using Monte Carlo simulations to reproduce measured range data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmaack, Klaus; Mutzke, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We have examined and confirmed the previously unexplored concept of using Monte Carlo calculations in combination with measured projected ranges of ions implanted in solids to derive a quantitative description of nuclear interaction and electronic stopping. The study involved 98 ranges of 11B in Si between 1 keV and 8 MeV, contained in 12 sets of 10 different groups. Systematic errors by up to ±8% were removed to establish a refined data base with 93 ranges featuring only statistical uncertainties (±1.8%). The Monte Carlo calculations could be set up to reproduce the refined ranges with a mean ratio 1.002 ± 1.7%. The input parameters required for this very high level of agreement are as follows. Nuclear interaction is best described by the Kr-C potential, but in obligatory combination with the Lindhard-Scharff (LS) screening length. Up to 300 keV, the electronic stopping cross section is proportional to the projectile velocity, Se = kSe,LS, with k = 1.46 ± 0.01. At higher energies, Se falls progressively short of kSe,LS. Around the Bragg peak, i.e., between 0.8 and 10 MeV, Se is modeled by an adjustable function serving to tailor the peak shape properly. Calculated and measured isotope effects for ranges of 10B and 11B in Si agree within the experimental uncertainty (±0.25%). The range-based Se,R(E) reported here predicts the scarce experimental data derived from the energy loss in projectile transmission through thin Si foils to within 2% or better. By contrast, Se(E) data of available stopping power tables exhibit deviations from Se,R(E) between -40% and +14%.

  15. Characterisation of a monolithic active pixel sensor for electron detection in the energy range 10-20 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, J.; Moldovan, G.; Clark, A.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; Derbyshire, G.; Kirkland, A.; Allinson, N.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a feasibility study into the use of novel electron detectors for X-ray photoelectron emission microscopes (XPEEM), we have characterised the imaging performance of a back-illuminated monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) operating under both integrating and counting modes for electrons in the energy range 10-20 keV. For integrating mode, we present the detective quantum efficiency (DQE), which shows marked improvements over conventional indirect detectors based on microchannel plates. We also present the modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS), again demonstrating significantly improved performance. For counting mode, we present the quantum efficiency (QE) as a function of incident electron energy. We have evaluated the charge collection efficiency (CCE) and we thereby demonstrate the presence of a ∼200 nm thick dead layer that is linked with reduced CCE at low electron energies. Based on our findings, we believe that the MAPS technology is well matched to future XPEEM instruments using aberration correction.

  16. Short range photoinduced electron transfer in proteins: QM-MM simulations of tryptophan and flavin fluorescence quenching in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, Patrik R.; Liu Tiqing

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid quantum mechanical-molecular mechanics (dynamics) were performed on flavin reductase (Fre) and flavodoxin reductase (Fdr), both from Escherichia coli. Each was complexed with riboflavin (Rbf) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN). During 50 ps trajectories, the relative energies of the fluorescing state (S 1 ) of the isoalloxazine ring and the lowest charge transfer state (CT) were assessed to aid prediction of fluorescence lifetimes that are shortened due to quenching by electron transfer from tyrosine. The simulations for the four cases display a wide range in CT-S 1 energy gap caused by the presence of phosphate, other charged and polar residues, water, and by intermolecular separation between donor and acceptor. This suggests that the Gibbs energy change (ΔG 0 ) and reorganization energy (λ) for the electron transfer may differ in different flavoproteins

  17. Ranges, Reflection and Secondary Electron Emission for keV Hydrogen Ions Incident on Solid N2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, P.; Sørensen, H.; Hao-Ming, Chen

    1983-01-01

    Ranges were measured for 0.67–3.3 keV/amu hydrogen and deuterium ions in solid N2. Comparisons with similar results for N2-gas confirm the previously observed large phase effect in the stopping cross section. Measurements of the secondary electron emission coefficient for bulk solid N2 bombarded...... by 0.67–9 keV/amu ions also seem to support such a phase effect. It is argued that we may also extract information about the charge state of reflected projectiles....

  18. Total projectile electron loss cross sections of U^{28+} ions in collisions with gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Beam lifetimes of stored U^{28+} ions with kinetic energies of 30 and 50  MeV/u, respectively, were measured in the experimental storage ring of the GSI accelerator facility. By using the internal gas target station of the experimental storage ring, it was possible to obtain total projectile electron loss cross sections for collisions with several gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton from the beam lifetime data. The resulting experimental cross sections are compared to predictions by two theoretical approaches, namely the CTMC method and a combination of the DEPOSIT code and the RICODE program.

  19. A re-evaluation of the initial yield of the hydrated electron in the picosecond time range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroya, Yusa; Lin Mingzhang; Wu, Guozhong; Iijima, Hokuto; Yoshii, Koji; Ueda, Toru; Kudo, Hisaaki; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2005-01-01

    The yield of the hydrated electron in the picosecond time range has been re-evaluated with an ultrafast pulse radiolysis system using a laser photocathode RF-gun in combination with a conventional one, and a value of 4.1±0.2 per 100 eV of absorbed energy at 20 ps was derived. This is consistent with recent experimental results using a time correlation method [Bartels et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1686-1691 (2000)] and with Monte-Carlo calculations [Muroya et al., Can. J. Chem. 80 1367-1374 (2002)

  20. Extensive disordering in long-range-ordered Cu3Au induced by severe plastic deformation studied by transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentenberger, C.; Karnthaler, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline materials can be made by severe plastic deformation. In L1 2 long-range-ordered alloys, this leads to extensive disordering which influences the highly improved properties of these nanocrystalline alloys. Transmission electron microscopy methods were applied to Cu 3 Au; both diffraction contrast images and diffraction patterns reveal that disordering takes place locally. It is concluded that in addition to disordering by the refinement of the grown-in antiphase boundary domains, the formation of antiphase boundary tubes is a prominent process of disordering. The latter is facilitated by the fact that, unlike dislocations, antiphase boundary tubes can be stored at a very high density without causing long-range stresses. The local disordering indicates that the nanocrystalline structure nucleates inhomogeneously in the highly strained disordered regions

  1. Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in terahertz spectral range by free-electron laser radiation and their refractive index determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, G.D.; Jeong, Uk Young; Zhizhin, G.N.; Nikitin, A.K.; Zavyalov, V.V.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    First experiments for observation of surface electromagnetic waves (SEW) in the terahertz spectral range generated on dense aluminum films covering the optical quality glass plates are presented in this paper. Coherent radiation of the new free-electron laser covering the frequency range from 30 to 100cm -1 was used. The interference technique employing SEW propagation in the part of one shoulder of the asymmetric interferometer was applied. From the interference pattern the real part of SEW's effective refractive index ae ' was determined for the two laser emission wavelengths: at λ=150μm-ae ' =1+5x10 -5 , at λ=110μm-ae ' =1+8x10 -4 . High sensitivity of the interference patterns to overlayers made of Ge and Si with thickness of 100nm was demonstrated as well

  2. Gold nanoparticle assisted assembly of a heme protein for enhancement of long-range interfacial electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Palle Skovhus; Chi, Qijin; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg

    2007-01-01

    and characterization of water-soluble gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with core diameter 3-4 nm and their application for the enhancement of long-range interfacial ET of a heme protein. Gold nanoparticles were electrostatically conjugated with cyt c to form nanoparticle-protein hybrid ET systems with well...... and the protein molecule. When the nanoparticle-protein conjugates are assembled on Au(111) surfaces, long-range interfacial ET across a physical distance of over 50 A via the nanoparticle becomes feasible. Moreover, significant enhancement of the interfacial ET rate by more than an order of magnitude compared...... with that of cyt c in the absence of AuNPs is observed. AuNPs appear to serve as excellent ET relays, most likely by facilitating the electronic coupling between the protein redox center and the electrode surface....

  3. Excitation of higher radial modes of azimuthal surface waves in the electron cyclotron frequency range by rotating relativistic flow of electrons in cylindrical waveguides partially filled by plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girka, Igor O.; Pavlenko, Ivan V.; Thumm, Manfred

    2018-05-01

    Azimuthal surface waves are electromagnetic eigenwaves of cylindrical plasma-dielectric waveguides which propagate azimuthally nearby the plasma-dielectric interface across an axial external stationary magnetic field. Their eigenfrequency in particular can belong to the electron cyclotron frequency range. Excitation of azimuthal surface waves by rotating relativistic electron flows was studied in detail recently in the case of the zeroth radial mode for which the waves' radial phase change within the layer where the electrons gyrate is small. In this case, just the plasma parameters cause the main influence on the waves' dispersion properties. In the case of the first and higher radial modes, the wave eigenfrequency is higher and the wavelength is shorter than in the case of the zeroth radial mode. This gain being of interest for practical applications can be achieved without any change in the device design. The possibility of effective excitation of the higher order radial modes of azimuthal surface waves is demonstrated here. Getting shorter wavelengths of the excited waves in the case of higher radial modes is shown to be accompanied by decreasing growth rates of the waves. The results obtained here are of interest for developing new sources of electromagnetic radiation, in nano-physics and in medical physics.

  4. Electron capture on 20Ne and the ultimate fate of stars in the mass range 8-10 M⊙

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsebom, Oliver S.; Cederkall, Joakim; Jenkins, David G.; Joshi, Pankaj; Julin, Rauno; Kankainen, Anu; Trzaska, Wladyslaw H.; Kibedi, Tibor; Tengblad, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the electron-capture rate on 20 Ne is of critical importance to understand the final evolution of stars in the mass range 8-10M⊙. A recent study has highlighted the importance of the second-forbidden transition between the ground states of 20 Ne and 20 F, which is believed to dominate the capture rate in an important temperature-density range. The strength of this transition is, however, not well constrained, neither experimentally nor theoretically, making an experimental determination highly desirable. The transition strength can be determined from the branching ratio of the inverse transition in the decay of 20 F, for which the experimental upper limit is 10 -5 , while the most recent theoretical prediction is 1.3 x 10 -6 . To facilitate an experimental determination of the branching ratio we are refurbishing an intermediate-image magnetic spectrometer capable of focusing 7 MeV electrons, and designing a scintillator detector surrounded by an active cosmic-ray veto shield, which will serve as an energy- dispersive device at the focal plane. In this contribution, GEANT4 simulations of the expected performance of the setup will be presented and the astrophysical motivation for the experiment will be discussed. (author)

  5. Short- and medium-range order of atomic structure and electronic properties of arsenic salinide and sulphide amorphous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarsembinov, Sh.Sh.; Prikhodko, O.Yu.; Ryaguzov, A.P.; Maksimova, S.Ya.; Ushanov, V.Zh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The relationship between short- and medium-range order of atomic structure and electronic properties is the object of invariable attention of disordered matter physics. This problem is the most important for non-crystalline semiconductors, and specifically for chalcogenide glassy semiconductors (ChGS) films due to low co-ordination of atoms, which leads to lability of their structure. In this report we present results of atomic structure, electric, optical properties and carrier drift investigation in amorphous films of As 2 Se 3 and As 2 S 3 prepared by thermal evaporation in a vacuum (TE films) and by RF ion-plasma sputtering (RF films). These techniques strongly differing in the conditions of substance vaporization and condensation atoms on a substrate. The short- and medium-range order of the films atomic structure has been studied by X-ray diffraction analysis using the CuKα radiation (λ=1.5418 Angstrom) and by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were measured at room temperature on Perkin-Elmer Spectrum GX Raman FT-IR Spectrometer (180 deg. backscattering). Vibrational modes were excited vertically polarized light of DPY Nd:YAG laser (1.064 μm). The radii of the first and second coordination spheres, number of the nearest neighbours of As and Se (S) atoms in the first coordination sphere, dimension of the medium-range order domain and 'quasi-period' in that region have been determined for the studied samples. The identification of the structural units in matrix of the film has been carried out, too. It is established that the films prepared by different methods have differences in the parameters of short- and medium range orders. It follows from the comparative analysis of Raman spectra that spectrum of RF films is significantly more complex than that of glass and TE films. The matrix of RF films contains, along with the structural units AsSe 3/2 (AsS 3/2 ) inherent in TE films and glass, other structural units with As and Se (S) excess. It may be

  6. Douglas-fir tussock moth- and Douglas-fir beetle-caused mortality in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Ann M. Lynch; Willis C. Schaupp; Vladimir Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir...

  7. Developing landscape habitat models for rare amphibians with small geographic ranges: a case study of Siskiyou Mountains salamanders in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuya Suzuki; Deanna H. Olson; Edward C. Reilly

    2007-01-01

    To advance the development of conservation planning for rare species with small geographic ranges, we determined habitat associations of Siskiyou Mountains salamanders (Plethodon stormi) and developed habitat suitability models at fine (10 ha), medium (40 ha), and broad (202 ha) spatial scales using available geographic information systems data and...

  8. Seasonal variation in diel behaviour and habitat use by age 1+ steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Coast and Cascade Range streams in Oregon, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Jon B. Grunbaum; Dirk W. Lang

    2009-01-01

    The seasonal diel behaviour of age 1+ steelhead from Coast and Cascade Range streams in Oregon was examined in the field and in laboratory streams. During the summer, fish from both areas were active during the day in natural streams: they held position in the water column in moderate velocities and depths. At night, fish were in slower water, closer to the bottom...

  9. Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anchi; Ye, Xiong; Ionascu, Dan; Cao, Wenxiang; Champion, Paul M.

    2005-11-01

    An electronically delayed two-color pump-probe instrument was developed using two synchronized laser systems. The instrument has picosecond time resolution and can perform scans over hundreds of nanoseconds without the beam divergence and walk-off effects that occur using standard spatial delay systems. A unique picosecond Ti :sapphire regenerative amplifier was also constructed without the need for pulse stretching and compressing optics. The picosecond regenerative amplifier has a broad wavelength tuning range, which suggests that it will make a significant contribution to two-color pump-probe experiments. To test this instrument we studied the rotational correlation relaxation of myoglobin (τr=8.2±0.5ns) in water as well as the geminate rebinding kinetics of oxygen to myoglobin (kg1=1.7×1011s-1, kg2=3.4×107s-1). The results are consistent with, and improve upon, previous studies.

  10. Opto-electronic device for frequency standard generation and terahertz-range optical demodulation based on quantum interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Nikos P.; Polzik, Eugene S.; Kimble, H. Jeff

    1999-02-02

    An opto-electronic system and technique for comparing laser frequencies with large frequency separations, establishing new frequency standards, and achieving phase-sensitive detection at ultra high frequencies. Light responsive materials with multiple energy levels suitable for multi-photon excitation are preferably used for nonlinear mixing via quantum interference of different excitation paths affecting a common energy level. Demodulation of a carrier with a demodulation frequency up to 100's THZ can be achieved for frequency comparison and phase-sensitive detection. A large number of materials can be used to cover a wide spectral range including the ultra violet, visible and near infrared regions. In particular, absolute frequency measurement in a spectrum from 1.25 .mu.m to 1.66 .mu.m for fiber optics can be accomplished with a nearly continuous frequency coverage.

  11. Static, dynamic and electronic properties of expanded fluid mercury in the metal-nonmetal transition range. An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CalderIn, L; Gonzalez, L E; Gonzalez, D J

    2011-01-01

    Fluid Hg undergoes a metal-nonmetal (M-NM) transition when expanded toward a density of around 9 g cm -3 . We have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for several thermodynamic states around the M-NM transition range and the associated static, dynamic and electronic properties have been analyzed. The calculated static structure shows a good agreement with the available experimental data. It is found that the volume expansion decreases the number of nearest neighbors from 10 (near the triple point) to around 8 at the M-NM transition region. Moreover, these neighbors are arranged into two subshells and the decrease in the number of neighbors occurs in the inner subshell. The calculated dynamic structure factors agree fairly well with their experimental counterparts obtained by inelastic x-ray scattering experiments, which display inelastic side peaks. The derived dispersion relation exhibits some positive dispersion for all the states, although its value around the M-NM transition region is not as marked as suggested by the experiment. We have also calculated the electronic density of states, which shows the appearance of a gap at a density of around 8.3 g cm -3 . (paper)

  12. Relations between stellar mass and electron temperature-based metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a wide mass range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Wei-Bin; Zhao Gang; Ruan Gui-Ping; Zhou Li; Liang Yan-Chun; Shao Xu; Liu Xiao-Wei; Hammer Francois; Flores Hector; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    We select 947 star-forming galaxies from SDSS-DR7 with [O III]λ4363 emission lines detected at a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5σ. Their electron temperatures and direct oxygen abundances are then determined. We compare the results from different methods. t 2 , the electron temperature in the low ionization region, estimated from t 3 , that in the high ionization region, is compared using three analysis relations between t 2 – t 3 . These show obvious differences, which result in some different ionic oxygen abundances. The results of t 3 , t 2 , O ++ /H + and O + /H + derived by using methods from IRAF and literature are also compared. The ionic abundances O ++ /H + are higher than O + /H + for most cases. The different oxygen abundances derived from T e and the strong-line ratios show a clear discrepancy, which is more obvious following increasing stellar mass and strong-line ratio R 23 . The sample of galaxies from SDSS with detected [O III]λ4363 have lower metallicites and higher star formation rates, so they may not be typical representatives of the whole population of galaxies. Adopting data objects from Andrews and Martini, Liang et al. and Lee et al. data, we derive new relations of stellar mass and metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a much wider stellar mass range: from 10 6 M ⊙ to 10 11 M ⊙ . (research papers)

  13. A comparison of geochemical exploration techniques and sample media within accretionary continental margins: an example from the Pacific Border Ranges, Southern Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, S.J.; Goldfarb, R.J.; O'Leary, R. M.; Tripp, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Pacific Border Ranges of the southern Alaskan Cordillera are composed of a number of allochthonous tectonostratigraphic terranes. Within these terranes are widespread volcanogenic, massive sulfide deposits in and adjacent to portions of accreted ophiolite complexes, bands and disseminations of chromite in accreted island-arc ultramafic rocks, and epigenetic, gold-bearing quartz veins in metamorphosed turbidite sequences. A geochemical pilot study was undertaken to determine the most efficient exploration strategy for locating these types of mineral deposits within the Pacific Border Ranges and other typical convergent continental margin environments. High-density sediment sampling was carried out in first- and second-order stream channels surrounding typical gold, chromite and massive sulfide occurrences. At each site, a stream-sediment and a panned-concentrate sample were collected. In the laboratory, the stream sediments were sieved into coarse-sand, fine- to medium-sand, and silt- to clay-size fractions prior to analysis. One split of the panned concentrates was retained for analysis; a second split was further concentrated by gravity separation in heavy liquids and then divided into magnetic, weakly magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions for analysis. A number of different techniques including atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and semi-quantitative emission spectrography were used to analyze the various sample media. Comparison of the various types of sample media shows that in this tectonic environment it is most efficient to include a silt- to clay-size sediment fraction and a panned-concentrate sample. Even with the relatively low detection limits for many elements by plasma spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry, anomalies reflecting the presence of gold veins could not be identified in any of the stream-sediment fractions. Unseparated panned-concentrate samples should be analyzed by emission

  14. Directional change during a Miocene R-N geomagnetic polarity reversal recorded by mafic lava flows, Sheep Creek Range, north central Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogue, S. W.; Glen, J. M. G.; Jarboe, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Recurring transitional field directions during three Miocene geomagnetic reversals provide evidence that lateral inhomogeneity of the lower mantle affects flow in the outer core. We compare new paleomagnetic results from a composite sequence of 15.2 Ma lava flows in north central Nevada (Sheep Creek Range; 40.7°N, 243.2°E), erupted during a polarity reversal, to published data from Steens Mountain (250 km to the northwest in Oregon) and the Newberry Mountains (650 km to the south in California) that document reversals occurring millions of years and many polarity switches earlier. Alternating field demagnetization, followed by thermal demagnetization in half the samples, clearly isolated the primary thermoremanent magnetization of Sheep Creek Range flows. We correlated results from our three sampled sections to produce a composite record that begins with a single virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) at low latitude in the Atlantic, followed by two VGPs situated near latitude 30°N in NE Africa. After jumping to 83°N (one VGP), the pole moves to equatorial South America (one VGP), back to NE Africa (three VGPs), to high southern latitudes (two VGPs), back to equatorial South America (three VGPs), and finally to high northern latitudes (nine VGPs). The repeated visits of the transitional VGP to positions in South America and near NE Africa, as well as the similar behavior recorded at Steens Mountain and the Newberry Mountains, suggest that lower mantle or core-mantle boundary features localize core flow structures, thereby imparting a discernible regional structure on the transitional geomagnetic field that persists for millions of years.

  15. Insights into the establishment of the Manila clam on a tidal flat at the southern end of an introduced range in Southern California, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew M Talley

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystem modifications have contributed to the spread of introduced species through alterations of historic disturbance regimes and resource availability, and increased propagule pressure. Frequency of occurrence of the Manila clam (Venerupis phillipinarum, Veneridae in Southern California estuaries has increased from absent or sparse to common since the mid-1990s. Potential invasion vectors include seafood sales and aquaculture, and spread from established northern populations over decades. The clam's post-settlement habitat preferences are, however, uncertain in this region. Our project aimed to identify factors associated with established patches of the clam within a bay toward the southern end of this introduced range. During summer 2013, we sampled 10 tidal flat sites in Mission Bay, San Diego; each containing an area with and without hard structure (e.g., riprap, boulders. We measured likely environmental influences (e.g., sediment variables, distance to ocean. Manila clam densities across the bay were most strongly associated with site, where highest densities were located in the northern and/or back halves of the bay; and weakly correlated with lower porewater salinities. Within sites, Manila clam density was enhanced in the presence of hard structure in most sites. Prevailing currents and salinity regimes likely contribute to bay wide distributions, while hard structures may provide suitable microhabitats (refuge from predators and physical stress and larval entrapment within sites. Results provide insights into decisions about future shoreline management efforts. Finally, we identify directions for future study to better understand and therefore predict patterns of establishment of the Manila clam in the southern portion of its introduced range.

  16. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from grocery stores and farms in Maryland, Ohio and Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yuqing; Verma, Shiv K; Kwok, Oliver C H; Alibana, Fatima; Mcleod, Rima; Su, Chunlei; Dubey, Jitender P; Pradhan, Abani K

    2017-05-01

    Chickens are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii. Chicken hearts (n = 1185) obtained from grocery stores were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in fluid removed from the heart cavity using the modified agglutination test (MAT) at 1:5, 1:25, and 1:100 dilutions. MAT antibodies were detected in 222 hearts at 1:5 dilution and 8 hearts at 1:25 dilution, but none were positive at 1:100 dilution. Seropositive (n = 230, 19.4%) chicken hearts were bioassayed in mice and seronegative (n = 157) chickens were bioassayed in cats. Viable T. gondii was not isolated from any hearts by bioassays in mice. The 2 cats fed 60 and 97 hearts did not excrete T. gondii oocysts. The results indicate a low prevalence of viable T. gondii in chickens from grocery stores. Molecular typing of 23 archived T. gondii strains isolated from free-range chickens from Ohio and Massachusetts using the 10 PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and altSAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed that seven were ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1, 11 were genotype #2, one was genotype #3, three were genotype #170, and one was mixed genotype. These results indicate that the clonal genotypes #1 (type II), #2 (type III), and #3 (type II variant) are common in free-range chickens.

  17. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  18. Investigating the influence of long-range transport on surface O{sub 3} in Nevada, USA, using observations from multiple measurement platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, Rebekka, E-mail: rebekkafine@gmail.com [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Miller, Matthieu B. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T. [Atmospheric Science Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer, E-mail: mgustin@cabnr.unr.edu [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The current United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O{sub 3} (75 ppb) is expected to be revised to between 60 and 70 ppb. As the NAAQS becomes more stringent, characterizing the extent of O{sub 3} and precursors transported into the US is increasingly important. Given the high elevation, complex terrain, and location in the Intermountain West, the State of Nevada is ideally situated to intercept air transported into the US. Until recently, measurements of O{sub 3} and associated pollutants were limited to areas in and around the cities of Las Vegas and Reno. In 2011, the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative began and through this project 13 surface monitoring sites were established. Also in 2011, the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) began making routine aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} and other greenhouse gases in Nevada. The availability of aircraft and surface measurements in a relatively rural, remote setting in the Intermountain West presented a unique opportunity to investigate sources contributing to the O{sub 3} observed in Nevada. Our analyses indicate that stratosphere to troposphere transport, long-range transport of Asian pollution, and regional emissions from urban areas and wildfires influence surface observations. The complexity of sources identified here along with the fact that O{sub 3} frequently approaches the threshold being considered for a revised NAAQS indicate that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to achieve compliance with a more stringent regulatory standard. Further, on a seasonal basis we found no significant difference between daily 1-h maximum O{sub 3} at surface sites, which ranged in elevation from 888 to 2307 m, and aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} < 2500 m which suggests that similar processes influence daytime O{sub 3} across rural Nevada and indicates that column measurements from Railroad Valley, NV are useful in understanding these processes. - Highlights:

  19. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  20. Apparent field safety of a raccoon poxvirus-vectored plague vaccine in free-ranging prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W; Rocke, Tonie E; Streich, Sean P; Abbott, Rachel C; Osorio, Jorge E; Miller, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) suffer high rates of mortality from plague. An oral sylvatic plague vaccine using the raccoon poxvirus vector (designated RCN-F1/V307) has been developed for prairie dogs. This vaccine is incorporated into palatable bait along with rhodamine B as a biomarker. We conducted trials in August and September 2012 to demonstrate uptake and apparent safety of the RCN-F1/V307 vaccine in two prairie dog species under field conditions. Free-ranging prairie dogs and other associated small rodents readily consumed vaccine-laden baits during field trials with no apparent adverse effects; most sampled prairie dogs (90%) and associated small rodents (78%) had consumed baits. Visual counts of prairie dogs and their burrows revealed no evidence of prairie dog decline after vaccine exposure. No vaccine-related morbidity, mortality, or gross or microscopic lesions were observed. Poxviruses were not isolated from any animal sampled prior to bait distribution or on sites that received placebo baits. We isolated RCN-F1/V307 from 17 prairie dogs and two deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) captured on sites where vaccine-laden baits were distributed. Based on these findings, studies examining the utility and effectiveness of oral vaccination to prevent plague-induced mortality in prairie dogs and associated species are underway.

  1. Apparent field safety of a raccoon poxvirus-vectored plague vaccine in free-ranging prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Miller, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) suffer high rates of mortality from plague. An oral sylvatic plague vaccine using the raccoon poxvirus vector (designated RCN-F1/V307) has been developed for prairie dogs. This vaccine is incorporated into palatable bait along with rhodamine B as a biomarker. We conducted trials in August and September 2012 to demonstrate uptake and apparent safety of the RCN-F1/V307 vaccine in two prairie dog species under field conditions. Free-ranging prairie dogs and other associated small rodents readily consumed vaccine-laden baits during field trials with no apparent adverse effects; most sampled prairie dogs (90%) and associated small rodents (78%) had consumed baits. Visual counts of prairie dogs and their burrows revealed no evidence of prairie dog decline after vaccine exposure. No vaccine-related morbidity, mortality, or gross or microscopic lesions were observed. Poxviruses were not isolated from any animal sampled prior to bait distribution or on sites that received placebo baits. We isolated RCN-F1/V307 from 17 prairie dogs and two deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) captured on sites where vaccine-laden baits were distributed. Based on these findings, studies examining the utility and effectiveness of oral vaccination to prevent plague-induced mortality in prairie dogs and associated species are underway.

  2. Ionization Energies, Electron Affinities, and Polarization Energies of Organic Molecular Crystals: Quantitative Estimations from a Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM)–Tuned Range-Separated Density Functional Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haitao; Ryno, Sean; Zhong, Cheng; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Sun, Zhenrong; Kö rzdö rfer, Thomas; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for the first-principles description of the electronic properties relevant for charge transport in organic molecular crystals. This methodology, which is based on the combination of a non-empirical, optimally tuned range

  3. Radiation-Hardening of Best-In-Class SiGe Mixed-Signal and RF Electronics for Ultra-Wide Temperature Range, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative, reliable, low-power, and low-noise electronics that can operate over a wide temperature range and high radiation are critical for future NASA missions....

  4. HEALTH SURVEY OF FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN CENTRAL PARK, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, USA: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN AND DOMESTIC ANIMAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Kimberly L; Marchese, Krysten; Slavinski, Sally; Humberg, Lee A; Dubovi, Edward J; Jarvis, Jodie A; McAloose, Denise; Calle, Paul P

    2017-04-01

    We conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in Central Park, New York City, US, in February 2010, September 2010, and November 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. Five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. We tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus (CDV), respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all were negative for both viruses. Endoparasitism was the most common necropsy finding, with definitive identification of Baylisascaris procyonis in six of eight (75%) necropsied raccoons. Multiple intestinal parasites were detected in feces of living raccoons, including ascarid-type ova in 25 of 80 (31%) raccoons, with B. procyonis confirmed in one sample. Median blood lead level was 7.3 μg/dL (n=104). Rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer was ≥0.5 IU/mL in 9 of 88 (10%) raccoons naive to rabies vaccination and in 13 of 20 (65%) previously vaccinated raccoons. The majority of raccoons we tested were seropositive for canine parvovirus-2 (54/59, 92%) and Toxoplasma gondii (39/60, 65%). Fewer were seropositive for Rickettsia rickettsii (3/30, 10%). None were seropositive for CDV (n=108), canine adenovirus-1 (n=60), or Borrelia burgdorferi (n=30). Ectoparasites found during 16 of 118 (13.6%) physical examinations included Ixodes texanus ticks (15/118, 12.7%) and Trichodectes octomaculatus lice (1/118, 0.8%). We detected Campylobacter jejuni in 5 of 79 (6%) fecal samples. We detected 11 Salmonella enterica serotypes in 70 of 111 (63.1%) enteric cultures, the most common of which were Salmonella Newport (20/70, 29%) and Salmonella Oranienburg (20/70, 29%). These results indicate that raccoons in Central Park likely are involved in the environmental occurrence and potential disease transmission of a variety of infectious and noninfectious diseases of concern for human, wildlife

  5. Study of Primary Cosmic Ray Electrons In Energy Range 10^11 - 10^13 Ev By Pamela Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, S.; Pamela Collaboration

    The main goal of the magnetic spectrometer PAMELA is the study of antiparticle fluxes with energy up to 300 GeV in cosmic rays on board satellite. A modification of instrument was done by introducing of neutron detector. This device was placed under imaging calorimeter and bottom scintillator counter. It consists of two layers of 36 3He gas counters enveloped by a polyethylene moderator. The neutron detector gives additional possibility to identify the antiprotons going in aperture of spectrome- ter and generating the nuclear cascade in tungsten plates of calorimeter. This shower is followed by big number of neutrons in contrast to electromagnetic one caused by elec- tron or positron. From other side the combination of the imaging calorimeter, bottom scintillator and neutron detector constitute the independent instrument with large field of view which gives the possibility to measure the electron-positron cosmic ray com- ponent in energy range 1011-1013 eV with a rejection factor of order 10-4 regarding to nuclear one.

  6. Observations of the scatter-free solar-flare electrons in the energy range 20-1000 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Fisk, L. A.; Lin, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Observations of the scatter-free electron events from solar active region McMath No. 8905 are presented. The measurements were made on Explorer 33 satellite. The data show that more than 80% of the electrons from these events undergo no or little scattering and that these electrons travel only approximately 1.5 a.u. between the sun and the earth. The duration of these events cannot be accounted fully by velocity dispersion alone. It is suggested that these electrons could be continuously injected into interplanetary medium for a time interval of approximately 2 to 3 minutes. Energy spectra of these electrons are discussed.

  7. Does an electronic continuum correction improve effective short-range ion-ion interactions in aqueous solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Ellen E.; van der Vegt, Nico F. A.

    2018-06-01

    Non-polarizable force fields for hydrated ions not always accurately describe short-range ion-ion interactions, frequently leading to artificial ion clustering in bulk aqueous solutions. This can be avoided by adjusting the nonbonded anion-cation or cation-water Lennard-Jones parameters. This approach has been successfully applied to different systems, but the parameterization is demanding owing to the necessity of separate investigations of each ion pair. Alternatively, polarization effects may effectively be accounted for using the electronic continuum correction (ECC) of Leontyev et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8024 (2003)], which involves scaling the ionic charges with the inverse square-root of the water high-frequency dielectric permittivity. ECC has proven to perform well for monovalent salts as well as for divalent salts in water. Its performance, however, for multivalent salts with higher valency remains unexplored. The present work illustrates the applicability of the ECC model to trivalent K3PO4 and divalent K2HPO4 in water. We demonstrate that the ECC models, without additional tuning of force field parameters, provide an accurate description of water-mediated interactions between salt ions. This results in predictions of the osmotic coefficients of aqueous K3PO4 and K2HPO4 solutions in good agreement with experimental data. Analysis of ion pairing thermodynamics in terms of contact ion pair (CIP), solvent-separated ion pair, and double solvent-separated ion pair contributions shows that potassium-phosphate CIP formation is stronger with trivalent than with divalent phosphate ions.

  8. Improved Models and Tools for Prediction of Radiation Effects on Space Electronics in Wide Temperature Range, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All NASA exploration systems operate in the extreme environments of space (Moon, Mars, etc.) and require reliable electronics capable of handling a wide temperature...

  9. Electron spectroscopy in the X-ray range for occupied and free levels and the application to transition metal silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speier, W.

    1988-03-01

    Intermetallic compounds of transition metals are investigated by means of XPS, Bremsstrahlung Isochromate Spectroscopy and XAS. Occupied and free levels are characterized and moreover a systematic overview over the electronic structure of the transition element silicides is given. (BHO)

  10. Density functional theory studies on the structures and electronic communication of meso-ferrocenylporphyrins: long range orbital coupling via porphyrin core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Qi, Dongdong; Zhang, Yuexing; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2011-02-01

    The molecular and electronic structures together with the electronic absorption spectra of a series of metal free meso-ferrocenylporphyrins, namely 5-ferrocenylporphyrin (1), 5,10-diferrocenylporphyrin (2), 5,15-diferrocenylporphyrin (3), 5,10,15-triferrocenylporphyrin (4), and 5,10,15,20-tetraferrocenylporphyrin (5) have been studied with the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. For the purpose of comparative studies, metal free porphyrin without any ferrocenyl group (0) and isolated ferrocene (6) were also calculated. The effects of the number and position of meso-attached ferrocenyl substituents on their molecular and electronic structures, atomic charges, molecular orbitals, and electronic absorption spectra of 1-5 were systematically investigated. The orbital coupling is investigated in detail, explaining well the long range coupling of ferrocenyl substituents connected via porphyrin core and the systematic change in the electronic absorption spectra of porphyrin compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-range electron transfer in porphyrin-containing [2]-rotaxanes: tuning the rate by metal cation coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Mikael; Linke, Myriam; Chambron, Jean-Claude; Davidsson, Jan; Heitz, Valérie; Hammarström, Leif; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre

    2002-04-24

    A series of [2]-rotaxanes has been synthesized in which two Zn(II)-porphyrins (ZnP) electron donors were attached as stoppers on the rod. A macrocycle attached to a Au(III)-porphyrin (AuP+) acceptor was threaded on the rod. By selective excitation of either porphyrin, we could induce an electron transfer from the ZnP to the AuP+ unit that generated the same ZnP*+-AuP* charge-transfer state irrespective of which porphyrin was excited. Although the reactants were linked only by mechanical or coordination bonds, electron-transfer rate constants up to 1.2x10(10) x s(-1) were obtained over a 15-17 A edge-to-edge distance between the porphyrins. The resulting charge-transfer state had a relatively long lifetime of 10-40 ns and was formed in high yield (>80%) in most cases. By a simple variation of the link between the reactants, viz. a coordination of the phenanthroline units on the rotaxane rod and ring by either Ag+ or Cu+, we could enhance the electron-transfer rate from the ZnP to the excited 3AuP+. We interpret our data in terms of an enhanced superexchange mechanism with Ag+ and a change to a stepwise hopping mechanism with Cu+, involving the oxidized Cu(phen)22+ unit as a real intermediate. When the ZnP unit was excited instead, electron transfer from the excited 1ZnP to AuP+ was not affected, or even slowed, by Ag+ or Cu+. We discuss this asymmetry in terms of the different orbitals involved in mediating the reaction in an electron- and a hole-transfer mechanism. Our results show the possibility to tune the rates of electron transfer between noncovalently linked reactants by a convenient modification of the link. The different effect of Ag+ and Cu+ on the rate with ZnP and AuP+ excitation shows an additional possibility to control the electron-transfer reactions by selective excitation. We also found that coordination of the Cu+ introduced an energy-transfer reaction from 1ZnP to Cu(phen)2+ (k = 5.1x10(9) x s(-1)) that proceeded in competition with electron

  12. Total electron scattering cross section from pyridine molecules in the energy range 10-1000 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, A. Traoré; Costa, F.; da Silva, F. Ferreira; Limão-Vieira, P.; Oller, J. C.; Blanco, F.; García, G.

    2018-05-01

    We report on experimental total electron scattering cross-section (TCS) from pyridine (C5H5N) for incident electron energies between 10 and 1000 eV, with experimental uncertainties within 5-10%, as measured with a double electrostatic analyser apparatus. The experimental results are compared with our theoretical calculations performed within the independent atom model complemented with a screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) procedure which has been updated by including interference effects. A good level of agreement is found between both data sources within the experimental uncertainties. The present TCS results for electron impact energy under study contribute, together with other scattering data available in the literature, to achieve a consistent set of cross section data for modelling purposes.

  13. Cu incorporated amorphous diamond like carbon (DLC) composites: An efficient electron field emitter over a wide range of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sk Faruque; Alam, Md Shahbaz; Mukherjee, Nillohit

    2018-03-01

    The effect of temperature on the electron field emission properties of copper incorporated amorphous diamond like carbon (a-Cu:DLC) thin films have been reported. The a-Cu:DLC thin films have been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and silicon substrate by the radio frequency sputtering process. The chemical composition of the films was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the micro structure was established using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The sp2 and sp3 bonding ratio in the a-Cu:DLC have been analyzed by the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy studies. The material showed excellent electron field emission properties; which was optimized by varying the copper atomic percentage and temperature of the films. It was found that the threshold field and effective emission barrier were reduced significantly by copper incorporation as well as temperature and a detailed explanation towards emission mechanism has been provided.

  14. An improved energy-range relationship for high-energy electron beams based on multiple accurate experimental and Monte Carlo data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Andreo, P.; Hyoedynmaa, S.; Brahme, A.; Bielajew, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    A theoretically based analytical energy-range relationship has been developed and calibrated against well established experimental and Monte Carlo calculated energy-range data. Only published experimental data with a clear statement of accuracy and method of evaluation have been used. Besides published experimental range data for different uniform media, new accurate experimental data on the practical range of high-energy electron beams in water for the energy range 10-50 MeV from accurately calibrated racetrack microtrons have been used. Largely due to the simultaneous pooling of accurate experimental and Monte Carlo data for different materials, the fit has resulted in an increased accuracy of the resultant energy-range relationship, particularly at high energies. Up to date Monte Carlo data from the latest versions of the codes ITS3 and EGS4 for absorbers of atomic numbers between four and 92 (Be, C, H 2 O, PMMA, Al, Cu, Ag, Pb and U) and incident electron energies between 1 and 100 MeV have been used as a complement where experimental data are sparse or missing. The standard deviation of the experimental data relative to the new relation is slightly larger than that of the Monte Carlo data. This is partly due to the fact that theoretically based stopping and scattering cross-sections are used both to account for the material dependence of the analytical energy-range formula and to calculate ranges with the Monte Carlo programs. For water the deviation from the traditional energy-range relation of ICRU Report 35 is only 0.5% at 20 MeV but as high as - 2.2% at 50 MeV. An improved method for divergence and ionization correction in high-energy electron beams has also been developed to enable use of a wider range of experimental results. (Author)

  15. Unusual mechanism for the short-range electron transfer within gold-alkanethiol-ionic-liquid films of subnanometer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshtariya, Dimitri E.; Dolidze, Tina D.; Eldik, Rudi van

    2009-01-01

    Exploiting nanoscopically tunable composite gold-alkanethiol-ionic-liquid/ferrocene self-assembled systems with tunable electron transfer distance, we discovered in the case of thinner alkanethiol films a thermally activated electron transfer pattern totally controlled by the viscosity-related slow relaxation mode(s) of the ionic liquid acting as the reactant's fluctuating environment. This pattern manifested through the activation enthalpy and volume parameters that are identical to those for viscous flow was explained in terms of the extreme adiabatic mechanism with a vanishing Marcus barrier (via the exponential Franck-Condon-like term approaching unity).

  16. Electronic Transitions in Conformationally Controlled Tetrasilanes with a Wide Range of SiSiSiSi Dihedral Angles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsuji, H.; Fogarty, H. A.; Ehara, M.; Fukuda, R.; Casher, D. L.; Tamao, K.; Nakatsuji, H.; Michl, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 30 (2014), s. 9431-9441 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : conformational effects * electronic spectra * SAC-CI calculations * silicon * UV/Vis spectroscopy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.731, year: 2014

  17. Magnetic and electronic properties of NpCo.sub.2./sub.: Evidence for long-range magnetic order

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanchez, J.-P.; Griveau, J.C.; Javorský, P.; Colineau, E.; Eloirdi, R.; Boulet, P.; Rebizant, J.; Wastin, F.; Shick, Alexander; Caciuffo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 13 (2013), "134410-1"-"134410-7" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic properties * electronic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013 http://link. aps .org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.87.134410

  18. XRAY applied program package for calculation of electron-photon fields in the energy range of 1-1000 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappa, A.V.; Khadyeva, Z.M.; Burmistrov, D.S.; Vasil'ev, O.N.

    1990-01-01

    The package of applied XRAY programs is intended for calculating the linear and fluctuation characteristics of photon and electron radiation fields in heterogeneous medium within 1-1000 keV energy range. The XRAY program package consists of moduli written in FORTRAN-IV and data files. 9 refs

  19. Elastic electron differential cross sections for argon atom in the intermediate energy range from 40 eV to 300 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranković, Miloš Lj.; Maljković, Jelena B.; Tökési, Károly; Marinković, Bratislav P.

    2018-02-01

    Measurements and calculations for electron elastic differential cross sections (DCS) of argon atom in the energy range from 40 to 300 eV are presented. DCS have been measured in the crossed beam arrangement of the electron spectrometer with an energy resolution of 0.5 eV and angular resolution of 1.5∘ in the range of scattering angles from 20∘ to 126∘. Both angular behaviour and energy dependence of DCS are obtained in a separate sets of experiments, while the absolute scale is achieved via relative flow method, using helium as a reference gas. All data is corrected for the energy transmission function, changes of primary electron beam current and target pressure, and effective path length (volume correction). DCSs are calculated in relativistic framework by expressing the Mott's cross sections in partial wave expansion. Our results are compared with other available data.

  20. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H2CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Bhutadia, Harshad; Antony, Bobby; Mason, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H 2 CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy (∼15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  1. FOREWORD: The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) (Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 19-23 April 2009) The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) (Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 19-23 April 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Thomas M.; Diebold, Ulrike

    2010-03-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) took place from 19-23 April 2009 in Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA. This was the 12th conference in a strong and vibrant series, which dates back to the early 1980s. DIET XII continued the tradition of exceptional interdisciplinary science and focused on the study of desorption and dynamics induced by electronic excitations of surfaces and interfaces. The format involved invited lectures, contributed talks and a poster session on the most recent developments and advances in this area of surface physics. The Workshop International Steering Committee and attendees wish to dedicate DIET XII to the memory of the late Professor Theodore (Ted) Madey. Ted was one of the main pioneers of this field and was one of the primary individuals working to keep this area of science exciting and adventurous. His overall contributions to surface science were countless and his contributions to the DIET field and community were enormous. He is missed and remembered by many friends and colleagues throughout the world. The papers collected in this issue cover many of the highlights of DIET XII. Topics include ultrafast electron transfer at surfaces and interfaces, quantum and spatially resolved mapping of surface dynamics and desorption, photon-, electron- and ion-beam induced processes at complex interfaces, the role of non-thermal desorption in astrochemistry and astrophysics and laser-/ion-based methods of examining soft matter and biological media. Although the workshop attracted many scientists active in the general area of non-thermal surface processes, DIET XII also attracted many younger scientists (i.e., postdoctoral fellows, advanced graduate students, and a select number of advanced undergraduate students). This field has had an impact in a number of areas including nanoscience, device physics, astrophysics, and now biophysics. We believe that this special issue of Journal of Physics

  2. Research Investigation Directed Toward Extending the Useful Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. [atomic spectra and electronic structure of alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, S. R.; Happer, W.

    1974-01-01

    The report discusses completed and proposed research in atomic and molecular physics conducted at the Columbia Radiation Laboratory from July 1972 to June 1973. Central topics described include the atomic spectra and electronic structure of alkali metals and helium, molecular microwave spectroscopy, the resonance physics of photon echoes in some solid state systems (including Raman echoes, superradiance, and two photon absorption), and liquid helium superfluidity.

  3. Accurate transport simulation of electron tracks in the energy range 1 keV-4 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobut, V.; Cirioni, L.; Patau, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Multipurpose electron transport simulation codes are widely used in the fields of radiation protection and dosimetry. Broadly based on multiple scattering theories and continuous energy loss stopping powers with some mechanism taking straggling into account, they give reliable answers to many problems. However they may be unsuitable in some specific situations. In fact, many of them are not able to accurately describe particle transport through very thin slabs and/or in high atomic number materials, or also when knowledge of high-resolution depth dose distributions is required. To circumvent these deficiencies, we developed a Monte Carlo code simulating each interaction along electron tracks. Gas phase elastic cross sections are corrected to take into account solid state effects. Inelastic interactions are described within the framework of the Martinez et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 67 (1990) 2955] theory intended to deal with energy deposition in both condensed insulators and conductors. The model described in this paper is validated for some materials as aluminium and silicon, encountered in spectrometric and dosimetric devices. Comparisons with experimental, theoretical and other simulation results are made for angular distributions and energy spectra of transmitted electrons through slabs of different thicknesses and for depth energy distributions in semi-infinite media. These comparisons are quite satisfactory

  4. Angular distribution of thick-target bremsstrahlung produced by electrons with initial energies ranging from 10 to 20 keV incident on Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, D.; Cavness, B.; Williams, S. [Department of Physics, Angelo State University, San Angelo, Texas 76909 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Experimental results are presented comparing the intensities of the bremsstrahlung produced by electrons with initial energies ranging from 10 to 20 keV incident on a thick Ag target, measured at forward angles in the range of 0 degree sign to 55 degree sign . When the data are corrected for attenuation due to photon absorption within the target, the results indicate that the detected radiation is distributed anisotropically only at photon energies k that are approximately equal to the initial energy of the incident electrons E{sub 0}. The results of our experiments suggest that, as k/E{sub 0}{yields} 0, the detected radiation essentially becomes isotropic due primarily to the scattering of electrons within the target. A comparison to the theory of Kissel et al.[At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 28, 381 (1983)] suggests that the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung emitted by electrons incident on thick targets is similar to the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung emitted by electrons incident on free-atom targets only when k/E{sub 0}{approx_equal} 1. The experimental data also are in approximate agreement with the angular distribution predictions of the Monte Carlo program penelope.

  5. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovic, Z.

    1997-06-01

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H 0 , H 2 + and H 3 + projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H 2 + and H 3 + polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  6. Characterization and optimization of laser-driven electron and photon sources in keV and MeV energy ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This work takes place in the framework of the characterization and the optimization of laser-driven electron and photon sources. With the goal of using these sources for nuclear physics experiments, we focused on 2 energy ranges: one around a few MeV and the other around a few tens of keV. The first part of this work is thus dedicated to the study of detectors routinely used for the characterization of laser-driven particle sources: Imaging Plates. A model has been developed and is fitted to experimental data. Response functions to electrons, photons, protons and alpha particles are established for SR, MS and TR Fuji Imaging Plates for energies ranging from a few keV to several MeV. The second part of this work present a study of ultrashort and intense electron and photon sources produced in the interaction of a laser with a solid or liquid target. An experiment was conducted at the ELFIE facility at LULI where beams of electrons and photons were accelerated up to several MeV. Energy and angular distributions of the electron and photons beams were characterized. The sources were optimized by varying the spatial extension of the plasma at both the front and the back end of the initial target position. In the optimal configuration of the laser-plasma coupling, more than 1011 electrons were accelerated. In the case of liquid target, a photon source was produced at a high repetition rate on an energy range of tens of keV by the interaction of the AURORE Laser at CELIA (10 16 W.cm -2 ) and a melted gallium target. It was shown that both the mean energy and the photon number can be increased by creating gallium jets at the surface of the liquid target with a pre-pulse. A physical interpretation supported by numerical simulations is proposed. (author)

  7. Quantifying the prediction accuracy of a 1-D SVAT model at a range of ecosystems in the USA and Australia: evidence towards its use as a tool to study Earth's system interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, G. P.; North, M. R.; Ireland, G.; Srivastava, P. K.; Rendall, D. V.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the validation of the SimSphere SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer) model conducted at a range of US and Australian ecosystem types. Specific focus was given to examining the models' ability in predicting shortwave incoming solar radiation (Rg), net radiation (Rnet), latent heat (LE), sensible heat (H), air temperature at 1.3 m (Tair 1.3 m) and air temperature at 50 m (Tair 50 m). Model predictions were compared against corresponding in situ measurements acquired for a total of 72 selected days of the year 2011 obtained from eight sites belonging to the AmeriFlux (USA) and OzFlux (Australia) monitoring networks. Selected sites were representative of a variety of environmental, biome and climatic conditions, to allow for the inclusion of contrasting conditions in the model evaluation. Overall, results showed a good agreement between the model predictions and the in situ measurements, particularly so for the Rg, Rnet, Tair 1.3 m and Tair 50 m parameters. The simulated Rg parameter exhibited a root mean square deviation (RMSD) within 25 % of the observed fluxes for 58 of the 72 selected days, whereas an RMSD within ~ 24 % of the observed fluxes was reported for the Rnet parameter for all days of study (RMSD = 58.69 W m-2). A systematic underestimation of Rg and Rnet (mean bias error (MBE) = -19.48 and -16.46 W m-2) was also found. Simulations for the Tair 1.3 m and Tair 50 m showed good agreement with the in situ observations, exhibiting RMSDs of 3.23 and 3.77 °C (within ~ 15 and ~ 18 % of the observed) for all days of analysis, respectively. Comparable, yet slightly less satisfactory simulation accuracies were exhibited for the H and LE parameters (RMSDs = 38.47 and 55.06 W m-2, ~ 34 and ~ 28 % of the observed). Highest simulation accuracies were obtained for the open woodland savannah and mulga woodland sites for most of the compared parameters. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index for all parameters ranges from 0.720 to 0.998, suggesting

  8. A high dynamic range data acquisition system for a solid-state electron electric dipole moment experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kunkler, Brandon; Liu, Chen-Yu; Visser, Gerard [CEEM, Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We have built a high precision (24-bit) data acquisition (DAQ) system capable of simultaneously sampling eight input channels for the measurement of the electric dipole moment of the electron. The DAQ system consists of two main components: a master board for DAQ control and eight individual analog-to-digital converter (ADC) boards for signal processing. This custom DAQ system provides galvanic isolation of the ADC boards from each other and the master board using fiber optic communication to reduce the possibility of ground loop pickup and attain ultimate low levels of channel cross-talk. In this paper, we describe the implementation of the DAQ system and scrutinize its performance.

  9. Charging kinetics in virgin and 1 MeV-electron irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia in the 300-1000 K range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, T.; Braga, D.; Blaise, G.; Cousty, J.; Pham Van, L.; Costantini, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A study performed with a dedicated scanning electron microscope (SEM) on the surface electrical properties of (1 0 0)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystals irradiated with 1 MeV electrons is presented. When compared with virgin YSZ, the 1 MeV-irradiated YSZ shows a decrease of the intrinsic total electron emission coefficient σ 0 and an increase of the time constant τ associated with the charging kinetics of the material at room temperature. These measurements performed with the SEM beam at 10 keV indicate that the defects induced by the 1 MeV-electron irradiation generate a positive electric field of the order of 0.5 x 10 6 V/m at a depth of about 1 μm that prevents electrons to escape. When the SEM beam with a 1.1 keV energy is used, a smaller field (∼0.5 x 10 3 V/m) is detected closer to the surface (∼20 nm). The fading of these fields during the thermal annealing in the 400-1000 K temperature range provides information on the nature of defects induced by the 1 MeV-electron irradiation

  10. Ionization Energies, Electron Affinities, and Polarization Energies of Organic Molecular Crystals: Quantitative Estimations from a Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM)–Tuned Range-Separated Density Functional Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haitao

    2016-05-16

    We propose a new methodology for the first-principles description of the electronic properties relevant for charge transport in organic molecular crystals. This methodology, which is based on the combination of a non-empirical, optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional with the polarizable continuum model, is applied to a series of eight representative molecular semiconductor crystals. We show that it provides ionization energies, electron affinities, and transport gaps in very good agreement with experimental values as well as with the results of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation at a fraction of the computational costs. Hence, this approach represents an easily applicable and computationally efficient tool to estimate the gas-to-crystal-phase shifts of the frontier-orbital quasiparticle energies in organic electronic materials.

  11. Luminescence of high density electron-hole plasma in CdS and CdSe in a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Shionoya, S.

    1983-01-01

    Time-resolved spectra of the spontaneous luminescence of the high density electron-hole plasma (EHP) in CdS and CdSe are observed in a wide range of temperature which is surely higher than the calculated critical temperature for electron-hole liquid formation, in order to carry forward discussion on dynamic nature of the EHP previously observed in 4.2 K experiments. Spectra in the late stage are analyzed, and obtained values of the reduced bandgap energy and chemical potential are compared with those theoretically calculated for higher temperatures. The aspects of the change of the spectral shape in the late stage are hard to understand. Unfortunately no clear conclusion is drawn on the nature of the EHP produced at 4.2 K. The only thing one can say is that the condensed electron-hole liquid state, which is in equilibrium with the exciton state, is not realized. (author)

  12. Organic electronic materials: Recent advances in the dft description of the ground and excited states using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Körzdörfer, Thomas

    2014-11-18

    Density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TD-DFT) are powerful tools enabling the theoretical prediction of the ground- and excited-state properties of organic electronic materials with reasonable accuracy at affordable computational costs. Due to their excellent accuracy-to-numerical-costs ratio, semilocal and global hybrid functionals such as B3LYP have become the workhorse for geometry optimizations and the prediction of vibrational spectra in modern theoretical organic chemistry. Despite the overwhelming success of these out-of-the-box functionals for such applications, the computational treatment of electronic and structural properties that are of particular interest in organic electronic materials sometimes reveals severe and qualitative failures of such functionals. Important examples include the overestimation of conjugation, torsional barriers, and electronic coupling as well as the underestimation of bond-length alternations or excited-state energies in low-band-gap polymers.In this Account, we highlight how these failures can be traced back to the delocalization error inherent to semilocal and global hybrid functionals, which leads to the spurious delocalization of electron densities and an overestimation of conjugation. The delocalization error for systems and functionals of interest can be quantified by allowing for fractional occupation of the highest occupied molecular orbital. It can be minimized by using long-range corrected hybrid functionals and a nonempirical tuning procedure for the range-separation parameter.We then review the benefits and drawbacks of using tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals for the description of the ground and excited states of π-conjugated systems. In particular, we show that this approach provides for robust and efficient means of characterizing the electronic couplings in organic mixed-valence systems, for the calculation of accurate torsional barriers at the polymer limit, and for the

  13. Calibration of high-dynamic-range, finite-resolution x-ray pulse-height spectrometers for extracting electron energy distribution data from the PFRC-2 device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C.; Jandovitz, P.; Cohen, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the full x-ray energy distribution function (XEDF) emitted from a plasma over a large dynamic range of energies can yield valuable insights about the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) of that plasma and the dynamic processes that create them. X-ray pulse height detectors such as Amptek's X-123 Fast SDD with Silicon Nitride window can detect x-rays in the range of 200eV to 100s of keV. However, extracting EEDF from this measurement requires precise knowledge of the detector's response function. This response function, including the energy scale calibration, the window transmission function, and the resolution function, can be measured directly. We describe measurements of this function from x-rays from a mono-energetic electron beam in a purpose-built gas-target x-ray tube. Large-Z effects such as line radiation, nuclear charge screening, and polarizational Bremsstrahlung are discussed.

  14. Simulation of electron transport in GaAs/AlAs superlattices with a small number of periods for the THz frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelyev, D. G.; Vasilev, A. P.; Kozlov, V. A.; Koschurinov, Yu. I.; Obolenskaya, E. S.; Obolensky, S. V.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    The electron transport in superlattices based on GaAs/AlAs heterostructures with a small number of periods (6 periods) is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. These superlattices are used in terahertz diodes for the frequency stabilization of quantum cascade lasers in the range up to 4.7 THz. The band structure of superlattices with different numbers of AlAs monolayers is considered and their current–voltage characteristics are calculated. The calculated current–voltage characteristics are compared with the experimental data. The possibility of the efficient application of these superlattices in the THz frequency range is established both theoretically and experimentally.

  15. Liquid argon as an electron/photon detector in the energy range of 50 MeV to 2 GeV: a Monte Carlo investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.S.; Denis, G.; Hall, M.; Karpovsky, A.; Wilson, R.; Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.

    1980-12-01

    Monte Carlo techniques which have been used to study the characteristics of a proposed electron/photon detector based on the total absorption of electromagnetic showers in liquid argon have been investigated. The energy range studied was 50 MeV to 2 GeV. Results are presented on the energy and angular resolution predicted for the device, along with the detailed predictions of the transverse and longitudinal shower distributions. Comparisons are made with other photon detectors, and possible applications are discussed

  16. Absolute elastic differential cross sections from electron scattering from S F6 in the 75-1000 eV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, J.C.; Dallavalli, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Absolute elastic differential cross sections have been measured for incident electron energies between 75 and 1000 eV and in the angular range between 10 0 to 120 0 . The relative flow technique was used and nitrogen was the secondary gas standard. Integral cross sections have also been determined from extrapolation of the differential cross sections. The data are compared with previous experimental data, showing good agreement. (author)

  17. A study on the heating and diagnostic of a tokamak plasma by electromagnetic waves of the electron cyclotron range of frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Katsumichi

    1989-09-01

    A study on the heating and diagnosis of tokamak plasma by electromagnetic waves of electron cyclotron range of frequency is summarized. The main results obtained are as follows. On the engineering and technology, the technology of injecting high frequency, large power millimeter waves into tokamak plasma was established by carrying out the design, manufacture and test of a 60 GHz, 400 kW high frequency heating system, and the design, manufacture and test of a heterodyne type electron cyclotron radiation multi-channel mealsuring system were carried out, and the technology of measuring the radiation from tokamak plasma with the time resolution of 10 μs in multi-channel was established. On nuclear fusion reactor core engineering and plasma physics, the high efficiency electron heating of tokamak plasma by the incidence of fundamental irregular and regular waves at electron cyclotron frequency was verified. The discovery and analysis of the heating by electrostatic waves arising due to mode transformation from electromagnetic waves in upper hybrid resonance layer were carried out. By the incidence of second harmonic waves, the high efficiency electron heating of tokamak plasma was verified, and the heating characteristics were clarified. And others. (K.I.) 179 refs

  18. The impact of long-range electron-hole interaction on the charge separation yield of molecular photocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati Aram, Tahereh; Ernzerhof, Matthias; Asgari, Asghar; Mayou, Didier

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the effects of charge carrier interaction and recombination on the operation of molecular photocells. Molecular photocells are devices where the energy conversion process takes place in a single molecular donor-acceptor complex attached to electrodes. Our investigation is based on the quantum scattering theory, in particular on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation; this minimizes the complexity of the problem while providing useful and non-trivial insight into the mechanism governing photocell operation. In this study, both exciton pair creation and dissociation are treated in the energy domain, and therefore there is access to detailed spectral information, which can be used as a framework to interpret the charge separation yield. We demonstrate that the charge carrier separation is a complex process that is affected by different parameters, such as the strength of the electron-hole interaction and the non-radiative recombination rate. Our analysis helps to optimize the charge separation process and the energy transfer in organic solar cells and in molecular photocells.

  19. The potential for extending the spectral range accessible to the european X-ray free electron laser in the direction of longer wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, E L; Yurkov, M V

    2004-01-01

    The baseline specifications of European XFEL give a range of wavelengths between 0.1 nm and 2 nm. This wavelength range at fixed electron beam energy 17.5 GeV can be covered by operating the SASE FEL with three undulators which have different period and tunable gap. A study of the potential for the extending the spectral range accessible to the XFEL in the direction of longer wavelengths is presented. The extension of the wavelength range to 6 nm would be cover the water window in the VUV region, opening the facility to a new class of experiments. There are at least two possible sources of VUV radiation associated with the X-ray FEL; the "low (2.5 GeV) energy electron beam dedicated" and the " 17.5 GeV spent beam parasitic" (or "after-burner") source modes. The second alternative, "after-burner undulator" is the one we regard as most favorable. It is possible to place an undulator as long as 80 meters after 2 nm undulator. Ultimately, VUV undulator would be able to deliver output power approaching 100 GW. A b...

  20. U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircon from Proterozoic plutons of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges, Colorado, U.S.A.: Implications for crustal growth of the central Colorado province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Richard J.; Premo, Wayne R.; Dewitt, Ed; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2017-01-01

    A broad study of zircons from plutonic rocks of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges of west-central Colorado (U.S.A.) was undertaken to significantly refine the magmatic chronology and chemistry of this under-studied region of the Colorado province. This region was chosen because it lies just to the north of the suspected arc-related Gunnison-Salida volcano-plutonic terrane, which has been the subject of many recent investigations—and whose origin is still debated. Our new results provide important insights into the processes active during Proterozoic crustal evolution in this region, and they have important ramifications for broader-scope crustal evolution models for southwestern North America.Twenty-four new U-Pb ages and sequentially acquired rare-earth element (REE), U, Th, and Hf contents of zircon have been determined using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG). These zircon geochemistry data, in conjunction with whole-rock major- and trace-element data, provide important insights into zircon crystallization and melt fractionation, and they help to further constrain the tectonic environment of magma generation.Our detailed zircon and whole-rock data support the following three interpretations:(1) The Roosevelt Granite in the southern Sawatch Range was the oldest rock dated at 1,766 ± 7 Ma, and it intruded various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Geochemistry of both whole-rock and zircon supports the contention that this granite was produced in a magmatic arc environment and, therefore, is likely an extension of the older Dubois Greenstone Belt of the Gunnison Igneous Complex (GIC) and the Needle Mountains (1,770–1,755 Ma). Rocks of the younger Cochetopa succession of the GIC, the Salida Greenstone Belt, and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains (1,740–1,725 Ma) were not found in the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges. This observation strongly suggests that the northern edge of the Gunnison-Salida arc terrane underlies the

  1. Electronic archival tags provide first glimpse of bathythermal habitat use by free-ranging adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew S.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Boase, James C.; Mohr, Lloyd C.

    2016-01-01

    Information on lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) depth and thermal habitat use during non-spawning periods is unavailable due to the difficulty of observing lake sturgeon away from shallow water spawning sites. In 2002 and 2003, lake sturgeon captured in commercial trap nets near Sarnia, Ontario were implanted with archival tags and released back into southern Lake Huron. Five of the 40 tagged individuals were recaptured and were at large for 32, 57, 286, 301, and 880 days. Temperatures and depths recorded by archival tags ranged from 0 to 23.5 ºC and 0.1 to 42.4 m, respectively. For the three lake sturgeon that were at large for over 200 days, temperatures occupied emulated seasonal fluctuations. Two of these fish occupied deeper waters during winter than summer while the other occupied similar depths during non-spawning periods. This study provides important insight into depth and thermal habitat use of lake sturgeon throughout the calendar year along with exploring the feasibility of using archival tags to obtain important physical habitat attributes during non-spawning periods.

  2. Many-electron theory of x-ray photoelectron spectra: N-shell linewidths in the 46Pd to 92U range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, M.; Wendin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The linewidths and energies of 4d holes (main lines in x-ray photoelectron spectra) are calculated for a number of elements in the range 70 Yb to 92 U, with use of nonrelativistic atomic many-body theory. The nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock frozen-core approximation for one-electron wave functions and Auger energies gives very good agreement with experiment. In the case of 4s and 4p holes, the Auger (in particular, super-Coster-Kronig) energies have to be calculated with inclusion of relaxation and relativistic effects. Combined with frozen-core, nonrelativistic one-electron wave functions, this gives good agreement with experimental energies and widths for 4s and 4p holes in 80 Hg. In conclusion, it is very important to include the effects of two final-state holes on the Auger electron, as well as the polarization response which screens the Auger emission matrix element. This latter effect is largely equivalent to the so-called exchange interaction between the Auger electron and the final-state holes

  3. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.b, E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo, E-mail: julio.lombaldo@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DMPA/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS{sub N} method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS{sub N} nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  4. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS N method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS N nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  5. Effective atomic number and effective electron densities of some inorganic compounds for Compton effect in the gamma energy range 280 keV to 1115 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasannakumar, S.; Umesh, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    The effective atomic number and effective electron densities of some inorganic compounds for Compton effect in the gamma energy range 280 keV to 1115 keV by using Compton scattering cross sections which are determined on a goniometer assembly. An ORTEC model 23210 gamma-x high purity germanium detector (HpGe) has been used to record the data along with a personal computer based MCA in the angular region 50°-110°. The effective atomic numbers so obtained were found to be equal to the total number of electrons present in the sample in accordance with the chemical formula. The results so obtained are of first of their kind at these energies and are expected to be important in a variety of applications of radiation physics and chemistry. (author)

  6. The Au-S bond and SAM-protein contact in long-range electron transfer of pure and biomimetic metalloproteins via functionalized alkanethiol linkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin; Ford, Michael J.; Halder, Arnab

    disentangled a wealth of data to identify the nature of the crucial Au-S contact, all suggesting prevalence of a Au(0)-thiyl radical unit. Molecular packing is further determined by the SAM molecular structure and involves binding either to Au-atoms mined out of the surface or directly to a flat surface. We...... functionalized alkanethiols have emerged as core linkers. We have studied molecular linking in the long-range ET (LRET) processes in detail using electrochemistry, in situ STM and AFM, and electronic structure computations. A focus is the electronic structure of the Au-S link and the SAM packing. We have...... is exceedingly sensitive to the structure of the thiol-based SAM molecules, testifying to the crucial importance of SAM packing and Au-S binding, and of the SAM link to the protein. Some of the subtleties are illustrated simpler by similar size (5-6 nm) nanoparticles (NPs). Biomimetic NPs must possess a certain...

  7. Assessing the role of Hartree-Fock exchange, correlation energy and long range corrections in evaluating ionization potential, and electron affinity in density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikramaditya, Talapunur; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2017-06-05

    Accurate determination of ionization potentials (IPs), electron affinities (EAs), fundamental gaps (FGs), and HOMO, LUMO energy levels of organic molecules play an important role in modeling and predicting the efficiencies of organic photovoltaics, OLEDs etc. In this work, we investigate the effects of Hartree Fock (HF) Exchange, correlation energy, and long range corrections in predicting IP and EA in Hybrid Functionals. We observe increase in percentage of HF exchange results in increase of IPs and decrease in EAs. Contrary to the general expectations inclusion of both HF exchange and correlation energy (from the second order perturbation theory MP2) leads to poor prediction. Range separated Hybrid Functionals are found to be more reliable among various DFT Functionals investigated. DFT Functionals predict accurate IPs whereas post HF methods predict accurate EAs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids in the energy range 1 keV–100 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Morteza; Lunscher, Nolan [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Yeow, John T.W., E-mail: jyeow@uwaterloo.ca [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been an interest in fabrication of X-ray sensors based on bacteriorhodopsin, a proton pump protein in cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Therefore, a better understanding of interaction of X-ray photons with bacteriorhodopsin is required. We use WinXCom program to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. These amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, Asx1, Asx2, Glx1 and Glx2. We then use that data to calculate effective atomic number and electron densities for the same range of energy. We also emphasize on two ranges of energies (10–200 keV and 1–20 MeV) in which X-ray imaging and radiotherapy machines work.

  9. Responses of conventional and extended-range neutron detectors in mixed radiation fields around a 150-MeV electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Chi; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Chen, Ang-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the responses of two types of neutron detector in mixed gamma-ray and neutron radiation fields around a 150-MeV electron linear accelerator (LINAC). The detectors were self-assembled, high efficiency, and designed in two configurations: (1) a conventional moderated-type neutron detector based on a large cylindrical He-3 proportional counter; and (2) an extended-range version with an embedded layer of lead in the moderator to increase the detector’s sensitivity to high-energy neutrons. Two sets of the detectors were used to measure neutrons at the downstream and lateral locations simultaneously, where the radiation fields differed considerably in intensities and spectra of gamma rays and neutrons. Analyzing the detector responses through a comparison between calculations and measurements indicated that not only neutrons but also high-energy gamma rays (>5 MeV) triggered the detectors because of photoneutrons produced in the detector materials. In the lateral direction, the contribution of photoneutrons to both detectors was negligible. Downstream of the LINAC, where high-energy photons were abundant, photoneutrons contributed approximately 6% of the response of the conventional neutron detector; however, almost 50% of the registered counts of the extended-range neutron detector were from photoneutrons because of the presence of the detector rather than the effect of the neutron field. Dose readings delivered by extended-range neutron detectors should be interpreted cautiously when used in radiation fields containing a mixture of neutrons and high-energy gamma rays

  10. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  11. Long-range protein electron transfer observed at the single-molecule level: In situ mapping of redox-gated tunneling resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin; Farver, O; Ulstrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    on the redox potential. Maximum resonance appears around the equilibrium redox potential of azurin with an on/off current ratio of approximate to 9. Simulation analyses, based on a two-step interfacial ET model for the scanning tunneling microscopy redox process, were performed and provide quantitative......A biomimetic long-range electron transfer (ET) system consisting of the blue copper protein azurin, a tunneling barrier bridge, and a gold single-crystal electrode was designed on the basis of molecular wiring self-assembly principles. This system is sufficiently stable and sensitive in a quasi...... constants display tunneling features with distance-decay factors of 0.83 and 0.91 angstrom(-1) in H2O and D2O, respectively. Redox-gated tunneling resonance is observed in situ at the single-molecule level by using electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy, exhibiting an asymmetric dependence...

  12. Differential and integral electron scattering cross sections from tetrahydrofuran (THF) over a wide energy range: 1-10.000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M.C.; Sanz, A.G.; Blanco, F.; Limao-Vieira, P.; Brunger, M.J.; Garcia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF, C 4 H 8 O) has a molecular structure that is similar to the ribose in the DNA backbone and is used as a surrogate of ribose to get electron scattering cross sections. Total, integral inelastic and integral and differential elastic cross sections have been calculated with the screening-corrected additivity rule (SCAR) method based on the independent atom model (IAM) for electron scattering from THF. Since the permanent dipole moment of THF enhances rotational excitation particularly at low energies and for small angles, an estimate of the rotational excitation cross section was also computed by assuming the interaction with a free electric dipole as an independent, additional process. Our theoretical results compare very favourably to the existing experimental data. Finally, a self-consistent set of integral and differential interaction cross-sections for the incident energy range 1 eV - 10 keV is established for use in our low energy particle track simulation (LEPTS). All cross section data are supplied numerically in tabulated form. (authors)

  13. Experimental and theoretical determinations of the absolute ionization cross section of alkali metals by electron impact in the energy range from 100 to 2000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalin, Rene

    1972-01-01

    The absolute electron impact ionization cross sections for the alkali metals in the energy range between 100 eV and 2000 eV were measured by the non-modulated crossed beam technique. The neutral beam of alkali atoms is produced by a Knudsen cell and crossed at right angles with the electron beam. The ions formed are collected on a plate and their intensity determined with a D.C. amplifier. The neutral beam is condensed on a cold trap cooled with liquid nitrogen, this temperature being much lower than that required to obtain total condensation. The amount of metal deposited is measured by the isotopic dilution technique and by atomic absorption, and the density of the atoms in the neutral beam is calculated. The total absolute ionization cross sections can then be determined. All possible errors have been carefully analyzed and their magnitudes estimated. The absolute ionization cross section for Li at an energy of 500 eV is: Q Li = 0,358 x 10 -16 cm 2 . This value is half of that obtained by Mac Farland and Kinney. The partial ionization cross sections for the singly and multiply charged ions is determined with a mass spectrometer attached to this apparatus. For the singly charged ions, the variation of the cross section with the energy of the ionizing electrons is in agreement with the optically allowed transition law: Q = A log BE/E. From the variation of Q with E, the squared matrix elements of the transition moment (|M i |) 2 are determined for all the elements studied. New calculations of the ionization cross section of Li and Na were performed in the framework of the Born-Bethe approximation as modified by Gaudin and Botter to take into account collisions with large momentum variation of the incident electron. Hartree-Fock type wave functions for the ground state atom (tabulated by Clementi) were used. The calculated values are in good agreement with our experimental results and with the former theoretical results calculated by various methods. This work also

  14. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8–24 eV photon energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwell, Martin; Bénilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Es-Sebbar, Et.; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent; Champion, Norbert; Leach, Sydney

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the VUV photoionization of acetamide in the 8–24 eV photon energy range. ► Electron/ion coincidence measurements are performed using synchrotron radiation. ► The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide is determined by TPEPICO measurements. ► VUV induced fragmentation pathways of acetamide are assigned and discussed. - Abstract: A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8–24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (1 2 A′) = (9.71 ± 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 1 2 A″, was determined to be ≈10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH 3 , NH 2 , NH 3 , CO, HCCO and NH 2 CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed.

  15. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  16. Electron Transport in a Dioxygenase-Ferredoxin Complex: Long Range Charge Coupling between the Rieske and Non-Heme Iron Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne K Dawson

    Full Text Available Dioxygenase (dOx utilizes stereospecific oxidation on aromatic molecules; consequently, dOx has potential applications in bioremediation and stereospecific oxidation synthesis. The reactive components of dOx comprise a Rieske structure Cys2[2Fe-2S]His2 and a non-heme reactive oxygen center (ROC. Between the Rieske structure and the ROC, a universally conserved Asp residue appears to bridge the two structures forming a Rieske-Asp-ROC triad, where the Asp is known to be essential for electron transfer processes. The Rieske and ROC share hydrogen bonds with Asp through their His ligands; suggesting an ideal network for electron transfer via the carboxyl side chain of Asp. Associated with the dOx is an itinerant charge carrying protein Ferredoxin (Fdx. Depending on the specific cognate, Fdx may also possess either the Rieske structure or a related structure known as 4-Cys-[2Fe-2S] (4-Cys. In this study, we extensively explore, at different levels of theory, the behavior of the individual components (Rieske and ROC and their interaction together via the Asp using a variety of density function methods, basis sets, and a method known as Generalized Ionic Fragment Approach (GIFA that permits setting up spin configurations manually. We also report results on the 4-Cys structure for comparison. The individual optimized structures are compared with observed spectroscopic data from the Rieske, 4-Cys and ROC structures (where information is available. The separate pieces are then combined together into a large Rieske-Asp-ROC (donor/bridge/acceptor complex to estimate the overall coupling between individual components, based on changes to the partial charges. The results suggest that the partial charges are significantly altered when Asp bridges the Rieske and the ROC; hence, long range coupling through hydrogen bonding effects via the intercalated Asp bridge can drastically affect the partial charge distributions compared to the individual isolated

  17. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Sections of H, He, N, O, Ar, Xe, Au, Pb Atoms and Their Ions in the Electron Energy Range from the Threshold up to 200 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Povyshev, V M; Shevelko, V P; Shirkov, G D; Vasina, E G; Vatulin, V V

    2001-01-01

    Single electron-impact ionization cross sections of H, He, N, O, Ar, Xe, Au, Pb atoms and their positive ions (i.e. all ionization stages) are presented in the electron energy range from the threshold up to 200 keV. The data-set for the cross sections has been created on the basis of available experimental data and calculations performed by the computer code ATOM. Consistent data for the ionization cross sections have been fitted by seven parameters using the LSM method. The accuracy of the calculated data presented is within a factor of 2 that in many cases is sufficient to solve the plasma kinetics problems. Contributions from excitation-autoionization and resonant-ionization processes as well as ionization of atoms and ions are not considered here. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with the well-known Lotz formulae for ionization of neutral atoms and positive ions. The material is illustrated by figures and includes tables of ionization cross sections, binding energies and fitting para...

  18. Near-threshold infrared photodetachment of Al-: A determination of the electron affinity of aluminum and the range of validity of the Wigner law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, D.; Covington, A.M.; Thompson, J.S.; Marawar, R.W.; Farley, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The relative photodetachment cross section of Al - has been measured in the wavelength range 2420 endash 2820 nm (0.440 endash 0.512 eV), using a coaxial ion-laser beams apparatus, in which a 2.98-keV Al - beam is merged with a beam from an F-center laser. The cross-section data near the 3 P 0,1,2 → 2 P 1/2,3/2 photodetachment threshold have been fitted to the Wigner threshold law and to the zero-core-contribution theory of photodetachment. The electron affinity of aluminum was determined to be 0.44094(+0.00066/-0.00048) eV, after correcting the experimental threshold for unresolved fine structure in the ground states of Al - and Al. The new measurement is in agreement with the best previous measurement (0.441±0.010 eV) and is 20 times more precise. The Wigner law agrees with experiment within a few percent for photon energies within 3% of threshold. A proposed leading correction to the Wigner law is discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. USA toetus Eestile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice kinnitas 3. mail 2007 telefonikõnes president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele USA toetust Eestile ning tõsist muret Venemaa käitumise üle oma naaberriigi suhtes. Ilmunud ka: Meie Kodu 9. mai 2007, lk. 2, pealk.: USA riigisekretär Vabariigi Presidendile: Ühendriigid toetavad Eestit

  20. Glemmer USA Afghanistan nu?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016.......Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016....

  1. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some biologically important compounds containing H, C, N and O in the energy range 145-1330 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunathaguru, V; Umesh, T K

    2006-01-01

    A semi-empirical relation which can be used to determine the total attenuation cross sections of samples containing H, C, N and O in the energy range 145-1332 keV has been derived based on the total attenuation cross sections of several sugars, amino acids and fatty acids. The cross sections have been measured by performing transmission experiments in a narrow beam good geometry set-up by employing a high-resolution hyperpure germanium detector at seven energies of biological importance such as 145.4 keV, 279.2 keV, 514 keV, 661.6 keV, 1115.5 keV, 1173.2 keV and 1332.1 keV. The semi-empirical relation can reproduce the experimental values within 1-2%. The total attenuation cross sections of five elements carbon, aluminium, titanium, copper and zirconium measured in the same experimental set-up at the energies mentioned above have been used in a new matrix method to evaluate the effective atomic numbers and the effective electron densities of samples such as cholesterol, fatty acids, sugars and amino acids containing H, C, N and O atoms from their effective atomic cross sections. The effective atomic cross sections are the total attenuation cross sections divided by the total number of atoms of all types in a particular sample. Further, a quantity called the effective atomic weight was defined as the ratio of the molecular weight of a sample to the total number of atoms of all types in it. The variation of the effective atomic number was systematically studied with respect to the effective atomic weight and a new semi-empirical relation for Z eff has been evolved. It is felt that this relation can be very useful to determine the effective atomic number of any sample having H, C, N and O atoms in the energy range 145-1332 keV irrespective of its chemical structure

  2. Organic electronic materials: Recent advances in the dft description of the ground and excited states using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Kö rzdö rfer, Thomas; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    -band-gap polymers.In this Account, we highlight how these failures can be traced back to the delocalization error inherent to semilocal and global hybrid functionals, which leads to the spurious delocalization of electron densities and an overestimation

  3. Total electron scattering cross sections of molecules containing H, C, N, O and F in the energy range 0.2–6.0 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, Meera Devi; Ariyasinghe, W.M., E-mail: wickram_ariyasinghe@baylor.edu

    2017-03-15

    Based on the effective atomic total electron scattering cross sections (EATCS) of atoms in a molecular environment, a simple model is proposed to predict the total electron scattering cross sections (TCS) of H, C, N, O, and F containing molecules. The EATCS for these five atoms are reported for 0.2–6.0 keV energies. The predicted TCS by this model are compared with experimental TCS in the literature. The experimental TCS of CHF{sub 3}, C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 4}F{sub 6}, and c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} have been obtained for 0.2–4.5 keV electrons by measuring the attenuation of the electron beam through a gas cell.

  4. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  5. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPER-STABLE DATUM POINT FOR MONITORING THE ENERGY SCALE OF ELECTRON SPECTROMETERS IN THE ENERGY RANGE UP TO 20 keV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vénos, Drahoslav; Zbořil, Miroslav; Kašpar, Jaromír; Dragoun, Otokar; Bonn, J.; Kovalík, Alojz; Lebeda, Ondřej; Lebedev, N. A.; Ryšavý, Miloš; Schlosser, K.; Špalek, Antonín; Weinheimer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2010), s. 305-312 ISSN 0543-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0002; GA MŠk LA318; GA MŠk LC07050; GA MŠk LA08002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : nuclear transition energy * conversion electrons * electron spectrometer Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.154, year: 2010

  7. Nuclear spin transitions in the kHz range in Rydberg matter clusters give precise values of the internal magnetic field from orbiting Rydberg electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Clusters of the electronically excited condensed matter Rydberg matter (RM) are planar and sixfold symmetric with specific magic numbers N as shown by rotational spectroscopy of potassium K N clusters [L. Holmlid, Mol. Phys. 105 (2007) 933; L. Holmlid, J. Mol. Struct. 885 (2008) 122]. In radio frequency emission spectra from such clusters, features are observed that are due to the hyperfine interaction between the atomic nucleus 39 K and two Rydberg electrons. These electrons exist in a doubly excited K atom at n'' = 5 or 6 in a 'sleeping-top' type rotating cluster. Such low excited electrons were observed recently in optical intra-cavity experiments in K(RM), where the electrons in the conduction band are involved in the angular momentum conservation in the stimulated emission. Here we show that the agreement with the theoretical description of circular Rydberg states is excellent within ±0.2% in the magnetic field, invoking angular momentum conservation by electrons in the condensed phase. Sleeping-top clusters may form stacks of clusters, and it is likely that such stacks are the emitting entities involved in the two nuclear spin series observed.

  8. Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoclimate and alpine glacier fluctuations recorded by high-resolution grain-size data from an alpine lake sediment core, Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Davis, P.; Machalett, Björn; Gosse, John

    2013-04-01

    Varved lake sediments, which provide ideal high-resolution climate proxies, are not commonly available in many geographic areas over long time scales. This paper utilizes high-resolution grain-size analyses (n = 1040) from a 520-cm long sediment core from Lower Titcomb Lake (LTL), which lies just outside the type Titcomb Basin (TTB) moraines in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. The TTB moraines lie between Lower Titcomb Lake and Upper Titcomb Lake (UTL), about 3 km beyond, and 200 m lower than the modern glacier margin and Gannett Peak (Little Ice Age) moraines in the basin. Based on cosmogenic exposure dating, the TTB moraines are believed to be Younger Dryas (YD) age (Gosse et al., 1995) and lie in a geomorphic position similar to several other outer cirque moraines throughout the western American Cordillera. Until recently, many of these outer cirque moraines were believed to be Neoglacial age. The sediment core discussed here is one of five obtained from the two Titcomb Lakes, but is by the far the longest with the oldest sediment depositional record. Two AMS radiocarbon ages from the 445- and 455-cm core depths (about 2% loss on ignition, LOI) suggest that the lake basin may have been ice-free as early as 16.1 or even 16.8 cal 14C kyr, consistent with 10Be and 26Al exposure ages from boulders and bedrock surfaces outside the TTB moraines. The 257-cm depth in the core marks an abrupt transition from inorganic, sticky gray silt below (rock flour production between the 257 and 466 cm core depths appear to be roughly correlative with the YD-Alleröd-Bölling-Meiendorf-Heinrich 1 climate events recognized in other terrestrial records and Northern Atlantic Ocean marine cores, but provide much higher resolution than most of those records from a climate-sensitive alpine region in North America.

  9. An Impurity Emission Survey in the near UV and Visible Spectral Ranges of Electron Cyclotron Heated (ECH) Plasma in the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a near-ultraviolet and visible spectroscopic survey (220-600 nm) of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator, with central electron temperatures up to 2 keV and central electron densities up to 1.7 x 10 ''19 m''-3. Approximately 1200 lines from thirteen elements have been identified. The purpose of the work is to identify the principal impurities and spectral lines present in TJ-II plasmas, as well as their possible origin to search for transitions from highly ionised ions. This work will act as a base for identifying suitable transitions for following the evolution of impurities under different operating regimens and multiplet systems for line polarisation studies. It is intended to use the database creates as a spectral line reference for comparing spectra under different operating and plasma heating regimes. (Author)

  10. FrogwatchUSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    $25,000, most of the first part of this program's life was spent developing the tools and web site to document counts of frogs online. Despite the lack of time available to promote the program, send out press releases and recruit observers, news of the program quickly spread by word of mouth and the electronic media. Many newspaper articles later, we found a large number of people had become involved with counting frogs in their neighborhoods and backyards. Current figures show 1,456 observers who have registered at 1,683 sites logging almost 5,000 visits. These visits yield information on when and what species are calling from wetlands throughout the United States. These records are usually the only records of information about frogs and toads for those sites and become a permanent record that can be revisited in future years. Additionally, when observers make a lot of visits or there are many sites in a region, a phenology of calls can be created that documents when it is most likely in that year for each species to be recorded. Finally, even for those observers whose data we may mistrust and therefore are likely to eliminate from analyses, these people have taken the time to leave their televisions, go outside, and directly experience frogs, toads, and all that occur in Nature. In 1999 it was decided that FrogwatchUSA needed to work with another group that specifically focused on environmental education and outreach. After talking to a number of organizations we found that the National Wildlife Federation, with their Backyard Wildlife Habitat, Endangered Species, and other programs along with their four million members who are interested in nature, would be an excellent match. Thus a partnership was born. After over a year of work between Interior and National Wildlife Federation biologists and lawyers, an agreement has been created that places the Federation as the lead of Frogwatch USA. It will now take care of res

  11. Investigation of ionization losses of shower electrons in electron-photon shower developed in liquid xenon by gamma quanta in the energy range 1600-3400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okhrymenko, L.S.; Slowinski, B.; Strugalski, Z.; Sredniawa, B.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the investigation of differential distributions of ionization losses and the corresponding fluctuations for shower electrons in the longitudinal development of electron-photon showers produced by gamma-quanta of energies Esub(γ)=1600-3400 MeV in liquid xenon are given. A simple and convenient from the methodical point of view two-parametric function, approximating the observed distribution has been obtained. The independence of the fluctuations of ionization losses of shower electrons on the energy of gamma-quanta in the investigated interval of Esub(γ) values has been found

  12. Thermo-emf of cadmium under hydrostatic pressure up to 3.0 GPa in the range of electron-topological transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajdenov, V.F.; Itskevich, E.S.; Gapotchenko, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Dependence of longitudinal d and transverse α thermo-emf of cadmium in 4-300 K temperature range at pressures up to 3.0 GPa was investigated. The anomaly value depends sufficiently on sample perfection

  13. Modeling the Deflection of Polarized Electrons with Energies in the Range 3.35-14 GeV in a Bent Silicon Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshcheev, V. P.; Shtanov, Yu. N.; Morgun, D. A.; Panina, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    The evolution of the magnetic moment of a relativistic particle is described with the help of the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation in the planar channels of a bent silicon crystal with allowance for multiple scatteringboth along and transverse to the (111) atomic plane, which consists of chains. Results of numerical simulations demonstrate a strong dependence of the degree of depolarization of the electron beam on the energy since at the energies 3.35 and 4.2 GeV the maximum in the distribution over rotation angles of the electron spin is absent, and at energies from 6.3 to 14 GeV the position of the maximum is in line with the theoretical estimate obtained using the formula of V. L. Lyuboshits.

  14. A closed-form solution for the two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport in the range of Compton Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, B.D.A.; Vilhena, M.T.; Borges, V.; Hoff, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we solve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, an alternative approach for the Boltzmann transport equation for charged particles in a rectangular domain. To construct the solution we begin applying the P N approximation in the angular variable and the Laplace Transform in the x-variable, thus obtaining a first order linear differential equation in y-variable, which the solution is straightforward. The angular flux of electrons and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the energy deposited by the secondary electrons generated by Compton Effect. The remaining effects will not be taken into account. The results will be presented under absorbed energy form in several points of interested. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using Geant4 (version 8) program which applies the Monte Carlo's technique to low energy libraries for a two-dimensional problem assuming the screened Rutherford differential scattering cross-section

  15. A new calculation on the stopping power and mean free path for low energy electrons in toluene over energy range of 20-10 000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhenyu; Xia Yueyuan; Liu Xiangdong; Zhao Mingwen; Zhang Liming

    2009-01-01

    A new calculation of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for electrons in toluene at energies below 10 keV has been presented. The calculation is based on the dielectric model and on an empirical evaluation approach of optical energy loss function (OELF). The reliability for the evaluated OELFs of several hydrocarbons with available experimental optical data has been systematically checked. For toluene, using the empirical OELF, the evaluated mean ionization potential, is compared with that given by Bragg's rule, and the calculated SP at 10 keV is also compared with the Bethe-Bloch prediction. The present results for SP and IMFP provide an alternative basic data for the study on the energy deposition of low-energy electrons transport through toluene, and also show that the method used in this work may be a good one for evaluating the SP and IMFP for hydrocarbons

  16. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori......, er opdelt i 13 kapitler og består af fire dele: Første del: Slaveriet; anden del: Jim Crow; tredje del. King-årene; fjerde del: Frem mod Obama....

  17. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  18. Electronic structure of disordered alloys - I: self-consistent cluster CPA incorporating off-diagonal disorder and short-range order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Mookerjee, A.; Srivastava, V.K.

    1980-09-01

    We have developed here a self-consistent coherent potential approximation generalized to take into account effect of clusters. Off-diagonal disorder and short-range order are taken into account. A graphical method married to the recursion technique, enables us to work on realistic three-dimensional lattices. Calculations are shown for a binary alloy on a diamond lattice. (author)

  19. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  20. A closed-form solution for the two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport in the range of Compton Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, B.D.A. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Portuguesa 218/304, 90650-12 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: barbara.arodriguez@gmail.com; Vilhena, M.T. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br; Borges, V. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Portuguesa 218/304, 90650-12 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br; Hoff, G. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Fisica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: hoff@pucrs.br

    2008-05-15

    In this paper we solve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, an alternative approach for the Boltzmann transport equation for charged particles in a rectangular domain. To construct the solution we begin applying the P{sub N} approximation in the angular variable and the Laplace Transform in the x-variable, thus obtaining a first order linear differential equation in y-variable, which the solution is straightforward. The angular flux of electrons and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the energy deposited by the secondary electrons generated by Compton Effect. The remaining effects will not be taken into account. The results will be presented under absorbed energy form in several points of interested. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using Geant4 (version 8) program which applies the Monte Carlo's technique to low energy libraries for a two-dimensional problem assuming the screened Rutherford differential scattering cross-section.

  1. Studies on effective atomic numbers and electron densities in amino acids and sugars in the energy range 30-1333 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowda, Shivalinge; Krishnaveni, S.; Gowda, Ramakrishna

    2005-01-01

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of the amino acids glycine, alanine, serine, valine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophane and the sugars arabinose, ribose, glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose, rhamnose, maltose, melibiose, melezitose and raffinose at the energies 30.8, 35.0, 81.0, 145, 276.4, 302.9, 356, 383.9, 661.6, 1173 and 1332.5 keV were calculated by using the measured total attenuation cross-sections. The interpolations of total attenuation cross-sections for photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the XCOM data in the photon energy region 30-1500 keV. The best-fit coefficients obtained by a piece wise interpolation method were used to find the effective atomic number and electron density of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data

  2. Studies on effective atomic numbers and electron densities in amino acids and sugars in the energy range 30-1333 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, Shivalinge [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India); Krishnaveni, S. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India); Gowda, Ramakrishna [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India)]. E-mail: ramakrishnagowda@yahoo.com

    2005-10-15

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of the amino acids glycine, alanine, serine, valine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophane and the sugars arabinose, ribose, glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose, rhamnose, maltose, melibiose, melezitose and raffinose at the energies 30.8, 35.0, 81.0, 145, 276.4, 302.9, 356, 383.9, 661.6, 1173 and 1332.5 keV were calculated by using the measured total attenuation cross-sections. The interpolations of total attenuation cross-sections for photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the XCOM data in the photon energy region 30-1500 keV. The best-fit coefficients obtained by a piece wise interpolation method were used to find the effective atomic number and electron density of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data.

  3. Multibloc system electronic equipment: D.C. linear - logarithmic amplifier and periodmeter and wide range (pulses, fluctuations and direct current) measuring set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerre, J.; Plaige, Y.; Vaux, C.

    1974-01-01

    The requirements which have led to the design of a specific equipment for reactor neutron control (Multibloc system) are briefly recalled. It is shown how, for reasons of saving the cost of installation, the development tended towards a multifunction performance from signals delivered by one detector. Two major achievments in accordance with the above trend are described: the D.C. linear - logarithmic amplifier and periodmeter, and the wide dynamics range measuring set [fr

  4. Effects of short-range order on electronic properties of Zr-Ni glasses as seen from low-temperature specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, D.M.; Koch, C.C.; Scarbrough, J.O.; McKamey, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of the low-temperature specific heat C/sub p/ of liquid-quenched Zr-Ni glasses for a large number of compositions in the range from 55 to 74 at. % Zr revealed an unusual composition dependence of the density of states at the Fermi level, N(E/sub F/). Furthermore, for some compositions the variation of C/sub p/ near the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ indicated the presence of two superconducting phases, i.e., two superconducting transitions were detected. Comparison of the individual T/sub c/'s in phase-separated samples to the composition dependence of T/sub c/ for all of the samples suggests that amorphous phases with compositions near 60 and 66.7 at. % Zr occur. We discuss these results in terms of an ''association model'' for liquid alloys (due to Sommer), in which associations of unlike atoms with definite stoichiometries are assumed to exist in equilibrium with unassociated atoms. We conclude that in the composition range studied, associate clusters with the compositions Zr 3 Ni 2 and Zr 2 Ni occur. In only a few cases are the clusters sufficiently large, compared with the superconducting coherence length, for separate superconducting transitions to be observed. The variation of N(E/sub F/) with composition is discussed, as well as the effects of this chemical short-range ordering on the crystallization behavior and glass-forming tendency

  5. Effects of short-range order on electronic properties of Zr-Ni glasses as seen from low-temperature specific heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, D. M.; Koch, C. C.; Scarbrough, J. O.; McKamey, C. G.

    1984-02-01

    Measurements of the low-temperature specific heat Cp of liquid-quenched Zr-Ni glasses for a large number of compositions in the range from 55 to 74 at.% Zr revealed an unusual composition dependence of the density of states at the Fermi level, N(EF). Furthermore, for some compositions the variation of Cp near the superconducting transition temperature Tc indicated the presence of two superconducting phases, i.e., two superconducting transitions were detected. Comparison of the individual Tc's in phase-separated samples to the composition dependence of Tc for all of the samples suggests that amorphous phases with compositions near 60 and 66.7 at.% Zr occur. We discuss these results in terms of an "association model" for liquid alloys (due to Sommer), in which associations of unlike atoms with definite stoichiometries are assumed to exist in equilibrium with unassociated atoms. We conclude that in the composition range studied, associate clusters with the compositions Zr3Ni2 and Zr2Ni occur. In only a few cases are the clusters sufficiently large, compared with the superconducting coherence length, for separate superconducting transitions to be observed. The variation of N(EF) with composition is discussed, as well as the effects of this chemical short-range ordering on the crystallization behavior and glass-forming tendency.

  6. Studies on effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and electron density of some narcotic drugs in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.

  7. Long-range interfacial electron transfer and electrocatalysis of molecular scale Prussian Blue nanoparticles linked to Au(111)-electrode surfaces by different chemical contacting groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    2017-01-01

    We have explored interfacial electrochemical electron transfer (ET) and electrocatalysis of 5–6 nm Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) immobilized on Au(111)-electrode surfaces via molecular wiring with variable-length, and differently functionalized thiol-based self-assembled molecular monolayers...... (SAMs). The SAMs contain positively (−NH3+) or negatively charged (–COO–) terminal group, as well an electrostatically neutral hydrophobic terminal group (–CH3). The surface microscopic structures of the immobilized PBNPs were characterized by high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) directly...... in aqueous electrolyte solution under the same conditions as for electrochemical measurements. The PBNPs displayed fast and reversible interfacial ET on all the surfaces, notably in multi-ET steps as reflected in narrow voltammetric peaks. The ET kinetics can be controlled by adjusting the length of the SAM...

  8. Electron diffraction study of the sillenites Bi12SiO20, Bi25FeO39 and Bi25InO39: Evidence of short-range ordering of oxygen-vacancies in the trivalent sillenites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Scurti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an electron diffraction study of three sillenites, Bi12SiO20, Bi25FeO39, and Bi25InO39 synthesized using the solid-state method. We explore a hypothesis, inspired by optical studies in the literature, that suggests that trivalent sillenites have additional disorder not present in the tetravalent compounds. Electron diffraction patterns of Bi25FeO39 and Bi25InO39 show streaks that confirm deviations from the ideal sillenite structure. Multi-slice simulations of electron-diffraction patterns are presented for different perturbations to the sillenite structure - partial substitution of the M site by Bi3+, random and ordered oxygen-vacancies, and a frozen-phonon model. Although comparison of experimental data to simulations cannot be conclusive, we consider the streaks as evidence of short-range ordered oxygen-vacancies.

  9. Guantanamo rikub USA seadusi / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    Kaks USA tsiviilkohut leiavad oma otsuses, et USA valitsus rikub USA-s ja Guantanamo sõjaväebaasis kinnipeetavate nn. vaenlasvõitlejate õigusi. Inimõigusorganisatsioonid avaldavad heameelt kohtute otsuste üle

  10. Extending the range of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) surface structure determination: Co-adsorbed molecules, incommensurate overlayers and alloy surface order studied by new video and electron counting LEED techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogletree, D.F.

    1986-11-01

    LEED multiple scattering theory is briefly summarized, and aspects of electron scattering with particular significance to experimental measurements such as electron beam coherence, instrument response and phonon scattering are analyzed. Diffuse LEED experiments are discussed. New techniques that enhance the power of LEED are described, including a real-time video image digitizer applied to LEED intensity measurements, along with computer programs to generate I-V curves. The first electron counting LEED detector using a ''wedge and strip'' position sensitive anode and digital electronics is described. This instrument uses picoampere incident beam currents, and its sensitivity is limited only by statistics and counting times. Structural results on new classes of surface systems are presented. The structure of the c(4 x 2) phase of carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt(111) has been determined, showing that carbon monoxide molecules adsorb in both top and bridge sites, 1.85 +- 0.10 A and 1.55 +- 0.10 A above the metal surface, respectively. The structure of an incommensurate graphite overlayer on Pt(111) is analyzed. The graphite layer is 3.70 +- 0.05 A above the metal surface, with intercalated carbon atoms located 1.25 +- 0.10 A above hollow sites supporting it. The (2√3 x 4)-rectangular phase of benzene and carbon monoxide coadsorbed on Pt(111) is analyzed. Benzene molecules adsorb in bridge sites parallel to and 2.10 +- 0.10 A above the surface. The carbon ring is expanded, with an average C-C bond length of 1.72 +- 0.15 A. The carbon monoxide molecules also adsorb in bridge sites. The structure of the (√3 x √3) reconstruction on the (111) face of the α-CuAl alloy has been determined

  11. Extending the range of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) surface structure determination: Co-adsorbed molecules, incommensurate overlayers and alloy surface order studied by new video and electron counting LEED techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogletree, D.F.

    1986-11-01

    LEED multiple scattering theory is briefly summarized, and aspects of electron scattering with particular significance to experimental measurements such as electron beam coherence, instrument response and phonon scattering are analyzed. Diffuse LEED experiments are discussed. New techniques that enhance the power of LEED are described, including a real-time video image digitizer applied to LEED intensity measurements, along with computer programs to generate I-V curves. The first electron counting LEED detector using a ''wedge and strip'' position sensitive anode and digital electronics is described. This instrument uses picoampere incident beam currents, and its sensitivity is limited only by statistics and counting times. Structural results on new classes of surface systems are presented. The structure of the c(4 x 2) phase of carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt(111) has been determined, showing that carbon monoxide molecules adsorb in both top and bridge sites, 1.85 +- 0.10 A and 1.55 +- 0.10 A above the metal surface, respectively. The structure of an incommensurate graphite overlayer on Pt(111) is analyzed. The graphite layer is 3.70 +- 0.05 A above the metal surface, with intercalated carbon atoms located 1.25 +- 0.10 A above hollow sites supporting it. The (2..sqrt..3 x 4)-rectangular phase of benzene and carbon monoxide coadsorbed on Pt(111) is analyzed. Benzene molecules adsorb in bridge sites parallel to and 2.10 +- 0.10 A above the surface. The carbon ring is expanded, with an average C-C bond length of 1.72 +- 0.15 A. The carbon monoxide molecules also adsorb in bridge sites. The structure of the (..sqrt..3 x ..sqrt..3) reconstruction on the (111) face of the ..cap alpha..-CuAl alloy has been determined.

  12. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  13. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  14. Ethnicity and the first diagnosis of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: Associations in a linked electronic health record cohort of 1 million patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie George

    Full Text Available While the association of ethnic group with individual cardiovascular diseases has been studied, little is known about ethnic differences in the initial lifetime presentation of clinical cardiovascular disease in contemporary populations.We studied 1,068,318 people, aged ≥30 years and free from diagnosed CVD at baseline (90.9% White, 3.6% South Asian and 2.9% Black, using English linked electronic health records covering primary care, hospital admissions, acute coronary syndrome registry and mortality registry (CALIBER platform. During 5.7 years median follow-up between 1997-2010, 95,224 people experienced an incident cardiovascular diagnosis. 69.9% (67.2%-72.4% of initial presentation in South Asian <60 yrs were coronary heart disease presentations compared to 47.8% (47.3%-48.3% in White and 40.1% (36.3%-43.9% in Black patients. Compared to White patients, Black patients had significantly lower age-sex adjusted hazard ratios (HRs for initial lifetime presentation of all the coronary disease diagnoses (stable angina HR 0.80 (95% CI 0.68-0.93; unstable angina- 0.75 (0.59-0.97; myocardial infarction 0.49 (0.40-0.62 while South Asian patients had significantly higher HRs (stable angina- 1.67 (1.52-1.84; unstable angina 1.82 (1.56-2.13; myocardial infarction- 1.67 (1.49-1.87. We found no ethnic differences in initial presentation with heart failure (Black 0.97 (0.79-1.20; S Asian 1.04(0.87-1.26. Compared to White patients, Black patients were more likely to present with ischaemic stroke (1.24 (0.97-1.58 and intracerebral haemorrhage (1.44 (0.97-2.12. Presentation with peripheral arterial disease was less likely for Black (0.63 (0.50-0.80 and South Asian patients (0.70 (0.57-0.86 compared with White patients.While we found the anticipated substantial predominance of coronary heart disease presentations in South Asian and predominance of stroke presentations in Black patients, we found no ethnic differences in presentation with heart failure. We

  15. Proton and electron impact on molecular and atomic oxygen: I. High resolution fluorescence spectra in the visible and VUV spectral range and emission cross-sections for dissociative ionisation and excitation of O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmi, O.; Schartner, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., vol.11, p.45-58, 2000. Molecular oxygen O 2 was dissociated in collisions with protons and electrons in the intermediate velocity range (p + -energies: 17-800 keV, e - -energies: 0.2-2 keV). Fluorescence from excited atomic and singly ionised fragments and from singly ionised molecules was detected in the VUV and in the visible and near UV spectral range. Highly resolved spectra are presented for the VUV (46-131 nm) and the near UV/visible (340-605 nm) spectral range. Absolute emission cross-sections have been determined for dissociative ionisation and excitation leading to fluorescence in the VUV. Results are compared with published data. (orig.)

  16. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8-24 eV photon energy range

    KAUST Repository

    Schwell, Martin; Bé nilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Gazeau, Marie Claire; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Garcí a, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent; Champion, Norbert; Leach, Sydney Sydney

    2012-01-01

    A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8-24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (1 2A′) = (9.71 ± 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 1 2A″, was determined to be ≈10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH 3, NH 2, NH 3, CO, HCCO and NH 2CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy loss, range, and bremsstrahlung yield for 10-keV to 100-MeV electrons in various elements and chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pages, Lucien; Bertel, Evelyne; Joffre, Henri; Sklavenitis, Laodamas

    2012-12-01

    Even though the United States lacks a national climate policy, significant action has occurred at the local and regional levels. Some of the most aggressive climate change policies have occurred at the state and local levels and in interagency cooperation on specific management issues. While there is a long history of partnerships in dealing with a wide variety of policy issues, the uncertainty and the political debate surrounding climate change has generated new challenges to establishing effective policy networks. This paper investigates the formation of climate policy networks in the State of Nevada. It presents a methodology based on social network analysis for assessing the structure and function of local policy networks across a range of substantive climate impacted resources (water, landscape management, conservation, forestry and others). It draws from an emerging literature on federalism and climate policy, public sector innovation, and institutional analysis in socio-ecological systems. Comparisons across different policy issue networks in the state are used to highlight the influence of network structure, connectivity, bridging across vertical and horizontal organizational units, organizational diversity, and flows between organizational nodes.

  18. Exclusive experiment on nuclei with backward emitted particles by electron-nucleus collision in ∼ 10 GeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Takagi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Since the evidence of strong cross section in proton-nucleus backward scattering was presented in the early of 1970 years, this phenomena have been interested from the point of view to be related to information on the short range correlation between nucleons or on high momentum components of the wave function of the nucleus. In the analysis of the first experiment on protons from the carbon target under bombardment by 1.5-5.7 GeV protons, indications are found of an effect analogous to scaling in high-energy interactions of elementary particles with protons. Moreover it is found that the function f(p 2 )/σ tot , which describes the spectra of the protons and deuterons emitted backward from nuclei in the laboratory system, does not depend on the energy and the type of the incident particle or on the atomic number of the target nucleus. In the following experiments the spectra of the protons emitted from the nuclei C, Al, Ti, Cu, Cd and Pb were measured in the inclusive reactions with incident particles of negative pions (1.55-6.2 GeV/c) and protons (6.2-9.0 GeV/C). The cross section f is described by f = E/p 2 d 2 σ/dpdΩ = C exp (-Bp 2 ), where p is the momentum of hadron. The function f depends linearly on the atomic weight A of the target nuclei. The slope parameter B is independent of the target nucleus and of the sort and energy of the bombarding particles. The invariant cross section ρ = f/σ tot is also described by exponential A 0 exp (-A 1p 2 ), where p becomes independent of energy at initial particle energies ≥ 1.5 GeV for C nucleus and ≥ 5 GeV for the heaviest of the investigated Pb nuclei

  19. Exclusive experiment on nuclei with backward emitted particles by electron-nucleus collision in {approximately} 10 GeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Takagi, F. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1994-04-01

    Since the evidence of strong cross section in proton-nucleus backward scattering was presented in the early of 1970 years, this phenomena have been interested from the point of view to be related to information on the short range correlation between nucleons or on high momentum components of the wave function of the nucleus. In the analysis of the first experiment on protons from the carbon target under bombardment by 1.5-5.7 GeV protons, indications are found of an effect analogous to scaling in high-energy interactions of elementary particles with protons. Moreover it is found that the function f(p{sup 2})/{sigma}{sub tot}, which describes the spectra of the protons and deuterons emitted backward from nuclei in the laboratory system, does not depend on the energy and the type of the incident particle or on the atomic number of the target nucleus. In the following experiments the spectra of the protons emitted from the nuclei C, Al, Ti, Cu, Cd and Pb were measured in the inclusive reactions with incident particles of negative pions (1.55-6.2 GeV/c) and protons (6.2-9.0 GeV/C). The cross section f is described by f = E/p{sup 2} d{sup 2}{sigma}/dpd{Omega} = C exp ({minus}Bp{sup 2}), where p is the momentum of hadron. The function f depends linearly on the atomic weight A of the target nuclei. The slope parameter B is independent of the target nucleus and of the sort and energy of the bombarding particles. The invariant cross section {rho} = f/{sigma}{sub tot} is also described by exponential A{sub 0} exp ({minus}A{sub 1p}{sup 2}), where p becomes independent of energy at initial particle energies {ge} 1.5 GeV for C nucleus and {ge} 5 GeV for the heaviest of the investigated Pb nuclei.

  20. When Anatase Nanoparticles Become Bulklike: Properties of Realistic TiO2 Nanoparticles in the 1-6 nm Size Range from All Electron Relativistic Density Functional Theory Based Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiel-Garcia, Oriol; Ko, Kyoung Chul; Lee, Jin Yong; Bromley, Stefan T; Illas, Francesc

    2017-04-11

    All electron relativistic density functional theory (DFT) based calculations using numerical atom-centered orbitals have been carried out to explore the relative stability, atomic, and electronic structure of a series of stoichiometric TiO 2 anatase nanoparticles explicitly containing up to 1365 atoms as a function of size and morphology. The nanoparticles under scrutiny exhibit octahedral or truncated octahedral structures and span the 1-6 nm diameter size range. Initial structures were obtained using the Wulff construction, thus exhibiting the most stable (101) and (001) anatase surfaces. Final structures were obtained from geometry optimization with full relaxation of all structural parameters using both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and hybrid density functionals. Results show that, for nanoparticles of a similar size, octahedral and truncated octahedral morphologies have comparable energetic stabilities. The electronic structure properties exhibit a clear trend converging to the bulk values as the size of the nanoparticles increases but with a marked influence of the density functional employed. Our results suggest that electronic structure properties, and hence reactivity, for the largest anatase nanoparticles considered in this study will be similar to those exhibited by even larger mesoscale particles or by bulk systems. Finally, we present compelling evidence that anatase nanoparticles become effectively bulklike when reaching a size of ∼20 nm diameter.

  1. Recent developments: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a National Energy Stategy (NES) for the USA is discussed. On July 26, 1989 President Bush directed of the Secretary of Energy to submit to the President a NES based on the following guidelines: to develop a NES through the year 2030 that could be implemented as son as possible, rather than waiting until the next energy crisis; to formulate the program so that it will create public consensus; build upon market reliance, rather than coercion; and to take a can do approach, capitalizing on US scientific knowledge and common abuse

  2. Cross sections of electron loss and capture for beams of O+ in water vapor from the energy range of 0,2 to 1,2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Vitor Jesus de

    2015-01-01

    The study of the interactions between atoms and molecules is important for the knowledge of the cross sections of the processes that contribute to the deposition of energy by charged particle beams used in radiotherapy planning and transport particle simulation codes. Heavy ions, such as oxygen, induce many cellular and molecular damages in human cells.as a result of interaction between the projectile and atoms and molecules. The use of proton and carbon as the projectile interacting with water molecules is well characterized, however there are few studies with oxygen ions. In this work we are interested in the study of electron loss (projectile ionization) and electron capture with charge state 1+. The Pelletron accelerator of 1.7 MeV from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro housed in the Atomic and Molecular collisions Laboratory (LACAM) has been used, which can accelerate atomic and molecular ions up to speeds of the order of hundredths of light speed, and consists of the source of negative ions, the Wien filter, the accelerator itself and the magnet load selector. The detection device used to evaluate the processes of interaction (capture and loss) between the beam of the O + and the water molecule is a Microchannel Plate (MCP) at the position sensitive anode. The collisions of O + beans are being studied in the range of 0.2 to 1.2 MeV with water vapor (Z = 10). Were obtained the respective absolute cross sections for electron loss and electron capture and compared with the cross sections of the molecule methane (CH4 → Z = 10), the isoelectronic water molecule. The experimental results show an agreement between the measurements with water and methane. Comparisons were made with results of theoretical models for electron loss using the 'Free Collision Model' and for capture the Bohr and Lindhard model. The theoretical results for electron loss show an agreement of experimental data with the model used. The model of Bohr and Lindhard describes

  3. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  4. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  5. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  6. White source gamma-ray production spectral measurement facilities in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.C.; Dickens, J.K.; Nelson, R.O.; Wender, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The two primary neutron sources for measuring gamma-ray production (GRP) cross sections for basic and applied work in the USA are the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ORELA is based on a 180-MeV electron linear accelerator, while the WNR facility uses the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility 800 MeV proton beam to produce neutrons. The facilities collectively cover the neutron-energy range from thermal to over 700 MeV. The paper describes the present capabilities for GRP measurements at each facility. 18 refs

  7. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  8. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  9. Comparing electronic news media reports of potential bioterrorism-related incidents involving unknown white powder to reports received by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Federal Bureau of Investigation: U.S.A., 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Geroncio C; Posid, Joseph; Papagiotas, Stephen; Lowe, Luis

    2015-01-01

    There have been periodic electronic news media reports of potential bioterrorism-related incidents involving unknown substances (often referred to as "white powder") since the 2001 intentional dissemination of Bacillus anthracis through the U.S. Postal System. This study reviewed the number of unknown "white powder" incidents reported online by the electronic news media and compared them with unknown "white powder" incidents reported to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) during a 2-year period from June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2011. Results identified 297 electronic news media reports, 538 CDC reports, and 384 FBI reports of unknown "white powder." This study showed different unknown "white powder" incidents captured by each of the three sources. However, the authors could not determine the public health implications of this discordance. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Future USA development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, J.D.; Biancheria, A.; Leibnitz, D.; O'Reilly, B.D.; Liu, Y.Y.; Labar, M.P.; Gneiting, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    The planning for further development in the USA at this time is a mixture of expectation and guessing. Modeling development is certain to continue, but the target reactor is uncertain. The next plant may or may not use the FFTR driver fuel design. The planning, therefore, emphasizes fundamentals and flexibility. There are many options to be modeled. The FFTF driver fuel performance in FFTF must be evaluated; both the reference and improved designs. A decision to use the FFTR driver design in the large plant will demand predictions on the effects of axial blankets, constant power (rather than decreasing) throughout life, and power changes, behavior beyond breach and design basis transients in large plants. A decision favoring a lower doubling time oxide design adds the effects of higher strength/lower swelling alloys, increased pin diameter, reduced cladding thickness/diameter, increased smeared density, gap versus pellet density, and reduced pin pitch/diameter. A helium bonded carbide design adds concern about increased potential for fuel-cladding-assembly mechanical interactions. And blanket pin performance predictions, either in a homogeneous or a heterogeneous core, add an increasing power history and enhanced assembly interactions. It is possible that the decision will be to choose a first core and retain all options for later cores. The modeling objective, for whatever options are chosen, is to predict the effect of normal and off-normal design conditions on performance limits (i.e., fuel temperature, pin deformation, pin lifetime). Several significant uncertainties in the mechanisms associated with the performance limits remain and will be addressed. These include gap closure, gap conductance and fuel properties at higher burnup, fuel-fission product reactions, retained gas, breach mechanisms, assembly interactions and behavior beyond breach, plus establishing appropriate criteria. The LIFE system, with its elements of 1D and 2D fundamental modeling

  11. An analytical expression for electron elastic scattering cross section from atoms and molecules in 1.0 keV to 1.0 MeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey)]. E-mail: yalcin@gazi.edu.tr; Gurler, O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gultekin, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk

    2006-07-31

    In this Letter, an expression is presented to calculate elastic scattering cross sections for incident electrons as a function of both energy and atomic number in the energy range between 1 keV and 1 MeV for materials with effective atomic number between 3 and 18. The expression we present has a rather simple analytical form which gives accurate results that are in very good agreement with the results calculated by a relativistic partial-wave expansion method. Hence, this equation can be employed accurately and efficiently in a continuous manner, without the need to go through rather large look-up tables, thus making the whole process quick, efficient and removing possible computational errors that may arise from the efforts of interpolation.

  12. An analytical expression for electron elastic scattering cross section from atoms and molecules in 1.0 keV to 1.0 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, S.; Gurler, O.; Gultekin, A.; Gundogdu, O.

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, an expression is presented to calculate elastic scattering cross sections for incident electrons as a function of both energy and atomic number in the energy range between 1 keV and 1 MeV for materials with effective atomic number between 3 and 18. The expression we present has a rather simple analytical form which gives accurate results that are in very good agreement with the results calculated by a relativistic partial-wave expansion method. Hence, this equation can be employed accurately and efficiently in a continuous manner, without the need to go through rather large look-up tables, thus making the whole process quick, efficient and removing possible computational errors that may arise from the efforts of interpolation

  13. Wide-range high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals morphological and distributional changes of endomembrane compartments during log to stationary transition of growth phase in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Higaki, Takumi; Sawaki, Fumie; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Goto, Yumi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Nagata, Noriko; Matsuoka, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Rapid growth of plant cells by cell division and expansion requires an endomembrane trafficking system. The endomembrane compartments, such as the Golgi stacks, endosome and vesicles, are important in the synthesis and trafficking of cell wall materials during cell elongation. However, changes in the morphology, distribution and number of these compartments during the different stages of cell proliferation and differentiation have not yet been clarified. In this study, we examined these changes at the ultrastructural level in tobacco Bright yellow 2 (BY-2) cells during the log and stationary phases of growth. We analyzed images of the BY-2 cells prepared by the high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution technique with the aid of an auto-acquisition transmission electron microscope system. We quantified the distribution of secretory and endosomal compartments in longitudinal sections of whole cells by using wide-range gigapixel-class images obtained by merging thousands of transmission electron micrographs. During the log phase, all Golgi stacks were composed of several thick cisternae. Approximately 20 vesicle clusters (VCs), including the trans-Golgi network and secretory vesicle cluster, were observed throughout the cell. In the stationary-phase cells, Golgi stacks were thin with small cisternae, and only a few VCs were observed. Nearly the same number of multivesicular body and small high-density vesicles were observed in both the stationary and log phases. Results from electron microscopy and live fluorescence imaging indicate that the morphology and distribution of secretory-related compartments dramatically change when cells transition from log to stationary phases of growth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  15. Remote Excavation of Heavily Contaminated UXO Sites. The Range Master

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crandall, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    USA Environmental, Inc., and Timberline Environmental Services, Inc., developed the Range Master, a remote controlled scraper with an integrated power screen, to excavate and sift the top 12 inches of heavily contaminated UXO sites...

  16. Nordkorea kan endelig ramme USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads.......Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads....

  17. USA pelgab Hiina tehnoloogialuuret / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Hiina Ameerika-vastasest majandusluurest. USA luureameti andmetel on USA-s loodud üle kolme tuhande Hiina firma, kelle ülesandeks on tööstusliku või sõjalise tehnoloogia hankimine. Vt. samas: Hiina firmad ostavad üha suuremaid USA ettevõtteid

  18. Chapter 9: The rock coast of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Adams, Peter N.; Allan, Jonathan; Ashton, Andrew; Griggs, Gary B.; Hampton, Monty A.; Kelly, Joseph; Young, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The coastline of the USA is vast and comprises a variety of landform types including barrier islands, mainland beaches, soft bluffed coastlines and hard rocky coasts. The majority of the bluffed and rocky coasts are found in the northeastern part of the country (New England) and along the Pacific coast. Rocky and bluffed landform types are commonly interspersed along the coastline and occur as a result of relative lowering of sea level from tectonic or isostatic forcing, which can occur on timescales ranging from instantaneous to millenia. Recent research on sea cliffs in the contiguous USA has focused on a broad range of topics from documenting erosion rates to identifying processes and controls on morphology to prediction modelling. This chapter provides a detailed synthesis of recent and seminal research on rocky coast geomorphology along open-ocean coasts of the continental United States (USA).

  19. On the wide-energy-range tuning of x-ray photoemission electron microscope optics for the observation of the photoelectrons excited by several keV x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasufuku, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kimura, M.; Vlaicu, A.M.; Kato, M.; Kudo, M.; Fujikata, J.; Fukushima, S.

    2006-01-01

    We have newly developed an x-ray photoemission electron microscope (XPEEM) which uses both soft x-rays and hard x-rays at the undulator beam line BL15XU in the synchrotron radiation (SR) facility SPring-8 to observe various practical materials. In combination with an energy analyzer and high brilliant x-ray source, the detection of high kinetic energy inner-shell photoelectrons is essential for revealing the chemical properties of specimen subsurfaces or buried interfaces, owing to long inelastic mean free path of the high kinetic energy photoelectrons. The most significant result in our design is the new combined electric and magnetic field objective lens in which the magnetic field penetrates up to the sample surface. This allows the measurement with high spatial resolution of both low intensity images of inner-shell photoelectrons with high kinetic energy and high intensity images of secondary electrons. By using the sample bias scan method, we can easily change the focus condition of the objective lens in order to allow the energy filtered imaging with photoelectrons having the kinetic energy in a wide range (1-10 000 eV). By the combination of high brilliant SR x-rays, the new objective lens, and sample bias method, our XPEEM can successfully obtain the microarea x-ray photoelectron spectra and energy filtered XPEEM images of inner-shell photoelectrons, such as Si 1s, without any surface cleaning procedure. The energy filtered XPEEM image using photoelectrons from deep inner shells, Si 1s, was obtained for the first time

  20. Hybrid Lives of Teaching and Artistry: A Study of Teaching Artists in Dance in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates teaching artists in the USA whose work is rooted in dance and dance-related disciplines. Teaching artists, although the descriptor itself remains both ambiguous and debated in the USA, provide a good deal of arts education delivery in K12 schools and afterschool programs. Based on survey data from a range of dance teaching…

  1. Integration of GCAM-USA into GLIMPSE: Update and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this presentation is to (i) discuss changes made to the GCAM-USA model to more fully support long-term, coordinated environmental-climate-energy planning within the U.S., and (ii) demonstrate the graphical user interface that has been constructed to construct modeling scenarios, execute GCAM-USA, and visualize and compare model outputs. GLIMPSE is intended to provide insights into linkages and synergies among the goals of air quality management, climate change mitigation, and long-range energy planning. We have expanded GLIMPSE to also incorporate the open-source Global Change Assessment Model-USA (GCAM-USA), which has state-level representation of the U.S. energy system. With GCAM-USA, GLIMPSE can consider more aspects of the economy, linkages to the water and climate systems, and interactions with other regions of the world. A user-friendly graphical interface allows the system to be applied by analysts to explore a range of policies, such emission taxes or caps, efficiency standards, and renewable portfolio standards. We expect GLIMPSE to be used within research and planning activities, both within the EPA and beyond.

  2. What drives low-severity fire in the southwestern USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Solomon Z. Dobrowski; Matthew H. Panunto

    2018-01-01

    Many dry conifer forests in the southwestern USA and elsewhere historically (prior to the late 1800’s) experienced fairly frequent surface fire at intervals ranging from roughly five to 30 years. Due to more than 100 years of successful fire exclusion, however, many of these forests are now denser and more homogenous, and therefore they have a greater probability of...

  3. Forests and Climate Change in the Southeast USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven McNulty; Peter Caldwell; Thomas W. Doyle; Kurt Johnsen; Yongqiang Liu; Jacqueline Mohan; Jeffrey Prestemon; Ge Sun

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsWarming air temperatures will likely increase regional drying regardless of changes in precipitation, and this drying will likely increase wildfire risk across southeastern USA forests.Longer growing seasons will likely increase the risk of insect outbreak and very likely will expand the northern range of some...

  4. Litterfall mercury dry deposition in the eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin R. Risch; John F. DeWild; David P. Krabbenhoft; Randall K. Kolka; Leiming. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in autumn litterfall frompredominately deciduous forestswas measured in 3 years of samples from 23 Mercury Deposition Network sites in 15 states across the eastern USA. Annual litterfall Hg dry depositionwas significantly higher (median 12.3 micrograms per square meter (µg/m2), range 3.5-23.4 µg/m2...

  5. Can an electronic device with a single cuff be accurate in a wide range of arm size? Validation of the Visomat Comfort 20/40 device for home blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, G S; Tzamouranis, D; Nasothimiou, E G; Protogerou, A D

    2008-11-01

    An appropriate cuff according to the individual's arm circumference is recommended with all blood pressure (BP) monitors. An electronic device for home monitoring has been developed (Visomat Comfort 20/40) that estimates the individual's arm circumference by measuring the cuff filing volume and makes an adjustment of measured BP taking into account the estimated arm circumference. Thus the manufacturer recommends the use of a single cuff for arm circumference 23-43 cm. The device accuracy was assessed using the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol. Simultaneous BP measurements were obtained in 33 adults by two observers (connected mercury sphygmomanometers) four times, sequentially with three measurements taken using the tested device. Absolute device-observer BP differences were classified into difference differences differences difference (systolic/diastolic) was 3.7 +/- 5.6/-1.5 +/- 4.7 mm Hg (4.7 +/- 4.9/ - 1.7 +/- 4.3 in arm circumference 23-29 cm [39 readings] and 3.1 +/- 5.9/-1.4 +/- 5.0 in arm 30-34 cm [60 readings], P=NS). In conclusion, the device fulfils the International Protocol requirements and can be recommended for clinical use. Interestingly, the device was accurate using a single cuff in a wide range of arm circumference (23-34 cm). This study provides no information about the device accuracy in larger arms.

  6. Low energy electron scattering from fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, M. Cristina A.; Silva, Daniel G.M.; Coelho, Rafael F.; Duque, Humberto V.; Santos, Rodrigo R. dos; Ribeiro, Thiago M.

    2011-01-01

    Full text. Accurate and precise values of absolute total cross section (TCS) represent important information in many scientific and technological applications. In our case, for example, we are motivated to provide such information for electron-fuel collision processes which are specifically relevant to modeling spark ignition in alcohol-fuelled internal combustion engines. Many electron scattering TCS measurements are presently available for a diverse range of atomic and molecular targets. However, lack of data for important bio-molecular targets still remains. Disagreements between the available TCS data for the alcohols have prompted several studies of electron scattering collision of slow electrons with these molecules which are currently important in applications as bio- fuels. This relevance, which has attracted much attention, has been one of the subjects of a recent collaboration between experimental and theoretical groups in the USA and Brazil. Recently this collaboration reported first measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for elastic low-energy (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering by several primary alcohols. In this work we address methanol and ethanol TCSs at low energy range and report additional studies of resonant structure in ethanol using the detection of metastable states produced by electron impact excitation with high energy resolution. We have recently constructed a TCS apparatus in our laboratory at Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil, based on the well-known linear transmission technique. The experimental setup is based on the measurement of the attenuation of a collimated electron beam through a gas cell containing the atoms or molecules to be studied at a given pressure. It consists essentially of an electron gun, a gas cell and an electron energy analyzer composed of an array of decelerating electrostatic lenses, a cylindrical dispersive 127o analyzer and a Faraday cup. To our knowledge, there exist

  7. Low energy electron scattering from fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. Cristina A.; Silva, Daniel G.M.; Coelho, Rafael F.; Duque, Humberto V.; Santos, Rodrigo R. dos; Ribeiro, Thiago M. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Yates, Brent; Hong, Ling; Khakoo, Murtadha A. [California State University at Fullerton, CA (US). Physics Department; Bettega, Marcio H.F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Costa, Romarly F. da [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Lima, Marco A.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE/CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Accurate and precise values of absolute total cross section (TCS) represent important information in many scientific and technological applications. In our case, for example, we are motivated to provide such information for electron-fuel collision processes which are specifically relevant to modeling spark ignition in alcohol-fuelled internal combustion engines. Many electron scattering TCS measurements are presently available for a diverse range of atomic and molecular targets. However, lack of data for important bio-molecular targets still remains. Disagreements between the available TCS data for the alcohols have prompted several studies of electron scattering collision of slow electrons with these molecules which are currently important in applications as bio- fuels. This relevance, which has attracted much attention, has been one of the subjects of a recent collaboration between experimental and theoretical groups in the USA and Brazil. Recently this collaboration reported first measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for elastic low-energy (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering by several primary alcohols. In this work we address methanol and ethanol TCSs at low energy range and report additional studies of resonant structure in ethanol using the detection of metastable states produced by electron impact excitation with high energy resolution. We have recently constructed a TCS apparatus in our laboratory at Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil, based on the well-known linear transmission technique. The experimental setup is based on the measurement of the attenuation of a collimated electron beam through a gas cell containing the atoms or molecules to be studied at a given pressure. It consists essentially of an electron gun, a gas cell and an electron energy analyzer composed of an array of decelerating electrostatic lenses, a cylindrical dispersive 127o analyzer and a Faraday cup. To our knowledge, there exist

  8. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  9. Integrating laser-range finding, electronic compass measurements and GPS to rapidly map vertical changes in volcanic stratigraphy and constrain unit thicknesses and volumes: two examples from the northern Cordilleran volcanic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogier, M.; Edwards, B. R.; Wetherell, K.

    2005-12-01

    sequences give average thicknesses of 5-10m. The laser-range finding-GPS setup used in these studies comprises an IMPULSE LR laser-range finder, a MapStar Module II electronic compass, and a Trimble ProXL global positioning (GPS) unit attached to a tripod specially designed to hold all three pieces of equipment. The three units communicate via a variety of cables. The maximum distance over which the laser can used is 500m (this distance varies for different lasers); the tripod was set at a relatively short distance from the exposure of interest at Craven Lake (95-115m), but further away at Hoodoo Mountain (up to 450m). The range finder was used to 'shoot' bottom and top contacts of each unit within the vertical faces. The distance and relative bearing were automatically transferred into compass and then to the GPS unit, producing in a map of the vertical face with horizontal and vertical coordinates. Analysis of the data provides detailed estimates of unit thicknesses across the vertical faces. The data collected can be imported into ArcGIS as a SHAPE file and overlain on DEM models for the areas of interest. ArcGIS extensions such as Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst can be used to estimate surface areas and volumes for units mapped within the laser-GPS setup.

  10. DØ Collaboration at FNAL, USA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. DØ Collaboration at FNAL, USA. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 62 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 561-563 Experimental Particle Physics. Search for narrow-width t t ¯ resonances in p p ¯ collisons at ( s ) = 1.8 TeV · Supriya Jain DØ Collaboration at FNAL, ...

  11. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  12. USA panustab keskkonda / Jeffrey Goldstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    USA uus energiapoliitika kava näeb ette bensiini tarbimise vähendamist järgneva 10 aasta jooksul 20%, mis omakorda vähendab ameeriklaste autodest eralduva süsihappegaasi heitmete kasvu ning vähendab sõltuvust naftast

  13. USA asekaitseminister seisab Eesti eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eestis visiidil viibiv USA asekaitseminister poliitika alal Michele Flournoy ütles, et pooldab koostöökohtade otsimist Moskvaga, kuid on kindlal seisukohal, et Venemaa ei tohi end siin piirkonnas kehtestada. Flournoy tunnustas Eesti panust Afganistani ning samuti liitlassuhetesse laiemalt

  14. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  15. Eesti ja USA sõlmisid kokkuleppe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Kaitseminister Margus Tsahkna ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadik Eestis James Melville allkirjastasid Eesti ja USA kaitsekoostöö kokkuleppe, mis hakkab reguleerima Eestis viibivate USA relvajõudude liikmete, nende pereliikmete ja lepinglaste õiguslikku staatust

  16. USA suursaadikuga Tallinna lahel / Katrin Kruss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruss, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips oma haridusteest, perekonnast, armastusest mere vastu, panusest isa Earl Phillipsi mööbliäri laiendamisse, golfiharrastusest, suursaadikute ettevalmistusest USA-s, suursaadiku residentsist Pirital ning uue saatkonnahoone otsingutest Tallinnas. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips

  17. USA andis Gruusiale vastakaid signaale / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi saabumisest Thbilisisse, et avaldada Gruusiale toetust. USA poolt antud soovitustest Gruusia president Mihhail Saakashvilile mitte jõudu kasutada ega alluda Venemaa provokatsioonidele ning hoiatustest sõjalise konflikti tagajärgede eest. USA analüütikute arvamusi

  18. Sõda, mille USA on juba kaotanud / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    USA pole suutnud Iraagi-vastase sõja vajalikkust põhjendada, arvavad paljud USA poliitikavaatlejad. Rängaks diplomaatiliseks eksimuseks peetakse USA kaitseministri Donald Rumsfeldi avaldust, et USA ei vaja kellegi abi sõjas

  19. Complete genome sequence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (strain USA400-0051, a prototype of the USA400 clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Farrel Côrtes

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, commonly referred as S. aureus, is an important bacterial pathogen frequently involved in hospital- and community-acquired infections in humans, ranging from skin infections to more severe diseases such as pneumonia, bacteraemia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and disseminated infections. Here, we report the complete closed genome sequence of a community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain, USA400-0051, which is a prototype of the USA400 clone.

  20. The electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestenes, David; Weingartshofer, Antonio

    1991-01-01

    The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs

  1. Marketing and Testosterone Treatment in the USA: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Ayyash, Omar M; Emery, Sherry L; Wessel, Charles B; Davies, Benjamin J

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for classic hypogonadism, although off-label indications have resulted in a dramatic expansion in prescriptions in the USA. Marketing may significantly affect prescriber behavior. To systematically review all available evidence on marketing and TRT in the USA. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched up to July 2017 for all relevant publications reporting on assessments of the TRT market size, economic costs associated with hypogonadism, trends in TRT prescriptions, drug discontinuation rates, and advertising and sales efforts in the USA. Twenty retrospective studies were included in the final analysis. The market size for hypogonadism constitutes 5.6-76.8% of men in the USA, with the lower end of the range representing the strictest criteria for diagnosis. Men with a diagnosis of hypogonadism consume $14 118 in direct and indirect costs to the payer. Over the last 2 decades, TRT prescriptions have increased between 1.8- and 4-fold. After 1 yr, 80-85% of men discontinue TRT. There is an association between direct-to-consumer advertising and testosterone testing, TRT prescriptions, and TRT without testosterone testing. There is a high prevalence of misinformation on Internet advertising. Off-label indications have driven the dramatic expansion of TRT prescriptions over the last 2 decades. Direct-to-consumer advertising poses a unique challenge in the USA. Overtreatment can be avoided by applying strict diagnostic criteria for hypogonadism, which limits the addressable market for TRT. In this report, we reviewed the relationship between marketing and testosterone therapy in the USA. We found that many patients are prescribed testosterone without an appropriate diagnosis of hypogonadism, which may be related to the marketing efforts for off-label prescribing. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  3. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C; García, Gustavo; Oller, Juan C; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  4. Travel and tourism in the USA: industry development trends

    OpenAIRE

    Smal, Valentyna

    2016-01-01

    The travel and tourism industry has evolved over the past six decades into one of the world’s most significant economic sectors. Travel and tourism are critical to the American economy. This growing industry offers significant potential for job creation across all regions of the country. A considerable competitive advantage of the USA as a tourism destination lies in the variety of experiences the country offers, ranging from large cities and small-town to the many unique historic places and ...

  5. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt O. Reinhart; Alejandro Royo; Wim H. Van der Putten; Keith Clay

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments, soil sterilization was used to test the...

  6. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Royo, A.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Clay, K.

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments,

  7. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  8. USA otsib Iraanist aktiivselt tuumainfot / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Iraan avaldas protesti USA luurelendude üle Iraani kohal. USA endine kaitseminister James Baker peab Iraani ja Põhja-Koreaga nende tuumaprogrammide hävitamiseks sõja alustamist suurimaks veaks. Kuigi Bushi meeskond rõhutab vajadust lahendada küsimus rahumeelselt, toovad Dick Cheney' ja Condoleezza Rice'i avaldused mitme USA kommentaatori arvates meelde Iraagi sõja eelse taktika

  9. Eesti on USA uus lemmik / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiidist Washingtoni, kohtumistest USA presidendi George W. Bushi, asepresident Dick Cheney, asevälisminister John Negroponte, kaitseminister Robert M. Gates'i, USA Kongressi esindajatekoja spiikri Nancy Pelosi ja kongresmenidega. Eestil õnnestus korraldada USA pealinnas kohtumised, mille järjekorras ootab hulk palju suuremaid riike. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  10. The energy situation in the Usa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analyses discusses the energy supplying security, the natural gas demand increase and its consequences, the climatic change in the long-dated, the long dated perspectives of the Usa energy policy, the law on the energy and the consequences for the nuclear activity, the financial incentives in favor of the construction of new nuclear power plants in the Usa and the good nuclear energy industry situation in the Usa. (A.L.B.)

  11. USA NCAP - a glance at harmonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, R.M.; Park, B.T.; Beuse, N.M.; Lowrie, J.C. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Swanson, J.L.; Rockwell, T.E. [ACE Systems Technologies, Inc. (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper is separated roughly into four parts. First, the authors discuss the frontal tests of the USA New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and then consider similarities and differences in the two different types of frontal tests worldwide. Second, the focus is placed on the side crash of the USA NCAP and comparisons are made between the results of the two different types of lateral tests worldwide. Third, the paper explains the Congressional requirements to establish a child safety rating system (in the USA) by model year 2003 and looks at the approach taken by NCAPs worldwide. Finally, the growth in requests for consumer information (in the USA) is measured. (orig.)

  12. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  13. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jessica; Hollis, Joseph Razzell; Wood, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    The combination of printing technology with manufacturing electronic devices enables a new paradigm of printable electronics, where 'smart' functionality can be readily incorporated into almost any product at low cost. Over recent decades, rapid progress has been made in this field, which is now emerging into the industrial andcommercial realm. However, successful development and commercialisation on a large scale presents some significant technical challenges. For fully-printable electronic systems, all the component parts must be deposited from solutions (inks), requiring the development of new inorganic, organic and hybrid materials.A variety of traditional printing techniques are being explored and adapted forprinting these new materials in ways that result in the best performing electronicdevices. Whilst printed electronics research has initially focused on traditional typesof electronic device such as light-emitting diodes, transistors, and photovoltaics, it is increasingly apparent that a much wider range of applications can be realised. The soft and stretchable nature of printable materials makes them perfect candidates forbioelectronics, resulting in a wealth of research looking at biocompatible printable inks and biosensors. Regardless of application, the properties of printed electronicmaterials depend on the chemical structures, processing conditions, device architecture,and operational conditions, the complex inter-relationships of which aredriving ongoing research. We focus on three particular 'hot topics', where attention is currently focused: novel materials, characterisation techniques, and device stability. With progress advancing very rapidly, printed electronics is expected to grow over the next decade into a key technology with an enormous economic and social impact.

  14. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  15. Green electricity - experiences from USA; Groen el - erfarenheter fraan USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graens, N

    1995-10-01

    Environmental concern has opened a market for electric power produced from renewable energy sources in USA. A number of American electric utilities have responded to the interest from the public and offered green electricity at a price somewhat above the normal rates. Most of these programs, that have existed for a few years, have succeeded quite well, giving the utilities better relations to their customers and experiences from marketing new products. The customers have been satisfied and shown enthusiasm for the new product. The present report reviews the attitudes to and drive behind green electricity from/relative to utilities, customers, environmental organizations and authorities. The programs and experiences of the utilities are described, and the prospects for green power on a deregulated market are discussed. Speculations about market responses to green power in Sweden are also made. 37 refs, 13 figs

  16. 77 FR 6587 - Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,089; TA-W-75,089A] Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on January 26, 2011, applicable to workers of StarTek USA, Inc...

  17. Executives "Plug in" to Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education & Training, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes a programme, developed by FT Knowledge and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, USA, to guide managers through the opportunities and threats presented by electronic commerce. Focuses on areas such as marketing, electronic retailing, pricing, product design, supply chain management and communication. Highlights how the…

  18. Study of an efficient application of the tagged bremsstrahlung in double-polarization experiments in the GeV range and the use of the inelastic electron scattering under extremely forward angles as alternative to the tagged bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, M.

    2006-03-01

    For the preparation of photonic probes for hadron physics the determination of energy and polarization of the photons is essential. In this dissertation in a first part a possibility of the determination of the degree of polarization by use of the asymmetry observables is presented. In a second part a possibility isd discussed to perform an energy and polarization tagging of nearly real photons in electron scattering under small Q 2 . By this method it should be possible to tag billions of photons per second

  19. Long-range terms in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.; Weaver, O.L.

    1986-01-01

    Various separations, or ''gauge choices,'' are possible for the decomposition of the total Hamiltonian into electronic and internuclear terms. We show that, for one particular choice, all long-range Coulomb terms are associated with the internuclear motion. The potential then associated with electronic transitions is non-Coulombic. Some practical consequences of this gauge choice are discussed

  20. USA tankid jõudsid Tapale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Tapale saabus poolsada USA sõjamasinat, nende seas neli tanki Abrams M1A2 ja 15 jalaväe lahingumasinat Bradley. Tehnikat hakkab kasutama USA maaväe 4. jalaväediviisi 68. soomusrügemendi esimese pataljoni C-kompanii

  1. USA allveelaev uputas kalalaeva / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2001-01-01

    Hawaii lähistel õppustel kiiret pinnaletõusu harjutanud USA allveelaev USS Greeneville põrkas kokku Jaapani õppelaevaga Ehime Maru, õnnetuse tagajärjel hukkus tõenäoliselt 9 jaapanlast. Skeem: Õnnetused USA allveelaevadega

  2. Poola ootab USA maaväelasi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Poola kaitseministri Tomasz Siemoniaki sõnul saadab USA Poolasse maavägesid, et laeindada NATO kohalolekut ajal, mil pingeline olukord Ukrainas kestab, kirjutas Washington Post. Siemoniak ütles lehele, et sõjalised planeerijad juba töötavad vastava kava üksikasjade kallal. Ta lisas, et tõenäoliselt saadetakse USA sõdureid ka Baltimaadesse

  3. Krossil on probleeme USA viisaga? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Päevaleht esitas USA Eesti-saatkonnale järelepärimise seoses sellega, et Eerik-Niiles Krossi USA-viisa on tühistatud. Saatkonna pressi- ja kultuuriatašee James Landi vastusest. Eerik-Niiles Krossi kommentaare

  4. Bulgaaria valitsus tahab USA raketikilpi / Mihkel Niglas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niglas, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaarias küsiti USA presidendilt George W. Bushilt, miks Poolasse ja Tšehhi kavandatav raketikilp ei hakka katma Bulgaariat. USA paigutab septembris Bulgaaria sõjabaasi üle 3000 sõduri. George W. Bush toetab Bulgaaria nõudmist Liibüale vabastada Bulgaaria meditsiiniõed

  5. Etteheide: USA okupeerib Haitit / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Prantsusmaa ja Brasiilia on esitanud protesti, sest USA sõjalennukitele on antud eelisõigus Haiti pealinna Port-au-Prince'i lennujaama kasutamisel. Paljude kommentaatorite hinnangul on Prantsusmaa püüdnud haarata prominentset rolli Haiti abistamisel, kuid USA on tegutsenud kiiremini ja jõulisemalt. Kaart

  6. USA raport hoiatab tuumaterroristide eest / Karin Volmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volmer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    USA-s tegutseva tuumaterrori vastase organisatsiooni Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) raport kinnitab maailma edusamme tuumamaterjali turvalisuses, kuid on ka palju ohuallikaid. Analüütikud kahtlevad Venemaa ja Pakistani armee usaldusväärsuses tuumamaterjali hoidmisel. Lisa: Tuumaterrori raport

  7. USA's litterære superstjerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    Jonathan Franzen er den mest omtalte forfatter i USA lige nu og ombejlet af alle fra Time Magazine til Oprah Winfrey. Hvad er det, han kan, manden bag ”Freedom”?......Jonathan Franzen er den mest omtalte forfatter i USA lige nu og ombejlet af alle fra Time Magazine til Oprah Winfrey. Hvad er det, han kan, manden bag ”Freedom”?...

  8. National Fire Risk Map for Continental USA: Creation and Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q; Wollersheim, M; Griffiths, S; Maddox, I

    2014-01-01

    A nation-wide fire risk map for the continental USA has been created based on a hybrid fire risk model, incorporating a combination of static risk indicators which change very slowly over time, and dynamic risk indicators that may vary significantly from week-to-week. Static risk indicators include: terrain elevation, terrain slope, terrain aspect, and distance from roads and settlements. Each of the static risk indicators are derived from Intermap's high-accuracy NEXTMap ® USA database. The dynamic risk indicators are derived from satellite-based multi-spectral imagery and provide a snapshot of the fuel-moisture conditions during fire seasons. Each of these risk indicators are combined to produce a map provided at 5m posting and normalized to the range of 0 (very low risk) and 255 (very high risk). The map has been validated in two selected areas using historical fire information

  9. Range-Measuring Video Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Briscoe, Jeri M.; Corder, Eric L.; Broderick, David

    2006-01-01

    Optoelectronic sensors of a proposed type would perform the functions of both electronic cameras and triangulation- type laser range finders. That is to say, these sensors would both (1) generate ordinary video or snapshot digital images and (2) measure the distances to selected spots in the images. These sensors would be well suited to use on robots that are required to measure distances to targets in their work spaces. In addition, these sensors could be used for all the purposes for which electronic cameras have been used heretofore. The simplest sensor of this type, illustrated schematically in the upper part of the figure, would include a laser, an electronic camera (either video or snapshot), a frame-grabber/image-capturing circuit, an image-data-storage memory circuit, and an image-data processor. There would be no moving parts. The laser would be positioned at a lateral distance d to one side of the camera and would be aimed parallel to the optical axis of the camera. When the range of a target in the field of view of the camera was required, the laser would be turned on and an image of the target would be stored and preprocessed to locate the angle (a) between the optical axis and the line of sight to the centroid of the laser spot.

  10. Measurement of the electron--deuteron elastic scattering cross section in the range 0.8 less than or equal to q2 less than or equal to 6 GeV2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.; Chertok, B.T.; Dally, E.B.; Grigorian, A.; Jordan, C.L.; Schuetz, W.P.; Zdarko, R.; Martin, F.; Mecking, B.A.

    1975-06-01

    Preliminary results of elastic eD scattering at large momentum transfer performed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center using two high resolution spectrometers in coincidence are reported. The deuteron structure function A(q 2 ) is deduced at 9 values of q 2 from a comparison of elastic eD and eP coincident yields and the world's eP cross sections. These measurements extend the range of q 2 by 4.5 over previous work, and in this new range A(q 2 ) is observed to approach 1/q 20 momentum dependence. Results are in sharp disagreement with the meson exchange calculations, and they are in rough agreement with the nonrelativistic potential models, and they are in agreement with the predictions of the quark dimensional scaling model which pictures the deuteron as a bound state of 6 quarks at large momentum transfer

  11. Ideaalne torm USA majanduses / Ken Goldstein ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Ken

    2008-01-01

    USA majandusuuringute organisatsiooni The Conference Board analüütik USA majanduse olukorrast, mõjust maailmamajandusele, arenguvõimalustest ning uue presidendi vajalikest sammudest majanduses. Lisa: Enamuse arvates on USA valel teel

  12. 75 FR 4343 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL; Application for Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 3-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, IL; Application for Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (Cell Phone Kitting... authority on behalf of LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (LGEMU), located in Bolingbrook, Illinois. The...

  13. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  14. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  15. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  16. Nuclear chemistry and Radiochemistry in the USA; Kern- und Radiochemie in den USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Div.; Stoyer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry are very young sciences which developed at an extremely brisk pace within a very short period of time after the discovery of nuclear fission in 1938, and caused profound societal changes. In the United States, nuclear chemistry developed very differently from Germany, where nuclear research initially had been banned after the Second World War. The prime mover in the development in the United States was the Manhattan Project, the construction of the atomic bomb. The counteract the impending shortage of qualified personnel, important institutions have begun to establish training and support programs in the field. The National Laboratories in the United States introduced a National Security Internship Program, while the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tries to promote cooperation, and thus the training of personnel, by launching programs of its own. Yet, a greater shortage of qualified personnel is becoming apparent. The situation of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry in the United States can be summarized in the finding that research at the National Laboratories is very wide ranging. It receives sufficient funds from the DOE. However, the National Laboratories show a very high proportion of elderly personnel, a problem which will have to be corrected in the years to come. This may be helped by the Summer Schools financed by the DOE, though a summer school of six weeks cannot replace a sound training in nuclear chemistry of the kind still to be found in Germany. (orig.) [German] Kern- und Radiochemie sind sehr junge Wissenschaften, die sich nach der Entdeckung der Kernspaltung 1938 innerhalb kuerzester Zeit extrem rasant entwickelt und tiefe gesellschaftliche Veraenderungen bewirkt haben. In den USA hat sich die Kernchemie sehr unterschiedlich im Vergleich zu Deutschland entwickelt, wo die Kernforschung nach dem 2. Weltkrieg vorerst verboten war. Massgeblich in den USA war dabei das Manhatten-Projekt zum Bau von Nuklearwaffen

  17. Atomic power development in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggin, E.

    1976-01-01

    Many problems concerning the atomic power development in USA are investigated and discussed. (Introduction of fast breeder reactors is not considered in this paper). The first problem is the raising of capital for plant construction. The second problem is the supply of uranium. Estimated amount of yellow cake and its price are presented and compared with estimated demands. It is concluded that 3.5x10 6 tons of yellow coke is sufficient for generating 7x10 8 KW of electric power up to about 2000. The third problem is the enrichment service. Balance of supply and demand is discussed together with the projected extension of existing plants and the construction of new plants. The completion of nuclear fuel cycle is discussed as the fourth problem. According to the author's opinion, technological problems of reprocessing, storing, waste disposal, and the utilization of mixed oxide fuel are not difficult to solve. Definite judgement of NRC and ERDA is strongly required. The last problem discussed in this paper is the public acceptance. The movements of anti-nuclear groups and the opinion of general public are analyzed and the role of AIF in presenting paper informations is discussed. (Aoki, K.)

  18. Obchodní politika USA

    OpenAIRE

    Vaculíková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Práce se zabývá nástroji a cíli obchodní politiky USA - aktivitami, které liberalizují celosvětový obchod. V první části je popsáno postavení Spojených států amerických v mnohostranném obchodním systému a vývoj zahraničního obchodu v posledních letech. Druhá kapitola je zaměřena na autonomní a smluvní nástroje obchodní politiky ovlivňující import, export a domácí výrobu. O obchodních dohodách uzavřených na mnohostranné, regionální a dvoustranné úrovni pojednává třetí kapitola....

  19. Licensing reform in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The licensing process for nuclear power plants in the USA is currently in two distinct stages: the issuance of a construction permit followed later by the issuance of an operation license. The ''two-step'' process has come under heavy criticism from the U.S. nuclear industry on the grounds that it causes uncertainty and delays and therefore inhibits new commitments to nuclear power plants. In 1989 the NRC published new regulations for the licensing of nuclear power plants which provide for the issuance of early site permits, safety certifications of standard designs, and combined construction permits and operating licences. The new rule was challenged by intervenors representing antinuclear groups who filed a legal challenge seeking to have the rule set aside on the grounds that it violates the Atomic Energy Act which they allege makes two-step licensing mandatory. In November 1990 the US Court of Appeals upheld the NRC's authority to issue combined licenses. An appeal for a rehearing has been filed. The paper analyses the events and the possible consequences of an adverse court decision. It reviews the options open to the NRC and industry if the court decision is upheld. The possibility of congressional action to amend the Atomic Energy Act is discussed. (author)

  20. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  1. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  2. Inorganic Substrates and Encapsulation Layers for Transient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    as substrates and encapsulating materials, with demonstrated options that range from films of silk fibroin, polycaprolactone (PCL), polyglycolic...PDMS) (Dow Corning , USA) coated on glass slides to facilitate processing. SiO2 (~1 μm) was deposited by PECVD on these foils for electrical...with laminating the foils Fe, Mo, W, and Zn, ~10 μm thick (Goodfellow, USA) on glass slides coated with PDMS (Dow Corning Co., USA) as temporary

  3. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  4. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  5. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  6. Radiative charge transfer in He{sup +}+ H{sub 2} collisions in the milli- to nano-electron-volt range: A theoretical study within state-to-state and optical potential approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrugala, Felicja [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, PL 87-100 Torun (Poland); Kraemer, Wolfgang P. [Max-Planck-Institute of Astrophysics, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2013-03-14

    The paper presents a theoretical study of the low-energy dynamics of the radiative charge transfer (RCT) reaction He{sup +}({sup 2}S)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}){yields}He({sup 1}S)+H{sub 2}{sup +}(X{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +})+h{nu} extending our previous studies on radiative association of HeH{sub 2}{sup +} [F. Mrugala, V. Spirko, and W. P. Kraemer, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 10547 (2003); F. Mrugala and W. P. Kraemer, ibid. 122, 224321 (2005)]. The calculations account for the vibrational and rotational motions of the H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}{sup +} diatomics and for the atom-diatom complex formation in the reactant and the product channels of the RCT reaction. Continuum states of He{sup +}+ H{sub 2}(v= 0, j= 0) in the collision energy range {approx}10{sup -7}-18.6 meV and all quasi-bound states of the He{sup +}- H{sub 2}(para;v= 0) complex formed in this range are taken into account. Close-coupling calculations are performed to determine rates of radiative transitions from these states to the continuum and quasi-bound states of the He +H{sub 2}{sup +} system in the energy range extending up to {approx}0.16 eV above the opening of the HeH{sup +}+ H arrangement channel. From the detailed state-to-state calculated characteristics global functions of the RCT reaction, such as cross-section {sigma}(E), emission intensity I({nu}, T), and rate constant k(T) are derived, and are presented together with their counterparts for the radiative association (RA) reaction He{sup +}({sup 2}S) +H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}){yields} HeH{sub 2}{sup +}(X{sup 2}A{sup Prime })+h{nu}. The rate constant k{sup RCT} is approximately 20 times larger than k{sup RA} at the considered temperatures, 0.1 {mu}K-50 K. Formation of rotational Feshbach resonances in the reactant channel plays an important role in both reactions. Transitions mediated by these resonances contribute more than 70% to the respective rates. An extension of the one-dimensional optical potential model is

  7. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  8. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  9. Photoresistor of ultraviolet range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitari, V.; Ababii, I.; Arama, E.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the photo electronics, in particular to the semiconductor photoresistors. The photoresistor contains a photosensitive material of semiconductors group ABC and two contacts. Novelty of invention consists in the fact that as semiconductor is used the CdAlO

  10. Endise USA vastuluuraja naasmine / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    USA poliitikateaduste professorist Christopher L. Kukest, kes käesoleval õppeaastal töötab Fulbright Scholar programmi stipendiaadina Tartu Ülikoolis. Lisa: CV. Kommenteerib Tartu Ülikooli riigiteaduste instituudi doktorant Mihkel Solvak

  11. Skandaal USAs : Obamat kujutati islamiterroristina / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    The New Yorkeri esiküljel ilmus karikatuur, kus USA demokraatide presidendikandidaati Barack Obamat ja tema abikaasat Michelle'i kujutati islamiterroristidena, karikaturisti väitel joonistas ta selle Obama laimajate naeruvääristamiseks

  12. Ilves kritiseeris USA juhtidega Venemaad / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. apr. lk. 4. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikidesse USA asepresidendi Dick Cheney ja riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice'iga. Arutusel olid Euroopa Liidu suhted Venemaaga, Venemaa käitumine Gruusiaga, NATO viimase tippkohtumise tulemused. USA välisminister C. Rice avaldas Eesti presidendile tänu Eesti silmapaistva panuse eest Afganistanis. Kohtumisi kommenteerivad Riigikogu Euroopa Liidu asjade komisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson ja Riigikogu väliskomisjoni esimees Sven Mikser. Vt. samas: Euroliit andis USA viisavabadusele rohelise tee. Euroopa Liidu sise- ja justiitsministrite kohtumisel kiideti heaks otsused, mis võimaldavad Eestil liituda USA viisavabadusprogrammiga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  13. Silica Aerogels Doped with Ru(II) Tris 1,l0-Phenanthro1ine)-Electron Acceptor Dyads: Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Oxygen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevebtusm Bucgikas; Rawashdeh, Abdel M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2005-01-01

    Complexes 1 and 2 were characterized in fluid and frozen solution and as dopants of silica aerogels. The intramolecular quenching efficiency of pendant 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium group (4BzPy) is solvent dependent: emission is quenched completely in acetonitrile but not in alcohols. On the other hand, N-benzyl-N'-methylviologen (BzMeV) quenches the emission in all solvents completely. The differences are traced electrochemically to a stronger solvation effect by the alcohol in the case of 1. In fiozen matrices or absorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both 1 and 2 are photoluminescent. The lack of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigidity. When doped aerogels are cooled to 77K, the emission shifts to the blue and its intensity increases in analogy to what is observed with Ru(II) complexes in media undergoing fluid-to-rigid transition. The photoluminescence of 1 and 2 from the aerogel is quenched by oxygen diffusing through the pores. In the presence of oxygen, aerogels doped with 1 can modulate their emission over a wider dynamic range than aerogels doped with 2, and both are more sensitive than aerogels doped with Ru(II) tris(1,l0- phenanthroline). In contrast to frozen solutions, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at 77K are still accessible, leading to more sensitive platforms for oxygen sensors than other ambient temperature configurations.

  14. LHV soovib USA-s kohtuvälist kokkulepet / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Kohtuväline kokkulepe LHV ja USA väärtpaberituru järelevalveasutuse SEC vahel tähendaks külmutatud väärtpaberikontode avamist, ent tõenäoliselt ka seda, et LHV peab maksma trahvi. Kohtuistungil USA-s esindavad LHV töötajaid Kristjan Lepikut ja Oliver Peeki advokaadid. Lisa: Teisedki on "sundpuhkusel"

  15. Targeted initiatives. Support for nuclear engineering education in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutteridge, John

    2001-01-01

    Recruitment and education of a new generation of nuclear engineers stands to benefit in the USA from a range of programmes involving governmental bodies, universities, and industry groups. They are part of efforts to attract more students to consider and prepare for careers in the nuclear industry, and to provide financial support for nuclear research and education. Career prospects in the nuclear field are brightening. The demand for nuclear engineers and nuclear trained personnel is on the rise as the new century opens. During the past year several studies were completed in an attempt to ascertain the problems in nuclear engineering education and define initiatives to address these problems

  16. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  17. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  18. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  19. USA võtab hoogu maha / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2010-01-01

    Pärast riiklike soodustuste lõppu koduostjatele on USA-s vähenenud kinnisvara soetamine, jaemüüjate käive langes juunis võrreldes maiga 0,5%. USA keskpanga presidendi Ben Bernanke hinnangul on USA majandus ebatavaliselt ebamäärane

  20. Quo vadis, USA dollar? : finantsturgude viimastest arengutest / Robert Liljequist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liljequist, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Swedbank AB Soome strateegiajuht vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA majandust alanud aastal, dollari n.-ö turvalise valuuta staatuse kaotamise ohtu, võlakirjade ostmise vähendamist ja selle mõju USA dollarile, Euroopa Keskpanga poliitika mõju euro ja USA dollari suhtele. Swebanki prognoos USA dollari kohta

  1. USA tahab Iraagilt täispuutumatust / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA ja Iraagi läbirääkimised USA vägede staatuse üle venivad, USA soovib oma sõduritele täielikku immuniteeti. Iraak olevat nõus nende USA üksuste immuniteediga, kes on sõjalistes rajatistes või missioonil, milles on varem kokku lepitud

  2. Lahingustress ajab USA sõdurid jooma / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 15. märts 2007, lk. 10. USA kaitseministeeriumi siseuurimuse kohaselt kasvas alkoholi kuritarvitamine tegevteenistuses olevate USA sõjaväelaste seas aastatel 2002-2005 enam kui 30%. Alkoholi ja uimastite tarvitamisest Iraagis ja Afganistanis teenivate USA sõdurite hulgas. Vt. samas: USA relvajõududes puhkes uus homoskandaal

  3. USA suursaadik : hirmud on alistanud lootuse / Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Eestist lahkuv USA suursaadik Joseph de Thomas andis USA iseseisvuspäeva kõnes hinnangu Eesti toetusele Iraagis ja USA Iraagi-poliitikale. Parlamendiliige Eiki Berg USA suursaadiku kõnest. Vt. ka: Suursaadiku sõnum lk. 10

  4. US Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges Network: a continental research platform for catchment-scale research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Neary; Deborah Hayes; Lindsey Rustad; James Vose; Gerald Gottfried; Stephen Sebesteyn; Sherri Johnson; Fred Swanson; Mary Adams

    2012-01-01

    The US Forest Service initiated its catchment research program in 1909 with the first paired catchment study at Wagon Wheel Gap, Colorado, USA. It has since developed the Experimental Forests and Ranges Network, with over 80 long-term research study sites located across the contiguous USA, Alaska, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. This network provides a unique, powerful...

  5. Instream wood loads in montane forest streams of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen J.; Wohl, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Although several studies examine instream wood loads and associated geomorphic effects in streams of subalpine forests in the U.S. Southern Rocky Mountains, little is known of instream wood loads in lower elevation, montane forests of the region. We compare instream wood loads and geomorphic effects between streams draining montane forest stands of differing age (old growth versus younger) and disturbance history (healthy versus infested by mountain pine beetles). We examined forest stand characteristics, instream wood load, channel geometry, pool volume, and sediment storage in 33 pool-riffle or plane-bed stream reaches with objectives of determining whether (i) instream wood and geomorphic effects differed significantly among old-growth, younger, healthy, and beetle-infested forest stands and (ii) wood loads correlated with valley and channel characteristics. Wood loads were standardized to drainage area, stream gradient, reach length, bankfull width, and floodplain area. Streams flowing through old-growth forests had significantly larger wood loads and logjam volumes (pairwise t-tests), as well as logjam frequencies (Kruskal-Wallis test), residual pool volume, and fine sediment storage around wood than streams flowing through younger forests. Wood loads in streams draining beetle-infested forest did not differ significantly from those in healthy forest stands, but best subset regression models indicated that elevation, stand age, and beetle infestation were the best predictors of wood loads in channels and on floodplains, suggesting that beetle infestation is affecting instream wood characteristics. Wood loads are larger than values from subalpine streams in the same region and jams are larger and more closely spaced. We interpret these differences to reflect greater wood piece mobility in subalpine zone streams. Stand age appears to exert the dominant influence on instream wood characteristics within pool-riffle streams in the study area rather than beetle infestation, although this may reflect the relatively recent nature (< 10 years) of the infestation.

  6. Coevolution of hydrology and topography on a basalt landscape in the Oregon Cascade Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jefferson; G.E. Grant; S.L. Lewis; S.T. Lancaster

    2010-01-01

    Young basalt terrains offer an exceptional opportunity to study landscape and hydrologic evolution through time, as the age of the landscape itself can be determined by dating lava flows. These constructional terrains are also highly permeable, allowing one to examine timescales and process of geomorphic evolution as they relate to the partitioning of hydrologic...

  7. Fuel variability following wildfire in forests with mixed severity fire regimes, Cascade Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica L. Hudec; David L. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    Fire severity influences post-burn structure and composition of a forest and the potential for a future fire to burn through the area. The effects of fire on forests with mixed severity fire regimes are difficult to predict and interpret because the quantity, structure, and composition of forest fuels vary considerably. This study examines the relationship between fire...

  8. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  9. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  10. Electronic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic sputtering covers a range of phenomena from electron and photon stimulated desorption from multilayers to fast heavy ion-induced desorption (sputtering) of biomolecules. In this talk the author attempted. Therefore, to connect the detailed studies of argon ejection from solid argon by MeV ions and keV electrons to the sputtering of low temperatures molecular ices by MeV ions then to biomolecule ejection from organic solids. These are related via changing (dE/dx) e , molecular size, and transport processes occurring in materials. In this regard three distinct regions of (dE/dx) e have been identified. Since the talk this picture has been made explicit using a simple spike model for individual impulsive events in which spike interactions are combined linearly. Since that time also the molecular dynamics programs (at Virginia and Uppsala) have quantified both single atom and dimer processes in solid Ar and the momentum transport in large biomolecule sputtering. 5 refs

  11. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  12. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  14. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  15. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  16. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  17. Quebec-USA electricity export contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.-F.

    1993-06-01

    Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec to utilities in the USA significantly affects the economy and environment of Quebec. These exports may be arranged under interconnection agreements to sell excess capacity and production during off-peak periods or under firm sales contracts. Hydro-Quebec exports could also replace power plants that would otherwise be needed in the USA. The economic environment for Hydro-Quebec exports to the USA is reviewed along with the regulatory environment applicable to international trade (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement), Quebec (Canadian federal and provincial law), and the USA (federal and state law). A jurisdictional analysis of power export contracts is then presented, citing examples of contracts already signed by Hydro-Quebec with utilities in New York and New England. Contract law and contract provisions are discussed, including common clauses and particular clauses. Suggestions are made for new clauses that would improve the electricity trade. 215 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  18. USA National Phenology Network observational data documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Marsh, R. Lee; Posthumus, Erin E.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2018-04-25

    The goals of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) are to advance science, inform decisions, and communicate and connect with the public regarding phenology and species’ responses to environmental variation and climate change. The USA-NPN seeks to advance the science of phenology and facilitate ecosystem stewardship by providing phenological information freely and openly. To accomplish these goals, the USA-NPN National Coordinating Office (NCO) delivers observational data on plant and animal phenology in several formats, including minimally processed status and intensity datasets and derived phenometrics for individual plants, sites, and regions. This document describes the suite of observational data products delivered by the USA National Phenology Network, covering the period 2009–present for the United States and accessible via the Phenology Observation Portal (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F78S4N1V) and via an Application Programming Interface. The data described here have been used in diverse research and management applications, including over 30 publications in fields such as remote sensing, plant evolution, and resource management.

  19. Factors influencing organic-horizon carbon pools in mixed-species stands of central Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua J. Puhlick; Shawn Fraver; Ivan J. Fernandez; Aaron R. Weiskittel; Laura S. Kenefic; Randy Kolka; Marie-Cecile Gruselle

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation of multiple abiotic and biotic factors with organic-horizon (O-horizon) carbon (C) content on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in central Maine, USA. O-horizon samples were collected and their associated depths were recorded from stands managed with a range of silvicultural and harvesting treatments (i.e...

  20. Burn severity of areas reburned by wildfires in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary A. Holden; Penelope Morgan; Andrew T. Hudak

    2010-01-01

    We describe satellite-inferred burn severity patterns of areas that were burned and then reburned by wildland fire from 1984 to 2004 within the Gila Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex, New Mexico, USA. Thirteen fires have burned 27 000 hectares across multiple vegetation types at intervals between fires ranging from 3 yr to 14 yr. Burn severity of reburned areas showed...

  1. The Function of Music Education in the Growth of Cultural Openness in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Roderick

    2009-01-01

    This study asks the question: What is the relationship between cultural omnivorousness and music education in the USA? Cultural omnivorousness is a general disposition towards the consumption of culture in which the person possessing such an attitude is open to consuming a broad range of cultural products. Survey data used for this analysis comes…

  2. Soil moisture dynamics and smoldering combustion limits of pocosin soils in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Reardon; Gary Curcio; Roberta Bartlette

    2009-01-01

    Smoldering combustion of wetland organic soils in the south-eastern USA is a serious management concern. Previous studies have reported smoldering was sensitive to a wide range of moisture contents, but studies of soil moisture dynamics and changing smoldering combustion potential in wetland communities are limited. Linking soil moisture measurements with estimates of...

  3. Electron: Cluster interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidemann, A.A.; Knight, W.D.

    1994-02-01

    Beam depletion spectroscopy has been used to measure absolute total inelastic electron-sodium cluster collision cross sections in the energy range from E ∼ 0.1 to E ∼ 6 eV. The investigation focused on the closed shell clusters Na 8 , Na 20 , Na 40 . The measured cross sections show an increase for the lowest collision energies where electron attachment is the primary scattering channel. The electron attachment cross section can be understood in terms of Langevin scattering, connecting this measurement with the polarizability of the cluster. For energies above the dissociation energy the measured electron-cluster cross section is energy independent, thus defining an electron-cluster interaction range. This interaction range increases with the cluster size

  4. Politics Under Electronic Simultaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery P. Terin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In contradistinction to the book and the other typographic products, the electronic media operates on a 24-hour-a-day basis evoking simultaneity as the guiding mode of perception and thinking for all those under its influence. The discovery of this fact manifested itself in the formation and development of the managerial technologies operating by means of the electronic information environment and following the principle of simultaneity in the first place. Thus, at the end of the 1960s already the election campaigns in the U.S.A. began to operate on the basis of the final cause as the guiding principle of the country's mass consciousness motivating to carry out each particular event as if already rejoicing at the victory. With this in mind, there emerged a problem of applying this approach with its enormous managerial potential elsewhere. To add, simultaneity as a norm of perception and thinking turned out to be increasingly important with the advent of the electrical telegraph and the press relying on its short disconnected messages instantaneously arriving from all parts of the world. All the other media, which emerged in the wake of this development, has served to fortify this mode of thought as governing in the electronic information environment. The potential of the electronically operating global managerial technologies is quickly growing. The article also deals with the information overload and pattern recognition problem understood in managerial terms as well as mythologization and demythologization processes as they are necessitated by the electronic media coverage worldwide.

  5. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  6. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076

  7. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  8. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  9. Long-range spin deformations around quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, M.; Gunn, M.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-particle formed by a hole in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet has an associated long-range spin distortion whose amplitude increases with the velocity of the hole. The authors show that the existence and properties of this distortion follow from simple classical arguments based on the long-wavelength equations of motion for the spin system. A similar long-range distortion is found in the quantum-mechanical problem of an electron exchange coupled to a Heisenberg antiferromagnet

  10. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  11. Electron diffraction study of the sillenites Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}, Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} and Bi{sub 25}InO{sub 39}: Evidence of short-range ordering of oxygen-vacancies in the trivalent sillenites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurti, Craig A.; Arenas, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Auvray, Nicolas [Department of Physics, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d’Instrumentation Optique - UMR CNRS 6279, Université Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, Troyes 10010 (France); Lufaso, Michael W. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Takeda, Seiji [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kohno, Hideo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 Japan (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    We present an electron diffraction study of three sillenites, Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}, Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39}, and Bi{sub 25}InO{sub 39} synthesized using the solid-state method. We explore a hypothesis, inspired by optical studies in the literature, that suggests that trivalent sillenites have additional disorder not present in the tetravalent compounds. Electron diffraction patterns of Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} and Bi{sub 25}InO{sub 39} show streaks that confirm deviations from the ideal sillenite structure. Multi-slice simulations of electron-diffraction patterns are presented for different perturbations to the sillenite structure - partial substitution of the M site by Bi{sup 3+}, random and ordered oxygen-vacancies, and a frozen-phonon model. Although comparison of experimental data to simulations cannot be conclusive, we consider the streaks as evidence of short-range ordered oxygen-vacancies.

  12. Long-range intramolecular electron transfer in azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1989-01-01

    . aeruginosa) and (6.0 +/- 1.0) x 10(8) M-1.s-1 (Alcaligenes); (ii) a slow unimolecular phase with specific rates of 44 +/- 7 s-1 in the former and 8.5 +/- 1.5 s-1 for the latter (all at 298 K, 0.1 M ionic strength). Concomitant with the fast reduction of Cu(II), the single disulfide bridge linking cysteine-3...

  13. PREFACE: International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics & 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicholas L. S.; deHarak, Bruno A.

    2010-01-01

    From 30 July to 1 August 2009, over a hundred scientists from 18 countries attended the International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics and the 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions which were held at the W T Young Library of the University of Kentucky, USA. Both conferences were satellite meetings of the XXVI International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC) held in Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA, 21-28 July 2009. These symposia covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical topics involving excitation, ionization (single and multiple), and molecular fragmentation, of a wide range of targets by photons and charged particles (polarized and unpolarized). Atomic targets ranged from hydrogen to the heavy elements and ions, while molecular targets ranged from H2 to large molecules of biological interest. On the experimental front, cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS), also known as the Reaction Microscope because of the complete information it gives about a wide variety of reactions, is becoming commonplace and has greatly expanded the ability of researchers to perform previously inaccessible coincidence experiments. Meanwhile, more conventional spectrometers are also advancing and have been used for increasingly sophisticated and exacting measurements. On the theoretical front great progress has been made in the description of target states, and in the scattering calculations used to describe both simple and complex reactions. The international nature of collaborations between theorists and experimentalists is exemplified by, for example, the paper by Ren et al which has a total of 13 authors of whom the experimental group of six is from Heidelberg, Germany, one theoretical group is from Australia, with the remainder of the theoreticians coming from several different institutions in the United States. A total of 52 invited talks and

  14. Electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M C; Sanz, A G; García, G; Muñoz, A; Oller, J C; Blanco, F; Do, T P T; Brunger, M J; Almeida, D; Limão-Vieira, P

    2012-01-01

    Electron scattering from Tetrahydrofuran (C 4 H 8 O) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following a mixed experimental and theoretical approach, total scattering, elastic scattering and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  15. Electronically Controlled Resistor Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Walter L.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance quickly varied in small steps over wide range. Device with no moving parts provides variable electrical resistance. Used with analog or digital circuity to provide electronic selection of large number of resistance values for testing, simulation, control, or other purposes. Nearest electromechanical equivalent of all-electronic device is potentiometer driven by servomotor.

  16. Electron tunneling in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Khajrutdinov, R.F.; Zhdanov, V.P.; Molin, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are outlined systematically on electron tunnelling in chemical reactions. Mechanism of electron transport to great distances is shown to be characteristic to chemical compounds of a wide range. The function of tunnel reactions is discussed for various fields of chemistry, including radiation chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of solids, chemistry of surface and catalysis

  17. Hvad SKER der med drikkevandet i USA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Loren Mark

    2017-01-01

    Forskellige lande har forskellige traditioner indenfor drikkevandsbehandling. Denne beretning fra ”Water Quality Technology Conference” i USA er set med en særlig vinkel, da forfatteren er amerikansk statsborger, men har arbejdet i den danske vandbranche i mere end 25 år.......Forskellige lande har forskellige traditioner indenfor drikkevandsbehandling. Denne beretning fra ”Water Quality Technology Conference” i USA er set med en særlig vinkel, da forfatteren er amerikansk statsborger, men har arbejdet i den danske vandbranche i mere end 25 år....

  18. 78 FR 14835 - Investigations: Terminations, Modifications and Rulings: Certain Consumer Electronics and Display...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ..., Modifications and Rulings: Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same AGENCY... the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics devices and..., Washington; LG Electronics, Inc. of Seoul, South Korea; LG Electronics, Mobilecomm U.S.A., Inc. of San Diego...

  19. 78 FR 13895 - Certain Consumer Electronics, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Commission Determination Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-839] Certain Consumer Electronics... importation of certain consumer electronics, including mobile phones and tablets, by reason of infringement of..., Washington (collectively, ``HTC''); LG Electronics, Inc. of Seoul, Republic of Korea, LG Electronics U.S.A...

  20. Long-range alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  1. Litterfall mercury dry deposition in the eastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, Martin R.; DeWild, John F.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Kolka, Randall K.; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in autumn litterfall from predominately deciduous forests was measured in 3 years of samples from 23 Mercury Deposition Network sites in 15 states across the eastern USA. Annual litterfall Hg dry deposition was significantly higher (median 12.3 micrograms per square meter (μg/m 2 ), range 3.5–23.4 μg/m 2 ) than annual Hg wet deposition (median 9.6 μg/m 2 , range 4.4–19.7 μg/m 2 ). The mean ratio of dry to wet Hg deposition was 1.3–1. The sum of dry and wet Hg deposition averaged 21 μg/m 2 per year and 55% was litterfall dry deposition. Methylmercury was a median 0.8% of Hg in litterfall and ranged from 0.6 to 1.5%. Annual litterfall Hg and wet Hg deposition rates differed significantly and were weakly correlated. Litterfall Hg dry deposition differed among forest-cover types. This study demonstrated how annual litterfall Hg dry deposition rates approximate the lower bound of annual Hg dry fluxes. - Highlights: ► Annual litterfall mercury dry deposition was significantly higher than wet deposition. ► The mean ratio of dry to wet mercury deposition was 1.3–1. ► The sum of dry and wet mercury deposition averaged 55% litterfall dry deposition. ► Litterfall mercury deposition was highest in the oak-hickory forest-cover type. ► Methylmercury was a median 0.8% of mercury in litterfall and ranged to 1.5%. - A multi-year study of Mercury Deposition Network sites found that annual mercury dry deposition from litterfall in predominately deciduous forests exceeded annual mercury wet deposition in the eastern USA.

  2. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  3. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  4. Nineteenth Workshop Athens, GA, USA

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, S P; Schöttler, H B; Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XIX

    2008-01-01

    This volume represents a "status report" emanating from presentations made during the 19th Annual Workshop on Computer Simulations Studies in Condensed Matter Physics at the Center for Simulational Physics at the University of Georgia in February, 2006. It provides a broad overview of the most recent advances in the field, spanning the range from equilibrium and non-equilibrium behavior in statistical physics to biological and soft condensed matter systems. Results on nanomagents and materials are included as are several descriptions of advances in methodology.

  5. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  6. "Riia ring, "luurepost ja tööjaotus USA esindustest Baltikumis 1920. aastatel / Eero Medijainen""

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Medijainen, Eero, 1959-

    2012-01-01

    Diplomaatilisest taustast. USA esinduste rajamisest Baltikumi. Olukorrast USA saatkonnas 1922. aastal. USA sõjalisest vaatlejast "Balti provintsides" 1919-1922. Luurekeskusest ja Sergius Riisist. "Vene sektsiooni" formaliseeerumisest.

  7. Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule across a whole solid solution range in a series of gamma-brasses in Cu-Zn, Cu-Cd, Cu-Al, Cu-Ga, Ni-Zn and Co-Zn alloy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, U.; Noritake, T.; Ohsuna, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to examine if the Hume-Rothery stabilisation mechanism holds across whole solid solution ranges in a series of gamma-brasses with especial attention to the role of vacancies introduced into the large unit cell. The concentration dependence of the number of atoms in the unit cell, N, for gamma-brasses in the Cu-Zn, Cu-Cd, Cu-Al, Cu-Ga, Ni-Zn and Co-Zn alloy systems was determined by measuring the density and lattice constants at room temperature. The number of itinerant electrons in the unit cell, e/uc, is evaluated by taking a product of N and the number of itinerant electrons per atom, e/a, for the transition metal element deduced earlier from the full-potential linearised augmented plane wave (FLAPW)-Fourier analysis. The results are discussed within the rigid-band model using as a host the density of states (DOS) derived earlier from the FLAPW band calculations for the stoichiometric gamma-brasses Cu5Zn8, Cu9Al4 and TM2Zn11 (TM = Co and Ni). A solid solution range of gamma-brasses in Cu-Zn, Cu-Cd, Cu-Al, Cu-Ga and Ni-Zn alloy systems is found to fall inside the existing pseudogap at the Fermi level. This is taken as confirmation of the validity of the Hume-Rothery stability mechanism for a whole solute concentration range of these gamma-brasses. An exception to this behaviour was found in the Co-Zn gamma-brasses, where orbital hybridisation effects are claimed to play a crucial role in stabilisation.

  8. Upheaval Dome, Utah, USA: Impact origin confirmed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Elmar; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Upheaval Dome is a unique circular structure on the ColoradoPlateau in SE Utah, the origin of which has been controversiallydiscussed for decades. It has been interpreted as a crypto volcanicfeature, a salt diapir, a pinched-off salt diapir, and an erodedimpact crater. While recent structural mapping, modeling, andanalyses of deformation mechanisms strongly support an impactorigin, ultimate proof, namely the documentation of unambiguousshock features, has yet to be successfully provided. In thisstudy, we document, for the first time, shocked quartz grainsfrom this crater in sandstones of the Jurassic Kayenta Formation.The investigated grains contain multiple sets of decorated planardeformation features. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)reveals that the amorphous lamellae are annealed and exhibitdense tangles of dislocations as well as trails of fluid inclusions.The shocked quartz grains were found in the periphery of thecentral uplift in the northeastern sector of the crater, whichmost likely represents the cross range crater sector.

  9. Power Electronics and Electric Machines Facilities | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Facilities Power Electronics and Electric Machines Facilities NREL's power electronics and electric machines thermal management experimentation facilities feature a wide range of four researchers in discussion around a piece of laboratory equipment. Power electronics researchers

  10. Dietary intakes among South Asian adults differ by length of residence in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talegawkar, Sameera A; Kandula, Namratha R; Gadgil, Meghana D; Desai, Dipika; Kanaya, Alka M

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether nutrient and food intakes among South Asian adult immigrants differ by length of residence in the USA. Cross-sectional analysis to examine differences in nutrient and food intakes by length of residence in the USA. Dietary data were collected using an interviewer-administered, culturally appropriate FFQ, while self-reported length of residence was assessed using a questionnaire and modelled as tertiles. The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study. Eight hundred and seventy-four South Asians (mean age=55 (sd 9) years; 47 % women; range of length of residence in the USA=2-58 years), part of the baseline examination of the MASALA study. Intakes of fat, including saturated and trans fats, dietary cholesterol and n-6 fatty acids, were directly associated with length of residence, while intakes of energy, carbohydrate, glycaemic index and load, protein, dietary fibre, folate and K were inversely associated with length of residence (P trend USA was also associated with higher intakes of alcoholic beverages, mixed dishes including pizza and pasta, fats and oils, and lower intakes of beans and lentils, breads, grains and flour products, milk and dairy products, rice, starchy vegetables and sugar, candy and jam (P for differences across groups USA influences diet and nutrient intakes among South Asian adult immigrants and should be considered when investigating and planning dietary interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk.

  11. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  12. Professional Training of Economists in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitska, Kateryna

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the peculiarities of American professional undergraduate and graduate training in economics. The analysis of documents, scientific and educational literature demonstrates the diversity of the US training courses and combinations of disciplines in economics. It has been defined that leading position of the USA in the world…

  13. Cultural-Based Development in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubadji, A.; Osoba, B.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the link between culture and regional development in USA counties by explicitly including an arts variable in an attitudes-driven culture-based development (CBD) production function. The main aims of the research are (1) to revisit the standard CBD model in order to examine

  14. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Meningitis and Myelitis, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hammoud, Roukaya; Nayes, Stacy L; Murphy, James R; Heresi, Gloria P; Butler, Ian J; Pérez, Norma

    2017-06-01

    Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis roundworms is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. A. cantonensis meningitis and myelitis occurred in summer 2013 in a child with no history of travel outside of Texas, USA. Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging neurotropic helminthic disease in Texas and warrants increased awareness among healthcare providers.

  15. USA abandons K1 - or does it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The controversy over the USA's Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) policy to distribute potassium iodide to emergency workers and institutionalised individuals in the event of a nuclear reactor accident but not to recommend the predistribution or stockpiling of potassium iodide for the general public is discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA. The netCDF grid and ArcGIS ASCII file include multibeam bathymetry from the Simrad EM3002d, and...

  17. Babesia microti infection, eastern Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Marcela E Perez; Ender, Peter T; Smith, Erin M; Jahre, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Babesia microti has not been well-described in eastern Pennsylvania, USA, despite the vector of this organism being prevalent. We report 3 cases of babesiosis in eastern Pennsylvania in persons without recent travel outside the region or history of blood transfusions, suggesting emergence of this infection.

  18. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L; Spychala, Caressa N; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A; Doi, Yohei

    2015-11-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described.

  19. Euroopa ja USA: liidus tulevikuks / Barack Obama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Obama, Barack, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide president kirjutab 19.-20. novembril Lissabonis toimuvast NATO tippkohtumisest, USA ja Euroopa vastastikusest vajalikkusest ning NATO-sisesest koostööst. Barack Obama leiab, et NATO ja Venemaa võiksid taaskäivitada oma suhted

  20. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Kristen L; Pena, Sandra A; Yaglom, Hayley D; Layton, Brent J; Moors, Amanda; Loftis, Amanda D; Condit, Marah E; Singleton, Joseph; Kato, Cecilia Y; Denison, Amy M; Ng, Dianna; Mertins, James W; Paddock, Christopher D

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, all previously reported cases of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis have been linked to transmission by the Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). Here we describe 1 confirmed and 1 probable case of R. parkeri rickettsiosis acquired in a mountainous region of southern Arizona, well beyond the recognized geographic range of A. maculatum ticks. The likely vector for these 2 infections was identified as the Amblyomma triste tick, a Neotropical species only recently recognized in the United States. Identification of R. parkeri rickettsiosis in southern Arizona demonstrates a need for local ecologic and epidemiologic assessments to better understand geographic distribution and define public health risk. Education and outreach aimed at persons recreating or working in this region of southern Arizona would improve awareness and promote prevention of tickborne rickettsioses.

  1. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  2. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  3. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  4. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  5. Learning English with Electronic Textbooks on Tablet PCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-cheng

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on electronic textbooks were all survey studies of college students in the U.S.A. Their main findings revealed that using electronic textbooks and using print textbooks showed no statistical differences in learning achievements. As mobile devices became popular in classrooms, the present study was intended to confirm the…

  6. National energy programmes and plans of the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fri, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Following President Carter's direction, the United States of America has developed a major new national energy policy which places greater emphasis on energy conservation as well as the intensified use of alternate technologies to reduce US dependence on petroleum and natural gas. The President's programme includes a multi-pronged coal conversion effort, the goal of installing two-and-a-half million US solar-equipped homes by 1985, and continued US execution of a wide-ranging programme of research and development. Nuclear power also continues to figure prominently in the US energy programme, with significant reliance being placed on the light water reactor which has proven its safety and value through years of reliable experience. The US Government is taking major steps to facilitate further the wide-scale domestic use of light water reactors by seeking major simplifications in the domestic licensing process; by expanding US enrichment capacity; by conducting a major effort to exploit its resources of natural uranium feed and by moving decisively to resolve effectively the problem of waste disposal by targeting to install a prototypical long-term waste repository by 1985. The USA, however, recognizes that uranium reserves ultimately may run out and to this end it is launching a comprehensive assessment of the type of second-generation facilities that it should construct, giving higher priority than ever before to the investigation of alternate systems that may be more attractive from a non-proliferation standpoint. (This includes an examination of the feasibility of options that might serve to reduce or avoid access to weapons-usable materials.) The USA is approaching this evaluation without preconceptions and believes its review can occur on a timely basis without adversely impacting on continued timely use of light water systems. The USA, however, recognizes that, depending on their energy circumstances, various nations have differing views as to how best to

  7. Atmospheric mercury deposition to forests in the eastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, Martin R.; DeWild, John F.; Gay, David A.; Zhang, Leiming; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition to forests is important because half of the land cover in the eastern USA is forest. Mercury was measured in autumn litterfall and weekly precipitation samples at a total of 27 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) monitoring sites in deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests in 16 states in the eastern USA during 2007–2014. These simultaneous, uniform, repeated, annual measurements of forest Hg include the broadest area and longest time frame to date. The autumn litterfall-Hg concentrations and litterfall mass at the study sites each year were combined with annual precipitation-Hg data. Rates of litterfall-Hg deposition were higher than or equal to precipitation-Hg deposition rates in 70% of the annual data, which indicates a substantial contribution from litterfall to total atmospheric-Hg deposition. Annual litterfall-Hg deposition in this study had a median of 11.7 μg per square meter per year (μg/m 2 /yr) and ranged from 2.2 to 23.4 μg/m 2 /yr. It closely matched modeled dry-Hg deposition, based on land cover at selected NADP Hg-monitoring sites. Mean annual atmospheric-Hg deposition at forest study sites exhibited a spatial pattern partly explained by statistical differences among five forest-cover types and related to the mapped density of Hg emissions. Forest canopies apparently recorded changes in atmospheric-Hg concentrations over time because litterfall-Hg concentrations decreased year to year and litterfall-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in 2007–2009 than in 2012–2014. These findings reinforce reported decreases in Hg emissions and atmospheric elemental-Hg concentrations during this same time period. Methylmercury (MeHg) was detected in all litterfall samples at all sites, compared with MeHg detections in less than half the precipitation samples at selected sites during the study. These results indicate MeHg in litterfall is a pathway into the terrestrial food web where it can

  8. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Hilker, David R.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time

  9. Ultra-wideband ranging precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGougan, Glenn; O'Keefe, Kyle; Klukas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of ultra-wideband (UWB) in the context of ranging applications and assesses the precision and accuracy of UWB ranging from both a theoretical perspective and a practical perspective using real data. The paper begins with a brief history of UWB technology and the most current definition of what constitutes an UWB signal. The potential precision of UWB ranging is assessed using Cramer–Rao lower bound analysis. UWB ranging methods are described and potential error sources are discussed. Two types of commercially available UWB ranging radios are introduced which are used in testing. Actual ranging accuracy is assessed from line-of-sight testing under benign signal conditions by comparison to high-accuracy electronic distance measurements and to ranges derived from GPS real-time kinematic positioning. Range measurements obtained in outdoor testing with line-of-sight obstructions and strong reflection sources are compared to ranges derived from classically surveyed positions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential applications for UWB ranging

  10. USA suursaadik : toetame Eestit / Stanley Davis Phillips ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Phillips, Stanley Davis

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis Stanley Davis Phillips vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA positsiooni Tõnismäe pronkssõduri suhtes, Eesti saatkonna piiramist Moskvas, USA ja Venemaa suhteid ning koostööd, sõda terrorismiga, USA kava paigutada Tšehhi ja Poolasse raketitõrjebaasid, Eesti presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiiti USAsse. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips. Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 16. mai lk. 5

  11. Võidurelvastumise tagasitulek : USA kiiluvees Venemaa ja Hiina / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    USA eelarvekavas on ette nähtud kaitsekulutuste jätkuv suurenemine, suureneda võib ka relvajõudude isikkoosseis. Relvajõududele kulub USA-s ligi 4% SKT-st. Globaalselt liidetuna tõusid kõikide riikide kulutused relvajõududele 1990. aasta tasemele. Hiina ja Venemaa kaitsekulutustest. Lisad: Aasia riigid kasvatavad sõjalisi kulutusi; 25 riigil pole oma sõjaväge. Graafik: USA sõjalised kulutused

  12. Molecular electron affinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, E.K.

    1983-01-01

    Molecular electron affinities have historically been difficult quantities to measure accurately. These difficulties arise from differences in structure between the ion and neutral as well as the existence of excited negative ion states. To circumvent these problems, relative electron affinities were determined in this dissertation by studying equilibrium electron transfer reactions using a pulsed ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) spectrometer. Direct measurement of ion and neutral concentrations for reactions of the general type, A - + B = B - + A, allow calculation of the equilibrium constant and, therefore, the free energy change. The free energy difference is related to the difference in electron affinities between A and B. A relative electron affinity scale covering a range of about 45 kcal/mol was constructed with various substituted p-benzoquinones, nitrobenzenes, anhydrides, and benzophenones. To assign absolute electron affinities, various species with accurately known electron affinities are tied to the scale via ion-cyclotron double resonance bracketing techniques. After the relative scale is anchored to these species with well-known electron affinities, the scale is then used as a check on other electron affinity values as well as generating new electron affinity values. Many discrepancies were found between the electron affinities measured using the ICR technique and previous literature determinations

  13. USA-reis nõuab biomeetrilist passi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2004-01-01

    USA-s pikendati viisavabastusprogrammi biomeetrilise passi tähtaega 2005. aasta 26. oktoobrini. USA Eesti-saatkonna töötaja Christopher Smithi sõnul ei kehti viisavabadusprogrammi raames reisimise puhul passid, mida ei saa masinaga lugeda

  14. USA tunnistab valge fosfori relvana kasutamist Iraagis / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Kui varem USA eitas valge fosfori kasutamist Iraagis Falluja linnas, siis nüüd on ta eitamisest loobunud. USA välisministeeriumi pressiteate kohaselt ei kasutatud fosforit keemiarelvana. Sütitavate relvade kasutamine tsiviilisikute vastu on keelatud. Vt. samas: Ahto Lobjakas. Europarlamendis USA hukkamõist

  15. Tšehhid protestisid USA raketikilbi vastu / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    USA soovib rajada oma ballistiliste rakettide eest kaitsva süsteemi rajatisi Poola ja Tšehhi territooriumile, mille vastu on protestinud ka Venemaa. Tšehhi Trokaveci küla elanike korraldatud referendumist ja Prahas toimunud meeleavaldustest USA raketikilbi radarijaama vastu. Lisa: USA raketikilp

  16. 76 FR 35715 - Establishment of the SelectUSA Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Establishment of the SelectUSA Initiative By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the... unnecessary obstacles to investment. Sec. 2. SelectUSA Initiative. (a) Establishment. There is established the SelectUSA Initiative (Initiative), a Government-wide initiative to attract and retain investment in the...

  17. Genomic and transcriptomic differences in community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and USA400 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marcus B; Montgomery, Christopher P; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Shatzkes, Kenneth; Maybank, Rosslyn; Frank, Bryan C; Peterson, Scott N; Daum, Robert S

    2014-12-19

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality through its ability to cause a number of human infections including bacteremia, pneumonia and soft tissue infections. Of great concern is the emergence and dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA) that are resistant to nearly all β-lactams. The emergence of the USA300 MRSA genetic background among community associated S. aureus infections (CA-MRSA) in the USA was followed by the disappearance of USA400 CA-MRSA isolates. To gain a greater understanding of the potential fitness advantages and virulence capacity of S. aureus USA300 clones, we performed whole genome sequencing of 15 USA300 and 4 USA400 clinical isolates. A comparison of representative genomes of the USA300 and USA400 pulsotypes indicates a number of differences in mobile genome elements. We examined the in vitro gene expression profiles by microarray hybridization and the in vivo transcriptomes during lung infection in mice of a USA300 and a USA400 MRSA strain by performing complete genome qRT-PCR analysis. The unique presence and increased expression of 6 exotoxins in USA300 (12- to 600-fold) compared to USA400 may contribute to the increased virulence of USA300 clones. Importantly, we also observed the up-regulation of prophage genes in USA300 (compared with USA400) during mouse lung infection (including genes encoded by both prophages ΦSa2usa and ΦSa3usa), suggesting that these prophages may play an important role in vivo by contributing to the elevated virulence characteristic of the USA300 clone. We observed differences in the genetic content of USA300 and USA400 strains, as well as significant differences of in vitro and in vivo gene expression of mobile elements in a lung pneumonia model. This is the first study to document the global transcription differences between USA300 and USA400 strains during both in vitro and in vivo growth.

  18. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  19. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  20. Free electron lasers and short wavelengths: state of the art and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couprie, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Free electron lasers generate coherent and adjustable radiation that is based on the interaction of a light wave with a relativistic electron beam circulating in a periodic and permanent magnetic field produced by an ondulator. The light wave comes from either - synchrotron radiation emitted by the electron packet at each round in the case of SASE (self amplified spontaneous emission) operating more, or - synchrotron radiation stored in an optic cavity in the case of oscillator operating mode, or - an external laser wave in the case of harmonic generation operating mode. Under particular conditions the light wave is amplified to the detriment of the kinetic energy of the electrons which leads to the laser effect. 5 free electron lasers are operating in the world: Super-Aco in France, Elettra in Italy, NIJI-4 and Uvsor in Japan, and Duke in Usa. The state of the art of free electron lasers in the UV, VUV range is presented and the different configurations associated to storage rings, linac and ERL (energy recovery linacs) are described. (A.C.)

  1. Earliest Cucurbita from the Great Lakes, Northern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, G. William; Lovis, William A.; Egan-Bruhy, Kathryn C.

    2006-03-01

    Directly dated Cucurbita from archaeological sites near Lake Huron expand the range and human usage of adventive, cultivated wild gourds or squash into the Great Lakes region, USA, by 4000 14C yr BP. The data also show that domesticated C. pepo squash was cultivated there by 3000 14C yr BP. Although milder Hypsithermal climate may have been a contributing factor, squash and gourds expanded northward during the mid-Holocene mainly by human agency and may be the first human-introduced adventive plant in temperate North America. Even after 3000 14C yr BP, when domesticated squash generally replaced wild varieties at northern sites, squash stands were probably informally managed rather than intensively cultivated.

  2. Licensing the ACR-700 in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langman, V.; Ion, R.; Reid, C.; Snell, V.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), via its 100% owned US subsidiary AECL Technologies Inc., is performing a pre-application review of the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Completion of this pre-application review by mid-2004, is in support of an application to the USNRC for Standard Design Certification that is targeted for the fall of 2004. The intent of the pre-application review is to deal up-front with potential issues associated with the CANDU reactor genealogy of the ACR that are different from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) regulatory framework in the USA. The focus of the paper will be to describe the pre-application review process currently underway with the NRC staff. In the context of the pre-application review this paper will provide an overview of the licensing approach being used to introduce the ACR-700 to the USA. (author)

  3. Licensing the ACR-700 in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langman, V.; Ion, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Reid, C. [Bechtel Power Corporation, San Fransisco, California (United States); Snell, V. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), via its 100% owned US subsidiary AECL Technologies Inc., is performing a pre-application review of the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Completion of this pre-application review by mid-2004, is in support of an application to the USNRC for Standard Design Certification that is targeted for the fall of 2004. The intent of the pre-application review is to deal up-front with potential issues associated with the CANDU reactor genealogy of the ACR that are different from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) regulatory framework in the USA. The focus of the paper will be to describe the pre-application review process currently underway with the NRC staff. In the context of the pre-application review this paper will provide an overview of the licensing approach being used to introduce the ACR-700 to the USA. (author)

  4. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  5. Nuclear power in Japan and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titterton, E.

    1979-06-01

    The development of the nuclear power industry in Japan and the USA is discussed. The author lists the number of nuclear power plants operating, under construction and planned and considers the contribution made by nuclear power stations to the total electricity generated. The advantages of nuclear power to both countries are outlined and forecasts are made of the role to be played by nuclear power in future years

  6. USA asepresident vihastas Venemaad / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 15. mai lk. 9. Läänemere ja Musta mere piirkonna riikide tippkohtumisel Vilniuses esinenud USA asepresident Dick Cheney märkis, et Ameerikal ja Euroopal on raske näha Venemaad demokraatlike riikide seas, kuna reformivastased püüavad Venemaal hävitada möödunud kümnendi edusamme. Vt. samas: Eesti pakub abiks oma kogemusi

  7. Utility procurement policies in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.; Nikazmerad, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; market history (historical uranium demand and production in the USA); recent long-term contract activity (expected US reactor demand and uranium production; expected US reactor demand and contracted uranium supplies); utility procurement attitudes; impact of inventories on procurement; current regulatory environment (spot-market price vs average long-term contract price); embargo and imports; conclusion. (U.K.)

  8. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  9. Electronics for LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, Francois

    1995-01-01

    Full text: A major effort is being mounted to prepare the way handling the high interaction rates expected from CERN's new LHC proton-proton collider (see, for example, November, page 6). September saw the First Workshop on Electronics for LHC Experiments, organized by Lisbon's Particle Physics Instrumentation Laboratory (LIP) on behalf of CERN's LHC Electronics Review Board (LERB - March, page 2). Its purpose was not only for the LERB to have a thorough review of ongoing activities, but also to promote cross fertilization in the engineering community involved in electronics design for LHC experiments. The Workshop gathered 187 physicists and engineers from 20 countries including USA and Japan. The meeting comprised six sessions and 82 talks, with special focus on radiation-hard microelectronic processes, electronics for tracking, calorimetry and muon detectors, optoelectronics, trigger and data acquisition systems. Each topic was introduced by an invited speaker who reviewed the requirements set by the particular detector technology at LHC. At the end of each session, panel discussions were chaired by each invited speaker. Representatives from four major integrated circuit manufacturers covered advanced radiation hard processes. Two talks highlighted the importance of obsolescence and quality systems in the long-lived and demanding environment of LHC. The Workshop identified areas and encouraged efforts for rationalization and common developments within and between the different detector groups. As a result, it will also help ensure the reliability and the long term maintainability of installed equipment. The proceedings of the Workshop are available from LIP Lisbon*. The LERB Workshop on Electronics for LHC Experiments will become a regular event, with the second taking place in Hungary, by Lake Balaton, from 23-27 September 1996. The Hungarian institutes KFKIRMKI have taken up the challenge of being as successful as LIP Lisbon in the organization

  10. Long range correlations in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Off diagonal long range order (ODLRO) correlations are strongly related with the generalized Bose-Einstein condensation. Under certain boundary conditions, one implies the other. These phenomena are of great importance in the description of quantum situations with a macroscopic manifestation (superfluidity, superconductivity, etc.). Since ion pairs are not bosons, the definition of ODLRO is modified. The information contained with the 2-particle propagator (electron pairs) and the consequences that lead to pairs statistics are shown in this presentation. The analogy between long range correlations and fluids is also analyzed. (Author). 17 refs

  11. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  12. Rapidly solidified long-range-ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Koch, C.C.; Liu, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of rapid solidification processing on the microstructure of long-range-ordered alloys in the (Fe, Co, Ni) 3 V system has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The main microstructural feature of the as-quenched alloys was a fine cell structure (approx. 300 nm diameter) decorated with carbide particles. This structure was maintained aftr annealing treatments which develop the ordered crystal structure. Other features of the microstructures both before and after annealing are presented and discussed. 6 figures

  13. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  14. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces

  15. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.

  16. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  17. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  18. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  19. Auroal electron distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.L.; Dusenbery, P.B.; Thomas, B.J.; Arnoldy, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function is presented in the energy range 25 eV 8 cm/s (E=300 eV) are nearly isotropic in pitch angle throughout the flight. Upgoing electrons show almost no pitch angle dependence beyond 120 0 , and their fluxes decline smoothly as energy increases, with little or no evidence of a plateau. Preliminary results of numerical integrations, to study bulk properties and stability of the plasma are presented

  20. Electronic states of myricetin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Karlsen, Eva; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Myricetin (3,3',4',5,5',7'-hexahydroxyflavone) was investigated by linear dichroism spectroscopy on molecular samples partially aligned in stretched poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). At least five electronic transitions in the range 40000 – 20000 cm–1 were characterized with respect to their wavenumbers......, relative intensities, and transition moment directions. The observed bands were assigned to electronic transitions predicted with TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)....

  1. Decal electronics for printed high performance cmos electronic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-11-23

    High performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are critical for any full-fledged electronic system. However, state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are rigid and bulky making them unusable for flexible electronic applications. While there exist bulk material reduction methods to flex them, such thinned CMOS electronics are fragile and vulnerable to handling for high throughput manufacturing. Here, we show a fusion of a CMOS technology compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics, with inkjet and conductive cellulose based interconnects, followed by additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing based packaging) and finally roll-to-roll printing of packaged decal electronics (thin film transistors based circuit components and sensors) focusing on printed high performance flexible electronic systems. This work provides the most pragmatic route for packaged flexible electronic systems for wide ranging applications.

  2. Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Ru(II) Tris(1,1O-phenanthroline)-Electron Acceptor Dyads Incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium Cation or N-Benzyl-N'-methyl-viologen. Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Optical Oxygen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monen M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2004-01-01

    The title compounds (1 and 2, above) were synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reactions of appropriate Ru(1I) complexes with the electron a cceptors. Characterization was conducted in solution and in frozen ma trices. Finally, the title compounds were evaluated as dopants of sol-gel materials. It was found that the intramolecular quenching efficie ncy of 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridinium cation in solution depends on the solvent: photoluminescence is quenched completely in CH,CN, but not i n methanol or ethanol. On the other hand, intramolecular emission que nching by 4-benzyl-N-methyl viologen is complete in all solvents. The difference between the two quenchers is traced electrochemically to t he solvation of the 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridiniums by alcohol. In froze n matrices or adsorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both Ru(I1) complex/electron acceptor dyads of this study are photoluminescent, and the absence of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigi dity. When doped aerogels are cooled at 77 K, the emission intensity increases by approximately 4x, and the spectra shift to the blue, analogous to what is observed with Ru(I1) complexes in solutions undergoi ng fluid-to-rigid transition. However, in contrast to frozen solution s, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at low tempe ratures are still accessible to gas-phase quenchers diffusing through the mesopores, leading to more sensitive platforms for sensors than o ther room-temperature configurations. Thus the photoluminescence of o ur Ru(I1) complex dyads adsorbed on aerogel is quenchable by O2 both at room temperature and at 77 K. Furthermore, it was also found that O 2 modulates the photoluminescence of aerogels doped with 4-benzoyl -N -methylpyridinium-based dyads over a wider dynamic range compared wi th aerogels doped with either our vislogen-based dyads or with Ru(I1) tris(1,lO-phenanthroline) itself.

  4. Electron Linacs for High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Perry B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce some of the basic physical principles underlying the operation of electron linear accelerators (electron linacs). Electron linacs have applications ranging from linacs with an energy of a few MeV, such that the electrons are approximately relativistic, to future electron-positron linear colliders having a collision energy in the several-TeV energy range. For the most part, only the main accelerating linac is treated in this article.

  5. European roadmap on superconductive electronics - status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, S.; Blamire, M. G.; Buchholz, F.-Im.; Crété, D.-G.; Cristiano, R.; Febvre, P.; Fritzsch, L.; Herr, A.; Il'ichev, E.; Kohlmann, J.; Kunert, J.; Meyer, H.-G.; Niemeyer, J.; Ortlepp, T.; Rogalla, H.; Schurig, T.; Siegel, M.; Stolz, R.; Tarte, E.; ter Brake, H. J. M.; Toepfer, H.; Villegier, J.-C.; Zagoskin, A. M.; Zorin, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    many other applications SQUIDs are used as sensors for magnetic heart and brain signals in medical applications, as sensor for geological surveying and food-processing and for non-destructive testing. As amplifiers of electrical signals, SQUIDs can nearly reach the theoretical limit given by Quantum Mechanics. A further important field of application is the detection of very weak signals by ‘transition-edge’ bolometers, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, and superconductive tunnel junctions. Their application as radiation detectors in a wide frequency range, from microwaves to X-rays is now standard. The very low losses of superconductors have led to commercial microwave filter designs that are now widely used in the USA in base stations for cellular phones and in military communication applications. The number of demonstrated applications is continuously increasing and there is no area in professional electronics, in which superconductive electronics cannot be applied and surpasses the performance of classical devices. Superconductive electronics has to be cooled to very low temperatures. Whereas this was a bottleneck in the past, cooling techniques have made a huge step forward in recent years: very compact systems with high reliability and a wide range of cooling power are available commercially, from microcoolers of match-box size with milli-Watt cooling power to high-reliability coolers of many Watts of cooling power for satellite applications. Superconductive electronics will not replace semiconductor electronics and similar room-temperature techniques in standard applications, but for those applications which require very high speed, low-power consumption, extreme sensitivity or extremely high precision, superconductive electronics is superior to all other available techniques. To strengthen the European competitiveness in superconductor electronics research projects have to be set-up in the following field: Ultra-sensitive sensing and imaging

  6. European roadmap on superconductive electronics - status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, S.; Blamire, M.G.; Buchholz, F.-Im.; Crete, D.-G.; Cristiano, R.; Febvre, P.; Fritzsch, L.; Herr, A.; Il'ichev, E.; Kohlmann, J.; Kunert, J.; Meyer, H.-G.; Niemeyer, J.; Ortlepp, T.; Rogalla, H.; Schurig, T.

    2010-01-01

    other applications SQUIDs are used as sensors for magnetic heart and brain signals in medical applications, as sensor for geological surveying and food-processing and for non-destructive testing. As amplifiers of electrical signals, SQUIDs can nearly reach the theoretical limit given by Quantum Mechanics. A further important field of application is the detection of very weak signals by 'transition-edge' bolometers, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, and superconductive tunnel junctions. Their application as radiation detectors in a wide frequency range, from microwaves to X-rays is now standard. The very low losses of superconductors have led to commercial microwave filter designs that are now widely used in the USA in base stations for cellular phones and in military communication applications. The number of demonstrated applications is continuously increasing and there is no area in professional electronics, in which superconductive electronics cannot be applied and surpasses the performance of classical devices. Superconductive electronics has to be cooled to very low temperatures. Whereas this was a bottleneck in the past, cooling techniques have made a huge step forward in recent years: very compact systems with high reliability and a wide range of cooling power are available commercially, from microcoolers of match-box size with milli-Watt cooling power to high-reliability coolers of many Watts of cooling power for satellite applications. Superconductive electronics will not replace semiconductor electronics and similar room-temperature techniques in standard applications, but for those applications which require very high speed, low-power consumption, extreme sensitivity or extremely high precision, superconductive electronics is superior to all other available techniques. To strengthen the European competitiveness in superconductor electronics research projects have to be set-up in the following field: - Ultra-sensitive sensing and imaging

  7. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  8. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  9. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  10. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  11. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  12. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  13. `Twisted' electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  14. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  15. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  16. Characterization of a novel hepadnavirus in the white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) from the Great Lakes Region of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Cornman, Robert S.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Blazer, Vicki S.

    2015-01-01

    The white sucker Catostomus commersonii is a freshwater teleost often utilized as a resident sentinel. Here, we sequenced the full genome of a hepatitis B-like virus that infects white suckers from the Great Lakes Region of the USA. Dideoxysequencing confirmed the white sucker hepatitis B virus (WSHBV) has a circular genome (3542 bp) with the prototypical codon organization of hepadnaviruses. Electron microscopy demonstrated that complete virions of approximately 40 nm were present in the plasma of infected fish. Compared to avi- and orthohepadnaviruses, sequence conservation of the core, polymerase and surface proteins was low and ranged from 16-27% at the amino acid level. An X protein homologue common to the orthohepadnaviruses was not present. The WSHBV genome included an atypical, presumptively non-coding region absent in previously described hepadnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed WSHBV as distinct from previously documented hepadnaviruses. The level of divergence in protein sequences between WSHBV other hepadnaviruses, and the identification of an HBV-like sequence in an African cichlid provide evidence that a novel genus of the family Hepadnaviridae may need to be established that includes these hepatitis B-like viruses in fishes. Viral transcription was observed in 9.5% (16 of 169) of white suckers evaluated. The prevalence of hepatic tumors in these fish was 4.9%, of which only 2.4% were positive for both virus and hepatic tumors. These results are not sufficient to draw inferences regarding the association of WSHBV and carcinogenesis in white sucker.

  17. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  18. Electronic health records improve clinical note quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Harry B; Sessums, Laura L; Hoang, Albert; Becher, Dorothy A; Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Stephens, Mark; Pangaro, Louis N; O'Malley, Patrick G; Baxi, Nancy S; Bunt, Christopher W; Capaldi, Vincent F; Chen, Julie M; Cooper, Barbara A; Djuric, David A; Hodge, Joshua A; Kane, Shawn; Magee, Charles; Makary, Zizette R; Mallory, Renee M; Miller, Thomas; Saperstein, Adam; Servey, Jessica; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2015-01-01

    The clinical note documents the clinician's information collection, problem assessment, clinical management, and its used for administrative purposes. Electronic health records (EHRs) are being implemented in clinical practices throughout the USA yet it is not known whether they improve the quality of clinical notes. The goal in this study was to determine if EHRs improve the quality of outpatient clinical notes. A five and a half year longitudinal retrospective multicenter quantitative study comparing the quality of handwritten and electronic outpatient clinical visit notes for 100 patients with type 2 diabetes at three time points: 6 months prior to the introduction of the EHR (before-EHR), 6 months after the introduction of the EHR (after-EHR), and 5 years after the introduction of the EHR (5-year-EHR). QNOTE, a validated quantitative instrument, was used to assess the quality of outpatient clinical notes. Its scores can range from a low of 0 to a high of 100. Sixteen primary care physicians with active practices used QNOTE to determine the quality of the 300 patient notes. The before-EHR, after-EHR, and 5-year-EHR grand mean scores (SD) were 52.0 (18.4), 61.2 (16.3), and 80.4 (8.9), respectively, and the change in scores for before-EHR to after-EHR and before-EHR to 5-year-EHR were 18% (pquality scores significantly improved over the 5-year time interval. The EHR significantly improved the overall quality of the outpatient clinical note and the quality of all its elements, including the core and non-core elements. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the EHR significantly improves the quality of clinical notes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  19. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seletskiy, Sergey M.; Rochester U.

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the first cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cooling. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Tevatron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV carrying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 (micro)rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible. Chapter 1 is an introduction where I describe briefly the theory and the history of electron cooling, and derive the requirements to the quality of electron beam and requirements to the basic parameters of the Recycler Electron Cooler. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theoretical consideration of the motion of electrons in the cooling section, description of the cooling section and of the measurement of the magnetic fields. In Chapter 3 I consider different factors that increase the effective electron angle in the cooling section and suggest certain algorithms for the suppression of parasitic angles. Chapter 4 is devoted to the measurements of the energy of the electron beam. In the concluding Chapter 5 I review

  20. Progress of the volume FEL (VFEL) experiments in millimeter range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshevsky, V. G.; Batrakov, K. G.; Gurinovich, A. A.; Ilienko, I. I.; Lobko, A. S.; Molchanov, P. V.; Moroz, V. I.; Sofronov, P. F.; Stolyarsky, V. I.

    2003-07-01

    Use of non-one-dimensional distributed feedback in Volume Free Electron Laser gives possibility of frequency tuning in wide range. In present work, dependence of lasing process on the angle between resonant diffraction grating grooves and direction of electron beam velocity is discussed.