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Sample records for range turkey production

  1. Analyses of Small-Scale Turkey Production in Owerri Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to analyse small scale turkey production in Imo State of Nigeria. Owerri agricultural zone of Imo State harbours most of the urban cities with large population thus providing greatest market for turkey in the area. Fifty farmers in turkey production constituted sample size for this study. The data ...

  2. Small ruminant production in Turkey: highlighting in goat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Sezen; Davran, Müge K; Güney, Okan

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with the effects of structural, governmental and socio-economic conditions linked to small ruminant production, especially goat production. The number of small ruminants in Turkey fell from almost 51,530 in 1990, to 31,761 in 2007. In 1990, the number of small ruminants started to decrease due to structural, genetic and economic reasons such as a lack of state support policies, high costs of inputs, poor performance of local breeds, socio-economic conditions, and migration. In Turkey, the socio-economic and geographical structure make small ruminant production an important profession; it is also a significant source of income in rural regions. 35% of red meat and 12% of milk production is obtained from small ruminants. Although, Turkey has the highest goat population among its border and EU countries, ranks low with milk production. Reasons for the present situation are well evaluated; changes and tendencies in sheep and goat production as well as milk and meat production that are examined and associated with the population of Turkey are widely discussed. In addition, in order to improve the present situation, some technical and structural suggestions are mentioned.

  3. STATUS OF PUMPKIN SEED PRODUCTION IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Gulsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seed contains very valuable nutrients and may have some beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to overview status of pumpkin seed production in Turkey. The production has sharply risen from 11.500 tons in 2015 to 42.181 tons in 2016. The area has also indicated sharp increase from 172.580 da to 628.441 tons in the same period. The first section provides introduction of topics, and later nutrition value of pumpkin seed, taxonomy, production, bottlenecks and breeding efforts are summarized. They have several advantages such as their short vegetation time that just fits the Central Anatolia conditions where vegetation time available is too short for many other crop plants, net profit per de compared to the other crop plants, extended storability, etc.

  4. Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  5. Productivity losses from road traffic deaths in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naci, Huseyin; Baker, Timothy D

    2008-03-01

    The importance of road traffic injuries in Turkey is not generally appreciated, in part due to lack of knowledge of its economic burden and in part due to major underestimation in official statistics. The total years of potential life lost and potentially productive years of life lost from mortality were calculated in order to estimate the cost of productivity losses from road traffic deaths in Turkey. More years of potentially productive life are lost due to road traffic deaths than to respiratory tract illnesses or diabetes mellitus, two other serious health problems in Turkey. Road traffic deaths cost Turkey an estimated USD 2.6 billion every year in productivity losses alone, more than the World Bank estimate of the indirect costs from the 1999 Marmara earthquake (USD 1.2-2 billion), Turkey's worst earthquake since 1939 (World Bank Turkey Country Office, 1999). This study highlights the importance of accurate information in ameliorating the burden of road traffic safety in Turkey. Turkey has great opportunities to implement cost-effective interventions to reduce the economic burden of fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries.

  6. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  7. Influence of meat type, sex and storage time on fatty acid profile of free range Dalmatian turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Mauric

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dalmatian turkey is a slow growing breed kept in free range systems. It is a type of “old fashioned poultry” whose meat is present on the market and accepted by consumers. However, no information about its meat quality and fatty acid profile is available. The chemical composition of the meat was influenced by gender and meat type and these differences could be important from the consumer’s point of view. Fatty acid composition was characterized by the predominance of n6 fatty acids, especially C18:2n6 and a high n6/n3 ratio. Increased time of storage strongly reduced the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC PUFA and increased atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices (AI and TI in thigh tissue. The content of beneficial n3 PUFA was influenced by meat type, with lower values of C18:3n3 and higher values of LC PUFA in the breast compared to the thighs. The potential intake of LC PUFA of comercial turkey in the human diet was lower in comparison to poultry fed with complete feed mixtures. An interesting fact was the higher DHA values in comparison with DPA values in breast tissue, which is characteristic of old poultry breeds. The Dalmatian turkey is a highly valued traditional product and an important archaic breed for gene preservation and biodiversity. Nevertheless, Dalmatian turkey meat could be even further improved by minimal dietary manipulation to become a product with additional health promoting effects.

  8. Analysis of forest product trade relationships between Turkey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... sector but not in the paper and lumber sectors. The forest products industry sectors of Turkey have the capacity to compete with EU countries. Key words: Hierarchical cluster analysis, foreign trade, trade relationships, forest products industry. INTRODUCTION. The world has become like a small village, as a ...

  9. Some forest trees for honeydew honey production in Turkey

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    S. Ünal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Honey is an important source of nutrients and energy and an effective remedy against various human diseases. Honeydew honey is produced from honeydew of phloem-feeders that honeybees gather. In this study, we focused on honeydew producers and diversity of host tree species which are involved in honeydew production in Turkey. A total of 24 honeydew producers by host tree species are identified in Turkey. Of these, 13 coniferous trees and 11 deciduous trees. The main honeydew producer in Turkey is a scale insect, Marchalina hellenica Gennadius (Hemiptera: Margarodidae living mainly on pines (Turkish red pine, Aleppo pine, and rarely on stone pine, Anatolian black pine and Scots pine. Honeydew producer insects can be treated as serious pests of conifer and broadleaf trees. The aphids and the scale insects such as Ceroplastes floridensis, Cinara cedri, C. laportei, Eulachnus rileyi, Icerya purchase, Kermes vermilio, Lichtensia viburni and Saissetia oleae are known as pests in several European, Asian and African countries. Despite their potential harm to their host plants, insect species producing honeydew play an important role in honey production in Turkey. Turkish honey production is exported to EU countries and, furthermore beekeeping is an important part of agricultural sector in Turkey.

  10. Problems and Solutions of Pulses Production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aybegün Ton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, Chickpea is in the first rank in pulses and it is followed by lentil, bean and faba bean respectively. In the world, Turkey is one of the most important producer and exporting countries especially for chickpea and lentil. In recent years, Turkey’s chickpea and lentil production are in downvard trend. Our country has diverse ecological regions for growing many pulses species. Our production potential of pulses must be evaluated and a great importance must be given to the production of cultivars with high yield potential, quality and standart bigness seed. On the other hand, in Turkey, winter chickpea production in coastal region and winter lentil production in central Anatolion region must be widened. Pulses production must be done by using proper growing techniques. Sowing and harvesting should be done by machine. At the same time good war should be made against disease and insect for increasing yield potential of pulses. So, in Turkey, pulses plantation can be increased much more than nowdays.

  11. Socio-Economic Determinants of Turkey Production Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, many soldiers have resorted to selected agricultural enterprises especially Turkey production as a way of alleviating the economic situation. A total of 60 soldiers covering all the ranks and file of the Nigerian Army were randomly selected from the 82 Division of the Nigerian Army. Four barracks were purposely ...

  12. 78 FR 34340 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary... Turkey.\\2\\ The period of review is May 1, 2011, to April 30, 2012. This review covers four respondents... Order; Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 17784 (May 15, 1986). The...

  13. Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.M.; Kurzweil, M.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the evolution of Turkey¿s agricultural policies in recent decades, examines the extent to which these policies may have distorted incentives, and attempts an explanation of the underlying forces that have driven the process and conditioned the results. The review

  14. Range expansion potential of two co-occurring invasive vines to marginal habitats in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Shahid; Tad, Sonnur; Onen, Huseyin; Gunal, Hikmet; Caldiran, Ugur; Ozaslan, Cumali

    2017-10-01

    Niche distribution models accurately predict the potential distribution range of invasive plants into new habitats based on their climatic requirements in the native regions. However, these models usually ignore the marginal habitats which can limit the distribution of exotic plants. We therefore tested the seedling survival, growth and nutrient acquisition capabilities of two co-occurring invasive vines [Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross and Sicyos angulatus L.] in three different manipulative greenhouse experiments to infer their range expansion potential to marginal habitats in Turkey. First experiment included five different moisture availability regimes (100, 75, 50, 25 and 12.5% available water), second experiment consisted of four different salinity levels (0, 3, 6 and 12 dSm-1 soil salinity) and third experiment had four different soil textures (clay-1, clay-2, sandy loam and silt-clay-loam). Seedling mortality was only observed under extreme moisture deficiency in both plant species, while most of the transplanted seedlings of both species did not survive under 6 and 12 dSm-1 salinity levels. Soil textures had no effect on seedling survival. POLPE better tolerated low moisture availability and high salinity compared to SIYAN. Biomass production in both plant species was linearly reduced with increasing salinity and moisture deficiency. SIYAN invested more resources towards shoot, accumulated higher K and P, whereas POLPE maintained higher root-to-shoot ratio under all experimental conditions. Both plant species employed different strategies to cope with adverse environmental conditions, but failed to persist under high soil salinity and moisture deficiency. Our study suggest that both plant species have limited potential of range expansion to marginal habitats and will be limited to moist and humid areas only. Therefore, further research activities should be concentrated in these regions to develop effective management strategies against both species.

  15. Pathology laboratories productivity evaluation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yörükoğlu, Kutsal; Uner, Sarp; Harorlu, Fevzi; Usubütün, Alp

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency criteria and automation in pathology laboratories have been set in a limited number of studies usually originated from the United States. A questionnaire has been prepared to determine the situation and define the criteria for adaptation in our country. The survey was sent to all pathology laboratories and, 302 responded. The survey questionned of pathology laboratories efficiencies, staff workloads, methods applied, devices used, and physical conditions. Work flow productivity was obtained by dividing the annual number of blocks to working hours multiplied by the number of technicians. The hospitals were categorized to 3 groups according to providing training or not and privacy, and to 4 groups according to the annual biopsy numbers. The data entered through the SPSS 16.0 statistical package program, analysis of distribution criteria, significance of the difference between means tests were used. The annual biopsy numbers were significantly higher in education units, but below the limit of productivity levels for all laboratories. The device hardware and automation correlated with annual biopsy numbers. However, the laboratories of limited capacity have redundant automation. Histochemical and immunohistochemical staining numbers were high. Liquid-based cytology techniques were used more significantly in private hospitals. Archiving times were not standard. A serious shortage of working space in service hospitals was noted. Work flow productivity in education units was at the border, and low in other units. All pathology laboratories in our country should define and improve their productivities. Formalizing of archiving times is very important for future malpractice lawsuits.

  16. The largest reference range study for hematological parameters from Turkey: A case control study

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    Nilgün Tekkeşin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Accurate, reliable laboratory reference ranges are essential for effective clinical evaluation and monitoring. We present robust reference ranges established for hematology parameters using the Sysmex XT2000i analyzer. Methods: Blood samples were taken from 17409 healthy adults (19 to 49 years, 51.4% men and 48.6% women and routine hematology analysis performed. Patients were assessed as healthy on the basis of a medical history and routine medical examinations. Serum hematinic assays (vitamin B12, folate, iron and ferritin were also analyzed in order to exclude the potential anemia existence. Results: There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.001 between men and women, with the former showing higher CBC values, except WBC, neutrophil and platelet counts compared to females. Several differences were observed when compared to previously established values from Turkey, most notably in leucocytes and platelets. Our findings for CBC parameters, except leucocyte count and MCV are in general agreement with previously published data from more limited trials undertaken in other countries. Conclusions: In spite of the uncontrolled factors influencing hematological values, this study permitted to establish the new hematological reference values in Turkey, especially living near sea level. In the absence of previously detailed investigated hematological reference values in Turkey, we offered to use these results for clinical management of Turkish patients and interpretations of laboratory data for research purpose. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 548-552

  17. Hazardous wastes and waste generation factors for plastic products manufacturing industries in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salim Öncel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A project titled “Hazardous Waste Management in Compliance with European Union Environmental Regulations in Turkey” was carried out with the support of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey on behalf of the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning in Turkey. In this project, several industries were examined for improving an internet based system called “Hazardous Waste Declaration System” (HWDS and meeting the requirements of Turkey. Hazardous waste lists and hazardous waste generation quantities per unit manufacturing (hazardous waste generation factors, HWGFs for the plastic product manufacturing industry were determined based on the data obtained from these studies. At the same time, declarations of hazardous waste generation quantity made by the organizations in this industry in 2009 and 2010 to HWDS and the literature data were evaluated and the range of HWGFs was created by assessing possible minimum and maximum quantities for each waste. This paper presents the results of the studies conducted in plastic product manufacturing industry in Turkey. The waste lists determined along with the HWGF ranges are presented. HWGFs for manufacturing processes in the plastic industries were calculated in the range of 11.5–100 kg t−1 in this study and can be used to calculate the amount of hazardous waste for other similar process in the plastic industries. Therefore, it is believed that the results of the study will be useful for determining the types and quantities and the management of hazardous wastes generated by similar plastic product manufacturing industries in the developing world.

  18. Demand for inputs in silkworm production: the case of Turkey

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    Osman Orkan Özer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to calculate the price, cross, and Morishima Technical Substitution elasticities for the costs of manpower, supply of mulberry leaves, transportation, heating, and material, all of which play pivotal roles for producers in sericulture. A survey was conducted by face-to-face interviews with 207 farmers within the scope of the study. At the analysis phase of the study, the share equity translog cost model was used. The response of the producers to the production input prices were calculated as inelastic. The strictest demand for an input belongs to mulberry leaves (-0.051 and the highest elasticity for transportation costs (-0.314. Sericulture dependents on workforce and mulberry leaves and this activity in Turkey is a labor-dense type of production.

  19. Village chicken production in Turkey: Tokat province example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroglu, A; Aksimsek, S D

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to reveal the current form of village chicken production in Tokat province of Turkey. A survey was applied to 153 randomly selected farmers of 5 subdistricts in Tokat province. The ratios of domestic fowls in the survey region were as follows: hen 98.83%, goose 0.65%, turkey 0.29% and duck 0.16% (P < 0.01). Feather colours of laying hens were white (2.76%), brown (8.63%) and mixed color (88.60%). The hen farms in this region consisted of native breeds (91.42%), commercial breeds (5.71%) and their crosses (2.85%). The mean egg weight of the village hens was between 30 and 40 g. Wheat (65.73%) and mixed (wheat, barley, maize and kitchen refuse) feed (34.22%) were used to supplement the hens (P < 0.01). For producing natural chicks, the hens were brooded between 1.10 and 1.46 times/year, 1.31 on average. For each brooding, the number of placed eggs under the broody hens was between 11.39 and 12.42 (P < 0.05).

  20. A critical overview: The reason for the public sector’s ice cream production in Turkey

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    Berkan KARAGÖZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas, the public sector in Turkey has withdrawn from the production of private goods, the public sector in Turkey still has produces ice cream. In recent years, related public enterprise has taken up the capacity expansion of ice cream production. And also, it has got a target of growing market share. However, there isn’t a strong argument about the public sector’s ice cream production. In this study, it is researched that why the public sector in Turkey produces ice cream.

  1. Body of Cultural Tourism in Turkey and Need of Product Differentiation Based On Tangible Cultural Assets

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    Bilgehan Gülcan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Turkey has started its tourism journey with cultural tourism, after 1980’s sea, sand, sun based and entertainment dominant torism approach has developed. Nowadays, more than half of the foreign tourists come to Turkey for the above purpose. Keeping in mind the cultural assets of Turkey, cultural tourism is often pronounced to be the best candidate to diversify the tourism, but only 6% of the overall foreign tourists visit Turkey for cultural purposes. On the other hand, this ratio has a tendency to decrease year by year. In this paper which has been generated using secondary data, the problems faced in the progress of cultural tourism in Turkey has been identified and discussed. First problem is idenfied being the all-inclusive type accommodation, and the latter one is identified as being the body of the product in cultural tourism which is taken as the focus of this study. According to the results, Turkey’s cultural tourism product is especially based on tangible cultural assets, but this product shows strong dependancy on both geographical and some particular historical periods. In addition, it is identified that existing character of the products has not been changed for a long time and as a result has disadvantages in competitiveness. Thus it has been shown that, differentation is needed in tangible culture based product. In this context, some alternatives for product differentiation oppotunities for product developers are also advised.

  2. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.

    2009-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been...... identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods: Samples (N = 456) were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture...... and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143) were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results: No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal...

  3. Examination of forest products trade between Turkey and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of getting in the foreign trade forms one of the basic stones of economic development for countries. The current and potential trading volume among countries and determining the main factors affecting trade are quite important. The trade currents of the European Union (EU) countries and Turkey in the forest ...

  4. Projecting climate change, drought conditions and crop productivity in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, B.; Topcu, S.; Türkes, M.; Warner, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of regional climate model simulation for Turkey for the 21st century. A regional climate model, ICTP-RegCM3, with 20 km horizontal resolution, is used to downscale the reference and future climate scenario (IPCC-A2) simulations. Characteristics of droughts as

  5. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

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    Hänninen Marja-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Samples (N = 456 were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143 were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of

  6. Rational use of by-products in the processing of turkeys

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    L. V. Antipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A man's life, his health and work is impossible without full of food. According to the theory of balanced nutrition in the human diet should contain not only proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the required quantity, but also substances such as essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals in certain, beneficial to human proportions. In the organization of proper nutrition the primary role of the meat products. Turkey is the largest after the ostrich poultry are grown in Russia on an industrial scale. Undoubtedly, the leading positions on the market of poultry meat is chicken products, but in recent years Turkey meat is becoming increasingly popular. The processed by-products include liver, heart, gizzard, neck, feet, head, and corals. The highest mass fraction of Turkey offal is the liver, heart, gizzard. It was established experimentally that the output of the liver is of 1.23%, the output of the heart 0,45%, muscular stomach of 1.87%. The article presents data on the study of the chemical composition of the offal of turkeys, fractional composition of proteins, the assessment of the nutritional and biological value of byproducts. The objects of study are: offal (liver, heart, gizzard broiler turkeys received at home as a result of slaughter and primary processing. Despite the fact that Turkey sufficiently studied in terms of nutritional and biological value, however, information information on evaluation of properties of by-products is not enough. However, according to our estimates, they have considerable potential in the development of innovative products for food, feed and medical purposes on the basis of deep processing of all resources.

  7. Evaluation Acreage, Production and Yield of Wheat (T. aestivum L. by Krigging Method in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Olgun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to reveal similarities and dissimilarities of provinces and to determine the potential of provinces on wheat in terms of for acreage, production and yield by using krigging method in Turkey. Wheat is the most important and strategic crop for Turkey and plays important a role in crop production, food industry and animal husbandry whether it is given greater importance in production marketing and valorization. Results revealed that, significant relationships appear between acreage, production and crop yield. Besides, climatic, topographic and soil conditions are very significant factors in determining acreage, yield and production of wheat. The use of cultivars having higher yield, more tolerance to drought cold, and have a shorter growing period allowing rapid development will increase crop, yield therefore acreage and production.

  8. Influence of turkey meat on residual nitrite in cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, B; Cassens, R G; Borchert, L L

    2001-02-01

    A response surface experimental design was employed to estimate residual nitrite level at various initial nitrite concentrations, percent turkey meat in the formula, and heat quantity (F) values using a typical wiener as the test system. Pork and mechanically separated turkey were used as the meat ingredients. Residual nitrite and pH were measured at day 1, 7 days, 14 days, and 49 days after processing. Protein, fat, salt, moisture, and CIE (L*a*b*) color values were also determined. Results showed that the effect of turkey meat on residual nitrite level was significant (P meat in the formula resulted in lower residual nitrite levels at a fixed pH. The residual nitrite level was initially proportional to initial nitrite concentration, but it became a nonsignificant factor during longer storage time. Differences in heat quantity had a significant effect (P meat products at a fixed pH. However, this effect became nonsignificant during longer storage. Reduction of residual nitrite in wieners because of turkey meat addition at a fixed pH was due to characteristics of the turkey tissue, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. It was also established that commercial wieners had a higher pH if poultry meat was included in the formulation.

  9. Architectural Production in State Offices : An Inquiry into the Professionalization of Architecture in Early Republican Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imamoglu, B.

    2010-01-01

    The study inquires into the modes of operation, relations of production and forms of institutionalization in the architectural scene of the first half of the 20th century in Turkey, the period that witnessed the professionalization of the discipline in the country in the modern sense of the word.

  10. Fine-scale assessment of home ranges and activity patterns for resident black vultures (Coragyps atratus and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Holland

    Full Text Available Knowledge of black vulture (Coragyps atratus and turkey vulture (Cathartes aura spatial ecology is surprisingly limited despite their vital ecological roles. Fine-scale assessments of space use patterns and resource selection are particularly lacking, although development of tracking technologies has allowed data collection at finer temporal and spatial resolution. Objectives of this study were to conduct the first assessment of monthly home range and core area sizes of resident black and turkey vultures with consideration to sex, as well as elucidate differences in monthly, seasonal, and annual activity patterns based on fine-scale movement data analyses. We collected 2.8-million locations for 9 black and 9 turkey vultures from June 2013 -August 2015 using solar-powered GSM/GPS transmitters. We quantified home ranges and core areas using the dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and evaluated differences as a function of species, sex, and month. Mean monthly home ranges for turkey vultures were ~50% larger than those of black vultures, although mean core area sizes did not differ between species. Turkey vulture home ranges varied little across months, with exception to a notable reduction in space-use in May, which corresponds with timing of chick-rearing activities. Black vulture home ranges and core areas as well as turkey vulture core areas were larger in breeding season months (January-April. Comparison of space use between male and female vultures was only possible for black vultures, and space use was only slightly larger for females during breeding months (February-May. Analysis of activity patterns revealed turkey vultures spend more time in flight and switch motion states (between flight and stationary more frequently than black vultures across temporal scales. This study reveals substantive variability in space use and activity rates between sympatric black and turkey vultures, providing insights into potential behavioral mechanisms

  11. Biologic Activities of Honeybee Products Obtained From Different Phytogeographical Regions of Turkey

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    Hamide Doğan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee products are rich in phenolic compounds, which effect as natural antioxidants. These compounds may be attached as indicators in studies into the floral and geographical origin of the natural bee products. In this study, we aimed to determine average total antioxidant capacity, average total oxidant capacity and average oxidative stress index of natural bee products obtained from different regions of Turkey. Collected honeybee samples were kept at +4o C until extracted. Natural bee products were extracted with specific methods and antioxidant capacities were defined with in vitro analyses and data were compared. As a result, the highest average total antioxidant capacities were observed in propolis and pollen samples. Total antioxidant capacities of honeybee products collected from various regions demonstrated differences (P<0.05 because of different phytogeographical characteristics of regions of Turkey.

  12. Short communication: Aflatoxin M₁ in dairy products sold in Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temamogullari, F; Kanici, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the presence of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) in samples of raw milk (n=38), UHT milk (n=12), white pickled cheese (n=50), and yogurt (n=50) collected from the Şanlıurfa city markets and locally produced dairy products by ELISA. The mean contamination rates were 56.74 ± 40.32, 43.1 ± 23.19, 103.2 ± 29.13, and 55.28 ± 12.68 ng/kg, respectively, for raw milk, UHT milk, white pickled cheese, and yogurt. According to the data, 21 (55%) raw milk, 3 (25%) UHT milk, 10 (20%) white pickled cheese, and 10 (20%) yogurt samples were contaminated with AFM1 over the acceptable levels (≥50 ng/kg), ranging from 0.82 to 130.89 ng/kg. None of the white pickled cheese samples contained AFM1 levels above the Turkish legal limit (250 ng/kg). Consequently, the AFM1 contamination levels determined in this study in white pickled cheese were not considered to pose a serious public health hazard. However, the AFM1 levels in raw and UHT milk and yogurt samples indicate an increased human health risk in Turkey related to high aflatoxin levels. Therefore, milk and dairy products have to be monitored by the Turkish public health authorities continuously to detect AFM1 contamination. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE PRODUCTION OF SHALE GAS POTENTIAL : THE CASE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURGUT BAYRAMOĞLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy is a main input for economy. Because of an increase in other fossil fuels’ prices and it’s accepted as an important resource for energy supply for the countries which don’t have enough oil and natural gas resources, shale gas became a current issue in the world. Technically producable shale gas in the world is about 6.621 bcm (billion cubic meter. We can say that this amount may be higher if unsought areas are added. Turkey is one of the countries which has shale gas potential. According to a report published by EIA in 2011, Turkey has approximately 424 billion cubic meter shale gas reserves. This shale gas potential can reduce Turkey’s energy dependence if we think of the fact that annual natural gas consumption of Turkey is 46 bcm. Despite all, production of shale gas has not been searched in terms of it’s advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study is to present the advantages and disadvantages of shales gas for the world and Turkey. Reducing energy dependence, supporting a more clean energy than coal, balancing the oil prices are some advantages. Nevertheless, it’s a fossil fuel, it’s production is expensive and it gets negative social and environmental reactions.

  14. Fish community structure, biomass, and production in the Turkey Lakes Watershed, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, J.R.M. (Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada))

    1988-01-01

    Lake acidification affects fish community structure; however, a wide variety of biogeographic factors are also known to strongly influence fish community. The Turkey Lakes Watershed contains four lakes, and the headwater lake (Batchawana Lake) consists of two distinct basins, neither of which supports a native, reproducing fish stock. The abundance, standing stock, and production of fish prone to sampling with a diversity of capture gear in the Turkey Lakes system was estimated to evaluate the relative influence of lake chemistry and physical habitat upon the community and its performance, as measured by fish flesh production. Total fish biomass varied by a factor of 3.3 and total fish flesh production by a factor of only 1.5 within the watershed. Both fish biomass and production per unit surface area decreased with increasing lake depth. The fish biomass and production decreased with progression downstream. Within the watershed, however, salmonids and cyprinid contribution to biomass and production increased with progression downstream. It is unclear whether the status of the fish community in the Turkey Lakes Watershed results from lake acidification or biogeographic factors. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Volatile profile, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of irradiated ready-to-eat cured turkey meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation had little effects on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products, while it increased protein oxidation at 4.5 kGy. The volatile profile analyses indicated that the amount of sulfur compounds increased linearly as doses increased in RTE turkey meat products. By correlation analysis, a positive correlation was found between benzene/ benzene derivatives and alcohols with lipid oxidation, while aldehydes, ketones and alkane, alkenes and alkynes were positively correlated with protein oxidation. Principle component analysis showed that irradiated meat samples can be discriminated by two categories of volatile compounds: Strecker degradation products and radiolytic degradation products. The cluster analysis of volatile data demonstrated that low-dose irradiation had minor effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages (<1.5 kGy). However, as the doses increased, the differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cured turkey products became significant.

  16. Host Ranges of Listeria-Specific Bacteriophages from the Turkey Processing Plant Environment in the United States ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Won; Siletzky, Robin M.; Kathariou, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    Even though at least 400 Listeria phages have been isolated from various sources, limited information is available on phages from the food processing plant environment. Phages in the processing plant environment may play critical roles in determining the Listeria population that becomes established in the plant. In this study, we pursued the isolation of Listeria-specific phages from environmental samples from four turkey processing plants in the United States. These environmental samples were also utilized to isolate Listeria spp. Twelve phages were isolated and classified into three groups in terms of their host range. Of these, nine (group 1) showed a wide host range, including multiple serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes, as well as other Listeria spp. (L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, and L. ivanovii). The remaining phages mostly infected L. monocytogenes serotype 4b as well as L. innocua, L. ivanovii, and/or L. welshimeri. All but one of the strains of the serotype 4b complex (4b, 4d, 4e) from the processing plant environment could be readily infected by the wide-host-range phages isolated from the environment of the processing plants. However, many strains of other serotypes (1/2a [or 3a] and 1/2b [or 3b]), which represented the majority of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from the environmental samples, were resistant to infection by these phages. Experiments with two phage-resistant strains showed reduced phage adsorption onto the host cells. These findings suggest that phage resistance may be an important component of the ecology of L. monocytogenes in the turkey processing plants. PMID:18791016

  17. Host ranges of Listeria-specific bacteriophages from the turkey processing plant environment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Won; Siletzky, Robin M; Kathariou, Sophia

    2008-11-01

    Even though at least 400 Listeria phages have been isolated from various sources, limited information is available on phages from the food processing plant environment. Phages in the processing plant environment may play critical roles in determining the Listeria population that becomes established in the plant. In this study, we pursued the isolation of Listeria-specific phages from environmental samples from four turkey processing plants in the United States. These environmental samples were also utilized to isolate Listeria spp. Twelve phages were isolated and classified into three groups in terms of their host range. Of these, nine (group 1) showed a wide host range, including multiple serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes, as well as other Listeria spp. (L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, and L. ivanovii). The remaining phages mostly infected L. monocytogenes serotype 4b as well as L. innocua, L. ivanovii, and/or L. welshimeri. All but one of the strains of the serotype 4b complex (4b, 4d, 4e) from the processing plant environment could be readily infected by the wide-host-range phages isolated from the environment of the processing plants. However, many strains of other serotypes (1/2a [or 3a] and 1/2b [or 3b]), which represented the majority of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from the environmental samples, were resistant to infection by these phages. Experiments with two phage-resistant strains showed reduced phage adsorption onto the host cells. These findings suggest that phage resistance may be an important component of the ecology of L. monocytogenes in the turkey processing plants.

  18. First report of cylindrospermopsin production by two cyanobacteria (Dolichospermum mendotae and Chrysosporum ovalisporum) in Lake Iznik, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcaalan, Reyhan; Köker, Latife; Oğuz, Ayça; Spoof, Lisa; Meriluoto, Jussi; Albay, Meriç

    2014-11-18

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic alkaloid produced by cyanobacteria. The distribution of this toxin is expanding around the world and the number of cyanobacteria species producing this toxin is also increasing. CYN was detected for the first time in Turkey during the summer months of 2013. The responsible species were identified as Dolichospermum (Anabaena) mendotae and Chrysosporum (Aphanizomenon) ovalisporum. The D. mendotae increased in May, however, C. ovalisporum formed a prolonged bloom in August. CYN concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS and ranged from 0.12 µg·mg⁻¹ to 4.92 µg·mg⁻¹ as dry weight, respectively. Both species were the only cyanobacteria actively growing and CYN production was attributed solely to these species. Despite CYN production by C. ovalisporum being a well-known phenomenon, to our knowledge, this is the first report of CYN found in D. mendotae bloom.

  19. The largest reference range study for hematological parameters from Turkey: A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Tekkeşin; Hüseyin Bekoz; Faruk Tükenmez

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Accurate, reliable laboratory reference ranges are essential for effective clinical evaluation and monitoring. We present robust reference ranges established for hematology parameters using the Sysmex XT2000i analyzer. Methods: Blood samples were taken from 17409 healthy adults (19 to 49 years, 51.4% men and 48.6% women) and routine hematology analysis performed. Patients were assessed as healthy on the basis of a medical history and routine medical examinations. Serum hematini...

  20. Estimating the production losses due to cystic echinococcosis in ruminants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariözkan, Savaş; Yalçin, Cengiz

    2009-08-26

    The aim of this study was to estimate the production losses due to cystic echinococcosis (CE) in cattle, sheep and goats in Turkey. For this purpose, official records and previously published data in the literature were used. The weighted mean prevalence rates of the disease were calculated to be 7.4% in cattle, 46.3% in sheep and 10.9% in goats. The financial losses were estimated in US$ at 2008 current prices under expected (mean value), optimistic (mean value lowered by 10%), and pessimistic (mean value increased by 10%) scenarios. The production losses in an infected ruminant were estimated as US$ 139.2 (125.3-153.2, under optimistic-pessimistic scenarios) for cattle, US$ 13.7 (12.3-15.1) for sheep, and US$ 13.9 (12.5-15.3) for goats. The nation-wide annual losses due to CE were estimated as US$ 32.4 million (26.2-39.1) for cattle, US$ 54.1 million (43.8-65.5) for sheep and US$ 2.7 million (2.2-3.3) for goats. The nation-wide production losses due to CE in Turkey in 2008 were calculated as US$ 89.2 million (72.2-107.9). The results of this study may provide information to assist decisions of the policy makers in prioritising the allocation of scarce resources in controlling animal diseases in Turkey. However, alternative disease control-eradication programmes and cost-benefit analyses of them are needed for the future studies of this kind to provide better decision support in this area.

  1. Screening of medicinal higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms from Turkey for lovastatin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Burcu; Yamac, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    As a first attempt, a study was carried out to test for lovastatin production ability in local higher Basidiomycetes mushroom isolates from Turkey. An extended screening was performed for lovastatin production in yeast lactose agar medium, among a total of 136 macrofungi isolates from the Basidiomycetes Culture Collection of Eskisehir Osmangazi University. Lovastatin production was evaluated by disc diffusion method and was also confirmed by TLC and HPLC. Only six isolates were found to be lovastatin producers. The highest production of lovastatin was obtained from the extracts from Omphalotus olearius OBCC 2002 and Pleurotus ostreatus OBCC 1031. The lovastatin amount produced by commercial strains, Aspergillus terreus NRRL 255 (7.0 mg/L) and Penicillium citrinum NRRL 1841 (7.0 mg/L), was nearly comparable to the amount produced by Pleurotus ostreatus OBCC 1031 (5.8 mg/L) and Omphalotus olearius OBCC 2002 (4 mg/L).

  2. Perspectives and Attitudes of Forest Products Industry Companies on the Chain of Custody Certification: A Case Study From Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Tolunay; Türkay Türkoğlu

    2014-01-01

    The perspectives and attitudes of the companies of the forest products industry operating in the fields of solid wood products, pulp, paper and paperboard products, engineered wood products and furniture manufacturing in Turkey on the chain of custody certification system and certified forest products were investigated. Within this scope, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the managers or owners of 177 companies. The data were obtained by using the questionnaire technique. The resea...

  3. Product-country images as stereotypes: A comparative study of Danish food products in Germany and Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ger, Güliz

    Executive summary 1. Stereotype research as known from social psychology and political research has only to a limited extent found its way into the field of product-country images. However, recent studies of country-of-origin or country images have taken up stereotypes and related concepts...... such as schemas and cognitive structures. 2. In this study, we examine product-country images in terms of stereotypes. In order to explore stereotypes of country and product meaning, we conducted research on the meanings pertaining to Denmark and Danish food products in two selected cultures: Germany and Turkey....... 3. Focus group discussions were held in three cities in each of the two countries. The interview guide used in both countries reflects the attempt to combine product images and country images, and to obtain a relatively broad array of meanings and stereotypes pertaining to Denmark and its food...

  4. Body of Cultural Tourism in Turkey and Need of Product Differentiation Based On Tangible Cultural Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgehan Gülcan

    2010-01-01

    Although Turkey has started its tourism journey with cultural tourism, after 1980’s sea, sand, sun based and entertainment dominant torism approach has developed. Nowadays, more than half of the foreign tourists come to Turkey for the above purpose. Keeping in mind the cultural assets of Turkey, cultural tourism is often pronounced to be the best candidate to diversify the tourism, but only 6% of the overall foreign tourists visit Turkey for cultural purposes. On the other hand, this ratio ha...

  5. Spatial analysis of climate factors used to determine suitability of greenhouse production in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemek, Bilal; Güler, Mustafa; Arslan, Hakan

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the most suitable growing periods for greenhouse production in Turkey in order to make valuable contribution to economic viability. Data collected from the meteorological databases of 81 provinces was used to determine periodic climatological requirements of greenhouses in terms of cooling, heating, natural ventilation, and lighting. Spatial distributions of mean daily outside temperatures and greenhouse heating requirements were derived using ordinary co-kriging (OCK) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS). Mean monthly temperatures throughout the country were found to decrease below 12 °C in January, February, March, and December, indicating heating requirements, whereas temperatures in 94.46 % of the country rose above 22 °C in July, indicating cooling requirements. Artificial lighting is not a requirement in Turkey except for November, December, and January. The Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara, and Black Sea Regions are more advantageous than the Central, East, and Southeast Anatolia Regions in terms of greenhouse production because the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions are more advantageous in terms of heating, and the Black Sea Region is more advantageous in terms of cooling. Results of our study indicated that greenhouse cultivation of winter vegetables is possible in certain areas in the north of the country. Moreover, greenhouses could alternatively be used for drying fruits and vegetables during the summer period which requires uneconomical cooling systems due to high temperatures in the Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolian Regions.

  6. Export product diversification and the environmental Kuznets curve: evidence from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozgor, Giray; Can, Muhlis

    2016-11-01

    Countries try to stabilize the demand for energy on one hand and sustain economic growth on the other, but the worsening global warming and climate change problems have put pressure on them. This paper estimates the environmental Kuznets curve over the period 1971-2010 in Turkey both in the short and the long run. For this purpose, the unit root test with structural breaks and the cointegration analysis with multiple endogenous structural breaks are used. The effects of energy consumption and export product diversification on CO 2 emissions are also controlled in the dynamic empirical models. It is observed that the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is valid in Turkey in both the short run and the long run. The positive effect on energy consumption on CO 2 emissions is also obtained in the long run. In addition, it is found that a greater product diversification of exports yields higher CO 2 emissions in the long run. Inferences and policy implications are also discussed.

  7. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ruziye; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Sorbic acid (SA) and benzoic acid (BA) were determined in yoghurt, tomato and pepper paste, fruit juices, chocolates, soups and chips in Turkey by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels were compared with Turkish Food Codex limits. SA was detected only in 2 of 21 yoghurt samples, contrary to BA, which was found in all yoghurt samples but one, ranging from 10.5 to 159.9 mg/kg. Both SA and BA were detected also in 3 and 6 of 23 paste samples in a range of 18.1-526.4 and 21.7-1933.5 mg/kg, respectively. Only 1 of 23 fruit juices contained BA. SA was not detected in any chips, fruit juice, soup, or chocolate sample. Although 16.51% of the samples was not compliant with the Turkish Food Codex limits, estimated daily intake of BA or SA was below the acceptable daily intake.

  8. Physical and ergonomic hazards in the textile, chemical, food, metal products, and woodworking industries in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soytas, Ugur

    2006-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered in 272 textile, chemical, food, metal products and woodworking firms in ten cities in industry-dense areas to assess the general OHS situation in Turkey. This paper explores the portion related to exposures of workers to physical and ergonomic hazards. OHS experts where available, firm owners, partners, or engineers responsible for safety were asked to answer structured questions regarding percentages of workers exposed to specific hazards. About 65% of respondents reported exposures to noise risks among at least some percentage of employees; 26.3% reported more than 50% of employees were so exposed. In more than 60% of the firms employees were exposed to ergonomic risks related to the need to meet production quotas and the need to maintain constant posture. The most prevalent risk factors in five industries and the relative frequencies of exposed employees are described.

  9. Carbon stored in harvested wood products in Turkey and projections for 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is an Annex-I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and therefore submits its Greenhouse gases (GHG emissions and removals from anthropogenic sources to the UNFCCC secretariat on an annual basis, through a National GHG Inventory Report (NIR. GHG emissions and removals from Land Use, Land Use and Forestry (LULUCF constitute one of the main sectors in this report. One of the major land use categories in this sector is Forestland, and harvests in this category must be considered as a direct GHG emission to the atmosphere, unless the fate of the Harvested Wood Products (HWP is reported. In this study, we estimated the carbon sequestration in the HWP category of the Turkish NIR, according to the 2006 Guidelines for GHG inventory in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sector, from the International Panel of Experts on Climate Change (IPCC. This is the first time such an estimate of carbon stocks and carbon stock changes in the HWP pool has been carried out in Turkey. The calculation has been done in Tier 2. We used United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE Timber database disaggregated figures for HWP produced in Turkey from 1964 to 2013. We focused on the two main HWP categories, which are sawnwood and wood-based panels. Comparing UNECE data series with Orman Genel Müdürlügü (OGM, the Republic of Turkey, General Directorate of Forestry data series for industrial roundwood over 1976-2013 (starting date for OGM data series, we noticed some anomalies (with UNECE data series as a basis: max: +47%, min = -23%, mean = +16%. Thus, the UNECE data on sawnwood and wood based panels were corrected based on OGM data. These anomalies could be due to: (i use of volume over bark for UNECE and volume under bark for OGM (+15% for volume over bark, and (ii integration of industrial roundwood coming from the private sector for UNECE. In order to ensure coherence, we then corrected the 1976

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION AND GROSS DOMESTIC INCOME (GDP IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖZGE KORKMAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reach a sustainable economic growth of countries initially depends on the usage of energy resources efficiently. But an unequal  distribution of energy resources in the world increases the dependency on energy in countries which have insufficient energy resources such as Turkey. Therefore, it has a great importance to analyze the share of imported energy resources for economic growth. The correlation between energy consumption and changes in gross domestic product, increases the importance of energy policies while determining  the economical policies of countries. In this study, the causality relationship between energy consumption, energy generation  and GDP in Turkey are examined using annual data for the period 1960-2009. Johansen Cointegration Causality Test and Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM is used for this study. Empirical results for the period under discussion there is a relationship between the variables and error correction mechanism based on long-term Granger causality test. It showed that  bileteral causality  with the energy consumption to GDP.

  11. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.

  12. Human-climate-environment interactions during the past 4000 years in the Taurus Mountain Range, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Van Loo, Maarten; Poblome, Jeroen; Degryse, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean has been an area of intense human occupation since the early Neolithic. However, contrary to many temperate environments in NW Europe, human pressure on the landscape did not follow a linear trajectory from the Neolithic to the present, but is rather characterised by cycles of land cover expansion and contraction. Here, we provide a synthesis of human-climate-environment interactions in the region of the antique city of Sagalassos in the Taurus mountain range of SW Turkey. The combination of archaeological, palynological and geomorphological data, together with geochemical sediment provenancing and spatial modelling techniques, enabled to reconstruct the relative importance of anthropogenic pressure and climatic changes on the environment. The sensitivity of the landscape towards anthropogenic disturbance is strongly controlled by the geomorphic-tectonic setting, as well as by important feedback mechanisms in the soil system. The first major clearing of the landscape in the Iron Age led to a peak in soil erosion, but also to soil exhaustion limiting erosion rates in subsequent periods. Soil erosion and sediment delivery is more limited during the main occupation phases of the Roman Imperial Period. Periods with more favorable climate in the Roman and Mid-Byzantine periods resulted in the occupation of more isolated parts of the territory (i.e. higher up in the mountains), whilst a decrease in human pressure can be observed during the Early Byzantine and Ottoman periods related to less favorable conditions. Such smaller and short-lasting bursts of human occupation did not significanlty impact the environment. Only in the last two hundred years, human pressure reached similar values as those encountered in the classical period.

  13. Karyological and some morphological characteristics of the Egyptian mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon (Mammalia: Carnivora), along with current distribution range in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKURT, ŞAKİR ÖNDER

    2015-01-01

    The Egyptian mongoose is the only member of the family Herpestidae in Turkey. The species is distributed mainly in Africa, and Turkey constitutes the northernmost distribution margin of the species. Thus far, a natural specimen's karyotype from an area with a known locality for H. ichneumon has not been studied. The karyotype of a male specimen from Hatay was determined to be 2n = 43, NF = 71, NFa = 66. The X1 and X2 chromosomes were middle-sized metacentric, and the Y chromosome was...

  14. Comparison of spa Types, SCCmec Types and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of MRSA Isolated from Turkeys at Farm, Slaughter and from Retail Meat Indicates Transmission along the Production Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Vossenkuhl, Birgit; Brandt, Jörgen; Fetsch, Alexandra; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Kraushaar, Britta; Alt, Katja; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of MRSA in the turkey meat production chain in Germany was estimated within the national monitoring for zoonotic agents in 2010. In total 22/112 (19.6%) dust samples from turkey farms, 235/359 (65.5%) swabs from turkey carcasses after slaughter and 147/460 (32.0%) turkey meat samples at retail were tested positive for MRSA. The specific distributions of spa types, SCCmec types and antimicrobial resistance profiles of MRSA isolated from these three different origins were compare...

  15. Quantitative and qualitative problems of short film production in cinema education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkanı Mehmet Emrah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Turkish cinema has completed its 100 years, short film could not find the place it deserves in the institutions and in the sector. There are problems in terms of the narrative and technical characteristics of short films beside presentation, marketing and international festival attendance issues. Low budgets, course schedules and structures of the cinema departments and short films and the sector’s ignorance of the importance of short film are the obstacles to the development of short films in Turkey. Increasing the government support, strengthening the cooperation between the sector and the university, improving the festivals’ screening conditions, reforming the arrangements to increase the sponsorship incentives, solving the equipment problems of the institutions will positively affect the productivity of Turkish cinema.

  16. Host Ranges of Listeria-Specific Bacteriophages from the Turkey Processing Plant Environment in the United States ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae-Won; Siletzky, Robin M.; Kathariou, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    Even though at least 400 Listeria phages have been isolated from various sources, limited information is available on phages from the food processing plant environment. Phages in the processing plant environment may play critical roles in determining the Listeria population that becomes established in the plant. In this study, we pursued the isolation of Listeria-specific phages from environmental samples from four turkey processing plants in the United States. These environmental samples wer...

  17. Productive and Reproductive Decisions in Turkey: The Role of Domestic Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isvan, Nilufer A.

    1991-01-01

    Used national household survey from Turkey to examine relationship between employment and fertility. Hypothesized that women's relative power within domestic decision process and/or autonomy are additional factors in determining responsiveness of fertility to female employment. Found that in Turkey, where gender relations are generally…

  18. Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified maize in commercial animal feeds and food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkec, Aydin; Lucas, Stuart J; Karlık, Elif

    2016-07-01

    EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9 g kg(-1) (for approved GM crops). We screened maize-containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. With this aim, 83 food and feed products - none labelled as containing GM material - were screened using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for four common GM elements (35S/NOS/bar/FMV). Of these, 18.2% of feeds and 6% of food samples tested positive for one or more of these elements, and were subjected to event-specific PCR to identify which GM organisms they contained. Most samples were negative for the approved GM events tested, suggesting that they may contain adventitious GM contaminants. One sample was shown to contain an unapproved GM event (MON810, along with GA21) at a concentration well above the statutory labelling requirement. Current legislation has restricted the penetration of GM maize into the Turkish food industry but not eliminated it, and the proliferation of different GM events is making monitoring increasingly complex. Our results indicate that labelling requirements are not being followed in some cases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Fishery Products Consumptıon in the Cities of Ankara and Izmir in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Saygı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is one of Turkey at the sea coast in Izmir and Ankara in other inland fisheries are conducted to determine consumer preferences. 306 people in Izmir and 405 people in Ankara were directly interviewed and the orginal data for the research was gathered. Survey data were anlyzed with using SPSS and Microsoft Excel software packages. According to the survey data; it is determined that individuals consumed mostly white meat at the rate of 81%, and consumed white meat at the rate of 19%. At least 46% of these individuals consume fish once a week at a minimum. It is determined that 83% of the individuals in Ankara consumed white meat, 17% consumed red meat. It is found out that at least 30% of these indiviudals consumed fish once a week at a minimum. Aquaculture products are highly important for the nutrition due to its being animal protein resource. In spite of the fast growing population and big problems seen in balanced diets, aquaculture products are not efficiently benefited. As a result of our country to increase fish consumption habits and consumption of fishery products on human health in the short and long term benefits should be explained. To this end, local governments and other regional organizations and institutions of the people in the area where the handle will be of interest to fisheries and should be in promoting.

  20. Technological properties of indigenous wine yeast strains isolated from wine production regions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağder Elmacı, Simel; Özçelik, Filiz; Tokatlı, Mehmet; Çakır, İbrahim

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the important technological and fermentative properties of wine yeast strains previously isolated from different wine producing regions of Turkey. The determination of the following important properties was made: growth at high temperatures; fermentative capability in the presence of high sugar concentration; fermentation rate; hydrogen sulfide production; killer activity; resistance to high ethanol and sulfur dioxide; foam production; and enzymatic profiles. Ten local wine yeast strains belonging to Saccharomyces, and one commercial active dry yeast as a reference strain were evaluated. Fermentation characteristics were evaluated in terms of kinetic parameters, including ethanol yield (YP/S), biomass yield (YX/S), theoretical ethanol yield (%), specific ethanol production rate (qp; g/gh), specific glucose uptake rate (qs; g/gh), and the substrate conversion (%). All tested strains were able to grow at 37 °C and to start fermentation at 30° Brix, and were resistant to high concentrations of sulfur dioxide. 60 % of the strains were weak H2S producers, while the others produced high levels. Foam production was high, and no strains had killer activity. Six of the tested strains had the ability to grow and ferment at concentrations of 14 % ethanol. Except for one strain, all fermented most of the media sugars at a high rate, producing 11.0-12.4 % (v/v) ethanol. Although all but one strain had suitable characteristics for wine production, they possessed poor activities of glycosidase, esterase and proteinase enzymes of oenological interest. Nine of the ten local yeast strains were selected for their good oenological properties and their suitability as a wine starter culture.

  1. SSR analysis demonstrates that olive production in the southern Marmara region in Turkey uses a single genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, A; Barut, E; Gulen, H; Oz, A T; Tangu, N A; Ipek, M

    2009-10-20

    The southern Marmara region in Turkey was surveyed to determine the olive cultivars that are used for olive production. Genetic diversity analysis using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers indicated that the cultivar Gemlik is the major olive cultivar grown in this region, while other olive cultivars are grown only for use as pollinators of Gemlik or for growers' own exotic consumption. Although the quality of Gemlik is widely accepted in Turkey, its tendency toward alternate bearing is a major drawback. Twenty-four genotypes were selected within the cultivar Gemlik because of their tolerance to alternate bearing. These selected genotypes have the same SSR alleles as Gemlik, making them good candidates for developing a Gemlik olive with reduced alternate bearing. About 8% of samples did not share the same SSR alleles with Gemlik, though these genotypes were identified as Gemlik by the growers. Some other standard cultivars that are grown in other regions of Turkey were mistakenly called Gemlik in this region, probably due to the popularity of this cultivar in the southern Marmara region. In conclusion, as indicated by SSR analysis, Gemlik has become the standard cultivar in this region; future research should be focused on techniques to improve the production and quality of table olives and olive oil from this cultivar.

  2. Vaccine-induced protection from egg production losses in commercial turkey breeder hens following experimental challenge with a triple-reassortant H3N2 avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Gonder, Eric; Liljebjelke, Karen; Lippert, Ron; Petkov, Daniel; Tilley, Becky

    2009-03-01

    Infections of avian influenza virus (AIV) in turkey breeder hens can cause a decrease in both egg production and quality, resulting in significant production losses. In North Carolina in 2003, a triple-reassortant H3N2 AIV containing human, swine, and avian gene segments was isolated from turkey breeder hens (A/turkey/NC/16108/03). This viral subtype was subsequently isolated from both turkeys and swine in Ohio in 2004, and in Minnesota in 2005, and was responsible for significant losses in turkey production. The objective of this study was to determine if currently available commercial, inactivated avian influenza H3 subtype oil-emulsion vaccines would protect laying turkey hens from egg production losses following challenge with the 2003 H3N2 field virus isolate from North Carolina. Laying turkey hens were vaccinated in the field with two injections of either a commercial monovalent (A/duck/Minnesota/79/79 [H3N4]) or autogenous bivalent (A/turkey/North Carolina/05 (H3N2)-A/turkey/North Carolina/88 [H1N1]) vaccine, at 26 and 30 wk of age, and subsequently challenged under BSL 3-Ag conditions at 32 wk of age. Vaccine-induced efficacy was determined as protection from a 50% decrease in egg production and from a decrease in egg quality within 21 days postchallenge. Results indicate that, following a natural route of challenge (eye drop and intranasal), birds vaccinated with the 2005 North Carolina H3N2 subtype were significantly protected from the drop in egg production observed in both the H3N4 vaccinated and sham-vaccinated hens. The results demonstrate that groups receiving vaccines containing either H3 subtype had a decreased number of unsettable eggs, increased hemagglutination inhibition titers following challenge, and decreased virus isolations from cloacal swabs as compared to the sham-vaccinated group. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the HA1 gene segment from the three H3 viruses used in these studies indicated that the two North Carolina

  3. The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features

  4. Perspectives and Attitudes of Forest Products Industry Companies on the Chain of Custody Certification: A Case Study From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tolunay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives and attitudes of the companies of the forest products industry operating in the fields of solid wood products, pulp, paper and paperboard products, engineered wood products and furniture manufacturing in Turkey on the chain of custody certification system and certified forest products were investigated. Within this scope, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the managers or owners of 177 companies. The data were obtained by using the questionnaire technique. The research methods included descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance and the Duncan test. As a result, it was detected that there are differences in the perspectives and attitudes towards the chain of custody certification system of the companies operating in the four main branches of the forest products industry in Turkey. It was revealed by this survey that chain of custody (CoC certification was known mostly by the companies operating in pulp, paper and paperboard companies. The certification most demanded is the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC CoC certification, with a share of 15%; and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC CoC is demanded by 2% of companies.

  5. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  6. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52% during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  7. Detection of seven virulence and toxin genes of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Danish turkeys by PCR and cytolethal distending toxin production of the isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Borck, Birgitte; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2004-01-01

    A total of 117 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Danish turkeys were tested for the presence of seven virulence and toxin genes by PCR. One hundred seventeen (100%) isolates were positive for flaA, cadF, and ceuE gene primers. One hundred three (88%) isolates were positive for cdt gene cluster P...... turkeys and calls for further investigation for the elimination of Campylobacter infection in industrial turkey production and in industrial food chains.......A total of 117 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Danish turkeys were tested for the presence of seven virulence and toxin genes by PCR. One hundred seventeen (100%) isolates were positive for flaA, cadF, and ceuE gene primers. One hundred three (88%) isolates were positive for cdt gene cluster PCR...

  8. How Does the Variability in the Frequency and Intensity of Extreme Climate Indices Explain Variability in Crop Productivity for Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nazan; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-04-01

    Studies in the literature usually focus on the effects of climate change on crop productivity and yield, but the studies on how long-term climate variability has an impact on crop productivity and yield draw attention less. In addition, these studies are mostly carried out using statistical methods and predictions with basic climate parameters. To this respect, we have used indices indicating effects of extreme climatic events on wheat and maize productivity instead of basic climate parameters through a crop model called as CROPSYST for the domain of Turkey for the period of 2020-2050 with respect to the reference period of 1991-2012. Based on this, we tried to see how wheat and maize, which grow in most part of Turkey, would be affected within the scope of climate change in the near future period. Model results show that crop productivity will be affected in some part of the domain in the near-future period. Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by Bogazici University Research Fund Grant Number 12220.

  9. Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

  10. Energy production, consumption, and environmental pollution for sustainable development: A case study in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilen, K.; Ozyurt, O.; Bakirci, K.; Yilmaz, M.; Comakli, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Karsli, S. [Pasinler Vocation of Higher Education, Ataturk University, 25300 Erzurum (Turkey); Erdogan, S. [Erzurum Vocation of Higher Education, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    There is increasing consensus in both the scientific and political communities that significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are necessary to limit the magnitude and extent of climate change. Renewable energy systems already reduce GHG emissions from the energy sector, although on a modest scale. Most long-term energy projections show that renewable energy will play a major role in the global energy supply in the second half of the century, with capacity increasing gradually in the first three decades. On the other hand, Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources (oil, gas and coal) that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This article presents a review of the potential and utilization of the fossil fuels and the renewable energy sources in the world and in Turkey. (author)

  11. Comparison of spa types, SCCmec types and antimicrobial resistance profiles of MRSA isolated from turkeys at farm, slaughter and from retail meat indicates transmission along the production chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Vossenkuhl

    Full Text Available The prevalence of MRSA in the turkey meat production chain in Germany was estimated within the national monitoring for zoonotic agents in 2010. In total 22/112 (19.6% dust samples from turkey farms, 235/359 (65.5% swabs from turkey carcasses after slaughter and 147/460 (32.0% turkey meat samples at retail were tested positive for MRSA. The specific distributions of spa types, SCCmec types and antimicrobial resistance profiles of MRSA isolated from these three different origins were compared using chi square statistics and the proportional similarity index (Czekanowski index. No significant differences between spa types, SCCmec types and antimicrobial resistance profiles of MRSA from different steps of the German turkey meat production chain were observed using Chi-Square test statistics. The Czekanowski index which can obtain values between 0 (no similarity and 1 (perfect agreement was consistently high (0.79-0.86 for the distribution of spa types and SCCmec types between the different processing stages indicating high degrees of similarity. The comparison of antimicrobial resistance profiles between the different process steps revealed the lowest Czekanowski index values (0.42-0.56. However, the Czekanowski index values were substantially higher than the index when isolates from the turkey meat production chain were compared to isolates from wild boar meat (0.13-0.19, an example of a separated population of MRSA used as control group. This result indicates that the proposed statistical method is valid to detect existing differences in the distribution of the tested characteristics of MRSA. The degree of similarity in the distribution of spa types, SCCmec types and antimicrobial resistance profiles between MRSA isolates from different process stages of turkey meat production may reflect MRSA transmission along the chain.

  12. Long-term spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock and poultry production in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcu, Recep; Ekinci, Kamil; Evrendilek, Fatih; Ertekin, Can

    2010-08-01

    This study quantified spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock and poultry production in Turkey between 1961 and 2007. CH4(enteric) (from enteric fermentation), CH4(manure) (from manure management), and N2O(AWM) (from animal waste management) emissions in Turkey were estimated at 1,164, 216, and 55 Gg in 1961 and decreased to 844, 187, and 39 Gg in 2007, contributing a share of roughly 2% to the global livestock-related CH4 emissions and %1.5 to the global N2O(AWM) emissions, respectively. Total CO2-eq emissions were estimated at 50.7 Tg in 1961 and declined from a maximum value of 60.7 Tg in 1982 to a minimum value of 34.5 Tg in 2003, with a mean emission rate of 48 Tg year(-1) due to a significant reduction in the number of ruminant livestock. The highest mean share of emissions belonged to West Black Sea (14% and 16%) for CH4(enteric) and CH4(manure) and to North East Anatolia (12% and %13) for N2O(AWM) and total CO2-eq emissions, respectively. The highest emission density was 1.7 Mg km(-2) year(-1) for CH4(enteric), 0.3 Mg km(-2) year(-1) for CH4(manure), and 0.07 Mg km(-2) year(-1) for the total CO2-eq emissions in the West and North East Anatolia regions and 0.09 Mg km(-2) year(-1) for N2O(AWM) in the East Marmara region. Temporal and spatial variations in CH4(enteric), CH4(manure), and N2O(AWM) emissions in Turkey were estimated using regression models and ordinary kriging at a 500-m resolution, respectively.

  13. Book Production, Importation and Distribution in Turkey; A Study of Needs with Recommendations within the Context of Social and Economic Development. Part II, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stanley A.; And Others

    The recent (1964) Wolf Management Engineering Company survey made another thorough study of developmental book activities in Turkey unnecessary. Therefore, less than one week was spent on this 1966 study to: (1) determine the extent to which the recommendations of the earlier study had been implemented, (2) collect data regarding libraries (an…

  14. Effects of subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection on some production parameters in a dairy farm in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, M; Bulut, O; Yapkic, O; Gulay, M S; Pehlivanoglu, F; Ata, A; Yavru, S

    2007-09-01

    Some production parameters of seropositive cows (age, first calving age, 305 day mature equivalent last milk yield production, lifetime mature equivalent milk yield production, lifetime total milk production, lifetime total milking period, lifetime monthly milk production, lifetime daily milk production, lifetime total days of milking, number of inseminations per pregnancy (for last pregnancy), number of calves and calving interval (for last pregnancy)) were analysed in the current study. The study population was clinically healthy Holstein cows from a commercial dairy herd in southern Turkey. Of 109 animals, 65 cows were seropositive by ELISA and the prevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was 59.6%. The prevalence of seropositive cows in 2nd (62.8%), 3rd (64.7%), 4th (61.5%), and 5th (66.6 %) lactations was slightly higher than that of cows in 1st (52.6%) lactations. No statistical differences were observed between BLV seronegative and seropositive cows for production and reproduction parameters analysed in this study (P > 0.05).

  15. An input-output energy analysis in greenhouse vegetable production: a case study for Antalya region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan; Akcaoz, Handan [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Antalya (Turkey); Kurklu, Ahmet [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Antalya (Turkey)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy equivalents of inputs and output in greenhouse vegetable production in the Antalya province of Turkey. For this purpose, the data for the production of four greenhouse crops (tomato, cucumber, eggplant and pepper) were collected in eighty-eight greenhouse farms by questionnaire. The results revealed that cucumber production was the most energy intensive of among the four crops investigated. Cucumber production consumed a total of 134.77 GJha{sup -1} followed by tomato with 127.32 GJha{sup -1}. The consumption of energy by eggplants and pepper were 98.68 and 80.25 GJha{sup -1}, respectively. The output-input energy ratio for greenhouse tomato, pepper, cucumber and eggplant were estimated to be 1.26, 0.99, 0.76 and 0.61, respectively. This indicated an intensive use of inputs in greenhouse vegetable production not accompanied by increase in the final product. This can lead to problems associated with these inputs such as global warming, nutrient loading and pesticide pollution. Therefore, there is a need to pursue a new policy to force producers to undertake energy efficient practices to increase the yield without diminishing natural resources. (Author)

  16. Joint product numerical range and geometry of reduced density matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianxin; Guo, Cheng; Ji, Zhengfeng; Poon, Yiu-Tung; Yu, Nengkun; Zeng, Bei; Zhou, Jie

    2017-02-01

    The reduced density matrices of a many-body quantum system form a convex set, whose three-dimensional projection Θ is convex in R3. The boundary ∂Θ of Θ may exhibit nontrivial geometry, in particular ruled surfaces. Two physical mechanisms are known for the origins of ruled surfaces: symmetry breaking and gapless. In this work, we study the emergence of ruled surfaces for systems with local Hamiltonians in infinite spatial dimension, where the reduced density matrices are known to be separable as a consequence of the quantum de Finetti's theorem. This allows us to identify the reduced density matrix geometry with joint product numerical range Π of the Hamiltonian interaction terms. We focus on the case where the interaction terms have certain structures, such that a ruled surface emerges naturally when taking a convex hull of Π. We show that, a ruled surface on ∂Θ sitting in Π has a gapless origin, otherwise it has a symmetry breaking origin. As an example, we demonstrate that a famous ruled surface, known as the oloid, is a possible shape of Θ, with two boundary pieces of symmetry breaking origin separated by two gapless lines.

  17. Comparison of physicochemical characteristics and photofermentative hydrogen production potential of wastewaters produced from different olive oil mills in Western-Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eroglu, Ela; Eroglu, inci [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Guenduez, Ufuk; Yuecel, Meral [Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Olive oil extraction produces a dark-colored wastewater that contains nutrients that can be further processed using biotechnology, in parallel with treatment for disposal. For instance, olive mill wastewater (OMW) can be used as a substrate for photofermentative hydrogen production by purple bacteria. A comparative study was investigated with several OMW samples from different olive oil mills in Western-Anatolia, Turkey. The composition of OMW varies significantly for each mill; thus, a detailed physicochemical analysis of each sample has been carried out. Subsequently, samples were assessed for their functioning in anaerobic photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001. The highest hydrogen production potential (19.9 m{sup 3} m{sup -3}) was obtained by the OMW sample with the highest organic content (mainly acetic acid, 9.71 kg m{sup -3}) and the highest carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) molar ratio (73.8 M M{sup -1}). The organic content was found to be composed of primarily acetic, aspartic, and glutamic acids. There was a linear relationship between C/N ratio and hydrogen production potential across the different OMW samples. This study is unique due to the wide range of analyses of OMW samples and the comparison of many parameters for hydrogen production from wastewater. The results obtained throughout this study can aid in the design of systems using wastewater for biohydrogen production. Particularly, the C/N ratio was found to be the best parameter for choosing a proper substrate. (author)

  18. Effect of the genetic selection of turkeys for increased body weight and egg production on immune and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayyari, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; Balog, J M; Newberry, L A; Villines, J D; Skeeles, J K; Anthony, N B; Nestor, K E

    1997-02-01

    Selection of poultry for fast growth rate is often accompanied by a reduction in specific immune responses or increased disease susceptibility. In this study, 17-wk-old male turkeys from each of four closed genetic lines, a randombred control (RBC) line and its subline (F) selected for increased 16-wk BW, and another RBC and its subline (E) selected for increased egg production, were tested for in vivo response to toe web inoculation with phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P), in vitro response of lymphocytes in whole blood to PHA-P and concanavalin A (Con A), hemolytic complement activity, differential white blood cell counts, hematology, and serum chemistry values. Fifteen male turkeys from each of two commercial lines, Com A and Com B, were also tested. The large-bodied F line birds had a lower toe web response to PHA-P, lower lymphocyte counts, and lower relative spleen weights than their smaller parent line. Body weights, total erythrocyte counts, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, and in vitro mitogenic response to PHA-P and Con A were higher in the F line birds. Line E had lower hemolytic complement levels, lower relative spleen and relative bursal weights, and a higher in vitro mitogenic response to PHA-P than its parent line. The Com B line had a lower toe web response to PHA-P, and lower serum levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase and bilirubin than Com A. Line Com B had higher total RBC counts and higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) than Com A. These results support the concept that some changes in the cell-mediated immune response, as well as other physiological changes that may potentially affect immune response, appear to accompany selection for faster growth.

  19. Production, Characterization and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing IgY Epitopes Shared by Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant, Peafowl and Sparrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Biček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken antibodies are not only a part of immune defense but are more and more popular commercial products in form of chicken polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies. We produced and characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that recognize epitopes located on heavy or light chain of chicken immunoglobulin Y (chIgY shared also by some other Phasianidae birds. The use of mAbs 1F5 and 2F10 that recognize heavy chain on chIgY common epitopes was demonstrated on immunoglobulins of turkey, pheasant and peafowl. Chicken IgY light chain specific mAb 3E10 revealed the presence of common epitopes on immunoglobulins of turkey, pheasant and sparrow. Monoclonal antibody clone 1F5/3G2 was used to prepare horseradish peroxidase (HRP conjugate and immunoadsorbent column. Conjugated mAbs were demonstrated to be excellent secondary antibodies for diagnostics of certain infections in different avian species. Since they do not react with mammalian immunoglobulins using our mAbs as secondary antibodies in human serodiagnostics would minimize background staining that appears when using mouse detection system. In dot immunobinding assay (DIBA and immunoblot assay they recognized specific IgY antibodies against Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Newcastle disease virus in sera of infected or vaccinated birds. Immunoadsorption as a method for removal of IgY from samples in which Mycoplasma synoviae specific IgY was predominant immunoglobulin class enabled more exact demonstration of specific IgA and IgM antibodies. Herein we are presenting effective mAbs useful in diagnostics of avian and mammalian infections as well as in final steps of detection and purification of chicken antibodies and their subunits produced in vivo or in vitro as polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies.

  20. Satellite Laser Ranging Satellite Orbit Product from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SLR Satellite Orbit solutions available from the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS). Precise Orbit Determination (POD) solutions in Standard Product 3...

  1. Genetics of growth and reproduction in the turkey. 15. Effect of long-term selection for increased egg production on the genetics of growth and egg production traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, D A; Velleman, S G; Nestor, K E

    2002-03-01

    A line (E) of turkeys selected long-term (37 generations) for increased egg production was reciprocally crossed with its randombred control population (RBC1) that served as the base population of the E line to study the influence of long-term selection on the development of nonadditive genetic variation for egg production and body weight traits. Heterosis was significant for BW at 8, 16, and 20 wk of age and at 50% production (females only). At 16 and 20 wk of age, heterosis for BW was significant only for male offspring. No heterosis was observed in the reciprocal crosses for egg production when measured for 84, 180, or 250 d. Heterosis was significant for rate of response to stimulatory lighting of 14 h light per day (days from stimulatory lighting to production of first egg). Based on data for a 250-d production period, heterosis was observed in average clutch length but not in total days lost from broodiness or the effective length of the laying period (250-d lost in periods of 5 or more consecutive d at the end of the laying period). The present results suggest that long-term selection for increased egg production and the correlated decrease in BW increased the relative nonadditive genetic variation in BW. Reciprocal effects were significant for BW at 8 and 16 wk of age, probably due to a large difference in egg weight between the E and RBC1 lines.

  2. Direct and correlated responses to long-term selection for increased body weight and egg production in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, K E; Noble, D O; Zhu, N J; Moritsu, Y

    1996-10-01

    Lines of turkeys were selected long-term for increased egg production (E line; 34 generations) or increased 16-wk BW (F line; 28 generations). The E and F lines were started from randombred control populations (RBC1 and RBC2, respectively) that were also maintained to remove environmental variation among generations. Realized heritabilities (h2) +/- SE in the E line, based on regressions of response on cumulated actual selection differentials (selection differentials weighted for the number of offspring produced), for 180-d and 250-d egg production were 0.34 +/- 0.02 (17 generations) and 0.26 +/- 0.13 (8 generations), respectively. The realized h2 of 16-wk BW in the F line was 0.26 +/- 0.01. There was no consistent evidence of selection response reaching a plateau in either line. The genetic association of BW and egg production changed with selection in the E and F lines. The genetic correlation varied from near zero to strongly negative and fluctuated between these extremes in both lines even though they started from different base populations and selection criteria differed. Other correlated responses to selection for increased egg production were increased average clutch length (intensity of lay), and decreased broodiness (total days lost), egg weight, shell coloration, and rate of response to stimulatory lighting. Other correlated responses to selection for increased 16-wk BW in the F line included: increased egg weight (due to increased albumen), longer eating bouts, and decreased average clutch length, semen production, walking ability, and resistance to Pasteurella multocida and Newcastle disease virus. Selection within the E and F lines also changed the frequency of MHC haplotypes and the changes appeared to be in opposite directions in the two lines.

  3. The Adaptive Range of 1/f Isometric Force Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Valantine, Andrew D.; Newell, Karl M.

    2009-01-01

    The adaptive range of 1/f dynamics in isometric force output was investigated. Participants produced isometric force to targets with predictable demands (constant and sinusoidal) and 1/f noise waveforms (white, pink, brown, and black) that also varied in the frequency bandwidth represented in the force signal (0-4 Hz, 0-8 Hz, and 0-12 Hz). The…

  4. Diversity of management strategies in Mesoamerican turkeys: archaeological, isotopic and genetic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manin, Aurelie; Corona-M, Eduardo; Craig, Abigail; Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Yang, Dongya Y.; Richards, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) represents one of the few domestic animals of the New World. While current research points to distinct domestication centres in the Southwest USA and Mesoamerica, several questions regarding the number of progenitor populations, and the timing and intensity of turkey husbandry remain unanswered. This study applied ancient mitochondrial DNA and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) analysis to 55 archaeological turkey remains from Mexico to investigate pre-contact turkey exploitation in Mesoamerica. Three different (sub)species of turkeys were identified in the archaeological record (M. g. mexicana, M. g. gallopavo and M. ocellata), indicating the exploitation of diverse local populations, as well as the trade of captively reared birds into the Maya area. No evidence of shared maternal haplotypes was observed between Mesoamerica and the Southwest USA, in contrast with archaeological evidence for trade of other domestic products. Isotopic analysis indicates a range of feeding behaviours in ancient Mesoamerican turkeys, including wild foraging, human provisioning and mixed feeding ecologies. This variability in turkey diet decreases through time, with archaeological, genetic and isotopic evidence all pointing to the intensification of domestic turkey management and husbandry, culminating in the Postclassic period. PMID:29410864

  5. Multi-objective optimization to improve the product range of baking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.; Boom, R.M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Esveld, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The operational range of a food production system can be used to obtain a variation in certain product characteristics. The range of product characteristics that can be simultaneously realized by an optimal choice of the process conditions is inherently limited. Knowledge of this feasible product

  6. LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY, REAL WAGES AND UNEMPLOYMENT: AN APPLICATION OF BOUNDS TEST APPROACH FOR TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Hacer Simay Karaalp-Orhan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between labour productivity, average real wages, and the unemployment rate by employing the bounds testing procedure within an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) modeling approach and applies Toda-Yamamoto causality test for the period 2007:01−2016:04. The results indicate that real wages and unemployment have a significant and positive long-run impact on labour productivity. While a long-run wage–productivity elasticity of 0.97 supports the efficie...

  7. The Comparative Analysis of Some Forest Products Foreign Trade in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ALEVLİ, Cumhur; YILDIRIM, İbrahim

    2018-01-01

    Forest products industry has an important place in the international trade. The round wood obtained from forests is an input for a great deal of industry. These inputs bring with different costs in different countries. In some places a product which is costly, it is possible that the same product is cheaper in different places. As a result of cost difference of resources and materials, mutual trades with countries come to the fore.In this study, the foreign trade values of some forest product...

  8. Knowledge of Repetitions Range Affects Force Production in Trained Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Halperin, Saied J. Aboodarda, Fabien A. Basset, David G. Behm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have examined pacing strategies with cyclical activities (running and cycling. It has been demonstrated that males employ different pacing strategies during repeated maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs dependent upon a known endpoint. Since different fatiguing mechanisms have been identified between the genders, it is not known if females use comparable pacing strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine if informing female subjects regarding the number of MVCs to perform would affect force and electromyography (EMG. Twenty well-trained females completed 3 fatiguing protocols in a randomized order. In the control condition participants were informed they would perform twelve MVCs and then actually completed twelve. In the unknown condition they were not told how many MVCs to perform but were stopped after twelve. In the deception condition they were initially informed to perform 6 MVCs, but after the 6th MVC they were asked to perform a few more MVCs and were stopped after twelve. During the first 6 MVCs, forces in the deception condition were greater compared to the unknown (p = 0.021, ES = 0.65, 5% and control (p = 0.022, ES = 0.42, 3% conditions. No differences were found between conditions in the last 6 MVCs. A main effect for repetitions showed force deficits during the first 6 MVCs (p = 0.000, ES = 1.81, 13% and last 6 MVCs (p = 0.05, ES = 0.34, 3%. No differences were found between conditions in biceps and triceps EMG. However, EMG decreased during the first 6 MVCs for biceps (p = 0.001, ES = 1.0, 14% and triceps (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76, 14% across conditions. No differences were found in the last 6 MVCs. The anticipation of performing fewer MVCs led to increased force, whereas no endpoint led to decreased force production.

  9. LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY, REAL WAGES AND UNEMPLOYMENT: AN APPLICATION OF BOUNDS TEST APPROACH FOR TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Simay Karaalp-Orhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between labour productivity, average real wages, and the unemployment rate by employing the bounds testing procedure within an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL modeling approach and applies Toda-Yamamoto causality test for the period 2007:01−2016:04. The results indicate that real wages and unemployment have a significant and positive long-run impact on labour productivity. While a long-run wage–productivity elasticity of 0.97 supports the efficiency wage theorem and the unemployment-productivity elasticity of 0.53 indicates that workers increase efforts to secure jobs. Therefore, a rise in real wages and unemployment may induce higher productivity by raising the costs and probability of job loss, respectively, which implies rigidity in Turkish labour market.Furthermore, the causality tests provide evidence for the effect of a high and persistent unemployment rate on the Turkish economy, where unemployment affected both labour productivity and real wages. While a bi-directional causality was found between labour productivity and unemployment, a unilateral causality was observed between unemployment and real wages. Unemployment causes real wages, but there is no evidence of reversal causation.

  10. Utilization of turkey manure as granular activated carbon: physical, chemical and adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Isabel; Marshall, Wayne E

    2005-01-01

    The high availability of large quantities of turkey manure generated from turkey production makes it an attractive feedstock for carbon production. Pelletized samples of turkey litter and cake were converted to granular activated carbons (GACs) by steam activation. Water flow rate and activation time were changed to produce a range of activation conditions. The GACs were characterized for select physical (yield, surface area, bulk density, attrition), chemical (pH, surface charge) and adsorptive properties (copper ion uptake). Carbon physical and adsorptive properties were dependent on activation time and quantity of steam used as activant. Yields varied from 23% to 37%, surface area varied from 248 to 472 m(2)/g and copper ion adsorption varied from 0.72 to 1.86 mmol Cu(2+)/g carbon. Copper ion adsorption greatly exceeded the values for two commercial GACs. GACs from turkey litter and cake show considerable potential to remove metal ions from water.

  11. The Use of Orientalist Stereotypes and the Production of Kitsch: Tourism Architecture in Turkey in the Face of Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Çiğdem UYSAL ÜREY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the imposition of an orientalist perspective to architectural productions and intends to show how that perspective creates examples of kitsch by means of its use of orientalist stereotypes. It is acknowledged today that there is a strong inclination in touristic contexts to form and enliven imaginary worlds that conjure superficial ideas about the settings in tourists‟ minds, by effectively using architecture. This is specifically true when the touristic settings are located in th e so called „Orient‟ or in contexts that have lineage with orientalist dreams. Such practices by the use of stereotypical orientalist images in architecture give rise to the creation of „kitsch‟. In this study, these concepts are studied theoretically and exemplified by way of architectural cases from Turkey. The cases are comprised of five specific touristic establishments in Antalya, which are namely the Topkapı Palace World of Wonders, Kempinski Hotel the Dome, Mardan Palace, Crowne Plaza Hotel, and Del phin Palace Hotel. These architectural productions are analyzed formally by in - site survey and discussed as architectural consequences of the orientalist standpoint. It has been found out that the selected touristic establishments consciously use the styl istic stereotypes of the Orient to recall stereotypical Oriental images. In that way they also carry within themselves all of the features that make art works instances of „kitsch‟. This study suggests that such trials by the use of stereotypical orientali st images in architecture create examples of kitsch. The specific architectural cases are interpreted in this framework as the architectural consequences of the internalization of the orientalist standpoint, and on account of that, as forms of „Orientalist Kitsch‟.

  12. The Prevalance of Herbal Product Use as a Alternative Medicine Among Cancer Patients in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Avci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We investigated the prevalance of herbal product use in cancer patients who were followed up and treated at our center. Material and Method: A total of 271 patients were enrolled in this study. Patients asked to complete a questionnaire form and the stage of the patients and the treatment given were recorded following the delivery of the questionnaire form by the investigator. Results: Herbal products were used by 97 (35.7% of 271 patients who completed the questionaire. The most common herbal products used alone or in combination were urtica urens, ginger, bee pollen, green tea. The highest use rate was observed in patients between the age of 40 and 49 (54%, p=0.099. The rate also was found to increase in in paralel to the increased level of income i.e 32% in patients with a lower income level, 35% patients with a moderate income level, and 44% in patients with a high income level (p=0.386. As the education level increased, the rate of use of herbal products also increased (p=0.023. Discussion: The use of herbal products is rather prevalent among cancer patients. There is a need to increase the awareness of the physicians regarding herbal products and educate the population as a whole.

  13. Important Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood resources obtained from forest and non-wood forest products (NWFP have gained great importance recently as their economic values keeps increasing by the day. In this study, forecasting of Turkish Non-Wood Forest Products such as thyme, bay leaves, salvia and pine nut export amounts was carried out using a linear regression analysis method for the next fifteen years based on the data for the years between 1990 and 2009. Moreover, estimated import values and actual import values from the last years were compered and analyzed. Finally, predictions on future trends were made.

  14. Responses of herbage and browse production to six range management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Reed Sanderson; Thomas M. Quigley; Arthur R. Tiedemann

    1990-01-01

    From 1977 through 1986, herbage and browse production was sampled on 619 sites representing 10 ecosystems and 51 resource units on the Oregon Range Evaluation study area. We determined the effects of six range management strategies and cultural treatments on combined herbage and browse production. Mean herbage and browse production on the forest ecosystems was 145...

  15. An Analysis of Effect of Water Resources Constraint on Energy Production in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Restructuring CO2 Carbon dioxide CPV Concentrating Photovoltaic CSP Concentrated solar power DAP Eastern Anatolia Project DOE Department of Energy DSI... Energy Laboratory OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OTEC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion PV Photovoltaic PWR Pressurized...kinetic energy into electricity. Since the production of electricity from fossil fuels involves several energy conversion steps, there is always some

  16. Measurement of enhanced radium isotopes in oil production wastes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmaksız, A; Ağuş, Y; Bulgurlu, F; Bulur, E; Öncü, T; Özkök, Y Ö

    2015-03-01

    Gamma dose rates of oil production equipment and wastes were measured externally by survey meter. They were found to be between 0.2 μSv h(-1) and 25.7 μSv h(-1). Activity concentrations of radium isotopes in crude oil, scale, sludge, contaminated soil and water samples were determined by gamma spectrometric method. Activity concentrations of (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in samples varied from MDA to 132,000 Bq kg(-1). Radium isotopes enriched up to 14,667 times in scale samples. The highest value of (226)Ra was found to be 35,122 ± 1,983 Bq kg(-1) for sludge samples. Activity concentrations of a considerable number of samples were found to be higher than the exemption level recommended by IAEA. Measurement results revealed that oil production wastes caused soil contamination up to 70,483 Bq kg(-1). They may pose a radiological risk for workers and members of the public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of a genetic change in egg production, body weight, fertility or response to cold stress on semen yield in the turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, K E

    1977-03-01

    Egg production and semen yield, sperm concentration and total sperm per ejaculate were positively associated in a line (E) selected for increased egg production. Semen yield was decreased in a line (F) selected for increased 16-week body weight in comparison to a randombred control population (RBC). The effect may be attributable to decreased egg production in this line, as another line (I), developed from the same RBC, which exhibited genetic increases in body weight but no reduction in egg production, did not differ significantly in semen yield from the RBC. Genetic increases in body weight reduced sperm concentration and total sperm per ejaculate. Genetic changes in average clutch length, total days lost from broodiness, fertility, and response to cold stress did not have a major influence on semen production in the turkey.

  18. In situ rumen degradation and in vitro gas production of some selected grains from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umucalilar, H D; Coşkun, B; Gülşen, N

    2002-10-01

    An investigation of the dry matter degradability (DMD) and effective dry matter degradability (EDDM) was performed for barley, wheat, rye, corn, triticale and oat samples, using the Nylon-bag technique. Gas production (GP), metabolizable energy (ME) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) were also studied by using Hohenheim gas test. The DM from barley, wheat, rye and triticale was digested rapidly in the rumen, and, at the 48 h of incubation, degradability was found to be approximately about 80%. The higher degradability observed for these grains than for oats and corn was attributable to the structure of these grains. In contrast, DM of corn and oats was degraded very slowly and reached 66.7 and 66.5 at 48 h, respectively. Effective degradability values of barley, wheat, rye, corn, triticale and oats were determined to be 61.4, 69.0, 64.0, 41.7, 66.7 and 58.6% in 5% rumen outflow rate, respectively. At the end of the 48 h incubation, total gas productions in barley, wheat, rye, corn, triticale and oats were estimated to be 83.6, 87.2, 87.5, 83.5, 85.8 and 63.9 ml/200 mg DM, respectively. The mean ME values of these grains calculated from cumulative gas amount at 24 h incubation were 11.8, 12.1, 12.3, 10.9, 12.4 and 10.2 MJ/kg DM, respectively. In vitro digestible organic matter of barley, wheat, rye, corn, triticale and oats were estimated to be 85.0, 87.3, 88.2, 79.5, 89.0 and 72.6%. Percentage overall EDDM (k=5%) of barley, wheat, rye, triticale and oats was positively correlated with in vitro GP at 6 h, cumulative GP at 24 h and total GP at 48 h (p<0.05). As a result, in situ dry matter degradation of grains showed great differences depending on the chemical compositions. In situ EDDM of grains may be predicted from in vitro gas production parameters.

  19. An investigation of pottery production technology for the West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eskişehir/Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara, A.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches in the field of pottery production technology in ancient times, done in different settlements during the same period, may contribute to know relationships established within the different cultural communities. In ancient times, Anatolia (Asia Minor was the crossroads of ancient civilizations. There are several ancient settlements and artifacts belonging to Hellenistic culture (330-30 BC. West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eskişehir/Turkey excavations are the main Hellenistic culture findings. In this study, different analytical techniques were employed for the characterization of these findings in order to enlighten the pottery production technology. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF and X-ray diffraction (XRD were employed to study the chemical and mineralogical composition of the bodies, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX were also performed for the microstructural and microchemical characterization of body and slip layers of the selected potsherds. The raw materials used, firing temperatures and atmosphere and related microstructural characteristics were discussed.La investigación de la tecnología utilizada por distintas civilizaciones en la producción de piezas cerámicas encontradas de un mismo asentamiento arqueológico, puede contribuir al conocimiento de relaciones establecidas entre distintas comunidades culturales. Anatolia (Asia Menor es considerada una importante encrucijada de antiguas civilizaciones que abarcan del Periodo de Bronce al imperio Otomano. Las piezas conocidas como West Slope son los principales restos de la cultura helenística (330-30 A.C. encontrados en las excavaciones de Dorylaion (Eskişehir/ Turquía. En este estudio, diferentes técnicas analíticas han sido empleadas en la caracterización de estas piezas, a fin de dilucidar la tecnología utilizada en su produción.. Fluorescencia de rayos X por onda dispersa (WDXRF y

  20. Critical assessment of progress of medical sciences in Iran and Turkey: the way developing countries with limited resources should make effective contributions to the production of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarrat, Sadegh; Kolahdoozan, Shadi

    2011-11-01

    Scientific progress is an important indicator for the social and economic developments of any country. According to various reports, worldwide, Iran has the most growth in the field of science due to a high increase in the numbers of publications during the past decade. The aim of this study is to assess not only the quantity, but also the quality of publications of indexed Iranian journals and compare them to Turkey, as an Islamic neighboring country, in addition to the contributions of these two countries to our knowledge. A number of international journals with high impact factors were selected to assess the contributions of scientists from Iran and Turkey to the medical sciences. English medical journals from Iran and Turkey indexed by the ISI Web of Sciences with known impact factors (IF) announced at the beginning of 2010 were included for evaluation. We calculated the number of all articles published from the beginning of 2007 until the October 2010, the number of total citations, and citations from authors outside both countries for each journal. In addition, we selected all articles cited at least six times by authors outside of both countries and discussed their content with regard to originality and novelty, as well as their contributions to current knowledge. Furthermore, 60 international journals in basic or clinical research with IF greater than 6 were selected for the magnitude of contributions of both countries to our scientific knowledge. In 2010, out of a total of 21 Iranian journals indexed in ISI since 2007, only 12 have a known IF with a mean of 0.39 (range: 0.07-0.97), whereas out of 28 Turkish medical journals indexed in ISI, 15 have a known IF (mean: 0.35, range: 0.05-0.82). The total number of articles published since 2007 from Iran, total citations and total citations by authors from outside Iran were 2080, 1218, and 463, respectively. The same data related to Turkish journals were 4876, 2036, and 1331, respectively. Indeed, the mean

  1. Verkenning van milieuemissies en verbruiken van schaarse hulpbronnen in de sectoren: konijnen, vleeskalveren, eenden en kalkoenen = Exploring environmental emissions and depletion of resources of rabbit, veal calf, duck, and turkey production chains in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Radersma, S.; Winkel, A.; Buisonjé, de F.E.

    2010-01-01

    For new design concepts of rabbit, veal calf, duck and turkey production systems insight is needed in environmental emissions and the use of resources of current production systems. In this study, several environmental emissions and uses of resources were quantified and qualified where possible.

  2. Thermal-Electricity Power Plants in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mustafa Balat; Havva Balat; Neslihan Acici

    2004-01-01

    .... In 2003, its share is about 74.78% (104,898 GWh/year) of total production (140,283 GWh) of the country. Turkey is mainly focused on increased natural gas use for Thermal Electric Power Plant production...

  3. Supplementary heat requirements when brooding tom turkey poults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EXPER

    naturally ventilated house with a capacity of 6500 tom turkey poults. In the calculation of heat and humidity balance, temperature values, sensible heat and moisture production of tom turkey poults were taken from the. American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) standards for corresponding turkey poult weights, and.

  4. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  5. Volatile gas concentrations in turkey houses estimated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, D

    2013-06-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to estimate gas concentrations in commercial turkey houses by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). 2. The experiment was conducted in 5 buildings of a commercial turkey farm. The measurements of gases were carried out every 3 weeks of the growth cycle. 3. The results demonstrate that ammonia and carbon dioxide are the prevalent gases released during the entire production cycle in turkey houses. The mean concentrations of the above compounds ranged between 4-31 ppm and 220-2058 ppm, respectively. Thiols, nitriles, amines, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and other organic and inorganic compounds also occurred in turkey houses, but they were emitted periodically and their mean concentrations were significantly lower in comparison with CO2 and NH3. 4. Lower ventilation ratio and higher moisture of excreta in the first half of the growth period accelerated the release of some gases, whereas gradual faeces and urine accumulation contributed to an increase in the concentration of selected organic compounds. 5. A portable FTIR analyser is a useful device for measuring gas concentrations in commercial turkey farms, and it supports determinations of tolerable emission limits in turkey production.

  6. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section 146.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have met...

  7. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... countervailable subsidies are being provided to the production or exportation of the subject merchandise in Turkey... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary... tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey). The period of investigation is January 1, 2012...

  8. Washback effects of high-stakes language tests of Turkey (KPDS and ÜDS on productive and receptive skills of academic personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Dilek Akpinar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Washback, the impact of tests on education in general and language testing in particular, has become a populararea of study within educational research. This paper focuses on the washback effects of two high-stakes ForeignLanguage Tests (KPDS and UDS of Turkey. The main concern of the study is to investigate the impact of thesetests on receptive and productive language skills of academicians. 103 academic personnel working at NevsehirUniversity attended the study. A 26-item questionnaire was designed and administered to 103 academic personnelworking at Nevsehir University. The data were analyzed using statistical analysis including descriptive statistics(frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation and inferential statistics that use ANOVA to find whetherthere are significant differences between productive and receptive skills of the participants. It has been found outthat there are significant differences between reading and writing; reading and listening, but reading and speakingprovided insignificant results.

  9. Pododermatitis in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven; Hansen, Greg; McLean, Peter; Bond, Paul; Wakeman, Wendy; Meadows, Roger; Buda, Silke

    2002-01-01

    Severe pododermatitis is a common lesion in turkeys, unlike in broiler chickens. Both dietary factors (soybean meal, biotin, methionine) and poor litter conditions (wet litter) are documented etiologies of footpad lesions. In the United States and United Kingdom both farm managers and processors monitor lesions. The United Kingdom reports an average footpad relative score higher than that of the United States. In both countries, incidence in toms is higher than in hens. There is no significant difference by country. Data support no consistent association with other lesions (i.e., breast blisters or condemnations), breed, or performance parameters (i.e., weight gain or age). The litter type used in the United Kingdom is either straw or wood shavings, whereas in the United States producers predominantly use wood shavings. In the United Kingdom, diets are formulated with a higher protein, which affects the excreta and subsequent litter conditions. British United Turkey is the predominate breed in the United Kingdom. In the United States, three breeds, British United Turkey of America, hybrid, and Nicholas, are common. Recent research has demonstrated the association between biotin levels and pododermatitis. Factors associated with pododermatitis (such as production systems, wet litter, and stocking density) are discussed. There are some indications that increased stocking density is associated with pododermatitis lesions. Further research is needed to identify what management factors are associated with pododermatitis.

  10. Crop drying programme in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oztekin, S.; Bascetincelik, A.; Soysal, Y. [Cukurova Univ., Agricultural Machinery Dept., Adana (Turkey)

    1999-01-01

    The present status of agricultural crop drying practices in Turkey is investigated in this study. The emphasis of drying on market value, annual production and export values of some commercially important crops is given in a broad perspective. In the recent years, developing international market conditions in Europe, Middles East, and Central Asia has been encouraging to Turkey`s fresh and dry agricultural crop export due to the rapidly increasing internal and external market demands. Grapes, apricots, black tea, figs, red pepper, and medicinal and aromatic plants are the major exported agricultural crops, contributing annually 35 to 40 millions of USD$ to Turkey`s economics. From the view point of dried crop quality, drying of special crops are still an important topic for the agricultural sector. Traditionally used drying methods have many drawbacks. High air temperatures and relative humidity during the drying season promote the inset and mold development in harvested crops. Furthermore, the intensive solar radiation causes several quality reductions like vitamin losses of color changes in dried crops. Thus, the conventional drying methods do not meet the particular requirements of the related standards. To overcome these problems, producers should be made aware of the fact that the high quality of dried products can be sold to three of four fold prices and directed to the dryer investments. Moreover, the introduction of low cost and locally manufactured dryer offers a promising alternative to reduce the excessive postharvest losses and also improve the economical situation of the farmers. (Author)

  11. Combined production of free-range pigs and energy crops – animal behaviour and crop damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    Intensive free-range pig production on open grasslands has disadvantages in that it creates nutrient hotspots and little opportunity for pigs to seek shelter from the sun. Combining a perennial energy crop and pig production might benefit the environment and animal welfare because perennial energy...

  12. Turkey`s energy insecurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunali, O.

    1995-07-01

    The economic boom underway throughout much of the developing world today is spurring a surge in energy markets the likes of which have not been seen since the 1960s. The International Energy Agency projects that developing countries` energy use will nearly double by 2010, and that their share of the world total will grow from the current 27 percent to 40 percent. While such figures can be seen as signs of progress, they bear seeds of danger as well. If the new demand is met mainly by fossil fuels, rising oil prices and spreading environmental damage could undermine the economic development that extended energy use is intended to trigger. Turkey is a country that epitomizes the dilemma. A cultural bridge between East and West, and a geographic one between oil producers and consumers, Turkey lies at the crossroads of the industrial and developing worlds. Occupying a territory more than twice the size of Germany or Japan, it has a population of 60 million - projected to reach 80 million by 2010 - and a rapidly industrializing economy. Yet, in its per capita income and energy use, it is closer to Brazil or Thailand than to its industrialized fellow members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This article looks both at the present energy supplies and needs of Turkey and its future energy supplies in terms of alternative energy resources such as sunlight and wind and increasing natural gas imports. Emphasis on the less expensive and technology intense energy would decrease the need to plan for the huge burdens of nuclear energy.

  13. Book Production, Importation and Distribution in Iran, Pakistan and Turkey; A Study of Needs with Regional Recommendations within the Context of Social and Economic Development. Preliminary Report, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stanley A.; And Others

    A nine-week evaluation of developmental book activity in Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, conducted during the summer of 1966 to study existing problems in the preparation, production, importation and distribution of books in these Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) Region Countries, was funded by the United States through the Agency for International…

  14. Use of organic acids and competitive exclusion product as an alternative to antibiotic as a growth promoter in the raising of commercial turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbradt, E L; Okamoto, A S; Rodrigues, J C Z; Garcia, E A; Sanfelice, C; Centenaro, L P; Andreatti Filho, R L

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of organic acids (OA) and competitive exclusion product (CE) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and concentration of volatile fatty acids in the cecal content. The experiment lasted for 10 wk. Four hundred twenty 1-d-old female commercial cross turkey poults (British United Turkeys, BUT Big 9) were distributed into 4 treatments with 5 replicates/pen of 21 birds each. The birds were fed a basal diet without growth promoter (control), diet with lincomycin (44 mg/kg), diet with organic acids (2 g/kg), and diet with product of CE (10(9) cfu/kg). Dietary levels of other nutrients, housing, and general management practices were similar for all treatments. On the first week (d 0-7), the BW and BW gain of the birds that fed diets with OA were lower than in the control group. In the fattening phase (d 28-70), the feed intake of the OA-treated group was lower than compared with the control. The birds that received diet with OA and CE product presented higher concentrations of propionic acid, at 14 d, and butyric acid in cecal content at 28, 56, and 70 d, compared with the control. Dietary inclusion of additives had no significant effects on intestinal villus height, crypt depth, and villus:crypt ratio. Organic acids had negative effects either on early gain or feed intake throughout the study. Because the test was conducted under controlled experimental conditions, the additives that showed results similar to those found by using antibiotics should be studied further in commercial farms to obtain results that can be incorporated into practice. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Sustaining the Joint Production of Timber and Lactarius Mushroom: A Case Study of a Forest Management Planning Unit in Northwestern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Mumcu Küçüker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest management planning focusing on sustainable supply of forest-based services such as wood and Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFPs is important for the sustainability of forest ecosystems over time. This study explores the development of a mushroom integrated decision support system (ETÇAPOptimization for multiple use forest management planning and for the analysis of long-term effects of different forest management scenarios on the joint production of timber and mushroom. The Decision Support System (DSS integrates both mushroom and timber production derived from the same forest ecosystem using empirical models for mushroom occurrence and yield as well as for tree growth. The DSS takes further into account the spatial distribution and productivity models of Lactarius deliciosus and Lactarius salmonicolor generated for the Kızılcasu Planning unit in Northwest Turkey. Six different forest management scenarios were considered, each with a different set of objectives, e.g., maximization of both the amount and the income from timber or mushroom production. Some scenarios include further timber even flow constraints (10% fluctuation. The Net Present Value (NPV and the amount of timber and of mushroom production were used as performance indicators to discuss and elaborate on forest dynamics under different management scenarios. The results indicated that forest management planning strategies to address the maximization of NPV from mushroom production scenarios are characterized by substantial decreases in total income from the forest due mainly to the conservation of forest areas to favor mushroom production. On the other hand, the integration of regulatory constraints into forest management plans lead to a substantial decrease of both the economic profit and the amount of forest ecosystem services, e.g., timber and mushroom. The results showed that the NPV from mushroom production can be two to three times higher than the NPV from timber

  16. Fuzzy approach to business improvement of holding equipment in the conditions of decreased production range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Branko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, manufacturing industry has been characterized by a decreased production range and a demand for a rapid change of production programs. In such conditions holding equipment costs are considerably larger. In this paper, we review and analyze possible ways of business improvement concerning holding equipment in specific production conditions characterized by the decreased production range and lack of financial sources for applying systems of assembled and disassembled equipment. Classification of elements and group of elements of those systems is performed by applying a new fuzzy ABC method presented in this paper. Selected optimization criteria describe the performance measures of elements and group of elements of assembled and disassembled equipment whereas their relative weights are not the same. It is assumed that the values of imprecise optimization criteria and their relative weights are described by discrete fuzzy numbers. The developed procedure is illustrated by an example with real input data.

  17. Sustainable production and sales of meat from free-range pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Andersen, Lone Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    These years, the consumption of pork is not only stagnating in Denmark but also on many other European markets. This coincides with a rise in consumer demand for increased welfare among farm animals. In a project about sustainable production and sales of meat from free-range pigs, guidelines...... are developed on a European level for the production of pork from outdoors production systems, which combine animal welfare with high quality of consumption and high quality of health. In cooperation with colleagues in France, Great Britain and Sweden, MAPP is examining the market potential of this type of meat...

  18. Traditional Tar Production from the Anatolian Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arı, Süleyman; Kargıoğlu, Mustafa; Temel, Mehmet; Konuk, Muhsin

    2014-03-27

    Tar is one example of a plant product used in folk medicine and it is obtained from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, which is very common in the West Anatolian Region. Old trees that are good for kindling and have thick trucks are preferred to obtain tar. Tar is used not only as traditional medicine but also for protection against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to record the traditional method of obtaining tar and its usages in Afyonkarahisar which is located in the Western Anatolian Region of Turkey. In order to record the traditional methods of obtaining tar, we visited the villages of Doğlat, Kürtyurdu and Çatağıl in Afyonkarahisar (Turkey) June-July, 2012. Ethnobotanical data about the method of collection and traditional usages of tar were obtained through informal interviews with 26 participants (16 men and 10 women). Data concerning the method of tar collection and its traditional usages were recorded and photographed. The traditional method for obtaining tar from Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana by local people was recorded and the local usages (curing ear pain in children, osteomyelitis, wounds, ulcers, eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, foot-and-mouth disease in animals, mouth sores in sheep and goats, protection against endo- and ectoparasites, repellent for snakes, mice, flies (Tabanus bovinus) and ticks, and the prevention of water leakage from roofs) of tar are described. In this study, the traditional method for obtaining tar and the traditional usages of tar are explained. Documentation of the method of obtaining tar and its traditional usages may contribute to scientific research on the benefits and usages of tar in medicine, veterinary medicine, as well as other fields.

  19. Effect of production system (barn and free range) and slaughter age on some production traits of guinea fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2018-01-01

    A total of 200 guinea fowl was reared in either barn or free-range systems and slaughtered at 14, 16, or 18 wk of age in order to determine the effects of production system on live weight, feed consumption, and some carcass and slaughter traits. Production system had a significant effect on live weight until 14 wk of age. Live weights were similar between free-range and indoor production systems at 16 (1,150 g vs. 1,152 g) and 18 (1,196 g vs. 1,203 g) wk of age. Guinea fowl reared in a free-range system consumed more feed (7,693 g vs. 6,983 g), and guinea fowl reared in a barn had better feed conversion ratio (5.80 vs. 6.43) (P slaughter age did not affect the dressing percentage. Guinea fowl reared in a free-range system had significantly less abdominal fat (P < 0.05). © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducro Bart J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both consumers and industry global turkey stocks increased from 100 million in 1970 to over 276 million in 2004. This rapidly increasing importance of turkeys was a reason to design this study for the estimation of genetic parameters that control body weight, body composition, meat quality traits and parameters that shape the growth curve in turkey birds. Results The average heritability estimate for body weight traits was 0.38, except for early weights that were strongly affected by maternal effects. This study showed that body weight traits, upper asymptote (a growth curve trait, percent breast meat and redness of meat had high heritability whereas heritabilities of breast length, breast width, percent drip loss, ultimate pH, lightness and yellowness of meat were medium to low. We found high positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between body weight, upper asymptote, most breast meat yield traits and percent drip loss but percent drip loss was found strongly negatively correlated with ultimate pH. Percent breast meat, however, showed genetic correlations close to zero with body weight traits and upper asymptote. Conclusion The results of this analysis and the growth curve from the studied population of turkey birds suggest that the turkey birds could be selected for breeding between 60 and 80 days of age in order to improve overall production and the production of desirable cuts of meat. The continuous selection of birds within this age range could promote high growth rates but specific attention to meat quality would be needed to avoid a negative impact on the quality of meat.

  1. Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad L; Bastiaansen, John Wm; Crooijmans, Richard Pma; Ducro, Bart J; Vereijken, Addie; Groenen, Martien Am

    2011-01-25

    Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both consumers and industry global turkey stocks increased from 100 million in 1970 to over 276 million in 2004. This rapidly increasing importance of turkeys was a reason to design this study for the estimation of genetic parameters that control body weight, body composition, meat quality traits and parameters that shape the growth curve in turkey birds. The average heritability estimate for body weight traits was 0.38, except for early weights that were strongly affected by maternal effects. This study showed that body weight traits, upper asymptote (a growth curve trait), percent breast meat and redness of meat had high heritability whereas heritabilities of breast length, breast width, percent drip loss, ultimate pH, lightness and yellowness of meat were medium to low. We found high positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between body weight, upper asymptote, most breast meat yield traits and percent drip loss but percent drip loss was found strongly negatively correlated with ultimate pH. Percent breast meat, however, showed genetic correlations close to zero with body weight traits and upper asymptote. The results of this analysis and the growth curve from the studied population of turkey birds suggest that the turkey birds could be selected for breeding between 60 and 80 days of age in order to improve overall production and the production of desirable cuts of meat. The continuous selection of birds within this age range could promote high growth rates but specific attention to meat quality would be needed to avoid a negative impact on the quality of meat.

  2. Processes Governing Alkaline Groundwater Chemistry within a Fractured Rock (Ophiolitic Mélange Aquifer Underlying a Seasonally Inhabited Headwater Area in the Aladağlar Range (Adana, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Güler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate natural and anthropogenic processes governing the chemical composition of alkaline groundwater within a fractured rock (ophiolitic mélange aquifer underlying a seasonally inhabited headwater area in the Aladağlar Range (Adana, Turkey. In this aquifer, spatiotemporal patterns of groundwater flow and chemistry were investigated during dry (October 2011 and wet (May 2012 seasons utilizing 25 shallow hand-dug wells. In addition, representative samples of snow, rock, and soil were collected and analyzed to constrain the PHREEQC inverse geochemical models used for simulating water-rock interaction (WRI processes. Hydrochemistry of the aquifer shows a strong interseasonal variability where Mg–HCO3 and Mg–Ca–HCO3 water types are prevalent, reflecting the influence of ophiolitic and carbonate rocks on local groundwater chemistry. R-mode factor analysis of hydrochemical data hints at geochemical processes taking place in the groundwater system, that is, WRI involving Ca- and Si-bearing phases; WRI involving amorphous oxyhydroxides and clay minerals; WRI involving Mg-bearing phases; and atmospheric/anthropogenic inputs. Results from the PHREEQC modeling suggested that hydrogeochemical evolution is governed by weathering of primary minerals (calcite, chrysotile, forsterite, and chromite, precipitation of secondary minerals (dolomite, quartz, clinochlore, and Fe/Cr oxides, atmospheric/anthropogenic inputs (halite, and seasonal dilution from recharge.

  3. Feasibility of producing a range of food products from a limited range of undifferenitiated major food components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Kamarei, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    This report reviews current knowledge associated with producing safe, nutritious, and acceptable foods from a limited number of source independent macronutrients. The advantages, and disadvantages, of such an approach for use by space crews are discussed. The production of macronutrients from a variety of sources is covered in detail. The sources analyzed are: wheat, soybeans, algae (3 genera), glycerol, and digested cellulose. Fabrication of food from the above macronutrient sources is discussed and particular attention is addressed to nutrition, acceptability and reliability. The processes and concepts involved in food fabrication and macronutrient production are also considered for utilization in a space environment.

  4. 76 FR 537 - Eurasian Oil and Gas Suppliers Mission to Almaty, Kazakhstan Ankara and Istanbul Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... gas exploration and production in Turkey. As of today, only 20% of onshore prospects and 1% of... exploration and production can also find a market in the geothermal sector: Turkey ranks No.1 in Europe and 7..., Kazakhstan Ankara and Istanbul Turkey AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce...

  5. Matrix product formula for {{U}_{q}}(A_{2}^{(1)}) -zero range process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniba, Atsuo; Okado, Masato

    2017-01-01

    The {{U}q}(An(1)) -zero range processes introduced recently by Mangazeev, Maruyama and the authors are integrable discrete and continuous time Markov processes associated with the stochastic R matrix derived from the well-known {{U}q}(An(1)) quantum R matrix. By constructing a representation of the relevant Zamolodchikov-Faddeev algebra, we present, for n  =  2, a matrix product formula for the steady state probabilities in terms of q-boson operators.

  6. Production of Quality Housing in Urban Transformation in Areas under Disaster Risk: Osmangazi and Yıldırım, Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Taş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bursa is one of the cities with high disaster risk and a quality housing problem in Turkey. Urban transformation activities are carried out in order to improve quality of life and create safe living spaces for sustainable urban development. Quality housing production does not signify merely a need to be satisfied quantitatively. Housing and its environment, where physical and social needs of the users are satisfied, should be designed considering local conditions and in a way that they will be suitable for users’ life styles and cultural habits. In this study, the selected study area comprises neighborhoods which are under disaster risk, have been determined as urban transformation areas, and have residents with similar socioeconomic characteristics. With the purpose of improving user satisfaction, this study investigates users’ experience with physical, social, and cultural features of housing and its environment, which identify the quality of housing, and their preferences of new housing units to be produced. Nonprobability sampling method was selected for the field study, and a survey study was conducted. SPSS 17.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences was employed for data entry. In order to generate data for quality housing production, relationships between variables were analyzed with Pearson chi-square test.

  7. Temporal variability and drivers of net ecosystem production of a Turkey oak forest in Italy under coppice management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belelli Marchesini, Luca; Rey, Ana; Papale, Dario; Valentini, Riccardo

    2010-05-01

    The progress in the understanding of the carbon exchange between forests and the atmosphere has been dramatic over the last few years, yet largely based on observations of middle-aged or mature stands in the temperate and boreal region while quite a few studies report on the temporal dynamics of carbon balance in forest stand chronosequences taking into account the effect of forest management (Law et al., 2003; Kowalski et al., 2003; Kolari et al, 2004; Zha et al., 2009). In order to quantify the temporal variability of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem level following coppicing, we analyze eddy covariance data of a deciduous oak (Quercus cerris L.) coppice forest in central Italy (Roccarespampani, VT) collected over two differently aged forest stands in the period 2000-2006 and covering most of the rotation period (0-6; 11-15 years). Data processing was performed evenly for whole data-set according to the CarboEurope database standard (Papale et al., 2006). The inter-annual variability and seasonal dynamics of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), partitioned into ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross primary production (GPP), were analyzed looking at the relationships with the main structural (biomass) and environmental drivers (air and soil temperature, precipitation, soil water content, vapour pressure deficit, global radiation) to understand which factors control the carbon dynamics of these intensively managed forests After harvesting the forest acted as a carbon source of 69 gC m-2, while in the following years NEE ranged from -18.9 (stand age: 2 years) to -1077.9 g C m-2yr-1 (stand age: 15 years). Evidently the ecosystem promptly recovers its carbon sink capacity already in the years shortly after the harvest and increases its carbon sequestration capacity with stand age (R2= 0.75, P

  8. Foreign Product Perceptions and Country of Origin Analysis across Black Sea:Studies on Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Apil, Ali Rýza

    2006-01-01

    The research aims to join the limited knowledge about COO perceptions of Black Sea regional consumers with the examples of the selected countries. Studies on foreign product perceptions are still scarce about this region. In the consequences of radical reforms to adopt free market system, consumers are exposed to a large variations of imported products more than ever before. Lack of consumer experience of particular products and inadequate product information and their producers resulted in t...

  9. Quince Market in the World and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Sıtkı Şirikçi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quince market was examined in the world and Turkey. The primary data in the study were obtained by questionnaire method with 28 middleman in different marketing levels in Sakarya, Antalya, Bursa, Bilecik and Denizli where quince production is concentrated. Secondary data were obtained from the FAO and TURKSTAT. The world quince production, which is 324465 tons compared to 1981-1985 which is the beginning of the period, increased by 94.3% to 630325 tons in 2013. Major countries in world quince production are Turkey, China, Uzbekistan, Morocco and Iran. Quince production in Turkey increased by 1.60 times compared to the average of 1981-1985. In this increase in the quince production in Turkey, the increase in the per-tree yield has been considerably effective (an increase of 40%. 5.3% of quince fruit produced in the world is exported. World quince exports amount increased 8.32 times and the value increased 38.42 times. The highest share in quince export values is in the Netherlands (33.6%. The Netherlands is followed by Turkey, Austria and Iran respectively. The share of Turkey in the world export value is 31.1%. Russia ranks first in the world quince import with 23.3% share. Austria and Germany are followed by Russia.9.4% of the quince production in Turkey is exported. The major quince producers are Sakarya, Bursa, Antalya, Bilecik and Denizli. The 15 of the interviewed intermediaries, reported that the most important problem that there is no quince at the desired time, quantity, quality and price (54.

  10. Productivity losses attributable to headache, and their attempted recovery, in a heavy-manufacturing workforce in Turkey: implications for employers and politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selekler, H Macit; Gökmen, Gürsel; Alvur, T Müge; Steiner, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Headache disorders cause substantial productivity losses through absenteeism and impaired effectiveness at work (presenteeism). We had previously found these losses to be high in a mostly male, heavy-manufacturing workforce at Ford Otomotiv Sanayi AŞ (FO), in north-western Turkey. Here we aimed to confirm this finding in a year-long study to eliminate any effect of seasonal variation. The question then was how much of this lost productivity could be recovered by the effective provision of headache care. We used the HALT-30 Index to estimate productivity losses, surveying FO's entire workforce (N = 7,200) during annual health-checks provided by the company's on-site health clinic. Then we established, and widely advertised, a headache clinic within the same health clinic, providing specialist care free for 15 months. Outcome measures were HALT-30, company sickness records and the HURT questionnaire. Usable data were collected from 5,916 employees (82.2 %; 5,485 males [92.7 %], 431 females [7.3 %]; mean age 32.5 ± 5.4 years). One-month headache prevalence was 45.4 % (n = 2,688). Productivity losses were reported by 968 employees (16.4 %) and, per affected employee, increased from 0.23 to 7.56 days/month as headache frequency increased (P productivity losses, those with headache on 10-14 days (n = 104; 1.8 %) another 18.5 %. With increasing headache frequency, absenteeism/presenteeism ratio (overall 1:16) declined from about 1:4 to about 1:25 in those with headache on ≥10 days/month. Headache frequency and lost productivity were higher in females than males (P productivity losses in this young mostly male workforce correlated with but were not wholly explained by headache frequency. A small minority of employees with high-frequency headache contributed highly disproportionately to the productivity losses. These should be the target of interventions aimed at productivity recovery. It is not clear what form such interventions should

  11. Performance of free-range chickens reared in production modules enriched with shade net and perches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJB Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment in a free-range chicken production system on live performance as a function of microclimate, physiological parameters, and performance parameters. Four production modules were divided into four pens with 10 birds each, totaling 60 birds. The following treatments were applied: access to a paddock (TEST, access to a paddock with perches (PER, access to a paddock with artificial shade (SHA, and access to the paddock with perches and artificial shade (PESH. The PESH production module presented the best globe temperature (Tbg,ºC and enthalpy (h, kJ/kg, and thereby, the best thermal environmental conditions, which ensured the longest permanence time of the birds in the paddock. The SHA and PESH modules promoted the lowest respiratory rate and shank and comb temperatures. Live performance was influenced by the presence of environmental enrichment (modules SHA and PESH, with the highest live weight (LW and weight gain (WG and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR and metabolizable energy intake (MEI. Parts yield, such as giblets, were not influenced by production modules, except for PESH, which promoted higher offal weight. In general, chickens reared in enriched production modules presented greatest performance and comfort results and were considered close to optimal rearing conditions.

  12. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C.; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates (n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA, ironA, and misL. There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella

  13. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates ( n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA , ironA , and misL There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella serovars in

  14. COAL CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this paper is to use asymmetric causality tests to examine the coal consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP relationship in Turkey based on data from 1980 to 2006. To investigate this relationship, a multivariate system is employed by including fixed capital formation and labor force variables into the model. The empirical results obtained from asymmetric causality tests show no causality for coal consumption and GDP relationship in Turkey. The results indicate that coal consumption does not affect growth; hence, energy conservation policies may be pursued without adversely affecting growth in Turkey. Thus, neutrality hypothesis is confirmed for Turkey. This means that a decrease in coal consumption does not affect economic growth and vice versa. In this case, policymakers should explore the feasibility of either decreasing the coal consumption or increasing the efficiency of coal consumption.

  15. Least limiting water range for oil palm production in Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Keisuke Sato

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In areas cultivated with oil palm, typically mechanized field operations using heavy vehicles may negatively affect soil physical properties and productivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil physical quality in an area cultivated with oil palm by monitoring the temporal variation of the soil water content and relating it to the critical limits of the least limiting water range. Soil bulk density (Bd, soil penetration resistance (SR, least limiting water range (LLWR, and water stress days (WSD were used to assess soil physical quality in planting rows (PR and the traffic zone (TZ at depths 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm. The Bd was higher and the LLWR was reduced in TZ only at the surface layer. The effect of temporal variation in soil water content on the soil physical quality was higher in TZ, mainly in subsurface layers. Bd and LLWR did not affect the fresh fruit bunch production; however, WSD in TZ at 20-40 and 40-60 cm layers provided evidence of effects of temporal variation of soil water content on oil palm productivity.

  16. Commentary on comparison of MODIS snow cover and albedo products with ground observations over the mountainous terrain of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Şorman, A. Ü.; Akyürek, Z.; Şensoy, A.; A. A. Şorman; A. E. Tekeli

    2007-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover product was evaluated by Parajka and Blösch (2006) over the territory of Austria. The spatial and temporal variability of the MODIS snow product classes are analyzed, the accuracy of the MODIS snow product against numerous in situ snow depth data are examined and the main factors that may influence the MODIS classification accuracy are identified in their studies. The authors of this paper would like to provide more discussi...

  17. Sensitivity of physiological emotional measures to odors depends on the product and the pleasantness ranges used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marie Pichon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are characterized by synchronized changes in several components of an organism. Among them, physiological variations provide energy support for the expression of approach/avoid action tendencies induced by relevant stimuli, while self-reported subjective pleasantness feelings integrate all other emotional components and are plastic.Consequently, emotional responses evoked by odors should be highly differentiated when they are linked to different functions of olfaction (e.g., avoiding environmental hazards. As this differentiation has been observed for contrasted odors (very pleasant or unpleasant, we questioned whether subjective and physiological emotional response indicators could still disentangle subtle affective variations when no clear functional distinction is made (mildly pleasant or unpleasant fragrances. Here, we compared the sensitivity of behavioral and physiological (respiration, skin conductance, facial electromyography (EMG, and heart rate indicators in differentiating odor-elicited emotions in two situations: when a wide range of odor families was presented (e.g., fruity, animal, covering different functional meanings; or in response to a restricted range of products in one particular family (fragrances. Results show clear differences in physiological indicators to odors that display a wide range of reported pleasantness, but these differences almost entirely vanish when fragrances are used even though their subjective pleasantness still differed. Taken together, these results provide valuable information concerning the ability of classic verbal and psychophysiological measures to investigate subtle differences in emotional reactions to a restricted range of similar olfactory stimuli.

  18. FFT-based Kronecker product approximation to micromagnetic long-range interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Exl, Lukas; Mauser, Norbert J; Schrefl, Thomas; Stimming, Hans Peter; Suess, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    We derive a Kronecker product approximation for the micromagnetic long range interactions in a collocation framework by means of separable sinc quadrature. Evaluation of this operator for structured tensors (Canonical format, Tucker format, Tensor Trains) scales below linear in the volume size. Based on efficient usage of FFT for structured tensors, we are able to accelerate computations to quasi linear complexity in the number of collocation points used in one dimension. Quadratic convergence of the underlying collocation scheme as well as exponential convergence in the separation rank of the approximations is proved. Numerical experiments on accuracy and complexity confirm the theoretical results.

  19. Quantitative enzymatic production of sialylated galactooligosaccharides with an engineered sialidase from Trypanosoma rangeli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Holck, Jesper; Perna, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    molecules, providing the novelty point that GOS molecules are sialylated independently of their size by Tr13. Using CGMP, GOS, and Tr13, the production of gram-scale quantities of sialyl-GOS was achieved in 20L volume reactions. Compared to the benchmark transsialidase from pathogenic Trypanosoma cruzi...... be produced from κ(kappa)-casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP), a sialylated side stream component from cheese-making, by sialidase-catalyzed transsialylation. Using a rationally designed mutant of the sialidase from Trypanosoma rangeli, Tr13, with enhanced transsialylation activity, six different GOS preparations...

  20. PLANT RAW MATERIAL EXTRACTS AS COMPONENTS OF COSMETIC PRODUCTS AND FORMULATIONS FOR TOPICAL ADMINISTRATION: THE PRODUCT RANGE, THE PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    S. B. Evseeva; B. B. Sysuev

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary pharmaceutical practice extracts are used as a separate cosmetic product and as an intermediate for external medicinal forms (ointments, gels, liniments) and cosmetic forms. Their range is highly diverse.The aim is an overview of the scientific and technical information concerning plant  raw materials extracts using in the external drug and cosmetic products.Methods. To describe the range of extracts proposed for external use the analysis of the proposals of Russian and foreig...

  1. Passive FOG IMU for short-range missile application: from qualification toward series production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, Gert F.; Mueller, R.; Opitz, S.

    1996-11-01

    An inertial measurement unit (IMU) with angular rate, angular increment and linear acceleration measurement systems for short range missile application is described. It consists of a three axis fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) cluster, three linear vibrating beam accelerometers and an electronics device for signal evaluation and data transmission via a serial transputer link. The FOG cluster is realized by means of a passive all-fiber open loop configuration. Due to the inherent optical phase shift of 3 by 3 couplers, completely passive operation near the quadrature point is achieved without the need for a non- reciprocal optical phase modulation in the fiber loop. Basing on that concept more than 50 rugged IMUs have been built for implementation into a short range air to air missile. Verification tests for flight clearance with stresses simulating air carriage and missile free flight environments have been computed. The operation under extreme vibration and shock environments without the use of vibration isolator fixings due to very tight requirements on data time delay has been demonstrated. The first telemetered missile firings have been performed successfully. The line- setup for large quantity series production is progressing. The implementation of the workstations for the integration of the IMU is finished. The production equipment for calibration and acceptance testing of IMUs in parallel allowing for a rate of more than 150 unit per month has been installed and will be operational in autumn this year.

  2. Flock Size and System of Turkey Management by Farmers in Zuru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It could be concluded that turkey producers in the study area used local breed of turkey and practiced semi-intensive system of management. It is therefore recommended that interventions are necessary on better management practices and easy access to loans in order to boost turkey production through the introduction of ...

  3. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for Bar-type cut turkey lines using a shackle with a 4-inch by 4-inch selector (or kickout), a 45... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates...

  4. Medium selection for exopolysaccharide and biomass production in submerged cultures of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kizilcik, M.; Yamaç, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the exopolysaccharide (EPS) and biomass production of 18 strains of 15 species of culinary-medicinal higher Basidiomycetes in submerged culture under four different media. Gloeophyllum abietinum and Schizophyllum commune produced the highest EPS and biomass

  5. Supplementary heat requirements when brooding tom turkey poults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the calculation of heat and humidity balance, temperature values, sensible heat and moisture production of tom turkey poults were taken from the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) standards for corresponding turkey poult weights, and outside long term (1980 - 2005) monthly average temperatures were ...

  6. Characterization of the Nigerian local turkey based on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement for local turkey in Nigeria could be made using the markers RT, PCV, Hb, WBC and RBC for Marker-assisted selection. In view of the results obtained in this study, it is recommended that the black phenotype be selected by breeders to achieve improved production. Keyword: Nigerian, local turkey, colour type, ...

  7. Technological and stylistic evaluation of the Early Bronze Age pottery at Tarsus-Gozlukule, Turkey: Pottery production and its interaction with economic, social, and cultural spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Elif

    This dissertation presents a technological and stylistic assessment of Early Bronze Age pottery production at Tarsus-Gozlukule, a multi-period mound settlement located in the Cilician Plain in southern Turkey. Pottery production, like all other man-made objects, is firstly a technological act. This dissertation maintains that material style (involving formal, technical, and decorative choices expressed by the artisan) of an artifact should be investigated as a whole as such an integrative study would be the most adequate way of understanding economic circumstances, social representation, and cultural boundaries. To facilitate this integrative investigation, seventy-two samples of Early Bronze Age pottery excavated from Tarsus-Gozlukule in the 1930s and 1940s.were selected for mineralogical, morphological, and chemical analyses. Petrographic and powder X-Ray Diffraction analyses were performed to determine the mineralogical makeup, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope imagery was used to determine the morphology of these samples, and semi-quantitave Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy analysis was performed on some samples to determine chemical properties of the clays. As a result of these scientific analyses various fabric groups were established. Afterwards formal shape and stylistic analysis was performed where shapes and surface treatments of the samples were analyzed and compared to the known local and non-local examples. Such an integrative approach to pottery production facilitates a better definition of the local pottery production process and enables an assessment of the technological know-how of the local pottery producers, their labor organization and its role within the operating markets, their function within the sociopolitical structure, and how such issues relate to the cultural boundaries within the community. Defining the paradigm of the local pottery production process leads to a broader investigation of issues related to the technological

  8. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in free-range laying hens under mountain farming production conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthijaree, K; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M

    2017-10-27

    1. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to July 2016 in South Tyrol, Northern Italy to examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free-range laying hens under mountain farming production conditions. 2. A total of 280 laying hens from 14 free-range mountain farms (4 organic, 10 conventional) were randomly collected at the end of the laying period. Faecal samples were taken to analyse faecal egg counts (FEC) and faecal oocyst counts (FOC). The gastrointestinal tracts were removed post mortem and examined for the presence of helminths. 3. In faeces, FEC values averaged 258 eggs per g of faeces, which were dominated by Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Mean FOC was 80 oocysts/g. In the gastrointestinal tract, at least one nematode species was found in 99.3% of the examined hens. H. gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (95.7%), followed by Capillaria spp. (66.8%) and A. galli (63.6%). Thirty per cent of the chickens were infected with cestodes (tapeworms). Correlation coefficients between worm counts of H. gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and A. galli ranged from 0.41 to 0.51. 5. The helminth prevalence did not differ between conventional and organic farms, whereas total worm burden was higher in organic compared with conventional farms (318.9 vs. 112.0). Prevalence and infection intensity did not differ between farms that used anthelmintic treatments and those that did not. 6. In conclusion, free-range laying hens under the studied mountain farming conditions are at high risk of nematode infection, especially in organic systems. The vast majority of hens are subclinical infected with at least one helminth species.

  9. An analysis of socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountain Villages in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey, with consideration of gender roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davran, Müge K; Ocak, Sezen; Secer, Arzu

    2009-10-01

    This paper aims to reveal socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountains' villages in Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey: with consideration of gender roles. Goat production sector is the most important livelihood activity in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. According to various new regulations of the Ministry of Forestry, goat production in the mountainous villages of Taurus Mountains has been banned for recent year for various reasons such as; the destruction of shoots and branches in trees, forest degradation and erosion. Therefore, goat production is decreasing dramatically in that region. Data were collected in 4 districts of 8 villages in which goat production has been done intensively (two villages in each district) by face to face interview with 52 women and 58 men. Data were analyzed in Statistical Program of Social Science (SPSS). According to our findings, goat production has different affects on the lives of men and women and the sustainability of the sector is dependent on social factors, primarily education.

  10. Adult Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  11. Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Ducro, B.J.; Vereijken, A.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both

  12. Primary production in an impounded baldcypress swamp (Taxodium distichum) at the northern limit of the range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)swamps to maintain themselves near the northern limit of their range depends on their levels of production, which is not only are response to climate but also to local environmental factors(e.g., impoundment). We asked if primary production was reduced under impounded conditions and if species' responses to impoundment were individualistic or more generalized. To examine long-term production trends in a permanently impounded baldcypress swamp, a 6-year study of leaf litterfall was conducted in Buttonland Swamp, Illinois, which had been impounded for 10 years before the beginning of the study. Buttonland Swamp is at the northern boundary of the baldcypress swamp region along the Cache River, Illinois, in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley of the United States. When the litter production of impounded sites was compared to those with natural hydrology in the same region, impounded sites had about half of the total litterfall of natural sites. Overall, leaf litterfall rates declined during the study(201 vs. 113 gm-2 yr-1), but the pattern was negatively correlated with water depth, which explained 97% of the variation in the data. Along the transect with the lowest mean minimum water depth(<0.5 cm), leaf litterfall decreased linearly over 6 years from 377 to 154gm-2 yr-1. Total leaf litterfall rates were lower at the other three depths(5, 43, and 49 cm mean minimum water depths)and remained below 200 gm-2 yr -1 throughout the study. Acer saccharinum, Nyssa aquatica, and Salix nigra were most responsible for the decline in total leaf litterfall. Amounts of leaf litterfall of T. distichum and Liquidambar styraciflua also generally decreased, while that of Cephalanthus occidentalis increased overtime. Because species' responses to environmental factors such as impoundment are individualistic, models should be based on the responses of individual species, rather than on communities. Our study further suggests that the

  13. Nitrogen regulation of algal biomass, productivity, and composition in shallow mountain lakes, Snowy Range, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydick, Koren R.; Lafrancois, Brenda Moraska; Baron, Jill S.; Johnson, Brett M.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of increased nitrate (NO3), alone and in combination with phosphorus (P), on phytoplankton, epilithon, and epipelon in shallow lakes of the Snowy Range, Wyoming, using two enclosure experiments during early and late summer. Phytoplankton responded strongly to N and N + P, but not to P, with increased cell density, chlorophyll a, and photosynthesis and shifts in composition from chrysophytes to cyanophytes, chlorophytes, and diatoms. Zooplankton density and biomass were unaltered despite the additional phytoplankton stock, probably as the result of poor food quality. In the late summer, algae on tiles responded to N and N + P additions with greater chlorophyll a and increases in cyanophyte and chlorophyte density. Algae on sediment dominated whole-enclosure algal biomass but were spatially variable and responded insignificantly to nutrients. Consequently, N controlled productivity and community composition of phytoplankton and algae on hard substrates but had less impact on ecosystem algal biomass because of the large pool of nutrient-sufficient sediment algae. Phytoplankton were more photosynthetically efficient than the benthos, however, such that primary productivity did shift more toward the water column.

  14. Dynamics of r.f. production of Stellarator plasmas in the ion cyclotron range of frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseenko, V.E. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Center; Lysoivan, A.I. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Center; Kasilov, S.V. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Center; Plyusnin, V.V. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Center

    1995-01-01

    The present study investigated numerically the process of r.f. production of plasma in the URAGAN-3M torsatron in the frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency ({omega}<{omega}{sub ci}). The dynamics of r.f. plasma build-up at the stages of neutral gas burnout and plasma heating were studied using a zero-dimensional transport code, in which the plasma confinement law was determined by large helical device scaling. Two models for input r.f. power were used. In the first case, the r.f. power absorbed by the electrons was computed by a one-dimensional r.f. code solving Maxwell`s boundary problem equations. The mechanisms of electron heating through direct excitation of the slow wave (SW) by antennae as well as the conversion of fast wave (FW) into SW in the vicinity of Alfven resonance (scenario of Alfven heating) were taken into account in the computations. In the second case, an `ideal` model of r.f. power deposition onto the electrons as a linear function of plasma density was employed. A noticeable difference in plasma production dynamics computed for these two cases was found. Better agreement with experimental data obtained from the URAGAN-3M torsatron was found for the first case resulting from combination of the one-dimensional r.f. and zero-dimensional transport codes. ((orig.)).

  15. 5 CFR 532.253 - Special rates or rate ranges for leader, supervisory, and production facilitating positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the same occupational series and title, that lead, supervise, or perform production facilitating..., supervisory, and production facilitating positions. 532.253 Section 532.253 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF....253 Special rates or rate ranges for leader, supervisory, and production facilitating positions. (a...

  16. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy turkeys and from turkeys with necrotic enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Kallio, H.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important bacterial pathogen, especially in poultry, where it can lead to both subclinical and clinical disease. The aim of this study was to present data on pathological findings at outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) in turkey production in Finland during the period...... from 1998 to 2012. Furthermore, C. perfringens isolates from healthy and diseased turkeys were characterized and their genetic diversity was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates (n = 212) from birds with necrotic gut lesions and from healthy flocks of 30 commercial...... turkey farms were characterized for the presence of cpa, cpb, iA, etx, cpb2, and cpe and netB genes. A total of 93 C. perfringens isolates, including 55 from birds with necrotic gut lesions and 38 from healthy birds from 13 different farms, were analyzed with PFGE. All contract turkey farmers (n = 48...

  17. Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, Richard J.; DeLucia, Evan H.; Gielen, Birgit; Calfapietra, Carlo; Giardina, Christian P.; King, John S.; Ledford, Joanne; McCarthy, Heather R.; Moore, David J. P.; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Angelis, Paolo; Finzi, Adrien C.; Karnosky, David F.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Lukac, Martin; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe E.; Schlesinger, William H.; Oren, Ram

    2005-01-01

    Climate change predictions derived from coupled carbon-climate models are highly dependent on assumptions about feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere. One critical feedback occurs if C uptake by the biosphere increases in response to the fossil-fuel driven increase in atmospheric [CO2] (“CO2 fertilization”), thereby slowing the rate of increase in atmospheric [CO2]. Carbon exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are often first represented in models as net primary productivity (NPP). However, the contribution of CO2 fertilization to the future global C cycle has been uncertain, especially in forest ecosystems that dominate global NPP, and models that include a feedback between terrestrial biosphere metabolism and atmospheric [CO2] are poorly constrained by experimental evidence. We analyzed the response of NPP to elevated CO2 (≈550 ppm) in four free-air CO2 enrichment experiments in forest stands. We show that the response of forest NPP to elevated [CO2] is highly conserved across a broad range of productivity, with a stimulation at the median of 23 ± 2%. At low leaf area indices, a large portion of the response was attributable to increased light absorption, but as leaf area indices increased, the response to elevated [CO2] was wholly caused by increased light-use efficiency. The surprising consistency of response across diverse sites provides a benchmark to evaluate predictions of ecosystem and global models and allows us now to focus on unresolved questions about carbon partitioning and retention, and spatial variation in NPP response caused by availability of other growth limiting resources. PMID:16330779

  18. Snavelbehandeling in de kalkoenhouderij : alternatieven via fokkerij en bedrijfsmanagemrnt = Beak trimming in turkey production : alternatives by means of breeding and farm management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.

    2010-01-01

    A literature review on effects of breeding and management on injurious pecking behaviour and cannibalism has been conducted. The combination of factors to avoid injurious behaviour is not clear and thus no good alternative to beak trimming of the upper beak in day-old turkey poults is available. If

  19. Product range of two-stroke engines on motorcycles. Produktpalette von Zweitaktmotoren in motorisierten Zweiraedern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, J. (IFA-Kombinat fuer Zweiradfahrzeuge, Suhl (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    At present there are five different types of engines in the production range: 50 cc engines for lawnmowers and vehicles for the disabled; 50/70 cc engines for 'Mokicks', rollers, light motorcycles (mopeds), garden equipment; 125/150 cc engines for motorcycles; 250 cc engines for motorcycles. Data on standardized design principles are given, together with extensive component sketches, for these series of engines. They extent to air-cooling while in motion, aluminium cylinders, reverse flushing, crankshafts in roller bearings, multi-disc oil bath clutch, 4 or 5 speed gearbox, mixture lubrication and a 12 V electrical supply. The carburettor used in 2-stroke engines of motorcycles has a separate cold start and tickover system. The harmful emission from the motorcycles is appreciably below the limits of EEC regulation 40. In order to be able to comply with the legal limits for the exhaust gas components CO, CH and NO{sub x} in Switzerland and Austria, these 2-stroke engined motorcycles must, however, be provided with an oxidation catalyst. (HWJ).

  20. Expanding the range of auxetic polymeric products using a novel melt-spinning route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravirala, N.; Alderson, A.; Alderson, K. L.; Davies, P. J.

    2005-03-01

    The first auxetic fibre was successfully produced in polypropylene using a novel melt-spinning route. These fibres were extruded at 159 °C with a screw speed 10 rpm (1.05 rad s-1) and 2 mpm (0.03 m s-1) take-up speed. Characterisation of these fibres involved optical techniques (videoextensometry) to measure the strains along both the length and the width simultaneously during deformation. The unique processing route has now been developed to expand the range of auxetic extruded polymeric products. We report here that auxetic polypropylene films have been developed, and auxetic polyester and polyamide fibres have now been produced. We also report the development of a simple rough particle model to predict auxetic behaviour that may be applicable to the developed fibres and films. Finally, a review of some potential applications for auxetic fibres and films will be presented. These include as reinforcements in composites, anchoring devices, smart bandages for health-care, breathable packaging and tear resistant films.

  1. Excitation of Lamb waves over a large frequency-thickness product range for corrosion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liang; Luo, Zhi; Lin, Jing; Hua, Jiadong

    2017-09-01

    For corrosion detection, it is often desirable that a Lamb wave mode is highly sensitive to surface thinning and enjoys some degree of mode purity at a particular frequency. In view of this, this paper aims to generate a variety of Lamb wave modes over broad frequency bands to ensure an abundant supply of candidates for corrosion detection, and further, establish a strategy to find appropriate operation points efficiently and effectively. Firstly, a short-duration laser pulse is applied to generate Lamb waves over a large frequency-thickness product range. The selection of symmetric modes or anti-symmetric modes is obtained by addition or subtraction of signals captured by two identical transducers which are symmetrically coupled on both sides of the plate. Subsequently, the S0 mode at a non-dispersive frequency bandwidth is employed to improve the accuracy of the transmitter-receiver distance. Based on those, three selection criteria including mode separability, amplitude ratio and corrosion sensitivity, are presented to efficiently determine the suitable operation points (i.e., mode types and frequencies). The experimental results show that the simulated corrosion could be correctly detected and accurately localized at the chosen modes and frequencies.

  2. A Study of Milk Support Policies in the European Union and in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Toplu YILMAZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of milk support policy in the European Union and in Turkey. Turkey’s adaptation of its milk policy to the Common Agricultural Policy of European Union is on the agenda since Turkey has been a candidate country in 1999. Regarding that the Common Agricultural Policy has been reformed many times, Turkey has to adapt its milk sector to a changing policy. Turkey, on the other hand, pursues different support policy in the milk sector. The producers, who are registered in the Farming Registration System, receive milk incentive premiums. There are no similarities between Turkish milk support policy and European Union’s milk support policy. According to the last progress reports, Turkey has to improve Farming Registration System. Turkey has to adjust milk production process to the European Union standards. Furthermore, in the accession process, Turkey plans to increase consumption and also needs to promote milk and milk products producers’ organizations.

  3. Event studies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulkem Basdas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to review the event studies conducted for Turkey to in order to identify the common components in their designs. This paper contributes to the existing literature by reviewing all event studies for Turkey for the first time, but more importantly; this review leads to the upcoming event studies on Turkey by highlighting main components of a proper design. Based on the review of 75 studies, it is observed that event studies generally choose BIST-100 (formerly, ISE-100 market index and market adjusted returns with the parametric tests. In general, the studies prefer to rely on one type of model to calculate abnormal returns without discussing the selection of the underlying model. Especially for the event studies focusing on the impact of political events or macroeconomic announcements in Turkey, there is a risk of clustering due to the application of same event date for all observations.

  4. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluoride levels in various black tea, herbal and fruit infusions consumed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Yarat, Aysen; Akyuz, Serap

    2009-07-01

    The fluoride contents were determined by ion-selective electrode in 26 black tea samples originally produced in Turkey, Sri Lanka, India and Kenya, and in 14 herbal and seven fruit infusions originated from Turkey. Fluoride content in black tea infusions ranged from 0.57 to 3.72 mg/L after 5 min of brewing. Higher fluoride levels were found in black teas originated from Turkey when compared with teas originated from Sri Lanka. Moreover higher fluoride levels were determined in black tea bags compared with granular and stick-shaped black teas. However, herbal and fruit infusions were characterized by low values of fluoride (0.02-0.04 mg/L) after 5 min of brewing and increasing brewing time to 10 min caused only slight increases in some infusions. As a result, consuming tea infusions prepared from some black tea available in Turkish market, especially black tea bags, in large quantities may lead to exposion to a high amount of fluoride which may cause dental fluorosis. Although fruit and herbal infusions are safer to consume their fluoride contents are too low for caries prevention. In countries such as Turkey where tea is traditionally consumed, the fluoride concentration and daily safety precautions should be indicated on tea products.

  6. Turkey: A Strategic Ally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-16

    in education. This will con- tinue to enhance Turkey’s modernization efforts. It is estimated that over 55 percent of the people can read and write .10... writing a new constitution which is expected to strengthen the presi- dency and make provisions for a strong two party political system which...Turkey guards the European land aproach of the eastern Mediterranean and presents a formidable obstacle in the path of any Soviet expansion designs

  7. Energy Security and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    92 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk , 1923. 93 “Turkish-U.S. Political Relations,” Republic of Turkey Ministry of...gas and oil on the world market, without any interruption or mandate by established producers. Guided by the enduring legacy of Mustafa Kemal ...enduring legacy of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Turkey has been pursuing a policy of “Peace at Home and Peace Abroad” since the very establishment of the

  8. Turkey. Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Mehtap; Mollahaliloğlu, Salih; Sahin, Bayram; Aydin, Sabahattin; Maresso, Anna; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has accomplished remarkable improvements in terms of health status in the last three decades, particularly after the implementation of the Health Transformation Program (HTP (Saglikta Donus, um Programi)). Average life expectancy reached 71.8 for men and 76.8 for women in 2010. The infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased to 10.1 per 1000 live births in 2010, down from 117.5 in 1980. Despite these achievements, there are still discrepancies in terms of infant mortality between rural and urban areas and different parts of the country, although these have been diminishing over the years. The higher infant mortality rates in rural areas can be attributed to low socioeconomic conditions, low female education levels and the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main causes of death are diseases of the circulatory system followed by malignant neoplasms. Turkeys health care system has been undergoing a far-reaching reform process (HTP) since 2003 and radical changes have occurred both in the provision and the financing of health care services. Health services are now financed through a social security scheme covering the majority of the population, the General Health Insurance Scheme (GHIS (Genel Saglik Sigortasi)), and services are provided both by public and private sector facilities. The Social Security Institution (SSI (Sosyal Guvenlik Kurumu)), financed through payments by employers and employees and government contributions in cases of budget deficit, has become a monopsonic (single buyer) power on the purchasing side of health care services. On the provision side, the Ministry of Health (Saglik Bakenligi) is the main actor and provides primary, secondary and tertiary care through its facilities across the country. Universities are also major providers of tertiary care. The private sector has increased its range over recent years, particularly after arrangements paved the way for private sector provision of services to the SSI. The most important reforms since

  9. Energy Diplomacy of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Ozdemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with current issues of energy diplomacy of Turkey. The authors describe the main positive and negative results of Turkey's foreign energy policy in terms of the implementation of major energy projects. Geopolitical processes in the world, the conflict of interests of various countries in the political arena are important factors that affect the crude oil and natural gas pipeline projects. Particular attention is paid to the problems and prospects of cooperation between the Turkish Republic and the Russian Federation in the fuel and energy complex. The authors describe the interaction betweeen Russia and Turkey in the energy sector, including geo-economic interests of the countries in the Russian-Turkish gas dialogue. Turkey made efforts to position as an alternative gas supply route, taking advantage of concern about increasing Europe's dependence on Russian exports. Last years Turkey has set itself the important task - to turn from transit country into a regional gas hub. Ukrainian crisis increased the geostrategic importance of the Black Sea region to Russia, as well as strengthened the ambition of the Turkish side. The authors also highlight the prospects of the natural gas pipeline project from Russia via the Black Sea to Turkey and to the Turkish-Greek border, which named "Turkish stream". This project was frozen in terms of military and political processes at the end of 2015 in Syria.

  10. Pediatric oncology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebudi, Rejin

    2012-03-01

    The survival of children with cancer has increased dramatically in the last decades, as a result of advances in diagnosis, treatment and supportive care. Each year in Turkey, 2500-3000 new childhood cancer cases are expected. According to the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group and Turkish Pediatric Hematology Societies Registry, about 2000 new pediatric cancer cases are reported each year. The population in Turkey is relatively young. One fourth of the population is younger than 15 years of age. According to childhood mortality, cancer is the fourth cause of death (7.2%) after infections, cardiac deaths and accidents. The major cancers in children in Turkey are leukemia (31%), lymphoma (19%), central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms (13%), neuroblastomas (7%), bone tumors (6.1%), soft tissue sarcomas (6%), followed by renal tumors, germ cell tumors, retinoblastoma, carcinomas-epithelial neoplasms, hepatic tumors and others. Lymphomas rank second in frequency as in many developing countries in contrast to West Europe or USA, where CNS neoplasms rank second in frequency. The seven-year survival rate in children with malignancies in Turkey is 65.8%. The history of modern Pediatric Oncology in Turkey dates back to the 1970's. Pediatric Oncology has been accepted as a subspecialty in Turkey since 1983. Pediatric Oncologists are all well trained and dedicated. All costs for the diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer is covered by the government. Education and infrastructure for palliative care needs improvement.

  11. PLANT RAW MATERIAL EXTRACTS AS COMPONENTS OF COSMETIC PRODUCTS AND FORMULATIONS FOR TOPICAL ADMINISTRATION: THE PRODUCT RANGE, THE PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Evseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary pharmaceutical practice extracts are used as a separate cosmetic product and as an intermediate for external medicinal forms (ointments, gels, liniments and cosmetic forms. Their range is highly diverse.The aim is an overview of the scientific and technical information concerning plant  raw materials extracts using in the external drug and cosmetic products.Methods. To describe the range of extracts proposed for external use the analysis of the proposals of Russian and foreign producers submitted their official websites and online trading platforms was used. The specificity of extraction of biologically active substances of plant extracting agents: water, ethyl alcohol, glycols, vegetable oils, carbon dioxide used to obtain extracts was described on the basis of available scientific literature (eLIBRARY, PubMed, Cyberleninca, Google Books. Results. Examples of external drugs and cosmetic products based on plant raw materials extracts from a range of pharmaceutical organizations are given. It was found that from the extracting solvent used the range is presented by hydrophilic, such as glycol (propylene glycol, glycerin, water, alcoholic extracts; lipophilic (oil, CO2-extracts, and two-phase (caprylic/caprate triglyceride/water extracts. The main features of the extracting solvent used for this category of extracts: the specifics of the use in cosmetics (the skin specific effect, in particular selectivity to groups of biologically active plant substances, microbiological purity, are noted. Results of research data on the study of the prospects for the use of cosmetic ingredients – silicones, caprylic/ capric triglyceride, isopropyl myristate both solvents. The extraction techniques: classical (maceration, percolation and intensified (electro-plasma dynamic extraction, vacuum extraction circulation, CO2 supercritical extraction used in industry to produce cosmetic extracts are described

  12. Transcriptional regulation of the prolactin gene in turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Kurima, Kiyoto

    1996-01-01

    Poor reproductive performance by turkey hens compared with chickens is partially due to the early cessation of egg production associated with the onset of incubation behavior. Prolactin (Prl) is involved in the induction and maintenance of incubation behavior in birds, and understanding the regulatory mechanism(s) of Prl gene expression will provide fundamental information to manipulate Prl production for better reproductive performance in turkey hens.

  13. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  14. Variation in home range size of red foxes Vulpes vulpes along a gradient of productivity and human landscape alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Home range size is a fundamental concept for understanding animal dispersion and ecological needs, and it is one of the most commonly reported ecological attributes of free-ranging mammals. Previous studies indicate that red foxes Vulpes vulpes display great variability in home range size. Yet, there has been little consensus regarding the reasons why home range sizes of red foxes vary so extensively. In this study, we examine possible causes of variation in red fox home range sizes using data from 52 GPS collared red foxes from four study areas representing a gradient of landscape productivity and human landscape alteration in Norway and Sweden. Using 90% Local Convex Hull home range estimates, we examined how red fox home range size varied in relation to latitude, elevation, vegetation zone, proportion of agricultural land and human settlement within a home range, and sex and age. We found considerable variation in red fox home range sizes, ranging between 0.95 km2 to 44 km2 (LoCoH 90%) and 2.4 km2 to 358 km2 (MCP 100%). Elevation, proportion of agricultural land and sex accounted for 50% of the variation in home range size found amongst foxes, with elevation having the strongest effect. Red foxes residing in more productive landscapes (those in more southern vegetation zones), had home ranges approximately four times smaller than the home ranges of foxes in the northern boreal vegetation zone. Our results indicate that home range size was influenced by a productivity gradient at both the landscape (latitude) and the local (elevation) scale. The influence of the proportion of agriculture land on home range size of foxes illustrates how human landscape alteration can affect the space use and distribution of red foxes. Further, the variation in home range size found in this study demonstrates the plasticity of red foxes to respond to changing human landscape alteration as well as changes in landscape productivity, which may be contributing to red fox population

  15. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bianca C.; Brune, William H.; Miller, David O.; Blake, Donald; Long, Russell; Wisthaler, Armin; Cantrell, Christopher; Fried, Alan; Heikes, Brian; Brown, Steven; McDuffie, Erin; Flocke, Frank; Apel, Eric; Kaser, Lisa; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3), to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3) calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3) is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3) to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS) directly measured net P(O3) in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3) was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3) was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO) levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3) for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3) behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3) and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2) discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3) discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model-data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3), then these results would imply that P(O3) in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3) regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone regulations

  16. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Baier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3, to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3 calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3 is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3 to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS directly measured net P(O3 in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3 was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3 was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3 for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3 behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3 and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2 discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3 discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model–data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3, then these results would imply that P(O3 in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3 regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone

  17. 9 CFR 381.171 - Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition and standard for âTurkey Ham.â 381.171 Section 381.171 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.171 Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.” (a) “Turkey Ham...

  18. The fate of turkey #88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Todd Mills

    1993-01-01

    On January 9, 1990, 32 turkeys were captured in the Black Hills of South Dakota using the drug alpha-chloralose. One of these turkeys had a unique tag attached to it's wing that indicated it had been trapped previously Let's look back in time and see what made the events in the life of this turkey deviate slightly from "The Events in the Turkey Year...

  19. Cutting and Preserving Whole Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Brennand, Charlotte P.

    1995-01-01

    There are more uses for a turkey than roasting it whole for holiday occasions. The least expensive way to have turkey pieces, especially if the turkey is purchased on sale, is to cut it up yourself. The following is to serve as a butchering and processing guide.

  20. The economic impact of longer range weather information on the production of peas in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. R.; Torkelson, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The extent of benefits which will be realized in the pea industry as a result of improved long range weather forecasts are outlined. Particular attention was given to planting and harvesting operations.

  1. Preliminary Products of Precise Orbit Determination Using Satellite Laser Ranging Observations for ILRS AAC

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Rok Kim; Sang-Young Park; Eun-Seo Park; Hyung-Chul Lim

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present preliminary results of precise orbit determination (POD) using satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations for International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) Associate Analysis Center (AAC). Using SLR normal point observations of LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, ETALON-1, and ETALON-2, the NASA/GSFC GEODYN II software are utilized for POD. Weekly-based orbit determination strategy is applied to process SLR observations and the post-fit residuals check, and external orbit comparison ar...

  2. Understanding investors' decisions to purchase innovative products : Drivers of adoption timing and range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Broekhuizen, T.L.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper integrates findings from marketing and finance literature to increase our understanding of consumers' decisions to purchase innovative investment products. Two different surveys administered to individual investors examine the psychological and sociological drivers of dispositional

  3. Microbiology of Fresh Comminuted Turkey Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-12

    37). On several . occasions, meat from turkeys has been implicated in LJ, The amount of poultry consumed per capita in this outbreaks of...abattoirs and processing plants. be involved in outbreaks of staphylococcal intoxication. Cooked red meat products with their natural enteric However, if...incriminated sources in foodborne containing large numbers of enterotoxin producing outbreaks of Salmonella infections (31). staphylococci, This product would

  4. Turkey`s Harmless Tango Between East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Mujanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey got actively involved in world politics and international relations after AKP came to power in early 2000s. Turkey`s foreign policy since AKP came to power, has the theoretical basis in Davutoglu`s Strategic Depth. New doctrines rely on historical right inherited from the Ottoman Empire, which contributed towards Turkish pro-active and multi-dimensional foreign policy. Without forgetting traditional Western allies, Turkey has established itself as a regional power in the Balkans, Middle East and Central Asia with significant success. This paper attempts to analyze how Turkey has been playing a harmless tango between its traditional allies in the West and regions in the near abroad which had made Turkey a global player in the international relations. Then, it is important to analyze Turkey's transformation and its approved role by the Western powers as a strong Islamic country with secular governance in the Middle East and Central Asia.

  5. Effects of Climate Change on Range Forage Production in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R.

    2013-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California’s annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23472102

  6. Effects of climate change on range forage production in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer

    Full Text Available The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression for California's annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  7. Effects of climate change on range forage production in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R

    2013-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California's annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  8. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    The world’s most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsi...

  9. SOME OF KEY GOODS FOR SUSTAINABLE IMPORTS OF TURKEY FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYDIN SARI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between Turkey and Romania improve greatly every year. Turkey’s import is about 200 billion USD and it is the biggest partner of EU. The trade between Europe and Turkey is rising every year about 10%. Therefore the import rate has to increase more between the two countries. Some main products imported from Romania are Vehicles, Iron or steel products, Oil Electronic equipment, Perfumes, cosmetic and Rubber. However Romania has a big potential of export to Turkey. For example Romania has produced medical and pharmaceutical products, construction paints and plastic products. These products are imported more often from Turkey. Turkey balances between import and export but every year export increases. Consequently, the rate of export is more rapid than that of import. We analyze the trade between Turkey and Romania by tables and charts; we propose that Turkey improves import from Romania per year at almost 15%. When transportation is getting better, the diversity of goods imported from Romania rises. We obtain that Romania has big fortunate to become a big trade partner of Turkey. Because Romania industry is enough to manufacture the goods whatever required from Turkey.

  10. Optimizing the biocatalytic productivity of an engineered sialidase from Trypanosoma rangeli for 3′-sialyllactose production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Luo, Jianquan; Nyffenegger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    -linked Tr6, and (iv) Tr6 catalysis in a membrane reactor. Tr6 immobilized on MNPs gave a biocatalytic productivity of 84mg 3′-sialyllactose/mg Tr6 after seven consecutive reaction runs. Calcium-alginate and membrane immobilization were inefficient. Using free Tr6 in a 10kDa membrane reactor produced a 9......-fold biocatalytic productivity increase compared to using free Tr6 in a batch reactor giving 306mg 3′-sialyllactose/mg Tr6 after seven consecutive reaction runs. The 3′-sialyllactose yield on α-2,3-bound sialic acid in CGMP was 74%. Using circular dichroism, a temperature denaturation midpoint of Tr6...

  11. Power laws in cone production of longleaf pine across its native range in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiongwen Chen; Qinfeng Guo; Dale G. Brockway

    2017-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests in the southeastern United States are considered endangered ecosystems, because of their dramatic decrease in area since European colonization and poor rates of recovery related to episodic natural regeneration. Sporadic seed production constrains restoration efforts and complicates sustainable management of this species....

  12. Animal production off grassland. | J.E. | African Journal of Range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential grassland constitutes 37% of South Africa, 45% and 55% of this being sweet and sour respectively. The major factors limiting animal production in the sweetveld are a reduction in the grazing capacity of the veld through veld deterioration, and the fact that the stocking rates applied are in excess of the current ...

  13. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  14. Dynamic optimization of the complex adaptive controlling by the structure of enterprise’s product range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Fyodorovich Shorikov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews a methodical approach to solve multi-step dynamic problem of optimal integrated adaptive management of a product portfolio structure of the enterprise. For the organization of optimal adaptive terminal control of the system the recurrent algorithm, which reduces an initial multistage problem to the realization of the final sequence of problems of optimal program terminal control is offered. In turn, the decision of each problem of optimal program terminal control is reduced to the realization of the final sequence only single-step operations in the form of the problems solving of linear and convex mathematical programming. Thus, the offered approach allows to develop management solutions at current information support, which consider feedback, and which create the optimal structure of an enterprise’s product lines, contributing to optimising of profits, as well as maintenance of the desired level of profit for a long period of time

  15. Portable milk product quality analyzer based on spectrometry in the near IR range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Krasheninnikov, V. N.

    2008-03-01

    We have used near IR spectrometry and multiple regression analysis to construct the calibration models for determining the weight fractions of the major components of milk blends, and we have used the latter to study the feasibility of using a portable spectrophotometer (designed at the Institute of Spectroscopy) based on a silicon CCD linear array as a working tool for monitoring the quality of biotechnological products.

  16. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo in the Maya Region: implications for pre-Hispanic animal trade and the timing of turkey domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Kennedy Thornton

    Full Text Available Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100 turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata, is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.

  17. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: Implications for Pre-Hispanic Animal Trade and the Timing of Turkey Domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F.; Steadman, David W.; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya

    2012-01-01

    Late Preclassic (300 BC–AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic. PMID:22905156

  18. Repeated use of an abandoned vehicle by nesting Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.; Peterson, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) lay their eggs on an existing substrate in the dark recesses of a variety of natural sites (Kirk and Mossman 1998). Although an important requirement of Turkey Vulture nest-site selection is isolation from human disturbances (Kirk and Mossman 1998), their nests have been reported in abandoned buildings since at least the early 1800s (Nuttall 1832). Depopulation of rural areas in North America in recent decades has resulted in many abandoned buildings within the Turkey Vulture's breeding range (Peck 2003). Increased use of abandoned buildings by nesting Turkey Vultures has been implicated in the species' recent northward range expansion (Peck 2003, Nelson et al. 2005, Houston et al. 2007). Although abandoned or inoperative vehicles also are widespread in rural areas, we found no published literature documenting Turkey Vultures' use of these potential nest sites. Herein, we summarize the first documented incidence of a Turkey Vulture nesting in an abandoned vehicle.

  19. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  20. 1975 Lice, Turkey Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  1. Terrorism in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Arnold, Jeffrey; Ersoy, Gurkan

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, terrorism has exacted an enormous toll on the Republic of Turkey, a secular democracy with a 99.8% Muslim population. From 1984 to 2000, an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Turkish citizens were killed by a nearly continuous stream of terrorism-related events. During this period, the Partiya Karekerren Kurdistan (PKK), a Kurdish separatist group (re-named KADEK in 2002), was responsible for the vast majority of terrorism-related events (and casualties), which disproportionately affected the eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, in which the PKK has focused its activities. Most terrorist attacks over the past two decades have been bombings or shootings that produced or = 30 casualties (eight shootings, five bombings, and two arsons). The maximum number of casualties produced by any of these events was 93 in the Hotel Madimak arson attack by the Turkish Islamic Movement in 1993. This pattern suggests that terrorist attacks in Turkey rarely required more than local systems of emergency medical response, except in rural areas where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are routinely provided by regional military resources. The last decade has seen the development of several key systems of local emergency response in Turkey, including the establishment of the medical specialty of Emergency Medicine, the establishment of training programs for EMS providers, the spread of a generic, Turkish hospital emergency plan based on the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System, and the spread of advanced training in trauma care modeled after Advanced Trauma Life Support.

  2. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  3. Insects for turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Veldkamp, T.

    2017-01-01

    In a trial with 14 pens with in each 20 turkey pullets (males, not treated) research has been conducted to the effect of feeding 12% insect larvae (Black Soldier Fly) on technical results and behaviour. The birds were kept until 5 weeks of age. The larvae fed groups ate less, had a higher growth

  4. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  5. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  6. Country Profiles, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lewis S.

    A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  7. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems: I. Growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarica, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigated the effect of incubation type and production system on geese growth traits. 2. A total of 216 geese were either naturally (114) or artificially (102) hatched and reared in intensive or free-range production systems (4 replicates each) until 18 weeks of age. 3. Weights of naturally hatched goslings (NHG) were significantly higher than artificially hatched goslings (AHG) at 2 weeks (644 vs. 536 g); however, weights of AHG were significantly higher than NHG at both 6 weeks (3245 vs. 3010 g) and 18 weeks (5212 vs. 4353 g). 4. AHG had better feed conversion ratios (FCRs) than NHG (6.21 vs. 6.46 at 18 weeks). Feed consumption of naturally hatched geese was found higher in first 4 weeks when compared to artificially hatched geese and artificially hatched geese consumed more feed than naturally hatched geese after 8 weeks. 5. Production system had insignificant effects on feed consumption, FCRs, viability and mutilation rates. 6. Slipped wings were more frequent in NHG than AHG (8.32% vs. 1.68% at 6 weeks; 23.84% vs. 5.12% between 7 and 18 weeks) and in free-range production when compared to intensive production (17.88% vs. 11.08% over the course of the production period). 7. The study results indicate that both artificially and NHG can be reared in free-range production systems without any loss in performance and in deference to animal welfare.

  8. Range, energy loss, energy straggling and damage production for [alpha]-particles in uranium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Hj.

    Energy loss and energy straggling of α-particles in UO 2 were measured for α-energies up to 8.78 MeV. α-sources of Pu-239 and a `multi-energy source' emitting α-particles of five different energies obtained by recoil implantation from a Th-228 source were coated with UO 2 layers of 17 different thicknesses. Confirmation of these results was obtained from Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, RBS/channeling experiments with UO 2 single crystals preimplanted with He-ions. The measured energy loss values were used to deduce the range-energy relation. The results are in good agreement with calculations using the code TRIM 96. The energy straggling results are discussed in the frame of Bohr's theory. Finally, defects and damage produced by α-particles and He-ions in UO 2 are briefly treated.

  9. Preliminary Products of Precise Orbit Determination Using Satellite Laser Ranging Observations for ILRS AAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rok Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present preliminary results of precise orbit determination (POD using satellite laser ranging (SLR observations for International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS Associate Analysis Center (AAC. Using SLR normal point observations of LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, ETALON-1, and ETALON-2, the NASA/GSFC GEODYN II software are utilized for POD. Weekly-based orbit determination strategy is applied to process SLR observations and the post-fit residuals check, and external orbit comparison are performed for orbit accuracy assessment. The root mean square (RMS value of differences between observations and computations after final iteration of estimation process is used for post-fit residuals check. The result of ILRS consolidated prediction format (CPF is used for external orbit comparison. Additionally, we performed the precision analysis of each ILRS station by post-fit residuals. The post-fit residuals results show that the precisions of the orbits of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 are 0.9 and 1.3 cm, and those of ETALON-1 and ETALON-2 are 2.5 and 1.9 cm, respectively. The orbit assessment results by ILRS CPF show that the radial accuracies of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 are 4.0 cm and 5.3 cm, and the radial accuracies of ETALON-1 and ETALON-2 are 30.7 cm and 7.2 cm. These results of station precision analysis confirm that the result of this study is reasonable to have implications as preliminary results for administrating ILRS AAC.

  10. Prevalence and sources of Campylobacter spp. contamination in free-range broiler production in the southern part of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeplas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A one year epidemiological study was carried out between February 2005 and February 2006 in the southern part of Belgium to assess the Campylobacter prevalence in free-range broiler production. Three successive broiler flocks from six Belgian farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. during the rearing period. Each flock was visited four times, before and after the outdoor rearing period. During each visit, samples were taken in the broiler house (litter, cecal droppings, water-lines, feed, anteroom as well as from the outer rearing environment (open-air range. The Campylobacter detection in all samples was carried out according to the ISO 10272 standard. Identification was based on colonial morphology, microscopic examination, and biochemical tests. PCR multiplex was used for genetic confirmation. Campylobacter jejuni was the main species isolated from all contaminated samples. Overall, mixed infections C. jejuni / Campylobacter coli represented 40.6%, while C. jejuni and C. coli represented 46.9% and 12.5% of chicken samples respectively. A 100% flock contamination was observed in the 6 farms during the summer-autumn period, whereas only 66.7% and 33.3% of the flocks became Campylobacter-positive in spring and winter respectively, at the end of the rearing period. Half of contaminated flocks were infected before chickens have access to the open-air range. Environmental samples, especially the open-air range soil, were found to be Campylobacter-positive before flock infection. The other potential sources of contamination were delivery tray, anteroom floor and water-lines. Other animal productions like cattle on the farm, no applied rodent control, no cleaning and disinfection of water-lines between flocks, no detergent used for cleaning and thinning were recorded as risk factors. In conclusion, the contact with the environment, particularly the access to an open-air range, appeared to be the major way of Campylobacter

  11. Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J W M; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Ducro, B.J.; Vereijken, A.; Groenen, M A M

    2011-01-01

    Background Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both consumers and industry global turkey stocks increased from 100 million in 1970 to over 276 million in 2004. This rapidly increasing importance of turkeys was a reason to design this study for the es...

  12. Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds

    OpenAIRE

    Ducro Bart J; Crooijmans Richard PMA; Bastiaansen John WM; Aslam Muhammad L; Vereijken Addie; Groenen Martien AM

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both consumers and industry global turkey stocks increased from 100 million in 1970 to over 276 million in 2004. This rapidly increasing importance of turkeys was a reason to design this study f...

  13. Turkey-EU Migration: The Road Ahead

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip Martin

    2012-01-01

    .... Turkey is a net immigration country, and net migration between Turkey and Germany has been negative in recent years, meaning that more German residents move to Turkey than Turkish residents to Germany...

  14. Plot showing ATLAS limits on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 100-600 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The combined upper limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson production cross section divided by the Standard Model expectation as a function of mH is indicated by the solid line. This is a 95% CL limit using the CLs method in the entire mass range. The dotted line shows the median expected limit in the absence of a signal and the green and yellow bands reflect the corresponding 68% and 95% expected

  15. Plot showing ATLAS limits on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-150 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The combined upper limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson production cross section divided by the Standard Model expectation as a function of mH is indicated by the solid line. This is a 95% CL limit using the CLs method in in the low mass range. The dotted line shows the median expected limit in the absence of a signal and the green and yellow bands reflect the corresponding 68% and 95% expected

  16. Spectral range optimization for the near-infrared quantitative analysis of petrochemical and petroleum products: naphtha and gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngbok; Chung, Hoeil; Kim, Nakjoong

    2006-08-01

    The proper selection of the spectral range in partial least squares (PLS) calibration is critical when highly overlapping spectra from compositionally complex samples are used, such as naphtha and gasoline. In particular, the relevant spectral information related to a given property is frequently localized in a narrow range, and the most selective region may be difficult to locate. We have presented the importance of range optimization in near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the analyses of petrochemical and petroleum products that are generally highly complex in composition. For this purpose, the determination of a detailed compositional analysis (so called PIONA) and the distillation temperature of naphtha were evaluated. In the same fashion, the research octane number (RON) and Reid vapor pressure (RVP) were selected for gasoline. By optimizing the range using moving window (MW) PLS, the overall calibration performance was improved by finding the optimal spectral range for each property. In particular, for a detailed compositional analysis of naphtha, it was effective to search for localized spectral information in a relatively narrow range with fewer factors.

  17. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  18. Nursing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  19. Egg production and egg quality in free-range laying hens housed at different outdoor stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Lee, C; Hinch, G N; Roberts, J R

    2017-09-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha). Hen-day production was tracked from 21 through 35 weeks with eggs visually graded daily for external deformities. All eggs laid on one day were weighed each week. Eggs were collected from each pen at 25, 30, and 36 weeks and analyzed for egg quality. There were no effects of outdoor stocking density on average hen-day percentage production (P = 0.67), egg weight (P = 0.09), percentages of deformed eggs (P = 0.30), shell reflectivity (P = 0.74), shell breaking strength (P = 0.07), shell deformation (P = 0.83), or shell thickness (P = 0.24). Eggs from hens in the highest density had the highest percentage shell weight (P = 0.004) and eggs from the lowest density had the highest yolk color score (P < 0.001). The amount of cuticle present did not differ between densities (P = 0.95) but some aspects of shell colors (P ≤ 0.01) and location of protoporphyrin IX (P = 0.046) varied. Hen age affected the majority of measurements. Stocking density differences may be related to hen diet as previous radio-frequency identification tracking of individual hens in these flocks showed birds used the range for longer in the lowest density and the least in the highest density, including depleting the range of vegetation sooner in the smaller ranges. An additional study assessing the relationship between individual hen range use, nutrition, and egg

  20. Immunoprotectivity of attenuated turkey poxvirus in turkey poults and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, fowl pox vaccine is used in all categories of poultry. However there has been reports of outbreak of turkey pox virus in poults previously vaccinated with fowl pox vaccine. Pox Lesion from poults was excised for isolation of virus and viral propagation in chorioallantoid membrane. Turkey pox virus were isolated ...

  1. RAPD-PCR analysis of cultured type olives in Turkey | Sesli | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to detect genetic similarities and distances among cultured type olive trees by RAPD-PCR technique. Olives are raised in a high range from the Aegean, Mediterranean, Marmara and Black Sea to Southeast Anatolia regions of Turkey. Olive breeding had a rapid increase in Turkey during recent ...

  2. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  3. Whole genome QTL mapping for growth, meat quality and breast meat yield traits in turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Groenen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection

  4. TIME OF ENTRY OF SALMONELLA AND CAMPYLOBACTER INTO THE TURKEY BROODER HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier we reported the prevalence of Campylobacter (> 90%) and Salmonella (33%) in turkeys at slaughter. Herein we describe studies to estimate the time of entry of Campylobacter and Salmonella into the brooder house, which is the first stage of commercial turkey production. In Trial 1, birds (10...

  5. Dexamethasone immunosuppression results in turkey clostridial dermatitis: A retrospective analysis of 7 studies, 1998 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been studying the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 20 years and have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have often been associated with suscep...

  6. Economic analysis of organic greenhouse lettuce production in Turkey Análise econômica da produção orgânica de alface em estufas na Turquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Engindeniz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Health issues and environmental concerns have drawn the attention to organic agriculture aiming to protect the natural balance and to produce without damaging the environment. This study aims determining economic feasibility of organic greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. in an on farm trial, to foster organic greenhouse vegetable production in the preservation area of Tahtali Dam, projected as the sole water resource of Izmir, Turkey's third largest. A 384 m² greenhouse, constructed of galvanized metal tubing anchored and covered with a polyethylene was analyzed to identify typical operation procedures, and to determine unitary construction and operation cost. Organic lettuces were produced during autumn season of 2001-2002, testing different organic fertilizer applications, including two rates of farmyard and poultry manure (30 and 50 t ha-1 with and without two organic fertilizers based on either bacteria or algae. Economical analysis was performed according to different organic fertilizer applications. Cost, yield, and price data were analyzed to determine the profitability of a typical operation. Net return obtained from organic lettuce growing ranged between us $ 0.376 and us $ 0.901 m-2, as a result of different fertilizer applications.Preocupações sanitárias e ambientais têm atraído a atenção para a prática da agricultura orgânica como meio de proteger o balanço ambiental e produzir sem danificar o ambiente. Este estudo objetiva determinar a viabilidade econômica da produção em estufa da alface (Latuca sativa L. em um ensaio de campo, a fim de incentivar a produção orgânica de vegetais na área de preservação do Reservatório Tahtali, projetado como o único recurso hídrico de Izmir, a terceira maior cidade da Turquia. Uma estufa de tubos galvanizados (384 m², ancorados e cobertos com polietileno, foi analisada para identificar procedimentos operacionais padronizados e determinar custos unitários de construção e

  7. Turkey model for flexor tendon research: in vitro comparison of human, canine, turkey, and chicken tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Assaf; Thoreson, Andrew R; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Amadio, Peter C; Moran, Steven L; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2017-08-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are one of the most common hand injuries and remain clinically challenging for functional restoration. Canine and chicken have been the most commonly used animal models for flexor tendon-related research but possess several disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to explore a potential turkey model for flexor tendon research. The third digit from human cadaveric hands, canine forepaws, turkey foot, and chicken foot were used for this study. Six digits in each of four species were studied in detail, comparing anatomy of the flexor apparatus, joint range of motioņ tendon excursion, tendon cross-sectional area, work of flexion, gliding resistance at the level of the A2 pulley, modulus of elasticity, suture retention strength, and histology across species. Anatomically, the third digit in the four species displayed structural similarities; however, the tendon cross-sectional area of the turkey and human were similar and larger than canine and chicken. Furthermore, the turkey digit resembles the human's finger with the lack of webbing between digits, similar vascularization, tendon excursion, work of flexion, gliding resistance, mechanical properties, and suture holding strength. More importantly, human and turkey tendons were most similar in histological appearance. Turkey flexor tendons have many properties that are comparable to human flexor tendons which would provide a clinically relevant, economical, nonhuman companion large animal model for flexor tendon research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-range correlations in hadron pair production at p sub T >= 2GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellogianni, A.; Stassinaki, M.; Vassiliadis, G.; Vichou, I. (Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Nuclear Physics); Benayoun, M.; Kahane, J.; Leruste, P.; Malamant, A.; Narjoux, J.L.; Safarik, K.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.; Volte, A. (College de France, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire); Beusch, W.; French, B.R.; Jacholkowski, A.; Kirk, A.; Knudson, K.; Quereigh, E. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Bloodworth, I.J.; Carney, J.N.; Kinson, J.B.; Trainor, M.T.; Villalobos Baille, O.; Vortruba, M.F. (Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Di Bari, D.; Fini, R.; Ghidini, B.; Lenti, V.; Navach, F.; Palano, A. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy)); Zitoun, R. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. de Physique Experimentale des Hautes Energies); WA77 Collaboration

    1992-06-01

    Production of oppositely charged particle pairs at large p{sub T} is studied, where both particles are in the central rapidity region within one unit of rapidity and nearby in azimuth. The data sample, which comes from {pi}{sup -}Be interactions obtained using the CERN OMEGA spectrometer, contains events with a pair of oppositely charged particles having p{sub T}{>=}2 GeV/c recoiling against a third one with p{sub T}{>=}1 GeV/c. Our data provide new information on short range correlations involving the production of the nine possible pairs made from ({pi}{sup +}, K{sup +}, p) and ({pi}{sup -}, K{sup -}, anti p). Comparison with Lund Monte Carlo predictions is made. Apart from proton yields, the model reproduces correctly our data. The main discrepancies observed with protons can be attributed to hard scattering of diquarks from the target nucleons. (orig.).

  9. Sterility Testing of Stem Cell Products by Broad-Range Bacterial 16S Ribosomal DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuno, Osamu; Hayakawa, Akira; Yanai, Tomoko; Mori, Takeshi; Ohnuma, Kenichiro; Tani, Ayumi; Minami, Hironobu; Sugimoto, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate broad-range 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a rapid screening tool to detect bacterial contamination of stem-cell products. We performed the evaluation using whole blood spiked with serially diluted bacterial-type strains. Detection sensitivity was defined as the bacterial concentration for which all replicates were positive at each concentration (100% detection). We tested the sterility of 29 bags of autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) products harvested at our facility using the 16S rDNA PCR method. The detection sensitivity of 16S rDNA PCR in spiked whole blood was 10¹ to 10² colony-forming units (CFU) per mL, depending on the bacterial strain. We detected no amplified 16S rDNA among the PBSCs we used in this study. The BacT/ALERT automated bacterial culture system that we used also showed no positive signals in any of the PBSCs tested. Our data indicate that bacterial 16S rDNA PCR is a useful alternative for rapid sterility testing, not only for blood products used in transfusion medicine but also for stem-cell products used in regenerative medicine. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  10. Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 Catalyst for Gasoil Range Hydrocarbon Production by Catalytic Hydrocracking of Ceiba pentandra oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustia Wulandari Mirzayanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel from vegetable oil becomes one of the most suitable and logical alternatives to replace fossil fuel. The research focused on various metal ratio Zinc/Molybdenum/HZSM-5 (Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst to produce liquid hydrocarbon via catalytic hydrocracking of Ceiba penandra oil. The catalytic hydrocracking process has been applied in this study to crack Ceiba pentandra oil into a gasoil range hydrocarbon using Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 as a catalyst. The effect of various reaction temperature on the catalytic hydrocracking of Ceiba pentandra oil were studied. The Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst with metal ratio was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. This process used slurry pressure batch reactor with a mechanical stirrer. A series of experiments were carried out in the temperature range from 300-400 oC for 2 h at pressure between 10-15 bar. The conversion and selectivity were estimated. The liquid hydrocarbon product were identified to gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil. The results show that the use of Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 can produce gas oil as the most component in the product. Overall, the highest conversion and selectivity of gas oil range hydrocarbon was obtained when the ZnMo/HZSM-5 metal ratio was Zn(2.86 wt.%-Mo(5.32 wt.%/HZSM-5 and the name is Zn-Mo/HZSM-5_102. The highest conversion was obtained at 63.31 % and n-paraffin (gas oil range selectivity was obtained at 90.75 % at a temperature of 400 oC. Ceiba pentandra oil can be recommended as the source of inedible vegetable oil to produce gasoil as an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 8th September 2017; Revised: 9th September 2017; Accepted: 17th September 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Mirzayanti, Y.W., Kurniawansyah, F., Prajitno, D.H., Roesyadi, A. (2018. Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 Catalyst for Gasoil Range Hydrocarbon Production by Catalytic Hydrocracking of Ceiba pentandra

  11. Future Interagency Range and Spaceport Technologies (FIRST) Formulation Products: 1. Transformational Spaceport and Range Concept of Operations. 2. F.I.R.S.T. Business Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Baseline Report captures range and spaceport capabilities at five sites: KSC, CCAFS, VAFB, Wallops, and Kodiak. The Baseline depicts a future state that relies on existing technology, planned upgrades, and straight-line recapitalization at these sites projected through 2030. The report presents an inventory of current spaceport and range capabilities at these five sites. The baseline is the first part of analyzing a business case for a set of capabilities designed to transform U.S. ground and space launch operations toward a single, integrated national "system" of space transportation systems. The second part of the business case compares current capabilities with technologies needed to support the integrated national "system". The final part, a return on investment analysis, identifies the technologies that best lead to the integrated national system and reduce recurring costs..Numerous data sources were used to define and describe the baseline spaceport and range by identifying major systems and elements and describing capabilities, limitations, and capabilities

  12. ECONOMICS OF DAIRY FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Bor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study dairy farming activities in Turkey are employed to prove that small-scale agricultural production is disappearing rapidly due to costly investment and mechanization needs. For that purpose the cost structure and the investment needs in starting a dairy farm are analyzed. The results show that the capital requirements of building a dairy farm with optimal capacity are hard to reach for small farmers unless a system of marketing and production agricultural cooperatives and/or institutions are organized.

  13. Pernicious anemia in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, R; Paydas, S

    1992-04-01

    Pernicious anemia patients who were diagnosed during a 5-year period in Cukurova University Hospital, Adana, Turkey were reviewed. Of approximately 200 new patients per year accepted by the Hematology Unit 44 were diagnosed as having pernicious anemia. There were 30 males and 14 females. The mean age for men was 49.14 +/- 18.11 and that for women was 40.00 +/- 14.05. Both values and the mean age overall were lower than the reported mean age for Whites, Blacks and Latin Americans living in the United States.

  14. 77 FR 46694 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of the 2010-2011 Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of the 2010-2011... review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta (pasta) from Turkey for the period of review (POR... foreign like product by Marsan were made at prices below the cost of production (COP) during the POR, in...

  15. Effect of Feed Additives on Productivity and Campylobacter spp. Loads in Broilers Reared under Free Range Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Guyard-Nicodème

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The poultry reservoir, especially broiler meat, is generally recognized as one of the most-important sources for human Campylobacteriosis. The measures to control Campylobacter targeted essentially the primary production level. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments against natural Campylobacter colonization in a French experimental farm of free-range broilers during the whole rearing period. Five commercial products and a combination of two of them were tested and all the products were added to feed or to water at the dose recommended by the suppliers. Campylobacter loads in caeca and on carcasses of broilers at the slaughter were determined by culture methods. Natural contamination of the flock occurred at the end of the indoor rearing period between day 35 and day 42. At day 42, the multispecies probiotic added to the feed reduced the contamination of 0.55 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 but was not significant (p > 0.05 at the end of rearing at day 78. However, another treatment, a combination of a cation exchange clay-based product in feed and an organic acid mixture (formic acid, sodium formate, lactic acid, propionic acid in water, led to a slight but significant reduction of 0.82 ± 0.25 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 compared to the control group at day 78. Testing this combination in field conditions in several flocks is needed to determine if it is biologically relevant and if it could be a valuable measure to reduce Campylobacter in broiler flocks.

  16. Internet censorship in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akgül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey passed an internet censorship law in 2007 with the declared objective of protecting families and minors (Akdeniz, 2010. It established a unit within the regulator BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority responsible for imposing bans and blocks on websites based on nine catalogue crimes defined by other national laws (Akgül 2008, 2009a, 2009b. As of May 2015, 80,000 websites were banned based on civil code related complaints and intellectual property rights violations, reports the independent website Engelliweb. Blocking decisions rendered by penal courts are enforced even when they are based on grounds other that the nine catalogue crimes - such as terrorism, organised crime and crime against the state. Passed in parliament while ignoring the pleas of NGOs and of the internet sector, the Internet Law No. 5651 has since been used to temporarily ban popular platforms such as Blogger, Last.fm, Vimeo, Wordpress and YouTube. At the same time, some blocking decisions by the courts (e.g., Google and Facebook were not enforced by the authorities. Since its introduction, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Law No. 5651 (Council of Europe, 2011 is against the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, 2013. This article provides an overview of internet censorship and its social background in Turkey.

  17. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  18. Product/Process (P/P) Models For The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF): Model Ranges And Validation Ranges For Future Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-25

    Radioactive high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository.

  19. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Cevik, U [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Damla, N [Department of Physics, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre, Altinsehir Yolu, Halkali, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: ndamla@ktu.edu.tr

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using {gamma}-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K and a fission product {sup 137}Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l{sup -1}, respectively. The concentrations of gross {alpha} and {beta} radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross {alpha} and {beta} activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l{sup -1} and 1.0 Bq l{sup -1} gross {alpha} and {beta} radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m{sup -3} and the average value was 56 Bq m{sup -3}. The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country.

  20. Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Yee, A; Rhee, Y-J; Cheng, K M

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed were fed diets supplemented with DE (2%). Their internal parasite loads were assessed by biweekly fecal egg counts (FEC) and by postmortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementing DE in diets of LB hens, the more parasite-resistant breed, did not significantly affect their FEC and adult parasite load. However, BB hens treated with dietary DE had significantly lower Capillaria FEC, slightly lower Eimeria FEC, fewer birds infected with Heterakis, and significantly lower Heterakis worm burden than control BB hens. Both BB and LB hens fed the diet containing DE were significantly heavier, laid more eggs, and consumed more feed than hens fed the control diet, but feed efficiency did not differ between the 2 dietary treatments. Additionally, BB hens consuming the DE diet laid larger eggs containing more albumen and yolk than hens consuming the control diet. In a subsequent experiment, the effectiveness of DE to treat a Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation was tested. Relative to controls, both breeds of hens that were dusted with DE had reduced number of mites. The results of this study indicate the DE has the potential to be an effective treatment to help control parasites and improve production of organically raised, free-range layer hens.

  1. Insurance in Turkey and main problems of the sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaattin Firat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by handling private insurance sector in Turkey and the problems of the sector as a whole, the last stage that the insurance business in Turkey has reached has been evaluated. Basically, because of the fact that the most of the people had fatalistic understanding, religious leaders approached the concept of insurance negatively and adequate information hadn’t been gotten about insurance, the settlement of the idea of insurance in Turkey came true after 150 years later, at the end of 19. Century compared with Europe. As a result of changing conditions, Turkey is in 63rd in accordance with the insurance density on the world countries’ rank, and is in 39th rank in accordance with the primary production. In spite of this, when we examine the studies according to per person criteria, it is seen that the premium rate per person in Turkey is fortieth level among developed countries. The top reason of the fact that insurance business in Turkey hasn’t risen to the requested level is that there is still fatalistic society understanding; and also, the fact that insurance understanding hasn’t been settled, and hitching and late payment on damage payments of insurance firms, and not having an effective promotion and marketing understanding are seen as the primary reasons. Despite of these negative factors, in Turkey being an developing country, the insurance sector has a potential to show at least a threefold improvement from todays’ position in a short time in case of precautions to be taken by state and applying these precautions by seriousness.

  2. Proteomic identification of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowinska, M; Nynca, J; Arnold, G J; Fröhlich, T; Jankowski, J; Kozlowski, K; Mostek, A; Ciereszko, A

    2017-09-01

    SDS-PAGE combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF) were applied to characterize the turkey seminal plasma proteome. LC-MS/MS led to the identification of 175 proteins, which were classified according to their function and to corresponding biochemical pathways. Using 2DE and MALDI TOF/TOF, 34 different turkey seminal plasma proteins could be identified, of which 20 were found in more than one spot, indicating different proteoforms of these proteins. For validation, antibodies against turkey albumin and ovoinhibitor as well as sperm acrosin were used in 2DE Western blots experiments. The bioinformatic analysis of the results indicates that turkey seminal plasma proteins may be involved in regulation of lipid metabolism [liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation and farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor (FXR/RXR) activation pathways)], endocytic entry of proteins and lipids at the plasma membrane (clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway), and defense against pathogens (acute phase response signaling pathway) and energy production (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis). Moreover, a comparative meta-analysis of seminal plasma proteomes from other species indicated the presence of proteins specific for avian reproduction, but distinct differences between turkey and chicken seminal plasma proteomes were detected. The results of our study provide basic knowledge of the protein composition of turkey seminal plasma highlighting important physiological pathways which may play crucial roles in the sperm environment after ejaculation. This knowledge can be the basis to further develop procedures improving the reproduction of farmed turkeys. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Development of reagents to study the turkey's immune response:Identification and molecular cloning of turkey CD4, CD8alpha and CD28

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Fiona; Lawson, Michelle; Rothwell, Lisa; Kaiser, Pete

    2009-01-01

    The cDNAs of three turkey CD markers, CD4, CD8alpha and CD28, were identified by screening a turkey cDNA library. The coding regions of the chicken and turkey genes are highly conserved, with 91.3-96.1% nucleotide (nt) and 84.2-95.5% amino acid (aa) identity. Identity was less conserved between avian CD markers and their mammalian homologues, ranging from 44.7 to 59.8% and 22.4 to 50.4% at the nt and aa levels, respectively. Anti-chicken CD8alpha and CD28 monoclonal antibodies were demonstrat...

  4. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Canatan

    2011-01-01

    ...), Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies...

  5. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  6. Clinical outbreak of Bordetella avium infection in two turkey breeder flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B J; Ghazikhanian, G Y; Mayeda, B

    1986-01-01

    An acute upper respiratory disease was observed in two broad-breasted white (BBW) turkey primary breeder flocks. Associated clinical signs included sneezing, depression, and a deep dry cough originating from large conducting airways. Morbidity reached approximately 15-20% of the hens in an affected house. None of the turkeys died, and total feed consumption was not affected. A minimal effect upon egg production was noticed. Sera from an acutely affected flock exhibited a marked rise in titer to Bordetella avium compared with preinfection sera samples. In Case 1, B. avium was isolated in pure culture from affected birds. In Case 2, B. avium was diagnosed by serological results and clinical signs; bacteriological examination was not attempted. The findings presented here are consistent with an acute clinical outbreak of B. avium-induced turkey rhinotracheitis (turkey coryza) in BBW turkey breeder hens.

  7. Ecological properties of some Crocus taxa in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Kyrgyzstan and Shenyang provinces of Western China, and Ala Tau and Tien Shan Mountains of Mongolia in the. East. Most of the taxa collected are located in the. Balkans and Turkey. The distribution range of the species is from 10° west longitude to 80° east longitude and 30º north latitude to 50º south ...

  8. Wood opals from Yakuplu, Turkey: their properties and genesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1975-01-01

    Fossil driftwood from Sarmatian (Late Miocene) gravel deposits near Yakuplu, Turkey, ranges between lignitic and opaline. Opalization occurred in various stages of decay. The stage of decay of the wood and the eventual admixture of detritic clay influenced the crystallinity and the dehydration

  9. Open Access in Turkey and Comparison with Other Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Karasözen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of open access journals and institutional repositories, as a product of open access movement has grown rapidly in recent years. Open access research articles remove the barriers in accessing scientific research results and accelerate the communication among the scientist worldwide. In many countries the number of institutional archives and open access journal are increasing. In this article, the recent developments in open access journals, institutional repositories and open courseware in Turkey are summarized and compared with some countries. A sample mandatory institutional repository policy document is given with some suggestion for establishing open access in Turkey.

  10. The Current Situation of Wind Energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Ata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy applications and turbine installations at different scales have increased since the beginning of this century. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey’s domestic fossil fuel resources are extremely limited. In addition, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. In this context, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Turkey theoretically has 166 TWh a year of wind potential. However the installed wind power capacity is approximately 14% of total economical wind potential. In this study, Turkey’s installed electric power capacity and electric energy production are investigated and also the current situation of wind energy in Turkey is examined. The wind data used in this study were taken from Turkish Wind Energy Association (TUREB for the year 2012. This paper reviews the assessment of wind energy in Turkey as of the end of July 2012 including wind energy applications.

  11. FINANCIAL CRISES AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERT URAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last three decades, in developed and developing counties the liberalization and openness efforts have been witnessed. However, financial liberalization attempts (both internal and external without having macroeconomic stability lead to financial crises in many developing countries. Macroeconomic instabilities create fragile financial markets paving the way for future economic crises. The Turkish Economy, completed the liberalization process with foreign trade liberalization in 1980 and by removing controls on capital accounts in 1989. However, since 1990’s economy got into ‘growth-instability-crisis’ vicious circle, because of the fluctuations in the financial structure. By employing a factor analysis (principal components analysis, this work, aims to obtain the factors that effect crises in Turkey.

  12. Turkey and European Security Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    relationships between Turkey, the United States, the Kurds, and Europe. As a source often critical of Turkey and the United States ( Noam Chomsky ...2008, http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/080220Altheaupdate10. pdf . 129 Ibid. 130 Ibid. 131 Ibid. 132 The Council of the European Union...Factsheet, “EU Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUPM),” March 2006, http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/Factsheet_060312. pdf . 48

  13. Comparative carcass characteristics of indigenous turkey poults fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    products on the carcass characteristics of indigenous turkey poults. Sixty indigenous poults were brooded and fed broiler starter feed for the first 4 weeks of life. At the end of 4 weeks, forty-eight poults were randomly selected and distributed into four ...

  14. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION. The preparation and implementation of mechanization plans requires knowledge not only of economic, technical and management characteristics of ..... 2435-1, October.5th-10th.2004, Lviv, Ukraine. Ozturk T, Demir M, Hasdemir M (2007). Work organization of timber production in Turkey.

  15. Experimental Studies on Electronic Portfolios in Turkey: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Selahattin; Sünbül, Ali Murat

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a literature review was conducted about an individual's selected efforts, products stored in electronic format, and electronic portfolios that reflect the development and capacity of multimedia systems. In this context, relevant experimental studies performed in Turkey are collected to show e-portfolio application forms, their…

  16. Income and Education in Turkey: A Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur

    2006-01-01

    Although the role of education in an economy is emphasized in theoretical studies, empirical literature finds mixed results for the relationship between growth and education. We examine the relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and enrollments in primary, secondary, and high schools, as well as universities in Turkey for 1937-1996, in…

  17. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Mehmet Salih; Yeşilova, Yavuz; Olgen, M Kirami; Ozbel, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania protozoon parasites is a disease which is characterized by long-term nodulo-ulcerative lesions healing spontaneously with scarring. The disease has been well-known in Anatolia for centuries and has different names such as; Urfa boil, Antep boil, year boil, Halep boil, oriental sore and beauty scar. The causative agents are Leishmania tropica and Leishmania tropica/Leishmania infantum in Southeastern Anatolia and East Mediterranean, respectively. CL is a notifiable disease in Turkey and, according to the Ministry of Health official records, 46.003 new cases were reported between 1990 and 2010. Among those cases, 96% of them were reported from the Şanlıurfa, Adana, Osmaniye, Hatay, Diyarbakır, İçel and Kahramanmaraş provinces. Although 45% of cases were notified from Şanlıurfa in the past 20 years, its ratio is currently decreasing while other regions' ratios have been showing an increasing trend. Easier transportation between cities, increased travel migration of the population from rural areas to the peripheral suburbs with inadequate infrastructure and unhealthy housing are thought to be the main factors for spreading the disease from Southeastern Anatolia to other regions of Turkey. Lack of treatment of patients as reservoir hosts because of different reasons and ineffective and inadequate use of insecticides against vector sand flies have also played an important role in spreading the disease. Neglect of this disease by patients and health institutions can also be considered as other factors for the spreading. We believe that, after the strategic plan for leishmaniasis prepared by the Turkish Ministry of Health with the contribution of scientists in 2011 is put into practice, the control of the disease will be more effective.

  18. Beyond convergence: Poland and Turkey en route to high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Raiser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the policy reform experiences of Poland and Turkey en route to high income. For both countries, globalization has presented unprecedented opportunities to catch up, unleased by integration into European and global markets and the establishment of macroeconomic discipline. These opportunities were reinforced by the creation of economic institutions to strengthen competition and support private entrepreneurship, catalyzed by the convergence process with the European Union. Both Poland and Turkey have shown resilience following the 2008 global crisis, but continued success will require renewed structural reform measures. Dealing with the challenging of aging while at the same time finding a way to sustain productivity growth through greater domestic innovation is shaping Poland’s policy agenda. Turkey's structural and demographic potential as well as its strategic location between the markets of Europe and Asia offers attractive value proposition to investors, which could be further enhanced with improvements in business regulations and economic governance.

  19. ADOLESCENT INFLUENCE ON FAMILY PURCHASING DECISIONS: RESEARCH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Tor Kadioglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic, social, and cultural changes in the modern world have made adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 important influences on family purchasing decisions. No longer solely users of products and services, adolescents now influence purchasing decisions and have attracted the attention of marketers and researchers. The purpose of this study is to analyze changes in the influence of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 on family purchasing decisions depending on socio-economic and demographic factors. This study aims to determine whether changes occur regarding different product groups by establishing at which stage of the decision process adolescent influence predominates. To achieve this goal, a survey method was used as a data collection tool. Using the convenience sampling method, adolescents within the age range of 12 and 18 were interviewed in Mersin, Turkey. The research results indicate that the influence of adolescents on family purchasing decisions occurs at different stages and depends on the type of product to be purchased. The analysis further shows that adolescents’ age, gender, and number of siblings, and the family's total income, the father's level of education, and the mother's employment status also affect adolescent influence on family purchasing decisions.

  20. Diagenetic variation in the Oregon Coast Range: Implications for rock strength, soil production, hillslope form, and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jill A.; Roering, Joshua J.

    2014-06-01

    The mechanisms by which lithology modulates geomorphic processes are poorly known. In the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), rhythmically bedded sandstones of the Eocene Tyee Formation underlie steep, soil-mantled hillslopes, with relatively uniform ridge-valley spacing. These characteristic landforms are perturbed where diagenetic variations manifest as resistant cliffs. Here we use petrology, rock mechanics, and lidar to characterize grain-scale variations in rock properties and their influence on rock strength, hillslope processes, and landscape morphology in two adjacent watersheds. Petrographic analyses suggest that a suite of diagenetic products in the "resistant" bedrock account for a 2.5 times increase in tensile strength relative to "typical" Tyee bedrock. Our reference catchment exhibits negligible resistant outcrops, and consistent hillslope gradients and longitudinal valley profiles. By contrast, the adjacent catchment teems with resistant, 1 to 10 m thick, noncontiguous sandstone beds that form hanging valleys with gentle upstream hillslopes and anomalously narrow valleys. Mechanical and topographic analyses suggest that the low fracture density characteristic of these resistant beds may render them relatively impervious to comminution by tree root activity, the dominant OCR soil production mechanism. Based on both hillslope gradient- and hilltop curvature-erosion models, we estimate that hillslopes perched above resistant beds erode at approximately half the pace of hillslopes unencumbered by downstream knickpoints. The diagenetic variations likely influence relief at the watershed scale. Depositional position and diagenetic processes appear to control the occurrence of resistant beds, providing a framework to quantify how seemingly subtle variations in rock properties can impose first-order controls on landscape form and evolution.

  1. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Common Savannahgrass on a Range of Soils Subjected to Different Stresses I: Productivity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Springer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrass growth, performance and quality are affected by abiotic stress factors and are of primary concern for persons managing turfgrass areas under seasonal tropical climates. Under these conditions, common Savannahgrass (SG may have a performance advantage over imported hybrid turfgrasses. A greenhouse study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the performance of tropical turfgrasses exposed to water and compaction related stresses across a range of soils, with or without the addition of a surface sand layer. Turfgrass productivity and quality was monitored over a four-month growth period. Clipping yield (CY was lower at the higher compaction effort for all turfgrasses, but across all stresses, drought (D and waterlogging (WL resulted in lower CY. Values were significantly lower under D. SG had the highest clipping yield across all soils. The chlorophyll index (CI was lower for all turfgrasses under water-induced stress compared to compaction stresses. SG had a significantly higher CI across all stress treatments. Correlation analysis showed a positive (r² = 0.420 and significant (p < 0.05 relationship between CY and CI. Similar to CI, stress type influenced turfgrass visual quality (VQ, with D stress, resulting in the lowest VQ rating among turfgrasses. Bermudagrass (BG had the lowest VQ across all stress treatments, whilst, comparatively, Zoysiagrass (ZG had significantly higher VQ under high compaction (HC, low compaction (LC and WL stress. Overall, SG showed a higher level of tolerance to applied stresses and warrants greater attention as a potential turfgrass under tropical conditions.

  3. Acute methanol poisonings reported to the Drug and Poison Information Center in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Sule; Cevik, Arif Alper; Cavdar, Caner; Aygoren, Oguz; Akgun, Aylin; Ergun, Nurdan; Tuncok, Yesim

    2003-12-01

    The demographics, sources and outcomes of methanol poisoning have not been described in Turkey. Our study identified the profile of acute methanol exposures reported to Drug and Poison Information Center (DPIC) in Izmir, Turkey, from 1993 to 2002. Data analysis included patient demographics, sources of methanol, reason for the exposure, clinical effects and outcomes of methanol poisoning. The DPIC recorded 30,485 calls concerning poisoning; 996 (3.3%) alcohol poisonings were recorded and 113 (11.3%) of them were methanol poisonings. There were 91 (80.5%) males and 22 (19.5%) females with a mean age of 34.7+/-1.3 y (range 19-65) and 4.8+/-0.9 y (range 1-18) in adults and children, respectively. The sources of methanol were eu de cologne (72.6%), spirits (10.6%) and antifreeze (2.7%). Accidental poisoning occurred in all children between 0 and 12 y old, abuse (55.7%) and intentional poisoning (27.3%) were predominant in adults. Clinical signs in all cases were central nervous system symptoms (45.1%), metabolic acidosis (23.0%), visual symptoms (21.2%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (10.6%). Sixteen patients (14.1%) died, 63 (55.8%) had complete recovery and 1 (0.9%) had irreversible visual problems. Most patients with methanol poisoning may die or present serious morbidity without appropriate treatment in a health care facility. Methanol for producing cheap "eu de colognes" in Turkey is the principal reason for severe poisoning and deaths. Public education about colognes and legislative control of cologne production are important in preventing methanol poisoning.

  4. Analysis of Participation Banks in Turkey in Terms of Agency Theory and a Model Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa GÜN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The agency theory considers the problems between agents and principal and aims to reduce the agency costs arising from these problems.  The theory could be applied in various fields and in many different areas where principal-agent relations occur. Participation banks in Turkey operating banking services based on Islamic principals are able to implement many different banking facilities. They could be regarded as supplementary alternatives to the conventional banks and thus, participation banks provide depth and financial product range in the banking sector.  There are many different studies on several fields and subjects about participation banks and Islamic banks both in national and in international literature.  However, the studies discussing the fatwa structure in the context of agency theory are very rare especially for the participation banks in Turkey. Thus, this study examines the Sariah advisory board mechanism of the participation banks in particular within the scope of agency problems and it focuses on a model proposal that could resolve agency cost. In Turkey, there is not a nationwide nor a Shariah agency or institution which control, regulate and/or supervise the services, operations, and activities of the participation banks, in accordance with Islamic concepts. In this context, the establishment of an independent Islamic Supervisory Council will help to reduce agency costs. Furthermore, sustainability and stability of Islamic financial markets will increase together with issuing appropriate financial products in compliance with Shariah principles and thus the Council will help Istanbul to achieve the goal of being the financial center.

  5. 75 FR 47260 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Turkey: Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... International Trade Administration (A-489-807) Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Turkey: Notice of...) in the 2005-2006 administrative review of certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey...). In this redetermination, the Department recalculated the cost of production for rebar produced and...

  6. TURKEY AT THE INTERSECTION OF ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has made in the last 4 decades a remarkable growth in economy. The energy industry is represented mainly by the coal industry (especially lignite and coal, located in northwest Anatolia. The electricity is produced in the hydro and thermal power plants. Turkey has the world's 17th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961 and the G-20 major economies (1999. Since December 31, 1995, Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. While many economies have been unable to recover from the recent global financial recession, the Turkish economy expanded by 9.2% in 2010, and 8.5 percent in 2011, thus standing out as the fastest growing economy in Europe, and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Hence, Turkey has been meeting the “60 percent EU Maastricht criteria” for public debt stock since 2004. Similarly, from 2002 to 2011, the budget deficit decreased from more than 10 percent to less than 3 percent, which is one of the EU Maastricht criteria for the budget balance. As of 2012, the main trading partners of Turkey are Germany, Russia and Iran. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase industrial production for exports, while benefiting from EU – origin foreign investment into the country. Turkey is also a source of foreign direct invest-ment in central and eastern Europe and the CIS, with more than $1.5 billion invested. 32% has been invested in Russia, primarily in the natural resources and construction sector, and 46% in Turkey’s Black Sea neighbours, Bulgaria and Romania. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland, at about $100 million. The construction and contracting companies have been significant players, such as Enka, Tekfen, Gama, and Üçgen İnşaat, as well as the three industrial groups, Anadolu Efes Group, ŞişeCam Group and Vestel Group. The exports reached $115.3 billion in

  7. Effects of free-range access on production parameters and meat quality, composition and taste in slow-growing broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadig, Lisanne M.; Rodenburg, Bas; Reubens, Bert; Aerts, Johan; Duquenne, Barbara; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality,

  8. Activity concentrations of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K radionuclides in refinery products and the additional radiation dose originated from oil residues in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmaksiz, A; Agus, Y; Bulgurlu, F; Bulur, E; Yildiz, Ç; Öncü, T

    2013-10-01

    A total of 56 crude oil, refinery product, waste water, sludge and scale samples collected from three refineries were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Except for nine samples, all refinery product samples were found to have activity concentrations below the minimum detectable activity (MDA) values. The maximum (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K activity concentrations in crude oil and refinery product samples were measured as 11.7 ± 4.5, 14.9 ± 3.5, 11.6 ± 4.5, 248.5 ± 18.5 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The maximum (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K activity concentrations in scale, sludge and water samples were measured as 343.7 ± 11.8, 809.2 ± 29.0, 302.5 ± 21.6, 623.0 ± 80.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities of the residue samples were calculated up to 1241.8 ± 42.4 Bq kg(-1). The maximum activity concentration index and the alpha index were found to be 4.2 and 4.0, respectively. The annual effective doses of residue samples were calculated below the permitted dose rate for the public, i.e. 1 mSv y(-1).

  9. The Profitability of Animal Husbandry Activities on Farms in Dry Farming Areas and the Interaction between Crop Production and Animal Husbandry: The Case of Ankara Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tanrıvermis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between livestock and crop farming activities and provides a comparative analysis of the profitability of different livestock activities in the highlands of Ankara. The data was collected from 52 sample farms in the Nallıhan, Aya¸s, Güdül and Beypazarı districts of Ankara by way of a questionnaire, where the farms have, on average, 20.7 ha of land and are thus regarded as small family farms. Insufficient irrigated land and working capital, weak market relations and the pressure of high population brings about a requirement to strengthen crop-livestock interaction. Production on the farms is generally carried out in extensive conditions, with goat, sheep and cattle husbandry in addition to crop production. Crop production makes up for 20.8% of the total gross production value on the farms. Of this figure, the entire yields of wheat, barley, pulses, straw and fodder crops are used for own consumption by the households, along with 74% of the wheat and 77% of the barley produced. The research results indicate that the current management systems may be defined as mixed farms in terms of crop–livestock linkages. The average total income of the households surveyed is 9,412.0 USD, of which 63.4% comes from farming activities. Every 1 USD invested in animal husbandry provides an income of 1.12 USD from dairy cattle breeding, 1.13 USD from Angora goat breeding, 1.16 USD from sheep breeding and 1.27 USD from ordinary goat breeding. It has been found that ordinary goat breeding, which provides the greatest relative profitability for the farms, offers many advantages, and that the transition from Angora goat breeding to ordinary goat breeding through the breeding of ordinary male goats into the Angora herd has occurred in recent years. The results of the survey indicate that supporting crop production with animal husbandry is considered a requirement in order to maintain economic and social sustainability in the farms

  10. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. REFLECTION OF REGULATIONS ABOUT ALCOHOL ADVERTISINGS IN MEDIA IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ZENGİN, Melis OKTUĞ

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Reflection of Regulations about Alcohol Advertisings in Media in Turkey According to national and international research, alcohol consumption is one of the common problems, especially in European Countries, which threatens public health. Instead of this reality, after forbidden of cigarette advertisements, among addictive substances, alcohol is the only product in world, which can be advertised. As a result of, privatization and taking alcohol production and distribution from go...

  12. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida and maintained at high and low environmental temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Ryan, M.P.; Vanjonack, W.J.; Johnson, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay was used to determine plasma corticosterone concentration (PCC) in turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida via either the palatine air spaces or the drinking water and maintained at high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C) and moderate )19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers. In uninoculated turkeys maintained at high temperatures, the PCC was generally lower than in turkeys maintained at moderate temperatures, whereas the opposite occurred in turkeys maintained at low temperatures. After inoculation with P. multocida, all groups of inoculated turkeys showed an increase in the average PCC, which attained a level in some turkeys of over 40 ng/ml, in relation to the average in the uninoculated turkeys, which ranged from 1.8 to 27.3 ng/ml. This increase was proportional to the severity of the infection that developed. The PCC was found to be a sensitive indicator of an incubating infection of P. multocida, since it was markedly increased in turkeys that were bled one day before the onset of depression. In turkeys that were inoculated via the palatine air spaces and maintained at 20 C, the PCC on the day of inoculation was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower in the turkeys that later died than in those that survived. Generally, the PCC was higher in the turkeys that either died between 5 and 10 days after inoculation or were depressed aa the end of the experiment on day 10, relative to the turkeys that were alert at the end of the experiment.

  13. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in White Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan ATASEVER

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, forming of experimental toxoplasmosis in white turkeys; clinical, pathological and serological determination of tissue lesions, aimed to compare them and determine pathogenesis. For these purposes, a total of 120 two months old white turkeys were divided into groups as oral and parenteral infections and also their controls. The oral group was infected with 0.5 mL of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain inoculum suspension contains 106 tachyzoites while its control group was given 0.5 mL of saline. The parenteral group were divided into four groups as intraperitoneal (IP, intramuscular (IM, intravenous (IV and cloacal (C. Each parenteral route was divided into two groups and one control group for inoculums given 105 and 104 tachyzoites in 0.5 mL. These two control groups were also given 0.5 mL saline as indicated above. Due to acute toxoplasmosis, death occurred in three white turkeys given tachyzoites IP 105 showed neurological clinical symptoms as torticollis, ataxia, and tremor. In the histopahologic examination of these three turkeys, T. gondii tissue cysts were detected in the brain. Also, one of given 105 tachyzoites IP group in the brain and one given 104 tachyzoites IV group in the liver were observed tissue cysts associated with toxoplasmosis. The turkeys in all infection groups were found seropositive in both Sabin-Feldman Dye Test (SFDT and Indirect Hemagglutination Test (IHA. The statistical difference between SFDT and IHA was insignificantly for the both parenteral infection groups (P>0.05 while the difference was found significantly for the orally infected group (P<0.05. In conclusion in the present study, the tissue cysts of T. gondii were microscopically seen in brain and liver of the experimental infected white turkeys.

  14. Consistent quantification of climate impacts due to biogenic carbon storage across a range of bio-product systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, Geoffrey, E-mail: geoffrey.guest@ntnu.no; Bright, Ryan M., E-mail: ryan.m.bright@ntnu.no; Cherubini, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.cherubini@ntnu.no; Strømman, Anders H., E-mail: anders.hammer.stromman@ntnu.no

    2013-11-15

    Temporary and permanent carbon storage from biogenic sources is seen as a way to mitigate climate change. The aim of this work is to illustrate the need to harmonize the quantification of such mitigation across all possible storage pools in the bio- and anthroposphere. We investigate nine alternative storage cases and a wide array of bio-resource pools: from annual crops, short rotation woody crops, medium rotation temperate forests, and long rotation boreal forests. For each feedstock type and biogenic carbon storage pool, we quantify the carbon cycle climate impact due to the skewed time distribution between emission and sequestration fluxes in the bio- and anthroposphere. Additional consideration of the climate impact from albedo changes in forests is also illustrated for the boreal forest case. When characterizing climate impact with global warming potentials (GWP), we find a large variance in results which is attributed to different combinations of biomass storage and feedstock systems. The storage of biogenic carbon in any storage pool does not always confer climate benefits: even when biogenic carbon is stored long-term in durable product pools, the climate outcome may still be undesirable when the carbon is sourced from slow-growing biomass feedstock. For example, when biogenic carbon from Norway Spruce from Norway is stored in furniture with a mean life time of 43 years, a climate change impact of 0.08 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year time horizon (TH)) would result. It was also found that when biogenic carbon is stored in a pool with negligible leakage to the atmosphere, the resulting GWP factor is not necessarily − 1 CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored. As an example, when biogenic CO{sub 2} from Norway Spruce biomass is stored in geological reservoirs with no leakage, we estimate a GWP of − 0.56 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year TH) when albedo effects are also included. The large variance in GWPs across the range of

  15. Aksehir Lake Ecological Property and Problems in Lake Strict (Konya Closed Basin of Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    , Fatma Kunt; , Sukru Dursun

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has many water sources more than other Middle East countries, but less than European countries. Water sources information, determination of potential and management are important for future water production plan. Water sources in Turkey were reduced with uncontrolled usage, as it will not be come to an end of the source. Aksehir Lake was an important water source in Lake Strict and many investigations were performed on biologic feature of the region, but were not on environmental probl...

  16. Hygiene behaviour in university students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Insaf; Cinar, Nursan Dede; Dede, Cemile

    2013-05-01

    To identify university students' hygiene behaviour using a hygiene behaviour inventory in a Turkish sample. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 353 randomly selected university students aged 17-24 years in Kocaeli, Turkey. Data were collected in December 2009 using a socio-demographic form and the Turkish version of the Hygiene Behaviour Inventory-23. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. The mean score was 3.08 +/- 0.94; ranging from 1.91 +/- 0.85 to 3.77 +/- 0.52. Of the students, 290 (82.2%) always washed their hands when soap was available; 266 (75.4%) had cleaned their toilets three times or more in the preceding month; 260 (73.7%) always washed their hands after touching a pet or some animal; 260 (73.7%) always washed their hand before preparing food; 256 (72.5%) always washed fruits and vegetables before eating them; 227 (64.3%) always covered the seat with paper while using a public toilet; 244 (69.1%) had always cleaned their bathroom at home three times or more in the preceding month; and 183 (51.8%) of the students always washed their hands before eating food with their hands. Community-based awareness and education plans must initiated to improve regular hygiene practices at the level of university students in Turkey.

  17. Mapping the tobacco retailers in edirne, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlıkaya, Celal; Ince, Hüseyin; Ozkan, Nurcan

    2012-12-01

    The youth smoking rate is on the rise in Turkey. Although many marketing bans have been effectively implemented, regulations related to retail tobacco outlets have gone unnoticed and have not been effectively supervised. In this study, we aimed to show the lack of legal regulation related to the high retail tobacco outlet density with displays. In the center of Edirne, the marketing environment, numbers and geographical distribution of retail tobacco outlets were documented and mapped with geographical positions. There were 569 retail tobacco points of sale in 520 stores. We calculated one tobacco retail outlet per 270 people. This retail outlet density rate is above the national average and about four times higher than the density in Istanbul. Products especially attracting children, such as chocolate, sweet candy and chewing gum, were set up near the tobacco stands and were easy for children to recognize and reach. It can be seen on the city map that 47% of retail tobacco outlets are within 100 m of education, health or sport facilities. We concluded that one of the reasons for the increasing prevalence of cigarette use, especially among adolescents in Turkey, is deregulation of the retail tobacco marketing industry as a result of the privatization process of the national tobacco monopoly. Using mapping techniques can be useful in terms of controlling the retail marketing environment.

  18. Effect of Rearing Systems on Reproductive Performance of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M AnnaAnandh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing systems on reproductive performance of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo. A total of 180 Beltsville Small White and Board Breasted Bronze turkeys were taken for the study and reared under three different rearing system viz. intensive system (full confinement, semi-intensive system (partial confinement and partial day scavenging and free range system (all-day scavenging. Average egg weight (g, percentage of infertile eggs, embryonic mortalities, total egg hatchability, fertile egg hatchability, fertility and poults survivability values were significantly (P>0.01 higher in turkeys reared under intensive system of management followed by semi intensive system and free range system of management. The highest percentage of dead in shell was found in intensive system and was did not differ significantly from semi intensive and free range system. Hatched weight of poults (g between semi intensive and intensive system did not differ significantly between them, but both groups found statistically significant (P>0.01 from free range system. From the study, it is concluded that higher reproductive performance was obtained in intensive system of management followed by semi intensive and free range system of management. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 226-229

  19. Alcohol tax pass-through across the product and price range: do retailers treat cheap alcohol differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Abdallah K; Meng, Yang; Chakraborty, Ratula; Dobson, Paul W; Seaton, Jonathan S; Holmes, John; Angus, Colin; Guo, Yelan; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra S

    2014-12-01

    Effective use of alcohol duty to reduce consumption and harm depends partly on retailers passing duty increases on to consumers via price increases, also known as 'pass-through'. The aim of this analysis is to provide evidence of UK excise duty and sales tax (VAT) pass-through rates for alcohol products at different price points. March 2008 to August 2011, United Kingdom. Panel data quantile regression estimating the effects of three duty changes, two VAT changes and one combined duty and VAT change on UK alcohol prices, using product-level supermarket price data for 254 alcohol products available weekly. Products were analysed in four categories: beers, ciders/ready to drink (RTDs), spirits and wines. Within all four categories there exists considerable heterogeneity in the level of duty pass-through for cheaper versus expensive products. Price increases for the cheapest 15% of products fall below duty rises (undershifting), while products sold above the median price are overshifted (price increases are higher than duty increases). The level of undershifting is greatest for beer [0.85 (0.79, 0.92)] and spirits [0.86 (0.83, 0.89)]. Undershifting affects approximately 67% of total beer sales and 38% of total spirits sales. Alcohol retailers in the United Kingdom appear to respond to increases in alcohol tax by undershifting their cheaper products (raising prices below the level of the tax increase) and overshifting their more expensive products (raising prices beyond the level of the tax increase). This is likely to impact negatively on tax policy effectiveness, because high-risk groups favour cheaper alcohol and undershifting is likely to produce smaller consumption reductions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Liquefied petroleum gas in Turkey's energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepbasli, A. [Ege Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-05-15

    LPG (or LP gas) stands for liquefied petroleum gas. Choosing LPG as an energy source represents a valuable contribution to the ongoing fight to conserve energy and protect the environment. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the share of LPG in Turkey's energy sources by presenting its historical development. Since the beginning of the 1960s, LPG has been used as an alternative to city gas and kerosene in Turkey, while the first LPG use in cogeneration plants was in 1996 in Denizli, Turkey. The consumption of petroleum products in 2000 was 34 million tons, of which about 13.2% was accounted for by LPG. Only due to the price, LPG did not reach the desired position in cogeneration applications with a value of under 1%. However, autogas-LPG used as an automotive fuel has rapidly established itself in the country. The role of the government is also crucial for the sustained development of the LPG market in Turkey. (Author)

  1. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  2. DISSEMINATED CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN TURKEY: CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-10-10

    Oct 10, 2003 ... DISSEMINATED CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN TURKEY: CASE REPORT. D. DIRIM, H. DAGCI and N. TURGAY. SUMMARY. Cryptosporidium sp is a protozoan that displays an intracellular settlement primarily in the intestinal systems of humans and can result in diarrhoea. Undernourished children.

  3. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  4. Foraging sites of Turkey Vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turkey Vultures Cathartes aura are probably the most abundant avian scavengers in semi- arid shrublands and woodlands in central. Mexico, about two times more frequently seen than the next most common scavenger,. Common Raven Corvus corax. The questions arise of what sustains this large number of scavenging ...

  5. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  6. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  7. Succession of the turkey gastrointestinal bacterial microbiome related to weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Danzeisen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of concerns related to the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture, antibiotic-free alternatives are greatly needed to prevent disease and promote animal growth. One of the current challenges facing commercial turkey production in Minnesota is difficulty obtaining flock average weights typical of the industry standard, and this condition has been coined “Light Turkey Syndrome” or LTS. This condition has been identified in Minnesota turkey flocks for at least five years, and it has been observed that average flock body weights never approach their genetic potential. However, a single causative agent responsible for these weight reductions has not been identified despite numerous efforts to do so. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacterial community composition within the small intestines of heavy and light turkey flocks using 16S rRNA sequencing, and to identify possible correlations between microbiome and average flock weight. This study also sought to define the temporal succession of bacteria occurring in the turkey ileum. Based upon 2.7 million sequences across nine different turkey flocks, dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified and compared between the flocks studied. OTUs that were associated with heavier weight flocks included those with similarity to Candidatus division Arthromitus and Clostridium bartlettii, while these flocks had decreased counts of several Lactobacillus species compared to lighter weight flocks. The core bacterial microbiome succession in commercial turkeys was also defined. Several defining markers of microbiome succession were identified, including the presence or abundance of Candidatus division Arthromitus, Lactobacillus aviarius, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Clostridium bartlettii. Overall, the succession of the ileum bacterial microbiome in commercial turkeys proceeds in a predictable manner. Efforts to prevent disease and promote growth in

  8. The Other Side of the Coin: can Turkey ''Get'' West by Oil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study shortly brings forward the oil situation of the world and Turkey's current role in this picture. Within this frame subjects of article have been searched in depth as follows: the current oil status of the world in terms of proven reserves, production, consumption and trade, insufficient use of renewables as against oil, main reasons changing the balances in global oil market. The topic of article is and has always been a current issue. Oil has always come to the forefront taking into account for example oil crises throughout history, the global developments together with new technologies or growing population together with increasing energy demand alongside of its wide range of use in different sectors from textile to transportation. On this basis the aim of article was to reveal how in fact developed but oil poor regions are relied on oil rich but developing regions and Turkey's importance as a transit country within the context of supply for oil poor regions.

  9. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes at 7 degrees C in commercial turkey breast, with or without antimicrobials, after simulated contamination for manufacturing, retail and consumer settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianou, Alexandra; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Scanga, John A; Sofos, John N

    2007-08-01

    Uncured turkey breast, commercially available with or without a mixture of potassium lactate and sodium diacetate, was sliced, inoculated with a 10-strain composite of Listeria monocytogenes, vacuum-packaged, and stored at 4 degrees C, to simulate contamination after a lethal processing step at the plant. At 5, 15, 25 and 50 days of storage, packages were opened, slices were tested, and bags with remaining slices were reclosed with rubber bands; this simulated home use of plant-sliced and -packaged product. At the same above time intervals, portions of original product (stored at 4 degrees C in original processing bags) were sliced and inoculated as above, and packaged in delicatessen bags, simulating contamination during slicing/handling at retail or home. Both sets of bags were stored aerobically at 7 degrees C for 12 days to simulate home storage. L. monocytogenes populations were lower (P<0.05) during storage in turkey breast containing a combination of lactate and diacetate compared to product without antimicrobials under both contamination scenarios. Due to prolific growth of the pathogen under the plant-contamination scenario in product without lactate-diacetate during vacuum-packaged storage (4 degrees C), populations at 3 days of aerobic storage (7 degrees C) of such product ranged from 4.6 to 7.4 log cfu/cm(2). Under the retail/home-contamination scenario, mean growth rates (log cfu/cm(2)/day) of the organism during aerobic storage ranged from 0.14 to 0.16, and from 0.25 to 0.51, in product with and without lactate-diacetate, respectively; growth rates in turkey breast without antimicrobials decreased (P<0.05) with age of the product. Overall, product without antimicrobials inoculated to simulate plant-contamination and product with lactate-diacetate inoculated to simulate retail/home-contamination were associated with the highest and lowest pathogen levels during aerobic storage at 7 degrees C, respectively. However, 5- and 15-day-old turkey breast

  10. Development of hydropower energy in Turkey: The case of Coruh river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, Adem [Guemueshane University, Civil Engineering Department, 29000 Guemueshane (Turkey); Koemuercue, Murat ihsan; Kankal, Murat [Karadeniz Technical University, Civil Engineering Department, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The main objective in doing the present study is to investigate the sustainable development of hydropower plants in the Coruh river basin of Turkey, which is least problem river of Turkey in respect to international cooperation as compared with Turkey's other trans-boundary waters. Initial studies concerning the hydropower production potential in Coruh basin had been carried out by Turkish authorities in the late 1960s. Total installed power capacity and annual average energy generation of 37 dams and run of river (without storage) hydropower plants developed at various project stages by The Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EiE) in Coruh basin are 3132.70 MW and 10.55 TWh/yr, respectively. Today, this generation value corresponds 6.45% of Turkey's energy consumption in 2006 while it meets 6.3% of total electricity energy production of Turkey which is equal to 167.9 TWh/yr in 2006. Besides, this potential developed at various project stages in Coruh basin will provide 24.1% of Turkey's hydroelectric energy generation being equal to 43.8 TWh/yr in 2006. (author)

  11. Frailty among elderly adults in a rural area of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmur, Hülya

    2015-04-30

    The elderly population is growing in Turkey, as it is worldwide. The average age of residents in rural areas of Turkey is relatively high and is gradually increasing. The purpose of this study is to summarize the fitness and frailty of elderly adults living in a rural area of Turkey characterized by a relatively low level of socioeconomic development. This study was designed as a prospective, cross-sectional study, and was conducted in a rural area of Kars Province. A total of 168 elderly adults (≥65 years old) from 12 central villages were included in the study. The Fried Frailty Criteria was used to assess the frailty of the participants. In addition to frailty, the physical, social, and mental status of elderly adults was examined. The prevalence of frailty in this rural area of Turkey was 7.1%.The study group ranged in age from 65 to 96 years (mean 72.70±7.73 years), and 53.6% were female. Among the elderly adult group, 84.3% had not completed elementary school, and 43.29% had a monthly income of ≤500 Turkish liras ($200). No significant relationship was identified between gender and frailty. There was a statistically significant relationship between frailty and older age, lower education level, lower economic level, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastric disease, arthritis, generalized pain, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, auditory impairment, impaired oral care, caregiver burden, impaired cognitive function, depression, or a lack of social support (social isolation). It is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the health status and needs of elderly adults in Turkey and the health problems of this population as well as to planning the development of public health and geriatric services based on regional needs.

  12. INVESTIGATION OFRELATIONSHIPBETWEEN HOUSE PRICES AND MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ‹lkay Oner Bodurlar

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the dynamic effects of macroeconomic variables (i.e. gross domestic product (GDP), money supply, short-run interest rates and exchange rates) on the house prices in Turkey for the period 2000-2006. Estimates of the long run relationship between house prices and macroeconomic variables are obtained using the Johansen cointegration test. The results of cointegration analysis suggest that there exists a long run relationship between house prices and macroeconomic variables. V...

  13. Automobile development in the tension of the polarised range of products encompassing the small car and luxury vehicles; Automobilentwicklung im Spannungsfeld zwischen Klein- und Luxusfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruschwitz, R. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Changes in society and the customer's wish for exclusiveness has resulted in a fragmentation of the market into more and more segments. In order to be able to fulfil each customer's individual product requirements, and thus strengthen brand loyalty and customer ties, car makers are becoming full-range suppliers. For this reason, VOLKSWAGEN has developed the multi-brand strategy and upwardly extended its product portfolio. This strategy is implemented on the basis of a worldwide module strategy with its roots in the platform strategy. This strategy allows for the exploitation of considerable economies of sale and synergies in the product development process. This strategy and the considerable range of products - from the smallest of cars to luxury vehicles - has generated tension which must be taken account of in the product development process. (orig.) [German] Durch den gesellschaftlichen Wandel und den individuellen Kundenwunsch sich vom Umfeld abzuheben, fragmentiert sich der Markt in immer mehr Segmente. Um jedem Kunden sein individuellen Produktwunsch zu erfuellen und damit die Markenloyalitaet und Kundenbindung zu verstaerken, entwickeln sich die Fahrzeughersteller zum Full-Range-Anbieter. VOLKSWAGEN hat deshalb die Mehrmarkenstrategie entwickelt und sein Produktportfolio nach oben erweitert. Umgesetzt wird diese Strategie auf Basis einer weltweit eingefuehrten Modulstrategie, die mit der Plattformstrategie ihren Anfang nahm. Mit dieser Strategie koennen ganz erhebliche Scale- und Synergie-Effekte im Produktentstehungsprozess erreicht werden. Diese Strategie und die erhebliche Produktspreizung vom Kleinst- bis zum Luxuswagen laesst ein Spannungsfeld im Produktentstehungsprozess entstehen, dem Rechnung getragen werden muss. (orig.)

  14. ANTIHELMINTIC TREATMENT OF GOATS ON AN ARID RANGE AND ITS EFFECT ON MILK PRODUCTION EARLY IN LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Valdéz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a single anthelmintic treatment at thebeginning of lactation on milk production and composition, live weight change and blood chemistry in mix-breeds goats was studied in an arid zone of northern Mexico. Ten adult goats were treated with Closantel ® subcutaneously at 8.0mg kg-1 BW. Eleven adult goats were used as untreated controls. The overall total trial reduction in fecal egg counts due to anthelmintic treatment was 96%, but this fecal egg counts reduction did not affect live weight change (-13 ±0.5 and -15 ± 0.3 g d-1 for treated and control does, milk yield(30.7 ± 0.4 and 33.6 ± 0.8 L in 73 days of lactation for treated and control does. No significant differences were seen in milk composition and blood profiles between treated and untreated goats. It was concluded that, in the present context of goat exploitation under traditional extensive village system in an arid environment, parasite burdens at the beginning of lactation were not sufficiently severe to affect milk production and weight change of goats. KEY WORDS: Anthelmintic treatment, blood chemistry, body weight, goats, milk production, gastrointestinal nematodes.

  15. Post-deportation risks under the EU-Turkey statement: what happens after readmission to Turkey?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpes, M.J.; Tunaboylu, Sevda; Ulusoy, Orcun; Hassan, Saima

    2017-01-01

    This policy brief examines whether asylum seekers readmitted from Greece to Turkey after the EU-Turkey Statement as of April 2016 were able to access effective protection in Turkey thereafter (see graph, return trend, p. 2). The EU has long collaborated with countries of origin and transit in the

  16. Kinetic and Product Studies of the Hydroxyl Radical Initiated Oxidation of Dimethyl Sulfide in the Temperature Range 250 - 300 K

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    This work presents investigations on the gas-phase chemistry of dimethyl sulfide (DMS: CH3-S-CH3) with hydroxyl (OH) radicals performed in a 336 l quartz glass reactor in the laboratory of the Department of Physical Chemistry of the University of Wuppertal, Germany. In this work kinetic, product and mechanistic data for the reaction of OH radicals with DMS were obtained. The investigations were aimed at achieving a better understanding of the oxidation mechanism for DMS as a function of tempe...

  17. Selenium requirements based on muscle and kidney selenoprotein enzyme activity and transcript expression in the turkey poult (Meleagris gallopavo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Taylor

    Full Text Available The current NRC selenium (Se requirement for turkeys is 0.2 μg Se/g diet. We previously fed turkey poults a Se-deficient diet (0.005 μg Se/g supplemented with 10 graded levels of Se (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 μg Se/g as Na2SeO3, 5/treatment for 4 wk, and found that the minimum dietary Se requirement was 0.3 μg Se/g based on selenoprotein enzyme activity in blood, liver, gizzard and pancreas. Because the turkey is primarily a production animal, we expanded this analysis to kidney, heart, breast and thigh. Se concentrations in Se-deficient poults were 5.0, 9.8, 33, and 15% of levels in poults fed 0.4 μg Se/g in liver, kidney, thigh and breast, respectively. Increasing Se supplementation resulted in hyperbolic response curves for all tissues; breakpoint analysis indicated minimum Se requirements of 0.34-0.36 μg Se/g based on tissue Se levels in liver, kidney and thigh. Similarly, GPX1 activity in muscle tissues and kidney responded hyperbolically to increasing dietary Se, reaching well-defined plateaus with breakpoints at 0.30-0.36 μg Se/g. Minimum Se requirements based on GPX4 activity were 0.30-0.32 μg Se/g for breast and thigh. Selenoprotein transcript expression decreased significantly in Se deficiency for only 2, 3, 5, and 6 mRNA in breast, thigh, heart, and kidney, respectively, out of 24 known avian selenoproteins. Se response curves for regulated selenoprotein transcripts were hyperbolic, and reached well-defined plateaus with breakpoints in a narrow range of 0.08-0.19 μg Se/g. No selenoprotein transcript was altered by supernutritional Se. In summary, these results clearly indicate that the NRC dietary Se requirement should be raised to 0.4 μg Se/g, at least for poults, to meet the nutritional needs of the young turkey. The Se response curve plateaus further show that limits for turkey supplementation with selenite could safely be raised to 0.5 μg Se/g diet.

  18. Susceptibility of convalescent turkeys to pulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, R A; Sacco, R E

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary lesions resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus inoculation were assessed in convalescent turkeys and compared with those in previously noninoculated (control) turkeys. In addition, lesions observed in small Beltsville white (SBW) turkeys were compared with those in broad-breasted white (BBW) turkeys challenged with the same inoculum. Turkeys were challenged by unilateral posterior thoracic air sac (PTAS) inoculation, rechallenged via the contralateral air sac after 5 wk, and then necropsied 1 wk later. Pulmonary lesions induced by the initial challenge had resolved in 6 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW turkeys. However, convalescence did not protect against pulmonary aspergillosis subsequent to rechallenge; 10 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW developed granulomatous pulmonary lesions on the side of reexposure. A greater proportion of control SBW turkeys developed pneumonia and airsacculitis following challenge as compared with the BBW breed. Lesions were limited to the lower respiratory tract in all turkeys and were confined to the ipsilateral lung and PTAS in the singly inoculated control turkeys. This study demonstrates that convalescence from pulmonary aspergillosis does not confer protection against rechallenge but may, instead, decrease resistance to subsequent infection.

  19. The decreasing range between dry- and wet- season precipitation over land and its effect on vegetation primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    One consequence of climate change is the alteration of global water fluxes, both in amount and seasonality. As a result, the seasonal difference between dry- (p 100 mm/month) precipitation (p) has increased over land during recent decades (1980–2005). However, our analysis expanding to a 60-year period (1950–2009) showed the opposite trend. This is, dry-season precipitation increased steadily, while wet-season precipitation remained constant, leading to reduced seasonality at a global scale. The decrease in seasonality was not due to a change in dry-season length, but in precipitation rate; thus, the dry season is on average becoming wetter without changes in length. Regionally, wet- and dry-season precipitations are of opposite sign, causing a decrease in the seasonal variation of the precipitation over 62% of the terrestrial ecosystems. Furthermore, we found a high correlation (r = 0.62) between the change in dry-season precipitation and the trend in modelled net primary productivity (NPP), which is explained based on different ecological mechanisms. This trend is not found with wet-season precipitation (r = 0.04), These results build on the argument that seasonal water availability has changed over the course of the last six decades and that the dry-season precipitation is a key driver of vegetation productivity at the global scale. PMID:29284050

  20. Parasitic zoonotic diseases in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Altintas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses and zoonotic diseases are becoming more common and they are now receiving increased attention across the world. Zoonotic parasites are found in a wide variety of protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes and arthropods worldwide and many zoonotic parasites have assumed an important role. The importance of some parasitic zoonoses has increased in recent years due to the fact that they can be agents of opportunistic infections. Although a number of zoonotic parasites are often found and do cause serious illnesses in Turkey, some are more common and these diseases are more important as they cause serious public health problems, such as leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis and toxocariasis. Information on these zoonotic diseases is provided here as these are the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases in Turkey.

  1. Inclusive particle production in the transverse momentum range between 0. 25 and 40 GeV/c at the CERN Sp anti pS collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banner, M.; Bloch, P.; Lancon, E.; Loucatos, S.; Mansoulie, B.; Polverel, M.; Roussarie, A.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Bonaudi, F.

    1985-04-01

    Inclusive particle production cross-sections have been measured at the Sp anti pS collider using the UA2 detector in various ranges of transverse momentum (Psub(T)) and pseudo-rapidity (eta). Cross-section measurements are presented for ..pi../sup 0/ production (Psub(T) <= 15 GeV/c, vertical strokeetavertical stroke<=0.85 and Psub(T) <= 40 GeV/c, 1.0<=vertical strokeetavertical stroke<=1.8), for eta meson production (3 <= Psub(T)<=6 GeV/c, vertical strokeetavertical stroke<=0.85) and for charged particle production (Psub(T) <= 10 GeV/c, 1.0<=vertical strokeetavertical stroke1.8). Results are compared with the predictions of QCD calculations.

  2. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free-range egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Guard, J Y

    2012-05-01

    There is a desire by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell-egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study was conducted to determine if there were differences in the prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter on and within eggs and in the environment of a sister flock of conventional cage and free-range laying hens. Microbial sampling occurred approximately every 6 wk between 20 and 79 wk of age. A random sampling of typical coliform colonies produced 371 viable isolates for biochemical identification. Twenty-nine genera or species of bacteria were identified. There was a significantly greater (P Listeria innocua were detected with no significant difference in prevalence between the treatments. Isolates were associated with eggshells (2 free-range floor, 1 cage) and the free-range environment (2 nest box, 2 grass). There were 21 Salmonella isolates detected between all sample locations, with no significant difference in the prevalence of Salmonella detection between the treatments. Additional studies are needed to fully understand the effect of alternative production methods on the prevalence of pathogens and coliforms associated with nest-run eggs and the production environment.

  3. Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass characteristics and economics of growing indigenous turkey. ... indicate that supplementing growing turkey feed- containing 18%CP and 2800 Keal/kg ME with 0.05% methionine enhances productive performances, good carcass yield and production cost.

  4. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongliang [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Richland WA 99354 USA; Current address: Center of Biomass Engineering/College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 PR China; Wang, Huamin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Kuhn, Eric [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Tucker, Melvin P. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Yang, Bin [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-11-14

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion [e.g., Hf(OTf)4, Ln(OTf)3, In(OTf)3, Al(OTf)3] and noble metal catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ru/Al2O3) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage through selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalyzed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt % of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates by protonating hydroxyl groups and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote oxygenation reactions catalyzed by super Lewis acids.

  5. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongliang [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Richland WA 99354 USA; Current address: Center of Biomass Engineering/College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 PR China; Wang, Huamin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Kuhn, Eric [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Tucker, Melvin P. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Yang, Bin [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-11-14

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion (e.g. Hf(OTf)4, Ln(OTf)3, Al(OTf)3) and noble metal catalysts (e.g. Ru/C, Ru/Al2O3) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage via selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalysed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt% of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates via protonating hydroxyls and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote oxygenation reactions catalysed by super Lewis acids.

  6. Characterization of the Microbiome along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Growing Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby J. Wilkinson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The turkey microbiome is largely understudied, despite its relationship with bird health and growth, and the prevalence of human pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. In this study we investigated the microbiome within the small intestine (SI, caeca (C, large intestine (LI, and cloaca (CL of turkeys at 6, 10, and 16 weeks of age. Eight turkeys were dissected within each age category and the contents of the SI, C, LI, and CL were harvested. 16S rDNA based QPCR was performed on all samples and samples for the four locations within three birds/age group were sequenced using ion torrent-based sequencing of the 16S rDNA. Sequencing data showed on a genus level, an abundance of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Clostridium XI (38.2, 28.1, and 13.0% respectively irrespective of location and age. The caeca exhibited the greatest microbiome diversity throughout the development of the turkey. PICRUSt data predicted an array of bacterial function, with most differences being apparent in the caeca of the turkeys as they matured. QPCR revealed that the caeca within 10 week old birds, contained the most Campylobacter spp. Understanding the microbial ecology of the turkey gastrointestinal tract is essential in terms of understanding production efficiency and in order to develop novel strategies for targeting Campylobacter spp.

  7. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  8. Understanding Determinants of Organic Food Consumption: Turkey Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu İlter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand for organic products is growing, however in Turkey although the interest to organic products has grown; the growth of demand is relatively low. So it is important for producers of organic products to understand who the organic customers are, and what are their attitudes and behaviors regarding organic food products as well as why people do not prefer them. This is the main aim of this article. This study presents the results of a survey regarding consumer perceptions of organic foods in Turkey. The survey was conducted to determine consumer attitudes towards organic foods and the reasons for consumption or non-consumption of organic foods. A total of 882 consumers that makes food shopping for their families, living in İzmir participated the research. The results of the survey revealed that health issue is an important consideration in the consumption of organic products, however respondents stated that they find organic products expensive and hard to find everywhere, and they have some doubts about the reliability of the organic foods. Also five types of behaviour regarding organic food consumption behavior have been identified. The findings have practical implications especially for governments. More support and education should be given to organic producers so that supply of organic food products would increase, and there should be strict control on those products as to reduce consumers’ negative attitudes.

  9. Dependence of neutron rate production with accelerator beam profile and energy range in an ADS-TRIGA RC1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firoozabadi, M.M.; Karimi, J. [Birjand Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Zangian, M. [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2016-12-15

    Lead, mercury, tantalum and tungsten were used as target material for calculation of spallation processes in an ADS-TRIGA RC1 reactor. The results show that tungsten has the highest neutron production rate. Therefore it was selected as target material for further calculations. The sensitivity of neutron parameters of the ADS reactor core relative to a change of beam profile and proton energy was determined. The core assembly and parameters of the TRIGA RC1 demonstration facility were used for the calculation model. By changing the proton energy from 115 to 1 400 MeV by using the intra-nuclear cascade model of Bertini (INC-Bertini), the quantity of the relative difference in % for energy gain (G) and spallation neutron yield (Y{sub n/p}), increases to 289.99 % and 5199.15 % respectively. These changes also reduce the amount of relative difference for the proton beam current (I{sub p}) and accelerator power (P{sub acc}), 99.81 % and 81.28 % respectively. In addition, the use of a Gaussian distribution instead of a uniform distribution in the accelerator beam profile increases the quantity of relative difference for energy gain (G), net neutron multiplication (M) and spallation neutron yield (Y{sub n/p}), up to 4.93 %, 4.9 % and 5.55 % respectively.

  10. Production of the entire range of r-process nuclides by black hole accretion disc outflows from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-12-01

    We consider r-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion discs formed in double neutron star and neutron star-black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important - and in some cases dominant - contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disc outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second r-process peak (mass number A ˜ 130), independent of model parameters, with significant production of A < 130 nuclei. This implies that dynamical ejecta with high electron fraction may not be required to explain the observed abundances of r-process elements in metal poor stars. Disc outflows reach the third peak (A ˜ 195) in most of our simulations, although the amounts produced depend sensitively on the disc viscosity, initial mass or entropy of the torus, and nuclear physics inputs. Some of our models produce an abundance spike at A = 132 that is absent in the Solar system r-process distribution. The spike arises from convection in the disc and depends on the treatment of nuclear heating in the simulations. We conclude that disc outflows provide an important - and perhaps dominant - contribution to the r-process yields of compact binary mergers, and hence must be included when assessing the contribution of these systems to the inventory of r-process elements in the Galaxy.

  11. Flood of August 24–25, 2016, Upper Iowa River and Turkey River, northeastern Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, S. Mike; O'Shea, Padraic S.

    2018-02-05

    Major flooding occurred August 24–25, 2016, in the Upper Iowa River Basin and Turkey River Basin in northeastern Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region. About 8 inches of rain were recorded for the 24-hour period ending at 4 p.m., August 24, at Decorah, Iowa, and about 6 inches of rain were recorded for the 24-hour period ending at 7 a.m., August 24, at Cresco, Iowa, about 14 miles northwest of Spillville, Iowa. A maximum peak-of-record discharge of 38,000 cubic feet per second in the Upper Iowa River at streamgage 05388250 Upper Iowa River near Dorchester, Iowa, occurred on August 24, 2016, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 0.2–1 percent. High-water marks were measured at six locations along the Upper Iowa River between State Highway 26 near the mouth at the Mississippi River and State Highway 76 about 3.5 miles south of Dorchester, Iowa, a distance of 15 river miles. Along the profiled reach of the Turkey River, a maximum peak-of-record discharge of 15,300 cubic feet per second at streamgage 05411600 Turkey River at Spillville, Iowa, occurred on August 24, 2016, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 1–2 percent. A maximum peak discharge of 35,700 cubic feet per second occurred on August 25, 2016, along the profiled reach of the Turkey River at streamgage 05411850 Turkey River near Eldorado, Iowa, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 0.2–1 percent. High-water marks were measured at 11 locations along the Turkey River between County Road B64 in Elgin and 220th Street, located about 4.5 miles northwest of Spillville, Iowa, a distance of 58 river miles. The high-water marks were used to develop flood profiles for the Upper Iowa River and Turkey River.

  12. Research on the Aesthetic Experiences of Tourists Visiting Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Oral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the aesthetic value of tourism products provided by tour operators who are the wholesalers with in the tourism industry as well as revealing the impact of aesthetic valueson customer satisfaction. The research was applied to Far-East tourists who have been visiting Turkey in ever increasing numbersyear by year. Convenience sampling, a non-probability sampling method was used. Zhang (2008’s Aesthetic Value Scale was performed on Far-East tourist groups. Exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysis were applied to the data collected from the Far East tourists visiting Turkey. As aresult of the exploratory factor analysison the aesthetic experiences of the tourists within: asouvenir shop, museum, restaurant, hotel and tour bus aesthetic valueswere apparent throughout. At the end of the research apositive correlation was found between aesthetic value and customer satisfaction

  13. Use of poultry protein isolate as a food ingredient: sensory and color characteristics of low-fat Turkey bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omana, Dileep A; Pietrasik, Zeb; Betti, Mirko

    2012-07-01

    The potential of using poultry protein isolate (PPI) as a food ingredient to substitute either soy protein isolate (SPI) or meat protein in turkey bologna was investigated. PPI was prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat using pH-shift technology and the prepared PPI was added to turkey bologna at 2 different concentrations (1.5% and 2% dry weight basis). Product characteristics were compared with those prepared with the addition of 2% SPI, 11% meat protein (control-1), or 13% meat protein (control-2). All the 5 treatments were subjected to sensory analysis to evaluate aroma, appearance, color, flavor, saltiness, juiciness, firmness, and overall acceptability of the turkey bologna samples using 9-point hedonic scales. A turkey bologna control sample with 11% meat protein appeared to be softer compared to other treatments as revealed by texture profile analysis while purge loss during storage in a retail display case was significantly (P Sensory analysis concluded that 1.5% PPI and 2% PPI could be used as substitute of SPI or lean meat and the treatments could be improved by increasing saltiness and decreasing firmness. The study revealed that with slight modifications in saltiness, turkey bologna can be prepared with the addition of poultry protein isolates as an acceptable substitute for soy protein isolate or meat protein. This will help to avoid usage of nonmeat ingredients (as SPI substitute) and to reduce the cost of production (as meat protein substitute) of low-fat turkey bologna. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Obtaining new range of products from lithotamnium limestone 'Dobrilovići' deposit in the facility of the Department for Agriculture Loznica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Živko T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of testing the possibilities of improving the technological process evaluation lithothamnium limestone deposits 'Dobrilovići' - Loznica in order to obtain a new range of products including: flue gas desulphurization (ODG, as feed additive and for liming acid soils. The results showed that the limestone from this deposit may be used for ODG as it meets the requirements of the required quality for use in these purposes. In fact, the raw materials meet the requirements for obtaining a powder (bulk gypsum. Comparing the characteristics of the resulting range to be used as a feed additive ('fodder chalk' and the requirements to be met by this product, we can say: selective excavation and selecting a particular size class can get this range of products. The results of laboratory tests of briquettes obtained from lithothamnium limestone have shown that it is possible to obtain briquettes of a satisfactory quality. Values of parameters of the mechanical properties of briquettes increases with the share of bentonite as a binder in the samples. This increase in samples with mass proportion of binder to 5% is a linear growth, while for the samples containing more than 5% of binder that trend is minimal. Therefore, there is no need to produce briquettes with more than 5% of bentonite. Based on the results of laboratory tests, authors have proposed technological scheme by which is possible complete evaluation of the limestone deposit 'Dobrilovići'. With adaptation of existing technology line in the firm Department for Agriculture 'Loznica' Ltd. (which owns the mine limestone 'Dobrilovići' can be obtained three new product range.

  15. Effects of a long-acting, trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus on range cow productivity and trace mineral profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Cuneo, S P; Frederick, H M; Enns, R M; Schafer, D W; Carstens, G E; Daugherty, S B; Noon, T H; Rickert, B M; Reggiardo, C

    2006-06-01

    The objectives were to determine if strategic supplementation of range cows with a long-acting (6 mo), trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus containing Cu, Se, and Co would: (1) increase cow BCS and BW, and calf birth, weaning, and postweaning weights, or weight per day of age (WDA); (2) increase liver concentrations of Cu or Zn in cows, or blood Se, Cu, or Zn concentrations in cows and calves; and (3) vary by cow breed for any of these response variables. There were 192 control and 144 bolused Composite cows (C; 25% Hereford, Angus, Gelbevieh, and Senepol or Barzona); 236 control and 158 bolused Hereford (H) cows; and 208 control and 149 bolused Brahman cross (B) cows used in a 3-yr experiment. Cows were weighed and scored for body condition in January, May, and September, and all bolused cows received boluses in January. Each year, from among the 3 breed groups a subset of 15 control and 15 bolused cows (n = 90) had samples obtained in January and May for liver Cu and Zn, blood Se, and serum Cu and Zn. As for cows, blood and serum from the calves of these cows were sampled each year in May and September for Cu, Se, and Zn. There was a significant breed x year x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) for cow weight loss from January to May. Calf WDA, weaning, and postweaning weights did not differ (P > 0.40) between bolused and control cows, but there was a significant (P = 0.022) breed x year x treatment interaction for birth weight. Liver Cu was deficient ( 0.50) in blood Se between treatment groups in January, but bolused cows had greater (P < 0.01) blood Se in May. Breed differences for blood Se concentrations existed for bolused cows, with B having greater (P < 0.05) blood Se than either C or H cows. Breed differences also existed for control cows, with H having less blood Se (P < 0.04) than B or C cows. Calves from bolused cows had greater blood Se than calves from control cows (P = 0.01). Supplementation via a long-acting trace mineral bolus was successful in

  16. Effects of free-range access on production parameters and meat quality, composition and taste in slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, Lisanne M; Rodenburg, T Bas; Reubens, Bert; Aerts, Johan; Duquenne, Barbara; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-12-01

    Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality, composition, and taste of the meat. Because chickens normally do not use free-range areas optimally, it is possible that provision of more suitable shelter will lead to more pronounced differences between chickens raised indoors and outdoors. In this study, an experiment with 2 production rounds of 600 slow-growing broilers each was performed. In each round, 200 chickens were raised indoors (IN), 200 had free-range access to grassland with artificial shelter (AS), and 200 had free-range access to short-rotation coppice with willow (SRC). Free-range use, feed intake, and growth were monitored, and after slaughter (d72) meat quality, composition, and taste were assessed. Free-range use was higher in SRC than in AS chickens (42.8 vs. 35.1%, P < 0.001). IN chickens were heavier at d70 than AS and SRC chickens (2.79 vs. 2.66 and 2.68 kg, P = 0.005). However, feed intake and conversion did not differ. Breast meat of chickens with free-range access was darker (P = 0.021) and yellower (P = 0.001) than that of IN chickens. Ultimate pH was lower (5.73 vs. 5.79; P = 0.006) and drip loss higher (1.29 vs. 1.09%; P = 0.05) in IN versus AS chickens. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in AS than in IN meat (35.84 vs. 34.59%; P = 0.021). The taste panel judged breast meat of SRC chickens to be more tender (P = 0.003) and less fibrous (P = 0.013) compared to that of AS and IN chickens, and juicier compared to the IN chickens (P = 0.017). Overall, free-range access negatively affected slaughter weight, but positively affected meat quality, taste, and composition. Only a few differences between AS and SRC were found, possibly due to limited differences in

  17. Do movement behaviors identify reproductive habitat sampling for wild turkeys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Mason D; Yeldell, Nathan A; Chamberlain, Michael J; Collier, Bret A

    2016-10-01

    Selection of habitats has regularly been suggested to influence species demography at both local and broad scales. The expectation is that selection behaviors have positive benefits via greater fitness or increased survival. The current paradigm of habitat selection theory suggests a hierarchical process, where an individual first selects where they choose to live (e.g., range) and then searches and selects locations within this range meeting life history needs. Using high-frequency GPS data collected from reproductively active Rio Grande (n = 21) and Eastern (n = 23) wild turkeys, we evaluated a long-standing theory for ground-nesting galliformes, in that movements during the prenesting period are behaviorally focused on sampling available habitats to optimize the selection of nesting sites. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence that reproductively active females engage in habitat sampling activities. Although most nest sites (>80% for both subspecies) fell within the prenesting range, the average minimum daily distance from nest sites for Rio Grande and Eastern wild turkey females was large [1636.04 m (SE = 1523.96) and 1937.42 m (SE = 1267.84), respectively] whereas the average absolute minimum distance from the nest site for both Rio Grande and Eastern wild turkey females was 166.46 m (SE = 299.34) and 235.01 m (SE = 337.90), respectively, and showed no clear temporal reduction as laying approached. Overall, predicted probability that any female movements before laying were initiated intersected with her nesting range (area used during incubation) was habitat sampling. Our results suggest that the long-standing assumption of hierarchical habitat selection by wild turkeys to identify nest sites may be incorrect. As such, habitat selection may not be the proximate driver of nest success and hence population-level fitness. Rather, based on our results, we suggest that wild turkeys and other ground-nesting species may be fairly plastic with

  18. Dietary supplementation of mannanoligosaccharides to turkey hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research focused on the effect of a prebiotic additive, mannanoligosaccharides (Bio-Mos), in the diet of turkey hens on their growth performance and measurements of pro-oxidation and antioxidation systems in their blood. The investigation was performed on 240 six-week-old turkey hens of the heavy Big-6 breed, ...

  19. Higher Education Policies and Overeducation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Nader

    2017-01-01

    In the past two decades Turkey has experienced a rapid increase in higher education student enrollment. This sharp increase in access to higher education has satisfied a strong social demand for university education but it has led to a growing surplus of university graduates who cannot find adequate jobs. As a result Turkey has entered an…

  20. Omgevingsverrijking voor vleeskalkoenen = Environmental enrichment for turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.

    2012-01-01

    A desk study has been conducted to study the possible environmental enrichments in order to reduce injurious pecking behaviour in intact turkeys. Free hanging materials are attractive to turkeys and are technically and economically feasible. Perches and elevated platforms are less feasible.

  1. New Records of Aphid Fauna in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaygin, Azize Toper; Gorur, Gazi; Cota, Figen

    2010-01-01

    Three aphid species were identified as new records for Turkey aphid fauna from Bartin province. These species are Ceruraphis viburnicola (Gillette) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Dysaphis apiifolia (Theobald) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Macrosiphum mordvilkoi Miyazaki (Hemiptera: Aphididae). These records increase the recorded aphid-fauna of Turkey to 433 species.

  2. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  3. Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia Policy: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А V Suleimanov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia modern foreign policy is analyzed. As is known, Turkey and Iran historically were the competing parties for spheres of influence in Transcaucasia, as well as Russia, the USA and the Great Britain. Regional relations between Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia are discussed in context of Nagorno-Karabakh and Georgia-South Ossetia conflicts and Caspian problem.

  4. EFL Policy of Turkey: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The language policy of Turkey regarding the evaluation phase of English language education issue was investigated following the comments on the issue from a diverse point of view. Nowadays, Turkey's language policy seems to have been much more improved since the education reform in 1997 bringing a rise in the curriculum development, course book…

  5. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  6. On the use of differential solubility in aqueous ethanol solutions to narrow the DP range of food-grade starch hydrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Amy S; Lapis, Trina J; Silver, Rachel K; Ferreira, Andrew J; Beaudry, Christopher M; Lim, Juyun; Penner, Michael H

    2016-04-15

    Considerable research is focused on understanding the functionality of starch hydrolysis products (SHP) consisting of glucose, maltose, maltooligosaccharides (MOS), and maltopolysaccharides (MPS). A confounding factor in this research is the high molecular dispersity of commercially available SHP. The study presented herein characterizes a flexible fractionation approach for lowering the dispersity of such products. This was accomplished by fractionating a corn syrup solids (CSS) preparation based on the differential solubility of its component saccharides in aqueous-ethanol solutions. Products obtained from selected fractionations were characterized with respect to degree of polymerization (DP; liquid chromatography), dextrose equivalency (reducing sugar assays), and prevalence of branching (NMR). Glucose and maltose were preferentially removed from CSS using high (⩾90%) ethanol extractants. Preparations with relatively narrow ranges of MOS, lower DP MPS, and higher DP MPS were obtained through repetitive 70%-ethanol extractions. Linear, as opposed to branched, MOS and MPS were preferentially extracted under all conditions tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.

  8. Multimedia and children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  9. Broad-Host-Range Expression Reveals Native and Host Regulatory Elements That Influence Heterologous Antibiotic Production in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Jia Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterologous expression has become a powerful tool for studying microbial biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs. Here, we extend the transformation-associated recombination cloning and heterologous expression platform for microbial BGCs to include Gram-negative proteobacterial expression hosts. Using a broad-host-range expression platform, we test the implicit assumption that biosynthetic pathways are more successfully expressed in more closely related heterologous hosts. Cloning and expression of the violacein BGC from Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea 2ta16 revealed robust production in two proteobacterial hosts, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, but very little production of the antibiotic in various laboratory strains of Escherichia coli, despite their closer phylogenetic relationship. We identified a nonclustered LuxR-type quorum-sensing receptor from P. luteoviolacea 2ta16, PviR, that increases pathway transcription and violacein production in E. coli by ∼60-fold independently of acyl-homoserine lactone autoinducers. Although E. coli harbors the most similar homolog of PviR identified from all of the hosts tested, overexpression of various E. coli transcription factors did not result in a statistically significant increase in violacein production, while overexpression of two A. tumefaciens PviR homologs significantly increased production. Thus, this work not only introduces a new genetic platform for the heterologous expression of microbial BGCs, it also challenges the assumption that host phylogeny is an accurate predictor of host compatibility.

  10. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Coyle; J. Blake; K. Britton; M.; R.G. Campbell; J. Cox; B. Cregg; D. Daniels; M. Jacobson; K. Johnsen; T. McDonald; K. McLeod; E.; D. Robison; R. Rummer; F. Sanchez; J.; B. Stokes; C. Trettin; J. Tuskan; L. Wright; S. Wullschleger

    2003-12-31

    Coleman, M.D., et. al. 2003. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses. Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 26 pp. Abstract: Many researchers have studied the productivity potential of intensively managed forest plantations. However, we need to learn more about the effects of fundamental growth processes on forest productivity; especially the influence of aboveground and belowground resource acquisition and allocation. This report presents installation, establishment, and first-year results of four tree species (two cottonwood clones, sycamore, sweetgum, and loblolly pine) grown with fertilizer and irrigation treatments. At this early stage of development, irrigation and fertilization were additive only in cottonwood clone ST66 and sweetgum. Leaf area development was directly related to stem growth, but root production was not always consistent with shoot responses, suggesting that allocation of resources varies among treatments. We will evaluate the consequences of these early responses on resource availability in subsequent growing seasons. This information will be used to: (1) optimize fiber and bioenergy production; (2) understand carbon sequestration; and (3) develop innovative applications such as phytoremediation; municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastes management; and protection of soil, air, and water resources.

  11. Serological evidence for infections with Borna disease virus in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbağ, Kadir; Herzog, Sibylle; Kennerman, Engin; Tuncer, Pelin; Schmid, Susanne; Kaya, Güney; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of Borna disease virus (BDV) infection outside endemic areas has been studied in several countries. We examined serum samples for anti-BDV antibodies in purebred racing horses and other domestic animals in Turkey. In total serum samples of 437 animals including 282 horses, 50 sheep, 25 goats, 50 cattle, and 30 cats were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Anti-BDV antibodies were detected in 4.9% of horses, 12% of sheep, 4% of goats, 14% of cattle and 6.6% of cats. No statistical difference was observed between seroprevalence in Arabic and English purebred horses from four different racing centers (p > 0.05). Antibody titers ranged between 1:10 and 1:320. The highest antibody titers were found in sheep and horses and the lowest titer in cattle. Clinical symptoms of Borna disease were not observed in any animal of any species examined. This study confirms the presence of anti-BDV antibodies in racing horses as well as cat population in Turkey. Moreover anti-BDV antibodies are demonstrated for the first time in sheep, goats and cattle in Turkey.

  12. Malaria Epidemiology in Mersin Province, Turkey from 2002 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F AYDIN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium spp. with high morbidity and mortality in human in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, number of malaria cases has been significantly reduced because of fight with the disease in Turkey. This study intended to investigate the malaria epidemiology in Mersin Province from 2002 to 2011 using data from the provincial Public Health Directorate.Methods: Over ten years, 303573 blood samples were taken from the people by active and passive surveillance methods and blood smears were prepared. Smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under the microscope.Results: Totally, 73 people including 44 male and 29 female were positive in terms of Plasmodium spp. It was determined that P. vivax observed in 67 cases while P. falciparum in 6 cases. Cases were mainly observed in 15 to 44 years old range, showed an increase between June-September periods and a significant decrease after 2006. Out of the 73 malaria cases, 54 cases were from Mersin Province and 13 cases were imported from another province of Turkey. Six cases were transmitted from abroad.Conclusion: These results provide information about malaria epidemiology in an endemic area in Turkey and contribute its prevention in Mersin Province

  13. Utilization of Biotechnology on Some Forest Trees in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Nurten Yer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Raw wood material requirements are increasing with rapid population growth both in Turkey and in the world. In order to supply deficit for closure of forest products, productivity and quality of production should be improved. Basic ways to increase efficiency in forest production involves silvicultural implementations and classical tree breeding studies. Genetic variation can be increased by utilizing the existing diversity. Thus, new combinations can be obtained and we can raise efficiency using some selection strategies. At this point, biotechnological methods are required to meet the genetic material. Studies of forest tree breeding are a slow process due to the size of the genome and the length of the tree life span. Biotechnological applications in forest trees provide many important benefits in terms of time saving and reducing cost when compared to classical breeding studies. Sustainable forestry practices are gaining rapid acceleration via biotechnology and modern sciences practices. In this study, for some forest tree species in Turkey, the evaluated biotechnology methods included; 1- tissue culture and clonal propagation, 2- molecular marker applications, 3- marker assisted selection and breeding, 4-genomic and proteomic studies, 5- genetic modification and genetic engineering applications. Conclusions: In this study, the works were carried out on forest tree breeding/propagation in Turkey and it was mainly focused on vegetative production techniques with 25 broadleaves and 9 conifer taxa, which were possible to express. Molecular genetic studies were carried out on 12 broad leaves taxa and 9 conifer taxa; genetic transformation studies were conducted on poplar species. Thus, it might be suggested that a combination of biotechnological tools and traditional propagation methods will ensure advantage for the development of forest-tree species.

  14. ISLAMIC BANKING IN TURKEY: POPULATION PERCEPTION AND DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István EGRESI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banks have, over the last few decades, become very popular in the Gulf countries and in some countries in Southeast Asia with a majority Muslim population. They are on the rise even in some western cities such as London or New York which have witnessed a significant increase in their Muslim population. In this context, it is then surprising to see that in Turkey, a country in which almost 100% of the population is Muslim, the Islamic banking system is still in its incipient stage. This study has investigated the reasons for the underdevelopment of the Islamic banking system in Turkey. We found that, due to the long period of secularism, most Turks separate religion from business and select their bank based on financial advantages, diversity of financial products and quality of service rather than based on the need to adhere to Shari’a principles. Many people also do not trust that these institutions are really Shari’a-compliant and safe. This is partly due to the customers’ lack of understanding of how these banks operate and partly due to the numerous cases of bad practices reported by the media and the academic literature. We conclude that, while their assets and share will most probably increase over the next 10 years it seems very unlikely that Islamic banks will really become a sustainable alternative banking system in Turkey. The Islamic banking system will rather remain an additional or complementary banking system.

  15. Pathogenicity markers of Clostridium spp. in commercial turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Saita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since growth promoters ban in Europe, enteritis of different aetiologies (virus, bacteria and protozoa are increasingly becoming the main cause of economic loss in commercial turkeys production. This study is focused on typing of Clostridium spp. isolated from samples of jejunum and ileum of 82 birds out of 17 turkeys flocks. The birds were 6-day to 104-day old, both male and female, with enteric disorders. The presence of toxin NetB was investigated. Multiplex PCR to detect cpa, cpb1, cpetx, cp1, cpb2 and cpe toxin genes were used for Clostridium typing. No lesions of necrotic enteritis were observed. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from 25 enteric samples, Clostridium difficile was found in 4 cases and Clostridium sordelli in one case. Clostridium perfringens was present from 6 to 104 days of age indicating its possible role in the enteric disorders of commercial turkeys. NetB toxin was found in no sample. 3 out of 4 isolates of Clostridium difficile were characterized by the presence of toxin genes.

  16. Structural Change, Economic Growth and Poverty in OIC countries: the case of Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria and Turkey.

    OpenAIRE

    Naiya, Ismaeel Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper uses available data to compare and analyzes the relationships between structural change and economic growth in four OIC member countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria and Turkey). The paper uses descriptive statistics to analyze and compare structural transformation in the study countries. It finds that Malaysia, Indonesia and Turkey succeeded achieving sustained economic growth and development because they were able to effectively transform their productive activities from low to ...

  17. Organic Turkey Flocks: A Reservoir of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schulz

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus can colonise the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and is known to cause similar infections in both humans and animals. Data about the spread or prevalence in farm animals are missing. In this study, Trypton Soya Agar was modified to a selective medium enabling the isolation and quantification of S. gallolyticus from faecal samples. The bacterium was observed in 82 out of 91 faecal samples obtained from 18 different organic turkey flocks. The prevalence of shedding birds was estimated by the number of positive fresh droppings and reached up to 100% on most farms. Furthermore, for the first time S. gallolyticus was quantified in faeces from poultry flocks. The median of colony forming units (CFU per gramme faeces was 3.6 x 10(5 CFU/g. Typing of one isolate from each positive faecal sample by multilocus sequence typing delivered 24 sequence types (STs. Most of the isolates belonged to the clonal complex CC58. The same STs of this complex were detected in up to six different flocks. Partly, these flocks were located in various regions and stocked with varying breeding lines. Regarding the biochemical profiles of the same STs from different farms, the results did not contradict a spread of specific STs in the organic turkey production. Moreover, checking the pubMLST database revealed that STs found in this study were also found in other animal species and in humans. The high detection rate and the number of S. gallolyticus in turkey faeces indicate that this bacterium probably belongs to the common microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys from organic flocks. Furthermore, the findings of this study support the suggestion of a possible interspecies transmission.

  18. A bibliometric analysis of orthopedic publications originating from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, Yusuf; Süğün, Tahir Sadık; Özaksar, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the research productivity originating in Turkey using articles published in the top 40 orthopedic journals according to the Journal Citation Reports for 2013. All scientific papers published in English and included in the Science Citation Index Expanded between 1980 and 2013 were analyzed using the "Web of Science". The number of publications per million (PmP) was calculated. All selected journals were analyzed for the numbers of articles, authorships, institutions and 100 most frequently cited papers. From a total of 130,494 articles published worldwide, the United States ranked first according to output. Turkey ranked 14th in the number of orthopedic publications and 26th out of 30 countries in the PmP index. 2012 produced the greatest number of publications worldwide and 2008 for Turkey. Gunal I., Yazici M. and Ozturk C. were the most frequent contributors. Hacettepe University, Istanbul University and Ankara University were the most frequent intuitions among all Turkish publications. The Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery was the most frequently published journal in this period with a rate of 16.3%. There was a total of 9,085 (8,765; excluding self-citations) citations of the 1,398 publications published in Turkey until December 2013, with a citation-to-work ratio of 7.47 and an h-index of 34. With the newly established universities, as well as training and research clinics, the approach of increasing number of orthopedics and traumatology clinics and specialists to scientific activities would be more fruitful in the light of these data.

  19. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate increases mineralization and mechanical properties of tibia in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Sliwa, Ewa; Krupski, Witold; Brodzki, Adam; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2006-07-01

    Skeletal disorders in rapidly growing poultry are commonplace. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) administration during the last 7 weeks of life on structural properties, mineralization, and mechanical endurance of skeleton in turkeys at slaughter. Healthy HB Medium Bronze female turkeys were randomly assigned to two weight-matched groups at the age of 12 weeks. OKG was administered orally to the experimental group (N=17) at the dose of 0.4 g/kg body weight per day, while the control group (N=16) received an equal dose of the vehicle. The turkeys were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks and the tibiae were isolated for analysis. The effect of OKG on skeletal system development in turkeys was evaluated in relation to both geometrical and mechanical properties as well as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Free amino acids concentrations were assessed with the use of ion-exchange chromatography. Significantly increased bone mineral density of the trabecular and the cortical bone of tibia in the turkeys given OKG for the last 7 weeks of production cycle were observed (Ppoultry production.

  20. Concentrations and human health risk assessment of DDT and its metabolites in free-range and commercial chicken products from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L A; Ikenaka, Y; Yohannes, Y B; van Vuren, J J; Wepener, V; Smit, N J; Darwish, W S; Nakayama, S M M; Mizukawa, H; Ishizuka, M

    2017-11-01

    Organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have been used in agriculture and for disease control purposes over many decades. Reports suggest that DDT exposure may result in a number of adverse effects in humans. In the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, DDT is sprayed annually in homes (indoor residual spraying) to control the mosquito vector of malaria. In the northern part of the Province, samples of free-range chicken meat (n = 48) and eggs (n = 13), and commercially produced chicken meat (n = 6) and eggs (n = 11), were collected and analysed. Of the free-range chicken meat samples, 94% (45/48) contained DDTs (ΣDDTs median 6.1 ng/g wet weight [ww], maximum 79.1 ng/g ww). Chicken egg contents were also contaminated (ΣDDTs in free-range eggs median 9544 ng/g ww, maximum 96.666 ng/g ww; and in commercial eggs median 1.3 ng/g ww, maximum 4.6 ng/g ww). The predominant DDT congener detected was p,p'-DDE in both free-range meat (>63%) and eggs (>66%), followed by p,p'-DDT and then p,p'-DDD. Based on estimated daily intake values, calculated human risk ratio (carcinogenic) values were >1 for DDTs detected in both free-range chicken products. Consumption of free-range eggs poses a particularly high health risk.

  1. Monitoring Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in traditional free-range 'Label Rouge' broiler production: a 23-year survey programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, G; Guyot, M; Protino, J

    2017-01-01

    'Label Rouge' broiler free-range carcasses have been monitored since 1991, and broiler flocks since 2010, for contamination by the main foodborne zoonotic bacteria. Initially, the monitoring plan mainly focused on the surveillance of Salmonella, and on indicators of the overall microbiological quality of free-range broiler carcasses such as Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms, but was extended in 2007 to include Campylobacter enumeration on carcasses and in 2010, to Salmonella in the environment of live birds. Salmonella contamination of free-range broiler carcasses rose to a peak of 16% in 1994 but less than 1% of carcasses are now regularly found to be positive. Indicators of the overall microbiological quality of carcasses are also improving. These results correlate with the low prevalence of Salmonella in free-range broiler breeding and production flocks, and with the continuous improvement of hazard analysis and critical control points in slaughterhouses, the implementation of a good manufacturing practice guide since 1997 and the application of EU regulations on Salmonella since 1998 in France. Regarding Campylobacter counts on carcasses, the situation has been improving continuously over the last few years, even if 2·5% of the carcasses are still contaminated by more than 1000 Campylobacter per g of skin. Although the current control system focusing on Salmonella is based on firm epidemiologic data and offers effective means of control (e.g. slaughtering of positive breeder flocks), existing information on Campylobacter makes it more difficult to formulate an effective control plan for free-range broilers, due to their particular exposure to environmental contamination. This long-term surveillance programme provided an extended view of the evolution of the contamination of free-range broilers and a direct measurement of the impact of mandatory and profession-driven interventions on the microbiological quality of carcasses. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  2. A Macroanatomic Study on Larynx Cranialis of Turkeys in Thrace Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan GUNDEMİR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the differences and similarities between larynx cranialis of turkey and other species of poultry. For this purpose, 8 female and 8 male adult turkeys were used for the anatomical measurements. Furthermore, histological examinations were performed on larynx cranialis of 2 turkeys. Cartilago thyroidea and epiglottis were not observed in the larynx cranialis, in our study. Besides, larynx cranialis were found to constitute from paired cartilago arytneoidea and unpaired cartilago cricoidea and cartilago procricoidea. Crista ventralis was detected on larynx cranialis of turkeys. According to our results, it has been determined that in turkey; the width of glottis in female turkeys were larger than males. Cartilago procricoidea were observed bigger than cartilago arytenoidea and crista ventralis were found to be more prominent than in other birds.

  3. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  4. New table grapes in turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atak A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Table grape consumption is increasing day by day all around the world. New varieties are derived from breeding programs in different countries around the world. Breeding programs in particular are shaped in accordance with the demands of consumers. Especially in recent years, the demands increased for cultivars of table grapes with large berry and maturation at different times, in Turkey as well as in the world market. Also, new cultivars which are tolerant to fungal diseases, late-season and can be stored for a long time had much demand in recent years. For this purpose, new table grapes with these characteristics have been developed by Yalova Atatürk from Central Horticultural Research Institute. Especially in the last few years, the numbers of new cultivars of a total of 12 varieties have been registered. Atak 77, Pembe 77, İsmetbey, Arifbey, Samancı çekirdeksizi, and Yalova Beyazıtable grapes cultivars have been registered in the last few years among the new cultivars. Each one of them is different from the standard cultivars and has been registered with superior properties. Most of these cultivars need less pesticide application in high humidity areas and can be grown successfully. These new cultivars were tested in different ecology and determined suitable regions. These new table grape varieties started to be grown in different part of Turkey nowadays.

  5. Globalization, English Language Teaching & Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Zülküf ALTAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization as a concept has been used both positively and negatively by many different people and in many different situations. Depending on the point of view, all definitions on globalization state that it has the power of creating a world without boundaries where people communicate, share, and do business with the help of information, communication and transportation technologies. And the medium of all these activities is English language. Therefore, English language curriculum and teachers should be able to help learners to function as successful members in globalized digital-age World. Technological advancements open new areas to use English language as the main medium for communication both for personal and advanced academic needs and these new uses create new challenges for English language teachers to introduce, use, analyze and teach these areas to EFL (English as a Foreign Language students. Where does Turkey stand as a country in this picture? This paper focuses on the effect of globalization on ELT, 21st century skills and English language and current practice of ELT along with the recent curriculum revision of EFL in Turkey.

  6. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  7. From the Cover: Manganese Stimulates Mitochondrial H2O2 Production in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells Over Physiologic as well as Toxicologic Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jolyn; Hao, Li; Bijli, Kaiser M; Chandler, Joshua D; Orr, Michael; Hu, Xin; Jones, Dean P; Go, Young-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an abundant redox-active metal with well-characterized mitochondrial accumulation and neurotoxicity due to excessive exposures. Mn is also an essential co-factor for the mitochondrial antioxidant protein, superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and the range for adequate intake established by the Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board is 20% of the interim guidance value for toxicity by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, leaving little margin for safety. To study toxic mechanisms over this critical dose range, we treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with a series of MnCl 2 concentrations (from 0 to 100 μM) and measured cellular content to compare to human brain Mn content. Concentrations ≤10 μM gave cellular concentrations comparable to literature values for normal human brain, whereas concentrations ≥50 μM resulted in values comparable to brains from individuals with toxic Mn exposures. Cellular oxygen consumption rate increased as a function of Mn up to 10 μM and decreased with Mn dose ≥50 μM. Over this range, Mn had no effect on superoxide production as measured by aconitase activity or MitoSOX but increased H 2 O 2 production as measured by MitoPY1. Consistent with increased production of H 2 O 2 , SOD2 activity, and steady-state oxidation of total thiol increased with increasing Mn. These findings have important implications for Mn toxicity by re-directing attention from superoxide anion radical to H 2 O 2 -dependent mechanisms and to investigation over the entire physiologic range to toxicologic range. Additionally, the results show that controlled Mn exposure provides a useful cell manipulation for toxicological studies of mitochondrial H 2 O 2 signaling. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. PESTICIDE RISKS OF SEAFOOD IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Şafak; Özden, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    Turkey is a rich country in terms of seasand inland wa­ter sources. The aquatic ecosystems in Turkey are threatened bythe agricultural activities and pesticide contamination.  In parallel to the world, the use of pes­ticidesbegan in the 1940s in Turkey. In the beginning of 1970’s some pesticides haveprohibited by reason of their accumulation to environment and food chains,toxic effects on non-target organisms. Pesticides can easily be included to thefood chain in the aquatic envi­ronment whic...

  9. Antimicrobial activity of poultry bone and meat trimmings hydrolyzates in low-sodium turkey food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Pier Paolo; Sforza, Stefano; Dossena, Arnaldo; Lambertini, Francesca; Bottesini, Chiara; Nikolaev, Ilya V; Koroleva, Olga; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano

    2014-02-01

    This research was aimed at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity exerted by poultry protein hydrolyzates derived from industrial leftovers added to minced turkey meat, intended for the production of burgers for human consumption. Hydrolyzates were obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis from poultry bone and meat trimmings, as by-products from the poultry industry. Colony forming unit assays, under both laboratory and industrial conditions, were performed to assess microbial growth. Poultry protein hydrolyzates inhibited microbial growth occurring in semi-finished turkey meat during the normal retention period because of their water holding capacity resulting in a decreased water activity. Overall, the findings demonstrated that poultry protein hydrolyzates could decrease mesophilic, psychrophilic, and thermophilic bacterial growth for the entire product shelf-life. Bacterial growth inhibition obtained in minced turkey meat by addition of poultry protein hydrolyzates (1.5%), hygroscopic amino acids mixture (1.5%) or sodium chloride (1%) was similar. It is suggested that the use of hydrolyzates could allow the reduction of salt content in poultry meat based products leading to the production of low-sodium turkey food still maintaining acceptable sensory characteristics.

  10. Development potential of wind energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Akova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L’énergie en Turquie est aujourd’hui fournie par l’énergie fossile. De plus, la Turquie est dépendante de l’extérieur en matière d’énergie pour son économie et les secteurs divers qui en ont besoin. En Turquie, parallèlement aux informations ci-dessus, 83% de l’électricité de l’an 2008 provient des sources d’énergie fossile. Les perspectives d'avenir prévoient que la demande d’énergie de la Turquie augmentera et l’effet naturel de cette croissance sera l’augmentation du taux de dépendance énergétique à l'égard des autres pays. Les travaux effectués démontrent que, parmi les sources d’énergies renouvelables de la Turquie, le pouvoir hydraulique et le potentiel d’énergie éolienne sont les plus importants et que chacune de ces deux sources ont des potentiels techniques pour la production de l’électricité. La multiplication des centrales éoliennes au cours de ces dernières années est à relier à des facteurs comme la préparation de l’Atlas d’Energie Eolienne Turc, la disposition des lois afin d’aider les entrepreneurs du secteur privé et l’augmentation des prix du pétrole. Les centrales éoliennes fonctionneront dans la région de Marmara, la région d’Egée et dans la partie de méditerranée orientale de la Turquie où se manifestent plus souvent les vents violents. Il est probable que quelques autres centrales seront construites dans d'autres régions que celles citées précédemment.Covering its energy requirement from fossil energy sources for the most part, Turkey relies on outside sources to procure energy required for its economy and different sectors. Similarly, Turkey had produced 83 pct of the overall electricity in 2008 out of fossil energy sources. Future projectors indicate that the energy requirement of our country would augment and foreign-dependency in energy would thus increase accordingly.  The on-going studies state that especially hydraulic power and wind

  11. Recoil-range studies of heavy products of multinucleon transfer from /sup 18/O to /sup 245/Cm and /sup 249/Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    Recoil range distributions were measured for alpha and spontaneous fission activities made in the bombardment of /sup 245/Cm and /sup 249/Cf with /sup 18/O from 6.20 MeV/nucleon down to the interaction barrier. The shape of the distributions indicates tht transfers of up to four protons take place via a combination of quasi-elastic (QET) and deep inelastic (DIT) mechanisms, rather than complete fusion-de-excitation (CF) or massive transfer (MT). Angular distributions constructed from recoil range distributions, assuming QET/DIT, indicate that the QET component contributes more significantly to the heavy product residue cross section than the DIT, even though primary cross sections are expected to be higher for DIT than for QET. This may be explained qualitatively as a result of the high excitation energies associated with DIT; the very negative Q/sub gg/ of projectile stripping for these systems combined with the lower expected optimal Q/sub rxn/ of QET compared to DIT can give QET products comparatively low excitation.

  12. Stress-induced colibacillosis and turkey osteomyelitis complex in turkeys selected for increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G; Huff, W; Rath, N; Balog, J; Anthony, N B; Nestor, K

    2006-02-01

    Two stress models were used to induce colibacillosis and turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC): Escherichia coli challenge following dexamethasone injection (Dex) and E. coli challenge preceding transport stress (Transport). A total of 160 birds from 3 lines of turkeys: a slow-growing line selected for egg production (Egg), a line selected for 16-wk BW (F line), and a Commercial line (Comm), were studied in a 3 x 3 x 2 (line x treatment x sex) factorial design. At 14 wk, the Dex group was treated with 3 injections of 2 mg of Dex/kg of BW followed by airsac challenge with 100 cfu of E. coli. The Transport group was given 5,000 cfu of the same E. coli and 8 d later was transported for 3 h and held for an additional 9 h in the transport vehicle. Controls of each line were neither stressed nor challenged with E. coli. Birds were necropsied 2 wk postchallenge. All birds were sexed, scored for airsacculitis (AS) and TOC, and knee synovia were cultured for E. coli. Percent mortality was unaffected by sex, was increased by the Dex treatment, and was higher in Dex-treated male Comm-line birds and Dex-treated female F-line birds compared with their respective nonchallenged controls. Both treatments increased AS scores, and scores of Dex-treated male Comm-line birds and female F-line birds were also higher compared with their respective controls. Male Comm birds under Transport had higher AS scores as compared with nonchallenged males and challenged females. The TOC incidence was increased by Dex only. There was no TOC in Egg-line birds, whereas TOC incidence approached significance in both Comm and F lines compared with the Egg line (P = 0.06). Males had twice as much TOC as females, and this approached significance in the F line (P = 0.06). There was a low level of TOC in male Transport birds of both large-bodied lines, whereas no female Transport birds had TOC lesions. Dex-treated male birds of both the F line and Comm line had significantly higher incidence of TOC compared

  13. D meson production and long-range azimuthal correlation in 8.16 TeV p+Pb collisions with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Qipeng; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of production of prompt charm mesons (D0 and D*) and azimuthal correlations between inclusive D* and charged particles are presented in p+Pb collisions data at 8.16 TeV collected in 2016 by ATLAS. The prompt charm meson production is measured in minimum bias p+Pb data, reconstructed via two decay channels: D0->K+pi and D*->D0+pi->K+pi+pi. The production asymmetry between forward and backward center-of-mass rapidities for the charm mesons is studied for the range of |y*| < 0.5, and no significant asymmetry is observed. In the D*-hadron correlations, the pT of identified D* is more closely related to the pt of primordial heavy quarks, relative to the measurement of their decay muons. A finite elliptic harmonic coefficient for inclusive D* and charge particles have been extracted with a significance of one to two standard deviations, depending on multiplicity, broadly consistent with what have been observed for light hadrons and muons from heavy quark decaying.

  14. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  15. Femicide in Turkey between 2000 and 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadik Toprak; Gokhan Ersoy

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of femicide cases in Turkey and to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, and criminological characteristics of femicide...

  16. Turkey and Israel Back Together Again

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonathan Gorvett

    2016-01-01

      SOME SIX YEARS after Israeli commandos stormed aboard the Turkish vessel Mavi Marmara, shooting dead nine of its peace-activist crew and sending already frayed relations between Turkey and Israel...

  17. Conservation of a new breeding population of Caucasian lynx(Lynx lynx dinniki) in eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CHYNOWETH, MARK; ÇOBAN, EMRAH; ŞEKERCİOĞLU, ÇAĞAN

    2015-01-01

    Current data on the distribution and ecology of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Turkey are limited. Furthermore, lynx in the Caucasus region are likely to represent a subspecies of the Eurasian lynx, the Caucasian lynx (L. l. dinniki). Throughout its range, lynx increasingly face threats due to human activity, with habitat loss and prey depletion being of particular concern in eastern Turkey. As part of our camera trapping efforts to monitor large carnivores in the Sarıkamış-Allahuekber Nati...

  18. Morphological, cytological and palynological features of three closely related Centaurea species (Asteraceae from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Bancheva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the main distinctive morphological, cytological and palynological features of three closely related Centaurea L. taxa (Asteraceae growing in Turkey: C. aytugiana Bancheva, Kaya et Binzet, C. stenolepis Kerner and C. salicifolia M. Bieb. ex Willd. The first species, recently described from Karabük province, Turkey (Bancheva et al. 2014, is an endemic of Karabük province, whereas the remaining taxa have larger distribution ranges. The results show that the morphological (including pollen-morphological traits and chromosome numbers proved to be of high diagnostic value and are very useful for determination.

  19. The European Union and Turkey: A Review of Their Commonalities and Disparities Using Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkay Yildiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has enjoyed considerable economic growth over the past decade and has a positive economic outlook and strong growth prospects. The country benefits from being located between Europe and the major energy producers in the Middle East in the so-called strategic energy corridor. The issue of Turkey’s accession to the EU has long been on the political agenda in Europe. Indeed, Turkey has made considerable efforts to become a full EU member state. However, the accession negotiations for EU membership continue, while Turkey has recently refused to open new accession chapters with the EU and instead has turned its attention to other regional developments. Turkey has strengthened its swtrategic ties with a wide range of countries including those in Europe and the Middle East. It also plays an influential role in a geography that stretches across the former Soviet Union nations. In this paper, the path of Turkey’s accession issues is reviewed and the direction of its economy based on the measure of GDP per capita is forecast using an autoregressive integrated moving average model. In addition, the cluster analysis technique is adopted in order to measure the possible standing of Turkey among EU members, the similarities between EU members, and the current path to becoming an EU member state.

  20. Looking at Ankara from Strasbourg: An Empirical Assessment of MEPs' Voting on and Framing of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Braghiroli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available this article examines the way in which the Members of the European Parliament (MEPS frame Turkey and how this affects their voting stance towards Ankara in the parliamentary debates. Recent studies (Baldwin and Widgrén 2005; Braghiroli 2012; Canan-Sokullu 2011 have demonstrated that the debate on Turkey’s European Union (EU membership produces a very divisive impact on the voting dynamics and voting alignments in the European Parliament (EP in the light of its national and political significance. The parliamentary positions on the ‘Turkey discourse’ range from enthusiastic support to open Turkophobia. What is even more striking is the wide variety of individual positions generally identifiable within the same political/ideological area. To what extent are meps’ different perceptions and representations of Turkey reflected in the way they vote when Turkey is at stake in the EP? And, what is the impact of this state of things on groups’ internal cohesion? This study addresses these two fundamental questions using two different sources of data. Elite survey data is used in order to capture MEPS’ perceptions of Turkey, while meps’ voting behavior is assessed in the light of the expressed votes.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli recovered from organic turkey farms in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Ahmed, Marwa F E; Hotzel, Helmut; Tomaso, Herbert; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Hartung, Joerg; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hafez, Hafez M

    2015-11-01

    The popularity of food produced from animals kept under an organic regimen has increased in recent years. In Germany, turkey meat consumption has increased. Despite several studies assessing the susceptibility of campylobacters to various antibiotics in poultry, no sufficient data exists regarding the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacters in organic-reared turkeys. This study provides information about antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter isolated from turkeys reared on organic farms in Germany. Ninety-six Campylobacter strains (41 C. jejuni and 55 C. coli) were isolated from different free-range turkey flocks. In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done using a broth microdilution test, and the presence of resistance genes to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline) was investigated. All Campylobacter isolates from organic turkeys (n = 96) were phenotypically sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol. In this study, the antibiotic susceptibilities of C. jejuni to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and naladixic acid were 56.0%, 51.3%, and 56.0%, respectively. In contrast, 44.0%, 73.0%, and 74.6% of C. coli isolates were resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid, respectively. Replacement of the Thr-86→Ile in the gyrA gene, and the presence of the tet(O) gene were the mainly identified resistance mechanisms against fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, respectively.These results also reinforce the need to develop strategies and implement specific control procedures to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Propagation and characterization of turkey reoviruses isolated in Germany, 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2004 to 2008, suspected avian reoviruses were isolated from turkey flocks in ten counties in Germany. The age of birds at isolation ranged from 9 to 54 days. The suspected avian reoviruses elicited characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) in chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cell culture. In 2009, CEK ...

  3. Progress towards Good-Quality Education for All in Turkey: A Qualified Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseleci, Nihan

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from a range of secondary data sources, this paper succinctly overviews patterns of access to good-quality education in Turkey over the last 15 years. It also maps the policy context within which issues of access, quality and equity are examined. As a result of effective supply and demand side strategies, enrolment ratios beyond the…

  4. NONPARAMETRIC FIXED EFFECT PANEL DATA MODELS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AIR POLLUTION AND INCOME FOR TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Ece OMAY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, relationship between gross domestic product (GDP per capita and sulfur dioxide (SO2 and particulate matter (PM10 per capita is modeled for Turkey. Nonparametric fixed effect panel data analysis is used for the modeling. The panel data covers 12 territories, in first level of Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS, for period of 1990-2001. Modeling of the relationship between GDP and SO2 and PM10 for Turkey, the non-parametric models have given good results.

  5. Effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on the storage of turkey semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Passarella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance or improvement of sperm quality during storage could prevent the loss of fertilizing capacity associated with stored turkey semen. Therefore the optimization of stored turkey semen could be useful to breeder industry since the commercial production of this bird relies almost entirely on artificial insemination. Previous research have shown that He-Ne laser irradiation in mammalian sperm increased the motility (Stato, 1986, decreased the mortality, promoted the acrosome reaction, which have a pivotal role in assisted fecundating programmes as therapy for resolving infertility in domestic animals..........

  6. Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain 327, a strain isolated from a turkey slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamiya, Monica; Özen, Asli Ismihan; Rasmussen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    , catalase positive bacterium obtains energy from the metabolism of amino acids and Krebs cycle intermediates. Strain 327 was isolated from a turkey slaughter production line and is considered environmentally sensitive to food processing (cold, heat, drying) and storage conditions. The 327 whole genome...... shotgun sequence of 1,618,613 bp long consists of 1,740 protein-coding genes, 46 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA operons. A protein based BLAST analysis places the turkey isolate 327 close to the human clinical strain 81116 (NCTC 11828)....

  7. Analysis of factors influencing organic fruit and vegetable purchasing in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraman, Yasemin; Unakitan, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influences on the purchasing decisions of fruit and vegetable consumers and presents findings from a survey conducted with 385 respondents living in urban areas in Istanbul, Turkey. It uses a binary logistic model to estimate factor effects in organic fruit and vegetable purchasing in Turkey. The results indicate that concern for human health and safety is a key factor that influences consumer preferences for organic food. Findings will help organic product suppliers understand the key factors influencing consumer purchasing and consumption behaviors.

  8. Testing the role of fiscal policy in the environmental degradation: the case of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu, Salih; Katircioglu, Setareh

    2018-02-01

    This study introduces a new research topic that investigates the relationship between fiscal development and carbon emissions in Turkey through testing Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Annual data covering the period, 1960-2013, has been used and in addition to gross domestic product and energy consumption, fiscal policy variables have been regressed on the level of carbon emissions in Turkey. Results reveal that fiscal policies and carbon emissions are in long-term equilibrium relationship in Turkey; carbon dioxide emission level converges towards long-term paths as contributed by fiscal policy. The effects of fiscal aggregates on the level of carbon dioxide emissions are negatively significant revealing that growth in fiscal aggregates leads to declines on the levels of carbon emissions. This proves that as far as environmental effects are concerned, fiscal policies regarding energy sector is successful in Turkey. Thus, the major finding of this study confirmed the validity of the fiscal policy-induced EKC hypothesis in the case of Turkey.

  9. Whole genome QTL mapping for growth, meat quality and breast meat yield traits in turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereijken Addie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection response of animal breeding programs. The use of these molecular markers for the identification of quantitative trait loci, and subsequently fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci regions, allows for pinpointing of genes that underlie such economically important traits. Results The quantitative trait loci analyses of the growth curve, body weight, breast yield and the meat quality traits showed putative quantitative trait loci on 21 of the 27 turkey chromosomes covered by the linkage map. Forty-five quantitative trait loci were detected across all traits and these were found in 29 different regions on 21 chromosomes. Out of the 45 quantitative trait loci, twelve showed significant (p Conclusion A large number of quantitative trait loci were detected across the turkey genome, which affected growth, breast yield and meat quality traits. Pleiotropic effects or close linkages between quantitative trait loci were suggested for several of the chromosomal regions. The comparative analysis regarding the location of quantitative trait loci on different turkey, and on the syntenic chicken chromosomes, along with their phenotypic associations, revealed signs of functional conservation between these species.

  10. Socioeconomic Perspectives on Household Chestnut Fruit Utilization and Chestnut Blight Prevention Efforts in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Okan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic pathogens, within the center of genetic diversity for the species, compromise European chestnut populations in Turkey. In Turkey today, the species is of tremendous economic, ecological and cultural importance. At this time of severe exotic pathogenic pressure on a highly-valued forest species, we ask, how does awareness of diseases and treatments as well as value for chestnut trees affect the efforts of households to manage pests and diseases of chestnut trees in Turkey? We conducted 96 surveys in 34 villages in 10 provinces across Turkey to investigate awareness of diseases and other challenges to the chestnut population, chestnut harvesting habits, family value for chestnuts and efforts to mitigate pest and disease pressure. We analyze our results using cluster and regression analysis. Our results show that based on analysis of all observed characteristics, our research sites in Turkey break cleanly into groups based on production level. Further, results demonstrate significant correlation between amount of chestnut-derived income and awareness of pests and diseases as well as the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures. These results also demonstrate correlation between observed awareness of diseases and pests and the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures.

  11. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Turkey 2013 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Oil has been one of the main energy sources in Turkey, accounting for some 28% of the country’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2011. Turkey’s oil demand slightly increased from 637 kb/d in 2003 to 670 kb/d in 2012, although it dropped down from 678 kb/d in 2009 to 650 kb/d in 2010. The transport sector accounted for half of total oil consumption in 2010. Domestic oil production is in decline in Turkey, amounting to 45 kb/d or about 6.7% of total consumption in 2012. In 2012, Turkey imported 712 kb/d, consisting of about 392 kb/d of crude oil and some 320 kb/d refined products. Around 39% of total crude oil imports came from Iran. Crude oil and petroleum products are mainly undertaken by tankers and two major international pipelines running through the country with a total annual handling capacity of 2.8 mb/d. In the country, there are four operational refineries with a total crude distillation capacity of around 610 kb/d. Turkey meets its 90-day stockholding obligation to the IEA by placing a minimum stockholding obligation on industry. Under the relevant acts, refineries and fuel distribution companies are obliged to hold at least 20 days of product stocks based on the average daily sales of previous year, while eligible consumers that use more than 20,000 tonnes annually are required to hold 15 days’ consumption of each type of liquid fuel. Turkey held some 61 million barrels of oil stocks at the end of January 2013, equating to 99 days of 2011 net-imports. Around 55% of total oil stocks are held in the form of crude oil. The use of emergency oil stocks is central to Turkey’s emergency response policy, which can be complemented by demand restraint measures. The share of natural gas in the country’s TPES significantly increased at 32% in 2011. Turkey’s gas demand significantly increased from 0.7 billion cubic meters (2 mcm/d) in 1987 to 45.3 bcm (124 mcm/d) in 2012, while indigenous natural gas production totalled some 0.63 bcm in the same year

  12. Estimating the effect of coppice practice on carbon dynamics of oak forests in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Han, S. H.; Makineci, E.; Tolunay, D.; Son, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Coppice is a forest management practice, maximizing wood production by short-interval harvest. Coppice practice of oak forests in Turkey was abandoned in 2006, however, quantitative assessment to carbon (C) dynamics after the abandonment is still lacking. Accordingly, we simulated the annual changes in C stocks of oak forests in Turkey (7 regions) under the two management scenarios, using a forest C model (FBDC model): 200-year-interval harvest (A scenario) and abandonment of 20-year-interval coppice (B scenario). Growth of biomass was estimated by diameter at breast height (DBH) and allometric functions from previous studies. Survival of root and regeneration from sprout were formulated by a combination of empirical data and assumptions. Dead organic matter C dynamics were estimated by turnover (mortality) rates of biomass and decay rates of dead organic matter. The model estimates were verified by comparing the estimates and measured C stocks. Under the A scenario, the total (biomass, litter, dead wood, and mineral soil) C stock (Mg C ha-1) varied with stand age, ranging from 153.65 to 284.64. The total C stock (Mg C ha-1) started increasing rapidly after abandonment of coppice practice from 134.23 at 1 year to 280.71 at 200 year. The total C stock under the B scenario converged to the level of total C stock under the A scenario. After the abandonment of coppice practice, the C stocks of biomass, litter, and dead wood almost recovered in 30 years, however, the mineral soil C stock required longer time for recovery. This study was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (2014001310008) and Korea Forest Service (S111314L100110).

  13. Turkey and its international relations in the history of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, N

    2001-12-01

    My discussions with ISHM members have disclosed considerable interest in the history of the relations that Turkey and its medicine have had with other countries. Dr Lellouch, the secretary of ISHM, originally suggested that I address the subject of Turkish-French relations by means of an essay in Vesalius. This led me to consider a wider ranging paper on Ottoman-European relations. For completeness, I have briefly covered the Turkish peoples' relations with the Eastern, as well as the Western World. The overall aim of this article is to act as a stimulus for further discussion on the international relations in health sciences between Turks and other peoples.

  14. GERMANY & TURKEY – A PARTNERSHIP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  15. Bacterial and Viral Fish Diseases in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Rafet Çagrı; Altınok, İlhan

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the state of knowledge about the major bacterial and viral pathogens of fish found in Turkey. It also considers diseases prevention and treatment. In this study, peer reviewed scientific articles, theses and dissertations, symposium proceedings, government records as well as recent books, which published between 1976 and 2013 were used as a source to compile dispersed literature. Bacterial and viral disease problems were investigated during this period in Turkey. Total ...

  16. The governance of international migration in Turkey and Morocco: Irregular migrants’ access to right to stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Üstübici Önay, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses migrant experiences of illegality in Turkey and Morocco by taking into account how both countries responded to increasing pressure by the European Union to govern irregular migration within their territories. In dialogue with literatures on the legal production of migrant

  17. Utilization of rice milling waste (RMW) in local turkey diets: effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of rice milling waste (RMW) in local turkey diets: effect on haematological indices and blood chemistry. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Results obtained showed that substituting maize with 50% RMW produced superior blood quality in terms of Hb counts, white blood cell and red blood cells at the ...

  18. 78 FR 60827 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Mexico and Turkey: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... (202) 482-3692 (Mexico); George McMahon at (202) 482-1167 (Turkey), AD/CVD Operations, Office 8, Import... like product.\\11\\ \\11\\ See Antidumping Duty Investigation Initiation Checklist: Steel Concrete...

  19. Morphology of the Turkey Vagina and Uterus With and Without an Egg Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we examined the gross anatomy of the uterus and vagina in turkeys in egg production. With no uterine egg mass, removal of the tunica serosa that enclosed the uterus revealed deep periodic in-folding of the muscularis transversely circumscribing the sac-like segment. When the connecti...

  20. Sports Culture and Sports in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz KAPLAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sports culture indicates all kinds of morals, products, and behavior. This study aims to argue sports as a cultural element and its appearence in Turkey. This is a descriptive study based on theoretical argument. It is periodic since it is limited to a given term and it is also relied upon literature review. People's adaptations to living conditions are related to culture. We can specify this, “all the patt erns of living and behavior which are special to small units within a large and structurally developed society.” ( Erdemli , 2002In Turkey; it’s more accurate to say that, it’s understood football when you think about sports and sport culture is football culture. This condition can not only induce cultural diversity and wealth but it also leads to a transformation into a society who likes watching sports, talking about sports (saying more precisely football rather than doing sports. Sport magazine has sur passed the sport itself. Representation of sport in media does not make a favorable contribution. Sport media invites violence with its manner of representation of news by acting with the concerns of rating and curcilation although they, at every turn, dec lare that they are against violence. Discourses which include violence, nationalism, sexism, and slang has increased in media as an extensive research also suggested ( Talimciler , 2003.Culture, is a phenomenon which is considerably about quality and accumu lation. Processes are as important as results; sometimes even more. In this sense sport is much more than the score. In a country, a sport branch can be attracting more attention than the other ones; however, Limiting sports to football, also limiting fo otball to several football clubs, and ignoring many of sports branches, those who are interested in them, and who are amateurs is an unfair and reductive approach. On the other hand; sports opportunities could not be created for millions of young and adul t people in our country

  1. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnaz, A., E-mail: asliy@ktu.edu.t [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kucukomeroglu, B. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Damla, N. [Batman University, Department of Physics, 72060 Batman (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and {sup 137}Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h{sup -1} and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}. In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: {yields} {yields}The study highlights activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in soil. {yields} The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. {yields} The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. {yields} Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. {yields} The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  2. Suicide by Homemade Hydrogen Sulfide in Turkey a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Koçak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem and globally the second leading cause of death among young adults. Most of deaths due to H2S were seen among sewage or industrial workers because of acute exposure to this gas. Suicide by inhalation of homemade H2S has been reported for the first time in Japan, in 2007. In this study, for the first time, a 24-years-old male university student (from Turkey preparing homemade H2S by using commercially available chemical products that were bought online in order to suicide was reported. The case is discussed in the light of related literature.

  3. Influence of Dietary Zinc and Vitamin C Supplementation on Some Blood Biochemical Parameters and Egg Production in Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to follow out the effect of antistress dietary supplements Zinteral 35 and vitamin C on the levels of some blood biochemical parameters (corticosterone, total cholesterol, glucose, total protein and creatinine and egg production in laying hens during cold (7o C, thermoneutral (19o C and hot (31o C periods. The fowls were divided in three groups (26 females and 3 males in each group. They were reared in a free-range management system with elements of organic production. The experimental treatments were as followed: first (control group without dietary supplement, second group with 100 mg Zinteral 35 per kg diet containing 35 mg/kg zinc oxide, third group with the same amount of Zinteral 35 together with 250 mg vitamin C per kg diet. During the three periods with different ambient temperature, the hens supplemented either with zinc alone (second group or co-administered zinc + vitamin C (third group had significantly lower levels of plasma corticosterone (P<0.001, serum cholesterol (P<0.05 and glucose (P<0.05 than those from the first (control group. The differences between the third and the first groups were bigger versus those between the second and the first groups. For the entire period (March 1 and June 21, egg production was higher by 2.22 % and 4.60 % in the second and third groups respectively in comparison to the first group. The combination of 100 mg Zinteral 35 and 250 mg vitamin C per 1 kg diet exhibited a synergistic effect in reducing cold and heat stress in laying hens and increased their egg production.

  4. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments Outflow From a Developing Country: the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Onder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments (FDI outflows of Turkey have remarkably been raising over the last decade. This rapid increase brings about the need for questioning the determinants of FDI outflows. The aim of this paper is to estimate the factors affecting outflow FDI from Turkey from 2002 to 2011 by using Prais-Winsten regression analysis. According to estimation results, population, infrastructure, percapita gross domestic product of the host country, and home country exports to the host country are the factors having positive effects on outflow FDI. We found, on the other hand, that the annual inflation rate of the host country, its tax rate collected from commercial profit, and its distance from Turkey have a negative relation with investment outflows. Moreover our results show that while investment outflows to developed countries are in the form of horizontal investments, investment outflows to developing countries are in the form of vertical investments.

  5. Economic analysis of dairy cattle farms in east Mediterranean region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Hilal; Gül,Mevlüt; Akkoyun, Selcan; Parlakay, Oguz; Bilgili, Mehmet Emin; Vurarak, Yasemin; HIZLI, Hatice; Kilicalp, Numan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to calculate costs of milk production, gross production value, gross margin, absolute profit, and relative profit of dairy cattle farms located in the provinces of east Mediterranean region of Turkey. Primary data were collected from 148 dairy cattle farms designated using the Neyman Stratified Sampling method through surveys. Dairy farms were classified into four groups according to the number of cows. The data belong to the 2012 production season. A si...

  6. Growth of L. monocytogenes strain F2365 on ready-to-eat turkey meat does not enhance gastrointestinal listeriosis in intragastrically inoculated A/J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Luke D.; Faith, Nancy G.; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    There have been significant outbreaks of listeriosis associated with consumption of contaminated ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products. In this study, we investigated whether growth on RTE deli turkey meat sends environmental signals to listerial cells that makes them more virulent in the gastrointestinal tract of mice. L. Listeria monocytogenes strain F2365 grew from a starting inoculum of 103 CFU/mL to final numbers of 108–109 CFU/mL (within 12 days at 10 °C) when inoculated onto sliced processed, or whole muscle, turkey breast, or into emulsified whole turkey breast. We did not observe any difference in the numbers of CFU recovered from the spleens and livers of A/J mice inoculated intragastrically with L. monocytogenes grown on sliced turkey meat, in emulsified turkey meat, or in brain heart infusion broth. These results suggest that growth on RTE sliced deli turkey, or in RTE emulsified deli turkey, does not enhance the ability of L. monocytogenes F2365 to cause gastrointestinal listeriosis in intragastrically challenged A/J mice. PMID:18559288

  7. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  8. K-, L- and M-shell X-ray productions induced by krypton ions in the 0.8-1.6 MeV/amu range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlachev, I.; Gluchshenko, N.; Ivanov, I.; Kireyev, A.; Alexandrenko, V.; Kurakhmedov, A.; Platov, A.; Zdorovets, M.

    2017-09-01

    The K-, L- and M-shells X-ray production cross sections induced by krypton ions for a range target elements from Ti to Bi were measured. In the experiments the thin films were irradiated by 84Kr particles with projectile energies of 67.2, 84.0, 100.8, 117.6 and 134.4 MeV. An approach based on the use of Mo grid with 500 nm deposited bismuth layer as a beam monitor was developed to determine the amount of particles delivered on the sample. The efficiency of the X-ray detector was determined using the calibration radioactive sources. The experimental results were compared to the predictions of the ECPSSR and PWBA theories calculated with the ISICS code.

  9. Characteristics of the population employed in primer sector in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayar Rüya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Activities related to the production of raw material like agriculture husbandry, forestry, fishery are called as primer activities. Especially people living in rural areas earn their livings on primer activities, mainly agriculture. Rural planning is inevitable for providing rural development which has an important place in all development of a country. And achievement of this planning depends on putting forth the characteristics of the population living in rural areas with its different aspects. Therefore, the requirements will be introduced more clearly and the increase in the welfare levels of the people living in rural areas will have been achieved. To achieve the rural development and progress, in addition to the features like the size of agricultural products, products that are cultivated, activities like husbandry, forestry, hunting, etc. and the qualities of the enterprises in which these activities are carried out, policies applied, capital, market and technology, the characteristics of the population employed in this sector is also of importance. Considering these points, what is aimed in this study is to put forth the characteristics of the population employed in primer sector in Turkey. According to the census results of the year 2000 in Turkey 38% of the population is employed, and 48% of this work is in primer sector.

  10. High-grade iron ore deposits of the Mesabi Range, Minnesota-product of a continental-scale proterozoic ground-water flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, G.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Mesabi Range along the north edge of the Paleoproterozoic Penokean orogen in northern Minnesota has produced 3.6 billion metric tons of ore since its discovery in 1890. Of that amount, 2.3 billion metric tons were extracted from hematite- or geothite-rich deposits generally referred to as 'high-grade' ores. The high-grade ores formed as the Biwabik Iron-Formation was oxidized, hydrated, and leached by solutions flowing along open faults and fractures. The source of the ore-forming solutions has been debated since it was first proposed that the ores were weathering products formed by descending meteoritic ground-water flowing in late Mesozoic time. Subsequently others believed that the ores were better explained by ascending solutions, possbily hydrothermal solutions of pre-Phanerzoic age. Neither Wolff nor Gruner could reconcile their observations with a reasonable source for the solutions. In this paper, I build on modern mapping of the Mesabi Range and mine-specific geologic observations summarized in the literature to propose a conceptual model in which the high-grade ores formed from ascending solutions that were part of continent-scale topographic or gravity-driven ground-water system. I propose that the ground-water system was active during the later stages of the development of a coupled fold and thrust belt and foreland basin that formed during the Penokean orogen.

  11. Transcriptional profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in developing turkey skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velleman Sandra G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal muscle growth and development from embryo to adult consists of a series of carefully regulated changes in gene expression. Understanding these developmental changes in agriculturally important species is essential to the production of high quality meat products. For example, consumer demand for lean, inexpensive meat products has driven the turkey industry to unprecedented production through intensive genetic selection. However, achievements of increased body weight and muscle mass have been countered by an increased incidence of myopathies and meat quality defects. In a previous study, we developed and validated a turkey skeletal muscle-specific microarray as a tool for functional genomics studies. The goals of the current study were to utilize this microarray to elucidate functional pathways of genes responsible for key events in turkey skeletal muscle development and to compare differences in gene expression between two genetic lines of turkeys. To achieve these goals, skeletal muscle samples were collected at three critical stages in muscle development: 18d embryo (hyperplasia, 1d post-hatch (shift from myoblast-mediated growth to satellite cell-modulated growth by hypertrophy, and 16wk (market age from two genetic lines: a randombred control line (RBC2 maintained without selection pressure, and a line (F selected from the RBC2 line for increased 16wk body weight. Array hybridizations were performed in two experiments: Experiment 1 directly compared the developmental stages within genetic line, while Experiment 2 directly compared the two lines within each developmental stage. Results A total of 3474 genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate; FDR Conclusions The current study identified gene pathways and uncovered novel genes important in turkey muscle growth and development. Future experiments will focus further on several of these candidate genes and the expression and mechanism of action of

  12. Association of polymorphisms in the promoter region of turkey prolactin with egg performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Mehrangiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The induction and regulation of broodiness is of the most important role of prolactin in avian species. In this study, the association between prolactin promoter region alleles and reproductive traits in Fars native turkey was investigated. These traits consisted of mean egg weight (MEW, number of egg (EN and egg mass, during the first laying period. In total, 115 laying turkeys, randomly selected from the flock of the Breeding Center for Fars Native turkey, and DNA was purificated from blood samples, 231 bp of prolactin promoter region was amplified and Genotype of Samples was determinate by PCR-SSCP technique were genotyped. Two alleles D and I were identified. Based on the results obtained, the frequency of D and I alleles were 0.67 and 0.33, respectively. Frequencies of DD, II and ID genotypes were 0.385, 0.044 and 0.571, respectively. The association analysis between the polymorphism PRL gene promoter region and egg performance was carried out. Significant relationship was found between genotypes with egg production (P<0.01. Individuals with II genotype produced higher egg production than DD and ID genotype. The results of current study showed that using information of genes related to egg production could be used to improve the performance of native turkey of East Azerbaijan province.

  13. A comparison of the efficacy of different disinfection methods in eliminating Salmonella contamination from turkey houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Doblies, D; Carrique-Mas, J J; Sayers, A R; Davies, R H

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of different disinfection methods in eliminating Salmonella contamination from turkey houses. Fifty depopulated turkey houses which had all housed Salmonella-positive flocks were visited after cleaning and disinfection. A minimum of 45 swab samples from different surfaces were taken per house and analysed for the presence of Salmonella. The sampled surfaces included intact floor surfaces, floor cracks, walls, feeders, drinkers, anteroom, nestboxes and miscellaneous items. Houses were grouped according to the disinfectant which had been used and the efficacy of the different groups of disinfectants was compared. Sixty-eight % of houses tested positive for Salmonella after C&D. Out of 4440 samples, 207 tested positive for Salmonella, giving an overall sample prevalence of 4.7%. There was no significant difference in the level of residual contamination between breeding, rearing and finishing houses. Products containing a mixture of formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) performed significantly better than products containing hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid. Cleaning and disinfection was least effective in nestboxes and anterooms. Thorough cleaning and the choice of a suitable disinfectant are crucial if Salmonella contamination of turkey houses is to be eliminated. This study shows that disinfectants containing a mixture of formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and QAC perform significantly better under field conditions than oxidising products and should therefore be the first choice for disinfection of turkey premises where Salmonella is present.

  14. Application of a wide-range yeast vector (CoMed™ system to recombinant protein production in dimorphic Arxula adeninivorans, methylotrophic Hansenula polymorpha and other yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze Gotthard

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms in combining ease of genetic manipulation and fermentation of a microbial organism with the capability to secrete and to modify proteins according to a general eukaryotic scheme. However, early restriction to a single yeast platform can result in costly and time-consuming failures. It is therefore advisable to assess several selected systems in parallel for the capability to produce a particular protein in desired amounts and quality. A suitable vector must contain a targeting sequence, a promoter element and a selection marker that function in all selected organisms. These criteria are fulfilled by a wide-range integrative yeast expression vector (CoMed™ system based on A. adeninivorans- and H. polymorpha-derived elements that can be introduced in a modular way. Results The vector system and a selection of modular elements for vector design are presented. Individual single vector constructs were used to transform a range of yeast species. Various successful examples are described. A vector with a combination of an rDNA sequence for genomic targeting, the E. coli-derived hph gene for selection and the A. adeninivorans-derived TEF1 promoter for expression control of a GFP (green fluorescent protein gene was employed in a first example to transform eight different species including Hansenula polymorpha, Arxula adeninivorans and others. In a second example, a vector for the secretion of IL-6 was constructed, now using an A. adeninivorans-derived LEU2 gene for selection of recombinants in a range of auxotrophic hosts. In this example, differences in precursor processing were observed: only in A. adeninivorans processing of a MFα1/IL-6 fusion was performed in a faithful way. Conclusion rDNA targeting provides a tool to co-integrate up to 3 different expression plasmids by a single transformation step. Thus, a versatile system is at hand that allows a comparative assessment of newly

  15. VOC Measurements in the Northern Colorado Front Range Metropolitan Area: Investigating the Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Emissions on O3 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeleira, A.; Farmer, D.; Fischer, E. V.; Pollack, I. B.; Zaragoza, J.

    2015-12-01

    Authors: Ilana Pollock1,2, Jake Zaragoza2, Emily V. Fischer2, Delphine K. Farmer11. Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 2. Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO During summer months, the Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) of Colorado consistently violates the 75 ppbv 8-hour EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ambient ozone (O3), despite continued reduction in anthropogenic emissions. The region has been deemed an O3 non-attainment zone since 2008. Ground-level O3 is produced from photochemical catalytic cycles involving OH radicals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and NOx (NO + NO2). VOC emissions in the NFRMA are dominated by anthropogenic sources and influenced by biogenic and agricultural sources, while NOx emissions are mainly from automobile exhaust. A growing concern in the region is the role of oil and natural gas (ONG) on VOC concentrations and the potential for O3 production. Increases in local VOC emissions will likely cause subsequent increase in local O3 concentrations as PO3 increases in a region that is already affected by high O3episodes. As a part of the SONGNEX 2015 (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) campaign, we measured a broad suite of speciated VOCs during two 8-week deployments (March-May 2015, July-September 2015) at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Erie, CO. VOC measurements were made with a custom-online multichannel gas chromatography system (50+ compounds hourly), along with measurements of O3, SO2, NOx, NOy, PAN, CO, CO2, and CH4. We use these data to investigate the role of different VOC sources, and ONG in particular, in contributing to VOC reactivity and thus instantaneous O3 production. Preliminary analysis of the Spring VOC data indicates that VOC reactivity is dominated by light alkanes typical of ONG emissions - specifically propane, consistent with previous winter-time studies. We will use the observed temperature

  16. Assessment of irrigation schemes in Turkey based on management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of irrigation schemes in Turkey based on management types. ... The assessment used the International Water Management Institute (IWMI)'s six performance indicators for the year 2001. ... Key Words: Comparative indicators, irrigation project, management types, irrigation management, performance, Turkey.

  17. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  18. Implementation of National Satellite Based Data Archive (NASABADA) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdemir, Orhan; Beşer, Özgür; Sürer, Serdar

    2010-05-01

    NASABADA is a unique platform aiming to develop main geographical information system and remote sensing layers that are often used in areas such as: agriculture, forest, climate, hydrology, transportation, meteorology, and energy. Its establishment has started at the second half of the year 2009 in Turkey by Beray Engineering Company, and focused on especially Turkey domain as an individual study area. In general, examples of the satellite-based data-oriented production are usually on global scale and and focuses on a specific satellite. However, the products in NASABADA are consistent with Turkey's geographical conditions, and they are supported by ground information and a time series evaluation as well. Moreover, while developing those algorithms priority is using the national resources and providing a know-how for national information infrastructure. Using different features of satellite data and blending them with ground data to develop and provide the results to the end users of these products is one of the main goals of NASABADA Project. In the first stage of NASABADA, development of 7 products is planned, but the number of products is aimed to be around 20 in the future. The explanation of the pioneering 7 products which their preliminary versions would be published in the near future are as follows: albedo, snow cover, snow water equivalent, cloud, surface temperature, vegetation indices, and daily sun radiation maps. Unique architectural design, algorithms including fuzzy logic and ANN methods have been used for image processing and automatic analysis of large amounts of data on a high-tec file and web servers hardware infrastructure. The final aim of NASABADA is developing a data infrastructure for optimal access to those huge amounts of observational data by end users with tools available to make online processing of data and only gathering required images other than raw data. We discuss the development of the NASABADA data infrastructure, its current

  19. Reduced population variance in strontium isotope values informs domesticated turkey use at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstead, Deanna N; Reynolds, Amanda C; Hudson, Adam M; Akins, Nancy J; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) have been used as a sourcing tool in numerous archaeological artifact classes. The research presented here demonstrates that 87Sr/86Srbioapatite ratios also can be used at a population level to investigate the presence of domesticated animals and methods of management. The proposed methodology combines ecology, isotope geochemistry, and behavioral ecology to assess the presence and nature of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) domestication. This case study utilizes 87Sr/86Srbioapatite ratios from teeth and bones of archaeological turkey, deer (Odocoileus sp.), lagomorph (Lepus sp. and Sylvilagus sp.), and prairie-dog (Cynomys sp.) from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, U.S.A. (ca. A.D. 800 – 1250). Wild deer and turkey from the southwestern U.S.A. have much larger home ranges and dispersal behaviors (measured in kilometers) when compared to lagomorphs and prairie dogs (measured in meters). Hunted deer and wild turkey from archaeological contexts at Chaco Canyon are expected to have a higher variance in their 87Sr/86Srbioapatite ratios, when compared to small range taxa (lagomorphs and prairie dogs). Contrary to this expectation, 87Sr/86Srbioapatite values of turkey bones from Chacoan assemblages have a much lower variance than deer and are similar to that of smaller mammals. The sampled turkey values show variability most similar to lagomorphs and prairie dogs, suggesting the turkeys from Chaco Canyon were consuming a uniform diet and/or were constrained within a limited home range, indicating at least proto-domestication. The population approach has wide applicability for evaluating the presence and nature of domestication when combined with paleoecology and behavioral ecology in a variety of animals and environments.

  20. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on...

  1. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    78 See, e.g., Nick Danforth, “Forget Sykes - Picot . It’s the Treaty of Sèvres That Explains the Modern...seeker will be sent back to Turkey under the EU-Turkey agreement if, in their individual case, Turkey cannot be considered a safe third country or safe first country of asylum.” Ibid.

  2. Turkey - Improving Conditions for SME Growth Finance and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating the growth of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is central to creating jobs for an underutilized and growing labor force in Turkey as SMEs account for 79 percent of jobs in Turkey. Creating jobs for Turkey's unemployed and for the rapidly growing labor force, though partly a social challenge, is an important economic opportunity. Turkish SME growth performance and pro...

  3. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Engin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind international standards. This study explores two research questions. First, what is the Turkish government’s outlook for the LGBT community? Secondly, what kind of problems and challenges do trans-individuals experience in Turkey? This study first introduces a macro-level analysis of the politics of gender identity in Turkey by analyzing the debates of four deputies in the Turkish Parliament, each representing their parties’ disparate viewpoints. Secondly, a micro-level analysis of previously collected interviews with twenty-five trans-individuals are also examined that shed light on the difficulties of being a trans-individual in Turkey. The content analysis shows that trans-individuals experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence, in addition to experiencing discrimination in employment, housing, and healthcare. The findings of this micro-level analysis elucidate the continuous discrimination, inequality, and violence that these individuals experience, while the macro-level analysis portrays the state’s discriminatory policies toward LGBT individuals in Turkey.

  4. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Migration Crisis and New Opportunities for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Miheev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some aspects of the relationship of the European Union and Turkey. Against the backdrop of the immigration crisis, that has gripped almost all countries in Europe, the EU states were forced to appeal to the Turkish Government for assistance. Europe requested to withhold part of the f refugees on the territory of Turkey. The EU promised financial support. The Government of RecepTayyip Erdogan linked problems with the issue of refugees entering the country in the EU. The author analyzes the possibility of positive promotion of the negotiation process on Turkey's EU membership. Focuses on the settlement of the Cyprus problem, as one of the three major political obstacles to Turkey in Europe. We are seeing a situation in which EU political circles are willing to exert pressure on the Cyprus conflict and to push for the signing of a formal treaty on the settlement of problem. Some progress in the negotiation process between the communities of Cyprus EU starts to participate in the negotiations on Cyprus, together with the United Nations. Creates good conditions for the settlement of the conflict. Such a way of resolving the long-standing territorial-community conflict creates much more new problems on the island. Obstacles to the integration of Turkey into the EU will become even more.

  6. Aflatoxin M1 levels in UHT milk and kashar cheese consumed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekinşen, K Kaan; Eken, H Semih

    2008-10-01

    In the present study, 100 UHT milk and 132 kashar cheese samples were analyzed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). They were obtained from retail outlets in five big cities (Istanbul, Izmir, Konya, Tekirdag, Edirne). The occurrence and concentration range of AFM1 in the samples were investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Sixty-seven percent of the UHT milk samples and 82.6% of the kashar cheese samples contained AFM1. The positive incidence of AFM1 in the UHT milk samples and the kashar cheese samples ranged from 10 to 630 ng/kg and from 50 to 690 ng/kg, respectively. AFM1 levels in 31 (31%) UHT milk and 36 (27.3%) kashar cheese samples exceeded the maximum tolerable limit of the EC and the TFC. AFM1 levels in the samples show that there is a presence of high aflatoxin level that constitutes a human health risk in Turkey. Therefore milk and dairy products have to be controlled continuously for presence of AFM1 contamination by the Turkish public health authorities.

  7. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  8. Altered Biomechanical Properties of Gastrocnemius Tendons of Turkeys Infected with Turkey Arthritis Reovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A. Sharafeldin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV causes lameness and tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys and is often associated with gastrocnemius tendon rupture by the marketing age. This study was undertaken to characterize the biomechanical properties of tendons from reovirus-infected turkeys. One-week-old turkey poults were orally inoculated with O’Neil strain of TARV and observed for up to 16 weeks of age. Lameness was first observed at 8 weeks of age, which continued at 12 and 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, samples were collected from legs. Left intertarsal joint with adjacent gastrocnemius tendon was collected and processed for histological examination. The right gastrocnemius tendon’s tensile strength and elasticity modulus were analyzed by stressing each tendon to the point of rupture. At 16 weeks of age, gastrocnemius tendons of TARV-infected turkeys showed significantly reduced (P<0.05 tensile strength and modulus of elasticity as compared to those of noninfected control turkeys. Gastrocnemius tendons revealed lymphocytic tendinitis/tenosynovitis beginning at 4 weeks of age, continuing through 8 and 12 weeks, and progressing to fibrosis from 12 to 16 weeks of age. We propose that tendon fibrosis is one of the key features contributing to reduction in tensile strength and elasticity of gastrocnemius tendons in TARV-infected turkeys.

  9. Re-interpretation of the ERMINE-V experiment validation of fission product integral cross section in the fast energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ros Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current knowledge of nuclear data in the fast neutron energy range is not as good as in the thermal range, resulting in larger propagated uncertainties in integral quantities such as critical masses or reactivity effects. This situation makes it difficult to get the full benefit from recent advances in modeling and simulation. Zero power facilities such as the French ZPR MINERVE have already demonstrated that they can contribute to significantly reduce those uncertainties thanks to dedicated experiments. Historically, MINERVE has been mainly dedicated to thermal spectrum studies. However, experiments involving fast-thermal coupled cores were also performed in MINERVE as part of the ERMINE program, in order to improve nuclear data in fast spectra for the two French SFRs: PHENIX and SUPERPHENIX. Some of those experiments have been recently revisited. In particular, a full characterization of ZONA-1 and ZONA-3, two different cores loaded in the ERMINE V campaign, has been done, with much attention paid to possible sources of errors. It includes detailed geometric descriptions, energy profiles of the direct and adjoint fluxes and spectral indices obtained thanks to Monte Carlo calculations and compared to a reference fast core configuration. Sample oscillation experiments of separated fission products such as 103Rh or 99Tc, which were part of the ERMINE V program, have been simulated using recently-developed options in the TRIPOLI-4 code and compared to the experimental values. The present paper describes the corresponding results. The findings motivate in-depth studies for designing optimized coupled-core conditions in ZEPHYR, a new ZPR which will replace MINERVE and will provide integral data to meet the needs of Gen-III and Gen-IV reactors.

  10. Re-interpretation of the ERMINE-V experiment validation of fission product integral cross section in the fast energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Paul; Leconte, Pierre; Blaise, Patrick; Naymeh, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    The current knowledge of nuclear data in the fast neutron energy range is not as good as in the thermal range, resulting in larger propagated uncertainties in integral quantities such as critical masses or reactivity effects. This situation makes it difficult to get the full benefit from recent advances in modeling and simulation. Zero power facilities such as the French ZPR MINERVE have already demonstrated that they can contribute to significantly reduce those uncertainties thanks to dedicated experiments. Historically, MINERVE has been mainly dedicated to thermal spectrum studies. However, experiments involving fast-thermal coupled cores were also performed in MINERVE as part of the ERMINE program, in order to improve nuclear data in fast spectra for the two French SFRs: PHENIX and SUPERPHENIX. Some of those experiments have been recently revisited. In particular, a full characterization of ZONA-1 and ZONA-3, two different cores loaded in the ERMINE V campaign, has been done, with much attention paid to possible sources of errors. It includes detailed geometric descriptions, energy profiles of the direct and adjoint fluxes and spectral indices obtained thanks to Monte Carlo calculations and compared to a reference fast core configuration. Sample oscillation experiments of separated fission products such as 103Rh or 99Tc, which were part of the ERMINE V program, have been simulated using recently-developed options in the TRIPOLI-4 code and compared to the experimental values. The present paper describes the corresponding results. The findings motivate in-depth studies for designing optimized coupled-core conditions in ZEPHYR, a new ZPR which will replace MINERVE and will provide integral data to meet the needs of Gen-III and Gen-IV reactors.

  11. Direct photolysis of sulfamethoxazole using various irradiation sources and wavelength ranges - insights from degradation product analysis and compound-specific stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willach, Sarah; Lutze, Holger Volker; Eckey, Kevin; Löppenberg, Katja; Lueling, Michelle; Wolbert, Jens-Benjamin; Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Jochmann, Maik A; Karst, Uwe; Schmidt, Torsten Claus

    2018-01-05

    The environmental micropollutant sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is susceptible to phototransformation by sunlight and UV-C light which is used for water disinfection. Depending on the environmental pH conditions SMX may be present as neutral or anionic species. This study systematically investigates the phototransformation of these two relevant SMX species using four different irradiation scenarios, i.e. a low, medium and high pressure Hg lamp and simulated sunlight. The observed phototransformation kinetics are complemented by data from compound-specific stable isotope and transformation product analysis using isotope-ratio and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Observed phototransformation kinetics were faster for the neutral than for the anionic SMX species (from 3.4 (LP lamp) up to 6.6 (HP lamp) times). Furthermore, four phototransformation products (with m/z 189, 202, 242, and 260) were detected by HRMS that have not yet been described for direct photolysis of SMX. Isotopic fractionation occurred only if UV-B and UV-A wavelengths prevailed in the emitted irradiation and was most pronounced for the neutral species with simulated sunlight (εC = 4.8 ± 0.1 ‰). Phototransformation of SMX with UV-C light did not cause significant isotopic fractionation. Consequently, it was possible to differentiate sunlight and UV-C light induced phototransformation of SMX. Thus CSIA might be implemented to trace back waste water point sources or to assess natural attenuation of SMX by sunlight photolysis. In contrast to the wavelength range, pH-dependent speciation of SMX did hardly impact isotopic fractionation.

  12. Experimentally induced lameness in turkeys inoculated with a newly emergent turkey reovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Mor, Sunil K; Bekele, Aschalew Z; Verma, Harsha; Noll, Sally L; Goyal, Sagar M; Porter, Robert E

    2015-02-24

    Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARVs) have been isolated from cases of lameness in male turkeys over 10 weeks of age. In a previous study, experimental inoculation of TARV in one-week-old turkey poults produced lymphocytic tenosynovitis at four weeks post inoculation but without causing clinical lameness. This study was undertaken to determine if TARV infection at an early age can lead to clinical lameness in birds as they age. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with a TARV (strain TARV-O'Neil) and monitored for the development of gait defects until 16 weeks of age. At 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, a subset of birds was euthanized followed by the collection of gastrocnemius tendon, digital flexor tendon, and intestines for virus detection by rRT-PCR and for histologic inflammation scoring. Clinical lameness was first displayed in TARV-infected turkeys at 8 weeks of age and ruptured gastrocnemius tendons with progressive lameness were also seen at 12-16 weeks of age. The virus was detected in gastrocnemius tendon of 4- 8- and 12-week-old turkeys but not in 16-week-old turkeys. Histologic inflammation scores of tendons at each of the four time points were significantly higher in the virus-inoculated group than in the control group (p < 0.01). Lesions began as lymphocytic tenosynovitis with mild synoviocyte hyperplasia at four weeks of age and progressed to fibrosis as the birds aged. These results demonstrate the potential of TARV to infect young turkeys and to produce subclinical tenosynovitis that becomes clinically demonstrable as the turkeys age.

  13. Use of olive oil-in-water gelled emulsions in model turkey breast emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Öztürk, B.

    2017-09-01

    Today, gelled emulsion systems offer a novel possibility in lipid modification of meat products. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quality characteristics of model turkey emulsions that were prepared with olive oil-in-water gelled emulsion (GE) as partial or total beef fat replacer. The results indicated that while most of the GE treatments showed equivalent emulsion characteristics in terms of emulsion stability, water-holding capacity and cook yield, utilization of 100% GE as the lipid source could increase total expressible fluid of the model turkey emulsion and thus negatively affect the quality. Utilization of GE was effective in total fat reduction, as the model turkey emulsions formulated with more than 50% GE had significantly lower fat content compared to full-beef fat control model emulsion. However, beef fat replacement with GE produced considerable changes in colour parameters. Finally, it was concluded that utilization of GE as a partial beef fat replacer has good potential to enhance stability and reduce total fat in turkey meat emulsion products.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Increasing Influenza Vaccination Coverage in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Akın

    Full Text Available In Turkey, the prevalence of diabetes is high but the influenza vaccination coverage rate (VCR is low (9.1% in 2014, despite vaccination being recommended and reimbursed. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the influenza VCR of adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to 20%.A decision-analytic model was adapted to Turkey using data derived from published sources. Direct medical costs and indirect costs due to productivity loss were included in the societal perspective. The time horizon was set at 1 year to reflect the seasonality of influenza.Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes to 20% is predicted to avert an additional 19,777 influenza cases, 2376 hospitalizations, and 236 deaths. Associated influenza costs avoided were estimated at more than 8.3 million Turkish Lira (TRY, while the cost of vaccination would be more than TRY 8.4 million. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at TRY 64/quality-adjusted life years, which is below the per capita gross domestic product of TRY 21,511 and therefore very cost-effective according to World Health Organization guidelines. Factors most influencing the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were the excess hospitalization rate, inpatient cost, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization, and influenza attack rate. Increasing the VCR to >20% was also estimated to be very cost-effective.Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to ≥20% would be very cost-effective.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Increasing Influenza Vaccination Coverage in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Levent; Macabéo, Bérengère; Caliskan, Zafer; Altinel, Serdar; Satman, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    In Turkey, the prevalence of diabetes is high but the influenza vaccination coverage rate (VCR) is low (9.1% in 2014), despite vaccination being recommended and reimbursed. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the influenza VCR of adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to 20%. A decision-analytic model was adapted to Turkey using data derived from published sources. Direct medical costs and indirect costs due to productivity loss were included in the societal perspective. The time horizon was set at 1 year to reflect the seasonality of influenza. Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes to 20% is predicted to avert an additional 19,777 influenza cases, 2376 hospitalizations, and 236 deaths. Associated influenza costs avoided were estimated at more than 8.3 million Turkish Lira (TRY), while the cost of vaccination would be more than TRY 8.4 million. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at TRY 64/quality-adjusted life years, which is below the per capita gross domestic product of TRY 21,511 and therefore very cost-effective according to World Health Organization guidelines. Factors most influencing the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were the excess hospitalization rate, inpatient cost, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization, and influenza attack rate. Increasing the VCR to >20% was also estimated to be very cost-effective. Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to ≥20% would be very cost-effective.

  16. Coherent Bremsstrahlung, Coherent Pair Production, Birefringence and Polarimetry in the 20-170 GeV energy range using aligned crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A; Badelek, B; Ballestrero, S; Biino, C; Birol, I; Cenci, P; Connell, S H; Eichblatt, S; Fonseca, T; Freund, A; Gorini, B; Groess, R; Ispirian, K; Ketel, T; Kononets, Y V; López, A; Mangiarotti, A; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Shieh, M; Sona, P; Strakhovenko, V M; Uggerhøj, U; Uggerhøj, Erik; Van Rens, B; Velasco, M; Vilakazi, Z Z; Wessely, O; Ünel, G; Kononets, Yu V

    2008-01-01

    The processes of coherent bremsstrahlung (CB) and coherent pair production (CPP) based on aligned crystal targets have been studied in the energy range 20-170 GeV. The experimental arrangement allowed these phenomena as well as their polarization dependence to be evaluated under conditions where single-photon cross-sections could be measured. This proved very important as the theoretical description of CB and CPP is an area of active theoretical debate and development. The theoretical approach used in this paper predicts both the cross sections and polarization observables very well for the experimental conditions investigated, indicating that the understanding of CB and CPP is reliable up to energies of 170 GeV. A birefringence effect in CPP was studied and it was demonstrated this enabled new technologies for high energy photon beam optics, such as polarimeters (for both linear and circular polarization) and phase plates. We also present new results regarding the features of coherent high energy photon emis...

  17. Wide-range antifungal antagonism of Paenibacillus ehimensis IB-X-b and its dependence on chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktuganov, G; Melentjev, A; Galimzianova, N; Khalikova, E; Korpela, T; Susi, P

    2008-07-01

    Previously, we isolated a strain of Bacillus that had antifungal activity and produced lytic enzymes with fungicidal potential. In the present study, we identified the bacterium as Paenibacillus ehimensis and further explored its antifungal properties. In liquid co-cultivation assays, P. ehimensis IB-X-b decreased biomass production of several pathogenic fungi by 45%-75%. The inhibition was accompanied by degradation of fungal cell walls and alterations in hyphal morphology. Residual medium from cultures of P. ehimensis IB-X-b inhibited fungal growth, indicating the inhibitors were secreted into the medium. Of the 2 major lytic enzymes, chitinases were only induced by chitin-containing substrates, whereas beta-1,3-glucanase showed steady levels in all carbon sources. Both purified chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase degraded cell walls of macerated fungal mycelia, whereas only the latter also degraded cell walls of intact mycelia. The results indicate synergism between the antifungal action mechanisms of these enzymes in which beta-1,3-glucanase is the initiator of the cell wall hydrolysis, whereas the degradation process is reinforced by chitinases. Paenibacillus ehimensis IB-X-b has pronounced antifungal activity with a wide range of fungi and has potential as a biological control agent against plant pathogenic fungi.

  18. Institutional Services for Dementia Care in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The total older population is growing due to the increase in expected average life expectancy at birth all over the world. The risk factors for dementia reported by the studies in Turkey include low level of education, older age, being female, living in a rural area, having a physical disorder, multiple drug use, accompaniment of another chronic disease (especially diabetes, and having a history of smoking and alcohol use. Seeking care from a healthcare institution because of dementia symptoms is usually delayed in Turkey. In this review, information on the status of dementia in Turkey, services provided for the illness and nursing care will be provided. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(4.000: 464-473

  19. Alien flora of Turkey: checklist, taxonomic composition and ecological attributes

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    Ahmet Uludag

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an updated checklist of the alien flora of Turkey with information on its structure. The alien flora of Turkey comprises 340 taxa, among which there are 321 angiosperms, 17 gymnosperms and two ferns. Of the total number of taxa, 228 (68% are naturalized and 112 (32% are casual. There are 275 neophytes (172 naturalized and 103 casual and 61 archaeophytes (52 naturalized and 9 casual; four species could not be classified with respect to the residence time. In addition, 47 frequently planted taxa with a potential to escape are also listed. The richest families are Asteraceae (38 taxa, Poaceae (30, Fabaceae (23 and Solanaceae (22. As for the naturalized alien plants, the highest species richness is found in Asteraceae (31 taxa, Poaceae (22, Amaranthaceae (18 and Solanaceae (15. The majority of alien taxa are perennial (63.8% of the total number of taxa with this life history assigned, including those with multiple life histories, annuals contribute 33.8% and 2.4% are biennial aliens. Among perennials the most common life forms are phanerophytes, of which 20.3% are trees and 12.6% shrubs; woody vines, stem succulents, and aquatic plants are comparatively less represented. Most of the 340 alien taxa introduced to Turkey have their native ranges in Americas (44.7% and Asia (27.6%. Of other regions, 9.1% originated in Africa, 4.4% in Eurasia, 3.8% in Australia and Oceania and 3.5% in the Mediterranean. The majority of taxa (71.9% were introduced intentionally, whereas the remaining (28.1% were introduced accidentally. Among the taxa introduced intentionally, the vast majority are ornamental plants (55.2%, 10.0% taxa were introduced for forestry and 6.7% as crops. Casual alien plants are most commonly found in urban and ruderal habitats (40.1% where naturalized taxa are also often recorded (27.3%. Plants that occur as agricultural weeds are typically naturalized rather than casual (16.0% vs 7.1%, respectively. However, (seminatural

  20. Caecal coccidiosis in commercial male turkeys

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    Giuseppe Sironi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of coccidiosis with high mortality is reported in 30-day-old commercial turkeys. Grossly, a severe typhlitis with a large fibrino-necrotic core was present. Large numbers of oocysts were observed in caecal smears. The location and the severity of the lesions and the oocyst morphology were strongly suggestive of Eimeria adenoeides infection. This species has already been reported in turkey flocks in Italy, but it is rarely responsible for clinical coccidiosis and severe lesions with high mortality. Other caecal parasitic infections are considered in differential diagnosis.

  1. THE END OF IMF - TURKEY RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUNGUN DENIZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: IMF has been created to make international cooperation on financial matters stronger and for solving the problems of balance of payment. However, the IMF formed policies in order to solve problems of balance of payment till the 1980s, expanded its effectiveness much more by controlling the structural adjustment programs after the 1980s, and undertook the role as an international lender of last resort on crises caused by globalization trends. In developing nations, foreign and domestic deficit occurred due to infrastructural causes that have created economic instabilities portrayed through inflation and unemployment. Especially foreign debt problems sourced by the foreign trade deficit transformed into an economic crisis for these countries. Many countries affected by such economic crisis applied to IMF and its Stabilization Program with the aim of providing economic stability in the hopes of recovering. The important thing here to point out is that the economic programs used by countries during their economic crisis are supported by the IMF in reality. In this situation Mexico and Argentina can be given as a good example. IMF has undertaken the same mission in Turkey with seven stabilization programs put in practice and nineteen Stand-By Arrangements between them. But IMF has failed many times in Turkey just like in many developing countries. This is because IMF did not take into consideration economic and social structure of countries in stabilization programs put in practice. Today, Turkey has reached to an important point from the way of its relationship with IMF; more clearly, Turkey is determined to achieve its future without IMF. Turkey-IMF relationship in the framework of stand-by agreements in the past half century of our economic and political history has come to an ending point. After a period of 51 years of intense relations, Turkey decided to determine its calculations of credit limit by the way of advantages and

  2. Caecal coccidiosis in commercial male turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Rampin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of coccidiosis with high mortality is reported in 30-day-old commercial turkeys. Grossly, a severe typhlitis with a large fibrino-necrotic core was present. Large numbers of oocysts were observed in caecal smears. The location and the severity of the lesions and the oocyst morphology were strongly suggestive of Eimeria adenoeides infection. This species has already been reported in turkey flocks in Italy, but it is rarely responsible for clinical coccidiosis and severe lesions with high mortality. Other caecal parasitic infections are considered in differential diagnosis.

  3. [Reoccurrence of histomonosis in turkey breeder farm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka, Johannes; Hauck, Rüdiger; Blankenstein, Petra; Balczulat, Stefanie; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Histomonosis is a severe disease caused by the protozoan parasite Histomonas (H.) meleagridis, which can lead to high losses in turkeys. The present report describes the reoccurrence of histomonosis in a turkey breeder farm. The first outbreak occurred in 2005 in 17 weeks old hens, the second in 2009 in 8 weeks old hens. The disease remained restricted in one house and one compartment, respectively. Mortality rose to 26 and 65% respectively within few days in spite of therapy with various compounds. Both flocks had to be euthanized. In both cases H. meleagridis belonging to genotype A was detected. The source of infection remained unclear in both cases.

  4. The Effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants (hpp) on Agro-Life at Rural Land Regulation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onursal Denli, G.; Denli, H. H.; Seker, D. Z.; Bitik, E.; Cetin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey is one of the self-sufficient in foodstuffs and globally ranks as 7th significant agricultural exporter in the world. Main trading partners are the European Union, the United States and the Middle East. As known, agricultural production is dependent on factors including efficient and effective use of all inputs ranging from those natural resources as in land and water to well-trained human resources as labour at the production. The socio-economic aspects of this sector take several forms ranging from the incomes of the primary producers. Rural land regulation is a necessity for rural areas and is regarded as a useful instrument for improving farmer's incomes and life standards. The irrigation system, established during the rural regulation/land consolidation period of large-scale farming, is insufficiently adjusted to the new land tenure structures. The government is especially in the process of water management with hydroelectric power plants. This process produces energy that is required but effects negatively the rivers and agricultural, environmental, climatic conditions. Rivers are vessels of the nature. Free flowing rivers give life to all nature. Most of the studies indicate that Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP) affects the surface and ground-water management, natural life, agricultural productivity, socio-economic situation at agricultural regions and agro-life related with immigration. This study emphasizes the effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants which are used in transformation of water as a renewable natural resource into electricity power from the perspective of environmental policies and rural regulation.

  5. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  6. Elective Tracheotomy Practices in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucyetmez, Bulent; Atalan, Hakan Korkut; Cakar, Nahit

    2016-01-01

    Elective tracheotomy (ET) procedures in intensive care units (ICU) might be different in accordance with countries and ICUs' features. The aim of the present study was to search the epidemiology of ET procedures in Turkey. A questionnaire which consists of 43 questions was sent by e-mail to 238 ICUs which were officially recognized by The Turkish Ministry of Health. All answers were obtained between August 1, 2015 and August 31, 2015. Two hundred and three ICUs (85.3%) participated in this study. 177 (87.2%) and 169 (83.4%) of ICU's were level III and mixed ICUs respectively. Anesthesiologists were the director of 189 (93.0%) ICUs. Estimated total count of admitted, mechanically ventilated and tracheotomized patients in 2014 were 126282, 80569 (63.8%) and 8989 (7.1%) respectively. Most common indication for ET was prolonged mechanical ventilation (76.9%). The first choice for ET procedure was percutaneous in 162 (79.8%) ICUs. Griggs guide wire dilatational forceps (GWDF) technique was used as the first choice for elective percutaneous tracheotomy (EPT) by 143 (70.4%) ICUs. Most common early EPT complication was bleeding (68.0%) and late EPT complication was stenosis (35.0%). While facilitation of weaning was most important advantage (26.1%), bleeding and tracheal complications were most important disadvantages for EPT (29.1%). Most common indications for ET are prolonged MV and coma in Turkish ICUs. EPT is the preferred procedure for ET and GWDF is the most common technique. Bronchoscopy and USG are rarely used as a guide.

  7. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Eocene Helete formation , Adiyaman, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Lee, I.; Yildirim, E.

    2013-12-01

    Helete formation is located at Adiyaman, Turkey which is in the Alpine-Himalayan orogeny belt. Helete formation is represented by andesitic, basaltic and gabbroic rocks cut by localized felsic intrusions and overlain by open-marine Nummulitic carbonate sediments. Electron microprobe analyses were conducted for 15 rocks samples of Helete formation. These rock samples are named as basalt, andesite, gabbro, diorite, dacite, and granite. Basalt and andesite samples are composed of clinopyroxene(augite), plagioclase(Ab98-96), carbonate, and hyaline. Gabbro samples have wide range of plagioclase composition from anorthite to albite(Ab92-16), and other minerals like clinopyroxene(augite) and amphibole(hornblende and actinolite). Diabase samples consist of epidote group minerals and sphene with plagioclase(Ab80), pyroxene and hornblende. Dacite samples are composed of dolomite and quartz. Granite samples are composed of quartz, chlorite, and plagioclase which range from albite to oligoclase in composition (Ab98-89).

  8. Avalanche situation in Turkey and back calculation of selected events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, A.; Bühler, Y.; Christen, M.; Gürer, I.

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, an average of 24 people die in snow avalanches every year, mainly in the eastern part of Anatolia and in the eastern Black Sea region, where high-mountain ranges are close to the sea. The proportion of people killed in buildings is very high (87%), especially in comparison to other European countries and North America. In this paper we discuss avalanche occurrence, the climatic situation and historical avalanche events in Turkey; in addition, we identify bottlenecks and suggest solutions to tackle avalanche problems. Furthermore, we have applied the numerical avalanche simulation software RAMMS (rapid mass movements simulation) combined with a (digital elevation model) DEM-based potential release zone identification algorithm to analyze the catastrophic avalanche events in the villages of Üzengili (Bayburt province) in 1993 and Yaylaönü (Trabzon province) in 1981. The results demonstrate the value of such an approach for regions with poor avalanche databases, enabling the calculation of different scenarios and the estimation of run-out distances, impact pressure and flow height.

  9. Sexual stereotypes and practices of university students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratav, Hale Bolak; Çavdar, Alev

    2012-02-01

    This article is based on a study of young people and sexuality in Turkey. The focus of this study included messages about sexuality, sexual beliefs, sexual experiences with a view to consent and resistance, religiosity, and certain interrelations therein. A total of 471 students (273 women, M age=20.5 years, and 198 men, M age=21 years) from four different universities in Turkey participated in a survey with measures of restrictive and permissive messages about sexuality received from various sources, beliefs about sexual roles of men and women in relationships, and questions about a range of sexual experiences, including coital and non-coital. The incidence and characteristics of ideal sexual partnership and incidence and dynamics of experiences involving "token resistance" and "consent to unwanted sex" were specifically investigated. The results provided a snapshot of the sexual lives of students in this country at the crossroads of secularism and traditional Muslim mores. Both commonalities and differences were found across gender. Both men and women received more restrictive than permissive messages. The most important message source was same-sex friends for men and parents for women. Men had more dating and sexual partners than women. The correlations of religiosity and messages with sexual experiences and attitudes were mostly in the expected direction. Women were more likely to have a token resistance incidence and both genders were equally unlikely to consent to unwanted sex. The results were discussed in relation to the cultural context and the relevant literature, and recommendations are offered for future research.

  10. Investment under Financial Liberalization: Post 1980 Turkey Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the history of the modern state of Turkey many policies have been developed and applied in order to transform ineffective economy to a dynamic and steady one. The liberal policies have been effectively applied except for war periods. The main activity of liberal policies in Turkey’s economy was conducted on January 24, 1980 with some important structural adjustment decisions. These decisions aimed to integrate the economy with the global system by applying global economic order that widely adopted all over the world. The decisions aimed also to activate a financial liberalization in the country. Financial liberalization generally includes the principles related to the removing the pressure on the interest rate, currency control and investment mobility. More liberalization steps came in 1989 aiming to increase the investment and growth. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI was seen important for that purposes. However, short term capital flows, having been more effective in real investments than FDI, have led to several negative effects in this period. In the study some of the drawbacks of that process of financial liberalization have been discussed. The relation between FDI and Gross Domestic Product in the financial liberalization process has been tested with econometric implementation. Econometric estimation has been applied for this purpose to test this relationship for post 1980 era for Turkey as a developing country.

  11. Comparing soil functions for a wide range of agriculture soils focusing on production for bioenergy using a combined isotope-based observation and modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistert, Hannes; Herbstritt, Barbara; Weiler, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Increase crop production for bioenergy will result in changes in land use and the resulting soil functions and may generate new chances and risks. However, detailed data and information are still missing how soil function may be altered under changing crop productions for bioenergy, in particular for a wide range of agricultural soils since most data are currently derived from individual experimental sites studying different bioenergy crops at one location. We developed a new, rapid measurement approach to investigate the influence of bioenergy plants on the water cycle and different soil functions (filter and buffer of water and N-cycling). For this approach, we drilled 89 soil cores (1-3 m deep) in spring and fall at 11 sites with different soil properties and climatic conditions comparing different crops (grass, corn, willow, poplar, and other less common bioenergy crops) and analyzing 1150 soil samples for water content, nitrate concentration and stable water isotopes. We benchmarked a soil hydrological model (1-D numerical Richards equation, ADE, water isotope fractionation including liquid and vapor composition of isotopes) using longer-term climate variables and water isotopes in precipitation to derive crop specific parameterization and to specifically validate the differences in water transport and water partitioning into evaporation, transpiration and groundwater recharge among the sites and crops using the water isotopes in particular. The model simulation were in good agreement with the observed isotope profiles and allowed us to differentiate among the different crops. We defined different indicators for the soil functions considered in this study. These indicators included the proportion of groundwater recharge, transit time of water (different percentiles) though the upper 2m and nutrient leaching potential (e.g. nitrate) during the dormant season from the rooting zone. The parameterized model was first used to calculate the indicators for the

  12. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  13. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Harman, Mehmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Bart, Aldert; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Çavuş, İbrahim; Polat, Erdal; Gündüz, Cumhur; Van Gool, Tom; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-09-01

    In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for understanding its tropism in in vivo conditions. Clinical samples (lesion aspirations and bone marrow) obtained from CL/VL patients were investigated using parasitological (smear/NNN) and DNA-based techniques. For species identification, a real time ITS1-PCR was performed using isolates and results were confirmed by hsp70 PCR-N/sequencing and cpb gene PCR/sequencing in order to reveal Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum discrimination. Clinical materials from CL and VL patients were also inoculated into two experimental groups (Group CL and Group VL) of Balb/C mice intraperitoneally for creating clinical picture of Turkish L. donovani strains. After 45days, the samples from visible sores of the skin were taken, and spleens and livers were removed. Measurements of the internal organs were done and touch preparations were prepared for checking the presence of amastigotes. The strains were isolated from all patients and amastigotes were seen in all smears of the patients, and then isolates were immediately stored in liquid nitrogen. In real time ITS1-PCR, the melting temperatures of all samples were out of range of L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major. Sequencing of hsp70 PCR-N showed that all isolates highly identical to previously submitted L. donovani sequences in GenBank, and cpb gene sequencing showed five isolates had longer cpbF allele, whereas one isolate contained a mixed sequence of both cpbF and cpbE. All mice in both experimental groups became infected. Compared to controls, the length and width of both liver and spleen were significantly elevated (pTurkey. Animal models using clinical samples were successfully established and important clinical

  14. Demographic and microbial characteristics of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases diagnosed in Malatya, Turkey, 2001-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroglu Mehmet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB has an increasing rate in Turkey. The reason remains largely unknown. A better understanding of the demographic and microbial characteristics of EPTB in the Turkish population would extend the knowledgebase of EPTB and allow us to develop better strategies to control tuberculosis (TB. Methods We retrospectively evaluated clinical and laboratory data of 397 bacteriologically-confirmed TB cases diagnosed during an eight year-period using by chi-square analysis and multivariate logistic regression model. Results Of the 397 study patients, 103 (25.9% had EPTB and 294 (74.1% had pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. The most commonly seen two types of EPTB were genitourinary TB (27.2% and meningeal TB (19.4%. TB in bone/joints, pleural cavity, lymph nodes, skin, and peritoneal cavity occurred at a frequency ranging from 9.7% to 10.7%. The age distribution was significantly different (P Conclusions EPTB accounted for a significant proportion of TB cases in Malatya, Turkey between 2001 and 2007. The current study has provided an insight into the dynamics of EPTB in Malatya, Turkey. However, the risk factors for having EPTB in Malatya, Turkey remain to be assessed in future studies using population-based or randomly selected sample.

  15. Lotka’s Law and the Literature of Library and Information Science in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to test the applicability of Lotka’s Law for the literature of library and information science in Turkey. The database of the study is 1399 papers published in The Bibliography of Articles in Turkish Periodicals between 1952 and 2000, by 604 researchers in the field of library and information scien­ce. The results of the study present the distribution of productivity of Lotka’s in­verse square law does not fit the distribution of the data constituted by the rese­archers in the field of library and information science in Turkey. In other words it was determined that Lotka’s inverse square law does not apply the literature of library and information science in Turkey. Furthermore it was determined that Lotka’s inverse power law fits the value of n (2,1128 calculated for the literatu­re of library and information science in Turkey.

  16. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  17. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  18. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  19. Future of Social Studies Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikalin, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Social studies education [Sosyal Bilgiler] in Turkey has been defined as an integrated field of study after the curriculum reform over the last decade. This interdisciplinary notion of social studies education is established in the curriculum as a result of modeling NCSS (National Council for the Social Studies) standards. This new social studies…

  20. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  1. Multigrade Schooling in Turkey: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Naciye

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews multigrade schooling in Turkey, with an emphasis on its status in the education system, as well as the curriculum practices, teacher training and problems associated with it. It is viewed by the State as an "inevitable" practice that arises through limited number of pupils and classrooms in small and scattered…

  2. Teacher Perspective on Internet Censorship in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktay, Sayim

    2018-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase both in the number of users and the number of websites providing data since the invention of Internet; it has become the richest and most used source of information. However, several countries, including Turkey, resort to censorship owing to the fact that anybody can publish on the Internet with sometimes…

  3. Global attention to Turkey due to desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camci Cetin, S; Karaca, A; Haktanir, K; Yildiz, H

    2007-05-01

    Desertification has recognized as an environmental problem by many international organizations such as UN, NATO and FAO. Desertification in Turkey is generally caused by incorrect land use, excessive grazing, forest fires, urbanization, industry, genetic erosion, soil erosion, salinization, and uncontrolled wild type plants picking. Due to anthropogenic destruction of forest, steppe flora gradually became dominant in Anatolia. In terms of biodiversity, Turkey has a significant importance in Europe and Middle East. Nine thousands plant species naturally grown in Turkey, one third of them are endemic. Also, endemic species of vertebrates, thrive in the lakes and marshy areas. The studies of modelling simulation of vegetation on the effects of Mediterranean climate during the Roman Classical period by using vegetation history showed that, in 2000 years BP, Mediterranean countries were more humid than today. Turkey is a special place on the global concern in terms of desertification because of biodiversity, agricultural potential, high population, social and economical structure, topographical factors and strategic regional location. Communication among scientists, decision makers and international non-profit organizations must be improved.

  4. Anthropometric and performance characteristics of Turkey National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research was to determine the anthropometric, somatotype and performance characteristics of the Turkish National U-14 Female Volleyball Team that participated in the national team selection session. Fifty- eight (58) female volleyball players from various towns in Turkey camped to compete in ...

  5. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing

  6. living in Kapulukaya Dam Lake (Kirikkale, Turkey)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... This study involves the investigation of the breeding properties of Esox lucius (L., 1758) living in. Kapulukaya Dam Lake in Turkey. It was observed that the fish reaches sexual maturity at the age of 3, and the breeding period starts in February and ends in March. The highest and lowest gonadosomatic.

  7. Regional Diffusion of Divorce in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, K.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    While demographic change has been well documented for many Western countries, much less is known about demographic transitions in other countries, including Turkey. Demographic change in European societies can be characterized by, amongst others, increased prevalence of divorce. Although it is often

  8. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    statements of various senior politicians, including the current President and former Prime Minister ..... rhetorical and policy shift. By attaching great .... Presidents of. Somalia and Somaliland met in Ankara (27 May 2016). 37 A. Özerdem, “How Turkey is emerging as a development partner in Africa”. (2014). The Guardian ...

  9. Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih; Kaczmarek, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the opinions of general education teachers working in public elementary schools in Turkey regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities into their classrooms and their willingness also to include students with more severe learning disabilities. One hundred and ninety-four general education teachers completed the…

  10. Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

    2013-12-01

    . The scores were given for Rate Achievement from 1 to 5 and Rank Importance from 1 to 10 to the survey outcomes for each topic. Then, rating and ranking matrix was constructed according to score ranges. Results show that Product Quality, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Infrastructure Stability and Customer Satisfaction are the major topics that needs to be improved according to the utility managers in Turkey. According to the outcomes of the study, water losses and unbilled unmetered consumption of water appeared to be the most important issues with the utility management. The utility managers also think there is still room for improvement to satisfy the needs of the users. Even though the rehabilitation of the infrastructure is a costly investment, it can be compensated with the help of the increased revenues as a result of improvement in water loss and unbilled water use. Suggestions given as a result of this study aim to aid decision makers and local authorities to overcome the significant problems faced during management and to achieve a sustainable utility management.

  11. Turkey Psoriasis Treatment Guide-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Akyol

    2016-08-01

    used for biologic therapy for treatment of psoriasis. In this guideline severity of psoriasis has been determined, treatment phases and treatment goals have been identified and consensus recommendations have been proposed about appropiate treatment modalities in the light of recent guidelines, meta-analytic studies and experiences in Turkey. This guideline, published in 2012, have been updated in 2016 by adding new information.

  12. Using Eddy Covariance Sensors to Quantify Carbon Metabolism of Peatlands: A Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Ertekin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Net ecosystem exchange (NEE of carbon dioxide (CO2 was measured in a cool temperate peatland in northwestern Turkey on a continuous basis using eddy covariance (EC sensors and multiple (non-linear regression-M(NLR-models. Our results showed that hourly NEE varied between −1.26 and 1.06 mg CO2 m−2 s−1, with a mean value of 0.11 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. Nighttime ecosystem respiration (RE was on average measured as 0.23 ± 0.09 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. Two best-fit M(NLR models estimated daytime RE as 0.64 ± 0.31 and 0.24 ± 0.05 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. Total RE as the sum of nighttime and daytime RE ranged from 0.47 to 0.87 mg CO2 m−2 s−1, thus yielding estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP at −0.35 ± 0.18 and −0.74 ± 0.43 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. Use of EC sensors and M(NLR models is one of the most direct ways to quantify turbulent CO2 exchanges among the soil, vegetation and atmosphere within the atmospheric boundary layer, as well as source and sink behaviors of ecosystems.

  13. Determination of the recharge area and salinization degree of karst springs in the Lamas Basin (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Galip

    2005-12-01

    The Lamas Basin is an area covering approximately 4,400 km(2) situated on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey covered with highly karstified limestone and dolomitic limestone from the Miocene and Mesozoic age, respectively. Owing to the area's low karstification basement, groundwater in the karst aquifer circulates deep from the surface towards the springs along the coast as well as to the submarine springs. This study aims working out the salinization level and recharge characteristics of the Lamas Basin using environmental isotopes techniques. In the study, the data collected previously to discover, in general terms, the groundwater characteristics within the area are reanalyzed to fulfil the purpose of the study. In conclusion, it is found that the down gradient karst springs discharging along the Mediterranean coast mostly contain groundwater contributions from higher altitudes with depleted delta(18)O and delta(2)H compositions. The delta(18)O-altitude effect was determined as approximately-0.12 per thousand/100 m which may indicate sea-spray intrusion towards inland. As a result, the salinization level of coastal springs changes ranging between 1.2 % and 17.0 %. Owing to the seawater encroachment, Ca-HCO(3) water type changes to Na-HCO(3) or Na-Cl water by the cation exchange during the dry period. As the unique freshwater potential extends along the coastal area, the groundwater production should be exploited in a way that seawater encroachment is kept at minimum.

  14. Prevention of hemoglobinopathies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çürük

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic disorders in Turkey. The incidence of beta thalassemia and sickle cell trait (HbAS is 2.0% and 0.3% respectively. In addition to HbS, 51 abnormal hemoglobins and 42 different beta thalassemia mutations have been detected by DNA analysis. In Turkey, beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia cause major health problems. For thirty years, screening programs for carriers, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis have sought to prevent hemoglobinopathies. In 1983, the first prenatal diagnosis center was established for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia at Hacettepe University, Ankara. After many populationscreening studies, a law was passed in 1993 by the Turkish Parliament for the eradication of hemoglobinopathies. Forty-one premarital screening centers were set up by the Ministry of Health in the 33 provinces where most of the transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients live. The mothers at risk for hemoglobinopathies were given genetic counseling and directed to prenatal diagnosis centers. Since 1990, four prenatal diagnosis centers have been established at university hospitals in Adana, Antalya, Istanbul and Izmir. A total of 5255 prenatal diagnoses have been made for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia in 5 centers; 1338 fetuses have been diagnosed as homozygous or compound heterozygotes for hemoglobinopathies. Prenatal diagnosis was performed on families who had decided to terminate the pregnancy if it were to be found that the fetus was affected. 血红蛋白病是土耳其最为常见的遗传性疾病。乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性状(HbAS)的发病率分别为2.0%和0.3%。除HbS外,已通过NDA分析检测出51种异常血红蛋白和42种乙型地中海贫血突变基因。在土耳其,乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性贫血会导致严重的健康问题。30年来,一直在为病原携带者提供筛选项目,以及遗传咨询和产前诊断服务,

  15. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  16. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free range egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a desired by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A stud...

  17. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; David R. Coyle; J. Blake; Kerry O. Britton; M. Buford; R.G. Campbell; J. Cox; B. Cregg; D. Daniels; M. Jacobson; Kurt Johnsen; Timothy McDonald; K. McLeod; E. Nelson; D. Robison; R. Rummer; F. Sanchez; John A. Stanturf; B. Stokes; Carl Trettin; J. Tuskan; L. Wright; S. Wullschleger

    2004-01-01

    Many researchers have studied the productivity potential of intensively managed forest plantations. However, we need to learn more about the effects of fundamental growth processes on forest productivity; especially the influence of above- and belowground resource acquisition and allocation. This report presents installation, establishment, and first-year results of...

  18. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to

  19. Modelling Inflation Uncertainty with Structural Breaks Case of Turkey (1994–2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar Göktaş; Cem Dişbudak

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the importance attached to the concept of volatility has increased and become a phenomenon frequently encountered in every field ranging from financial markets to macroeconomic indicators. In this study, inflation data obtained from CPI index for the period of 1994:01–2013:12 in Turkey was used to determine the best representative of the inflation uncertainty. To realize this, both symmetric and asymmetric GARCH-type models were employed. Since there are many factors that may...

  20. The evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of 63 inpatient with cutaneous anthrax: Characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Uce Özkol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Despite a very uncommon disease in developed countries, cutaneous anthrax (CA is currently endemic in our countries. In this study, we aimed to bring out characteristic of anthrax of Turkey by comparing our results and the other CA reports in Turkey. Materials and Methods: Sixty three inpatients with CA between October 2009 and December 2012 were investigated retrospectively. All patients were diagnosed CA by clinical finding and/or microbiological examination. The demographic characteristics patient, routine tests, wound culture and gram staining results were recorded. Results were recorded on statistical program of SPSS 13.0 and were written using percent (%. Results: There were 63 inpatients (41 female (65.1%, 22 male (34.9%, mean age 35.9 years range10-83. Forty nine patients (77.8% had a history of contact with animals or animal product. Thirty-eight (60.3% and twenty-one (33.3% patients were found in the summer and fall season, respectively. Gram staining and culture were performed in 51 patients. Gram-positive bacilli were detected in 17 patients (33.3% by gram smear. Bacillus anthracis bacilli were produced in 11 patients (21.5% in cultures test. The lesions were mostly seen on the left hand (30.2%. Penicillin was most frequently preferred in treatment of CA (87.3%. Conclusion: CA is still endemic in Eastern Anatolia and continues to increase in recent years. Women living in the villages in which income is obtained from buying and selling of animals constitute the most important risk group. Preventive actions such as training of the risky society, vaccination of animals, and obstructing of illegal animal entries across the border, will reduce the incidence of CA.

  1. Whole genome QTL mapping for growth, meat quality and breast meat yield traits in turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad L; Bastiaansen, John W M; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Vereijken, Addie; Groenen, Martien A M

    2011-07-11

    The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection response of animal breeding programs. The use of these molecular markers for the identification of quantitative trait loci, and subsequently fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci regions, allows for pinpointing of genes that underlie such economically important traits. The quantitative trait loci analyses of the growth curve, body weight, breast yield and the meat quality traits showed putative quantitative trait loci on 21 of the 27 turkey chromosomes covered by the linkage map. Forty-five quantitative trait loci were detected across all traits and these were found in 29 different regions on 21 chromosomes. Out of the 45 quantitative trait loci, twelve showed significant (p<0.01) evidence of linkage while the remaining 33 showed suggestive evidence (p<0.05) of linkage with different growth, growth curve, meat quality and breast yield traits. A large number of quantitative trait loci were detected across the turkey genome, which affected growth, breast yield and meat quality traits. Pleiotropic effects or close linkages between quantitative trait loci were suggested for several of the chromosomal regions. The comparative analysis regarding the location of quantitative trait loci on different turkey, and on the syntenic chicken chromosomes, along with their phenotypic associations, revealed signs of functional conservation between these species. © 2011 Aslam et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variation of the Extreme Saharan Dust Event over Turkey in March 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakki Baltaci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of an extraordinary Saharan dust episode over Turkey on 23–24 March 2016 and the atmospheric conditions that triggered this event were evaluated in detail. PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm observations from 97 air quality stations, METAR (Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Report observations at 64 airports, atmospheric soundings, and satellite products were used for the analysis. To determine the surface and upper levels of atmospheric circulation, National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Reanalysis data were applied to the extreme dust episodes. On 23 March 2016, high southwesterly winds due to the interaction between surface low- and high-pressure centers over Italy and Levant basin brought thick dust particles from Libya to Turkey. The daily PM10 data from 43 stations exceeded their long-term spring means over Turkey (especially at the northern and western stations. As a consequence of the longitudinal movement of the surface low from Italy to the Balkan Peninsula, and the quasi-stationary conditions of the surface high-pressure center allowed for the penetration of strong south and southwesterly winds to inner parts of the country on the following day. As a consequence, 100%, 90%, 88%, and 87% of the monitoring stations in Marmara (NW Turkey, central Anatolia, western (Aegean and northern (Black Sea regions of Turkey, respectively, exhibited above-normal daily PM10 values. In addition, while strong subsidence at the low levels of the atmosphere plays a significant role in having excessive daily PM10 values in Black Sea, dry atmospheric conditions and thick inversion level near the ground surface of Marmara ensured this region to have peak PM10 values ~00 Local Time (LT.

  3. Survey of Turkey's endemic amphibians for chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismis, Ugur Cengiz; Konuk, Muhsin; Yoldas, Taner; Agyar, Pinar; Yumuk, Dilay; Korcan, Safiye Elif

    2014-09-30

    We report a new survey for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Turkey. We swabbed 228 individuals of 7 amphibian species (from 5 families) living in 2 locations (26-August National Park and the Turkish Lakes District) in the southwestern Anatolian region. The infection intensity of all the samples was determined using quantitative PCR. All 4 amphibian breeding sites and 4 amphibian species in 26-August National Park were infected by Bd, with the prevalence at each site ranging from 8 to 29%. Only 1 species was sampled from Beysehir Lake near the conservation area Beysehir Natural Park, but these samples were notable for their high detection rates (prevalence of 32.11%). This study reports the first records of Bd infecting wild Pelophylax ridibundus, Hyla orientalis, Pseudepidalea variabilis, and endemic Beysehir frogs Pelophylax caralitanus.

  4. Risk factors for occupational brucellosis among veterinary personnel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Murat; Ergonul, Onder; Sayin-Kutlu, Selda; Guven, Tumer; Ustun, Cemal; Alp-Cavus, Sema; Ozturk, Serife Barcın; Acicbe, Ozlem; Akalin, Serife; Tekin, Recep; Tekin-Koruk, Suda; Demiroglu, Yusuf Ziya; Keskiner, Ramazan; Gönen, Ibak; Sapmaz-Karabag, Sevil; Bosnak, Vuslat; Kazak, Esra

    2014-11-01

    Veterinarians and veterinary technicians are at risk for occupational brucellosis. We described the risk factors of occupational brucellosis among veterinary personnel in Turkey. A multicenter retrospective survey was performed among veterinary personnel who were actively working in the field. Of 712 veterinary personnel, 84 (11.8%) had occupational brucellosis. The median number of years since graduation was 7 (interquartile ranges [IQR], 4-11) years in the occupational brucellosis group, whereas this number was 9 (IQR, 4-16) years in the non-brucellosis group (pbrucellosis. We suggest that all veterinary personnel should be trained on brucellosis and the importance of using personal protective equipment in order to avoid this infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of turkey muscle satellite cells to thermal challenge. I. transcriptome effects in proliferating cells

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Kent M.; Kristelle M Mendoza; Abrahante, Juan E.; Barnes, Natalie E.; Velleman, Sandra G.; Strasburg, Gale M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Climate change poses a multi-dimensional threat to food and agricultural systems as a result of increased risk to animal growth, development, health, and food product quality. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey muscle satellite cells cultured under cold or hot thermal challenge to better define molecular mechanisms by which thermal stress alters breast muscle ultrastructure. Results Satellite cells isolated from the pectoralis major mu...

  6. Natural Gas Factor in Israel-Turkey-Russia “Energy Triangle”

    OpenAIRE

    Nurieva, Guzel

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to reveal the role ofnatural gas factor in Russian-Turkish-Israeli relations in energy sphere. Inthis context, the study deals with bilateral agreements in natural gas sector,existed gas pipeline routes and international projects on development of naturalgas fields, its production and further transportation. In order to display the interdependenceof energy policies of the three states the study ends up with Russia-Turkey-Israel“Energy triangle”.

  7. The financial and operating performance of privatized SME’s in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Müslümov, Alövsat; Özkarabüber, Mahmut; Akbaş, Harun

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the post privatization performance of privatized companies using a sample of 23 privatization cases in Turkey completed within 1990-2000. Research findings indicate that mergers are resulting in the synergy gains, which is measured by operating cash flows relative to the industries. The cash flow increases do not come from gaining monopoly position and cutting capital investments and labor cost. The cash flow improvements come from the more productive usage of assets in ge...

  8. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Ergen; Filiz Bozkurt; Caner Giray

    2016-01-01

    The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of ...

  9. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Yalman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.

  10. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVZAT ŞİMŞEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Crucial improvement have taken place in intra-industry trade literature since intra-industry trade phenomenon was empirically determined. Nowadays economists discuss on the necessity of distinguishing between horizontal and vertical intra-industry trade especially relating to product differentiation in each industry. As standard Grubel-Lloyd index does not determine the time when two way trade is taken into consideration, in this paper first of all Two-Way Trade index is used and then horizontal intra-industry trade and low-high quality vertical intra-industry trade are distinguished from each other regarding unit value differential. As a result of the analysis the findings show that low quality vertical intra-industry trade dominate in Turkey's intra-industry trade.

  11. Born Global Firms: A Foreign Trade Related Study on Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytaç GÖKMEN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the comprehensive advent in information and communication technologies and worldwide ease of transportation, the volume of international trade and business increased profoundly. Within this process, a Born Global Firm (BGF, right from its initiation, aims at creating competitive advantage by marketing a large volume of its products in various international markets by utilizing technological advances. Therefore, the rational behind the idea of BGF is to become an international firm in a short period of time and making international business affairs core of its business activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to review the concept of BGF theoretically and relate the issue to foreign trade affairs resting on significant sources related to the Turkish case mainly focusing on trade statistics as to review the potential development of BGFs in Turkey.

  12. Reproductive toxicity in boron exposed workers in Bandirma, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Nurşen; Duydu, Yalçin; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-06-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates have been considered as being "toxic to reproduction and development", following results of animal studies with high doses. However unfavorable effects of boron exposure on reproduction and development have not been proved in epidemiological studies so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproductive toxicity indicators in highly exposed workers employed in a boric acid production plant in Bandırma, Turkey. Two hundred and four workers participated in this study. The mean blood boron concentration of the high exposure group of workers was 223.89 ± 69.49 (152.82-454.02)ng/g. Unfavorable effects of boron exposure on the reproductive toxicity indicators were not observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of genetic relationships among Rosa damascena plants grown in Turkey by using AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, Nilgün Göktürk; Baydar, Hasan; Debener, Thomas

    2004-08-05

    Rosa damascena Mill. is the most important rose species for rose oil production. The main rose oil producers in the world are Turkey and Bulgaria and they obtain the rose oil almost exclusively from R. damascena. In spite of coming from the same original populations, R. damascena plants grown in Turkey show some morphological differences. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the genetic relationships among R. damascena plants grown in Turkey by using microsatellite and AFLP markers. Twenty three AFLP and nine microsatellite primer pairs were used for this aim. No polymorphism could be detected among the plants, as the marker patterns obtained from different plants are identical. The conclusion from these data is that all R. damascena plants under study are derived from the same original genotype by vegetative propagation. Furthermore, the observed morphological differences originate from point mutations not detectable by molecular markers. Therefore, they are equivalent to sport mutations frequently observed in cut and garden rose varieties.

  14. [Pathology laboratories staff workload evaluation in Turkey: a survey study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usubütün, Alp; Uner, Sarp; Harorlu, Fevzi; Ozer, Erdener; Tuzlali, Sıtkı; Ruacan, Arzu; Koç, Orhan; Yörükoğlu, Kutsal

    2011-05-01

    The workload affects the quality of the pathology report. The aim of this study was to investigate the territorial distribution and productivity of pathology laboratories around Turkey and to estimate the staff workload. A survey questioning the workload was sent to all Ministry of Health and university hospitals. Staff workload was questioned according to the hospital classification and educational activity to evaluate the productivity. Data were entered using SPSS 16.0 statistical software package program and the distribution criteria, t-test and one-way anova were used in the analysis to evaluate the differences between the averages. An average of 2.8 pathologists worked at the pathology laboratories. A total of 5.500 biopsies and 3.750 cytology specimens were received and 20.000 blocks prepared per year. Pathologists evaluated 1.935 biopsies and 1.400 cytology specimens on average and this is equivalent to 2.718 biopsies per year. Gynecology and general surgery department materials constituted 57 percent of all biopsies. Each technician prepared 6.200 blocks, 11.500 slides and 1.000 immunohistochemistry preparations on average. An average of 3.4 paraffin blocks was prepared for each biopsy. The efficiency was low in 17% of teaching hospitals and 77.8% of non-teaching hospitals. In contrast 62.5% of teaching hospitals had work overload. The majority (70.5%) of the respondents mentioned staff shortage. There is no pathologist shortage in Turkey and the problem is workload distribution. Pathology residents' overwork would be reduced by using pathology assistants. There is no shortage of technicians or secretaries, but uneven distribution. Pathology staff planning must be tailored taking into account the features of each hospital. Standard planning for all hospitals is not suitable.

  15. A Partial Equilibrium Analysis of Sunflower Market in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    B. Miran; G. Unakitan

    2006-01-01

    Sunflower oil is the most preferred vegetable oil in Turkey. 35% of total consumption of vegetable oil issunflower oil. Sunflower seed import is approximately 500-650 thousand tons while sunflower seedproduction is 800-850 thousand tons in the last years. The main objective of this study is to determine thereasons of deficiency of vegetable oil in Turkey and to suggest some solutions. For this objective, theprospective situation and the market structure of sunflower seed in Turkey has estimat...

  16. Groundwater contamination and its effect on health in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Alper; Tayfur, Gökmen

    2011-01-01

    The sources of groundwater pollution in Turkey are identified, and pathways of contaminants to groundwater are first described. Then, the effects of groundwater quality on health in Turkey are evaluated. In general, sources of groundwater contamination fall into two main categories: natural and anthropogenic sources. Important sources of natural groundwater pollution in Turkey include geological formations, seawater intrusion, and geothermal fluid(s). The major sources of anthropogenic ground...

  17. PRAGMATIC FRIENDSHIP IN THE UK-TURKEY RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KONONOVA, Alexandra; KORNİLOV, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThe article deals with peculiarities of contemporary United Kingdom-Turkey relations. The authors consider strategic (conceptual) dimension of the bilateral relations, do research on the most important joint projects of the two states and pay a special attention to the EU accession of Turkey process influence on the relations between Britain under Prime Minister David Cameron and the Republic of Turkey under Prime Minister Recep Erdogan.Keywords: Strategic partnership, bilateral relat...

  18. SECURITIZATION OF MIGRATION: THE CASE OF TURKEY-EU RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    YÜKSEL, Sinem

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing “securitization of migration” in Turkey-European Union (EU) relations. The Copenhagen School’s theory of securitization, multisectoral security approach and speech act are given special emphasis in this regard. The major argument of this article is that the EU has securitized migration from Turkey mainly for political reasons; thus, securitization of migration in Turkey-EU relations is a political choice. Firstly, it is aimed to set theoretical foundation of the...

  19. Centre‐Periphery Conflict and Ideological Distance in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Röth, Leonce; Kaiser, André; Varol, Çağan; Sadioğlu, Uğur

    2016-01-01

    ... largely neglected by scholars of territorial politics. Turkey is such a ‘negative case’. We argue that ideological distance prevents national parties from accommodating peripheral authority claims...

  20. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M Fani; Erbas, Belkıs; Durak, Hatice

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before.

  1. Internet censorship in Turkey: University students' opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ozkan, Arda Arikan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study university students’ opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio‐political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey,the opinions of university students (n=138 are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire aimed to collect dataon some chosen aspects of censorship which are internet access regulation by legal authorities, online pornographiccontent, websites distributing illegal and crime related information and the political and religious aspects of the internetcensorship. The findings about these four basic aspects toward the online censorship revealed that despite the highproportion of approval, participants have a confused and inconsistent attitude towards the issue especially within theapplication and the idea of censorship. In a broader aspect, the findings can be interpreted as a sign of university students’insufficient knowledge and understanding towards the current situation and the possible future of online censorship inTurkey

  2. A Case of Familial Polydactyly From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billur Sezgin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polydactyly is among the most frequently encountered congenital anomalies of the extremities. Although it is usually presented in an isolated and sporadic manner, familial cases can also be rarely encountered. Such familial polydactyly cases usually follow an autosomal dominant inheritance with variable genetic penetration and are usually bilateral and symmetric. A case of rare familial polydactyly from Turkey is presented. Four siblings, two girls and two boys, presented with bilateral, symmetric preaxial polydactyly affecting both hands and feet. These siblings also had four other unaffected siblings along with an affected father and grandmother (the father’s mother. Although the cases portrayed duplication at different levels, the general definition of familial polydactyly with bilateral, symmetric inheritance is observed in these cases. Other rare familial polydactyly cases have been reported in the literature as well, and this case serves as a typical example of this rare entity from Turkey.

  3. ‘CHILD BRIDE’ PROBLEM IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Kaynak Malatyali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ‘Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways. In addition, there are some factors which contribute the problem including legal gaps, education level of the family and the daughter, economical conditions, stereotypes, traditional practices and sexism level. Finally, it is suggested that the reasons for the problem of ‘child brides’ are multi-dimensional and therefore it requires a similar approach.

  4. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Zehra [Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Durak, Hatice [Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  5. REMITTANCES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin KARAMELIKLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Savings are one of the important determinants beyond the theories of economic growth. Therefore remittances and foreign direct investment inflows have importance for the countries having insufficient savings. This study examines the relationship between economic growth, remittances, foreign direct investment inflows and gross domestic savings in Turkey during the period 1974-2013 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach. We found that remittances, foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings had positive impact on economic growth.

  6. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-26

    will be like ‘rain from hell ,’” CNN, June 29, 2016; Nick Ashdown, “Turkey’s Tourism Plummets amid Bombings and Crisis with Russia,” Jerusalem Post...Refugee Deal Crumbles, There Will Be Hell to Pay,” Foreign Policy, June 7, 2016. Around the time of the March 2016 deal, the closure of various migration...economic and political rights, particularly through barriers to trade with and travel to countries other than Turkey

  7. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan Engin

    2015-01-01

    While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind intern...

  8. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  9. Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

  10. Regional Inequality of Sport Facilities in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Çiftçi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of social utility of distribution of intercity sport facilities in Turkey for people. Atkinson indices were used in the study. Statistical data of TUIK was used for the application. The index coefficients revealed an imbalance in the regional distribution of sport facilities for the people, and a substantial loss of social utility for the people. According to the values calculated for people, the levels of social utility of total sport facili...

  11. Healthcare information technology infrastructures in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogac, A; Yuksel, M; Ertürkmen, G L; Kabak, Y; Namli, T; Yıldız, M H; Ay, Y; Ceyhan, B; Hülür, U; Oztürk, H; Atbakan, E

    2014-05-22

    The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for "Health-Net"), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients' Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. With the introduction of the "Health Transformation Program" in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality.

  12. Filicide cases in Turkey, 1995-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Mustafa; Ince, Haluk; Ince, Nurhan; Arican, Nadir; Sozen, Sevki

    2003-10-01

    To determine socio-demographic features and criminal liability of individuals who committed filicide in Turkey. The study involved 85 cases of filicide evaluated by the 4th Specialized Board of the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul in the 1995-2000 period. We assessed the characteristics of parents who committed filicide (age, sex, education level, employment status, and criminal liability) and children victims (age, sex, own or stepchild), as well as the causes of death. There were 85 parents who committed filicide (41 fathers and 44 mothers) and 96 children victims. The mean age of mothers who committed filicide (52% of filicides) was 26.5-/+7.7 years, and the mean age of fathers (48% of filicides) was 36.1-/+10.0 years (t=-5.00, pfilicide were unemployed and illiterate. Filicide in Turkey was equally committed by mothers and fathers. More than half of the parents were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders and came from disadvantageous socioeconomic environments, where unemployment and illiteracy rates are highly above the average of Turkey.

  13. Occurrence of Helicobacter pullorum in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Piva, Silvia; Rossi, Mirko; Pasquali, Frédérique; Lucchi, Alex; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2011-05-05

    In order to investigate the occurrence of Helicobacter pullorum in turkeys, caecum contents collected at the slaughterhouse from 55 animals intensively reared in 11 farms were sampled. Gram-negative curved rod bacteria were isolated by a modified Steele and McDermott filter technique and further identified as H. pullorum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven and 31 isolates, randomly selected from each positive farm, underwent phenotypic (biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests) and genotypic characterization (PFGE and AFLP analysis), respectively. Forty-two out of 55 animals (76.4%) and all the 11 farms sampled were positive for H. pullorum. Isolates showed similar biochemical characteristics and whole cell protein profiles but showed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity. Ten out of 11 isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics with erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance being the most frequently detected. This is the first description of H. pullorum in turkeys. H. pullorum is a frequent intestinal colonizer in turkeys; therefore, attention should be given to clarify the food-borne risk linked to carcass contamination. Antibiotic resistance is a concern since high values of resistance rates were observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip

    2005-04-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 {yields} 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely.

  15. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozen, Adnan; Ozalp, Mehmet [Gazi Univ., Mechanical Education Dept., Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kirikkale (Turkey); Kanit, E. Galip [Turkish State Meteorological Office, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-04-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000-2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingol, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkopru, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koycegiz, Manavgat, Dortyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely (Author)

  16. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.

  17. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  18. Hierarchical structure of Turkey's foreign trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    We examine the hierarchical structures of Turkey's foreign trade by using real prices of their commodity export and import move together over time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on Turkey's foreign trade during the 1996-2010 period by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). These periods are divided into two subperiods, such as 1996-2002 and 2003-2010, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. We perform the bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure much better. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic ties. Our results show that the DE (Germany), UK (United Kingdom), FR (France), IT (Italy) and RU (Russia) are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other countries. We have also found that these countries play a significant role for Turkey's foreign trade and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  19. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  20. History of forensic medicine in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal

    2009-05-01

    Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaroğlu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library.