WorldWideScience

Sample records for range transportation plan

  1. Tennessee long-range transportation plan : financial plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Meeting Tennessees transportation requirements over the next 25 years is a major challenge. The infrastructure demands associated with building and maintaining the states aviation, bicycle and pedestrian, rail, water, highway, and public transp...

  2. Trends in statewide long-range transportation plans : core and emerging topics in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report synthesizes key findings and trends from the 2017 Statewide Long-Range Transportation Plan (SLRTP) Database, which represents key observations identified through a review of all 52 SLRTPs and Statewide Transportation Improvement Programs ...

  3. 25 CFR 170.413 - What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Roads Program Facilities Long-Range Transportation Planning § 170.413 What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan? BIA or the tribe must solicit public involvement. If there are... newspapers when the draft long-range transportation plan is complete. In the absence of local public...

  4. Merging long range transportation planning with public health: a case study from Utah's Wasatch Front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Shaunna K

    2010-01-01

    US transportation systems have been identified as a problem for public health, as they often encourage automobile transportation and discourage physical activity. This paper provides a case study examination of the Public Health Component of the Wasatch Front Regional Council's Regional Transportation Plan. This plan provides an example of what transportation planners at Utah's largest metropolitan planning organization (MPO) are doing to encourage physical activity through transportation. Existing active living research was used to guide recommendations using a process that included a comprehensive literature review and a review of existing state programs, advisory group and stakeholder meetings, and policy recommendations based on existing local conditions. Stakeholders from a diversity of background and interests came together with one common goal: to improve public health. Based on this collaborative process, nine policy approaches were specifically recommended for approval and integration in the Wasatch Front Regional Transportation Plan. By using current research as a guide and integrating a variety of interests, the Wasatch Front Regional Council is setting a new standard for a collaborative multi-modal focus in transportation planning, which can be replicated nationwide.

  5. Planning Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This good practice guide is composed for the master course 13120 Public Transport Planning held at the Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark. It is intended to use as guide in the different planning aspects and assignments of the course. Since the course is about the planning...... of new public transport infrastructure this guide also focuses on the planning of new infrastructure. Furthermore, the new infrastructure in the course is expected to be a light rail and even though this guide aims at being general for public transport some of the issues evidently become more relevant...... will enable a capability for planning both bus and rail. The guide is build as a full sketch investigation of a new public transport project ranging chronological from project clarification to physical and timetable planning to traffic modeling and project appraisal. The same steps that are expected...

  6. 23 CFR 450.214 - Development and content of the long-range statewide transportation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...., transportation, safety, economic development, social and environmental effects, or energy) that were relevant to... providers of transportation, representatives of users of public transportation, representatives of users of... freight transportation services, and other interested parties with a reasonable opportunity to comment on...

  7. Manpower and Transportation Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies three routing and scheduling problems arising in manpower and transportation planning. These problems are rooted in real applications, and carry interesting characteristics. By exploiting the structures of the problems, this thesis provides effective mathematical models and

  8. Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  9. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 76 FR 64376 - Long Range Transportation Plan for Fish and Wildlife Service Lands in Hawai`i, Idaho, Northern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... principles have shaped the development, conclusions, and recommendations of the Draft LRTP. The mission of... Resources and Develop Integrated Transportation Solutions Objective 1: To the extent authorized by law... and Promote Sustainable Transportation Practices Objective 1: Address climate change and other...

  11. The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The debate and discourse for the need to integrate spatial planning, transportation planning and environmental management strategically, functionally and operationally is ongoing since the early 1990s. This includes the articulation of the planning instruments used by the professionals within these functional fields and the ...

  12. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  13. Metropolitan transportation planning. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, J.W.; Hobeika, A.G.; Hurst, C.J.; Stephens, N.T.; Stuart, R.C.; Walker, R.D.; Diewald, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    This textbook provides coverage of the urban transportation planning field. Emphasis is placed on the interdisciplinary aspects of real-world metropolitan transportation with an orientation toward problem solving. Attention is given to public transportation characteristics (e.g., speed, capacity), user costs, air and noise pollution, post-project evaluation, decision making and community involvement, transportation systems management, planning at strategy, policy, program, and project levels, and finance, budgeting, and related legislative and organizational concerns.

  14. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  15. Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    The Ph. D. thesis describes and analyses how environmental obejctives and strategies have materialised in the real-life context of local transport policies and plans, how environmental perspectives have been picked up by policy makers concerned with transport issues, how policy and planning...

  16. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  17. Crew Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Pamela S. (Compiler); Mango, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Program (CCP) has been chartered to facilitate the development of a United States (U.S.) commercial crew space transportation capability with the goal of achieving safe, reliable, and cost effective access to and from low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) as soon as possible. Once the capability is matured and is available to the Government and other customers, NASA expects to purchase commercial services to meet its ISS crew rotation and emergency return objectives.

  18. The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning. Engineering. Planning. Information. Systems/ modeling. Statutory planning. Urban. Planning Theory. Regional. Planning Theory. Environmental. Planning. Zoology. Planning Law. Strategic. Spatial Development. Frameworks. Governmental. Administration. Management. Urban. Planning. Frameworks. Architecture ...

  19. Use of Models in Urban Transportation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-01

    The report describes the most commonly used models in urban transportation planning. A background on urban transportation planning is given including changes in planning objectives and the effects of Federal legislation. General concepts and problems...

  20. Data use & organizational innovations in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In response to transportation innovation and particularly high-speed rail as well as various : political factors, there is a need to rethink the underlying precepts of transportation planning for : urban areas and also planning at a regional scale. I...

  1. Data integration for urban transport planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Zhendong

    2003-01-01

    Urban transport planning aims at balancing conflicting challenges by promoting more efficient transport systems while reducing negative impacts. The availability of better and more reliable data has not only stimulated new planning methodologies, but also created challenges for efficient data

  2. Role of regional planning organizations in transportation planning across boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-11

    The Volpe Center conducted research for the Federal Highway Administration Office of Planning that explores the implications of Regional Planning Organizations (RPO) engaging in transportation planning partnerships and projects of megaregions signifi...

  3. 78 FR 69123 - Draft Long Range Transportation Plan for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands in the Midwest Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Wildlife Service, 5600 American Boulevard West, Suite 990, Bloomington, MN (612- 713-5407). Submitting... and recognizable identity throughout all Service units by using standard materials for readily... between the project, unit, regional, and national levels of planning. Objective 2: Define need for...

  4. Financially Constrained Transportation Planning and Programming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This case study report is intended to provide metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), state departments of transportation and transit agencies with a greater understanding of the important role that financial information plays in the planning and...

  5. Regional cooperation in transportation planning : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  6. Transportation planning for planned special events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Unique among planned special event activities are those events that carry the National Special Security Event (NSSE) designation. NSSEs occur with some frequency, with 35 of these events held between September 1998 and February 2010. These events inc...

  7. Accessibility as indicator in sustainable transport planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Currently efforts are made in many countries to develop transport planning in a more sustainable direction. In the international research project SUSTAIN national sustainable transport planning is developed in a research programme over four years from 2012 to 206. One of the important indicators...

  8. Metropolitan Planning Organizations: Findings and Recommendations for Improving Transportation Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew R. Goetz; Paul Stephen Dempsey; Carl Larson

    2002-01-01

    With the enactment of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act in 1991, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) became more important institutions for planning and funding regional transportation systems. This study attempts to assess the success of MPOs in four fast-growing areas- Dallas/Ft. Worth, Denver, Phoenix, and Seattle-in meeting regional transportation needs. The research identifies the criteria that distinguish more successful from less successful MPOs-effective lead...

  9. 25 CFR 700.721 - Range management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Range management plans. 700.721 Section 700.721 Indians... Lands Grazing § 700.721 Range management plans. The Commissioner (or his designee) and the permittees of each range unit will meet as a group and develop a Range Management Plan for the common use of the...

  10. 25 CFR 161.203 - Are range management plans required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are range management plans required? 161.203 Section 161... LANDS GRAZING PERMITS General Provisions § 161.203 Are range management plans required? Yes. BIA will... range restoration activities for the Navajo Partitioned Lands. (b) Develop range management plans with...

  11. Long-range spin transport in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Detlef; Wolf, Michael J. [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Huebler, Florian [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Recently, there has been some controversy about spin-polarized quasiparticle transport and relaxation in superconductors, with reports of both anomalously short or anomalously long relaxation times as compared to the normal state. Here, we report on non-local transport in multiterminal superconductor-ferromagnet structures. We find signatures of spin transport over distances much larger than the normal-state spin-diffusion length in the presence of a large Zeeman splitting of the quasiparticle states. The relaxation length shows a nearly linear increase with magnetic field, hinting at a freeze-out of spin relaxation by the Zeeman splitting.

  12. 23 CFR 450.308 - Funding for transportation planning and unified planning work programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funding for transportation planning and unified planning... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.308 Funding for transportation planning and unified planning work programs. (a) Funds...

  13. Guam Transportation Petroleum-Use Reduction Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2013-04-01

    The island of Guam has set a goal to reduce petroleum use 20% by 2020. Because transportation is responsible for one-third of on-island petroleum use, the Guam Energy Task Force (GETF), a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy and numerous Guam-based agencies and organizations, devised a specific plan by which to meet the 20% goal within the transportation sector. This report lays out GETF's plan.

  14. Planning and evaluation of sustainability in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Introduction and general approaches 2. Brief overview ofsome projects related to sustainability 3. Examples from research – Decision analysis and support – Policy Influence of indic ators – National Sustainable Transport Planning 4. Some perspectives......Introduction and general approaches 2. Brief overview ofsome projects related to sustainability 3. Examples from research – Decision analysis and support – Policy Influence of indic ators – National Sustainable Transport Planning 4. Some perspectives...

  15. Transportation Planning and Quality of Life: Where Do They Intersect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard J; Sener, Ipek N

    2016-05-01

    Policy makers and researchers are increasingly recognizing the connections between public health and transportation, but health improvements are typically framed from a physical health perspective rather than considering broader quality of life (QOL) impacts. Currently, there is a limited understanding of the ways in which transportation and QOL intersect, and little is known about how metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) in the United States are addressing QOL outcomes. This study addressed these gaps by developing a conceptual framework holistically linking transportation to QOL. The proposed framework identified four transportation-related QOL dimensions-physical, mental, social, and economic well-being-which are predominantly influenced by three components of the transportation system: mobility/accessibility, the built environment, and vehicle traffic. This framework then formed the basis for a content analysis of 148 long-range transportation plans in the United States to evaluate the extent to which QOL is being considered in the planning process. The results of the analysis and a follow-up examination of 13 plans revealed that MPOs are inconsistently addressing QOL. Plans primarily targeted QOL enhancement from the perspective of physical well-being, while mental and social well-being were rarely considered. Policy recommendations were provided to more comprehensively integrate QOL into the transportation planning process.

  16. 49 CFR 613.200 - Statewide transportation planning and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statewide transportation planning and programming. 613.200 Section 613.200 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.200 Statewide transportation planning and programming. The...

  17. Incorporating Resilience into Transportation Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelly, Elizabeth; Melaina, Marc

    2017-06-03

    To aid decision making for developing transportation infrastructure, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The SERA model is a geospatially and temporally oriented model that has been applied to determine optimal production and delivery scenarios for hydrogen, given resource availability and technology cost and performance, for use in fuel cell vehicles. In addition, the SERA model has been applied to plug-in electric vehicles.

  18. Integrating climate change into the transportation planning process : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to advance the practice and application of transportation planning among state, regional, and local transportation planning agencies to successfully meet growing concerns about the relationship between transportation an...

  19. Analysis and integration of spatial data for transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Transportation planning requires substantial amounts of data and cooperation among transportation planning : agencies. Advances in computer technology and the increasing availability of geographic information : systems (GIS) are giving transportation...

  20. Land use planning in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information in the computer tool Safer-TNP. Safer-TNP is a design tool that guides network planners in designing safe transportation networks (or improving safety of existing transportation networks). It provid...

  1. Social networks, big data and transport planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Sanchez, T.; Lidon Mars Aicart, M. del; Arroyo Lopez, M.R.; Serna Nocedal, A.

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of people who are related or tied to each individual affects her activitytravel behavior. That influence is especially associated to social and recreational activities, which are increasingly important. Collecting high quality data from those social networks is very difficult, because respondents are asked about their general social life, which is most demanding to remember that specific facts. On the other hand, currently there are different potential sources of transport data, which is characterized by the huge amount of information available, the velocity with it is obtained and the variety of format in which is presented. This sort of information is commonly known as Big Data. In this paper we identify potential sources of social network related big data that can be used in Transport Planning. Then, a review of current applications in Transport Planning is presented. Finally, some future prospects of using social network related big data are highlighted. (Author)

  2. Improvement of the financial planning on a railway transport

    OpenAIRE

    Bogomolova, N.; Kravchenko, O.

    2011-01-01

    In the article are considered approaches to the determination of financial planning, are chose defects of ukrainian financial planning system, is conducted analysis of financial planning and budgeting, are offered directions to improvement of financial planning in railroad transport.

  3. Transportation planning, management systems, public participation, and land use modeling. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This volume focuses on statewide and metropolitan transportation planning, management systems, and land use-transportation issues. The papers on statewide and metropolitan transportation planning concern an interactive planning modeling process (Wyoming), an area transportation partnership to assist in the development of the state transportation improvement program (Minnesota), the development of a customer perspective in the statewide transportation planning process (Colorado), a pilot transportation plan for an Indian reservation in western North Carolina, and a community-based, strategic, comprehensive planning process (Ithaca, New York). The papers that concern management systems fall into two categories: those which discuss congestion management and those which discuss management systems for transport infrastructure.

  4. Land use planning in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information

  5. Intersection planning in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information

  6. Perspectives for Social Relevance in Long-Range Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, James M., Ed; Shultz, James, Ed.

    Twenty-three interviews are compiled to assist the formulation of operational goals as part of the long-range planning of the YMCA. Basic assumptions about social relevance in YMCA planning and suggestions for YMCA planners in utilizing this monograph are provided in an introduction. A summary of each individual's interview is presented along with…

  7. Connected vehicle impacts on transportation planning technical memorandum #6: skills and expertise required to incorporate connected vehicles into transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Professional development and training are essential to the incorporation of connected/automated vehicles (C/AV) into the : transportation planning process. In order to guarantee a successful deployment, transportation planning agencies and their : st...

  8. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements of...

  9. Intelligent transportation systems business plan for Kentucky : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report presents a Business Plan for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in Kentucky. The purpose of the Business Plan is to define ITS projects that are planned for implementation from 2002 through 2007. The list of projects contained withi...

  10. Reaching for the Horizon: The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald

    2015-10-01

    In April 2014, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee was charged to conduct a new study of the opportunities and priorities for United States nuclear physics research and to recommend a long range plan for the coordinated advancement of the Nation's nuclear science program over the next decade. The entire community actively contributed to developing this plan. Ideas and goals, new and old, were examined and community priorities were established. The Long Range Plan Working Group gathered at Kitty Hawk, NC to converge on the recommendations. In this talk I will discuss the vision for the future that has emerged from this process. The new plan, ``Reaching for the Horizon,'' offers the promise of great leaps forward in our understanding of nuclear science and new opportunities for nuclear science to serve society. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  11. Urban sustainable mobility. Part 1: Rationality in transport planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando CARTENÌ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the transport sector is in the range of 20%-40% in terms of consumption of fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases and particulate matter. In this context, policies aimed at reducing these effects are very important. Many urban areas are trying to adopt planning strategies aimed to a sustainable use of resources often referred to as sustainable mobility. These policies are very different in terms of costs and expected benefits, and the effects of these policies and their combinations are difficult to anticipate on a purely intuitive basis and sometimes the end effect could be contrary to intuitive expectations (e.g. policies aimed to reduce pollution, ending up in increasing it. In this context, the concept of eco-rational planning assumes a central role. This means identifying the right mixture of interventions to be implemented on the transport system that is: rational for the transport system (e.g. reduction in terms of congestion, traffic accidents, travel time and sustainable for people’s health and for the environmental (e.g. emissions reduction and requires minimal economic resources (e.g. lower monetary cost per unit of CO2 saved. The paper discusses the importance of rational decisions in transport planning.

  12. Development of Financial Plans for Regional Transportation Plans - Methods, Data and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on the portion of the Financial Plan for the Regional Transportation Plan (RTP) dealing with the road system in Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG) metropolitan planning region under the jurisdiction of county road a...

  13. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    This report, the ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs.

  14. Environmental Development Plan for Transportation Energy Conservation. FY 79 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. K.; Bernard, III, M. J.

    1978-12-15

    This is the first annual update of the Environment Development Plan (EDP) for the DOE Division of Transportation Energy Conservation program. It identifies the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with the division's transportation programs. These programs include the research, development, demonstration and assessment (RDD and A) of seventeen transportation technologies and several strategy and policy development and implementation projects. The transportation technologies projects deal with highway transport including electric vehicles, marine transport and pipeline transport. This EDP presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns stemming from these programs.

  15. Lightweight materials for transportation: Program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This Program Plan has been prepared by the Office of Transportation Materials in response to a request by the House Committee on Appropriations. It recognizes that a significant commitment to long-term, stable materials research and development (R&D) is required to realize the benefits of lighter weight vehicles, including economic, environmental and energy related benefits. Extensive input was obtained from the major US automakers and from representative materials and component suppliers. Considerable interaction with the key members of the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has ensured consistency of technical direction. The program will support R&D activity at industrial sites through competitively bid subcontracts with cost sharing anticipated at 30--50%, with the higher amounts in process scale-up and manufacturing technology development. The recommended LWM Program will enable industry to develop pecessary technology by utilizing their capabilities as well as accessing supporting technology at national laboratories, universities, ongoing program activity at NASA, DoD, DOT, NIST, etc., and thereby leverage industry resources through integrated team approaches. Many individual program efforts are currently in place that address small portions of the overall needs of the LWM Program, both within DOE and in other agencies. Cognizance of these and overall integration of research activities are planned as significant program management tasks. Because of the international nature of the automobile business, benchmarking of foreign technology and tracking of worldwide developments are also key program elements.

  16. Transportation planning for electric vehicles and associated infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Planning is the key to successful adoption and deployment of any new technology, and : it is particularly important when that advancement involves a paradigm shift such as : electrified transportation. At its core, electric transportation is largely ...

  17. Mobility 2025 update : the metropolitan transportation plan : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Mobility 2025 Update: The Metropolitan Transportation Plan website. Mobility 2025 Update is the defining vision for transportation systems and services in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area. Serving as a guide for the expenditure of state and fe...

  18. Impact of environmental justice analysis on transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    This report presents the findings of a study sponsored by the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT): Impact of Environmental Justice (EJ) on Transportation Planning. The objectives of the study were to determine the state of the practice of EJ ...

  19. U.S. Department of Transportation strategic plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This Strategic Plan describes the Department of Transportations new ideas through : goals, strategies and the results we will achieve to improve the United States : transportation sector. We have set policy goals in five strategic areas: Safety, R...

  20. Health impact assessment of the 2012 London Olympic transport plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Mark; Ravelli, Robert J; Sinclair-Williams, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Transport is a structural determinant of health. We have assessed the potential of transport plans for the 2012 London Olympic Games to achieve the sustainability commitment of 'encouraging healthy living...

  1. Wisconsin Department of Transportation ITS/CVO business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    This plan is part of the national mainstreaming effort, to incorporate ITS/CVO technologies into state and metropolitan transportation planning and to coordinate ITS/CVO activities among agencies and states.

  2. STIS: smart travel planning across multiple modes of transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Shane; Meier, Rene

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed Travellers require information on individual transport systems when planning a journey. Many transport-rich urban environments contain numerous underlying transport infrastructures, offering a traveller various ways to complete the journey. This paper presents the Smart Traveller Information Service, a system designed to offer travellers an easy to use and efficient means of planning journeys in an otherwise complex multi-modal transport environment. The Smart Traveller Infor...

  3. Forecasting developer behavior for public transportation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    It is desirable to have early involvement of private sector developers in the transit planning process. However, the private sector seldom becomes involved before a transit project is nearly completed, and transit planners as well as public officials seldom reflect developers' decision processes in their planning in order to increase the range of economic-development opportunities. This study develops the Site Development Model, which simulates the long and short range decision processes of developers. This decision process involves four steps: determination of demand for route alignment; analysis of site constraints on development; analysis of various designs and marketing options; and the financial analysis of an individual project. Four uses of the model for typical development problems are illustrated using data from the King Street Station in Alexandria, Virginia, a station on the Washington, D.C. Metro System. The four uses include assessment of development potential for various locations surrounding the transit station; consideration of various project designs at the same locations; development of the marketing strategy for a preliminary design; and testing the effect of local policy decisions on development potential of a site. Conclusions indicate the model is an effective tool for transit planners and local planners and provides an understanding of the developers' decision processes.

  4. Futures/Long-Range Planning Group. Periodic Report 7,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    27 interface for 21st century travelers. In a cashless , checkless society , Asimov envisages that travelers will have plastic devices (similar to...are: Antarctica, America’s aging population, divided societies , American-English, ethnotronics, and long-range planning. An introductory page presents...States can be reasonably projected for the next 50 years because projections depend on death rates and not on birth rates.󈧐 Increasingly, US society will

  5. The ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program Long Range Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrick, T.E.

    1984-09-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 76 individual surplus facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. The ORNL SFMP has prepared this Long Range Plan to outline the long-term management strategy for those facilities included in the program. The primary objective of this plan are to: (1) develop a base of information for each ORNL SFMP facility, (2) conduct preliminary decommissioning analyses to identify feasible alternatives, (3) assess the current and future risk of each facility, (4) establish a priority list for the decommissioning projects, and (5) integrate the individual project costs and schedules into an overall program schedule and cost estimate for the ORNL site. The Long Range Plan also provides an overview of the ORNL SFMP management structure, specifies the decommissioning criteria to be employed, and identifies special technical problems, research and development needs, and special facilities and equipment that may be required for decommissioning operations.

  6. Automated transportation management system (ATMS) software project management plan (SPMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidert, R.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-20

    The Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Software Project Management plan (SPMP) is the lead planning document governing the life cycle of the ATMS and its integration into the Transportation Information Network (TIN). This SPMP defines the project tasks, deliverables, and high level schedules involved in developing the client/server ATMS software.

  7. Energy transport in the presence of long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Debarshee

    2017-10-01

    We study energy transport in the paradigmatic Hamiltonian mean-field (HMF) model and other related long-range interacting models using molecular dynamics simulations. We show that energy diffusion in the HMF model is subdiffusive in nature, which confirms a recently obtained intriguing result that, despite being globally interacting, this model is a thermal insulator in the thermodynamic limit. Surprisingly, when additional nearest-neighbor interactions are introduced to the HMF model, an energy superdiffusion is observed. We show that these results can be consistently explained by studying energy localization due to thermally generated intrinsic localized excitation modes (discrete breathers) in nonlinear discrete systems. Our analysis for the HMF model can also be readily extended to more generic long-range interacting models where the interaction strength decays algebraically with the (shortest) distance between two lattice sites. This reconciles many of the apparently counterintuitive results presented recently [C. Olivares and C. Anteneodo, Phys. Rev. E 94, 042117 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.042117; D. Bagchi, Phys. Rev. E 95, 032102 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevE.95.032102] concerning energy transport in two such long-range interacting models.

  8. Connected vehicle impacts on transportation planning technical memorandum #3 : analysis of the need for new and enhanced analysis tools, techniques, and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The principal objective of this project, Connected Vehicle Impacts on Transportation Planning, is to comprehensively assess how connected vehicles : should be considered across the range of transportation planning processes and products develop...

  9. Education in Transportation Systems Planning: Highway Research Record No. 462.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    The papers contained in the issue of Highway Research Record focus on current and emerging patterns of education and training related to transportation systems planning. The five papers are: Transportation Centers and Other Mechanisms to Encourage Interdisciplinary Research and Training Efforts in Transportation (Frederick J. Wegmann and Edward A.…

  10. Three Performativities of Innovation in Public Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissandrello, Enza; Hrelja, Robert; Tennøy, Aud

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on planners’ own stories of innovation in public transport planning in three Nordic contexts (Denmark, Sweden and Norway), this article explores how individual planning professionals develop specific abilities that shape the possibilities of action and innovation in planning practices....... To illuminate how planning is dynamically renewed, revised and consolidated over time by the individual actions of planners, the article offers an interpretation of the performative qualities of planners by adapting Butler’s feminist critical theory on performativity to the public transport planning context...

  11. Transportation Plans and Programs Chapter for the Transportation Officer Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    offers maximum convenience, space, and facilities (latrines, water, vending machines , etc.) (9:CH5). Communications will play a key role in the overall...Air Passenger Terminal and Transportation Control Unit (Mobility), 18th Transportation Squadron, Kadena AB, Japan . He was the transportation planner...There is a good chance a reception base will be under hostile fire. "The entire reception machine must work fast under these conditions to limit

  12. The Open Format and Citizen Participation in Transportation Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in transportation planning and policy indicate that citizen participation and openness may receive less emphasis in the future in favor of more closed methods of decision making and control. Have the merits and drawbacks of citizen participation and openness changed significan......Recent developments in transportation planning and policy indicate that citizen participation and openness may receive less emphasis in the future in favor of more closed methods of decision making and control. Have the merits and drawbacks of citizen participation and openness changed...... with the trend for considering social, environmental, and ethical issues in transportation planning and policy....

  13. Preliminary Materials Transport Plan for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilkison, J.M.; Dyches, G.M.; Randall, W.J.; Steed, J.H.

    2000-01-26

    This Materials Transport Plan defines the methodology for moving process and non-process materials within the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) operations. The scope of the plan includes the movement of materials between plant operational units (gloveboxes or operational areas/rooms within the plant). The movements of materials within the various plant operational units are described in the System Design Description prepared for the individual units. The plan provides a design concept for transporting each type of material including the containerization used during the movements. Further, the plan identifies the high-level functions and requirements for movements of the materials.

  14. Maintenance and operations plan for intelligent transportation systems in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    This report presents a Maintenance and Operations Plan for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in Kentucky. It was developed using substantial stakeholder input and provides recommendations and specific strategies for supporting and coordinating...

  15. Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes : a TPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes Peer Exchange held on September 9-10, 2015 in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. This event was sponsored ...

  16. Data integration for statewide transportation planning : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the data availability, accessibility, and interoperability issues arisen from the statewide : transportation planning activities undertaken at WisDOT and to identify possible approaches for addressing these i...

  17. The public transportation system security and emergency preparedness planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have focused renewed attention on the vulnerability of the nation's critical infrastructure to major events, including terrorism. The Public Transportation System Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide has been prepared to s...

  18. Transportation Plan Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study is intended to present a plan to identify transportation enhancements that will provide efficient mobility for visitors and staff to and within the...

  19. Urban transportation planning in the United States : an historical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The report focuses on key events in the evolution of urban transportation planning including developments in technical procedures, philosophy, processes and institutions. But, planners must also be aware of changes in legislation, policy, regulations...

  20. Planning of transport corridors by use of GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld; Grevy, Bo

    1998-01-01

    The paper adresses principles for the application of geographical information systems (GIS) as a tool in the planning of transport corridors. Specifically, the paper describes the COPE (corridor planning and evaluation) model that has been developed within the EU 4th FP Strategic Transport projec...... TEN-ASSESS and CODE-TEN. The high speed rail project Rødby-Ringsted is used as a case for the demonstration of the methodology....

  1. Long-range transported Asian Dust and emergency ambulance dispatches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kayo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Nitta, Hiroshi; Inoue, Kenichiro

    2012-10-01

    Asian Dust (AD) particles transported from source areas contribute to sharp increases in coarse particles in Japan. We examined the association of exposure to AD events with emergency ambulance dispatches in Nagasaki city. We also examined whether AD transported at different altitude routes from source areas influenced dispatch rates. Using lidar (light detection and ranging), we determined moderate AD days (0.066/km dust extinction coefficient ≤0.105/km) and heavy AD days (0.105/km dust extinction coefficient). We applied a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to estimate the association between AD days and emergency ambulance dispatches. There were 9,070 dispatches from March to May during 2003-2007. The heavy AD events at cumulative lag0-3 were associated with an increase in emergency dispatches due to all causes by 12.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3, 22.9) and an increase for those due to cardiovascular diseases by 20.8% (95% CI: 3.5, 40.9). We categorized 31 AD days based on backward trajectory analyses into AD days with lower altitude routes and those with higher altitude routes. We observed a greater increase in emergency ambulance dispatches on AD days with lower altitude routes compared with those on AD days with higher altitude routes although the difference was not significant (p for interaction 0.49). These results have shown that exposure to high AD particle levels could increase emergency ambulance dispatches due to illnesses such as cardiovascular stress, and that AD traveling through different routes may have different health effects.

  2. The Frontiers of Nuclear Science: A Long-Range Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    In a letter dated July 17, 2006, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science for Nuclear Physics and the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate charged the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) to “conduct a study of the opportunities and priorities for U.S. nuclear physics research and recommend a long range plan that will provide a framework for coordinated advancement of the nation’s nuclear science research programs over the next decade.” This request set in motion a bottom-up review and forward look by the nuclear science community. With input from this community-wide process, a 59 member working group, which included the present NSAC members, gathered at the beginning of May, 2007, to develop guidance on how to optimize the future research directions for the field based on the projected resources outlined in the charge letter from DOE and NSF. A new long range plan—The Frontiers of Nuclear Science—grew out of this meeting. For the last decade, the top priority for nuclear science has been to utilize the flagship facilities that were built with investments by the nation in the 1980s and 1990s. Research with these facilities has led to many significant new discoveries that have changed our understanding of the world in which we live. But new discoveries demand new facilities, and the successes cannot continue indefinitely without new investment.

  3. Agent-based transportation planning compared with scheduling heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart

    2004-01-01

    Here we consider the problem of dynamically assigning vehicles to transportation orders that have di¤erent time windows and should be handled in real time. We introduce a new agent-based system for the planning and scheduling of these transportation networks. Intelligent vehicle agents schedule

  4. Ohio Department of Transportation : 2008-2009 Business Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    On behalf of the new Administration of Governor Ted Strickland and the more than 6,000 hard working men and women of the Ohio Department of Transportation, I am pleased to submit the Ohio Department of Transportation 2008-2009 Business Plan. : This b...

  5. Improved Collaborative Transport Planning at Dutch Logistics Service Provider Fritom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Paul; Lopez Alvarez, Jose Alejandro; Veenstra, Marjolein; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2016-01-01

    We study the collaborative transport planning for two autonomous business units of Fritom, a Dutch logistics service provider. This difficult planning problem does not fit any existing type of vehicle routing problem proposed in the academic literature; therefore, we define a new problem class, the

  6. National ITS Program Plan, Intelligent Transportation Systems, Synopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE PURPOSE OF THE NATIONAL ITS PROGRAM PLAN IS TO GUIDE THE DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITS) IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS, THE FIRST EDITION OF THE PLAN WAS A JOINT EFFORT OF ITS AMERICA AND THE UNITED STATES DEPA...

  7. Access management in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information

  8. Route management in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information

  9. Object-Oriented Dynamic GIS for Transportation Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, Reginald G

    1996-01-01

    Transportation planning has been concentrated on demand management as detailed in recent legislation such as the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). With the advent of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) and different management measures such as carpooling, vanpooling and telecommuting, transportation modeling needs to incorporate analyses on these policy measures. Recent computer technology offers versatile functionality to model and evaluate impacts of these pol...

  10. Transportation fuels and policy for Singapore: an AHP planning approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poh, K.L.; Ang, B.W. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Industrial and Systems Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A comprehensive study of alternative fuels for land transportation in Singapore is carried out. A multiple attribute analysis is used to identify a number of fuel options for possible future use. An AHP analysis is performed to evaluate four possible plans or scenarios. The preferred plan, however, deviates from the most likely future scenario and an iterative forward and backward AHP planning process is used to identify and evaluate a set of policies which may be used to reduce the gap. (author)

  11. National sustainable transport planning - concepts and practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    the concept of ‘national sustainable transport planning’. This is done via selected literature within this and associated areas. A definition is provided and it is suggested that three interlinked dimensions are of importance for transitions, thus a normative, an analytic and a governance dimension...

  12. Societal Planning: Identifying a New Role for the Transport Planner-Part II: Planning Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khisty, C. Jotin; Leleur, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The paper seeks to formulate planning guidelines based on Habermas's theory of communicative action. Specifically, this has led to the formulation of a set of four planning validity claims concerned to four types of planning guidelines concerning adequacy, dependency, suitability and adaptability......-a-vis the planning validity claims. Among other things the contingency of this process is outlined. It is concluded (part I & II) that transport planners can conveniently utilize the guidelines in their professional practice, tailored to their particular settings....

  13. Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning A Modeling-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Naser, Arab

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning: A Modeling-Based Approach provides a new paradigm for evacuation planning strategies and techniques. Recently, evacuation planning and modeling have increasingly attracted interest among researchers as well as government officials. This interest stems from the recent catastrophic hurricanes and weather-related events that occurred in the southeastern United States (Hurricane Katrina and Rita). The evacuation methods that were in place before and during the hurricanes did not work well and resulted in thousands of deaths. This book offers insights into the methods and techniques that allow for implementing mathematical-based, simulation-based, and integrated optimization and simulation-based engineering approaches for evacuation planning. This book also: Comprehensively discusses the application of mathematical models for evacuation and intelligent transportation modeling Covers advanced methodologies in evacuation modeling and planning Discusses principles a...

  14. Information Resources Management Long Range Plan, FY 1995-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Agency 5-Year IRM Investment Projections; Major IRM Program Accomplishments for FY 1993; Information Collection Budget; Summary of Computer Security Plans; Appendix: Acronym List.

  15. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    that introducing bioenergy to the energy mix could reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions by about 6 million tonnes CO2e by 2030, equivalent to a 14% reduction in a business-as-usual scenario. This paper advocates the use of second generation ethanol for transport, to the extent that it is economically exploitable......As Ghana's economy grows, the choice of future energy paths and policies in the coming years will have a significant influence on its energy security. A Renewable Energy Act approved in 2011 seeks to encourage the influx of renewable energy sources in Ghana's energy mix. The new legal framework...... biomass sources, through the production of biogas, liquid biofuels and electricity. Analysis was based on moderate and high use of bioenergy for transportation, electricity generation and residential fuel using the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) model. Results obtained indicate...

  16. Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

    1994-09-01

    Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

  17. State transportation policy initiative : a new strategic urban transportation planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Recent legislation and fiscal trends in Florida and nationwide have created a unique combination of constraints and opportunities, providing an impetus for examining the way Florida conducts transportation planning. In response to these challenges, t...

  18. Integrated Transport Planning Framework Involving Combined Utility Regret Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Monzon, Andres; Di Ciommo, Floridea

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable transport planning requires an integrated approach involving strategic planning, impact analysis, and multicriteria evaluation. This study aimed at relaxing the utility-based decision-making assumption by newly embedding anticipated-regret and combined utility regret decision mechanisms...... in a framework for integrated transport planning. The framework consisted of a two-round Delphi survey, integrated land use and transport model for Madrid, and multicriteria analysis. Results show that (a) the regret-based ranking has a similar mean but larger variance than the utility-based ranking does, (b......-based multicriteria analyses result in different rankings of policy packages, and (e) the combined utility regret ranking is more informative compared with the utility-based or the regret-based ranking....

  19. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental ImpactReport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-22

    This environmental impact report (EIR) has been prepared pursuant to the applicable provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and its implementing guidelines (CEQA Guidelines), and the Amended University of California Procedures for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act (UC CEQA Procedures). The University of California (UC or the University) is the lead agency for this EIR, which examines the overall effects of implementation of the proposed 2006 Long Range Development Plan (LRDP; also referred to herein as the 'project' for purposes of CEQA) for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL; also referred to as 'Berkeley Lab,' 'the Laboratory,' or 'the Lab' in this document). An LRDP is a land use plan that guides overall development of a site. The Lab serves as a special research campus operated by the University employees, but it is owned and financed by the federal government and as such it is distinct from the UC-owned Berkeley Campus. As a campus operated by the University of California, the Laboratory is required to prepare an EIR for an LRDP when one is prepared or updated pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 21080.09. The adoption of an LRDP does not constitute a commitment to, or final decision to implement, any specific project, construction schedule, or funding priority. Rather, the proposed 2006 LRDP describes an entire development program of approximately 980,000 gross square feet of new research and support space construction and 320,000 gross square feet of demolition of existing facilities, for a total of approximately 660,000 gross square feet of net new occupiable space for the site through 2025. Specific projects will undergo CEQA review at the time proposed to determine what, if any, additional review is necessary prior to approval. As described in Section 1.4.2, below, and in Chapter 3 of this EIR (the Project Description), the size of the project has been

  20. Promoting active community environments through land use and transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytur, Semra A; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Evenson, Kelly R; Catellier, Diane J; Rosamond, Wayne D

    2007-01-01

    To examine the role of land use and transportation plans as policy instruments for promoting active community environments. Cross-sectional analysis using multilevel models to examine whether active community environment scores were associated with leisure and transportation-related physical activity (PA) and whether associations varied by household income. 67 North Carolina counties Adults (n = 6694) from pooled 2000 and 2002 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. Active community environment scores, derived from a 2003 survey of planning directors, representing the presence of nonmotorized transportation improvements, mixed land use classification, and comprehensiveness of implementation tools. Dependent variables were self-reported PA measures from the BRFSS. Sociodemographic variables were derived from the 2000 U.S. Census of Population. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, more favorable active community environment scores were significantly associated with leisure PA (p = .001), transportation PA (p land use and transportation planning. Plans may provide a means to incorporate community support for active living into public policy.

  1. Engineering Algorithms for Route Planning in Multimodal Transportation Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dibbelt, Julian Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Practical algorithms for route planning in transportation networks are a showpiece of successful Algorithm Engineering. This has produced many speedup techniques, varying in preprocessing time, space, query performance, simplicity, and ease of implementation. This thesis explores solutions to more realistic scenarios, taking into account, e.g., traffic, user preferences, public transit schedules, and the options offered by the many modalities of modern transportation networks.

  2. Advancing metropolitan planning for operations : the building blocks of a model transportation plan incorporating operations : a desk reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This publication is a resource designed to enable transportation planners and their planning partners to build a transportation plan that includes operations objectives, performance measures, and strategies that are relevant to their region, that ref...

  3. Assateague Island National Seashore alternative transportation systems planning study and business plan for alternative transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this study was to (1) study the potential expansion of existing alternative transportation systems (bicycle facilities) and development of new alternative transportation systems in and around the Maryland District of Assateague Island ...

  4. Strategic Spatial Planning's Role in Legitimizing Investments in Transport Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    This paper discusses to what extent spatial visions might play an important role in not only supporting, but also legitimizing the need for investments in transport infrastructures. Drawing on discussion of an ‘infrastructure turn’ in strategic spatial planning (Dodson 2009), this paper explores...... for decades (Kingdon 2011). In conclusion, the paper suggests that the case of the Loop City potentially reveals a wider trend in strategic spatial planning, in which political lobbying for key infrastructure projects, rather than land use policies, becomes the focal point for preparation of strategic plans....... Such a development raises a number of concerns about strategic spatial planning’s potential for guiding future urban development....

  5. RANGE RAM: a long-term planning method for managing grazing lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricus C. Jansen

    1976-01-01

    Range RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a computerized planning method designed to assist range managers in developing and selecting alternatives in spatial and temporal allocation of resources. The technique is applicable at the frest or district management levels, or their equivalents. Range RAM can help formulate plans that maximize the production of range outputs...

  6. Half-range acceleration for one-dimensional transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zika, M.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Larsen, E.W. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Researchers have devoted considerable effort to developing acceleration techniques for transport iterations in highly diffusive problems. The advantages and disadvantages of source iteration, rebalance, diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA), transport synthetic acceleration (TSA), and projection acceleration methods are documented in the literature and will not be discussed here except to note that no single method has proven to be applicable to all situations. Here, the authors describe a new acceleration method that is based solely on transport sweeps, is algebraically linear (and is therefore amenable to a Fourier analysis), and yields a theoretical spectral radius bounded by one-third for all cases. This method does not introduce spatial differencing difficulties (as is the case for DSA) nor does its theoretical performance degrade as a function of mesh and material properties (as is the case for TSA). Practical simulations of the new method agree with the theoretical predictions, except for scattering ratios very close to unity. At this time, they believe that the discrepancy is due to the effect of boundary conditions. This is discussed further.

  7. Metro manila transport and traffic management plan (1993-1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    In 1988, former President Corazon Aquino created the Presidential Task Force on Traffic Management to formulate plans and programs to improve the traffic situation in Metro Manila and to address the emerging problem of air pollution and concern on renewable energy sources for transportation. The Task Force formulated the Metro Manila Traffic Improvement Plan (TRIP) which was approved by President Aquino for implementation. TRIP called for the development of a mass urban transport system, which included the expansion of the light rail transit system and the construction and improvement of the Metro Manila road network. Culled mainly from the TRIP proposals, the Updated Transport and Traffic Management Plan for Metro Manila (1993-1998) was developed through interagency discussions, public consultations, data collation and research work. This plan is directed towards the development of a more responsive public transport system, expansion of road network capacity, and improvement of traffic management and enforcement. Constraints may be present along the way but opportunities and potentials exist for the deliverance of daily commuters struggling to make a living.

  8. 2007 regional planning handbook : a guide to administering overall work programs, regional transportation plans and their funding sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This Handbook describes the respective roles and responsibilities for District Transportation Planners with regional transportation planning duties, and for Transportation Planners within ORIP. The focus is Department interaction with the Metropolita...

  9. Observability Based Path Planning in Range-only Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenzer, Jake D.

    The motivations of oceanographic research have driven the development of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) now capable of great feats of autonomy and endurance. It is anticipated that the future of autonomous oceanographic surveys will be conducted with mixed teams of vehicles that will reduce cost and improve data quality. In a commonly proposed scenario, a scientific survey is carried out by a group of low-cost, simplistic AUVs while a more capable vehicle tends to the group; providing communication and navigation assistance. The goal of this thesis is to explore path planning methods for the aid vehicle that aim to improve localization performance experienced by survey vehicles. The two planning methods proposed make use of local observability measures to decide an aid vehicle's steering control. Simulations are conducted to test both methods against typical survey missions to investigate their efficacy in improving localization performance.

  10. Transport policy-making and planning Javanese cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, H.

    1995-12-31

    Based on findings of field studies in five Javanese cities in Indonesia, this paper looks at a hierarchy of settlements and investigates what aspects of urban development and the transport sector most influences transport policy-making and planning in the country. The paper highlights the presence of a community hierarchy within these settlements with consonant trip-making patterns and the widespread mis-use of certain transport modes. The paper cross-relates observed transport problems and policy issues diagnosed from the five Javanese cities with an earlier prepared national agenda of urban transport policy issues and problems. This is done with a view to arriving at more sensitive policy and planning responses nationwide for cities of different kinds in Indonesia. The paper commences with an explanation of the settlement hierarchy and community structure employed by Indonesian government planners. An attempt is then made to relate this hierarchy and structure to the five cities studied. Within this context, factors affecting urban transport are discussed and tabulated against the above cities settlement hierarchy. These include aspects of: settlement size, structure and area; settlement development policy, urban for, density and topography; and travel and transport characteristics. An attempt is made to match this settlement hierarchy (and its constituent community structure) with a conceptualized hierarchy of transport modes, simultaneously investigating: the relationship between urban communities and assigned road hierarchies; community-based travel demand and trip-making characteristics; and the relationship between travel, speed and distance. From this an assessment is made of the performance and current use and mis-use of such transport modes.

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Health and Safety Long-Range Plan: Fiscal years 1989--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    The health and safety of its personnel is the first concern of ORNL and its management. The ORNL Health and Safety Program has the responsibility for ensuring the health and safety of all individuals assigned to ORNL activities. This document outlines the principal aspects of the ORNL Health and Safety Long-Range Plan and provides a framework for management use in the future development of the health and safety program. Each section of this document is dedicated to one of the health and safety functions (i.e., health physics, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, industrial safety, nuclear criticality safety, nuclear facility safety, transportation safety, fire protection, and emergency preparedness). Each section includes functional mission and objectives, program requirements and status, a summary of program needs, and program data and funding summary. Highlights of FY 1988 are included.

  12. Planning the public transport system in Mucat (Oman)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Jimenez, J.; Hitado Hernandez, E.; Sanz Pecharroman, C.

    2016-07-01

    In Muscat, the capital of Oman with over one million inhabitants, urban public transport practically does not exist and the use of private cars is dramatically increasing. As a result, accident rates and traffic congestion, two particularly pressing concerns in the urban area of the capital, have both risen. This situation has focused the concern of public administrations and has led to the urgent need of developing a Public Transport System in the city. In order to develop this system in an integrated manner, the plan proposes to unify and organize regulation and management of public transport by creating a public transport authority, headed by the Ministry of Transport and with a very strong involvement of Muscat Municipality. By 2015 only two urban bus lines operate in Muscat, covering a small area of the city–Wadi Adei, Wadi Kabir and Ruwi. Therefore, the plan adopts a conservative approach by proposing the implementation of a comprehensive urban bus network –composed by trunk and feeder lines adapted to the low density of the city- before establishing other high capacity solutions, such as BRT or LRT. A key element of the system is the number of 13,400 taxis and microbuses that represent the only alternative to the 317,000 cars of Muscat. The plan suggests the reorganization and further regulation of the sector to achieve the professionalization of the taxi services and the migration of existing users, part of them to the professionalised taxi services and the other part to the implemented public transport services. (Author)

  13. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  14. Equity in transportation: new approach in transport planning – preliminary results of case study in Cracow

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia ZAKOWSKA; Sabina PULAWSKA

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to present the concept of equity as a new approach in transport and land-use planning. This concept is consistent with the objectives of sustainable development and it is becoming more common in European and world literature. Understanding the idea of equity in the context of the transport system development is very important in creating sustainable cities and regions without discriminating any social groups and creating a cohesive society not exposed to social exclus...

  15. Environmental development plan for transportation programs: FY80 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saricks, C.L.; Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Bevilacqua, O.M.

    1980-09-01

    This is the second annual update of the environmental development plan (EDP) for transportation programs. It has been prepared as a cooperative effort of the Assistant Secretaries for Conservation and Solar Energy (ASCS) Office of Transportation Programs (CS/TP) and the Environment (ASEV) Office of Environmental Assessments. EDPs identify the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, socioeconomic, and environmental control concerns associated with DOE programs. The programs include the research, development, demonstration, and assessment (RDD and A) of 14 transportation technologies and several strategy implementation projects. This EDP update presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns arising from these programs. The EDP process provides a framework for: incorporating environmental concerns into CS/TP planning and decision processes early to ensure they are assigned the same importance as technological, fiscal, and institutional concerns in decision making; resolving environmental concerns concurrently with energy technology and strategy development; and providing a research schedule that mitigates adverse environmental effects through sound technological design or policy analysis. This EDP also describes the status of each environmental concern and the plan for its resolution. Much of ongoing DOE reseirch and technology development is aimed at resolving concerns identified in this EDP. Each EDP is intended to be so comprehensive that no concerns escape notice. Care is taken to include any CS/TP action that may eventually require an Environmental Impact Statement. Because technology demonstration and commercialization tend to raise more environmental concerns than other portions of the transportation program, most of this EDP addresses these concerns.

  16. Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem: example of planning choice in transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tao; Young, Rhonda

    2010-05-01

    Transportation programming, a process of selecting projects for funding given budget and other constraints, is becoming more complex as a result of new federal laws, local planning regulations, and increased public involvement. This article describes the use of an integer programming tool, Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem (MCKP), to provide optimal solutions to transportation programming problems in cases where alternative versions of projects are under consideration. In this paper, optimization methods for use in the transportation programming process are compared and then the process of building and solving the optimization problems is discussed. The concepts about the use of MCKP are presented and a real-world transportation programming example at various budget levels is provided. This article illustrates how the use of MCKP addresses the modern complexities and provides timely solutions in transportation programming practice. While the article uses transportation programming as a case study, MCKP can be useful in other fields where a similar decision among a subset of the alternatives is required. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship of title VI requirements to Florida's transportation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) and metropolitan planning organizations (MPO) in Florida are : required to address Title VI and environmental justice (EJ) in the transportation planning process. This study : reviews those practices an...

  18. Integrating climate change in transportation and land use scenario planning : an example from central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Central New Mexico Climate Change Scenario Planning Project, an Interagency Transportation, Land Use, and Climate Change Initiative, utilized a scenario planning process to develop a multiagency transportation- and land use-focused development st...

  19. Decision Support for Planning of Multimodal Transportation with Multiple Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann

    and Passenger Service Problem (SVSPSP) is an integration of two problems that are usually solved separately and sequentially, namely the timetabling problem and the Vehicle Scheduling Problem. The SVSPSP allows for the solution of the timetabling problem to be reoptimised when considering the vehicle scheduling......This thesis treats two different planning problems from the transportation industry; one from freight transport and one from passenger transport. Each problem emerges as a combination of problems that are already known from the operational research literature, and introduces a new view of well......-known issues. They both originate in the world of multimodality, and deal with problems that arise as a consequence of the combined use of several modes. The thesis introduces the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks (DTSPMS), which is a problem that combines routing and last...

  20. Revisiting a programmatic planning approach: managing linkages between transport and land use planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Tim; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The body of knowledge on transport and land use planning shows considerable overlap with management theories and practices. Notable examples can be found in project management and strategic management. Recently, in the field of management theory, the idea of programme management has gained

  1. Accessibility Analyst: an integrated GIS tool for accessibility analysis in urban transportation planning

    OpenAIRE

    Suxia Liu; Xuan Zhu

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an integrated GIS tool, Accessibility Analyst, for accessibility analysis in urban transportation planning, built as an extension to the desktop GIS software package, ArcView. Accessibility Analyst incorporates a number of accessibility measures, ranging from catchment profile analysis to cumulative-opportunity measures, gravity-type measures, and utility-based measures, contains several travel-impedance measurement tools for estimating the travel distance, time, or cost b...

  2. Information resources management long-range plan, FY1994--1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This document describes IRM activities and the information technology resources and capabilities of the Department, the future requirements, and the strategies and plans to satisfy the identified requirements. The long-range planning process provides the systematic means to meet this objective and assists the Department in assuring that information technology (IT) support is provided in an efficient, effective, and timely manner so that its programmatic missions can be accomplished. Another important objective of the Plan is to promote better understanding, both within and external to the Department, of its IT environment, requirements, issues, and recommended solutions. This DOE IRM Plan takes into consideration the IRM requirements of approximately 50 different sites. The annual long-range planning cycle for supporting this Plan was initiated by a Call in August 1991 for site plans to be submitted in February 1992 by those Departmental components and contractors with major IRM requirements.

  3. Equity in transportation: new approach in transport planning – preliminary results of case study in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia ZAKOWSKA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to present the concept of equity as a new approach in transport and land-use planning. This concept is consistent with the objectives of sustainable development and it is becoming more common in European and world literature. Understanding the idea of equity in the context of the transport system development is very important in creating sustainable cities and regions without discriminating any social groups and creating a cohesive society not exposed to social exclusion due to lack of access to primary and secondary activities. The paper presents some results of the preliminary analysis on transport equity in Cracow. The basic equity level which has been considered here concerns senior citizens, older people living in Cracow area, in terms of their accessibility to transport infrastructure. Taking into account living conditions of elderly pedestrians, contour measures were used, in order to determine accessibility as equity indicator.

  4. RTSTEP regional transportation simulation tool for emergency planning - final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, H.; Sokolov, V.; Hope, M.; Auld, J.; Zhang, K.; Park, Y.; Kang, X. (Energy Systems)

    2012-01-20

    Large-scale evacuations from major cities during no-notice events - such as chemical or radiological attacks, hazardous material spills, or earthquakes - have an obvious impact on large regions rather than on just the directly affected area. The scope of impact includes the accommodation of emergency evacuation traffic throughout a very large area; the planning of resources to respond appropriately to the needs of the affected population; the placement of medical supplies and decontamination equipment; and the assessment and determination of primary escape routes, as well as routes for incoming emergency responders. Compared to events with advance notice, such as evacuations based on hurricanes approaching an affected area, the response to no-notice events relies exclusively on pre-planning and general regional emergency preparedness. Another unique issue is the lack of a full and immediate understanding of the underlying threats to the population, making it even more essential to gain extensive knowledge of the available resources, the chain of command, and established procedures. Given the size of the area affected, an advanced understanding of the regional transportation systems is essential to help with the planning for such events. The objectives of the work described here (carried out by Argonne National Laboratory) is the development of a multi-modal regional transportation model that allows for the analysis of different evacuation scenarios and emergency response strategies to build a wealth of knowledge that can be used to develop appropriate regional emergency response plans. The focus of this work is on the effects of no-notice evacuations on the regional transportation network, as well as the response of the transportation network to the sudden and unusual demand. The effects are dynamic in nature, with scenarios changing potentially from minute to minute. The response to a radiological or chemical hazard will be based on the time-delayed dispersion of

  5. Sustainable national transport planning: Managing multiple objectives and criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    useful for the handling and assessment of multiple, often conflicting objectives or criteria like environmental or social issues intrinsically difficult to quantify. Therefore, it is necessary to broaden the assessment and the decision making process beyond merely economic factors. The research project......-based software model. The latter employs the use of CBA, multi-criteria decision analysis and risk analysis techniques enabling the assessment of non-quantifiable impacts within a decision support context. The concept of a decision conference is introduced as relevant for dealing with the strategic elements...... on Sustainable National Transport Planning (SUSTAIN) seeks, among other things, to develop a flexible decision-support model to assess the sustainability of transport projects and policies, the SUSTAIN framework model. The SUSTAIN framework model consists of two parts, namely decision conferences and an Excel...

  6. Mainstreaming environmental factors in the joint planning of transportation and land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Methods to control the environmental effects of transportation through integrated urban land use-transportation planning were discussed. Trends in land use development policies and practices were studied to determine whether there are any impediments to the joint development of land use-transportation plans that potentially increase the attractiveness of public transit. Changes to certain policies were suggested. Specific issues discussed were: (1) sustainable transportation, (2) land use and transportation interaction, (3) effect of low density development, (4) land development for sustainable transportation, and (5) joint planning for transportation and land use. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  7. National Program Plan Fuel Cells in Transportation. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    Fuel cells are being developed for application in the transportation sector because they will convert hydrogen to electric power at high efficiencies with virtually no detrimental environmental impact. To realize these energy, environmental, and economic benefits, developers of FCVs need to (1) reduce the size and weight of current designs, (2) develop fuel cell propulsion systems with rapid start-up and greater load-following capability, (3) reduce system cost and/or improve performance, and (4) utilize alternative fuels to a large extent. This Plan addresses the FCV-related requirements of the Energy Act, describing a development program for light- and heavy-duty propulsion systems, a basic R&D program on fuel cell technology that is separate from, but feeds into, the system development activities, and supporting analyses. Implementation of the Program Plan by means of industry/government alliances will accelerate the commercialization of FCVs. In the long term, the successful deployment of large numbers of FCVs promises to eliminate the transportation sector as a major contributor to the nation`s environmental problems.

  8. Public Participation Procedure in Integrated Transport and Green Infrastructure Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finka, Maroš; Ondrejička, Vladimír; Jamečný, Ľubomír; Husár, Milan

    2017-10-01

    The dialogue among the decision makers and stakeholders is a crucial part of any decision-making processes, particularly in case of integrated transportation planning and planning of green infrastructure where a multitude of actors is present. Although the theory of public participation is well-developed after several decades of research, there is still a lack of practical guidelines due to the specificity of public participation challenges. The paper presents a model of public participation for integrated transport and green infrastructure planning for international project TRANSGREEN covering the area of five European countries – Slovakia, Czech Republic, Austria, Hungary and Romania. The challenge of the project is to coordinate the efforts of public actors and NGOs in international environment in oftentimes precarious projects of transport infrastructure building and developing of green infrastructure. The project aims at developing and environmentally-friendly and safe international transport network. The proposed public participation procedure consists of five main steps – spread of information (passive), collection of information (consultation), intermediate discussion, engagement and partnership (empowerment). The initial spread of information is a process of communicating with the stakeholders, informing and educating them and it is based on their willingness to be informed. The methods used in this stage are public displays, newsletters or press releases. The second step of consultation is based on transacting the opinions of stakeholders to the decision makers. Pools, surveys, public hearings or written responses are examples of the multitude of ways to achieve this objective and the main principle of openness of stakeholders. The third step is intermediate discussion where all sides of are invited to a dialogue using the tools such as public meetings, workshops or urban walks. The fourth step is an engagement based on humble negotiation, arbitration

  9. The NuPECC long range plan 2017: perspectives in nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Angela

    2017-10-01

    The Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) is an independent Committee associated to European Science Foundation (ESF). Its mission is "to provide advice and make recommendations on the development, organisation, and support of European nuclear research and of particular projects". The delivery of long range plans represents thus the core of the NuPECC's activities. In the past four long-range plans (LRPs) were issued in 1991, 1997, 2004 and 2010.

  10. Developing a Collaborative Planning Framework for Sustainable Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Örsan Özener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, as being the highest petroleum consuming sector in the world, transportation significantly contributes to the total greenhouse gas emissions in the world. Road transportation not only is responsible for approximately 20% of the total emissions of carbon dioxide in the EU and in the US but also has a steadily increasing trend in contributing to global warming. Initiatives undertaken by authorities, such as Emission cap and trade in the EU, limit the emissions resulted from the actions of the companies and also give economic incentives to companies to reduce their emissions. However, in logistics systems with multiple entities, it is difficult to assess the responsibilities of the companies both in terms of costs and emissions. In this study, we consider a delivery network with multiple customers served by a single carrier, which executes a delivery plan with the minimum transportation cost, and allocate the resulting costs and the emissions among the customers in a fair manner. We develop allocation mechanisms for both costs and emissions. In order to develop a mechanism that provides further reduction of the emissions, we study a setting where the carrier takes the responsibility of the emissions and reflects the resulting inefficiencies while charging the customers.

  11. FY 1991--FY 1995 Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    The Department of Energy has consolidated its plans for Information Systems, Computing Resources, and Telecommunications into a single document, the Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan. The consolidation was done as a joint effort by the Office of ADP Management and the Office of Computer Services and Telecommunications Management under the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Administration, Information, and Facilities Management. This Plan is the product of a long-range planning process used to project both future information technology requirements and the resources necessary to meet those requirements. It encompasses the plans of the various organizational components within the Department and its management and operating contractors over the next 5 fiscal years, 1991 through 1995.

  12. ANL site response for the DOE FY1994 information resources management long-range plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxberger, L.M.

    1992-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's ANL Site Response for the DOE FY1994 Information Resources Management (IRM) Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 500) is one of many contributions to the DOE information resources management long-range planning process and, as such, is an integral part of the DOE policy and program planning system. The Laboratory has constructed this response according to instructions in a Call issued in September 1991 by the DOE Office of IRM Policy, Plans and Oversight. As one of a continuing series, this Site Response is an update and extension of the Laboratory's previous submissions. The response contains both narrative and tabular material. It covers an eight-year period consisting of the base year (FY1991), the current year (FY1992), the budget year (FY1993), the plan year (FY1994), and the out years (FY1995-FY1998). This Site Response was compiled by Argonne National Laboratory's Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD), which has the responsibility to provide leadership in optimizing computing and information services and disseminating computer-related technologies throughout the Laboratory. The Site Response consists of 5 parts: (1) a site overview, describes the ANL mission, overall organization structure, the strategic approach to meet information resource needs, the planning process, major issues and points of contact. (2) a software plan for DOE contractors, Part 2B, Software Plan FMS plan for DOE organizations, (3) computing resources telecommunications, (4) telecommunications, (5) printing and publishing.

  13. ANL site response for the DOE FY1994 information resources management long-range plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxberger, L.M.

    1992-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s ANL Site Response for the DOE FY1994 Information Resources Management (IRM) Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 500) is one of many contributions to the DOE information resources management long-range planning process and, as such, is an integral part of the DOE policy and program planning system. The Laboratory has constructed this response according to instructions in a Call issued in September 1991 by the DOE Office of IRM Policy, Plans and Oversight. As one of a continuing series, this Site Response is an update and extension of the Laboratory`s previous submissions. The response contains both narrative and tabular material. It covers an eight-year period consisting of the base year (FY1991), the current year (FY1992), the budget year (FY1993), the plan year (FY1994), and the out years (FY1995-FY1998). This Site Response was compiled by Argonne National Laboratory`s Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD), which has the responsibility to provide leadership in optimizing computing and information services and disseminating computer-related technologies throughout the Laboratory. The Site Response consists of 5 parts: (1) a site overview, describes the ANL mission, overall organization structure, the strategic approach to meet information resource needs, the planning process, major issues and points of contact. (2) a software plan for DOE contractors, Part 2B, ``Software Plan FMS plan for DOE organizations, (3) computing resources telecommunications, (4) telecommunications, (5) printing and publishing.

  14. Packaging and transportation risk management and evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhyne, W.R. [H and R Technical Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Shipments of radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are governed by a variety of Federal and state regulations, industrial standards, and LANL processes and procedures. Good judgement is exercised in situations that are not covered by regulations. As a result, the safety record for transporting hazardous materials at LANL has been excellent. However, future decisions should be made such that the decision-making process produces a defensible record of the safety of onsite shipments. This report proposes the development of a risk management tool to meet this need. First, the application of quantitative risk analysis methodology to transportation is presented to provide a framework of understanding. Risk analysis definitions, the basic quantitative risk analysis procedure, quantitative methodologies, transportation data bases, and risk presentation techniques are described. Quantitative risk analysis is frequently complex; but simplified approaches can be used as a management tool to make good decisions. Second, a plan to apply the use of risk management principles to the selection of routes, special administrative controls, and containers for hazardous material transportation at LANL is provided. A risk management tool is proposed that can be used by MAT-2 without substantial support from specialized safety and risk analysis personnel, e.g., HS-3. A workbook approach is proposed that can be automated at a later date. The safety of some types of onsite shipments at LANL is not well documented. Documenting that shipments are safe, i.e., present acceptable risks, will likely require elaborate analyses that should be thoroughly reviewed by safety and risk professionals. These detailed analyses are used as benchmarks and as examples for the use of the proposed tool by MAT-2. Once the benchmarks are established, the workbook can be used by MAT-2 to quantify that safety goals are met by similar shipments.

  15. Using geographic information systems for regional transportation planning in a growth management context. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyerges, T.L.; Orrell, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    Growth management in Washington State provides a new context for regional transportation planning. A major part of this planning involves investigation of the latest information processing techniques and interjurisdictional coordination specifically with regard to transportation and land use linkages. Geographic information system (GIS) applications for transportation can assist transportation planners with data analysis concerned with these linkages. This project has identified information needs in the context of a regional transportation planning process, particularly the needs of Regional Transportation Planning Organizations (RTPOs). Urban and rural contexts are considered. Information processing tasks are elucidated and the software functions that address these tasks are presented. Data sources are identified for urban and rural traffic forecast modeling. Institutional and technical barriers inhibiting access to data for the regional transportation planning process are discussed.

  16. National Sustainable Transport Planning – What is it and what should it be?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    transport raises important questions concerning the organization of national, planning processes integrating sustainability. In Denmark the effectiveness of the previous ‘ad hoc’ approach has been questioned, and some planning innovations have been adopted, like longer time frames, fixed planning cadences...... and coherent, strategic analyses. Internationally, transdisciplinary research on national, sustainable transport planning is limited and it is not established as a coherent field of research. The ambition of this paper is to contribute to this new field of research by establishing understandings...... and definitions of national sustainable transport planning. This will be done by distinguishing between existing national transport planning frameworks; those frameworks that attempt to incorporate sustainability; and a more elaborate and or ideal concept of national sustainable transport planning. Selected...

  17. Integrating air pollution modelling with scenario testing in road transport planning: the TRAEMS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affum, J K; Brown, A L; Chan, Y C

    2003-08-01

    Transport add-on environmental modelling system (TRAEMS) is a GIS-based environmental modelling system designed to evaluate the environmental consequences of road traffic in urban areas. Its development has been underpinned by the premises that the evaluation of road traffic impacts is best undertaken during the early planning stages of road networks, and that this can utilise much of the data generated by the transport planners themselves as they apply their travel demand models as to planning of road networks. The system integrates information about traffic-usually from travel-forecasting models-with information about land use, to provide the input data to a range of commonly used models that estimate pollution from a road traffic system, and the energy consumption of that system. TRAEMS facilitates this integration and allows land use, transport and environmental planners to have rapid feedback on the environmental effects of road transport network scenarios that are being developed and tested. Its purpose is to aid in the selection of environmentally-preferred road networks and to highlight where management of pollution levels on future road networks will be required. TRAEMS has a modular structure. This paper describes the main features of the air pollution and fuel consumption modules of the system and illustrates the system's utility through case studies at both metropolitan-wide- and local-area scales.

  18. 77 FR 38709 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... program. Due to obligation limitations, rescissions, and congressional designations of Title V Research in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...

  19. 75 FR 38605 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... to implement this cooperative research program. Due to obligation limitations, recissions, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...

  20. A multi-modal approach to economic development in the metropolitan area transportation planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-06

    This white paper provides a review of research and current practices of integrating economic development goals in metropolitan area transportation planning. The information presented is intended to serve as a technical resource for transportation pla...

  1. Can Maine metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) finance transportation projects through bond financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In January 2008 the Maine metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) requested the Transportation : Research Division of the Maine Department of Transportation to conduct research to determine if it is : possible for MPOs to finance projects through ...

  2. Park Heights Community Project: Enhancement of Public Involvement in Transportation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold: to provide an assessment of the transportation needs of the Park Heights community and to generate a strategic plan focusing on citizen participation in possible transportation-related facilities. The methodolog...

  3. Environmental sensitive road planning and transportation techniques in forest engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hulusi Acar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forestry management has activities dealing with technical, economic, social and environmental services. Forestry operations which are carried out on forest areas , an important part of the ecosistem are materialized in open space. This forestry activities on large areas and high sloping generally, include many different techniques. It is needed primarily to the forest road network in terms of forest management. Determining the approriate route in the natural environment, planning and road construction affairs for forest roads which are necessary accessing in forest areas, is also of great importance from an environmental viewpoint as well as technical and economic manner. Forest road planning which can not be changed later and left a permanent mark on the natural environment carries much more importance to the environment especially on sloping land. This is because, it is important choosing correct type of roaf structure, and doing periodic maintenance of the roads. Skidding activities, after wood production, is important in terms of its impact on forest soil and by means of effects on saplings and trees on the releated forest areas.The development of environmental sensitive techniques is difficult, limited or expensive for this wood extraction works which are made more difficult conditons in the sloping terrain. Therefore, especially in using some silvicultural methods wood extraction damages are even greater. In this study; some road planning, road construction and wood extraction techniques which performed by me have been made to examine the environmental aspects. Environment-friendly forest roads and primary transport techniques on the forest ecosystem are briefly explained and discussed in the frame of the environmental aspects.

  4. An evaluation of Mexican transportation planning, finance, implementation, and construction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This research examined the legal, financial, institutional and policy processes that Mexico uses to plan, finance, : construct, and implement its transportation network. It documents through twelve case studies the state of the : practice in planning...

  5. USDOT's Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) ITS strategic plan, 2015-2019.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document constitutes the Intelligent Transportation Systems Strategic Plan covering the years 2015 to 2019; it : builds on the progress of the 2010-2014 plan and presents a wide array of technical, policy, institutional, and : organizational con...

  6. Can less sometimes be more? Integrating land use and transport planning on Merseyside (1965–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of land use planning with other spatially significant policy sectors has been a longstanding aspiration and subject of debate in the planning profession and academia. The strategic planning of the 1960s and 1970s, for example, frequently aimed to promote a more ‘spatialised’ management of public policies and programmes. More recently, in the 1990s and 2000s the notion of ‘spatial planning’, popularised by international debates and new forms of governance and public management, has similarly placed an emphasis on the coherent management and coordination of policies and activities with a spatial impact. Achieving greater coordination between land use and transport policy has been a recurring theme in discussions on the integration of land use planning and other sectors. Informed by the context outlined above, this paper considers integration between land use and transport policies, plans, programmes and projects from both a conceptual and empirical perspective. It postulates the existence of a continuum model of integration between policy sectors ranging from ‘light’ to ‘deep’ integration and identifies barriers to and enablers of the achievement of effective integration. These elements are then used to frame and interpret evidence on the integration of land use and transport policies in Merseyside (UK between 1965 and 2008. The findings indicate that effective integration is more likely to happen at the centre of a continuum between light and deep integration, with the implication being that deeper integration between policy sectors does not necessarily result in more effective integration overall.

  7. Statistical Assessment of Proton Treatment Plans Under Setup and Range Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Peter C.; Cheung, Joey P.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liu, Wei; Li, Heng; Mohan, Radhe; Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei, E-mail: dong.lei@scrippshealth.org [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a method for quantifying the effect of setup errors and range uncertainties on dose distribution and dose–volume histogram using statistical parameters; and to assess existing planning practice in selected treatment sites under setup and range uncertainties. Methods and Materials: Twenty passively scattered proton lung cancer plans, 10 prostate, and 1 brain cancer scanning-beam proton plan(s) were analyzed. To account for the dose under uncertainties, we performed a comprehensive simulation in which the dose was recalculated 600 times per given plan under the influence of random and systematic setup errors and proton range errors. On the basis of simulation results, we determined the probability of dose variations and calculated the expected values and standard deviations of dose–volume histograms. The uncertainties in dose were spatially visualized on the planning CT as a probability map of failure to target coverage or overdose of critical structures. Results: The expected value of target coverage under the uncertainties was consistently lower than that of the nominal value determined from the clinical target volume coverage without setup error or range uncertainty, with a mean difference of −1.1% (−0.9% for breath-hold), −0.3%, and −2.2% for lung, prostate, and a brain cases, respectively. The organs with most sensitive dose under uncertainties were esophagus and spinal cord for lung, rectum for prostate, and brain stem for brain cancer. Conclusions: A clinically feasible robustness plan analysis tool based on direct dose calculation and statistical simulation has been developed. Both the expectation value and standard deviation are useful to evaluate the impact of uncertainties. The existing proton beam planning method used in this institution seems to be adequate in terms of target coverage. However, structures that are small in volume or located near the target area showed greater sensitivity to uncertainties.

  8. Measurement based scenario analysis of short-range distribution system planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    feasible scenarios are performed based on a local distribution system at Støvring in Denmark. Simulation results provide more accurate and insightful information for the decision-maker when using the probabilistic analysis than using the worst-case analysis, so that a better planning can be achieved.......This paper focuses on short-range distribution system planning using a probabilistic approach. Empirical probabilistic distributions of load demand and distributed generations are derived from the historical measurement data and incorporated into the system planning. Simulations with various...

  9. Bedload transport flux fluctuations over a wide range of time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Fu, X.; Ancey, C.

    2014-12-01

    Bedload transport is a highly fluctuating process. Our previous study (Ma et al., 2014) demonstrated a three-regime relation of the variance of bedload transport flux across a wide range of sampling time scales. This study further explored the fluctuation spectrum of at-a-point bedload transport flux with different sampling times. We derived out analytical solutions of the third- and fourth-order moments of bedload transport flux, based on a physically-based formulation (Ancey et al., 2008; Ma et al., 2014). A formulation of the probability density function of bedload transport flux was constructed based on the 1st through 4th order moments. Experimental data were used to test against the solutions of both the moments and PDF. Interestingly, the higher order statistical moments were found to exhibit the three-regime pattern as well. This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of bedload transport flux fluctuation and emphasizes its timescale-dependent features resulting from the discrete nature and correlated motion of bedload material. The correlated structures of bedload transport, such as bed forms and particle clusters, deserve to be further exploration in future studies. Keywords: bedload transport; stochastic theory; high order moment; fluctuation; time scale; PDF. Ancey, C., Davison, A. C., Bohm, T., Jodeau, M., and Frey, P. Entrainment and motion of coarse particles in a shallow water stream down a steep slope, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2008, 595, 83-114, doi: 10.1017/S0022112007008774. Ma, H. B., Heyman, J., Fu, X. D., Mettra, F., Ancey, C. and Parker, G. Bedload transport over a broad range of time scales: determination of three regimes of fluctuations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 2014. (under review)

  10. Planning for intelligent transportation systems in small urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) has been a primary program focus of the U.S. Department of Transportation since its origination in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. The federal ITS program funded early deployment ...

  11. Approximate solutions of range for constant altitude - constant high subsonic speed flight of transport aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavcar, A.; Cavcar, M. [Anadolu Univ., School of Civil Aviation, Eskisehir, (Turkey)

    2004-09-01

    Approximate cruise range solutions are introduced for the constant altitude constant high subsonic speed flight of turbojet/fan transport aircraft with cambered wing design. The variation of the specific fuel consumption with Mach number is also considered in derivation of the approximate solutions. The method aims at estimation of the cruise range of aircraft during conceptual or preliminary design phase. An application of the solutions is also presented. (author)

  12. An inventory and monitoring plan for a Sonoran Desert ecosystem; Barry M. Goldwater Range-West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; van Riper, Charles; Lovich, Robert E.; Palmer, Robert L.; Nauman, Travis; Studd, Sarah E.; Drake, Sam; Rosenberg, Abigail S.; Malusa, Jim; Pearce, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Marine Corps Air Station Yuma manages the Barry M. Goldwater Range-West, which encompasses approximately 2,800 square kilometers of Sonoran Desert habitat in southwestern Arizona. The Barry M. Goldwater Range is a major U.S. military installation designed as an air combat training location for the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Air Force, but it also includes some of the most pristine desert habitat in the United States. In an effort to ensure the long-term viability of this unique natural resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed an Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan and Inventory and Monitoring Plan to guide natural resource management of the Barry M. Goldwater Range-West. This Inventory and Monitoring Plan provides a framework for long-term ecosystem monitoring on Barry M. Goldwater Range-West lands by identifying existing and potential threats to ecosystem function, prioritizing resources for monitoring, and providing information and protocols necessary to initiate a long-term ecosystem monitoring program. The Inventory and Monitoring Plan and related protocols were developed through extensive review of existing Sonoran Desert monitoring programs and monitoring literature and through a 2-day workshop with resource managers, monitoring experts, and other stakeholders. The Barry M. Goldwater Range-West Inventory and Monitoring Plan stresses the importance of regional monitoring partnerships and protocol standardization for understanding landscape-scale ecosystem changes in the Sonoran Desert; information and protocols contained within the plan may also be of interest to land managers engaged in large-scale ecosystem monitoring and adaptive management of other arid regions.

  13. Delay functions in trip assignment for transport planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Lee Vien

    2017-10-01

    In transportation planning process, volume-delay and turn-penalty functions are the functions needed in traffic assignment to determine travel time on road network links. Volume-delay function is the delay function describing speed-flow relationship while turn-penalty function is the delay function associated to making a turn at intersection. The volume-delay function used in this study is the revised Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) function with the constant parameters, α and β values of 0.8298 and 3.361 while the turn-penalty functions for signalized intersection were developed based on uniform, random and overflow delay models. Parameters such as green time, cycle time and saturation flow were used in the development of turn-penalty functions. In order to assess the accuracy of the delay functions, road network in areas of Nibong Tebal, Penang and Parit Buntar, Perak was developed and modelled using transportation demand forecasting software. In order to calibrate the models, phase times and traffic volumes at fourteen signalised intersections within the study area were collected during morning and evening peak hours. The prediction of assigned volumes using the revised BPR function and the developed turn-penalty functions show close agreement to actual recorded traffic volume with the lowest percentage of accuracy, 80.08% and the highest, 93.04% for the morning peak model. As for the evening peak model, they were 75.59% and 95.33% respectively for lowest and highest percentage of accuracy. As for the yield left-turn lanes, the lowest percentage of accuracy obtained for the morning and evening peak models were 60.94% and 69.74% respectively while the highest percentage of accuracy obtained for both models were 100%. Therefore, can be concluded that the development and utilisation of delay functions based on local road conditions are important as localised delay functions can produce better estimate of link travel times and hence better planning for future

  14. Large scale Wyoming transportation data: a resource planning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Freeman, Aaron T.; Ziegler, Abra E.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Fort Collins Science Center created statewide roads data for the Bureau of Land Management Wyoming State Office using 2009 aerial photography from the National Agriculture Imagery Program. The updated roads data resolves known concerns of omission, commission, and inconsistent representation of map scale, attribution, and ground reference dates which were present in the original source data. To ensure a systematic and repeatable approach of capturing roads on the landscape using on-screen digitizing from true color National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery, we developed a photogrammetry key and quality assurance/quality control protocols. Therefore, the updated statewide roads data will support the Bureau of Land Management’s resource management requirements with a standardized map product representing 2009 ground conditions. The updated Geographic Information System roads data set product, represented at 1:4,000 and +/- 10 meters spatial accuracy, contains 425,275 kilometers within eight attribute classes. The quality control of these products indicated a 97.7 percent accuracy of aspatial information and 98.0 percent accuracy of spatial locations. Approximately 48 percent of the updated roads data was corrected for spatial errors of greater than 1 meter relative to the pre-existing road data. Twenty-six percent of the updated roads involved correcting spatial errors of greater than 5 meters and 17 percent of the updated roads involved correcting spatial errors of greater than 9 meters. The Bureau of Land Management, other land managers, and researchers can use these new statewide roads data set products to support important studies and management decisions regarding land use changes, transportation and planning needs, transportation safety, wildlife applications, and other studies.

  15. Strategy and Development Plan Strategy and Development Plan of Croatian Transport and Economic System ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Miloš

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Croatia, as well as many transition countries,is facing a number of difficulties in the field of transport,economy, foreign trade and foreign exchange transactions, externaland internal debt, social policy, demography, etc. In orderto solve these extremely complex problems it is necessary todetermine a strategy and an implementation plan of special instrumentsincluded in the state economic policy of the developmentof transport and economy. Until now the results haveshown that the implementation of conventional instrumentscannot lead to satisfactory results. One of the instruments of thecentral state economic policy - recognised internationally andmost frequently used instruments for solving the mentionedproblems without state investment and state risk - is the instituteof "Free Zone". The aim of this work is to help governmentauthorities and bodies to accept possibly quicker and more efficientsolutions to the actual problems by elaborating special instrumentsof state transport and economic policy and by proposingmeasures for their implementation in the Republic ofCroatia. Moreover, it invites professionals and scientists to contributethrough their expert knowledge in finding out new solutions.

  16. Long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmierczyk-Michulec, J; Krysta, M; Kalinowski, M; Hoffmann, E; Baré, J

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the transport of xenon emissions, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) operates an Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) system based on the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. The air mass trajectory ideally provides a "link" between a radionuclide release and a detection confirmed by radionuclide measurements. This paper investigates the long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions, with special emphasis on evaluating the changes in the simulated activity concentration values due to the inclusion of the convective transport in the ATM simulations. For that purpose a series of 14 day forward simulations, with and without convective transport, released daily in the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 June 2013, were analysed. The release point was at the ANSTO facility in Australia. The simulated activity concentrations for the period January 2011 to February 2012 were calculated using the daily emission values provided by the ANSTO facility; outside the aforementioned period, the median daily emission value was used. In the simulations the analysed meteorological input data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used with the spatial resolution of 0.5°. It was found that the long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective conditions, where convection was included in the ATM simulation, led to a small decrease in the activity concentration, as compared to transport without convection. In special cases related to deep convection, the opposite effect was observed. Availability of both daily emission values and measured Xe-133 activity concentration values was an opportunity to validate the simulations. Based on the paired t-test, a 95% confidence interval for the true mean difference between simulations without convective transport and measurements was constructed. It was estimated that the overall uncertainty lies between 0.08 and 0.25 mBq/m3

  17. Motion planning in unstructured road for intelligent vehicle with long-range perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chaoxia; Wang, Yanqing; Yang, Jingyu; Liu, Hanxiang

    2011-10-01

    We present a novel motion planning method for intelligent vehicle with long-range perception under the uncertain constraints of unstructured road boundary on the basis of obstacle roadside fusion strategy and beam curvature method . Not only does this method inherit the advantages of reliability, smoothness and speediness from LCM, but also it can produce more reasonable path than traditional LCM does by virtue of the global information acquired by long-range sensors.

  18. A Long Range Plan for Improving Education and Urban Life in St. Paul Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.

    Recommendations for overhauling the educational facilities in St. Paul, Minnesota, envision an overhauling of the structure of the community itself. Of the 200 recommendations made, two stand out. One calls for the establishment of a nerve center for the school system in the downtown area, and the second calls for a long-range (30-year) plan to…

  19. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  20. Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Site Specific Management Plan for the Hellsgate Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew T.; Judd, Steven L.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains a detailed site-specific management plan for the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project. The report provides background information about the mitigation process, the review process, mitigation acquisitions, Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and mitigation crediting, current habitat conditions, desired future habitat conditions, restoration/enhancements efforts and maps.

  1. School Travel Planning: Mobilizing School and Community Resources to Encourage Active School Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buliung, Ron; Faulkner, Guy; Beesley, Theresa; Kennedy, Jacky

    2011-01-01

    Background: Active school transport (AST), school travel using an active mode like walking, may be important to children's overall physical activity. A "school travel plan" (STP) documents a school's transport characteristics and provides an action plan to address school and neighborhood barriers to AST. Methods: We conducted a pilot STP…

  2. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  3. 23 CFR 450.336 - Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation plans and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation plans and programs. 450.336 Section 450.336 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.336 Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation plans and programs. Any decision by...

  4. Matrix methods to analyze long-range transport of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, R H

    1981-01-01

    To assess air quality constraints and impacts of energy activities, models that account for long-range transport processes, as well as for local effects of meteorological dispersion, are required. At the present state of the art of modeling, separate models are used to estimate the detailed, rapidly varying effects of local sources and the long-term average effects of distant sources. Development of the air transport matrix method was undertaken to provide a simpler, faster method of analysis. The method represents results of comprehensive longrange transport models in a simple, easy to use form. The present report is a description of the concept and methodologies used in developing matrices, a preliminary analysis of those matrices and their properties, and a guide to the types of applications they can serve. Matrices have been generated by BNL for transport of sulfur oxide emissions among the 238 Air Quality Control Regions in the conterminous United States, using their AIRSOX model. PNL has used their long-range transport model and a streamlined calculation method to generate matrices for sulfur oxides and for emitted fine particulates. Matrices have been completed for 4 months of meterological data (one in each season) from 1974. BNL further separates matrices according to three categories of sources: utility, industrial, and area sources. They differ in terms of effective stack heights and detailed distribution of source locations within each AQCR. Matrices have also been calculated at the more aggregated levels of state and Federal region boundaries.

  5. Impact of Long-Range Dust Transport on Northern California in Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Bergmann, D; Chuang, C; Bench, G; Cliff, S; Kelly, P; Perry, K; VanCuren, T

    2005-02-10

    It has been well documented that spectacular dust storms in Asia (e.g. the events in 1998 and 2001) can affect the USA through long-range transport of dust across the Pacific. However, our observations and modeling show that the majority of dust at sites in Lassen National Park and Trinity Alps (Northern California) in spring 2002 (a year with no spectacular Asian dust events) is still from long-range intercontinental transport across the Pacific. We implemented the interactive dust emission algorithm of Ginoux et al. (2004) into the LLNL 3-D global atmospheric chemistry and aerosol transport model (IMPACT), then ran the model using a separate tracer for each dust emission region, using hi-resolution (1 x 1 degree) meteorological data from the NASA GMAO GEOS-3 assimilation system for 2001 and 2002. We also experimentally analyzed size- and time-resolved aerosol samples at Lassen National Park and Trinity Alps in the spring of 2002, which were taken as part of NOAA's ITCT 2k2 measurement campaign. The model-predicted time-series of soil dust over Northern California agrees remarkably well with our measurements, with a strong temporal correlation between the observations and intercontinental transport of dust across the Pacific in the model. Hence, we conclude that the majority of dust we sampled in Northern California in spring 2002, with aerodynamic diameters of 0.56-5 microns, is from long-range intercontinental transport across the Pacific. The strong correlations also strongly validate atmospheric transport in the IMPACT model over the Northern Pacific in spring.

  6. Numerical Upscaling of Transport Through Obstructed Regions Over a Broad Range of Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, N. L.; Bolster, D.; Mattis, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    While historically flow and transport in porous media has focused on low Reynolds number and Peclet number regimes there are a variety of examples relevant to environmental fluid dynamics where higher Reynolds number flows are important. A common example might include flow and transport through wetlands where plants act as the solid phase of an effective porous medium. In particular, heterogeneity in the flow field due to presence of the solid phases gives rise to complex transport and mixing behaviors that cannot be upscaled at pre-asymptotic times using conventional approaches. We numerically simulate pore-scale flow and transport through obstructed domains over a range of Reynolds numbers from 15 to 280 and then upscale transport. We upscale using a correlated continuous time random walk (correlated CTRW) model, originally introduced in [1]. We then assess the correlated CTRW's ability to predict observables for both asymptotic and pre-asymptotic time scales and compare our results to those of a classical CTRW to determine when velocity correlations must be accounted for. REFERENCES[1] T.L. Borgne, M. Dentz, J. Carrera: Lagrangian statistical model for transport in highly heterogeneous velocity fields, Physical Review Letters 101 (2008) 090601.

  7. Observed chemical characteristics of long-range transported particles at a marine background site in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayetano, Mylene G; Kim, Young J; Jung, Jin Sang; Batmunkh, Tsatsral; Lee, Kwang Yul; Kim, Sung Yong; Kim, Kwan Chul; Kim, Dong Gyu; Lee, Suk Jo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seek

    2011-11-01

    Deokjeok Island is located off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula and is a suitable place to monitor the long-range transport of air pollutants from the Asian continent. In addition to pollutants, Asian dust particles are also transported to the island during long-range transport events. Episodic transport of dust and secondary particles was observed during intensive measurements in the spring (March 31-April 11) and fall (October 13-26) of 2009. In this study, the chemical characteristics of long-range-transported particles were investigated based on highly time-resolved ionic measurements with a particle-into-liquid system coupled with an online ion chromatograph (PILS-IC) that simultaneously measures concentrations of cations (Li+, Na , NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and anions (F-, C1-, NO3-, SO42-). The aerosol optical thickness (AOT) distribution retrieved by the modified Bremen Aerosol Retrieval (M-BAER) algorithm from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data confirmed the presence of a thick aerosol plume coming from the Asian continent towards the Korean peninsula. Seven distinctive events involving the long-range transport (LRT) of aerosols were identified and studied, the chemical components of which were strongly related to sector sources. Enrichment of acidic secondary aerosols on mineral dust particles, and even of sea-salt components, during transport was observed in this study. Backward trajectory, chemical analyses, and satellite aerosol retrievals identified two distinct events: a distinctively high [Ca2++Mg2]/[Na+] ratio (>2.0), which was indicative of a preprocessed mineral dust transport event, and a low [Ca2++Mg2+]/[Na+] ratio (<2.0), which was indicative of severe aging of sea-salt components on the processed dust particles. Particulate C1- was depleted by up to 85% in spring and 50% in the fall. A consistent fraction of carbonate replacement (FCR) averaged 0.53 in spring and 0.55 in the fall. Supporting evidences of C1

  8. GIS-Based Analytical Tools for Transport Planning: Spatial Regression Models for Transportation Demand Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Becker Lopes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of spatial issues in transport planning, the main objective of this study was to analyze the results obtained from different approaches of spatial regression models. In the case of spatial autocorrelation, spatial dependence patterns should be incorporated in the models, since that dependence may affect the predictive power of these models. The results obtained with the spatial regression models were also compared with the results of a multiple linear regression model that is typically used in trips generation estimations. The findings support the hypothesis that the inclusion of spatial effects in regression models is important, since the best results were obtained with alternative models (spatial regression models or the ones with spatial variables included. This was observed in a case study carried out in the city of Porto Alegre, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in the stages of specification and calibration of the models, with two distinct datasets.

  9. Chemical Analysis of Aerosols for Characterization of Long-Range Transport at Mt. Lassen, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Waddell, J. A.; Cliff, S. S.; Perry, K. D.; Kelly, P. B.

    2004-12-01

    Effective regional air pollution regulation requires an understanding of long-range aerosol transport and natural aerosol chemistry. Sample collection was performed at the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sampling site on Mt. Lassen in the Sierra Nevada range at 1755 m elevation. The site is in Northern California at Longitude 121° 34' 40", Latitude 40° 32' 25". Size segregated and time resolved aerosol samples were collected with an 8 DRUM sampler from April 15th to May 24th 2002 as part of the NOAA Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation Experiment (ITCT). The samples were analyzed with Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (S-XRF) and Time of Flight mass spectroscopy (TOFMS). The total aerosol concentration exhibits a clear daily cycling of total mass, due to a nighttime down-slope air circulation from the free troposphere. The sulfate peaked in concentration during the night. Elemental data is suggestive of dust transport from continental Asia. The micron size ranges were dominated by nitrate, while the sub-micron size ranges had high levels of sulfate. Chemical analysis shows oceanic influence through strong correlations between methyl sulfonic acid (MSA), iodine, and oxalate. The appearance of the oceanic biogenic tracers in the sub-micron fraction is most likely a result of vertical mixing over the Pacific Ocean. MSA follows a diurnal pattern similar to sulfate, however the differences suggest both an oceanic and continental source for sulfate. The carbon particulate signal did not show any diurnal pattern during the measurement period.

  10. Electrical and thermoelectric transport by variable range hopping in reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min; Hong, Sung Ju; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hojin; Lee, Minwoo; Jeong, Dae Hong; Park, Yung Woo; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the transport properties of single-layer reduced graphene oxides (rGOs). The rGOs were prepared by the bubble deposition method followed by thermal reduction. The crossover of the transport mechanism from Efros-Shklovskii (ES) variable range hopping (VRH) between the localized states to Mott-VRH was observed near 70 K using the temperature-dependent conductance. The ES-VRH conduction below 70 K is apparent in the electric field dependence of the field-driven hopping transport in the high-electric field regime. We also figure out that the thermoelectric power is consistent with the 2D Mott VRH above 70 K. We argue that the VRH conduction results from the topological disorders of rGO as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. This infers that the average distance between defects is approximately 2.0 nm.

  11. 23 CFR 450.306 - Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns; (6) Enhance the... transportation system development, land use, employment, economic development, human and natural environment, and... development of applicable regional intelligent transportation systems (ITS) architectures, as defined in 23...

  12. 77 FR 8252 - Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation... budget (MVEB) in the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide (CO) Maintenance Plan, submitted by the State of... monoxide Maintenance Plan for Anchorage, Alaska. EPA's finding was made pursuant to the adequacy review...

  13. Ohio Department of Transportation : 2010-2011 Business Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Together, Team ODOT and its public and private partners are building a safer, multi-modal transportation system, contributing to job growth and business opportunity, revitalizing our cities and towns, offering green transportation options for busines...

  14. Multi-Agent Systems for Transportation Planning and Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Moonen (Hans)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMany transportation problems are in fact coordination problems: problems that require communication, coordination and negotiation to be optimally solved. However, most software systems targeted at transportation have never approached it this way, and have instead concentrated on

  15. Airmass Trajectories and Long Range Transport of Pollutants: Review of Wet Deposition Scenario in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kulshrestha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of airmass trajectories and their role in air pollution transport. It describes the concept, history, and basic calculation of air trajectories citing various trajectory models used worldwide. It highlights various areas of trajectory applications and errors associated with trajectory calculations. South Asian region receives airmasses from Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Indian Ocean, and so forth, depending upon the season. These airmasses are responsible for export and import of pollutants depositing in nearby states. Trajectory analysis revealed that soil is contributed by the dust storms coming from Oman through Gulf and Iran, while most of black carbon (BC sources are located in India. A detailed review of trajectories associated with wet deposition events indicated that airmasses coming from Europe and Middle East carry high concentration of acidic pollutants which are deposited in Himalayan ranges. Similarly, trajectory analysis revealed that acidic pollutants from continental anthropogenic sources are transported to an ecosensitive site in Western Ghats in India and the outward fluxes of anthropogenic activities of Indo-Gangetic region are transported towards Bay of Bengal. Hence, transboundary and long range transport of pollutants are very important issues in South Asia which need immediate attention of scientists and policy makers.

  16. Accessibility concepts and indicators in transportation strategic planning issues

    OpenAIRE

    Vulevic, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Accessibility is a well-known and studied concept within the scientific literature. Good transportation accessibility is certainly an important factor in exploiting spatial potentials. The quality of transportation infrastructure in terms of capacity, travel speed, connectivity etc., determines the quality and advantage of a location relative to other locations, which is usually measured as accessibility. Increasingly overloaded transport corridors, in the context of changing transportation f...

  17. National transport planning in Norway and Sweden : a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    This report seeks to identify those differences in planning processes and planning systems that nevertheless exist and aims at analysing how such differences have influenced the process and the output. The report is based on two previous reports on t...

  18. Strategic environmental assessment for local transport plans; Strategische Umweltpruefung in der kommunalen Verkehrsentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Vera

    2008-08-15

    The strategic environmental assessment (SEA) makes new demands for plans and programs also in the transport sector. Particularly on local level transport is one of the biggest causers of negative environmental effects. But there exists no SEA obligation for local transport plans, however many factors suggest to make such an examination in this sector. At the latest in the urban land use planning transport effects are a component for the SEA. Synergies can be exhausted and the individual planning steps are appropriately co-ordinated by the meaningful integration of transport and urban development planning. Additional synergies can gained in connection with further local and/or regional planning like e.g. the clean air planning or noise reduction planning. The aim of the doctoral thesis is to draft recommendations how to integrate the SEA into local transport planning process. For that purpose it is necessary to deduce the requirements demanded by the SEA and to demonstrate the current state of the local transport planning. The doctoral thesis is based on partial results of the research project FE 73.0237 ''Strategische Umweltpruefung in der kommunalen Verkehrsentwicklungsplanung'' in behalf of the German Ministry of Transport (Bundesministerium fuer Verkehr, Bauen und Stadtentwicklung) and mentored by the Federal Office of civil engineering (Bundesamt fuer Bauwesen und Raumordnung). The author of this thesis was instrumental in acquiring those results. The thesis contains a detailed literature research. The SEA's requirements are also described as well as the current state of the local transport planning. The state of the SEA on the different planning levels in the German transport sector is presented. Another part is a survey of 13 municipalities concerning their previous practice of the local transport and environmental planning as well as their experience with the SEA on local level and the analyse of local data. Furthermore three

  19. Opportunities in Nuclear Science: A Long-Range Plan for the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-04-01

    The DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee of the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation is charged with providing advice on a continuing basis regarding the management of the national basic nuclear science research program. In July 2000, the Committee was asked to study the opportunities and priorities for U.S. nuclear physics research, and to develop a long-range plan that will serve as a frame-work for the coordinated advancement of the field for the next decade. The plan contained here is the fifth that has been pre-pared since the Committee was established. Each of the earlier plans has had substantial impact on new directions and initiatives in the field.

  20. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2016 Meteorological, Radiological, and Wind Transported Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if wind blowing across the Clean Slate sites is transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites.

  1. 75 FR 27286 - McKelvie Geographic Area Range Allotment Management Planning on the Samuel R. McKelvie National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Forest Service McKelvie Geographic Area Range Allotment Management Planning on the Samuel R. McKelvie..., 2010 (FR Vol. 75, No. 48, p. 11882) concerning the range allotment management planning on the McKelvie... will provide the public with an opportunity to review and comment on the range allotment management...

  2. Enhanced SO2 Concentrations Observed over Northern India: Role of Long-range Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, C.; Lal, S.; Naja, M.; Chand, Duli; Venkataramani, S.; Joshi, H.; Pant, P.

    2013-01-17

    Volcanic emissions and coal burning are among the major sources of SO2 over the continental environment. In this study, we show episodes of long-range transport of volcanic SO2 from Africa to Northern India using satellite observations. Monthly averaged SO2 from OMI were of the order of 0.6-0.9 DU during November, 2008 over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), which far exceeded background values (<0.3 DU) retrieved from observations across different locations over North India during 2005-2010. The columnar SO2 loadings were much higher on November 6 over most of the IGP and even exceeded 6 DU, a factor of 10 higher than background levels at some places. These enhanced SO2 levels were, however, not reciprocated in satellite derived NO2 or CO columns, indicating transport from a non-anthropogenic source of SO2. Backward trajectory analysis revealed strong winds in the free troposphere, which originated from the Dalaffilla volcanic eruption over the Afar region of Ethiopia during November 4-6, 2008. Wind streams and stable atmospheric conditions were conducive to the long-range transport of volcanic plume into the IGP. As most of the local aerosols over IGP region are below 3 km, a well separated layer at 4-5 km is observed from CALIPSO, most likely as a result of this transport. Apart from known anthropogenic sources, the additional transport of volcanic SO2 over the IGP region would have implications to air quality and radiation balance over this region.

  3. Long range transport of mercury to the Arctic and across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Durnford

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is the most extensive study to date on the transport of mercury to the Arctic. Moreover, it is the first such study to use a fully-coupled, online chemical transport model, Environment Canada's Global/Regional Atmospheric Heavy Metals model (GRAHM, where the meteorology and mercury processes are fully integrated. It is also the only study to date on the transport of mercury across Canada. We estimated source attribution from Asia, North America, Russia and Europe at six arctic verification stations, as well as three subarctic and eight midlatitude Canadian stations.

    We have found that Asia, despite having transport efficiencies that were almost always lower than those of North America and often lower than those of Russia, was the dominant source of gaseous atmospheric mercury at all verification stations: it contributed the most mercury (29–37% at all stations, seasons and levels considered, its concentrations frequently explained nearly 100% of the variability in the concentrations produced by the simulation performed with full global emissions, particularly in the absence of local sources, and it generated the most long range transport (LRT events, causing 43%, 67% and 75% of the events at the arctic, subarctic and midlatitude stations, respectively. For the Arctic, Russian transport efficiencies tended to be the strongest, as expected, while European and Asian efficiencies were lower and higher, respectively, than those found in the literature. This disagreement is likely produced by mercury's long lifetime relative to that of other pollutants. The accepted springtime preference for the trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution was evident only in the midlatitude group of stations, being masked in the arctic and subarctic groups by the occurrence of atmospheric mercury depletion events. Some neighbouring arctic stations recorded dissimilar numbers of LRT events; despite their proximity, the behaviour of mercury at these

  4. Dynamic Adaptive Approach to Transportation-Infrastructure Planning for Climate Change: San Francisco Bay Area Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall, T.A.; Walker, W.E.; Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Bertolini, L.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation of existing infrastructure is a response to climate change that can ensure a viable, safe, and robust transportation network. However, deep uncertainties associated with climate change pose significant challenges to adaptation planning. Specifically, current transportation planning

  5. Incorporating climate change into conservation planning: Identifying priority areas across a species’ range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G Pearson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and practical approaches associated with conservation biogeography, including ecological niche modeling, have been applied to the difficult task of determining how to incorporate climate change into conservation prioritization methodologies. Most studies have focused on identifying species that are most at risk from climate change, but here we asked, which areas within a species’ range does climate change threaten most? We explored methods for incorporating climate change within a range-wide conservation planning framework, using a case study of jaguars (Panthera onca. We used ecological niche models to estimate exposure to climate change across the range of the jaguar and incorporated these estimates into habitat quality scores for re-prioritization of high-priority areas for jaguar conservation. Methods such as these are needed to guide prioritization of geographically-specific actions for conservation across a species’ range.

  6. An operational information systems architecture for assessing sustainable transportation planning: principles and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzacchiello, Maria Teresa; Torrieri, Vincenzo; Nijkamp, Peter

    2009-11-01

    This paper offers the description of an integrated information system framework for the assessment of transportation planning and management. After an introductory exposition, in the first part of the paper, a broad overview of international experiences regarding information systems on transportation is given, focusing in particular on the relationship between transportation system's performance monitoring and the decision-making process, and on the importance of this connection in the evaluation and planning process, in Italian and European cases. Next, the methodological design of an information system to support efficient and sustainable transportation planning and management aiming to integrate inputs from several different data sources is presented. The resulting framework deploys modular and integrated databases which include data stemming from different national or regional data banks and which integrate information belonging to different transportation fields. For this reason, it allows public administrations to account for many strategic elements that influence their decisions regarding transportation, both from a systemic and infrastructural point of view.

  7. A case study predicting environmental impacts of urban transport planning in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Shao, Li-guo; Xu, Ling; Shang, Jin-cheng

    2009-10-01

    Predicting environmental impacts is essential when performing an environmental assessment on urban transport planning. System dynamics (SD) is usually used to solve complex nonlinear problems. In this study, we utilized system dynamics (SD) to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with urban transport planning in Jilin City, China with respect to the local economy, society, transport, the environment and resources. To accomplish this, we generated simulation models comprising interrelated subsystems designed to utilize changes in the economy, society, road construction, changes in the number of vehicles, the capacity of the road network capacity, nitrogen oxides emission, traffic noise, land used for road construction and fuel consumption associated with traffic to estimate dynamic trends in the environmental impacts associated with Jilin's transport planning. Two simulation scenarios were then analyzed comparatively. The results of this study indicated that implementation of Jilin transport planning would improve the current urban traffic conditions and boost the local economy and development while benefiting the environment in Jilin City. In addition, comparative analysis of the two scenarios provided additional information that can be used to aid in scientific decision-making regarding which aspects of the transport planning to implement in Jilin City. This study demonstrates that our application of the SD method, which is referred to as the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), is feasible for use in urban transport planning.

  8. Planning for Integrated Transport in Indonesia: Some Lessons from the UK’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yos Sunitiyoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion has been a major problem in many cities in Indonesia, thus requiring abetter transport policy. Many developed countries, including the United Kingdom, has beenimplementing the integrated transport policy to replace traditional transport policy that focuson only building roads to anticipate traffic demand. This paper provides a highlight on theimplementation of integrated transport policy in the United Kingdom. Some key issues thatcan be learnt by the Indonesian government from their experience are discussed. This includesthe integration within and between all types of transport, integration with land use planning,integration with environment policy and integration with policies for education, health andwealth creations. In the implementation, the policy requires continuity and stability inorganization and politics, coordination in local transport plans, more devolution on powerand revenue funding from the government in addition to capital funding.Key words: traffic congestion, integrated transport policy

  9. Dependence of simulations of long range transport on meteorology, model and dust size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, N. M.; Albani, S.; Smith, M.; Losno, R.; Marticorena, B.; Ridley, D. A.; Heald, C. L.; Qu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral aerosols interact with radiation directly, as well as modifying climate, and provide important micronutrients to ocean and land ecosystems. Mineral aerosols are transported long distances from the source regions to remote regions, but the rates at which this occurs can be difficult to deduce from either observations or models. Here we consider interactions between the details of the simulation of dust size and long-range transport. In addition, we compare simulations of dust using multiple reanalysis datasets, as well as different model basis to understand how robust the mean, seasonality and interannual variability are in models. Models can provide insight into how long observations are required in order to characterize the atmospheric concentration and deposition to remote regions.

  10. Biogeochemical Impact of Long-Range Transported Dust over Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Wang, S. H.; Hsu, N. C.

    2011-01-01

    Transpacific transport and impact of Asian dust aerosols have been well documented (e.g., results from ACE-Asia and regional follow-on campaigns), but little is known about dust invasion to the South China Sea (SCS). On 19-21 March 2010, a fierce Asian dust storm affected large areas from the Gobi deserts to the West Pacific, including Taiwan and Hong Kong. As a pilot study of the 7-SEAS (Seven South East Asian Studies) in the northern SCS, detailed characteristics of long-range transported dust aerosols were first observed by a comprehensive set of ground-based instruments deployed at the Dongsha islands (20deg42'52" N, 116deg43'51" E). Aerosol measurements such as particle mass concentrations, size distribution, optical properties, hygroscopicity, and vertical profiles help illustrate the evolution of this dust outbreak. Our results indicate that these dust particles were mixed with anthropogenic and marine aerosols, and transported near the surface. Satellite assessment of biogeochemical impact of dust deposition into open oceans is hindered by our current inability in retrieving areal dust properties and ocean colors over an extensive period of time, particularly under the influence of cloudy conditions. In this paper, we analyze the changes of retrieved Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration over the northern SCS, considered as oligotophic waters in the spring, from long-term SeaWiFS measurements since 1997. Over the past decade, six long-range transported dust events are identified based on spatiotemporal evolutions of PM10 measurements from regional monitoring stations, with the aid of trajectory analysis. Multi-year composites of Chl-a imagery for dust event and non-dust background during March-April are applied to overcome insufficient retrievals of Chl-a due to cloudy environment. Due to anthropogenic modification within a shallow boundary layer off the densely populated and industrial southeast coast of China, the iron ion activation of deliquescent dust

  11. Strategic Enterprise Architecture Design and Implementation Plan for the Montana Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this research report is to develop a Strategic Enterprise Architecture (EA) Design and Implementation Plan for the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT). Information management systems are vital to maintaining the States transp...

  12. Greater Buffalo-Niagara Regional Transportation Council Scenario Planning Workshop : Sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report summarizes noteworthy practices and key recommendations shared during a scenario planning workshop, hosted by the Greater Buffalo-Niagara Regional Transportation Council, on April 19-20, 2016, in Buffalo, New York. The Federal Highway Adm...

  13. Approaching the "smart growth" issue : a look at best practices used by transportation planning organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A fundamental public policy decision implicitly addressed by agencies responsible for urban transportation planning is the right of the individual versus the goal of the community. This question arises in considering the role that state and local off...

  14. Development of a prototype land use model for statewide transportation planning activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    Future land use forecasting is an important input to transportation planning modeling. Traditionally, land use is allocated to individual : traffic analysis zones (TAZ) based on variables such as the amount of vacant land, zoning restriction, land us...

  15. Integrated urban systems modeling : designing a seamless, comprehensive approach to transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan planning agencies face increasingly complex issues in modeling interactions between the built environment and multimodal transportation systems. Although great strides have been made in simulating land use, travel demand, and traffic flo...

  16. An economic and life cycle analysis of regional land use and transportation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Travel and emissions models are commonly applied to evaluate the change in passenger and commercial travel and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use and transportation plans. Analyses conducted by the Sacramento Area Council of Gove...

  17. An economic and life cycle analysis of regional land use and transportation plans [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Travel and emissions models are commonly applied to evaluate the change in passenger and commercial travel and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use and transportation plans. Analyses conducted by the Sacramento Area Council of Gove...

  18. Local government GIS and geospatial capabilities : suitability for integrated transportation and land use planning (California SB 375).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This report examines two linked phenomena in transportation planning: the geospatial analysis capabilities of local planning agencies and the increasing demands on such capabilities imposed by comprehensive planning mandates. The particular examples ...

  19. Transport of pollutants considered from the point of view of a short and medium range-material balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel Benaire

    1976-01-01

    Episodical long-range transport is the quasi-instantaneous peak event. It does not express the total dosage of pollutant carried over from the source area to some distant place. The purpose of the present paper is to obtain an average material balance of a pollutant leaving a given area. Available information from the OECD "Long Range Transport of Air Pollutants...

  20. Study of the application of hydrogen fuel to long-range subsonic transport aircraft, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Lange, R. H.; Moore, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility, practicability, and potential advantages/disadvantages of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in long range, subsonic transport aircraft of advanced design were studied. Both passenger and cargo-type aircraft were investigated. To provide a valid basis for comparison, conventional hydrocarbon (Jet A) fueled aircraft were designed to perform identical missions using the same advanced technology and meeting the same operational constraints. The liquid hydrogen and Jet A fueled aircraft were compared on the basis of weight, size, energy utilization, cost, noise, emissions, safety, and operational characteristics. A program of technology development was formulated.

  1. Steady stokes flow with long-range correlations, fractal fourier spectrum, and anomalous transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, Michael A; Straube, Arthur V

    2002-12-09

    We consider viscous two-dimensional steady flows of incompressible fluids past doubly periodic arrays of solid obstacles. In a class of such flows, the autocorrelations for the Lagrangian observables decay in accordance with the power law, and the Fourier spectrum is neither discrete nor absolutely continuous. We demonstrate that spreading of the droplet of tracers in such flows is anomalously fast. Since the flow is equivalent to the integrable Hamiltonian system with 1 degree of freedom, this provides an example of integrable dynamics with long-range correlations, fractal power spectrum, and anomalous transport properties.

  2. Route planning for airport personnel transporting passengers with reduced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    Major airports have an average throughput of more than 100,000 passengers per day, some of which will need special assistance. The largest airports have a daily average throughput of more than 500 passengers with reduced mobility. A significant number of people and busses are assigned to provide...... transportation for the passengers with reduced mobility. It is often necessary for a passenger with reduced mobility to use several different modes of transport during their journey through the airport. Synchronization occurs at the locations where transport modes are changed as to not leave passengers...

  3. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  4. Child- and youth-friendly land-use and transport planning guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.; O' Brien, C. [Centre for Sustainable Transportation, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-04-27

    Increased automobile use has been associated with rising obesity, reduced academic performance and compromised emotional development in children and youths. This paper proposed a range of guidelines focused on the needs of children and young people. It is intended for use by municipalities or other agencies in transport and land-use planning. Recommendations included the appointment of a staff or council member responsible for bringing a children's perspective to transport and land use planning issues; an identification of the travel needs of young people; an exploration of pedestrian routes used by children to ensure their safety and useability; and the arrangement of walking buses and other means of supervision for very young children. The construction of separate sidewalks for children and youth on heavy traffic roads was recommended, as well as separate bicycle paths and provisions at intersections. It was suggested that planners should ensure that destinations needed by children are within walking or cycling distance. It was also suggested that the transit system should be made safer and introduce or maintain low fares. It was observed that school funding formulas encourage the construction and use of large schools that are more likely to have traffic congestion, and that parents often pressure school boards for more buses so that children will not have to walk or cycle to school. Reductions in road traffic and the enforcement of speed limits in urban areas were recommended, as well as the use of low emission or electric vehicles. It was suggested that there is a lack of parental awareness regarding the short- and long-term health impacts of driving their children rather than supporting active transport. 90 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Tendencias de la demanda de transporte público y el plan de transporte urbano de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Correa Díaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El Gobierno del Presidente Ricardo Lagos está comprometido en la ejecución de un vasto y complejo Plan de Transporte Urbano, que toca todos los modos de transporte, tanto público como privado, tanto de personas como de bienes, que circulan por la ciudad. Su principal programa es la modernización del transporte público, consistente en la construcción de un Sistema Integrado que proporcione un buen servicio, seguro, menos contaminante y con rentabilidades que permitan mantener un estándar óptimo.

  6. Texas transportation planning for future renewable energy projects : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    There will be a significant increase in the number of renewable energy production facilities in Texas. The : construction of wind farms requires the transport of wind turbine components that create increased loads on : rural roads and bridges. These ...

  7. Cost estimate modeling of transportation management plans for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Highway rehabilitation and reconstruction projects frequently cause road congestion and increase safety concerns while limiting access for road users. State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are challenged to find safer and more efficient ways to renew ...

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of transportation projects : a toolkit for sketch planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A quick-response project-planning tool can be extremely valuable in anticipating the congestion, safety, : emissions, and other impacts of large-scale network improvements and policy implementations. This report : identifies the advantages and limita...

  9. Fractional quantum mechanics on networks: Long-range dynamics and quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, A P; Mateos, José L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the quantum transport on networks with a temporal evolution governed by the fractional Schrödinger equation. We generalize the dynamics based on continuous-time quantum walks, with transitions to nearest neighbors on the network, to the fractional case that allows long-range displacements. By using the fractional Laplacian matrix of a network, we establish a formalism that combines a long-range dynamics with the quantum superposition of states; this general approach applies to any type of connected undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, and can be implemented from the spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix. We study the fractional dynamics and its capacity to explore the network by means of the transition probability, the average probability of return, and global quantities that characterize the efficiency of this quantum process. As a particular case, we explore analytically these quantities for circulant networks such as rings, interacting cycles, and complete graphs.

  10. Fractional quantum mechanics on networks: Long-range dynamics and quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, A. P.; Mateos, José L.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the quantum transport on networks with a temporal evolution governed by the fractional Schrödinger equation. We generalize the dynamics based on continuous-time quantum walks, with transitions to nearest neighbors on the network, to the fractional case that allows long-range displacements. By using the fractional Laplacian matrix of a network, we establish a formalism that combines a long-range dynamics with the quantum superposition of states; this general approach applies to any type of connected undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, and can be implemented from the spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix. We study the fractional dynamics and its capacity to explore the network by means of the transition probability, the average probability of return, and global quantities that characterize the efficiency of this quantum process. As a particular case, we explore analytically these quantities for circulant networks such as rings, interacting cycles, and complete graphs.

  11. Long-range transport of sulfur in the western United States. [Projections for 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W. F.; Eadie, W. J.; Drewes, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Pollutants, such as SO/sub 2/ and sulfate, emitted from both utility and industrial coal burning processes have long residence time in the atmosphere. Therefore, the long-range atmospheric transport and diffusion of these pollutants must be considered in any environmental assessment of proposed plant operation. The most useful tool in predicting the long-range transport of pollutants is a computer simulation technique for the Gaussian diffusion equation. Information produced by the model includes: SO/sub 2/ and sulfate ground-level air concentrations, the amount of SO/sub 2/ and sulfate deposited on the ground surface, the minimum pH value in the rainfall, and the budget of SO/sub 2/ and sulfate material over the diffusion grid. Information on siting and emissions is also required. For this study, siting was based on projected coal use in 1985 and 1990 based on a two-thirds increase in coal production. Results of the modeling for the western United States indicate that the maximum incremental ground-level air concentrations for SO/sub 2/ are 8.4 and 14 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for utility and industrial sources, respectively. Maximum predicted incremental ground-level sulfate concentrations for utility and industrial sources are 0.8 and 1.2 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, respectively. The minimum calculated pH values for both utility and industrial sulfur emission were 5.3. Maximum SO/sub 2/ deposition amounts range from 0.5 to 0.8 gm/m/sup 2/ for both the utility and industrial coal use scenarios. The largest sulfate deposition amounts range from a factor of 55 to 24 smaller than SO/sub 2/ deposition amounts. (ERB)

  12. Data driven enhancement of public transport planning and operations : Service reliability improvements and ridership predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, N.

    Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) and smartcard data are of great value in planning, design and operations of public transport. We developed a transport demand model, which utilizes smartcard data for overall and what-if analyses, by converting these data into passengers per line and OD-matrixes and

  13. Using principles of justice to assess the modal equity of regional transportation plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golub, A.; Martens, C.J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    While equity has been an important consideration for transportation planning agencies in the U.S. following the passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VI specifically) and the subsequent Department of Transportation directives, there is little guidance on how to assess the distribution of

  14. Synchro Mania - Design and evaluation of a serious game creating a mind shift in transport planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiel, E.F.T.; Visschedijk, G.C.; Lebesque, L.H.E.M.; Lucassen, I.M.P.J.; Riessen, B. van; Rijn, A. van; Brake, G.M. te

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a further reduction of delivery time, costs and emissions of the hinterland transportation of containers, The Port of Rotterdam Authority aims to raise the utilization rate of inland barge and rail capacity. Efficient transport planning methods are essential to achieve this.

  15. 76 FR 1109 - Notice of Data Availability for Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Implementation Plans (SIPs), Transport Rule Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) would provide backstops to... installed or are projected to install pollution control technology. EPA is considering the above-listed... technologies are installed at coal units in the IPM modeling.\\3\\ \\3\\ As identified in EPA's documentation of...

  16. 75 FR 17894 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve this State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the New Mexico Environmental...

  17. 75 FR 52692 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution; Revisions to Prevention of Significant Deterioration Regulations AGENCY: Environmental... Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of New Mexico for the purpose of addressing the ``good...

  18. 75 FR 17868 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of New Mexico for the...

  19. 75 FR 33174 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving a portion of a State Implementation Plan (SIP) submitted by the State of New Mexico for the...

  20. 75 FR 72688 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of New Mexico ] for the purpose of...

  1. New York State intelligent transportation system commercial vehicle operations (CVO) : business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this Business Plan is to describe the major Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) initiatives and projects in the area of Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) that have recently been or are planned to be undertaken in New York State b...

  2. Flux-corrected transport algorithms preserving the eigenvalue range of symmetric tensor quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to constraining the eigenvalue range of symmetric tensors in numerical advection schemes based on the flux-corrected transport (FCT) algorithm and a continuous finite element discretization. In the context of element-based FEM-FCT schemes for scalar conservation laws, the numerical solution is evolved using local extremum diminishing (LED) antidiffusive corrections of a low order approximation which is assumed to satisfy the relevant inequality constraints. The application of a limiter to antidiffusive element contributions guarantees that the corrected solution remains bounded by the local maxima and minima of the low order predictor. The FCT algorithm to be presented in this paper guarantees the LED property for the maximal and minimal eigenvalues of the transported tensor at the low order evolution step. At the antidiffusive correction step, this property is preserved by limiting the antidiffusive element contributions to all components of the tensor in a synchronized manner. The definition of the element-based correction factors for FCT is based on perturbation bounds for auxiliary tensors which are constrained to be positive semidefinite to enforce the generalized LED condition. The derivation of sharp bounds involves calculating the roots of polynomials of degree up to 3. As inexpensive and numerically stable alternatives, limiting techniques based on appropriate estimates are considered. The ability of the new limiters to enforce local bounds for the eigenvalue range is confirmed by numerical results for 2D advection problems.

  3. Sustainable transport project evaluation and decision support: indicators and planning criteria for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Pryn, Marie Ridley

    2015-01-01

    is adopted. The SUSTAIN-DSS model rests upon multi-criteria decision analysis and planning workshops in order to combine the use of qualitative and quantitative assessments. This article stresses the necessity of revising current planning paradigms such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA) but also to make clear......This article will expose the necessity for a sustainable planning and decision support framework for transport infrastructure assessment. This will be operationalized through a set of planning criteria and scenario alternatives, which is assessed in the SUSTAIN decision support system (SUSTAIN...... risk analysis as well as sustainable planning criteria in the assessment of the project uncovering new solutions. Thereof the decision support model reveals large potential for the inclusion of planning criteria if the overall objective of development toward a sustainable transportation system...

  4. To game or not to game: teaching transportation planning with board games

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Huang; David Levinson

    2011-01-01

    Traditional "chalk and talk" teaching in civil engineering has gradually been replaced with the idea of active learning focusing on encouraging students' knowledge discovery with innovative pedagogical methods and tools. One interesting tool is the board game. This research examines the efficacy of adopting transportation board games as a tool in graduate-level transportation planning and transportation economics classes at the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Minnesota fr...

  5. Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project; Long-term Management Plan, Project Report 1993, Final Draft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew T.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted on the Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project area, a 4,943 acre ranch purchased for mitigating some habitat losses associated with the original construction of Grand Coulee Dam and innundation of habitat by Lake Roosevelt. A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was used to determine habitat quality and quantity baseline data and future projections. Target species used in the study were sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemoinus), mink (Mustela vison), spotted sandpiper (Actiius colchicus), bobcat (Felis reufs), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). From field data collected, limiting life values or HSI's (Habitat Suitability Index's) for each indicator species was determined for existing habitats on project lands. From this data a long term management plan was developed. This report is designed to provide guidance for the management of project lands in relation to the habitat cover types discussed and the indicator species used to evaluate these cover types. In addition, the plan discusses management actions, habitat enhancements, and tools that will be used to enhance, protect and restore habitats to desired conditions. Through planned management actions biodiversity and vegetative structure can be optimized over time to reduce or eliminate, limiting HSI values for selected wildlife on project lands.

  6. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  7. Rural planning organizations--their role in transportation planning and project development in Texas : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    While a formal planning and programming process is established for urbanized areas through Metropolitan : Planning Organizations, no similar requirement has been established for rural areas. Currently, under the : Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficie...

  8. Planning for the Transportation Needs of Welfare Participants: Institutional Challenges to Collaborative Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenberg, Evelyn

    2001-01-01

    The responsibility for developing transportation programs for welfare participants spans multiple public agencies. Consequently, federal funding programs require that agencies work together to develop a coordinated response to addressing the transportation needs of welfare participants. Based on a survey of transportation, welfare and employment agencies in 19 California counties, this study examines the potential institutional obstacles to successful local collaboration and coordination am...

  9. Procedures for Dealing with Optimism Bias in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Glenting, Carsten; Rønnest, Arne Kvist

    Treasury recommends that these adjustments be based on data from past projects or similar projects elsewhere, and adjusted for the unique characteristics of the project in hand. In response to this, the UK Department for Transport (DfT), has produced the present Guidance Document. The main aims...... of the document are to provide empirically based optimism bias up-lifts for selected reference classes of transport infrastructure projects and provide guidance on using the established uplifts to produce more realistic forecasts for the individual project's capital expenditures. Furthermore, the underlying...... causes and institutional context for optimism bias in British transport projects are discussed and some possibilities for reducing optimism bias in project preparation and decision-making are identified....

  10. Context and meter enhance long-range planning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eMathias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural responses demonstrate evidence of resonance, or oscillation, during the production of periodic auditory events. Music contains periodic auditory events that give rise to a sense of beat, which in turn generates a sense of meter on the basis of multiple periodicities. Metrical hierarchies may aid memory for music by facilitating similarity-based associations among sequence events at different periodic distances that unfold in longer contexts. A fundamental question is how metrical associations arising from a musical context influence memory during music performance. Longer contexts may facilitate metrical associations at higher hierarchical levels more than shorter contexts, a prediction of the range model, a formal model of planning processes in music performance (Palmer and Pfordresher, 2003; Pfordresher et al., 2007. Serial ordering errors, in which intended sequence events are produced in incorrect sequence positions, were measured as skilled pianists performed musical pieces that contained excerpts embedded in long or short musical contexts. Pitch errors arose from metrically similar positions and further sequential distances more often when the excerpt was embedded in long contexts compared to short contexts. Musicians’ keystroke intensities and error rates also revealed influences of metrical hierarchies, which differed for performances in long and short contexts. The range model accounted for contextual effects and provided better fits to empirical findings when metrical associations between sequence events were included. Longer sequence contexts may facilitate planning during sequence production by increasing conceptual similarity between hierarchically associated events. These findings are consistent with the notion that neural oscillations at multiple periodicities may strengthen metrical associations across sequence events during planning.

  11. Context and meter enhance long-range planning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Brian; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Palmer, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Neural responses demonstrate evidence of resonance, or oscillation, during the production of periodic auditory events. Music contains periodic auditory events that give rise to a sense of beat, which in turn generates a sense of meter on the basis of multiple periodicities. Metrical hierarchies may aid memory for music by facilitating similarity-based associations among sequence events at different periodic distances that unfold in longer contexts. A fundamental question is how metrical associations arising from a musical context influence memory during music performance. Longer contexts may facilitate metrical associations at higher hierarchical levels more than shorter contexts, a prediction of the range model, a formal model of planning processes in music performance (Palmer and Pfordresher, 2003; Pfordresher et al., 2007). Serial ordering errors, in which intended sequence events are produced in incorrect sequence positions, were measured as skilled pianists performed musical pieces that contained excerpts embedded in long or short musical contexts. Pitch errors arose from metrically similar positions and further sequential distances more often when the excerpt was embedded in long contexts compared to short contexts. Musicians' keystroke intensities and error rates also revealed influences of metrical hierarchies, which differed for performances in long and short contexts. The range model accounted for contextual effects and provided better fits to empirical findings when metrical associations between sequence events were included. Longer sequence contexts may facilitate planning during sequence production by increasing conceptual similarity between hierarchically associated events. These findings are consistent with the notion that neural oscillations at multiple periodicities may strengthen metrical associations across sequence events during planning.

  12. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-09-01

    This NREL technical report determines a way for USVI to meet its petroleum reduction goal in the transportation sector. It does so first by estimating current petroleum use and key statistics and characteristics of USVI transportation. It then breaks the goal down into subordinate goals and estimates the petroleum impacts of these goals with a wedge analysis. These goals focus on reducing vehicle miles, improving fuel economy, improving traffic flow, using electric vehicles, using biodiesel and renewable diesel, and using 10% ethanol in gasoline. The final section of the report suggests specific projects to achieve the goals, and ranks the projects according to cost, petroleum reduction, time frame, and popularity.

  13. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Traffic and Planning Aspects of Public Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Marić

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Public urban transit system is of special significance in thetraffic and economic system of big cities. Continuous laggingbehind of the public transit system development compared tothe city development can be noticed as a consequence of thetraffic policy and the fascination by the passenger cars. Plannedorientation of the urban traffic systems is of a recent date. Thispaper tends to give incentive to the need for a more complex urbanplanning and planning of traffic in a unique multidisciplinaryprocess within the urban planning system.

  15. Success and failures in urban transport planning in Europe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Technological determinism has become a kind of religion for many people since it appears to offer solutions for societal problems as never before in history. Transport is one of the fascinating technology branches developed during the last 200 years. Effortless movement over long distances has become possible for car ...

  16. The Resilience Value of Public Transport Development Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.

    2015-01-01

    Investments in transport are increasingly motivated by the need to improve its resilience – the overall capability to maintain system integrity and functionality. Nonetheless, there is lack of knowledge on how to assess their impact on network resilience. This study investigates the resilience of

  17. Strong motion instrumentation plan for Utah Department of Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    The State of Utah, and its people have invested a considerable amount of money to construct and maintain the infrastructure and bridges in the state. This entire transportation network is at risk in the event of an earthquake. To protect Utah's bridg...

  18. Intermediate Facilities in Freight Transportation Planning: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guastaroba, G.; Speranza, M.G.; Vigo, D.

    2016-01-01

    Consolidation of freight and merging operations are essential for transportation companies to reduce costs and improve the level of service provided to customers. Such operations take place in intermediate facilities or terminals located between the origins and the destinations of freight. This

  19. Success and failures in urban transport planning in Europe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    urban streets from the north–south traffic crossing the Danube river. This was one of the few examples studied over a long period of time. It gave a clear indication of the effect of transport infrastructure on the safety of the whole system of a city. The number of accidents in Vienna continuously declined during the 70s.

  20. Security plan for the Automated Transportation Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) is an unclassified non-sensitive system consisting of hardware and software designed to facilitate the shipment of goods for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The system is secured against waste, fraud, abuse, misuse, and programming errors through a series of security measures that are discussed in detail in this document.

  1. Are bicycle ambulances and community transport plans effective in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Approximately 90 minutes of travel time was required with all forms transportation studied. Important cultural beliefs deterred most pregnant women from using the bicycle ambulances. People believe that publicisin g the onset of labour summons evil spirits resulting in obstructed labour. This explains why general.

  2. Analysing Models as a Knowledge Technology in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    device to illuminate how such an analytic scheme may allow patterns of insight about the use, influence and role of models in planning to emerge. The main contribution of the paper is to demonstrate that concepts and terminologies from knowledge use literature can provide interpretations of significance...

  3. Indiana intelligent transportation systems commercial vehicle operations business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This business plan was developed by the Motor Carrier Services (MCS) division of the Indiana Department of Revenue. It is the result of a nine month study of the various state departments and agencies that directly and indirectly support the intersta...

  4. Simulation-Based Planning and Control of Transport Flows in Port Logistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Diogo Passos Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In highly dynamic and uncertain transport conditions, transport transit time has to be continuously monitored so that the service level is ensured at a proper cost. The aim of this research is to propose and to test a procedure which allows an agile planning and control of transport flows in port logistic systems. The procedure couples an agent-based simulation and a queueing theory model. In this paper, the transport scheduling performed by an agent at the intermodal terminal was taken into consideration. The decision-making agent takes into account data which is acquired in remote points of the system. The obtained results indicate the relevance of continuously considering, for the transport planning and control, the expected transit time and further waiting times along port logistic systems.

  5. Long range transport of nitrate in the low atmosphere over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jikang; Xu, Jun; He, Youjiang; Chen, Yunbo; Meng, Fan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the source-relationships were established for surface nitrate concentrations in Northeast Asia, using the Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in the CAMx (a regional chemical transport model). Both of the local emissions and Chinese emissions were important among the sources of the particle nitrate in Japan and South Korea, accounting for 27.9-62.9% and 22.9-50.5% respectively. The local contributions of nitrate were 4-20% higher than the figures of sulfate, and this was caused by the different chemical processes and emissions involved. The seasonal variation of the nitrate concentration in East Asia led to different amounts of nitrate being attributed to long-range transport, and was higher in winter (>53%) than in summer (Japan and some regions of South Korea. And that was different in most parts of East Asia, where there were large quantities of ammonia. The ammonia from local emissions were most likely responsible for some particulate nitrate being transformed from trans-boundary gaseous nitric, which signified that local emissions of ammonia increased the contribution of China to the nitrate concentrations in Japan and South Korea.

  6. Correlation of Disorder and Charge Transport in a Range of Indacenodithiophene-Based Semiconducting Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Nikolka, Mark

    2017-12-13

    Over the past 25 years, various design motifs have emerged for the development of organic semiconductors for demanding applications in flexible organic light emitting diode display backplanes or even printed organic logic. Due to their large area uniformity paired with high charge carrier mobilities, conjugated polymers have attracted increasing attention in this respect. However, the performances delivered by current generation conjugated polymers still fall short of many industrial requirements demanding devices with ideal transistor characteristics and higher mobilities. The discovery of conjugated polymers with low energetic disorder, such as the indacenodithiophene-based polymer indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole, represent an exciting opportunity to breach this chasm if these materials can be further optimized while maintaining their low disorder. Here, it is shown how both the charge transport properties as well as the energetic disorder are affected by tuning the molecular structure of a large range of indacenodithiophene-based semiconducting polymer derivatives. This study allows to understand better the interplay between molecular design and structure of the polymer backbone and the degree of energetic disorder that governs the charge transport properties in thin polymer films.

  7. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  8. The role of policy-making and planning cultures for sustainable transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of culture in relation to policy-making and planning activities, exemplified through a discussion on how it may influence sustainable transport policy and planning. It is recognised that discourses and institutions play an essential part in framing problems...... and solutions, however an improved understanding of barriers and potentials in policy and planning deliberation is likely to be reached if underlying layers of values and perceptions are considered and illuminated more explicitly. Culture is also changeable, which means that it becomes relevant for policy...... and barriers. In conclusion, a culture focus recognises diversity inside and outside normal policy and planning settings and procedures and attempts to bring different cultures to interact and to learn from each other. A transport policy-making and planning process based in a culture approach may illuminate...

  9. THE PLANNING OF WOOD TRANSPORT ON THE FOREST ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hulusi Acar

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, needs for forest and raw wood materials has been increasing with the economic developments of the societies. But, the forest areas have been decreasing because of the pressures of the societies on forest especially in developing countries. In such regions, forest areas were on high mountainous areas. This situation is the same in Turkey, especially east Black Sea region. In Turkey, forest roads are still B forms of secondary roads. The wide of these roads are minimum 4 meters, generally minimum curve radius of them are 10 meters, and some times less then that. These roads do not have pavement and maintenance works were not made there too. And these roads are not suitable for transportation with truck-trailer. The transhipment problems form a typical example of the linear programming method. When this method applied, as well as solving transportation problems, distribution problems are solved related to transhipment.

  10. Shuttle Planning for Link Closures in Urban Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hurk, Evelien; Koutsopoulos, Haris N.; Wilson, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    cost, which includes transfers and frequency-dependent waiting time costs. This model is applied to a shuttle design problem based on a real-world case study of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority network of Boston, Massachusetts. The results show that additional shuttle routes can reduce......Urban public transport systems must periodically close certain links for maintenance, which can have significant effects on the service provided to passengers. In practice, the effects of closures are mitigated by replacing the closed links with a simple shuttle service. However, alternative...... passenger delay compared to the standard industry practice, while also distributing delay more equally over passengers, at the same operating budget. The results are robust under different assumptions about passenger route choice behavior. Computational experiments show that the proposed formulation...

  11. The concept and the development plan of national transport model of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Redziuk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For discussion it is given the proposals to the a draft concept of national transport model of Ukraine with brief description of the goal, objectives, functions, constraints, architecture, basic principles and a priority action plan for establishment of the national transport model of Ukraine and a respective data center as a basic infrastructure component to ensure creation and subsequent functioning of the national transport model, as well as to enable continuous informational support of the transport industry to enhance its efficiency.

  12. Influence of tropical storms in the Northern Indian Ocean on dust entrainment and long-range transport.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.

    Ninety five tropical cyclonic events (tropical storms, depressions and cyclones) between 2001 and 2010 were studied to determine their impact on dust outbreaks and long-range transport over the northern Indian Ocean and south Asia. In addition...

  13. Site study plan for Transportation, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This site study plan describes transportation field studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. The studies are needed to identify and assess potential project impacts to transportation infrastructure and systems in the project vicinity and along potential transportation routes to the site across the State of Texas. The studies are also needed to locate and design project transportation facilities, and to evaluate and design impact mitigation. After identifying the transportation information requirements needed to comply with Federal, State, and local regulations and repository program requirements, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, the data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs for the characterization of site vicinity rail corridors and highway corridors, characterization of alternative statewide transportation routes, monitoring of site characterization effects on transportation, characterization of aircraft overflight patterns and hazardous material transportation patterns, and assessment of emergency response preparedness along alternative statewide transportation routes. 34 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Using GIS and Ahp for Planning Primer Transportation of Forest Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, A. E.; Yılmaz, B.

    2017-11-01

    Primer transportation is one of the most costly and time consuming forestry activities in extraction of timber from forest lands. Transportation methods are essentially determined based on terrain characteristics, especially ground slope. Besides, unsuitable machine selection and unplanned operations may cause ecological damages such as soil disturbance. Soil damage can lead to long term impacts on forest ecosystem. Thus, the optimum transportation methods should be determined by considering not only economic factors but also topographical factors and soil conditions. In recent decades, some of the advanced features of Geographical Information System (GIS) assist decision makers to solve such complex transportation problems with various constraints. In this study, it was aimed to plan forest transportation operation by using GIS integrated Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, considering ground slope, soil type, and available transportation equipment in the region. This method was implemented within the border of İnegöl Forest Enterprise Chief in the city of Bursa in Turkey. Alternative transportation method included cable system, chute system, skidder, and farm tractor. GIS-based method integrated with AHP found that skidder was the optimal transportation method for about 60% of the study area, while farm tractor was the second most suitable method with 25% ground cover. The results indicated that GIS-based decision support systems can be effectively used as rational, quick, and economic tool for forest transportation planning.

  15. Transportation Demand Management Planning At Multi-Tenant Buildings, An Example Of Tdm Planning During Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    THIS GUIDE FOR DEVELOPERS, BUILDING OWNERS AND BUILDING MANAGERS IS ONE IN A SERIES OF SAMPLES OF TDM PLANS THAT ILLUSTRATE THE DESIGN AND PROPOSED APPLICATION OF TDM STRATEGIES. THIS SAMPLE PLAN WAS PREPARED FOR A FICTITIOUS BUILDING MANAGER NEAR DO...

  16. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  17. Modeling sediment transport in Qatar: Application for coastal development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ruqaiya; Warren, Christopher; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Husrevoglu, Sinan

    2017-10-06

    Hydrodynamics and sediment transport are key physical processes contributing to habitat structure within the marine environment. Coastal development that results in the alteration of these processes (e.g., changing water flushing and/or sedimentation rates) can have detrimental impacts on sensitive systems. This is a current, relevant issue in Qatar as its coastal regions continue to be developed, not only around the capital of Doha, but in many areas around this Arabian Gulf peninsula. The northeastern Qatari coast is comprised of diverse and sensitive flora and fauna such as seagrass and macroalgae meadows, coral reefs and patches, turtles, and dugongs that tolerate harsh environmental conditions. In the near future, this area may see a rise in anthropogenic activity in the form of coastal development projects. These projects will add to existing natural stresses, such as high temperature, high salinity, and low rates of precipitation. Consequently, there is a need to characterize this area and assess the potential impacts that these anthropogenic activities may have on the region. In the present study, a novel sediment transport model is described and used to demonstrate the potential impact of altering hydrodynamics and subsequent sediment transport along the northeastern Qatar nearshore marine environment. The developed models will be tested using potential scenarios of future anthropogenic activities forecasted to take place in the area. The results will show the effects on water and sediment behavior and provide a scientific approach for key stakeholders to make decisions with respect to the management of the considered coastal zone. Furthermore, it provides a tool and framework that can be utilized in environmental impact assessment and associated hydrodynamic studies along other areas of the Qatari coastal zone. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;00:000-000. ©2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Integrated technique of planning the capital repair of residential buildings and objects of transport infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement’eva, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of two fundamentally different methods for planning capital repairs of objects of transport infrastructure and residential development. The first method was based on perspective long-term plans. Normative service life were the basis for planning the periodicity of repairs. The second method was based on the performance of repairs in fact of the onset of the malfunction. Problems of financing repair work, of the uneven aging of constructs and engineering systems, different wear mechanism in different conditions of exploitation, absence of methods of planning repairs of administrative and production buildings (depots, stations, etc.) justify the need to optimize methods of planning the repair and the relevance of this paper. The aim of the study was to develop the main provisions of an integrated technique for planning the capital repair of buildings of any functional purpose, which combines the advantages of each of the discussed planning methods. For this purpose, the consequences of technical and economic risk were analyzed of the buildings, including stations, depots, transport transfer hubs, administrative buildings, etc when choosing different planning methods. One of the significant results of the study is the possibility of justifying the optimal period of capital repairs on the basis of the proposed technical and economic criteria. The adjustment of the planned repair schedule is carried out taking into account the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the exploitation process.

  19. Inclusive planning in transport and energy STI-policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Hansen, Meiken; Selin, Cynthia Lea

    2017-01-01

    Transition to a more sustainable and fossil-free energy system is of global interest, and implies social challenges for the developed world including the European Union. In particular, the energy consumption related to transport constitutes a significant challenge. If not serious changes are made...... of securing a more sustainable and fossil-free energy system. Furthermore, responsible research and innovation should take into account both the required changes in all citizens’ daily life due to this transition as well as the driving force of grassroot innovation movements....

  20. Modelling consensus building in Delphi practices for participated transport planning

    CERN Document Server

    Pira, Michela Le; Ignaccolo, Matteo; Pluchino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In this study a consensus building process based on a combination of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi method is presented and applied to the decision-making process about alternative policy measures to promote cycling mobility. An agent-based model is here used to reproduce the same process of convergence of opinions, with the aim to understand the role of network topology, stakeholder influence and other sensitive variables on the emergence of consensus. It can be a useful tool for decision-makers to guide them in planning effective participation processes.

  1. Long Range and Strategic Planning for Urban Managers, Modules 1-8, Package III. Participant Manual; Instruction Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Eva

    This package contains the instructor and participant manuals for eight modules which comprise a portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. These modules focus on long range strategic planning. The specific modules are: (1) Strategic Planning; (2) Situation Analysis; (3) Setting…

  2. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake. CAU 496 consists of one site located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  3. Trends, Long-range Transport and Lifetime of DDT in and over Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, G.; Dvorská, A.; Stohl, A.; Klánová, J.; Ries, L.

    2009-04-01

    Dichlorophenyltrichloroethane, DDT, and its major metabolites dichlorophenyldichloroethylene, DDE, and dichlorophenyldichloroethane, DDD, are long-lived in the environment (persistent) and circulate since the 1950s. They accumulate along food chains, cause detrimental effects in marine and terrestrial wild life, and pose a hazard for human health. DDT is a multicompartmental substance with only a small mass fraction residing in air. Decreasing concentration trends are recorded in Europe, where the substance has not been used since ?1988 (Holoubek et al., 2007). Transport in the free troposphere is expected by models (Lammel & Semeena, 2005; Semeena et al., 2006), but no observations in the free troposphere had been reported in Europe. The degradation rates of DDT, DDE and DDD are uncertain. In particular, the hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients in air are unknown. DDT monitoring data in air at a central European continental background station, Kosetice, Czech Republic, were used in combination with back-trajectories (HYSPLIT model, NOAA) to localize DDT sources in central, western and northern Europe. The decreasing trend continued during recent years, 2004-06. During 2 campaigns at a high mountain site in the Alps (Zugspitze, 2650 m a.s.l.) mean concentrations of 0.23, 0.63 and 0.08 pg m-3 of DDT, DDE and DDD, respectively, were measured in summer and 0.73, 2.22, and 0.52 pg m-3, respectively, in winter. The levels were not lower in free tropospheric air than in boundary layer air. Transport and residence times in air were quantified using Lagrangian particle dispersion model retroplume analyses (FLEXPART model; Stohl et al., 1998). During a stable anti-cyclonic situation photochemical lifetimes corresponded to kOH climate and substance properties on the fate and atmospheric long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants - examples of DDT and γ-HCH, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 1231-1248 Stohl A., Hittenberger M., Wotawa G. (1998): Validation of the

  4. Can megavoltage computed tomography reduce proton range uncertainties in treatment plans for patients with large metal implants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Giebeler, Annelise; Langen, Katja M.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Mohan, Radhe

    2008-05-01

    Treatment planning calculations for proton therapy require an accurate knowledge of radiological path length, or range, to the distal edge of the target volume. In most cases, the range may be calculated with sufficient accuracy using kilovoltage (kV) computed tomography (CT) images. However, metal implants such as hip prostheses can cause severe streak artifacts that lead to large uncertainties in proton range. The purposes of this study were to quantify streak-related range errors and to determine if they could be avoided by using artifact-free megavoltage (MV) CT images in treatment planning. Proton treatment plans were prepared for a rigid, heterogeneous phantom and for a prostate cancer patient with a metal hip prosthesis using corrected and uncorrected kVCT images alone, uncorrected MVCT images and a combination of registered MVCT and kVCT images (the hybrid approach). Streak-induced range errors of 5-12 mm were present in the uncorrected kVCT-based patient plan. Correcting the streaks by manually assigning estimated true Hounsfield units improved the range accuracy. In a rigid heterogeneous phantom, the implant-related range uncertainty was estimated at hybrid planning approach yielded the best overall result. In this approach, the kVCT images provided good delineation of soft tissues due to high-contrast resolution, and the streak-free MVCT images provided smaller range uncertainties because they did not require artifact correction.

  5. Bi-objective optimization for multi-modal transportation routing planning problem based on Pareto optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of study is to solve the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem that aims to select an optimal route to move a consignment of goods from its origin to its destination through the multi-modal transportation network. And the optimization is from two viewpoints including cost and time. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. Minimizing the total transportation cost and the total transportation time are set as the optimization objectives of the model. In order to balance the benefit between the two objectives, Pareto optimality is utilized to solve the model by gaining its Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier of the model can provide the multi-modal transportation operator (MTO and customers with better decision support and it is gained by the normalized normal constraint method. Then, an experimental case study is designed to verify the feasibility of the model and Pareto optimality by using the mathematical programming software Lingo. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case. Findings: The calculation results indicate that the proposed model and Pareto optimality have good performance in dealing with the bi-objective optimization. The sensitivity analysis also shows the influence of the variation of the demand and supply on the multi-modal transportation organization clearly. Therefore, this method can be further promoted to the practice. Originality/value: A bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. The Pareto frontier based sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case.

  6. National sustainable transport planning - what it is and what it should be?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    Sustainability has become a significant ambition for transport planners and policy-makers around the world. However, a transition to sustainable transport is a challenging, long term process, which raises important questions concerning how national, planning processes could support the integration...... of sustainability. This is the topic of the research project SUSTAIN. Internationally, research on national transport planning is limited, and not well established as a coherent field of research. This paper presents preliminary results within SUSTAIN. The aim of the paper is to discuss how to conceive and define...... the concept of ‘national sustainable transport planning’. This is done via selected literature within this and associated areas. A definition is provided and it is suggested that three interlinked dimensions are of importance for transitions, thus a normative, an analytic and a governance dimension...

  7. Route planning of raw materials transportation in the industrial hub of Mariupol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Вікторівна Булгакова

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The multi-modal freight transportation routes planning problem is viewed in this paper. The case study of iron ore deliveries to the metallurgical enterprises of Mariupol from Kryvyi Rih is presented. Based on the analysis of Ukrainian railroads and sea ports infrastructures six possible routes of multi-modal iron ore transportation are built. The paper presents a short review of route planning problem in multi-modal freight transportations, which are use sea and land parts together, regarding decision support methods of routes evaluation and selection. The lack of studies dedicated to fuzzy logic theory application for solving the stated problems is identified. The relevance of fuzzy set application to the route planning problem is proved. Taking into account the peculiarities of iron ore transportations technology, the following criterions of routes evaluation are chosen: «transportation costs», «delivery times», «transportation risks». The model of multicriterion decision-making of routes evaluation and the optimal route selection, based on fuzzy logic theory, is developed. Criteria of routes evaluation are set by three terms Gaussian and sigmoidal membership functions. The approach to each function construction is practice-based and executed together with iron ore supply chain manager. The model is created in MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Tool Box environment using Mamdani’s fuzzy inference

  8. The Potential of Strava Data to Contribute in Non-Motorised Transport (nmt) Planning in Johannesburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selala, M. K.; Musakwa, W.

    2016-06-01

    Transportation is one of the most fundamental challenges of urban development in the modern world. Cities are currently moving towards sustainable transportation, which includes non-motorised transportation (NMT). The city of Johannesburg has a goal of becoming a smart city, with sustainable development and smart mobility. Encouraging the use of non-motorised transportation and public transport has the potential of reducing the use of private motorised transport and therefor its negative consequences within the city of Johannesburg. There is limited research on cycling and how cyclists interact with cycling infrastructure within the city. The lack of such knowledge hinders proper planning for NMT. This research studies the ability of geolocation based services to provide such information which can be useful in planning for NMT. Strava Metro application is the example of such geolocation based services. The potential of this app to influence planning is investigated. According to the information acquired by Strava Metro, there are more cyclists in suburbs at the centre of Johannesburg and towards the north and to the east, and in Kibler Park at the south western part of the city. There are indications that the numbers of cycling activities recorded by Strava Metro are affected by the availability of gated communities, income levels, crime levels and the provision of infrastructure.

  9. A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident is modelled as an Eulerian diffusion process. From observations of the gross deposition pattern of particulate radiocaesium an effective long-range Eddy diffusivity K of the order of 10(6) m(2) s(-1) is inferred...

  10. Can megavoltage computed tomography reduce proton range uncertainties in treatment plans for patients with large metal implants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Giebeler, Annelise; Mirkovic, Dragan; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 94, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Langen, Katja M [M D Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, 1400 S Orange Avenue, Orlando, FL 32806 (United States)], E-mail: wnewhaus@mdanderson.org

    2008-05-07

    Treatment planning calculations for proton therapy require an accurate knowledge of radiological path length, or range, to the distal edge of the target volume. In most cases, the range may be calculated with sufficient accuracy using kilovoltage (kV) computed tomography (CT) images. However, metal implants such as hip prostheses can cause severe streak artifacts that lead to large uncertainties in proton range. The purposes of this study were to quantify streak-related range errors and to determine if they could be avoided by using artifact-free megavoltage (MV) CT images in treatment planning. Proton treatment plans were prepared for a rigid, heterogeneous phantom and for a prostate cancer patient with a metal hip prosthesis using corrected and uncorrected kVCT images alone, uncorrected MVCT images and a combination of registered MVCT and kVCT images (the hybrid approach). Streak-induced range errors of 5-12 mm were present in the uncorrected kVCT-based patient plan. Correcting the streaks by manually assigning estimated true Hounsfield units improved the range accuracy. In a rigid heterogeneous phantom, the implant-related range uncertainty was estimated at <3 mm for both the corrected kVCT-based plan and the uncorrected MVCT-based plan. The hybrid planning approach yielded the best overall result. In this approach, the kVCT images provided good delineation of soft tissues due to high-contrast resolution, and the streak-free MVCT images provided smaller range uncertainties because they did not require artifact correction.

  11. Modelling atmospheric chemistry and long-range transport of emerging Asian pollutants

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Modeling is a very important tool for scientific processes, requiring long-term dedication, desire, and continuous reflection. In this work, we discuss several aspects of modeling, and the reasons for doing it. We discuss two major modeling systems that have been built by us over the last 10 years. It is a long and arduous process but the reward of understanding can be enormous, as demonstrated in the examples shown in this work. We found that long-range transport of emerging Asian pollutants can be interpreted using a Lagrangian framework for wind analysis. More detailed processes still need to be modeled but an accurate representation of the wind structure is the most important thing above all others. Our long-term chemistry integrations reveal the capability of the IMS model in simulating tropospheric chemistry on a climate scale. These long-term integrations also show ways for further model development. Modeling is a quantitative process, and the understanding can be sustained only when theories are vigor...

  12. A preliminary proposal for urban and transportation planning in response to the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Morimoto

    2012-07-01

    From the viewpoint of reconstructing urban structure, it is necessary to create regional linkages to adjacent cities within a compact district connected by various transport modes. And, the redundancy in traffic function can be secured through a suitable division of roles between automobile traffic and public transportation. Besides, the following issues are discussed: 1 improvements aimed at a safe living environment, 2 examination of new intersections, and 3 sharing crossing space between people and cars. Moreover, introducing new technology in transport planning should also be considered to cope with the aging of society to come.

  13. Propuesta de un plan de negocio de una empresa de transporte de embarcaciones de recreo

    OpenAIRE

    García Quinteiro, Pau

    2017-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realiza una propuesta de un plan de negocio de una empresa de transporte de embarcaciones de recreo. El objetivo del trabajo es conocer el procedimiento y la metodología a seguir para realizar correctamente un plan de negocio, y que en un futuro pueda servir para convertir la idea de negocio en una realidad. Las conclusiones extraídas después de la realización del plan de negocio son positivas dado que se ha demostrado que la empresa podría ser operativa y económicam...

  14. Evaluation of long-range transport models in NOVANA; Evaluering af langtransportmodeller i NOVANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frohn, L.M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Geels, C.; Hertel, O.; Skjoeth, C.A.; Ellemann, T.

    2007-06-15

    obtained with ACDEP for 11 out of 16 chemical parameters. In general the performance of the DEHM model is at least as good as the performance of the ACDEP model, and for the majority of the chemical parameters the performance of DEHM is better than the performance of ACDEP when model results are compared to measurements. This result is expected since the description of the long-range transport of air pollution, which contributes significantly to the concentration levels in Denmark, is better in DEHM. (BA)

  15. U.S. DOT roadway transportation data business plan (phase 1) : data business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the FHWA Office of Operations, Office of Transportation Management (HOTM) commissioned the development of a white paper, Data Capture and Management: Needs and Gaps in the Operation and Coordination of U.S. DOT Data Capture and Management Pro...

  16. U.S. DOT roadway transportation data business plan (phase 2) : data business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, the FHWA Office of Operations, Office of Transportation Management commissioned a study to address needs and gaps related to the operation and coordination of U.S. DOT Data Capture and Management Programs. The development of the Data Busines...

  17. Strategic plan for early deployment of intelligent transportation systems on Interstate 40 Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study by Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. for Arizonas Transportation Research Center to develop a strategic plan to deploy ITS rural technologies along the I-40 corridor in northern Arizona. The report descri...

  18. Applying ant colony optimization metaheuristic to solve forest transportation planning problems with side constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco A. Contreras; Woodam Chung; Greg Jones

    2008-01-01

    Forest transportation planning problems (FTPP) have evolved from considering only the financial aspects of timber management to more holistic problems that also consider the environmental impacts of roads. These additional requirements have introduced side constraints, making FTPP larger and more complex. Mixed-integer programming (MIP) has been used to solve FTPP, but...

  19. Optimization of a passenger railway transportation plan considering mobility flows and service quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brethome, L.; Bouvet-Agnelli, C.; Chevrier, R.; van Oort, N.; Rodriguez, J

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses on designing transportation plan for SNCF Transilien (French rail-way operator for the Parisian suburban mass transit). The objective is to develop methods and decision support tools to propose a timetable adapted to the passenger demand in the Parisian mass transit system,

  20. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 450 - Linking the Transportation Planning and NEPA Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transportation Planning and NEPA Processes Background and Overview: This Appendix provides additional information... rule of general applicability. For 40 years, the Congress has directed that federally-funded highway...” format, organized into three primary categories (“Procedural Issues,” “Substantive Issues,” and...

  1. Land-use transport planning in Hong Kong: the end of an era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, H.T. [ed.] [University College, London (United Kingdom); Cook, A.H.S. [ed.] [University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1998-07-01

    A unique insight into how land use/transport planning exercises for the territory were prepared and how decisions emerged from them during the most economically active period of Hong Kong's history up to its handover to the People's Republic of China in 1997. (author)

  2. Web-based survey design for unravelling semi-compensatory choice in transport and urban planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Shlomo; Shiftan, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of semi-compensatory models is gaining momentum in transport planning in recent years. However, traditional survey methodologies focus on collecting solely compensatory choice data, which leads to information loss when semi-compensatory models are estimated. The present study propo...

  3. 75 FR 23167 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal of direct final rule. SUMMARY: On April 8, 2010 (75 FR 17868), EPA published a direct final rule approving New Mexico State...

  4. Using an integrated land use and transport planning approach for urban road design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.; Beukes, Edward; Vanderschuren, Marianne; Brussel, M.J.G.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Road safety issues in urban areas are often concentrated at locations where there is a mismatch between urban road design, local road users and neighbourhood characteristics. Although there is a general consensus in the transport planning field to address the issue of sustainable development, road

  5. Satellite observations of megacity air pollution, biomass burning emissions, and their long- range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, W. W.; Kollonige, D.; Yurganov, L.; Krueger, A.; Hoff, R.; Barnet, C.; Gleason, J.; Celarier, E.; Krotkov, N.; Liu, X.; Kurosu, T. P.; Osterman, G.; Torres, O.

    2008-12-01

    present satellite observations of long-range transport of air pollution and biomass burning emissions.

  6. Increasing cardiopulmonary emergency visits by long-range transported Asian dust storms in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Wen-Jone; Chang, Wei-Tien; Lee, Chung-Te; Peng, Chi-Ming

    2008-03-01

    This study aims to explore whether Asian dust storms can affect health after 4000 km long-range transport from their origins to downwind areas. Asian dust storms reaching Taipei, Taiwan are tracked by satellite images and confirmed by backward trajectory analysis and ground air pollution monitoring between 1995 and 2002. Our outcome variables include emergency visits for ischaemic heart diseases (ICD-9-CM 410-411, 414), cerebrovascular diseases (ICD-9-CM 430-437), and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) (ICD-9-CM 493, 496) from the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). We use simple paired t-test and Poisson regression models to compare difference in emergency visits, air pollution levels and meteorological conditions for the pairs of Asian dust events and pre-dust periods. There were 39 high dust events with PM(10) greater than 90 microg/m(3) and another 46 low dust events with PM(10) less than 90 microg/m(3). Compared to their pre-dust periods, PM(10) concentrations are significantly increased by 77 microg/m(3) per event for the high dust events. Asian dust storms increase cardiopulmonary emergency visits during storm-affecting periods in Taipei when ambient PM(10) concentrations are above 90 microg/m(3). Compared to their pre-dust periods, emergency visits for ischaemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and COPD during high dust events are increased by 0.7 case (35%), 0.7 case (20%), and 0.9 case (20%) per event, respectively, by paired t-tests. By comparing the model-predicted to the observed emergency visits, we find emergency visits for cardiovascular diseases (ICD-9-CM 410-411, 414, 430-437) were significantly increased by 2.9 cases (67%) per event for the 39 high Asian dust events.

  7. Strategic environmental assessment implementation of transport and mobility plans. The case of Italian regions and provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Montis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport and mobility plans imply strategies and actions that affect the environment. The European Union has introduced in 2001 the strategic environmental assessment (SEA to take into account and mitigate adverse environmental effects in planning and decision-making. SEA limited implementation has attracted the interest of many scholars that have sought methods able to assess the quality of SEA processes by identifying vices and virtues in practice. In this paper, we measure the quality of eight SEAs for transport and mobility plans of regional and provincial administrations of Italy. Results show that the overall quality level of SEA reports is only barely sufficient, Abruzzo is among the virtuous and Piedmont among the critical administrations. We also stress that the determination of impact significance has received the worse quality score. We finally compare our results to other Italian and British homologous cases finding interesting and generally confirmative evidences.

  8. Ice cloud formation potential by free tropospheric particles from long-range transport over the Northern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; Alpert, Peter A.; Zhang, Bo; Schum, Simeon; Dzepina, Katja; Wright, Kendra; Owen, R. Chris; Fialho, Paulo; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2017-03-01

    Long-range transported free tropospheric particles can play a significant role on heterogeneous ice nucleation. Using optical and electron microscopy we examine the physicochemical characteristics of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Particles were collected on substrates from the free troposphere at the remote Pico Mountain Observatory in the Azores Islands, after long-range transport and aging over the Atlantic Ocean. We investigate four specific events to study the ice formation potential by the collected particles with different ages and transport patterns. We use single-particle analysis, as well as bulk analysis to characterize particle populations. Both analyses show substantial differences in particle composition between samples from the four events; in addition, single-particle microscopy analysis indicates that most particles are coated by organic material. The identified INPs contained mixtures of dust, aged sea salt and soot, and organic material acquired either at the source or during transport. The temperature and relative humidity (RH) at which ice formed, varied only by 5% between samples, despite differences in particle composition, sources, and transport patterns. We hypothesize that this small variation in the onset RH may be due to the coating material on the particles. This study underscores and motivates the need to further investigate how long-range transported and atmospherically aged free tropospheric particles impact ice cloud formation.

  9. A Needs Assessment Study at Apache Junction for Long Range Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dale R.

    As part of an effort to assess the postsecondary educational needs of the community of Apache Junction, surveys were administered to: (1) students in grades 9-12 at Apache Junction High School (N=420) with regard to their educational plans, the postsecondary institutions they anticipated attending, course and program interests of those planning to…

  10. New Satellite Laser Ranging TRF and EOP Series for Mass Transport Studies in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, E. C.

    2001-12-01

    The new millennium has started on the right note for geodesy. We finally see a series of gravity mapping missions materialize. What now becomes important is that well-established geodetic techniques rise to the challenge of validating and complementing the data these new missions will deliver. An area where this is likely to be important is the temporal variations in the zonal gravitational field and its very low degree and order components in general. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) has for a long time monitored the continuous redistribution of mass within the Earth system through concomitant changes in the Stokes' coefficients of the terrestrial gravity field. Secular changes in J2 due to post-glacial relaxation have been observed since many years and similar changes in J3, J4 J5, etc. are attributed to changes in the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. Seasonal changes in these coefficients have also been closely correlated with mass transfer in the atmosphere and oceans. JCET's latest analysis of the 1993-present SLR data set from LAGEOS and LAGEOS 2 data for the IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) development, includes the weekly monitoring of such compound changes in the low degree and order harmonics. This latest solution (2001) incorporates several important changes in the modeling of SLR data with resulting improvements in the geophysical products. Along with the static parameters of the TRF we have determined a time series of variations of its origin with respect to the center of mass of the Earth system (geocenter). These estimates provide a measure of the total motion due to all sources of mass transport within the Earth system and can be used to either complement the estimates from the future missions or to validate them through comparisons with their estimates for the same quantities. The data were reduced using NASA Goddard's GEODYN/SOLVE II software, resulting to a final RMS error of ~8 mm - close to the

  11. NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan — 3 rd generation reusable launch vehicle technology update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen; Hueter, Uwe

    2003-08-01

    NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP) calls for investments in Space Shuttle safety upgrades, second generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) advanced development and third generation RLV and in-space research and technology. NASA's third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operation by 2025. The goals for third generation launch systems are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current systems. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop third generation space transportation technologies. The Hypersonics Investment Area, part of ASTP, is developing the third generation launch vehicle technologies in two main areas, propulsion and airframes. The program's major investment is in hypersonic airbreathing propulsion since it offers the greatest potential for meeting the third generation launch vehicles. The program will mature the technologies in three key propulsion areas, scramjets, rocket-based combined cycle and turbine-based combination cycle. Ground and flight propulsion tests are being planned for the propulsion technologies. Airframe technologies will be matured primarily through ground testing. This paper describes NASA's activities in hypersonics. Current programs, accomplishments, future plans and technologies that are being pursued by the Hypersonics Investment Area under the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office will be discussed.

  12. US Department of Energy, Westinghouse Hanford Company ARECO cesium transportation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to the safe, efficient, and cost-effective transportation of all materials that support its various programs and activities. DOE strives to ensure that hazardous materials (particularly radioactive),hazardous substances, and hazardous mixed waste are handled and transported in compliance with all applicable federal, state,tribal, and local rules and regulations. This plan outlines the activities and responsibilities of DOE and other agencies that will be followed to conclude a significant movement of radioactive cesium (Cs) chloride capsules in a safe and uneventful manner. DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) has directed that Cs capsules manufactured at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) be returned to WESF, located at DOE`s Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Currently, there are 25 Cs capsules at the Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO)facility utilized for the polymerization of wood products in Lynchburg, Virginia, that requires removal as part of the overall Cs capsule return effort. This plan has been prepared in cooperation with member states of the Western Governors` Association (WGA) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB);the Council of State Governments Midwestern Office; and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservations, through whose jurisdictions these shipments will pass, and is an example of DOE-HQ`s commitment to early coordination and substantive involvement in its decision-making processes. This transportation plan identifies responsibilities, requirements,and procedures to ensure the success of the capsule return program. The plan summarizes transportation activities,organizational responsibilities, emergency preparedness guidelines, and other methods for achieving safe transport.

  13. NASA Information Resources Management Long Range Plan, FY 1994-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Agency 5-Year IRM Investment Projections; Program Specific IRM Activities by Program Office; Major IRM Program Accomplishments for FY 1992; Information Collection Budget; Summary of Computer Security Plans; and Appendix: Acronym List.

  14. Spatial Evaluation Approach in the Planning Process of Transport Logistic Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Pavliha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The "state-of-the-art" of the present global European situationis in desperate need for a new approach to development ofurban and rural environment with an interdisciplinary approach,when introducing the elements of transport infrastructureand transport infrastructure landscape into space and environment.In order to reach a decision regarding the location of a certaintransport logistic terminal some constraints (technical andtechnological as well as financial should be considered. Aspart of the process trying to respond to these constraints, associatedprimarily with the traffic conditions at the appointed networklocations, a careful evaluation in respect to cargo flowsand infrastructure connections as well as spatial planningshould be performed.M01phological indicators, which directly and indirectly affectthe structure and the form of the transport infrastructure elements- transport logistic terminals, are extracted and presentedin the paper. At this point, the paper concludes that thelaying down and the evaluation of transport infrastructure elementsare based on two categories of morphological elements:Constructed morphological elements (all constntctionsand their elements, andNatural morphological elements (topography, climate, vegetation,etc..The presented spatial methodology deals with the interactionsbetween the constructed and natural morphological elements- the quality and the characteristics of the design areadded to both groups.Findings and projections acquired on the basis of a spatialevaluation and transport logistic analysis constitute, togetherwith financial-economic assumptions, the basis for elaboratinga business plan - a significant element in the decision-makingprocess regarding the development of a transport logistic terminal.

  15. Long-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Mayol, Eva

    2017-07-28

    The atmosphere plays a fundamental role in the transport of microbes across the planet but it is often neglected as a microbial habitat. Although the ocean represents two thirds of the Earth\\'s surface, there is little information on the atmospheric microbial load over the open ocean. Here we provide a global estimate of microbial loads and air-sea exchanges over the tropical and subtropical oceans based on the data collected along the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition. Total loads of airborne prokaryotes and eukaryotes were estimated at 2.2 × 1021 and 2.1 × 1021 cells, respectively. Overall 33-68% of these microorganisms could be traced to a marine origin, being transported thousands of kilometres before re-entering the ocean. Moreover, our results show a substantial load of terrestrial microbes transported over the oceans, with abundances declining exponentially with distance from land and indicate that islands may act as stepping stones facilitating the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes.The extent to which the ocean acts as a sink and source of airborne particles to the atmosphere is unresolved. Here, the authors report high microbial loads over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans and propose islands as stepping stones for the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes..

  16. Pandemic influenza: a note on international planning to reduce the risk from air transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Anthony; Finkelstein, Silvio; Singh, Jarnail; Thibeault, Claude

    2006-09-01

    The rapid and intercontinental spread of avian influenza in 2005 and the potential for human pandemic influenza caused preparedness plans for such an event to be highlighted. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a global influenza preparedness plan, but this document does not address in detail the contribution necessary by the aviation community. The International Civil Aviation Organization, with assistance from WHO, the Airports Council International, and the International Air Transport Association, and others, has developed preparedness guidelines that are in accord with those of WHO but which are focused on the aviation aspects. Effective communication between stakeholders is the single most important issue that is addressed in the preparedness guidelines. States are recommended to appoint a clear contact point at the national aviation level that has responsibility for ensuring that all stakeholders are adequately consulted in the development of an aviation preparedness plan and that the relevant communication links are established. It is also important that the aviation preparedness plan is incorporated into the State's general preparedness plan, which demands efficient collaboration between the departments of health and transport at the government level. Communication with passengers, and those considering traveling, is important so that individuals are made aware of the risks associated with travel to particular parts of the globe and of the risk-reduction measures they may experience, or can take themselves, at airports and on aircraft. The guidelines will be web-based and will evolve as more knowledge becomes available.

  17. Accessibility-based evaluation of transportation and land-use planning : from laboratory to practice : USDOT Region V Regional University Transportation Center final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The concept of accessibility has made inroads into planning practice, largely at the system level. That is, accessibility is measured or modeled for current or future regional transportation and land-use scenarios for evaluation or broad policy guida...

  18. Business plan for the introduction of a smartphone application of transport in the latvian market

    OpenAIRE

    Santervás Garrido, Ana Cristina

    2017-01-01

    El proyecto responde a la necesidad de los usuarios del transporte público de disponer de una aplicación móvil que combine y compare todos los medios de transporte existentes en Riga, Letonia. el plan de negocio se divide en introducción, parte teórica, parte práctica, conclusiones, recomendaciones, bibliografía y apéndices. Tanto la parte teórica como la práctica versan sobre la descripción del producto, análisis de stakeholders, análisis de mercado, benchmarking, estudio técnico, organizaci...

  19. Ship Producibility Research Program Task S-29, Recommended U.S. Shipbuilding Standards Program. Long-Range Plan. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    Ishikawajima - Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. of Japan...background, IHI Marine Technology, Inc., an American subsidiary of Ishikawajima - Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). Japan, was selected to perform...PROGRAM TASK S-29 LONG-RANGE PLAN VOLUME I FINAL REPORT A P P E N D I C E S IHI MARINE TECHNOLOGY, INC. ISHIKAWAJIMA HARIMA HEAVY INDUSTRIES CO.,

  20. Timber RAM. . .a long-range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-use management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel I. Navon

    1971-01-01

    Timber RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a long-range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-use management. Timber RAM can produce cutting and reforestation schedules and related harvest and economic reports. Each schedule optimizes an index of performance, subject to periodic constraints on revenues, costs, and, harvest levels. Periodic...

  1. Symposium on intermediate-range atmospheric-transport processes and technology assessment. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 47 papers in this proceedings. The purpose of this meeting was to assess the state of the art of modeling atmospheric transport processes 10 to 100 km downwind of point and area sources of pollution. (KRM)

  2. Satellite observations of long range transport of a large BrO plume in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Begoin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ozone Depletion Events (ODE during polar springtime are a well known phenomenon in the Arctic and Antarctic boundary layer. They are caused by the catalytic destruction of ozone by halogens producing reactive halogen oxides like bromine monoxide (BrO. The key halogen bromine can be rapidly transferred into the gas phase in an autocatalytic process – the so called "Bromine Explosion". However, the exact mechanism, which leads to an initial bromine release as well as the influence of transport and chemical processes on BrO, is still not clearly understood.

    In this study, BrO measurements from the satellite instrument GOME-2 are used together with model calculations with the dispersion model FLEXPART to study an arctic BrO event in March 2007, which could be tracked over several days and a large area. Full BrO activation was observed within one day east of Siberia with subsequent transport to Hudson Bay. The event was linked to a cyclone with very high surface wind speeds, which could have been involved in the production and lifting of aerosols or blowing snow. Considering the short life time of BrO, transported aerosols or snow can also provide the surface for BrO recycling within the plume for several days. The evolution of the BrO plume could be reproduced by FLEXPART simulations of a passive tracer indicating that the activated air mass was transported all the way from Siberia to Hudson Bay. To localise the most probable transport height, model runs initialised in different heights have been performed showing similar transport patterns throughout the troposphere but best agreement with the measurements between the surface and 3 km. The influence of changes in tropopause height on measured BrO values has been considered, but cannot completely explain the observed high BrO values. Backward trajectories from the area of BrO initialisation show upward lifting from the surface up to 3 km and no indication for intrusion of stratospheric

  3. Fuzzy multiobjective marine-land transportation problems for coal allocation planning: case of Taipower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, G.-H.; Hwang, M.-J. [National Chiao Tung University, Taipei (Taiwan). Energy and Environment Research Group and Institute of Traffic and Transportation

    1995-12-31

    With multiple sources, multiple destinations, multiple coal types, different shipping vessels, and uncertain demand and supply, Taipower encounters difficulties in planning annual coal purchase and allocation schedules. In this study, these concerns are formulated as a fuzzy multiobjective multi-index transportation problem and an effective and interactive algorithm is proposed which combines reducing index method and interactive fuzzy multiobjective linear programming techniques to cope with a complicated problem. 34 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Recent Activities and Plans toward the Future Reusable Space Transportation System in JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kenji; Ishimoto, Shinji

    2005-02-01

    In Japan three different agencies for aerospace research and development were merged into Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) on October 1, 2003. The medium term plan is the highest-level plan that JAXA draws up in order to achieve the medium term goal given by the Japanese government. The current medium term of JAXA continues until the fiscal year of 2007. JAXA has started research on reusable space transportation systems according to the medium term plan. Key technologies were selected and will be intensively developed during the current medium term. JAXA aims to attain the technology level ready for flight demonstration within this medium term. National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL) and National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) have already conducted Orbital Re-entry Experiment (OREX) (Akimoto et al., 1994), Hypersonic Flight Experiment (HYFLEX) (Shirouzu et al., 1996), Automatic Landing Flight Experiment (ALFLEX) (Nagayasu et al., 1998) and High Speed Flight Demonstration (HSFD) Phase I and II (Yanagihara et al., 2003) to develop technologies for future reusable space transportation system especially re-entry technology. Some concept studies are conducted on experimental vehicles to demonstrate the key technologies and to accumulate other technologies for future reusable space transportation system in JAXA.

  5. Mobility as a positional good : implications for transport policy and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T. [Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2007-01-17

    Social position refers to a person's social rank. Many goods have positional value because they increase the status of their consumers. Positional goods include fashionable jewellery and clothing, luxurious homes and vehicles, and extravagant entertainment. Many motorists choose vehicles with greater potential speeds and off-road abilities than actually needed because these features are considered prestigious. This paper examined how positional value affects transportation decisions and investigated the resulting economic impacts. These included impacts on social welfare and external costs. The paper also discussed implications for transport policy and planning. The paper discussed the science of happiness and included an excerpt from a newspaper article on money and happiness. The paper also included an analysis of popular television shows and Internet blogs. Transportation impacts were also examined, with reference to motor vehicle ownership, luxury vehicles, mode choice, long-distance recreation travel, planning practices, and industrial development policy. A table was also presented that summarized the categories of prestige value travel impacts. The paper also presented possible offsetting benefits and implications for planning. 40 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  6. Long-Range Planning: Finding Fiscal Certainty in a Time of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    To navigate today's fiscal challenges successfully, school districts must constantly examine the long-term fiscal implications of policy, programmatic, and human resource decisions on their organization. They must look at the effect of such items as bargaining agreements, contracted services, placement costs, transportation costs, benefits,…

  7. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-06-23

    Hanford to: identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford's waste disposal sites; reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; develop a detailed and accurate database of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. This plan provides details for conducting field tests during FY 2000 to accomplish these objectives. Details of additional testing during FY 2001 and FY 2002 will be developed as part of the work planning process implemented by the Integration Project.

  8. Long Range Development Plan for Leeward Oahu Community College, Oahu, State of Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Mann, Johnson and Mendenhall, Honolulu, HI.

    Numerous graphics are used to illustrate the areas and stages of development of Hawaii's first completely new community college. The unique features of topology and climate are emphasized and integrated into the development of the plan. Specific topics discussed or illustrated include--(1) population distribution, (2) land use, (3) parking and…

  9. Analyzing the influence of ‘knowledge technologies’ in transport planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    element in the paper will be to review typologies of actual ‘knowledge technology’ use and influence pathways generally, in order to identify critical factors for policy influence, including properties of the content of the technologies (like ‘conceptual’, ‘operational’, ‘communicative...... to conceptualize, analyze and study the real use and influence of simulation models and other ‘knowledge technologies’ in transport planning and decision making, and to discuss methodological challenges for the research application of such terminologies and concepts.......Transport models belong to a wider family of Decision Support input or ‘knowledge technologies’ applied in the transport area, possibly the most developed ones in the family, but still often controversial and disputed. There are numerous examples of direct instrumental model applications...

  10. Can clouds enhance long-range transport of low volatile, ionizable and surface-active chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Antonio; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric partitioning and transport of low volatile organic compounds is strongly influenced by the presence of water (e.g. clouds) and its deposition velocity (e.g. rainfall, snow). It was identified that the assumption of continuous rainfall underestimates the residence time and the transport...... potential of non-volatile substances. The liquid water content of clouds and the high specific surface of frozen or liquid cloud droplets can significantly contribute to the total activity capacity (i.e. the capacity to sorb chemicals) of the atmosphere for non-volatile, ionizable and surface active...... substances. A modified version of the regional multimedia activity model for ionics MAMI, including twolayered atmosphere with atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and lower/middle troposphere (LMT), interface partitioning, intermittent rainfall and variable cloud coverage was applied to a selection of ten low...

  11. Long-range transport of Asian dust and air pollutants to Taiwan: observed evidence and model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of Asian dust and air pollutants are major environmental concerns of Taiwan during the winter monsoon season when northeasterly winds prevail following passages of cold fronts. Based on hourly measurements of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA air quality monitoring stations, Lidar and in-situ IC, a significant long-range transport dust and air pollutants event on 18 March 2005 has been identified. During this episode, drastically elevated concentrations of PM10, CO and SO2 along with the strong northeasterly on 18 March were observed over background Wanli station, with peaks of about 170 μgm−3, 1.0 ppm and 14 ppb, respectively. We have found that air masses of air pollutants and Asian dust are transported separately. Although the mixing takes place on the way to Taiwan, it mixes slightly when they arrived in Taiwan. The major component of the first PM10 peak were air pollutants, evidenced by the consistent peaks of SO42− and NO3 measured by in-situ IC, while no significant depolarization was measured by Lidar. In contrast, the evident non-spherical particles and hourly PM10 concentration consistently varied with Ca2+ indicating that mineral dust was the major component of the second peak. Trajectory analysis showed that these two peaks come from quite different sources areas. The air masses of the first peak mainly come from anthropogenic area and transport in the low boundary layer (<1500 m while the masses of the second peak originate from high altitude (>4000 m of desert areas. Numerical results showed significant agreement of temporal and vertical variation of aerosol concentration with observations. The phenomena of split air parcels between air pollutants and Asian dust transported to Taiwan are strongly associated with the transport paths and stable and dry atmospheric boundary conditions.

  12. Plans, Projections and Practitioners: Engaging with Communities to Explore Adaptation Strategies for Transportation Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picketts, I. M.

    2015-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure is a significant climate change adaptation concern because it is: costly; designed for long operational lives; susceptible to both episodic and seasonal deterioration; and a significant safety concern. While examples of adaptation exist in transportation design, many communities do not have the capacity to incorporate climate change considerations into infrastructure planning and management. This presentation will overview the process and outcomes of research conducted in collaboration with the communities of Prince George and Squamish, both located in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Previous research in Prince George (in northern BC) involved applying downscaled climate projection information to assess local climate impacts, and identified transportation infrastructure as the top priority for ongoing study. In Prince George the adaptation process was oriented toward determining how the City could plan, design, and maintain roads and other structures to account for climate change. A local steering committee was formed, and created and evaluated 23 potential research topics. Two focus areas were selected for further investigation and explored during a workshop with practitioners, researchers, consultants and other representatives. The workshop precipitated additional modelling of projected impacts of climate change on road maintenance and road safety, and plans to explore the viability of alternative paving techniques. Outcomes of the case study provide insights regarding how researchers can 'combine' top down and bottom up approaches by using modelling information as part of an engagement process with local experts to explore adaptation. Ongoing research in Squamish seeks to apply lessons learned from the Prince George case study (both related to process and the application of modelling information) to a more temperate coastal region with a more climate-concerned population. In Squamish there also lies an opportunity to explicitly focus

  13. SU-E-CAMPUS-J-06: The Impact of CT-Scan Energy On Range Uncertainty in Proton Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grantham, K [University of Missouri-Columbia, St. Louis, MO (United States); Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Zhao, T [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Klein, E [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of tube potential (kVp) on the CTnumber (HU) to proton stopping power ratio (PSPR) conversion table; the range uncertainty and the dosimetric change introduced by a mismatch in kVp between the CT and the HU to PSPR table used to calculate dose are analyzed. Methods: A CIRS CT-ED phantom was scanned with a Philips Brilliance 64-slice scanner under 90kVp and 120kVp tube potentials. Two HU to PSPR curves were then created. Using Eclipse (Varian) a treatment plan was created for a single beam in a water phantom (HU=0) passing through a wedge-shaped heterogeneity (HU=1488). The dose was recalculated by changing only the HU to PSPR table used in the dose calculation. The change in range (the distal 90% isodose line) relative to a distal structure was recorded as a function of heterogeneity thickness in the beam. To show the dosimetric impact of a mismatch in kVp between the CT and the HU to PSPR table, we repeated this procedure using a clinical plan comparing DVH data. Results: The HU to PSPR tables diverge for low-density bone and higher density structures. In the phantom plan, the divergence of the tables results in a change in range of ~1mm per cm of bone in the beam path for the HU used. For the clinical plan, a mismatch in kVp showed a 28% increase in mean dose to the brainstem along with a 10% increase in maximum dose to the brainstem center. Conclusion: A mismatch in kVp between the CT and the HU to PSPR table can introduce significant uncertainty in the proton beam range. For dense bone, the measured range uncertainty is about 1mm per cm of bone in the beam. CT-scan energy verification should be employed, particularly when high-density media is in the proton beam path.

  14. The coming revolution in particle physics: Report of the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Appel et al.

    2004-06-22

    In early 2003, the Fermilab Director formed a committee (Appendix A) to examine options for the long-range future of Fermilab. Specifically, the committee was asked to respond to a charge (Appendix B), which laid out the assumptions, which were to underlie our discussions. The committee met a few times during the spring of 2003 and formulated a plan of action. It identified a number of issues that deserved attention, and a subcommittee was formed to focus on each. We agreed that in addressing these key issues, a broader participation was appropriate. The manner in which that was achieved varied from subcommittee to subcommittee to group. In some cases the expanded membership participated in all the discussions, in others, particular presentations were solicited and heard. Some subgroups met regularly over several months, others convened only for a small number of discussions. We have attempted to list participants in Appendix C. General presentations indicating the purpose of the work were given, for example at the Fermilab Users Annual Meeting. Towards the end of the summer some sense of direction developed and a series of open meetings was organized by the different subgroups. These meetings of two and more hour's duration gave the broader laboratory and user community a further chance to react to perceived directions and to make their opinions known. They were extremely well attended. In all, nearly 100 people have participated in the process including the development of initial drafts and proto-recommendations. A larger number attended the various open sessions. It is therefore likely, even expected, that the general thrusts of this report are no surprise. Nevertheless, the committee met in a number of plenary closed sessions including a two-day retreat in which all the issues were discussed and a common view was developed. The Director and Deputy Director heard and interacted with the discussions in most of these meetings. In attempting to converge, we

  15. Behavioral Intention to Use Public Transport Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambak Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in population generates increasing in travel demand. In Malaysia, public transport become an important modes of transport that connection people. This paper presents behavioural intention to use public transport especially public bus based on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify factors that contribute and influence users to use public bus and to determine factor that most dominant using TPB model. A total of 282 questionnaires were distributed in selected area of Batu Pahat and Kluang. Correlation and regression analysis were used for this study. Results show that the Attitude toward public transport is the most dominant factor compared with Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavior Control that influencing users to use public bus. Majority respondents were agreed that they prefer to use public bus because it is cheap to travel and no other choices of other transfer modes. As for the recommendation, this study can be extended in future as part of strategic sustainable transportation system in Batu Pahat and Kluang areas.

  16. Revision to dedicated short range communication roadside equipment specification - RSU 4.1.Bench Test Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    The document describes the overall process for evaluating Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Roadside Units (RSU) against USDOT RSU Specification 4.1 in preparation for field evaluation. The Test Cases contained in this document only evaluate...

  17. The Design of an Ultra High Capacity Long Range Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Bucci, Gregory; Hare, Angela; Szolwinski, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the design of a 650 passenger aircraft with 8000 nautical mile range to reduce seat mile cost and to reduce airport and airway congestion. This design effort involves the usual issues that require trades between technologies, but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This paper will review the long range ultra high capacity or megatransport design problem and the variety of solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University.

  18. Regional cooperation and environmental justice in transportation planning in Ohio : a regional models of cooperation peer exchange summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    This report highlights key themes identified at the Regional Cooperation and Environmental Justice in Transportation Planning in Ohio Peer Exchange held on December 15, 2015 in Columbus, Ohio. The Regional Models of Cooperation Initiative, whic...

  19. Validating commercial remote sensing and spatial information (CRS&SI) technologies for streamlining environmental and planning processes in transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Transportation corridor-planning processes are well understood, and consensus exists among practitioners : about common practices for stages and tasks included in traditional EIS approaches. However, traditional approaches do : not typically employ f...

  20. OBSERVATION OF LONG-RANGE BEAM-BEAM EFFECT IN RHIC AND PLANS FOR COMPENSATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER, W.; CALAGA, R.; DORDA, U.; DOUTCHOUK, J.-P.; ZIMMERMANN, F.; RANJBAR, V.; SEN, T.; SHI, J.; QIANG, J.; KABEL, A.

    2006-06-23

    At large distances the electromagnetic field of a wire is the same as the field produced by a bunch. Such a long-range beam-beam wire compensator was proposed for the LHC, and single beam tests with wire compensators were successfully done in the SPS. RHIC offers the possibility to test the compensation scheme with colliding beams. We report on measurements of beam losses as a function of transverse separation in RHIC at 100 GeV, and comparisons with simulations. We present a design for a long-range wire compensator in RHIC.

  1. Characteristics in the atmosphere of long-range transport aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillefond, H; Fourn, P; Auffret, R

    1977-06-01

    In the long run, the fatigue in aircrews performing frequent, long-range flights is linked to factors connected to the aircraft, such as noise, temperature, cabin pressure, atmosphere quality, and flight characteristics. These are the factors inherent to the aircraft which we have investigated during six long-range flights without time zone changes in DC-8 and DC-10 aircraft of the U.T.A. Cie. The results show that none of the pollutants researched reach doses considered hazardous by FAR 25 or by French legislation. This fact is due to the effective ventilation in the cabins. In flight, thermal comfort is limited by a too-low hygrometry RH = 12%. Even in a modern aircraft, the noise level remains high, but acoustical energy is spread over the less detrimental frequencies.

  2. Long-range correlations and charge transport properties of DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-liang; Ren, Yi; Xie, Qiong-tao; Deng, Chao-sheng; Xu, Hui

    2010-04-01

    By using Hurst's analysis and transfer approach, the rescaled range functions and Hurst exponents of human chromosome 22 and enterobacteria phage lambda DNA sequences are investigated and the transmission coefficients, Landauer resistances and Lyapunov coefficients of finite segments based on above genomic DNA sequences are calculated. In a comparison with quasiperiodic and random artificial DNA sequences, we find that λ-DNA exhibits anticorrelation behavior characterized by a Hurst exponent 0.5range correlation properties to some extent but the correlations are not strong enough to maintain the scale invariance properties.

  3. Long-range correlations and charge transport properties of DNA sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaoliang, E-mail: xlliucsu@yahoo.com.c [College of Physical Science and Technology and College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ren, Yi [College of Physical Science and Technology and College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xie, Qiong-tao [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education (Hunan Normal University), Changsha 410081 (China); Deng, Chao-sheng; Xu, Hui [College of Physical Science and Technology and College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2010-04-26

    By using Hurst's analysis and transfer approach, the rescaled range functions and Hurst exponents of human chromosome 22 and enterobacteria phage lambda DNA sequences are investigated and the transmission coefficients, Landauer resistances and Lyapunov coefficients of finite segments based on above genomic DNA sequences are calculated. In a comparison with quasiperiodic and random artificial DNA sequences, we find that lambda-DNA exhibits anticorrelation behavior characterized by a Hurst exponent 0.5range correlation properties to some extent but the correlations are not strong enough to maintain the scale invariance properties.

  4. Long-Range Charge Transport in Adenine-Stacked RNA:DNA Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanhui; Artés, Juan M; Hihath, Joshua

    2016-01-27

    An extremely important biological component, RNA:DNA can also be used to design nanoscale structures such as molecular wires. The conductance of single adenine-stacked RNA:DNA hybrids is rapidly and reproducibly measured using the break junction approach. The conductance decreases slightly over a large range of molecular lengths, suggesting that RNA:DNA can be used as an oligonucleotide wire. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-05-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area Corrective Action Unit 407 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved Corrective Action Alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified during the site characterization include plutonium, uranium, and americium. No other COCS were identified. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: (1) Remove and dispose of surface soils which are over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal will be disposed of at an approved disposal facility. Excavated areas will be backfilled with clean borrow soil fi-om a nearby location. (2) An engineered cover will be constructed over the waste disposal pit area where subsurface COCS will remain. (3) Upon completion of the closure and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site. Barbed wire fencing will be installed along the perimeter of this unit. Post closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 90 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP.

  6. Assessment of BRAC 133 Final Environmental Assessment of July 2008 and Transportation Management Plan of July 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ESA) found “oil staining and arsenic and lead concentrations above Commonwealth of Virginia Voluntary Remediation Plan ( VRP ) Tier III Screening levels...Transportation VA Virginia VDEQ Virginia Department of Environmental Quality VDOT Virginia Department of Transportation VRE Virginia Railway Express VRP

  7. A Selfish Constraint Satisfaction Genetic Algorithms for Planning a Long-Distance Transportation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoyama, Takashi; Maekawa, Takuya; Kubota, Sen; Tsuruta, Setuso; Komoda, Norihisa

    To build a cooperative logistics network covering multiple enterprises, a planning method that can build a long-distance transportation network is required. Many strict constraints are imposed on this type of problem. To solve these strict-constraint problems, a selfish constraint satisfaction genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed. In this GA, each gene of an individual satisfies only its constraint selfishly, disregarding the constraints of other genes in the same individuals. Moreover, a constraint pre-checking method is also applied to improve the GA convergence speed. The experimental result shows the proposed method can obtain an accurate solution in a practical response time.

  8. Diagnóstico de Transporte Parte 1: Plan Regulador Montes de Oca

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol Mesalles, Rosendo; Zamora González, Luis Ml.; Roper Small, Naomi; Campos Salas, José Antonio; Cruz Zúñiga, Nidia; Salas Jiménez, Johanna; Valentinuzzi Núñez, Silvia; Mata Quesada, Cristian; Chaves Garro, Arturo; Odio Ibarra, Gabriel; Sánchez Pérez, Marcos

    2001-01-01

    Diagnóstico plan regulador -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Programa de Investigación en Desarrollo Urbano Sostenible. 2001 El siguiente informe consiste en un estudio de las paradas y rutas de los autobuses en el cantón de Montes de Oca. Esto con el objetivo de evaluar las principales vías de circulación de este modo de transporte y las áreas de influencia de sus paradas. La metodología empleada se caracteriza por un trabajo de campo para ubicar las paradas de los autobuses y para elabor...

  9. Strategic Use of Analytical Information in Transport Planning in China : How Is It Different from Western Democracies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, R.; Mouter, N.; de Jong, W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Theory on the strategic use of knowledge in planning large infrastructure projects is comparatively well-developed in the fields of public policy and urban/transport planning for Western democracies. But how policymakers make use of knowledge and what position policy analysts hold in non-Western

  10. Dynamic model for kinesin-mediated long-range transport and its local traffic jam caused by tau proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Woochul; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2017-01-01

    In neurons, several intracellular cargoes are transported by motor proteins (kinesins) which walk on microtubules (MTs). However, kinesins can possibly unbind from the MTs before they reach their destinations. The unbound kinesins randomly diffuse in neurons until they bind to MTs. Then, they walk again along the MTs to continue their tasks. Kinesins repeat this cycle of motion until they transport their cargoes to the destinations. However, most previous models mainly focused on the motion of kinesins when they walk on MTs. Thus, a new model is required to encompass the various types of kinesin motion. We developed a comprehensive model and studied the long-range axonal transport of neurons using the model. To enhance reliability of the model, it was constructed based on multiphysics on kinesin motion (i.e., chemical kinetics, diffusion, fluid dynamics, nonlinear dynamics, and stochastic characteristics). Also, parameter values for kinesin motions are carefully obtained by comparing the model predictions and several experimental observations. The axonal transport can be degraded when a large number of binding sites on MTs are blocked by excessive tau proteins. By considering the interference between walking kinesins and tau molecules on MTs, effects of tau proteins on the axonal transport are studied. One of the meaningful predictions obtained from the model is that the velocity is not an effective metric to estimate the degradation of the transport because the decrease in velocity is not noticeable when the concentration of tau protein is not high. However, our model shows that the transport locally changes near tau molecules on MTs even when the change in the velocity is not significant. Thus, a statistical method is proposed to detect this local change effectively. The advantage of this method is that a value obtained from this method is highly sensitive to the concentration of tau protein. Another benefit of this method is that this highly sensitive value can

  11. Urban and Transport Planning Related Exposures and Mortality: A Health Impact Assessment for Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dadvand, Payam; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Foraster, Maria; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Tonne, Cathryn; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Valentín, Antònia; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2017-01-01

    By 2050, nearly 70% of the global population is projected to live in urban areas. Because the environments we inhabit affect our health, urban and transport designs that promote healthy living are needed. We estimated the number of premature deaths preventable under compliance with international exposure recommendations for physical activity (PA), air pollution, noise, heat, and access to green spaces. We developed and applied the Urban and TranspOrt Planning Health Impact Assessment (UTOPHIA) tool to Barcelona, Spain. Exposure estimates and mortality data were available for 1,357,361 residents. We compared recommended with current exposure levels. We quantified the associations between exposures and mortality and calculated population attributable fractions to estimate the number of premature deaths preventable. We also modeled life-expectancy and economic impacts. We estimated that annually, nearly 20% of mortality could be prevented if international recommendations for performance of PA; exposure to air pollution, noise, and heat; and access to green space were followed. Estimations showed that the greatest portion of preventable deaths was attributable to increases in PA, followed by reductions of exposure to air pollution, traffic noise, and heat. Access to green spaces had smaller effects on mortality. Compliance was estimated to increase the average life expectancy by 360 (95% CI: 219, 493) days and result in economic savings of 9.3 (95% CI: 4.9, 13.2) billion EUR/year. PA factors and environmental exposures can be modified by changes in urban and transport planning. We emphasize the need for a) the reduction of motorized traffic through the promotion of active and public transport and b) the provision of green infrastructure, both of which are suggested to provide opportunities for PA and for mitigation of air pollution, noise, and heat. Citation: Mueller N, Rojas-Rueda D, Basagaña X, Cirach M, Cole-Hunter T, Dadvand P, Donaire-Gonzalez D, Foraster M

  12. Long-term transport network 2008-2017 investment forecast plan; Plan previsionnel d'investissements a long terme 2008-2017 sur le reseau de transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Total Infrastructure Gaz France (TIGF) provides and develops natural gas transport and storage services on a European scale to meet its customers' needs. It achieves a turnover of almost 300 million Euros and employs some 370 people. Backed by 50 years of expertise, TIGF is a major player in the natural gas market in 15 departements in South-West France. TIGF has drawn up an indicative development plan for the network for 2008-2017. This document gives an overview of proposed investments and of the development of transport services provided by TIGF, responding to changes in the gas market, the shippers' growing need for transport capacity and the forecast growth in gas consumption in the TIGF area (proposed CCGT gas fired power stations). Investment in gas infrastructure is a major step forward towards assuring the development of a competitive market that is fair, transparent and non-discriminatory for the years to come. That is why TIGF is focussing its development in the coming years on increasing the fluidity of transits entering/leaving its area. As the gas market is currently in a state of continuous change, and major uncertainties hang over the needs of the various players particularly over exchanges with the area to the north of TIGF, with Spain and the installation of a methane terminal at Verdon. In this uncertain climate, TIGF will focus on developing the WEST corridor for the next 5 years (2008- 2013), to provide reversibility of flows between France and Spain. This will cover the following works: the LACAL pipeline (Lacq-Calahorra), the Bearn Pipeline Artery (Lussagnet - Lacq), increased capacity on the Guyenne Pipeline Artery and on the EUSKADOUR pipeline (Coudure - Arcangues). This pipeline corridor, on which TIGF's development work started in 2007, is currently the one at the most advanced stage. For the next few years it will become the sole exchange hub between northern Spain and southern France. Beyond 2013, depending on market

  13. Defining effective regional planning in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    One of the most visible mechanisms for considering major transportation investments is the regional long-range transportation plan (LRP) (also referred to as the urbanized long-range transportation plan). With a typical cost of $3 to $5 million, Virg...

  14. Composition and origin of PM10 in Cape Verde: Characterization of long-range transport episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, P.; Almeida, S. M.; Cardoso, J.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Nunes, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Alves, C.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Artíñano, B.; Pio, C.

    2016-02-01

    A receptor modelling study was performed to identify source categories and their contributions to the PM10 total mass at the Cape Verde archipelago. Trajectory statistical methods were also used to characterize the main atmospheric circulation patterns causing the transport of air masses and to geographically identify the main potential source areas of each PM10 source category. Our findings point out that the variability of the PM10 levels at Cape Verde was prompted by the advections of African mineral dust. The mineral dust load was mainly composed by clay-silicates mineral derived elements (22% of the PM10 total mass on average) with lower amounts of carbonates (9%). A clear northward gradient was observed in carbonates concentration that illustrates the differences in the composition according to the source regions of mineral dust. Mineral dust was frequently linked to industrial emissions from crude oil refineries, fertilizer industries as well as oil and coal power plants, located in the northern and north-western coast of the African continent (29%). Sea salt was also registered in the PM10 mass during most part of the sampling period, with a lower impact in the PM10 levels than the mineral dust one (26%). Combustion aerosols (6%) reached the highest mean values in summer as a consequence of the emissions from local-regional sources. Biomass burning aerosols produced from October to November in sub-sahelian latitudes, had a clear influence in the content of elemental carbon (EC) recorded at Cape Verde but a small impact in the PM10 total mass levels. A minor contribution to the PM10 mass has been associated to secondary inorganic compounds-SIC. Namely, ammonium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 1-5%) and calcium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 2-3%). The main origin of SIC 1 was attributed to emissions of SO2 and NOx from industrial sources located in the northern and north-western African coast and from wildfires produced in the continent. SIC 2 had a clear regional origin

  15. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); Kang, Shichang, E-mail: shichang.kang@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tian, Lide [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Junming [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); and others

    2016-10-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH{sub 4}{sup +} in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L{sup −1}, with an average of 12.5 ng L{sup −1}. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH{sub 4}{sup +} was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  16. Transportation infrastructure upgrades in the South: A compilation of state plans for construction near nuclear reactor sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    There are currently 27 nuclear reactor sites located in the southern region. In many instances, the most practicable modes of transportation of spent nuclear fuel from these sites we through the use of highway and rail systems. These two transportation modes have important differences that affect their applicability; chief among these, perhaps, is the fact that while highway systems are publicly owned and maintained rail lines are owned by private entities. For this reason, track condition and maintenance, usage rates and other aspects of rail transport can vary widely. This report reviews southern state, department plans for infrastructure upgrades in the vicinity of nuclear reactor sites. This report includes a summary of planned modifications to bridges, access highways, and rail spurs (where applicable) over the next five years. The information contained herein was gathered from interviews with officials within state departments of transportation. With few exceptions, the contact person was an official within the departmental planning division.

  17. Hungry Horse Dam Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project: Long-Term Habitat Management Plan, Elk and Mule Deer Winter Range Enhancement, Firefighter Mountain and Spotted Bear Winter Ranges.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

    1990-06-01

    Project goals are to rehabilitate 1120 acres of big game (elk and mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) winter range on the Hungry Horse and Spotted Bear Districts of Flathead National Forest lands adjacent to Hungry Horse Reservoir. This project represents the initial phase of implementation toward the mitigation goal. A minimum of 547 acres Trust-funded enhancements are called for in this plan. The remainder are part of the typical Forest Service management activities for the project area. Monitor and evaluate the effects of project implementation on the big game forage base and elk and mule deer populations in the project area. Monitor enhancement success to determine effective acreage to be credited against mitigation goal. Additional enhancement acreage will be selected elsewhere in the Flathead Forest or other lands adjacent'' to the reservoir based on progress toward the mitigation goal as determined through monitoring. The Wildlife Mitigation Trust Fund Advisory Committee will serve to guide decisions regarding future enhancement efforts. 7 refs.

  18. Study of the application of hydrogen fuel to long-range subsonic transport aircraft. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Lange, R. H.; Moore, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in advanced designs of long range, subsonic transport aircraft is assessed. Both passenger and cargo type aircraft are investigated. Comparisons of physical, performance, and economic parameters of the LH2 fueled designs with conventionally fueled aircraft are presented. Design studies are conducted to determine appropriate characteristics for the hydrogen related systems required on board the aircraft. These studies included consideration of material, structural, and thermodynamic requirements of the cryogenic fuel tanks and fuel systems with the structural support and thermal protection systems.

  19. Isospin transport and reaction mechanism in nuclear reactions in the range 20–40 MeV/n

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlini, S., E-mail: barlini@fi.infn.it; Piantelli, S.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Bini, M.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Valdré, S.; Pastore, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell’Università and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bougault, R.; Lopez, O.; Le Neindre, N.; Parlog, M.; Vient, E. [LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN et Université de Caen, F-14050 Caen-Cedex (France); Bonnet, E.; Chibhi, A.; Frankland, J. D. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P.5027, F-14076 Caen cedex (France); Borderie, B.; Rivet, M. F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    In recent years, many efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the isospin degree of freedom in nuclear reactions. Comparing systems involving partners with different N/Z, it has been possible to investigate the isospin transport process and its influence on the final products population. This can be then related to the symmetry energy term of the nuclear EOS. From the experimental point of view, this task requires detectors able to measure both charge and mass of the emitted products, in the widest possible range of energy and size of the fragments. With this objective, the FAZIA and GARFIELD+RCo apparatus have been used with success in some recent experiments.

  20. Possible half-metallicity and variable range hopping transport in Sb-substituted Fe2TiSn Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Bhobe, P. A.; Nigam, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    The investigation of the magnetotransport properties on Fe2 TiSn1-x Sb x with 0 ≤slant x ≤slant 0.6 are presented in this paper. The substitution of Sb in place of Sn decreases the anti-site disorder as evident from x-ray diffraction patterns as well as from transport properties measurement. The much-disputed upturn in low temperature electrical resistivity of Fe2 TiSn has been demonstrated to be a result of weak localization induced by anti-site disorder. With increased Sb substitution (⩾25%) the metallic transport behavior of Fe2 TiSn changes to semiconductor-like. At low temperature, carrier transport in such compositions occurs via the variable range hopping mechanism. Moreover, a systematic increase in the anomalous Hall voltage is observed with increasing Sb-content, attributable to a side jump or Berry phase curvature effect. Electrical resistivity in the entire temperature regime hints towards half metallicity of the system. Our ab initio electronic structure calculations using generalised gradient approximation formalism further supports the results of our magnetotransport study.

  1. Ab initio electronic transport and thermoelectric properties of solids from full and range-separated hybrid functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Giuseppe; Ferretti, Andrea; Maschio, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Within the semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory in the constant relaxation-time approximation, we perform an ab initio study of the transport properties of selected systems, including crystalline solids and nanostructures. A local (Gaussian) basis set is adopted and exploited to analytically evaluate band velocities as well as to access full and range-separated hybrid functionals (such as B3LYP, PBE0, or HSE06) at a moderate computational cost. As a consequence of the analytical derivative, our approach is computationally efficient and does not suffer from problems related to band crossings. We investigate and compare the performance of a variety of hybrid functionals in evaluating Boltzmann conductivity. Demonstrative examples include silicon and aluminum bulk crystals as well as two thermoelectric materials (CoSb3, Bi2Te3). We observe that hybrid functionals other than providing more realistic bandgaps—as expected—lead to larger bandwidths and hence allow for a better estimate of transport properties, also in metallic systems. As a nanostructure prototype, we also investigate conductivity in boron-nitride (BN) substituted graphene, in which nanoribbons (nanoroads) alternate with BN ones.

  2. Analysis for the application of hybrid laminar flow control to a long-range subsonic transport aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcara, P.C. Jr.; Bartlett, D.W.; Mccullers, L.A. (NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States) Vigyan, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The FLOPS aircraft conceptual design/analysis code has been used to evaluate the effects of incorporating hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) in a 300-passenger, 6500 n. mi. range, twin-engine subsonic transport aircraft. The baseline configuration was sized to account for 50 percent chord laminar flow on the wing upper surface as well as both surfaces of the empennage airfoils. Attention is given to the additional benefits of achieving various degrees of laminar flow on the engine nacelles, and the horsepower extraction and initial weight and cost increments entailed by the HLFC system. The sensitivity of the results obtained to fuel-price and off-design range are also noted. 6 refs.

  3. Phases of QCD: Summary of the Rutgers Long Range Plan Town Meeting, January 12-14, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Peter; Kharzeev, Dmitri; Muller, Berndt; Nagle, Jamie; Rajagopal, Krishna; Vigdor, Steve

    2007-05-14

    This White Paper summarizes the outcome of the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD that took place January 12-14, 2007 at Rutgers University, as part of the NSAC 2007 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Town Meeting on Hadron Structure, including a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. Appendix A.1 contains the meeting agenda. This Executive Summary presents the prioritized recommendations that were determined at the meeting. Subsequent chapters present the essential background to the recommendations. While this White Paper is not a scholarly article and contains few references, it is intended to provide the non-expert reader

  4. Aromatic amino acids required for pili conductivity and long-range extracellular electron transport in Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Madeline; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Leang, Ching; Smith, Jessica A; Patel, Pranav; Snoeyenbos-West, Oona; Synoeyenbos-West, Oona; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

    2013-03-12

    It has been proposed that Geobacter sulfurreducens requires conductive pili for long-range electron transport to Fe(III) oxides and for high-density current production in microbial fuel cells. In order to investigate this further, we constructed a strain of G. sulfurreducens, designated Aro-5, which produced pili with diminished conductivity. This was accomplished by modifying the amino acid sequence of PilA, the structural pilin protein. An alanine was substituted for each of the five aromatic amino acids in the carboxyl terminus of PilA, the region in which G. sulfurreducens PilA differs most significantly from the PilAs of microorganisms incapable of long-range extracellular electron transport. Strain Aro-5 produced pili that were properly decorated with the multiheme c-type cytochrome OmcS, which is essential for Fe(III) oxide reduction. However, pili preparations of the Aro-5 strain had greatly diminished conductivity and Aro-5 cultures were severely limited in their capacity to reduce Fe(III) compared to the control strain. Current production of the Aro-5 strain, with a graphite anode serving as the electron acceptor, was less than 10% of that of the control strain. The conductivity of the Aro-5 biofilms was 10-fold lower than the control strain's. These results demonstrate that the pili of G. sulfurreducens must be conductive in order for the cells to be effective in extracellular long-range electron transport. Extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter species plays an important role in the biogeochemistry of soils and sediments and has a number of bioenergy applications. For example, microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxide is one of the most geochemically significant processes in anaerobic soils, aquatic sediments, and aquifers, and Geobacter organisms are often abundant in such environments. Geobacter sulfurreducens produces the highest current densities of any known pure culture, and close relatives are often the most abundant organisms colonizing anodes

  5. Analysis of aircraft and satellite measurements from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B to quantify long-range transport of East Asian sulfur to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van Donkelaar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We interpret a suite of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based measurements over the North Pacific Ocean and western North America during April–May 2006 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign to understand the implications of long-range transport of East Asian emissions to North America. The Canadian component of INTEX-B included 33 vertical profiles from a Cessna 207 aircraft equipped with an aerosol mass spectrometer. Long-range transport of organic aerosols was insignificant, contrary to expectations. Measured sulfate plumes in the free troposphere over British Columbia exceeded 2 μg/m3. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem and use it to interpret the observations. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD retrieved from two satellite instruments (MISR and MODIS for 2000–2006 are analyzed with GEOS-Chem to estimate an annual growth in Chinese sulfur emissions of 6.2% and 9.6%, respectively. Analysis of aircraft sulfate measurements from the NASA DC-8 over the central Pacific, the NSF C-130 over the east Pacific and the Cessna over British Columbia indicates most Asian sulfate over the ocean is in the lower free troposphere (800–600 hPa, with a decrease in pressure toward land due to orographic effects. We calculate that 56% of the measured sulfate between 500–900 hPa over British Columbia is due to East Asian sources. We find evidence of a 72–85% increase in the relative contribution of East Asian sulfate to the total burden in spring off the northwest coast of the United States since 1985. Campaign-average simulations indicate anthropogenic East Asian sulfur emissions increase mean springtime sulfate in Western Canada at the surface by 0.31 μg/m3 (~30% and account for 50% of the overall regional sulfate burden between 1 and 5 km. Mean measured daily surface sulfate concentrations taken in the Vancouver area increase by

  6. Role of soil organic carbon and colloids in sorption and transport of TNT, RDX and HMX in training range soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prasesh; Mayes, Melanie A; Tang, Guoping

    2013-08-01

    Contamination of soils and groundwater by munitions compounds (MCs) is of significant concern at many U.S. Department of Defense sites. Soils were collected from operational training ranges in Maryland (APG), Massachusetts (MMR-B and MMR-E) and Washington (JBLM) and sorption and transport studies were conducted to investigate the effects of soil organic carbon (OC) and textural clay content on fate of dissolved MCs (TNT, RDX, HMX). Sorption experiments showed higher distribution coefficients [TNT:42-68 L kg(-1), RDX:6.9-8.7 L kg(-1) and HMX:2.6-3.1 L kg(-1)] in OC rich soils (JBLM, MMR-E) compared to clay rich soils (MMR-B and APG) [TNT:19-21 L kg(-1), RDX:2.5-3.4 L kg(-1), HMX:0.9-1.2 L kg(-1)]. In column experiments, breakthrough of MCs was faster in MMR-B and APG compared to MMR-E and JBLM soils. Among TNT, RDX and HMX, breakthrough was fastest for RDX followed by HMX and TNT for all columns. Defining the colloidal fraction as the difference between unfiltered samples and samples filtered with a 3 kDa filter, ~36%, ~15% and ~9% of TNT, RDX and HMX were found in the colloidal fraction in the solutions from sorption experiments, and around 20% of TNT in the effluent from the transport experiments. Results demonstrate that OC rich soils may enhance sorption and delay transport of TNT, RDX and HMX compared to clay-rich soils. Further, transport of TNT may be associated with soil colloid mobilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - fate and long-range atmospheric transport studied using a global model, EMAC-SVOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octaviani, Mega; Tost, Holger; Lammel, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are emitted by incomplete combustion from fossil fuel, vehicles, and biomass burning. They may persist in environmental compartments, pose a health hazard and may bio accumulate along food chains. The ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model had been used to simulate global tropospheric, stratospheric chemistry and climate. In this study, we improve the model to include simulations of the transport and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC). The EMAC-SVOC model takes into account essential environmental processes including gas-particle partitioning, dry and wet deposition, chemical and bio-degradation, and volatilization from sea surface, soils, vegetation, and snow. The model was evaluated against observational data in the Arctic, mid-latitudes, and tropics, and further applied to study total environmental lifetime and long-range transport potential (LRTP) of PAHs. We selected four compounds for study, spanning a wide range of volatility, i.e., phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Several LRTP indicators were investigated, including the Arctic contamination potential, meridional spreading, and zonal and meridional fluxes to remote regions.

  8. Weathering and transport of chromium and nickel from serpentinite in the Coast Range ophiolite to the Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Breit, George N.; Hooper, Robert L.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Ranville, James F.

    2015-01-01

    A soil geochemical study in northern California was done to investigate the role that weathering and transport play in the regional distribution and mobility of geogenic Cr and Ni, which are both potentially toxic and carcinogenic. These elements are enriched in ultramafic rocks (primarily serpentinite) and the soils derived from them (1700–10,000 mg Cr per kg soil and 1300–3900 mg Ni per kg soil) in the Coast Range ophiolite. Chromium and Ni have been transported eastward from the Coast Range into the western Sacramento Valley and as a result, valley soil is enriched in Cr (80–1420 mg kg−1) and Ni (65–224 mg kg−1) compared to median values of U.S. soils of 50 and 15 mg kg−1, respectively. Nickel in ultramafic source rocks and soils is present in serpentine minerals (lizardite, antigorite, and chrysotile) and is more easily weathered compared to Cr, which primarily resides in highly refractory chromite ([Mg,Fe2+][Cr3+,Al,Fe3+]2O4). Although the majority of Cr and Ni in soils are in refractory chromite and serpentine minerals, the etching and dissolution of these minerals, presence of Cr- and Ni-enriched clay minerals and development of nanocrystalline Fe (hydr)oxides is evidence that a significant fractions of these elements have been transferred to potentially more labile phases.

  9. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals’ intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China’s three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  10. How planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge in land use and transport planning affect the goal achievement potential of plans? Experiences from three Scandinavian cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennøy, Aud; Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza

    2016-01-01

    the plans (if implemented) contribute to achieve defined objectives, which in this paper concern transition toward more sustainable mobility patterns and reduction of traffic volumes. The expert knowledge in question concerns how land use and transport systems developments influence traffic volumes in urban......Changing urban development in more sustainable directions poses numerous challenges for planning practitioners. Expert knowledge could be helpful for planners aiming at facing up to these challenges by developing innovative ways of meeting seemingly contradictive objectives and solving planning...... problems. This paper examines how planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge affect the content and goal achievement of plans, and discusses how changes in planning practice and research practice can contribute to improve goal achievement potentials. Goal achievement potential refers to whether...

  11. Implementation of a target volume design function for intrafractional range variation in a particle beam treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, S; Inaniwa, T; Miki, K; Shirai, T; Noda, K

    2014-11-01

    Treatment planning for charged particle therapy in the thoracic and abdominal regions should take account of range uncertainty due to intrafractional motion. Here, we developed a design tool (4Dtool) for the target volume [field-specific target volume (FTV)], which accounts for this uncertainty using four-dimensional CT (4DCT). Target and normal tissue contours were input manually into a treatment planning system (TPS). These data were transferred to the 4Dtool via the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Contours at the reference phase were propagated to other phases by deformable image registration. FTV was calculated using 4DCT on the 4Dtool. The TPS displays FTV contours using digital imaging and communications in medicine files imported from the PACS. These treatment parameters on the CT image at the reference phase were then used for dose calculation on the TPS. The tool was tested in single clinical case randomly selected from patients treated at our centre for lung cancer. In this clinical case, calculation of dose distribution with the 4Dtool resulted in the successful delivery of carbon-ion beam at the reference phase of 95% of the prescribed dose to the clinical target volume (CTV). Application to the other phases also provided sufficient dose to the CTV. The 4Dtool software allows the design of the target volume with consideration to intrafractional range variation and is now in routine clinical use at our institution. Our alternative technique represents a practical approach to four-dimensional treatment planning within the current state of charged particle therapy.

  12. New trends in transportation and land use scenario planning : five case studies of regional and local scenario planning efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This report summarizes important findings from a literature review on scenario planning processes and a scan of stakeholders. It also presents case studies on innovative, next generation scenario planning efforts. The project team defined next ...

  13. Long-range tropospheric transport of uranium and plutonium weapons fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site to Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Cato Christian; Fifield, L Keith; Oughton, Deborah H; Lind, Ole Christian; Skipperud, Lindis; Bartnicki, Jerzy; Tims, Stephen G; Høibråten, Steinar; Salbu, Brit

    2013-09-01

    A combination of state-of-the-art isotopic fingerprinting techniques and atmospheric transport modelling using real-time historical meteorological data has been used to demonstrate direct tropospheric transport of radioactive debris from specific nuclear detonations at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan to Norway via large areas of Europe. A selection of archived air filters collected at ground level at 9 stations in Norway during the most intensive atmospheric nuclear weapon testing periods (1957-1958 and 1961-1962) has been screened for radioactive particles and analysed with respect to the concentrations and atom ratios of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Digital autoradiography screening demonstrated the presence of radioactive particles in the filters. Concentrations of (236)U (0.17-23nBqm(-3)) and (239+240)Pu (1.3-782μBqm(-3)) as well as the atom ratios (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.237) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.7) varied widely indicating several different sources. Filter samples from autumn and winter tended to have lower atom ratios than those sampled in spring and summer, and this likely reflects a tropospheric influence in months with little stratospheric fallout. Very high (236)U, (239+240)Pu and gross beta activity concentrations as well as low (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.077), (241)Pu/(239)Pu (0.00025-0.00062) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.046) atom ratios, characteristic of close-in and tropospheric fallout, were observed in filters collected at all stations in Nov 1962, 7-12days after three low-yield detonations at Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan). Atmospheric transport modelling (NOAA HYSPLIT_4) using real-time meteorological data confirmed that long range transport of radionuclides, and possibly radioactive particles, from Semipalatinsk to Norway during this period was plausible. The present work shows that direct tropospheric transport of fallout from atmospheric nuclear detonations periodically may have

  14. Impact of long-range transport pollution on aerosol properties over West Africa: observations during the DACCIWA airborne campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, Cyrielle; Bourrianne, Thierry; Burnet, Frederic; Deroubaix, Adrien; Brito, Joel; Dupuy, Régis; Colomb, Aurélie; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Sellegri, Karine; Chazette, Patrick; Duplissy, Jonathan; Flamant, Cyrille

    2017-04-01

    Southern West Africa (SWA) is a region highly vulnerable to climate change. Emissions of anthropogenic pollution have increased substantially over the past decades in the region and are projected to keep increasing. The region is also strongly impacted by important natural pollution from distant locations. Biomass burning mainly from vegetation fires in Central Africa and mineral dust from the Saharan and Sahel-Sudan regions are advected by winds to the SWA region especially in summer. Both biomass burning and mineral dust aerosols scatter and absorb solar radiation and are able to significantly modify the regional radiative budget. Presently, the potential radiative impact of dust and biomass burning particles on SWA is unclear due to inadequate data information on the aerosols properties and vertical distribution. In the framework of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, an unprecedented field campaign took place in summer 2016 in West Africa. The ATR-42 research aircraft operated by SAFIRE performed twenty flights to sample the local air pollution from maritime traffic and coastal megacities, as well as regional pollution from biomass burning and desert dust. The aircraft was equipped with state of the art in situ instrumentation to measure the aerosol optical properties (CAPS, nephelometer, PSAP), the aerosol size distribution (SMPS, GRIMM, USHAS, PCASP, FSSP) and the aerosol chemical composition (SP2, AMS). A mini backscattered lidar system provided additional measurements of the aerosol vertical structure and the aerosol optical properties such as the particulate depolarization ratio. The CHIMERE chemistry and transport model has been used to characterize the source area and the long-range transport of dust and biomass burning plumes. Here, we investigate the aerosol microphysical, chemical and optical properties of biomass burning and dust aerosols transported in SWA. In particular the following questions will be

  15. Regional planning handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    Regional Transportation Planning is long-range (20+ years), area-wide, and involves federal, state, regional, and local agencies; Native American Tribal Governments, public entities, private and community based organizations, and individuals working ...

  16. Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

    2010-05-01

    Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

  17. Energy transport in the three coupled α-polypeptide chains of collagen molecule with long-range interactions effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvogo, Alain; Ben-Bolie, G. H.; Kofané, T. C.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of three coupled α-polypeptide chains of a collagen molecule is investigated with the influence of power-law long-range exciton-exciton interactions. The continuum limit of the discrete equations reveal that the collagen dynamics is governed by a set of three coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, whose dispersive coefficient depends on the LRI parameter r. We construct the analytic symmetric and asymmetric (antisymmetric) soliton solutions, which match with the structural features of collagen related with the acupuncture channels. These solutions are used as initial conditions for the numerical simulations of the discrete equations, which reveal a coherent transport of energy in the molecule for r > 3. The results also indicate that the width of the solitons is a decreasing function of r, which help to stabilize the solitons propagating in the molecule. To confirm further the efficiency of energy transport in the molecule, the modulational instability of the system is performed and the numerical simulations show that the energy can flow from one polypeptide chain to another in the form of nonlinear waves.

  18. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Lee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul, Korea, is a megacity in Northeast Asia. Its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region, and in turn it is also affected by regional emissions. To understand the extent of these influences, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs in Seoul were identified and quantified based on measurements made between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG combustion. The major sources of particulate PAHs in Seoul during the whole measurement period were gasoline and diesel vehicles, together accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven were observed in fall and winter, accounting for 63% and 82% of the total concentration of PAHs, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, they are likely to be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. This implies that the air quality in a mega-city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  19. A Population Approach to Transportation Planning: Reducing Exposure to Motor-Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fuller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation planning and public health have important historical roots. To address common challenges, including road traffic fatalities, integration of theories and methods from both disciplines is required. This paper presents an overview of Geoffrey Rose's strategy of preventive medicine applied to road traffic fatalities. One of the basic principles of Rose's strategy is that a large number of people exposed to a small risk can generate more cases than a small number exposed to a high risk. Thus, interventions should address the large number of people exposed to the fundamental causes of diseases. Exposure to moving vehicles could be considered a fundamental cause of road traffic deaths and injuries. A global reduction in the amount of kilometers driven would result in a reduction of the likelihood of collisions for all road users. Public health and transportation research must critically appraise their practice and engage in informed dialogue with the objective of improving mobility and productivity while simultaneously reducing the public health burden of road deaths and injuries.

  20. Integrating Building Energy Efficiency with Land Use and Transportation Planning in Jinan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Duduta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth occurring in the urban regions of China, it is critical to address issues of sustainability through practices that engender holistic energy efficient solutions. In this paper, we present results from a collaborative design project carried out with planning officials from the city of Jinan (population 3.4 million, for the Luokou district, a 3.1 km2 (1.2 mi2 area to the north of the CBD that is expected to house 100,000–130,000 people by 2020. By integrating sustainable building design, land use, urban design, and transportation, our proposal identified opportunities for improving energy efficiency that might have been overlooked by considering buildings and transportation separately. Mixed land uses and walkable neighborhoods were proposed along with highly differentiated street designs, intended to carry different traffic loads and prioritize diverse travel modes. Street widths and building heights were adjusted to maximize the potential for passive solar heating and daylight use within buildings. The district’s environmental performance, analyzed using building energy evaluation and traffic micro simulation models, showed that the design would reduce energy loads by over 25% compared to business as usual. While the proposal complied with national and local policies, and had far better energy performance than conventional designs, the proposal ultimately was not accepted by local officials because initial costs to the developers were higher than for conventional designs.

  1. Role of hybrid forecasting techniques for transportation planning of broiler meat under uncertain demand in thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoranin Sujjaviriyasup

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of numerous problems experiencing in supply chain management is the demand. Most demands are appeared in terms of uncertainty. The broiler meat industry is inevitably encountering the same problem. In this research, hybrid forecasting model of ARIMA and Support Vector Machine (SVMs are developed to forecast broiler meat export. In addition, ARIMA, SVMs, and Moving Average (MA are chosen for comparing the forecasting efficiency. All the forecasting models are tested and validated using the data of Brazil’s export, Canada’s export, and Thailand’s export. The hybrid model provides accuracy of the forecasted values that are 98.71%, 97.50%, and 93.01%, respectively. In addition, the hybrid model presents the least error of all MAE, RMSE, and MAPE comparing with other forecasting models. As forecasted data are applied to transportation planning, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of optimal value of forecasted value and actual value is 14.53%. The hybrid forecasting model shows an ability to reduce risk of total cost of transportation when broiler meat export is forecasted by using MA(2, MA(3, ARIMA, and SVM are 50.59%, 60.18%, 68.01%, and 46.55%, respectively. The results indicate that the developed forecasting model is recommended to broiler meat industries’ supply chain decision.

  2. Incorporation of planetary boundary layer dynamics in a numerical model of long-range air-pollutant transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakov, D.; Djolov, G.; Yordanov, D.

    1983-05-01

    A numerical model of long-range air-pollutant transport is developed, in which a simple planetary boundary layer (PBL) is incorporated. The pollution field results from the superposition of discrete ‘puffs’ of pollutants which are emitted periodically in different regions. The instantaneous sources in the different cells are approximated by rotational ellipsoids with Gaussian concentration distributions. The puff movement due to the external flow is followed by the displacement of the centroid. The expansion of the puff is modelled by nonisotropic Fickian diffusion. A simple barotropic PBL model is used to study the PBL influence. This model gives the flow velocity and the vertical turbulent exchange coefficient, which depend on the external parameters Ro and S — Rossby number and stratification parameter. The model performance is investigated by special test runs. The dependence of the pollution field on source height, stability conditions and vertical motions is shown.

  3. Particle dynamics in self-generated dunes over a range of hydraulic and sediment transport conditions using LES--DEM

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Rui; Strom, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Direct measurement of vertical and longitudinal sediment fluxes on migrating sandy bedforms are extremely difficult to perform in both the field and laboratory. In this study we use the LES--DEM (large eddy simulation--discrete element method) solver SediFoam to examine the individual particle motions and resulting fluxes in a domain of self-generated dunes. In SediFoam, the motions of, and collisions among, the sediment grains as well as their interactions with surrounding turbulent flows are resolved. The numerical simulations are performed over a range of transport settings, spanning bedform inception through washout conditions, to examine the individual particle dynamics. The space-time evolution of dune surfaces is demonstrated. The self-generated dunes are stable at relatively low Reynolds numbers, but then become increasingly unstable at higher Reynolds numbers; eventually washing out as the number of bypass grains and particles in suspension increase. Data from the simulation are used to examine the v...

  4. Distinct synoptic patterns and air masses responsible for long-range desert dust transport and sea spray in Palermo, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, K.; Paschalidou, A. K.; Kassomenos, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    Undoubtedly, anthropogenic emissions carry a large share of the risk posed on public health by particles exposure in urban areas. However, natural emissions, in the form of desert dust and sea spray, are well known to contribute significantly to the PM load recorded in many Mediterranean environments, posing an extra risk burden on public health. In the present paper, we examine the synoptic climatology in a background station in Palermo, Italy, through K-means clustering of the mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) maps, in an attempt to associate distinct synoptic patterns with increased PM10 levels. Four-day backward trajectory analysis is then applied, in order to study the origins and pathways of air masses susceptible of PM10 episodes. It is concluded that a number of atmospheric patterns result in several kind of flows, namely south, west, and slow-moving/stagnant flows, associated with long-range dust transport and sea spray.

  5. Visual objects speak louder than words: motor planning and weight in tool use and object transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiurak, François; Bergot, Morgane; Chainay, Hanna

    2015-11-01

    For theories of embodied cognition, reading a word activates sensorimotor representations in a similar manner to seeing the physical object the word represents. Thus, reading words representing objects of different sizes interfere with motor planning, inducing changes in grip aperture. An outstanding issue is whether word reading can also evoke sensorimotor information about the weight of objects. This issue was addressed in two experiments wherein participants have first to read the name of an object (Experiment 1)/observe the object (Experiment 2) and then to transport versus use bottles of water. The objects presented as primes were either lighter or heavier than the bottles to be grasped. Results indicated that the main parameters of motor planning recorded (initiation times and finger contact points) were not affected by the presentation of words as primes (Experiment 1). By contrast, the presentation of visual objects as primes induced significant changes in these parameters (Experiment 2). Participants changed their way of grasping the bottles, particularly in the use condition. Taken together, these results suggest that the activation of concepts does not automatically evoke sensorimotor representations about the weight of objects, but visual objects do. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spectral optical properties of long-range transport Asian dust and pollution aerosols over Northeast Asia in 2007 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IGAC (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Mega-cities program, aerosol physical and optical properties were continuously measured from March 2007 to March 2008 at an urban site (37.57° N, 126.94° E in Seoul, Korea. Spectral optical properties of long-range transported Asian dust and pollution aerosols have been investigated based on the year long measurement data. Optically measured black carbon/thermally measured elemental carbon (BC/EC ratio showed clear monthly variation with high values in summer and low values in winter mainly due to the enhancement of light attenuation by the internal mixing of EC. Novel approach has been suggested to retrieve the spectral light absorption coefficient (babs from Aethalometer raw data by using BC/EC ratio. Mass absorption efficiency, σabs (=babs/EC at 550 nm was determined to be 9.0±1.3, 8.9±1.5, 9.5±2.0, and 10.3±1.7 m2 g−1 in spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively with an annual mean of 9.4±1.8 m2 g−1. Threshold values to classify severe haze events were suggested in this study. Increasing trend of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA with wavelength was observed during Asian dust events while little spectral dependence of SSA was observed during long-range transport pollution (LTP events. Satellite aerosol optical thickness (AOT and Hysplit air mass backward trajectory analyses as well as chemical analysis were performed to characterize the dependence of spectral optical properties on aerosol type. Results from this study can provide useful information for studies on regional air quality and aerosol's effects on climate change.

  7. Morphochemical characteristics and mixing state of long range transported wildfire particles at Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Beatrice; Cappelletti, David; Crocchianti, Stefano; Becagli, Silvia; Caiazzo, Laura; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto; Mazzola, Mauro; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Ritter, Christoph; Zielinski, Tymon

    2017-05-01

    A prolonged and exceptionally intense air mass advection event transporting biomass burning aerosols generated in Alaska affected Ny-Ålesund in the mid of July 2015. This paper reports the morphochemical characteristics and mixing state of individual aerosol particles collected during the event. To this aim aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore polycarbonate membrane filters using a DEKATI 12-stage low volume impactor and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Results of SEM investigations depict a complex aerosol characterized by an external mixing between a main part of carbonaceous organic particles (tar balls and organic particles), lower ammonium sulfate and minor potassium chloride and mineral dust amounts. The carbonaceous particles are spherical to slightly elongated and the organic particles show an internal mixing of low density organics and/or ammonium sulfate upon denser nuclei. Most particles are in the accumulation mode size range although the size and the morphology of the chloride and the sulfate salts evidence the growth of these species both in the air and upon the sampling membranes. Individual particle analyses were complemented by aerosol size distribution (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) and optical (Particle Soot Absorption Photometer, nephelometer) measurements at ground level in order to retrieve the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol in the atmosphere and to predict the fate and behaviour of particles upon deposition at ground level. Individual particle analyses were also compared with bulk chemical analyses on daily sampling filters and back-trajectory analyses of the air mass movement in order to enucleate distinct sources of the aerosol during the long range transport.

  8. Evaluation of long range transport of fossil fuel originated organic aerosol at a background site in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jin; Lee, Ji Yi; Park, Jin Soo; Lee, Seok Jo; Kim, Hyun Jae; Jeon, Ha Eun; Sung, Min Young

    2013-04-01

    Northeast Asia is heavy air pollution region due to usage of large amounts of fossil fuel. In addition, meteorological conditions represented as prevailing westerlies in Northeast Asia region causes long range transport of anthropogenic pollutants emitted from China to Korea and Japan and even the United States across the Pacific Ocean (Bey et al., 2001). The Baengnyeong Island of Korea is located at the northwestern part of the Korean peninsula and close by North Korea and China, thus this site is regarded as an ideal place for background air measurements in Northeast Asia. Also, it has low local anthropogenic emissions and is frequently influenced by various air masses from China and North Korea in the Island. In this study, we performed intensive sampling during summer and winter in the Baengnyeong Island and analyzed various organic compounds including fossil fuel originated organic markers such as hopanes and PAHs using thermal desorption two dimensional gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC×GC-TOFMS). We also analyzed ~20 urban aerosol samples collected at Seoul, a representative urban site in Northeast Asia region to compare organic compounds distributions of aerosol samples at the Baengnyeong Island. By applying air mass back trajectory analysis and comparing organic compounds distributions in aerosol samples of the Baengnyeong Island and Seoul, the impact of long-range transport of fossil fuel originated organic pollutants at a background site in Northeast Asia were evaluated. (References) Bey, I., Jacob, D.J., Logan, J.A., Yantosca, R.M., 2001. Asian chemical outflow to the Pacific in spring: origins, pathways, and budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere 106, 23097-23113.

  9. An Overview of the 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS): Impact of stratospheric intrusions and long-range transport on surface air quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Langford; C. J. Senff; R.J., Alvarez; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; J. S. Holloway; M. Lin; R. D. Marchbanks; Pierce, R. B.; Sandberg, S.P.; Weickmann, A.M.; Williams, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS) was conducted in the late spring and early summer of 2013 to assess the seasonal contribution of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) and long-range transport to surface ozone in Clark County, Nevada and determine if these processes directly contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. Secondary goals included the characterization of local ozone production, regional transport f...

  10. Managing the environmental impacts of land transport: integrating environmental analysis with urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Ecological systems have limits or thresholds that vary by pollutant type, emissions sources and the sensitivity of a given location. Human health can also indicate sensitivity. Good environmental management requires any problem to be defined to obtain efficient and effective solutions. Cities are where transport activities, effects and resource management decisions are often most focussed. The New Zealand Ministry of Transport has developed two environmental management tools. The Vehicle Fleet Model (VFM) is a predictive database of the environmental performance of the New Zealand traffic fleet (and rail fleet). It calculates indices of local air quality, stormwater, and greenhouse gases emissions. The second is an analytical process based on Environmental Capacity Analysis (ECA). Information on local traffic is combined with environmental performance data from the Vehicle Fleet Model. This can be integrated within a live, geo-spatially defined analysis of the overall environmental effects within a defined local area. Variations in urban form and activity (traffic and other) that contribute to environmental effects can be tracked. This enables analysis of a range of mitigation strategies that may contribute, now or in the future, to maintaining environmental thresholds or meeting targets. A case study of the application of this approach was conducted within Waitakere City. The focus was on improving the understanding of the relative significance of stormwater contaminants derived from land transport.

  11. Managing the environmental impacts of land transport. Integrating environmental analysis with urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, Paul [New Zealand Ministry of Transport, PO Box 3175, Wellington (New Zealand); Moncrieff, Ian [Fuels and Energy Ltd., P.O. Box 17, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2004-12-01

    Ecological systems have limits or thresholds that vary by pollutant type, emissions sources and the sensitivity of a given location. Human health can also indicate sensitivity. Good environmental management requires any problem to be defined to obtain efficient and effective solutions. Cities are where transport activities, effects and resource management decisions are often most focussed. The New Zealand Ministry of Transport has developed two environmental management tools. The Vehicle Fleet Model (VFM) is a predictive database of the environmental performance of the New Zealand traffic fleet (and rail fleet). It calculates indices of local air quality, stormwater, and greenhouse gases emissions. The second is an analytical process based on Environmental Capacity Analysis (ECA). Information on local traffic is combined with environmental performance data from the Vehicle Fleet Model. This can be integrated within a live, geo-spatially defined analysis of the overall environmental effects within a defined local area. Variations in urban form and activity (traffic and other) that contribute to environmental effects can be tracked. This enables analysis of a range of mitigation strategies that may contribute, now or in the future, to maintaining environmental thresholds or meeting targets. A case study of the application of this approach was conducted within Waitakere City. The focus was on improving the understanding of the relative significance of stormwater contaminants derived from land transport.

  12. Managing the environmental impacts of land transport: integrating environmental analysis with urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Ecological systems have limits or thresholds that vary by pollutant type, emissions sources and the sensitivity of a given location. Human health can also indicate sensitivity. Good environmental management requires any problem to be defined to obtain efficient and effective solutions. Cities are where transport activities, effects and resource management decisions are often most focussed. The New Zealand Ministry of Transport has developed two environmental management tools. The Vehicle Fleet Model (VFM) is a predictive database of the environmental performance of the New Zealand traffic fleet (and rail fleet). It calculates indices of local air quality, stormwater, and greenhouse gases emissions. The second is an analytical process based on Environmental Capacity Analysis (ECA). Information on local traffic is combined with environmental performance data from the Vehicle Fleet Model. This can be integrated within a live, geo-spatially defined analysis of the overall environmental effects within a defined local area. Variations in urban form and activity (traffic and other) that contribute to environmental effects can be tracked. This enables analysis of a range of mitigation strategies that may contribute, now or in the future, to maintaining environmental thresholds or meeting targets. A case study of the application of this approach was conducted within Waitakere City. The focus was on improving the understanding of the relative significance of stormwater contaminants derived from land transport.

  13. Health impacts related to urban and transport planning: A burden of disease assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dadvand, Payam; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Foraster, Maria; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Tonne, Cathryn; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Valentín, Antònia; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Until now, estimates of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) have mainly been produced on national or regional levels. These general estimates, however, are less useful for city governments who have to take decisions on local scales. To address this gap, we focused on the city-level burden of disease (BD) due to exposures affected by urban and transport planning. We conducted a BD assessment using the Urban and Transport Planning Health Impact Assessment (UTOPHIA) tool to estimate annual preventable morbidity and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) under compliance with international exposure recommendations for physical activity (PA), exposure to air pollution, noise, heat, and access to green spaces in Barcelona, Spain. Exposure estimates and morbidity data were available for 1,357,361 Barcelona residents ≥20years (2012). We compared recommended with current exposure levels to estimate the associated BD. We quantified associations between exposures and morbidities and calculated population attributable fractions to estimate the number of attributable cases. We calculated DALYs using GBD Study 2015 background DALY estimates for Spain, which were scaled to Barcelona considering differences in population size, age and sex structures. We also estimated annual health costs that could be avoided under compliance with exposure recommendations. Not complying with recommended levels for PA, air pollution, noise, heat and access to green spaces was estimated to generate a large morbidity burden and resulted in 52,001 DALYs (95% CI: 42,866-61,136) in Barcelona each year (13% of all annual DALYs). From this BD 36% (i.e. 18,951 DALYs) was due to traffic noise with sleep disturbance and annoyance contributing largely (i.e. 10,548 DALYs). Non-compliance was estimated to result in direct health costs of 20.10 million € (95% CI: 15.36-24.83) annually. Non-compliance of international exposure recommendations was estimated to result in a considerable BD and in substantial

  14. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499, Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR). This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996). CAU 499 is located on the TTR and consists of the following single Corrective Action Site (CAS) (Figure 1): CAS RG-25-001-RD24 - Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been cased by numerous small historical over fillings, spills and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of 36 years. The tank was located on the north side of Building 24-50 on the TTR approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of the Avenue 24.

  15. A framework for operationalization of strategic plans and metrics for corporate performance measurement in transportation asset management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mteri, Hassan H.

    This thesis investigated the business processes required to translate corporate-level strategic plans into tactical and operational plans in the context of transportation asset management. The study also developed a framework for effective performance measure for departments of transportation. The thesis was based on a case study of transportation agencies in the U.S.A. and Canada. The scope is therefore limited or more directly applicable to transportation assets such as pavement, bridges and culverts. The goal was to address the problem of translating or managing strategic plans, especially in the context of the public sector responsible for operating transportation infrastructure. It was observed that many agencies have been successful in formulating good strategic plans but they have performed relatively poorly in translating such corporate-level strategic plans into operational activities. A questionnaire survey was designed and targeted about 30 state agencies that are currently active in transportation asset management. Twenty one (21) transportation agencies in the USA and Canada responded to the questionnaire. The analysis of the questionnaire data showed that there is a lack of a standard approach to managing corporate strategic plans in transportation agencies. The results also indicated that most transportation agencies operate in three organizational levels but there was no systematic approach of translating goal and objectives from high level to lower levels. Approaches in performance measurement were found to vary from agency to agency. A number of limitations were identified in the existing practice on performance measurements. Key weaknesses include the large number of measures in use (as many as 25 or more), and the disconnection between the measures used and the corporate goals and objectives. Lessons from the private sector were thoroughly reviewed in order to build the groundwork for adapting existing tools to the public sector. The existing

  16. Addressing Climate Change Adaptation in Regional Transportation Plans in California: A Guide and Online Visualization Tool for Planners to Incorporate Risks of Climate Change Impacts in Policy and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.; Tucker, K.; DeFlorio, J.

    2012-12-01

    The reality of a changing climate means that transportation and planning agencies need to understand the potential effects of changes in storm activity, sea levels, temperature, and precipitation patterns; and develop strategies to ensure the continuing robustness and resilience of transportation infrastructure and services. This is a relatively new challenge for California's regional planning agencies - adding yet one more consideration to an already complex and multifaceted planning process. In that light, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) is developing a strategy framework using a module-based process that planning agencies can undertake to incorporating the risks of climate change impacts into their decision-making and long-range transportation plans. The module-based approach was developed using a best practices survey of existing work nationally, along with a set of structured interviews with metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) and regional transportation planning agencies (RTPAs) within California. Findings led to the development of a process, as well as a package of foundational geospatial layers (i.e. the Statewide Transportation Asset Geodatabase - STAG), primarily comprising state and Federal transportation assets. These assets are intersected with a set of geospatial layers for the climate stressors of relevance in the state which are placed in the same reference layers as the STAG; thus providing a full set of GIS layers that can be a starting point for MPOs/RTPAs that want to follow the step-by-step module-based approach in its entirety. The fast-paced changes in science and climate change knowledge requires a flexible platform to display continuously evolving information. To this end, the development of the modules are accompanied by a set of geospatial analysis disseminated using an online web portal. In this way, the information can be relayed to MPO/RTPAs in a easy-to-use fashion that can help them follow the modules

  17. SU-E-T-189: Commission Range Shifter On a Spot Scanning Proton System Using Raystation Treatment Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, X; Wu, H [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Rosen, L [willis knighton medical center, Shreveport, Louisiana (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To treat superficial target e.g. chest wall, head&neck or cranial cases, we commissioned two range shifter(RS) in Raystation4.0 with 7.37cm(RS1) and 4.1cm(RS2) Water Equivalent Thickness(WET) respectively. However, current beam model has limitations due to the secondary scattered proton. This study provides a detailed and critical commission data and provides suggestions for using RS in clinic. Methods: RS’ WET was verified by Multi-Layer Ionization Chamber from 120MeV to 226.7MeV before TPS modeling. Spot characteristics were measured using 2D scintillate detector at ISO with different air gap. A 8×8×10cm3 cube is created in 8cm depth of water to verify the absolute dose accuracy. Plans were created with different air gap using both RS. Absolute dose verification was measured along the central axis from distal end to surface using PPC05. 10 clinical RS2 plans were measured using MatriXXPT in 3 planes (proximal, distal and midSOBP). Results: RS material’s proton stopping power is energy dependent(from 70MeV to 226.7MeV) ranging from 7.42 to 7.31cm and from 4.10 to 4.03cm respectively. We chose 7.37cm (RS1) and 4.10cm (RS2) to favor the low and median proton energy. With different air gap(3cm to 32cm), spot size expands from 3.2mm to 5.5mm(RS1) and from 3.1mm to 4.1mm(RS2) respectively(226.7MeV in air, 1-sigma). For the absolute dose verification, the larger air gap and shallower depth causes larger discrepancy between TPS and measurements. All 10 clinical plans with 5–10cm air gap passed gamma index 95% with 3%/3mm criteria and outputs differences were within 3%. Conclusion: We strongly recommend each institution to verify the WET independently and choose the value to fit the clinical needs. To minimize the output difference in Raystation4.0 while avoid potential collision to the patient, we recommend to use 5–10cm air gap to minimize the output difference within 2% and preferably use RS with smaller WET if possible.

  18. A justice-theoretic approach to the distribution of transportation benefits: Implications for transportation planning practice in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.; Golub, A.; Robinson, G.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation improvements inevitably lead to an uneven distribution of user benefits, in space and by network type (private and public transport). This paper makes a moral argument for what would be a fair distribution of these benefits. The argument follows Walzer’s ‘‘Spheres of Justice’’

  19. Promoting active transportation as a partnership between urban planning and public health: the columbus healthy places program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christine Godward; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2011-01-01

    Active transportation has been considered as one method to address the American obesity epidemic. To address obesity prevention through built-environment change, the local public health department in Columbus, Ohio, established the Columbus Healthy Places (CHP) program to formally promote active transportation in numerous aspects of community design for the city. In this article, we present a case study of the CHP program and discuss the review of city development rezoning applications as a successful strategy to link public health to urban planning. Prior to the CHP review, 7% of development applications in Columbus included active transportation components; in 2009, 64% of development applications adopted active transportation components specifically recommended by the CHP review. Active transportation recommendations generally included adding bike racks, widening or adding sidewalks, and providing sidewalk connectivity. Recommendations and lessons learned from CHP are provided.

  20. Promoting Active Transportation as a Partnership Between Urban Planning and Public Health: The Columbus Healthy Places Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christine Godward; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2011-01-01

    Active transportation has been considered as one method to address the American obesity epidemic. To address obesity prevention through built-environment change, the local public health department in Columbus, Ohio, established the Columbus Healthy Places (CHP) program to formally promote active transportation in numerous aspects of community design for the city. In this article, we present a case study of the CHP program and discuss the review of city development rezoning applications as a successful strategy to link public health to urban planning. Prior to the CHP review, 7% of development applications in Columbus included active transportation components; in 2009, 64% of development applications adopted active transportation components specifically recommended by the CHP review. Active transportation recommendations generally included adding bike racks, widening or adding sidewalks, and providing sidewalk connectivity. Recommendations and lessons learned from CHP are provided. PMID:21563711

  1. Final quality assurance project plan, installation restoration program remedial investigation/feasibility study, Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes relevant quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures to be used by Analytical Resources, Inc. for the installation restoration program at Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska.

  2. Final quality assurance project plan, installation restoration program remedial investigation/feasibility study, Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes relevant quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures to be used by Analytical Resources, Inc. for the installation restoration program at Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska.

  3. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Proceedings of the IREAPS Technical Symposium, Paper No. 28: U.S. Shipbuilding Standards Program: Long-Range Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    New York ABSTRACT Ishikawajima - Harima Heavy Industries /IHI-Marine Technology is developing a long-range plan for the U.S. shipbuilding standards...INNOVATION MARINE INDUSTRY STANDARDS WELDING INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM September 1981 NSRP 0008...the long-range plan is directed at near term (2 to 3 year) priorities to achieve maximum benefits at both industry and individual shipyards levels

  4. Transportation Improvement Program of the Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-20

    The MORPC Transportation Improvement program (TIP) is a staged, multi-year schedule of regionally significant transportation improvements in the Columbus area. The Federal-aid Highway Act of 1962 and the federal Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 ...

  5. 75 FR 50730 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...; Transportation Conformity Consultation Requirement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... (SIP) submitted on June 4, 2010. This revision consists of transportation conformity criteria and... Transportation Conformity regulations. DATES: Comments must be received on or before September 16, 2010...

  6. Long-range Transport of Asian Dust Storms: A Satellite/Surface Perspective on Societal and Scientific Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Among the many components contributing to air pollution, airborne mineral dust plays an important role due to its biogeochemical impact on the ecosystem and its radiative forcing effect on the weather/climate system. As much as one-third to half of the global dust emissions, estimated about 800 Tg, are introduced annually into Earth's atmosphere from various deserts in China. Asian dust storm outbreaks are believed to have persisted for hundreds and thousands years over the vast territory of north and northwest China, but not until recent decades that many studies reveal the compelling evidence in recognizing the importance of these eolian dust particles for forming Chinese Loess Plateau and for biogeochemical cycling in the North Pacific Ocean to as far as in the Greenland ice-sheets through long-range transport. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites and its evolution monitored by satellite and surface network. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of a new satellite algorithm, called Deep Blue, to retrieve aerosol properties, particularly but not limited to, over bright-reflecting surfaces such as urban areas and deserts. Recently, many field campaigns were designed and executed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. We will provide an overview of the outbreak of Asian dust storms, near source/sink and their evolution along transport pathway, from space and surface observations. The climatic effects and societal impacts of the Asian dusts will be addressed in depth. (to be presented in the International Workshop on Semi-Arid Land Surface-

  7. Evaluation of long-range transport potential of selected brominated flame retardants with measured 1-octanol-air partition coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kwon, Jung Hwan [Div. of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Various alternative flame retardants are used in many countries since polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, difficulties in the evaluation of the long-range transport potential (LRTP) of the alternatives are related to the lack of information on their physicochemical properties, which govern their environmental fates and transport. Based on the simulation of LRTP using OECD P{sub OV} and LRTP Screening Tool, five alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (hexabromobenzene [HBB], 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene [PBT], 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene [PBEB], 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate [TBB], and 1,2,4,5-tetrabromo-3,6-dimethylbenzene [TBX]), and 3 PBDEs (BDE-28, BDE-47, and BDE-99) were chosen to perform a refined assessment. This was done using an experimentally measured 1-octanol–air partition coefficient (K{sub OA}) for the calculation of the air–water partition coefficient (K{sub AW}) required for the model. The four selected alternative BFRs (HBB, PBT, PBEB, TBX) have K{sub OA} values close to the in silico estimation used in the screening evaluation. On the other hand, the measured K{sub OA} value for TBB was two orders of magnitude lower than the estimated value used in the screening simulation. The refined simulation showed that characteristic travel distance (CTD) and transfer efficiency (TE) for HBB, PBT, PBEB, and TBX were greater than those for BDE-28, whereas CTD and TE for TBB were lower than those for BDE-28. This suggested that TBB has a lower LRTP than BDE-28, considering the refined partition coefficients.

  8. The long-range transport of aerosols from northern China to Hong Kong - a multi-technique study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; Chim, K. S.; Kot, S. C.

    The results of the inorganic and organic analyses of aerosol samples collected on the east and west sides of Hong Kong during a dust episode (9-10 May 1996) are reported. The origin of the dust was traced to Northern China. The dust reached Hong Kong by way of the East China Sea. The characteristics of the inorganic elements and organic compounds were quite different from the non-episodic samples collected on 1-2 April 1996, EPD (Environmental Protection Department, Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China) results for April-May 1994, and our early studies (Zheng et al., 1997. Atmospheric Environment 31(2), 227-237.). Results from X-ray spectrometry showed pronounced increase in the relative abundance of Al, Fe, Ca, S and Cl in the dust samples compared to the non-episodic samples. The high abundance of Cl in the dust samples suggested the aerosols experienced long-range transport by way of the sea. ICP-MS analysis revealed higher concentrations of Fe, Ca, S and Pb in the episodic samples relative to the values measured during April-May 1994 by EPD. The high Ca content in the soil samples is a characteristic of northern Chinese crustal material (Liu et al., 1985). Hong Kong aerosols are characterized by high octadecenoic acid concentration due to heavy urbanization and Chinese-style stir-fry cooking. A much lower C 18:1/C 18:0 ratio was found in the episodic samples, however, suggesting the aerosols were transported from a long distance. The high ratio of ⩾C 20/Asian Dust. This is the first scientific report of Asian Dust in Hong Kong.

  9. Microphysical characterization of long-range transported biomass burning particles from North America at three EARLINET stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Amezcua, Pablo; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; José Granados-Muñoz, María; Benavent-Oltra, José Antonio; Böckmann, Christine; Samaras, Stefanos; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Janicka, Łucja; Baars, Holger; Bohlmann, Stephanie; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2017-05-01

    Strong events of long-range transported biomass burning aerosol were detected during July 2013 at three EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) stations, namely Granada (Spain), Leipzig (Germany) and Warsaw (Poland). Satellite observations from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) instruments, as well as modeling tools such as HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System), have been used to estimate the sources and transport paths of those North American forest fire smoke particles. A multiwavelength Raman lidar technique was applied to obtain vertically resolved particle optical properties, and further inversion of those properties with a regularization algorithm allowed for retrieving microphysical information on the studied particles. The results highlight the presence of smoke layers of 1-2 km thickness, located at about 5 km a.s.l. altitude over Granada and Leipzig and around 2.5 km a.s.l. at Warsaw. These layers were intense, as they accounted for more than 30 % of the total AOD (aerosol optical depth) in all cases, and presented optical and microphysical features typical for different aging degrees: color ratio of lidar ratios (LR532 / LR355) around 2, α-related ångström exponents of less than 1, effective radii of 0.3 µm and large values of single scattering albedos (SSA), nearly spectrally independent. The intensive microphysical properties were compared with columnar retrievals form co-located AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) stations. The intensity of the layers was also characterized in terms of particle volume concentration, and then an experimental relationship between this magnitude and the particle extinction coefficient was established.

  10. Long-range transport of giant particles in Asian dust identified by physical, mineralogical, and meteorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, G. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Seo, J.; Kim, G. M.; Jin, H. C.; Chun, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Giant particles transported over long distances are generally of limited concern in atmospheric studies due to their low number concentrations in mineral dust and possible local origin. However, they can play an important role in regional circulation of earth materials due to their enormous volume concentration. Asian dust laden with giant particles was observed in Korea on 31 March 2012, after a migration of about 2000 km across the Yellow Sea from the Gobi Desert. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that 20% of the particles exceeded 10 μm in equivalent sphere diameter, with a maximum of 60 μm. The median diameter from the number distribution was 5.7 μm, which was larger than the diameters recorded of 2.5 and 2.9 μm in Asian dust storms in 2010 and 2011, respectively, and was consistent with independent optical particle counter data. Giant particles (>10 μm) contributed about 89% of the volume of the dust in the 2012 storm. Illite-smectite series clay minerals were the major mineral group followed by quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, and calcite. The total phyllosilicate content was ~52%. The direct long-range transport of giant particles was confirmed by calcite nanofibers closely associated with clays in a submicron scale identified by high-resolution SEM and transmission electron microscopy. Since giant particles consisted of clay agglomerates and clay-coated quartz, feldspars, and micas, the mineral composition varied little throughout the fine (20 μm) size bins. Analysis of the synoptic conditions of the 2012 dust event and its migration indicated that the mid-tropospheric strong wind belt directly stretching to Korea induced rapid transport of the dust, delivering giant particles. Giant dust particles with high settling velocity would be the major input into the terrestrial and marine sedimentary and ecological systems of East Asia and the western Pacific. Analysis of ancient aeolian deposits in Korea suggested the common deposition of giant

  11. Quantification of chemical and physical processes influencing ozone during long-range transport using a trajectory ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During long-range transport, many distinct processes – including photochemistry, deposition, emissions and mixing – contribute to the transformation of air mass composition. Partitioning the effects of different processes can be useful when considering the sensitivity of chemical transformation to, for example, a changing environment or anthropogenic influence. However, transformation is not observed directly, since mixing ratios are measured, and models must be used to relate changes to processes. Here, four cases from the ITCT-Lagrangian 2004 experiment are studied. In each case, aircraft intercepted a distinct air mass several times during transport over the North Atlantic, providing a unique dataset and quantifying the net changes in composition from all processes. A new framework is presented to deconstruct the change in O3 mixing ratio (Δ O3 into its component processes, which were not measured directly, taking into account the uncertainty in measurements, initial air mass variability and its time evolution.

    The results show that the net chemical processing (Δ O3chem over the whole simulation is greater than net physical processing (Δ O3phys in all cases. This is in part explained by cancellation effects associated with mixing. In contrast, each case is in a regime of either net photochemical destruction (lower tropospheric transport or production (an upper tropospheric biomass burning case. However, physical processes influence O3 indirectly through addition or removal of precursor gases, so that changes to physical parameters in a model can have a larger effect on Δ O3chem than Δ O3phys. Despite its smaller magnitude, the physical processing distinguishes the lower tropospheric export cases, since the net photochemical O3 change is −5 ppbv per day in all three cases.

    Processing is quantified using a Lagrangian

  12. Participatory quantitative health impact assessment of urban and transport planning in cities: A review and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Khreis, Haneen; Verlinghieri, Ersilia; Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David

    2017-06-01

    Urban and transport planning have large impacts on public health, but these are generally not explicitly considered and/or quantified, partly because there are no comprehensive models, methods and tools readily available. Air pollution, noise, temperature, green space, motor vehicle crashes and physical activity are important pathways linking urban and transport planning and public health. For policy decision-making, it is important to understand and be able to quantify the full-chain from source through pathways to health effects and impacts to substantiate and effectively target actions. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of recent studies on the health impacts related to urban and transport planning in cities, describe the need for novel participatory quantitative health impact assessments (HIA) and provide recommendations. To devise our searches and narrative, we were guided by a recent conceptual framework linking urban and transport planning, environmental exposures, behaviour and health. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, and references from relevant articles in English language from January 1, 1980, to November 1, 2016, using pre-defined search terms. The number of HIA studies is increasing rapidly, but there is lack of participatory integrated and full-chain HIA models, methods and tools. These should be based on the use of a systemic multidisciplinary/multisectorial approach and state-of-the-art methods to address questions such as what are the best, most feasible and needed urban and transport planning policy measures to improve public health in cities? Active citizen support and new forms of communication between experts and citizens and the involvement of all major stakeholders are crucial to find and successfully implement health promoting policy measures. We provided an overview of the current state-of-the art of HIA in cities and made recommendations for further work. The process on how to get there is as important and

  13. Long- and/or short-range transportation of local Asian aerosols in DRAGON-Osaka Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    This work intends to demonstrate the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric particles in East Asia, especially around AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) -Osaka site during Dragon Asia period in the spring of 2012, named Dragon-Osaka. It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Thus the precise observations of atmospheric particles in East Asia are desired. Osaka is the second big city in Japan and a typical Asian urban area. The population of the region is around 20 millions including neighbor prefectures. Therefore, air quality in the region is slightly bad compared to remote area due to industries and auto mobiles. In recent years, Asian dusts and anthropogenic small particles transported from China and cover those cities throughout year. AERONET Osaka site was established in 2002 on the campus of Kinki University. Nowadays, LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), an SPM sampler (SPM-613D, Kimoto Electric, Japan) and others are available on the roof of a building. The site data are useful for algorithm development of aerosol retrieval over busy city. On the other hand, human activities in this region also emit the huge amount of pollutions, thus it is needed to investigate the local distribution of aerosols in this region. In order to investigate change of aerosol properties, PM-individual analysis is made with scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). SEM/EDX is an effective instrument to observe the surface microstructure and analyze the chemical composition of such materials as metals, powders, biological specimens, etc. We used sampling data from the SPM sampler at AERONET Osaka site. During a period of DRAGON-Asia, high concentrations of air pollutant were observed on the morning of March 11 in Fukue Island in the East China Sea. On the

  14. PennDOT transportation security strategy : volume 2 : effective practices of state departments of transportation security planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Since September 11, 2001, state departments of transportation (DOTs) have been assuming a more proactive role in security and emergency management. The purpose of this Effective Practices Report is to document key lessons learned by state DOTs as the...

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  16. Regional concept for transportation operations fosters planning for operations in the Tucson metropolitan area : operation-focused planning for operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Tucson metropolitan region embarked on developing a regional concept for transportation operations (RCTO) in 2005 as part of a Federal Highway Administration demonstration initiative to advance regional collaboration for operations. The RCTO is a...

  17. Modeling forest planning trade-offs on the Colorado Front Range using MAGIS, an optimization, spatial decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward B. Butler

    2005-01-01

    The fires of 2000 and 2002 catalyzed a national mandate for fuel treatment programs to facilitate wildfire mitigation, yet the issues that need to be considered when planning large landscape projects are daunting, often ending in gridlock due to planning conflicts. Hazardous fuels maps help little when planning for integrated, system-wide ecological objectives and fail...

  18. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the far infrasound range and emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, L A; Gorgo, Yu P; Dirckx, J J J; Bogdanov, V B; Buytaert, J A N; Lysenko, V A; Didyk, N P; Vershygora, A V; Erygina, V T

    2008-09-01

    This study examines whether a relation exists between rapid atmospheric pressure fluctuations, attributed to the far infrasound frequency range (APF), and a number of emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases (EEC). Over an entire year, the average integral amplitudes of APF in the range of periods from 3 s to 120 s over each hour (HA) were measured. Daily dynamics of HA averaged over the year revealed a wave shape with smooth increase from night to day followed by decrease from day to night. The total daily number of EEC within the city of Kiev, Ukraine, was related to the daily mean of HA (DHA) and to the ratio of HA averaged over the day time to HA averaged over the night time (Rdn), and was checked for confounding effects of classical meteorological variables through non-parametric regression algorithms. The number of EEC were significantly higher on days with high DHA (3.72-11.07 Pa, n = 87) compared to the low DHA (0.7-3.62 Pa, n = 260, p = 0.01), as well at days with low Rdn (0.21-1.64, n = 229) compared to the high Rdn (1.65-7.2, n = 118, p = 0.03). A difference between DHA and Rdn effects on the emergency events related to different categories of circulatory diseases points to a higher sensitivity of rheumatic and cerebro-vascular diseases to DHA, and ischaemic and hypertensive diseases to Rdn. Results suggest that APF could be considered as a meteorotropic factor capable of influencing circulatory system diseases.

  19. Fault-related dolomitization in the Orpesa Ranges (Iberian Chain, E Spain): reactive transport simulations and field data constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Rivas, E.; Martin-Martin, J. D.; Corbella, M.; Teixell, A.

    2009-04-01

    The relationships between hydrothermal fluid circulation and fracturing that lead to mineral dissolution and/or precipitation in carbonate rocks have direct impacts on the evolution and final distribution of hydrocarbon reservoir permeability. Understanding the coupling between these processes is important for predicting permeability and improving hydrocarbon recovery. We present a case study of dolomitization processes in Cretaceous limestone from the Orpesa Ranges (Iberian Chain, E Spain). Extending over part of the Maestrat Cretaceous Basin, the Orpesa area is deformed by extensional faults. These faults accommodated thick sequences of shallow marine limestone, mainly during Aptian times. The syn-rift carbonates are partially dolomitized due to the circulation and mixing of hydrothermal fluids along normal faults and bedding. Both Aptian and later Neogene extensional faults must have served as conduits for the circulation of fluids. MVT deposits of Paleocene age are well documented in the Maestrat basin and may also be related to dolomitization. Samples of host rocks and vein fillings have been collected along strike and analyzed in different fault sections to characterize fluid and rock composition, track flow pathways and map the relationships of fluid flow with respect to the main normal faults in the area. Using field and geochemical data from the Orpesa Ranges carbonates, we have developed reactive-transport models to study the influence of different parameters in the dolomitization of carbonates related to the circulation and mixing of hydrothermal fluids at the outcrop scale. We present results from models that were run with constant and non-constant permeability. The main parameters analyzed include: initial porosity and permeability of layers and fractures, composition of fluids, groundwater and brines flux, composition of layers, reactive surface of minerals, differences in vertical and horizontal permeability, and presence or absence of stratigraphic

  20. Shaking up the Cost Benefit Analysis process: Issues and directions for improvement when assessing integrated spatial transport plans through a cost benefit analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, E.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focusses on the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) processes when assessing integrated spatial transport plans, using the Netherlands as a case in point. It answers the following research question: What process issues occur when assessing integrated spatial transport plans through a CBA

  1. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Lou, Sijia; Zelenyuk-Imre, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-23

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on ecosystems and human health. Laboratory measurements show that one of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene, which is adsorbed on surfaces of soot particles, reacts very quickly with atmospheric oxidants like ozone within ~2 hours. Yet, field observations indicate that it actually persists for much longer periods in the atmosphere, and this large discrepancy is not well understood. Driven by novel experimental understanding, we develop a new modelling approach, whereby particle-bound BaP is shielded from oxidation by a coating of viscous organic aerosol (OA). We show that application of this new approach in a global climate model leads to higher atmospheric BaP concentrations that agree much better with measurements, compared to the default model, as well as stronger long-range transport and greater deposition fluxes. This new approach also predicts elevated lung-cancer risk from PAHs. Predicted oxidation of BaP is highest over a tropical belt where OA is liquid-like.

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Las Vegas

    1998-10-15

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 486, the Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) which is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71North (N), west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range Complex, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 486 is comprised of CAS 71-23-001-71DT consisting of two areas of concern referred to as the vehicle decontamination area and the animal burial pit. The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 8 km (5 mi) southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2). The DTRSA was used during May 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, personnel, and animals from the Double Tracks test. The DTRSA is one of three areas identified as a potential location for the disposal of radioactively contaminated

  3. Using background air pollutants levels correlation analysis to identify periods of long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkova, Elizaveta S.; Burtseva, Larisa V.; Gromov, Sergey A.; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing trends of airborne lead and cadmium at background station within the central region of European Russia have been identified previously (e.g., Gromov & Konkova, 2016). In order to reveal the possible drivers of these trends, a deeper investigation of correlation among these heavy metals (HM) and other co-measured pollutants is done in this study. Based on the data for the 2001-2012 period, calculations have been carried out for the period from 2006 onwards, when the growth of HM concentrations is observed. Pairwise correlations of individual species abundances were derived for the entire time series and subsets for each calendar year, including warm (April to September) and cold seasons (October to March). The calculated values for the seasons and the whole years vary substantially, suggesting that that variable ratios of atmospheric HM emission sources could affect the final air concentrations at measurement site in these periods. To distinguish the events of predominant influence of natural and anthropogenic sources, we assume that correlation between lead and cadmium levels must be greater in the case of natural sources being in effect. High values of the correlation coefficient are expected in cases when HM air abundances are induced by the long-range transport from the regions of anthropogenic sources (co-emission of these metals results from a number of same sources, and both of them are also present on same matrix aerosols). The results demonstrate a substantial correlation between Pb and Cd, with higher values for individual seasons (70% of 0.5 and higher) than for whole years. Higher mass concentrations of airborne dust (TSP) in remote areas are to large extent promoted by large particles blown away from the surface at local surroundings. Captured better by filters, such events could be a particular indicator of local (mostly natural) sources. Low or insignificant correlation with HM indicates prevalence of long-range transport of them and could

  4. An integrated multi−period planning of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products in a single pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Herrán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiproduct pipeline provides an economic way to transport large volumes of refined petroleum products over long distances. In such a pipeline, different products are pumped back−to−back without any separation device between them. The sequence and lengths of such pumping runs must be carefully selected in order to meet market demands while minimizing pipeline operational costs and satisfying several constraints. The production planning and scheduling of the products at the refinery must also be synchronized with the transportation in order to avoid the usage of the system at some peak−hour time intervals. In this paper, we propose a multi−period mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for an optimal planning and scheduling of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products from a refinery plant connected to several depots through a single pipeline system. The objective of this work is to generalize the mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation proposed by Cafaro and Cerdá (2004, Computers and Chemical Engineering where only a single planning period was considered and the production planning and scheduling was not part of the decision process. Numerical examples show how the use of a single period model for a given time period may lead to infeasible solutions when it is used for the upcoming periods. These examples also show how integrating production planning with the transportation and the use of a multi−period model may result in a cost saving compared to using a single−period model for each period, independently.

  5. Emergency evacuation/transportation plan update: Traffic model development and evaluation of early closure procedures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-28

    Prolonged delays in traffic experienced by Laboratory personnel during a recent early dismissal in inclement weather, coupled with reconstruction efforts along NM 502 east of the White Rock Wye for the next 1 to 2 years, has prompted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to re-evaluate and improve the present transportation plan and its integration with contingency plans maintained in other organizations. Facilities planners and emergency operations staff need to evaluate the transportation system`s capability to inefficiently and safely evacuate LANL under different low-level emergency conditions. A variety of potential procedures governing the release of employees from the different technical areas (TAs) requires evaluation, perhaps with regard to multiple emergency-condition scenarios, with one or more optimal procedures ultimately presented for adoption by Lab Management. The work undertaken in this project will hopefully lay a foundation for an on-going, progressive transportation system analysis capability. It utilizes microscale simulation techniques to affirm, reassess and validate the Laboratory`s Early Dismissal/Closure/Delayed Opening Plan. The Laboratory is required by Federal guidelines, and compelled by prudent practice and conscientious regard for the welfare of employees and nearby residents, to maintain plans and operating procedures for evacuation if the need arises. The tools developed during this process can be used outside of contingency planning. It is anticipated that the traffic models developed will allow site planners to evaluate changes to the traffic network which could better serve the normal traffic levels. Changes in roadway configuration, control strategies (signalization and signing), response strategies to traffic accidents, and patterns of demand can be modelled using the analysis tools developed during this project. Such scenarios typically are important considerations in master planning and facilities programming.

  6. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the

  7. The impact of local winds and long-range transport on the continuous carbon dioxide record at Mount Waliguan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingxi Zhou; Jie Tang; Yupu Wen; Peng Yan [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China); Jinlong Li [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center of Environmental Sciences; Xiaochun Zhang [Qinghai Meteorological Bureau, Xining (China)

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes the continuous measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mt. Waliguan (36 deg 17 min N, 100 deg 54 min E, 3816 m asl) in western China over the period 1994-2000. The CO{sub 2} hourly mixing ratios were segregated by horizontal wind direction/speed and vertical winds, respectively, merged by season over the entire measurement period. The short-term variability in CO{sub 2} was examined mainly from the point of view of local winds observed at this station and isobaric back trajectory cluster-concentration analysis as for local and long-range transport influence, to permit the selection of hourly average data that is representative of background conditions. From the selected hourly data, daily, monthly and annual averages that are not influenced by local CO{sub 2} sources and sinks be computed by discriminating the local and regional impact on the Waliguan CO{sub 2} records. On the basis of these results, background CO{sub 2} data were then analyzed to evaluate the averaged diurnal variation, monthly mean time series, CO{sub 2} mixing ratio distribution in different seasons as well as averaged seasonal cycle. Annual mean and growth rate of CO{sub 2} at Waliguan during the period of 1991 to 2000 were further discussed by supplement with NOAA/CMDL flask air sampling records at this station and other monitoring stations located at similar latitudinal band in the Northern Hemisphere. The results from this study can provide atmospheric CO{sub 2} characteristics in Asian inland regions, and be used in other studies to improve the understanding of carbon source and sink distributions.

  8. Aerosol content survey by mini N 2 -Raman lidar: Application to local and long-range transport aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Philippe; Chazette, Patrick; Lardier, Melody; Sauvage, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    This study shows an aerosol content survey in the low and middle troposphere over Paris with a compact and light Nitrogen-Raman lidar which has been recently developed by the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and LEOSPHERE company. This eye-safe and wide field-of-view system (full overlap between 150 and 200 m) is particularly well-adapted to air pollution survey in the vicinity of Megalopolis. Extinction-to-backscatter coefficient (so-called Lidar Ratio LR) profiles obtained with a Tikhonov regularization scheme are presented for long-range transport events of aerosols (volcanic ash plume LR = 48 ± 10 sr, and desert dust, LR = 45 ± 8 sr) which may contribute to the local load of aerosols emitted by traffic and industries in Megalopolis. Due to an insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR < 30), a new dichotomous algorithm has been developed to perform daytime inversions every hour which is in accordance with the typical time evolution of aerosols within the planetary boundary layer. This inversion scheme is based on the constraint of the elastic channel with the aerosol optical depth (between typically 0.2 and 0.7 km) determined with the N 2-Raman channel and thus only gives access to an equivalent LR between 0.2 and 0.7 km with a relative uncertainty lower than 15%. This approach has been applied to retrieve diurnal cycle of LR for polluted continental aerosols over Paris and is compared with Tikhonov regularization applied during the night. We found a mean value of 85 ± 18 sr for polluted continental aerosols which is in agreement with other studies performed around the Paris urban area. Results for aerosol optical properties are presented and the error sources are discussed for each approach.

  9. Injection in the lower stratosphere of biomass fire emissions followed by long-range transport: a MOZAIC case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Cammas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a stratospheric injection by deep convection of biomass fire emissions over North America (Alaska, Yukon and Northwest Territories on 24 June 2004 and its long-range transport over the eastern coast of the United States and the eastern Atlantic. The case study is based on airborne MOZAIC observations of ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and water vapour during the crossing of the southernmost tip of an upper level trough over the Eastern Atlantic on 30 June and on a vertical profile over Washington DC on 30 June, and on lidar observations of aerosol backscattering at Madison (University of Wisconsin on 28 June. Attribution of the observed CO plumes to the boreal fires is achieved by backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART. A simulation with the Meso-NH model for the source region shows that a boundary layer tracer, mimicking the boreal forest fire smoke, is lofted into the lowermost stratosphere (2–5 pvu layer during the diurnal convective cycle at isentropic levels (above 335 K corresponding to those of the downstream MOZAIC observations. It is shown that the order of magnitude of the time needed by the parameterized convective detrainment flux to fill the volume of a model mesh (20 km horizontal, 500 m vertical above the tropopause with pure boundary layer air would be about 7.5 h, i.e. a time period compatible with the convective diurnal cycle. Over the area of interest, the maximum instantaneous detrainment fluxes deposited about 15 to 20% of the initial boundary layer tracer concentration at 335 K. According to the 275-ppbv carbon monoxide maximum mixing ratio observed by MOZAIC over Eastern Atlantic, such detrainment fluxes would be associated with a 1.4–1.8 ppmv carbon monoxide mixing ratio in the boundary layer over the source region.

  10. Estimation of the effect of long-range transport on seasonal variation of aerosols over northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Gogoi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD at ten discrete channels in the visible and near IR regions were estimated over Dibrugarh, located in the northeastern part of India, using a ground-based multi-wavelength solar radiometer (MWR from October 2001 to February 2006. The observations reveal seasonal variations with low values of AODs in retreating monsoon and high values in the pre-monsoon season. Generally the AODs are high at shorter wavelengths and low at longer wavelengths. AOD spectra are relatively steep in winter compared to that in the monsoon period. The average value of AOD lies between 0.44±0.07 and 0.56±0.07 at 500 nm during the pre-monsoon season and between 0.19±0.02 and 0.22±0.02 during re-treating monsoon at the same wavelength. Comparison of MWR observation on Dibrugarh with satellite (MODIS observation indicates a good correspondence between ground-based and satellite derived AODs. The synoptic wind pattern obtained from National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF, India and back trajectory analysis using the NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT4 Model indicates that maximum contribution to aerosol extinction could be due to transport of pollutants from the industrialized and urban regions of India and large amounts of desert and mineral aerosols from the west Asian and Indian desert. Equal contributions from Bay-of-Bengal (BoB, in addition to that from the Indian landmass and west Asian desert leads to a further increase of AOD over the region of interest in the pre-monsoon seasons.

  11. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Weihua [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon ({sup 222}Rn), a radioactive noble gas occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium in soils and rocks. Due to the abundance of uranium, radon continuously emanates from continental land masses. With radon as the main source of naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment, one would think that the Arctic should be an area of low background radiation, because a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by glaciers and permafrost, and radon emanation rate has been reported to be negligible from those glacier and permafrost areas. However, available data have shown the opposite. The elevated level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the Arctic is due to natural sources outside of the Arctic, mainly through long-range atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny. In some cases, natural radioactivity can accumulate to relatively high levels and become a health concern or a limiting factor of country food consumption. By definition, contaminants are undesirable substances which can cause harm to the environment, the biota, and humans. We can call these naturally accumulating radiological burdens to the Arctic 'natural contaminants' to distinguish them from the traditional meaning of contamination, the 'artificial contaminants' which are attributable to industrial or man-made sources. This paper reviews information available in the literature, analyses long-term atmospheric monitoring data in the Canadian high Arctic, sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, and provides discussion on research needed to address questions, such as how heavily the Arctic has been impacted by the

  12. Long-range volcanic ash transport and fallout during the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Adam J.; Villarosa, Gustavo; Rose, William I.; Delmelle, Pierre; Prata, Alfred J.; Viramonte, José G.

    2012-01-01

    The May 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile, provided a rare opportunity to measure the long-range transport of volcanic emissions and characteristics of a widely-dispersed terrestrial ash deposit. Airborne ash mass, quantified using thermal infrared satellite remote sensing, ranged between 0.2 and 0.4 Tg during the period 3-7 May 2008. A high level of spatiotemporal correspondence was observed between cloud trajectories and changes in surface reflectivity, which was inferred to indicate ash deposition. The evolution of the deposit was mapped for the first time using satellite-based observations of surface reflectivity. The distal (>80 km) ash deposit was poorly sorted and fine grained, and mean particle size varied very little beyond a distance >300 km. There were three particle size subpopulations in fallout at distances >300 km which mirror those identified in fallout from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, known to have a high propensity for aggregation. Discrete temporal sampling and characterisation of fallout demonstrated contributions from specific eruptive phases. Samples collected at the time of deposition were compared to bulk samples collected months after deposition and provided some evidence for winnowing. Experimentally-derived ash leachates had near-neutral pH values and charge balance which indicates minimal quantities of adsorbed acids. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed surface enrichments in Ca, Na and Fe and the presence of coatings of mixed Ca-, Na- and Fe-rich salts on ash particles prior to deposition. Low S:Cl ratios in leachates indicate that the eruption had a low S content, and high Cl:F ratios imply gas-ash interaction within a Cl-rich environment. We estimate that ash fallout had potential to scavenge ∼42% of total S released into the atmosphere prior to deposition. XPS analyses also revealed ash particle surfaces were strongly enriched in Fe (in contrast to the results from bulk leachate

  13. PETROBRAS Transportes (TRANSPETRO) contingency plan system; Metodologia SIE (Sistema Informatizado de Emergencia) aplicada no gerenciamento das contingencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo; Mendonca, Daniela [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Seguranca, Saude e Meio Ambiente de Dutos e Terminais; Morais, Lucia B.; Carvalho, Marcelo Tilio M. de [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica. Grupo de Tecnologia em Computacao Grafica (TECGRAF)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the PETROBRAS Transportes Emergency Response System, which was designed to improve the response to emergency situations. The plans are defined based on an evaluation of the organization of the emergency teams, the communication procedures, characterization of the installations, definition of accidental scenarios, environmental sensitivity maps; simulation of oil spill trajectories and dispersion behavior; geographical data of the area surrounding the installations; other conventional data related to the installations, including equipment available and the InfoPAE system. Plans include several scenarios as oil spills, gas, fire, explosion, hazardous materials which can be applied to terminals and pipelines. (author)

  14. Adsorption equilibrium and transport kinetics for a range of probe gases in Takeda 3A carbon molecular sieve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, S W; Coons, J E

    2005-04-15

    Measurements of adsorption equilibria and transport kinetics for argon, oxygen and nitrogen at 20, 50, and 80 degrees C on commercially derived Takeda carbon molecular sieve (CMS) employed for air separation have been undertaken in an effort to elucidate fundamental mechanisms of transport. Results indicate that micropore diffusion which is modeled by a Fickian diffusion process, governs the transport of oxygen molecules and the pore mouth barrier controls argon and nitrogen transport which is characterized by a linear driving force (LDF) model. For the three temperatures studied, the pressure dependence of the diffusivity and the LDF rate constant appear to be well characterized by a formulation based on the chemical potential as the driving force for transport. Isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading and activation energy measurements are compared with predictions made from a previously proposed molecular model for characterizing CMS.

  15. Scoping study for a national strategic plan for transportation information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    To address the lack of management for transportation information, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Standing Committee on Research determined that a scoping study should be done to examine the major issues confron...

  16. Cape Cod Transit Task Force : Five-Year Public Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Transportation's Volpe National Transportation Systems : Center has been working in cooperation with the Cape Cod Regional Transit : Authority, the Cape Cod Commission, and other organizations participating on : the Cape Cod Tr...

  17. Development of a prototype land use model for statewide transportation planning activities : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Developing computer models of land use and : integrated transportation-land use are high : priorities for Florida transportation planners. : Land use information is fundamental to siting : roadways, signaling, setting maintenance : priorities, routin...

  18. 78 FR 78266 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Conformity Memorandum of Agreement Update AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... memorandum of agreements (MOAs) establishing transportation conformity criteria and procedures related to... transportation-related control measures and mitigation measures. This action streamlines the conformity process...

  19. Kansas business plan for commercial vehicle operations using intelligent transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-29

    This state business plan is the product of a cooperative effort between state agencies, the Federal Highway Administration, Kansas Turnpike Authority, and the Kansas Motor Carrier Association. The plan represents a shared commitment to move forward w...

  20. State of Montana ITS/CVO business plan : intelligent transportation system commercial vehicle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This plans purpose is to encourage coordinated, efficient and safe commercial vehicle operations throughout Montana, and to promote inter-agency and regional cooperation as ITS/CVO projects are developed and deployed. The Plan discusses Montana...

  1. Transportation and packaging headquarters support 1997 multi-year work plan WBS 8.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    To develop and implement baseline and state-of-the-art transportation and packaging resources for DOE, and its support contractors. These resources include effective strategies, tools and techniques, packaging and transportation systems, operational methods, policy and guidance focused at providing safety,efficient, regulatory compliant and cost-effective materials transportation.

  2. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-world Data for Planning, Modeling, and Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC) at www.nrel.gov/tsdc provides free, web-based access to detailed transportation data from a variety of travel surveys conducted across the nation. While preserving the privacy of survey participants, this online repository makes vital transportation data broadly available to users from the comfort of their own desks via a secure online connection.

  3. 78 FR 15664 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... and Interstate Transport Section 110(a)(2)(D)(i) of the CAA identifies four distinct elements related to the evaluation of impacts of interstate transport of air pollutants. In this action for the state...

  4. 78 FR 40966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final... Governor on June 12, 2009, to address interstate transport for the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS. Based on EPA's... Interstate Transport regarding noninterference with other states' programs for PSD for the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS...

  5. 75 FR 50708 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...; Transportation Conformity Consultation Requirement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... ``Transportation Conformity.'' This approval will meet a requirement of the Clean Air Act (Act) and EPA's Transportation Conformity regulations. DATES: This direct final rule will be effective October 18, 2010, unless...

  6. 77 FR 59100 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Alabama: General and Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Transportation Conformity & New Source Review Prevention of Significant Deterioration for Fine Particulate Matter... transportation conformity regulations. EPA is approving portions of Alabama's May 2, 2011, SIP revision because... transportation conformity regulations into the SIP. Alabama's May 2, 2011, SIP revision includes changes to the...

  7. Building the capacity of health authorities to influence land use and transportation planning: Lessons learned from the Healthy Canada by Design CLASP Project in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, Alice; Perrotta, Kim; Evans, Heather; Kishchuk, Natalie A; Gram, Claire; Stanwick, Richard S; Swinkels, Helena M

    2014-08-06

    The main objective of the Healthy Canada by Design CLASP Initiative in British Columbia (BC) was to develop, implement and evaluate a capacity-building project for health authorities. The desired outcomes of the project were as follows: 1) increased capacity of the participating health authorities to productively engage in land use and transportation planning processes; 2) new and sustained relationships or collaborations among the participating health authorities and among health authorities, local governments and other built environment stakeholders; and 3) indication of health authority influence and/or application of health evidence and tools in land use and transportation plans and policies. This project was designed to enhance the capacity of three regional health authorities, namely Fraser Health, Island Health and Vancouver Coastal Health, and their staff. These were considered the project's participants. The BC regions served by the three health authorities cover the urban, suburban and rural spectrum across relatively large and diverse geographic areas. The populations have broad ranges in socio-economic status, demographic profiles and cultural and political backgrounds. The Initiative provided the three health authorities with a consultant who had several years of experience working on land use and transportation planning. The consultant conducted situational assessments to understand the baseline knowledge and skill gaps, assets and objectives for built environment work for each of the participating health authorities. On the basis of this information, the consultant developed customized capacity-building work plans for each of the health authorities and assisted them with implementation. Capacity-building activities were as follows: researching health and built environment strategies, policies and evidence; transferring health evidence and promising policies and practices from other jurisdictions to local planning contexts; providing training and

  8. Supermarket access, transport mode and BMI: the potential for urban design and planning policy across socio-economic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maureen; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Badland, Hannah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-12-01

    To investigate dietary intake, BMI and supermarket access at varying geographic scales and transport modes across areas of socio-economic disadvantage, and to evaluate the implementation of an urban planning policy that provides guidance on spatial access to supermarkets. Cross-sectional study used generalised estimating equations to investigate associations between supermarket density and proximity, vegetable and fruit intake and BMI at five geographic scales representing distances people travel to purchase food by varying transport modes. A stratified analysis by area-level disadvantage was conducted to detect optimal distances to supermarkets across socio-economic areas. Spatial distribution of supermarket and transport access was analysed using a geographic information system. Melbourne, Australia. Adults (n 3128) from twelve local government areas (LGA) across Melbourne. Supermarket access was protective of BMI for participants in high disadvantaged areas within 800 m (P=0·040) and 1000 m (P=0·032) road network buffers around the household but not for participants in less disadvantaged areas. In urban growth area LGA, only 26 % of dwellings were within 1 km of a supermarket, far less than 80-90 % of dwellings suggested in the local urban planning policy. Low public transport access compounded disadvantage. Rapid urbanisation is a global health challenge linked to increases in dietary risk factors and BMI. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying the most appropriate geographic scale to inform urban planning policy for optimal health outcomes across socio-economic strata. Urban planning policy implementation in disadvantaged areas within cities has potential for reducing health inequities.

  9. Design study of RL10 derivatives. Volume 3, part 2: Operational and flight support plan. [analysis of transportation requirements for rocket engine in support of space tug program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Transportation requirements are considered during the engine design layout reviews and maintenance engineering analyses. Where designs cannot be influenced to avoid transportation problems, the transportation representative is advised of the problems permitting remedies early in the program. The transportation representative will monitor and be involved in the shipment of development engine and GSE hardware between FRDC and vehicle manufacturing plant and thereby will be provided an early evaluation of the transportation plans, methods and procedures to be used in the space tug support program. Unanticipated problems discovered in the shipment of development hardware will be known early enough to permit changes in packaging designs and transportation plans before the start of production hardware and engine shipments. All conventional transport media can be used for the movement of space tug engines. However, truck transport is recommended for ready availability, variety of routes, short transit time, and low cost.

  10. Processes Influencing Ozone Levels in Alaskan Forest Fires Plumes during Long-Range Transport over the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, E.; Law, K. S.; Wienzierl, B.; Fiebig, M.; Petzold, A.; Wild, O.; Methven, J.; Arnold, S.; Stohl, A.; Huntrieser, H.; hide

    2006-01-01

    A case of long-range transport of a biomass burning plume from Alaska to Europe is analyzed using a Lagrangian approach. This plume was sampled several times in the free troposphere over North America, the North Atlantic and Europe by 3 different aircraft during the IGAC Lagrangian 2K4 experiment which was part of the ICARTT/ITOP measurement intensive in summer 2004. Measurements in the plume showed enhanced values of CO, VOCs and NOy, mainly in form of PAN. Observed O3 levels increased by 17 ppbv over 5 days. A photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, is used to examine processes responsible for the chemical evolution of the plume. The model was initialized with upwind data, and compared with downwind measurements. The influence of high aerosol loading on photolysis rates in the plume is investigated using in-situ aerosol measurements in the plume and lidar retrievals of optical depth as input into a photolysis code (Fast-J), run in the model. Significant impacts on photochemistry are found with a decrease of 18 percent in O3 production and 24 percent in O3 destruction over 5 days when including aerosols. The plume is found to be chemically active with large O3 increases attributed primarily to PAN decomposition during descent of the plume towards Europe. The predicted O3 changes are very dependent on temperature changes during transport, and also, on water vapor levels in the lower troposphere which can lead to O3 destruction. Simulation of mixing/dilution was necessary to reproduce observed pollutants level in the plume. Mixing was simulated using background concentrations from measurements in air masses in close proximity to the plume, and mixing timescales (averaging 6.25 days) were derived from CO changes. Observed and simulated O3/CO correlations in the plume are also compared in order to evaluate the photochemistry in the model. Observed slopes changed from negative to positive over 5 days. This change, which can be attributed largely to photochemistry, is

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted

  12. Integrating transportation and land use planning at the metropolitan level in North America: multilevel governance in Toronto and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny R. Tremblay-Racicot

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the policies and processes by which transportation and land use planning are integra¬ted in metropolitan Toronto, Canada, and Chicago, in the United States. Using twenty-four semi-structured interviews with key informants, it describes the array of interventions undertaken by governmental and non-governmental actors in their respective domains to shed light on how the challenge of integrating trans¬portation and land use planning is addressed on both sides of the border. Evidence concerning the political dynamics in Toronto and Chicago demonstrates that the capacity of metropolitan institutions to adopt and implement plans that integrate transportation with land use fundamentally depends on the leadership of the province or the state government. Although the federal government of each nation can bypass the sub-national level and intervene in local affairs by funding transportation projects that include land use components, its capacity to promote a coherent metropolitan vision is inherently limited. In the absence of leadership at the provincial or state level, the presence of a policy entrepreneur or a strong civic capacity at the regional level can be a key factor in the adoption and implementation of innovative reforms.

  13. Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

    2013-01-01

    The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan provides the rationale and supporting information for the selection and implementation of corrective actions at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413, Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR). CAU 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and includes one corrective action site, TA-23-02CS. CAU 413 consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of data quality objectives decisions, the releases at CAU 413 were divided into seven study groups: 1 Undisturbed Areas 2 Disturbed Areas 3 Sedimentation Areas 4 Former Staging Area 5 Buried Debris 6 Potential Source Material 7 Soil Mounds Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities, as set forth in the CAU 413 Corrective Action Investigation Plan, were performed from June 2015 through May 2016. Radionuclides detected in samples collected during the CAI were used to estimate total effective dose using the Construction Worker exposure scenario. Corrective action was required for areas where total effective dose exceeded, or was assumed to exceed, the radiological final action level (FAL) of 25 millirem per year. The results of the CAI and the assumptions made in the data quality objectives resulted in the following conclusions: The FAL is exceeded in surface soil in SG1, Undisturbed Areas; The FAL is assumed to be exceeded in SG5, Buried Debris, where contaminated debris and soil were buried after the CSII test; The FAL is not exceeded at SG2, SG3, SG4, SG6, or SG7. Because the FAL is exceeded at CAU 413, corrective action is required and corrective action alternatives (CAAs) must be evaluated. For CAU 413, three CAAs were evaluated: no further action, clean closure, and

  15. An Agent-based Transportation Route Planning Method for Led Fabricating Line and Its Evaluation Using Lagrangian Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Tatsushi; Sotobayashi, Ken; Ando, Masakazu; Konishi, Masami

    In most of Light Emitting Diode (LED) semiconductor fabricating line, AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles) are used to transport the products between the facilities in order to ensure dust-free operation in the transportation systems. It has been demanded to realize the route planning system which speedily derives a feasible transportation route so that each AGV does not interfere with other AGVs. In this paper, we applied an agent-based optimization method for the route planning problems with multiple AGVs in LED fabricating bay in which the total transportation time is minimized. In the agent-based method, each AGV agent independently searches its candidate of route. The imitated pheromone is effectively used to generate the route which avoids the collision among AGVs. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the lower bound of the original problem is obtained by using the Lagrangian relaxation technique. The performances of the proposed method are evaluated by using the value of duality gap for a large scale problem. The effectiveness of the agent-based optimization method is demonstrated.

  16. Criteria for Sustainable Transport Planning - what, how and why to measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    for a sustainable society. Criteria for sustainability need to be adapted to the transport system specific context and to distinct policyapplications such as problem identification, goal setting, ex ante assessment, monitoring and ex postevaluation for accountability, while maintaining a holistic overarching...... perspective.The research project SUSTAIN has the double aim to help establish National Sustainable Transport Planningas an international research topic connecting transportation engineering and governance scholars around the world, and to develop a practice framework for National Sustainable Transport...... disconnected research topics like alternative fuel systems,engine optimization, green logistics, infrastructure design, life cycle analysis, and other transport related features contribute to a system for measuring the sustainability of urban, national or global, transport systems?...

  17. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  18. Effects of long-range transported acidification on the bio-diversity in terrestrial ecosystems; Effekter av langtransporterte forsuringer paa biodiversitet i terrestriske oekosystemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiland, K. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the environmental effects of long-range transported pollutants on the biodiversity in the terrestrial ecosystems. The paper discusses different chemical substances existing in the atmosphere and their influence on vegetation together with the effects on biodiversity from acidification. 4 refs.

  19. The capabilities and constraints of the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System) for development of energy matrix; As potencialidades e restricoes do LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System) para o desenvolvimento de matriz energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Cruz, Ricardo Alexandre Passos da; Magalhaes, Ricardo Nogueira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper seeks to introduce and discuss the main features of the LEAP model preparing energy matrixes, in the medium and long term energy planning context. These characteristics are analyzed and compared to other known simulation models used worldwide, checking potentialities and existing barriers of using the LEAP program (author)

  20. Impacts of long-range transports of PM10 on air quality in Gwangju, South Korea using satellite and in-situ measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R.; Han, K.; Song, C.; Kang, Y.; Jung, W.; Ahan, S.

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the impact of long-range transported particular matter on the city of Gwangju which is one of metropolitan cities in the South Korea and is located in the southwestern part of the Korean peninsula, the PM10 concentrations measured at six measurement sites in Gwangju area were used. A decadal trend (2002-2011) of PM10 was analyzed and then the monthly and daily variations of PM10 for the years of 2002, 2003, 2006, and 2011 were investigated. The events of long-range transport were selected from peaks of daily PM10 and were evaluated through 72-hours backward trajectory analysis using NOAA HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. In addition, the events were evaluated using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)-retrieved AI (Aerosol Index), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI)-retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). Then the daily PM10 influenced by the long-range transport was filtered and the monthly variations calculated from the filtered daily PM10 and the daily PM10 influenced by the long-range transport were compared. For the year of 2002, up to ~50% of the PM10 concentration was influenced by Asian dust in March and April, respectively. In contrast, for the year of 2003, the impact of LRT on the PM10 concentrations were relatively small in the Gwangju areas. The monthly variations and annual mean values for 2002, 2003, 2006, and 2011, calculated from the filtered daily PM10, were similar and therefore, the annual variations of PM10 in Gwangju could be mainly affected by the long-range transport.

  1. The Design, Planning and Execution of Sustainable Intermodal Port-hinterland Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Ypsilantis (Panagiotis)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractGlobalization has led to a tremendous growth of international trade over the last century amounting to $18.8 trillion in 2014. Approximately 90% of non-bulk cargo is transported in shipping containers. The dominant mode in container transportation is maritime, in which containers are

  2. A geospatial framework for dynamic route planning using congestion prediction in transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The goal this research is to develop an end-to-end data-driven system, dubbed TransDec : (short for Transportation Decision-Making), to enable decision-making queries in : transportation systems with dynamic, real-time and historical data. With Trans...

  3. Optimizing public transport planning and operations using automatic vehicle location data : The Dutch example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Sparing, D.; Brands, T.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing pressure on urban public transport companies and authorities to improve efficiency, stemming from reduced budgets, political expectations and competition between operators. In order to find inefficiencies, bottlenecks and potentials in the public transport service, it is useful to

  4. 23 CFR 450.322 - Development and content of the metropolitan transportation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., multimodal and intermodal facilities, pedestrian walkways and bicycle facilities, and intermodal connectors... area's transportation system; (6) Design concept and design scope descriptions of all existing and... consultation; (8) Pedestrian walkway and bicycle transportation facilities in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 217(g...

  5. 77 FR 44551 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Arizona; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Contribution and Rulemaking for Certain States in the Ozone Transport Assessment Group Region for Purposes of... motions filed by numerous parties seeking a stay of the Transport Rule pending judicial review.\\10\\ In... ``Guidance on SIP Elements Required Under Sections 110(a)(1) and (2) for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle (PM 2...

  6. Optimizing Public Transport Planning and Operations Using Automatic Vehicle Location Data: The Dutch Example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, N.; Sparing, D.; Brands, Ties; Goverde, R.M.P.; Albrecht, Thomas; Jaekel, Birgit; Lehnert, Martin

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing pressure on urban public transport companies and authorities to improve efficiency, stemming from reduced budgets, political expectations and competition between operators. In order to find inefficiencies, bottlenecks and potentials in the public transport service, it is useful to

  7. Long-range transported dissolved organic matter, ions and black carbon deposited on Central Asian snow covered glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Kang, Shichang; Peltier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ninety percent of the Central Asian population depend on water precipitated in the mountains stored in glaciers and snow cover. Accelerated melting of the snow and ice can be induced by the deposition of airborne impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon and co-emitted species leading to significant reductions of the surface albedo. However, Central Asia is a relatively understudied region and data on the source regions, chemical and microphysical characteristics as well as modelling studies of long-range transported air pollution and dust to the Tien Shan mountains is very scarce. We studied the atmospheric aerosol deposited most likely between summer 2012 and summer 2013on three different glaciers in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were taken from four snow pits on the glaciers Abramov (2 pits, 39.59 °N, 71.56 °E, 4390 m elevation, 240 cm deep, and 39.62°N, 71.52 °E, 4275 m elevation, 125 cm deep), Ak-Shiirak (41.80 °N, 78.18 °E, 4325 m elevation, 75 cm deep) and Suek (41.78 °N, 77.75 °E, 4341 m elevation, 200 cm deep). The latter two glaciers are located roughly within 6 and 38 km of an operating gold mine. The snow was analyzed for black carbon, ions, metals and organic carbon. We here focus on the results of inorganic ion measurements and organic carbon speciation based on analysis with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and potential pollution sources that can be deduced from the chemical information as well as back trajectories. Average contributions of snow impurities measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were dominated by organic carbon. Relative concentrations of organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in snow were 86 %, 3 %, 9 % and 2 % respectively for Abramov, 92 %, 1 %, 5 % and 1 % for Suek, and 95 %, 1 %, 3 % and 1 % for Ak-Shiirak. Generally, impurities on Suek and Ak-Shiirak were three and five times higher than on Abramov. Mass concentrations of organic carbon were on average 6 times higher in samples

  8. Towards numerical forecasting of long-range air transport of birch pollen: theoretical considerations and a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiev, M; Siljamo, P; Ranta, H; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A

    2006-07-01

    This paper considers the feasibility of numerical simulation of large-scale atmospheric transport of allergenic pollen. It is shown that at least small grains, such as birch pollen, can stay in the air for a few days, which leads to a characteristic scale for their transport of approximately 10(3) km. The analytical consideration confirmed the applicability of existing dispersion models to the pollen transport task and provided some reference parameterizations of the key processes, including dry and wet deposition. The results were applied to the Finnish Emergency Dispersion Modelling System (SILAM), which was then used to analyze pollen transport to Finland during spring time in 2002-2004. Solutions of the inverse problems (source apportionment) showed that the main source areas, from which the birch flowering can affect Finnish territory, are the Baltic States, Russia, Germany, Poland, and Sweden-depending on the particular meteorological situation. Actual forecasting of pollen dispersion required a birch forest map of Europe and a unified European model for birch flowering, both of which were nonexistent before this study. A map was compiled from the national forest inventories of Western Europe and satellite images of broadleaf forests. The flowering model was based on the mean climatological dates for the onset of birch forests rather than conditions of any specific year. Utilization of probability forecasting somewhat alleviated the problem, but the development of a European-wide flowering model remains the main obstacle for real-time forecasting of large-scale pollen distribution.

  9. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan, CAU No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points landfill Tonopah test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept. The SAFER process is employed at Corrective Action Units (CAUs) where enough information exists about the nature and extent of contamination to propose an appropriate corrective action prior to the implementation of a Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. DQOs are used to identify the problem and define the type and quality of data needed to complete the investigation phase of the process. The observational approach provides a framework for managing uncertainty and planning decision-making. The purpose of the investigation in the SAFER process is to document and verify the adequacy of existing information (such as process knowledge); to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or to take no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action.

  10. On the Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the sub-1 keV energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rowan M; Kawrakow, Iwan

    2011-08-01

    The validity of "classic" Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron and positron transport at sub-1 keV energies is investigated in the context of quantum theory. Quantum theory dictates that uncertainties on the position and energy-momentum four-vectors of radiation quanta obey Heisenberg's uncertainty relation; however, these uncertainties are neglected in "classical" MC simulations of radiation transport in which position and momentum are known precisely. Using the quantum uncertainty relation and electron mean free path, the magnitudes of uncertainties on electron position and momentum are calculated for different kinetic energies; a validity bound on the classical simulation of electron transport is derived. In order to satisfy the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, uncertainties of 5% must be assigned to position and momentum for 1 keV electrons in water; at 100 eV, these uncertainties are 17 to 20% and are even larger at lower energies. In gaseous media such as air, these uncertainties are much smaller (less than 1% for electrons with energy 20 eV or greater). The classical Monte Carlo transport treatment is questionable for sub-1 keV electrons in condensed water as uncertainties on position and momentum must be large (relative to electron momentum and mean free path) to satisfy the quantum uncertainty principle. Simulations which do not account for these uncertainties are not faithful representations of the physical processes, calling into question the results of MC track structure codes simulating sub-1 keV electron transport. Further, the large difference in the scale at which quantum effects are important in gaseous and condensed media suggests that track structure measurements in gases are not necessarily representative of track structure in condensed materials on a micrometer or a nanometer scale.

  11. Clustered long-range transport routes and potential sources of PM2.5 and their chemical characteristics around the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Wu, Shui-Ping; Tong, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the spatiotemporal variation, chemical characteristics, source apportionment, and their contribution for clustered transport routes of atmospheric fine particle (PM2.5) around the Taiwan Strait. Atmospheric PM2.5 was simultaneously collected at three selected sampling sites around the Taiwan Strait in the years of 2013-2015. Field sampling results showed that atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations varied with the clustered transport routes. Backward trajectory analyses suggested that PM2.5 concentrations under the northerly wind conditions were generally higher than those under the southerly wind conditions. Chemical analysis results showed that the most abundant chemical composition were secondary inorganic aerosols (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+), natural crustal materials (Mg, Ca, AL, K, and Fe), and anthropogenic metals (Pb, Ni, and Zn). Moreover, high OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 were commonly observed at the west-side site located at the downwind of major stationary sources. Furthermore, primary organic carbons (POC) were always higher than secondary organic carbons (SOC) on both sides of the Taiwan Strait. The concentrations of chemical species from the trajectory NWW (southern China) were much higher than other trajectories. Integrating the results obtained from receptor modeling and backward trajectory simulation indicated that high PM2.5 concentrations were transported from North China, the eastern coast of China, Korea Peninsula, and South Japan. It was mainly attributed to the combination of the relatively elevated emissions from coal burning for space heating, and long-range transport (LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT) of PM2.5 from upwind sources. The source apportionment of secondary aerosols were in order of east-side site > offshore site > west-side site, suggesting that aged secondary particles could be formed during the transportation process by longer range and duration toward the east-side site of Taiwan Strait and the offshore site.

  12. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  13. Analysis of Circular Development and Investment Possibilities (Transport, Energy and Building Related to International Sports Event Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Bálint

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the possibilities of various development areas (transport, energy, building to make the cost-efficient realisation of high-profile investments, and organising and holding international sports events possible. Using a case study, the paper introduces development routes based on the evaluation of environmental and economic perspectives. The current research introduces the investment characteristics based on the development of the Hungarian building, energy and transport sectors for the 2017-2030 period. The main criterion is the integration of ‘circular economy’. For sectors which operate with high material and energy consumption, the consideration of circular economy principles may prove to be important for sustainable development. Through planning highvolume sports and worldwide events, the usual development strategy for traffic systems focuses on public transport and rentable vehicles (f. e. electric scooter, or bicycle which can decrease CO2 emissions via modern technological solutions. Regarding the buildings, sports arenas and related facilities, besides the existing low-carbon solutions, the functions of buildings must be expanded and their usage prolonged. The management of waste left after the life cycle is expended has to be pre-planned. These are the options for making the sector’s GHG emissions decrease apart from circular tenders, which can be further combined with SMART energetic solutions.

  14. A Strategic Planning Methodology for the Multimodal Transportation Systems: A Case Study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut R. Tuzkaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation costs have an important effect on companies’ competition capability in various sectors. To realize a positive effect, transportation industry should provide some specific performance criteria related with the economical efficiency and service quality. Also an increase in this performance degree depends on the obtaining optimum results of using the logistical resources in a convenient manner by the specialized logistics service providers. In this study, considering the effects of transportation modes on constituting a methodology that is interested in a strategic subject like constructing a transportation network is emphasized. In the process of selecting the most convenient transportation modes, all the required criteria are determined considering the related literature and the opinions of the experts. Then the analytical network process methodology is used to solve this selection problem. The close relationship between the transportation modes that will be used among the points in the network and the points that will be used for short storages and transshipment activities is considered. And the analytical network process is again used to select the most convenient ones among the alternative port locations. After decision making on these two important points, optimizing the freight flow among the supply chain by choosing the right transportation modes at each stage is aimed. To realize that optimization, the aims of decision makers from different levels or from different functional areas are satisfied by using the multilevel programming technique. Finally, the proposed methodology is applied on a transportation project of a logistic service provider, which gives service in a multimodal, multicommodity, multilevel and multiechelon transportation network.

  15. Interplanetary transport of solar near-relativistic electrons on 2014 August 1 over a narrow range of heliolongitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study two consecutive solar near-relativistic (>50 keV electron events observed on 2014 August 1 by both STEREO spacecraft with a longitudinal separation of only about 35°. The events were unambiguously associated with a solar source location and not accompanied by type II radio bursts or coronal mass ejections. Despite their close location, the two spacecraft were embedded in different solar wind streams and the electron intensities observed by the two STEREOs showed clear differences in onset times, peak intensities and pitch-angle distributions. The apparently better connected spacecraft, STEREO B, observed a smaller and more isotropic intensity increase and a later event onset time than STEREO A. Since the interplanetary transport conditions of solar energetic particles (SEPs have a direct influence on the characteristics of the observed temporal profiles and the particle anisotropies at the spacecraft location, our aim is to understand if the observations on 2014 August 1 could be explained by different interplanetary transport conditions along each flux tube connecting the spacecraft with the solar source. For that purpose, we use a Monte Carlo interplanetary transport model combined with an inversion procedure to fit the in-situ observations of the two near-relativistic multi-spacecraft electron events. This allows us to obtain the injection profiles at the Sun and infer the transport conditions, which are characterized by the electron radial mean free path, λr. We obtain an almost simultaneous release of electrons for both spacecraft in both events. The release is consistent with the timing and duration of the type III radio burst emission and it is larger for STEREO B, the better connected spacecraft. In addition, we obtain different transport conditions in different solar wind streams. We find that the stream in which STEREO B was embedded was more diffusive (λr = 0.1AU for Event I and λr = 0.06AU for Event II than the

  16. Interplanetary transport of solar near-relativistic electrons on 2014 August 1 over a narrow range of heliolongitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Daniel; Agueda, Neus; Gómez-Herrero, Raúl; Aran, Angels

    2017-11-01

    We study two consecutive solar near-relativistic (>50 keV) electron events observed on 2014 August 1 by both STEREO spacecraft with a longitudinal separation of only about 35°. The events were unambiguously associated with a solar source location and not accompanied by type II radio bursts or coronal mass ejections. Despite their close location, the two spacecraft were embedded in different solar wind streams and the electron intensities observed by the two STEREOs showed clear differences in onset times, peak intensities and pitch-angle distributions. The apparently better connected spacecraft, STEREO B, observed a smaller and more isotropic intensity increase and a later event onset time than STEREO A. Since the interplanetary transport conditions of solar energetic particles (SEPs) have a direct influence on the characteristics of the observed temporal profiles and the particle anisotropies at the spacecraft location, our aim is to understand if the observations on 2014 August 1 could be explained by different interplanetary transport conditions along each flux tube connecting the spacecraft with the solar source. For that purpose, we use a Monte Carlo interplanetary transport model combined with an inversion procedure to fit the in-situ observations of the two near-relativistic multi-spacecraft electron events. This allows us to obtain the injection profiles at the Sun and infer the transport conditions, which are characterized by the electron radial mean free path, λr. We obtain an almost simultaneous release of electrons for both spacecraft in both events. The release is consistent with the timing and duration of the type III radio burst emission and it is larger for STEREO B, the better connected spacecraft. In addition, we obtain different transport conditions in different solar wind streams. We find that the stream in which STEREO B was embedded was more diffusive (λr = 0.1AU for Event I and λr = 0.06AU for Event II) than the stream in which STEREO A

  17. Assessing the effect of long-range pollutant transportation on air quality in Seoul using the conditional potential source contribution function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ukkyo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Lee, Yun Gon

    2017-02-01

    It is important to estimate the effects of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants for efficient and effective strategies to control air quality. In this study, the contributions of trans-boundary transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul, Korea from 2001 to 2014 were estimated based on the conditional potential source contribution function (CPSCF) method. Eastern China was found to be the major source of trans-boundary pollution in Seoul, but moderate sources were also located in northeastern China. The contribution of long-range transport from Japan was negligible. The spatial distributions of the potential source contribution function (PSCF) values of each pollutant showed reasonable consistency with their emission inventory and satellite products. The PSCF values of SO2 and PM10 from eastern China were higher than those of NO2 and CO. The mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul for the period from 2001 to 2014 were 5.34, 37.0, and 619.1 ppb, and 57.4 4 μg/m3, respectively. The contributions of long-range transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul were 0.74, 3.4, and 39.0 ppb, and 12.1 μg/m3, respectively, which are 14%, 9%, 6%, and 21% of the mean concentrations, respectively. The annual mean concentrations of SO2 and NO2 followed statistically significant increasing linear trends (0.5 and 1.6 ppb per decade, respectively), whereas the trends in the annual mean concentrations of CO and PM10 were statistically insignificant. The trends in the ratio of the increased concentrations associated with long-range transport to the annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were statistically insignificant. However, the results indicate that the trans-boundary transport of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 from eastern China consistently affected air quality in Seoul over the study period (2001-2014). Regionally, the effects of the long-range transport of pollutants from Beijing and Harbin

  18. Machine learning in updating predictive models of planning and scheduling transportation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A method combining machine learning and regression analysis to automatically and intelligently update predictive models used in the Kansas Department of Transportations (KDOTs) internal management system is presented. The predictive models used...

  19. Creation of impacTX : improved mobility plan for advancing connected transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The state is at a pivotal moment in transportation, where the rate of population growth, infrastructure : deterioration, and congestion are outpacing Texass ability to provide quality service. This document introduces : the Texas Technology Task F...

  20. Integration of weather information in transportation management center operations : self-evaluation and planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-30

    The Federal Highway Administrations Road Weather Management Program is helping to reduce the adverse impacts of weather on the transportation system by assisting agencies in integrating weather information and technologies into their daily Transpo...

  1. 76 FR 50312 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... economic, social, and environmental performance of transportation systems to facilitate alternative... research to promote environmental streamlining/ stewardship and sustainability; (11) Disseminating research... STEP Program. Public reporting burden is estimated to average 30 minutes per response, including the...

  2. Developing sustainable transportation performance measures for TXDOT's strategic plan : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    For this research project, sustainable transportation can be viewed as the provision of safe, effective, and : efficient access and mobility into the future while considering economic, social, and environmental needs. : This project developed a perfo...

  3. Equity analysis of land use and transport plans using an integrated spatial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a study to investigate how a spatial economic model can be used to evaluate the equity effects of land use and transport policies intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Activity Allocation Module of the PECAS (Productio...

  4. Study on transport infrastructure as mechanism of long-term urban planning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Martynov, Kirill; Khusnutdinov, Rinat

    2017-10-01

    In this article, the authors carry out the research of the transport infrastructure. The authors have developed an algorithm for quality assessment of transport networks and connectivity of urban development areas. The results of the research are presented on the example of several central city quarters of Arkhangelsk city. The analysis was carried out by clustering objects (separate quarters of the Arkhangelsk city) using of SOM in comparable groups with a high level of similarity of characteristics inside each group. The result of clustering was 5 clusters with different levels of transport infrastructure. The novelty of the study is to justification for advantages of applying structural analysis for qualitative ranking of areas. The advantage of the proposed methodology is that it gives the opportunity both to compare the transport infrastructure quality of different city quarters and to determine the strategy for its development with a list of specific activities.

  5. 23 CFR 450.206 - Scope of the statewide transportation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: (1) Support the economic vitality of the United States, the States, metropolitan areas, and non... security of the transportation system for motorized and non-motorized users; (4) Increase accessibility and...

  6. Advanced space-based InSAR risk analysis of planned and existing transportation infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    The purpose of this document is to summarize activities by Stanford University and : MDA Geospatial Services Inc. (MDA) to estimate surface deformation and associated : risk to transportation infrastructure using SAR Interferometric methods for the :...

  7. Cost estimate modeling of transportation management plans for highway projects : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Highway rehabilitation and reconstruction projects frequently cause road congestion and increase safety concerns while limiting access for road users. State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are challenged to find safer and more efficient ways to renew ...

  8. Communications and radar-supported transportation operations and planning : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This project designs a conceptual framework to harness and mature wireless technology to improve : transportation safety, with a focus on frontal collision warning/collision avoidance (CW/CA) systems. The : framework identifies components of the tech...

  9. Fostering child-centred approaches to transport research, planning and policy development: a pilot methodology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a significant role in the lives of children and young people, facilitating or constraining their ability to discharge their domestic responsibilities, providing opportunities for earning an income, supporting or inhibiting...

  10. 78 FR 78310 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Conformity Memorandum of Agreement Update AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed... establishing transportation conformity criteria and procedures related to interagency consultation and... streamlines the conformity process to allow direct consultation among agencies at the Federal, state and local...

  11. 78 FR 67952 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Mississippi; Transportation Conformity SIP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Conformity SIP--Memorandum of Agreement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... adopts a memorandum of agreement (MOA) establishing transportation conformity criteria and procedures... and mitigation measures. This action streamlines the conformity process to allow direct consultation...

  12. A decision support system for transportation infrastructure and supply chain system planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This project makes the results (models and methodology) of the research and development efforts on freight movement modeling (FMM) and supply chain design carried out by faculty at OSU and OU available to transportation and logistics professionals. A...

  13. Intelligent transportation systems for planned special events : a cross-cutting study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This cross-cutting study examines how six agencies in five states used and continue to use ITS to reduce congestion generated by planned special events, thereby reducing crashes, increasing travel time reliability, and reducing driver frustration.

  14. Industrial Sites Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1998-12-18

    This Leachfield Corrective Action Units (CAUs) Work Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Under the FFACO, a work plan is an optional planning document that provides information for a CAU or group of CAUs where significant commonality exists. A work plan may be developed that can be referenced by leachfield Corrective Action Investigation Plans (CAIPs) to eliminate redundant CAU documentation. This Work Plan includes FFACO-required management, technical, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management documentation common to several CAUs with similar site histories and characteristics, namely the leachfield systems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TT R). For each CAU, a CAIP will be prepared to present detailed, site-specific information regarding contaminants of potential concern (COPCs), sampling locations, and investigation methods.

  15. Investigating Sources of Ozone over California Using AJAX Airborne Measurements and Models: Assessing the Contribution from Long Range Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren

    2017-01-01

    High ozone (O3) concentrations at low altitudes (1.5e4 km) were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on 30 May 2012 off the coast of California (CA). We investigate the causes of those elevated O3 concentrations using airborne measurements and various models. GEOS-Chem simulation shows that the contribution from local sources is likely small. A back trajectory model was used to determine the air mass origins and how much they contributed to the O3 over CA. Low-level potential vorticity (PV) from Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data appears to be a result of the diabatic heating and mixing of airs in the lower altitudes, rather than be a result of direct transport from stratospheric intrusion. The Q diagnostic, which is a measure of the mixing of the air masses, indicates that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that O3 from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S.The back-trajectory model simulation demonstrates the air masses of interest came mostly from the mid troposphere (MT, 76), but the contribution of the lower troposphere (LT, 19) is also significant compared to those from the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS, 5). Air coming from the LT appears to be mostly originating over Asia. The possible surface impact of the high O3 transported aloft on the surface O3 concentration through vertical and horizontal transport within a few days is substantiated by the influence maps determined from the Weather Research and Forecasting Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) model and the observed increases in surface ozone mixing ratios. Contrasting this complex case with a stratospheric-dominant event emphasizes the contribution of each source to the high O3 concentration in the lower altitudes over CA. Integrated analyses using models, reanalysis, and diagnostic tools, allows high ozone values

  16. On the long-range offshore transport of organic carbon from the Canary Upwelling System to the open North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Elisa; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias; Lachkar, Zouhair

    2017-07-01

    A compilation of measurements of net community production (NCP) in the upper waters of the eastern subtropical North Atlantic had suggested net heterotrophic conditions, purportedly supported by the lateral export of organic carbon from the adjacent, highly productive Canary Upwelling System (CanUS). Here, we quantify and assess this lateral export using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a nutrient, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model. We employ a new Atlantic telescopic grid with a strong refinement towards the northwestern African shelf to combine an eddy-resolving resolution in the CanUS with a full Atlantic basin perspective. Our climatologically forced simulation reveals an intense offshore flux of organic carbon that transports about 19 Tg C yr-1 away from the nearshore 100 km over the whole CanUS, amounting to more than a third of the NCP in this region. The offshore transport extends beyond 1500 km into the subtropical North Atlantic, adding organic carbon along the way to the upper 100 m at rates of between 8 and 34 % of the alongshore average NCP as a function of offshore distance. Although the divergence of this lateral export of organic carbon enhances local respiration, the upper 100 m layer in our model remains net autotrophic in the entire eastern subtropical North Atlantic. However, the vertical export of this organic carbon and its subsequent remineralization at depth makes the vertically integrated NCP strongly negative throughout this region, with the exception of a narrow band along the northwestern African shelf. The magnitude and efficiency of the lateral export varies substantially between the different subregions. In particular, the central coast near Cape Blanc is particularly efficient in collecting organic carbon on the shelf and subsequently transporting it offshore. In this central subregion, the offshore transport adds as much organic carbon as nearly 60 % of the local NCP to the upper 100

  17. Investigating sources of ozone over California using AJAX airborne measurements and models: Assessing the contribution from long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren

    2017-04-01

    High ozone (O3) concentrations at low altitudes (1.5-4 km) were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on 30 May 2012 off the coast of California (CA). We investigate the causes of those elevated O3 concentrations using airborne measurements and various models. GEOS-Chem simulation shows that the contribution from local sources is likely small. A back-trajectory model was used to determine the air mass origins and how much they contributed to the O3 over CA. Low-level potential vorticity (PV) from Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data appears to be a result of the diabatic heating and mixing of airs in the lower altitudes, rather than be a result of direct transport from stratospheric intrusion. The Q diagnostic, which is a measure of the mixing of the air masses, indicates that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that O3 from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S. The back-trajectory model simulation demonstrates the air masses of interest came mostly from the mid troposphere (MT, 76%), but the contribution of the lower troposphere (LT, 19%) is also significant compared to those from the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS, 5%). Air coming from the LT appears to be mostly originating over Asia. The possible surface impact of the high O3 transported aloft on the surface O3 concentration through vertical and horizontal transport within a few days is substantiated by the influence maps determined from the Weather Research and Forecasting-Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) model and the observed increases in surface ozone mixing ratios. Contrasting this complex case with a stratospheric-dominant event emphasizes the contribution of each source to the high O3 concentration in the lower altitudes over CA. Integrated analyses using models, reanalysis, and diagnostic tools, allows high ozone values

  18. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  19. The application of a marketing systems planning framework to design a ground-air medical transport service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasin, S; Schlacter, J; Shirley, C

    1986-01-01

    This article has examined the application of a marketing and community planning process to the development of a regional, complete patient transportation system. The model is designed to interface with a region whose existing Emergency Medical Service System is operating at the advanced Life Support (usually paramedic) level. It is suitable for regions whose existing ambulance (ground and air) services are in need of improvement and/or coordination, and specifically utilizes the concept of ownership and management by a hospital consortium. The model, as described, is sufficiently flexible to be usable in a variety of local and regional environments, where changes in the patient transportation system can enhance the quality and operations of emergency medical services.

  20. Urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health-new concepts, methods and tools to improve health in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-03-08

    The majority of people live in cities and urbanization is continuing worldwide. Cities have long been known to be society's predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also a main source of pollution and disease. We conducted a review around the topic urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health and describe the findings. Within cities there is considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as air pollution, noise, temperature and green space. Emerging evidence suggests that urban and transport planning indicators such as road network, distance to major roads, and traffic density, household density, industry and natural and green space explain a large proportion of the variability. Personal behavior including mobility adds further variability to personal exposures, determines variability in green space and UV exposure, and can provide increased levels of physical activity. Air pollution, noise and temperature have been associated with adverse health effects including increased morbidity and premature mortality, UV and green space with both positive and negative health effects and physical activity with many health benefits. In many cities there is still scope for further improvement in environmental quality through targeted policies. Making cities 'green and healthy' goes far beyond simply reducing CO2 emissions. Environmental factors are highly modifiable, and environmental interventions at the community level, such as urban and transport planning, have been shown to be promising and more cost effective than interventions at the individual level. However, the urban environment is a complex interlinked system. Decision-makers need not only better data on the complexity of factors in environmental and developmental processes affecting human health, but also enhanced understanding of the linkages to be able to know at which level to target their actions. New research tools, methods and paradigms such as

  1. What is driving changes in long-range transport of dust from Africa to the Americas? A 30 year synthesis of the GEOS-Chem model and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, D. A.; Heald, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Sahara and Sahelian regions produce approximately half of the world's dust emissions, resulting in significant radiative effects, air quality issues and mineral deposition, not only in Africa, but across the Atlantic and in the Americas. Determining how these impacts may change in the future requires a thorough understanding of the processes controlling emission, transport and deposition of dust. Long-term records of dust concentration measured in the Caribbean have, until the nineties, correlated with Sahelian precipitation and climatic indicators, potentially providing ways to predict changes in dust. However, this relationship is no longer clear and there are significant changes in the seasonality of dust transported to the Americas currently with no obvious explanation. We use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with NASA GMAO meteorological re-analyses (MERRA) to simulate the 30 year period 1979 - 2008. A synthesis of observations from multiple satellite and surface-based platforms is used to evaluate the model, primarily in terms of its ability to simulate the long-range transport of mineral dust from Africa. We then investigate what drives the changes in long-range transport of African dust to the Americas over diurnal to decadal timescales. This enables understanding of the relative importance of the individual processes controlling these changes, and the sensitivity of air quality and dust deposition downwind. This work aims to determine 1) how sensitive air quality and dust deposition in the Americas is to changes in African dust emissions, 2) the role of meteorological variables affecting the inter-annual variability of dust emission and deposition, and 3) the impact that land use changes and desertification in the Sahel may have in terms of the influence on dust transported to the Americas.

  2. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Under current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation, it is not sufficient for used nuclear fuel (UNF) to simply maintain its integrity during the storage period, it must maintain its integrity in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and moving it to treatment or recycling facilities, or a geologic repository. Hence it is necessary to understand the performance characteristics of aged UNF cladding and ancillary components under loadings stemming from transport initiatives. Researchers would like to demonstrate that enough information, including experimental support and modeling and simulation capabilities, exists to establish a preliminary determination of UNF structural performance under normal conditions of transport (NCT). This research, development and demonstration (RD&D) plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. This methodology will be used to provide a preliminary assessment of the performance characteristics of UNF cladding and ancillary components under rail-related NCT loading. The methodology couples modeling and simulation and experimental efforts currently under way within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC). The methodology will involve limited uncertainty quantification in the form of sensitivity evaluations focused around available fuel and ancillary fuel structure properties exclusively. The work includes collecting information via literature review, soliciting input/guidance from subject matter experts, performing computational analyses, planning experimental measurement and possible execution (depending on timing), and preparing a variety of supporting documents that will feed into and provide the basis for future initiatives. The methodology demonstration will focus on structural performance evaluation of

  3. Trace gas composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia: Examining the influence of long-range transport and convection of local pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. K.; Traud, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Hoor, P. M.; Neumaier, M.; Oram, D.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schloegl, S.; Sprung, D.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P.; Wernli, H.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2013-12-01

    Between May 2005 and March 2008 the CARIBIC observatory (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) was deployed to make atmospheric observations during 21 round-trip flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Manila, the Philippines with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. This nearly 3 year flight series provides us with information about atmospheric composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia during all seasons and was used to investigate seasonal and regional differences in trace gas distributions and the relative influences of long range transport and convected local air masses on composition. The flight route was separated into three different regions having unique characteristics in transport and composition; these were Western Asia (5°E to 70°E), Central Asia (70°E to 100°E) and East Asia (100°E to 125°E). The region over Western Asia was heavily influenced by long range transport of air masses from North America and had elevated levels of NOy and acetone, while the region over East Asia was mostly influenced by convected local (South East Asian) pollution, particularly from biomass/biofuel burning as indicated by high levels of acetonitrile and carbon monoxide. Air masses over Central Asia were found to be influenced by both recently convected air masses from the Indian subcontinent and mid-range transport from Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Elevated levels of propane and other non-methane hydrocarbons, both with and without concommitant elevations in other trace gases (i.e. carbon monoxide, acetonitrile) were a persisent feature of this region in all seasons except summer, and were particularly prominent in fall. Influences on composition over Central Asia were investigated more thoroughly in a case study from a series of flights in October 2006, and elevated levels of pollutants were found to be the result of convective transport of both biomass/biofuel burning and urban emissions from

  4. Climate of Earth-Like Planets With and Without Ocean Heat Transport Orbiting a Range of M and K Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, N. Y.; Jablonski, Emma R.; Way, Michael J.; Del Genio, Anthony; Roberge, Aki

    2015-01-01

    The mean surface temperature of a planet is now acknowledged as insufficient to surmise its full potential habitability. Advancing our understanding requires exploration with 3D general circulation models (GCMs), which can take into account how gradients and fluxes across a planet's surface influence the distribution of heat, clouds, and the potential for heterogeneous distribution of liquid water. Here we present 3D GCM simulations of the effects of alternative stellar spectra, instellation, model resolution, and ocean heat transport, on the simulated distribution of heat and moisture of an Earth-like planet (ELP).

  5. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kan; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George; Zhang, Jiachen; Tao, Wei; Cheng, Yanli; Tao, Shu

    2017-07-01

    The response of surface ozone (O3) concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR) analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage between basin-scale SST

  6. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of surface ozone (O3 concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM. Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage

  7. Discrimination between long-range transport and local pollution sources and precise delineation of polluted soil layers using integrated geophysical-geochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Szuszkiewisz, Marcin; Szuszkiewicz, Maria; Żogała, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The primary goal of this work was to distinguish between soil pollution from long-range and local transport of atmospheric pollutants using soil magnetometry in combination with geochemical analyses and precise delineation of polluted soil layers by using integrated magnetic (surface susceptibility, gradiometric measurement) and other geophysical techniques (conductivity and electrical resistivity tomography). The study area was located in the Izery region of Poland (within the "Black Triangle" region, which is the nickname for one of Europe's most polluted areas, where Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic meet). The study area was located in the Forest Glade where the historical local pollution source (glass factory) was active since and of 18th until the end of 19th century. The magnetic signal here was the combination of long-range transport of magnetic particles, local deposition and anthropogenic layers containing ashes and slags and partly comprising the subsoil of modern soil. Application of the set of different geophysical techniques enabled the precise location of these layers. The effect of the long-range pollution transport was observed on a neighboring hill (Granicznik) of which the western, northwestern and southwestern parts of the slope were exposed to the transport of atmospheric pollutants from the Czech Republic and Germany and Poland. Using soil magnetometry, it was possible to discriminate between long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants and anthropogenic pollution related to the former glasswork located in the Forest Glade. The magnetic susceptibility values (κ) as well as the number of "hot-spots" of volume magnetic susceptibility is significantly larger in the Forest Glade than on the Granicznik Hill where the κ is pollution originating from lignite power plants along the Polish border, while the southeastern part of the hill was shielded by crag and tail formation. Also the set of chemical elements connected with magnetic particles

  8. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Detailed Test Plan for Simulated Leak Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2000-06-23

    This report describes controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field tests to be conducted during FY 2000 in support of DOE?s Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS). The VZTFS supports the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Initiative. The field tests will improve understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. These methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing steel-cased boreholes. Specific objectives are to 1) identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford?s waste disposal sites; 2) reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; 3) develop a detailed and accurate data base of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; and 4) identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) manages the VZTFS for DOE.

  9. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vanta, E.B. [Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  10. Ten-year chemical signatures associated with long-range transport observed in the free troposphere over the central North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten-year observations of trace gases at Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO, a free troposphere site in the central North Atlantic, were classified by transport patterns using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART. The classification enabled identifying trace gas mixing ratios associated with background air and long- range transport of continental emissions, which were defined as chemical signatures. Comparison between the chemical signatures revealed the impacts of natural and anthropogenic sources, as well as chemical and physical processes during long transport, on air composition in the remote North Atlantic. Transport of North American anthropogenic emissions (NA-Anthro and summertime wildfire plumes (Fire significantly enhanced CO and O3 at PMO. Summertime CO enhancements caused by NA-Anthro were found to have been decreasing by a rate of 0.67 ± 0.60 ppbv/year in the ten-year period, due possibly to reduction of emissions in North America. Downward mixing from the upper troposphere and stratosphere due to the persistent Azores-Bermuda anticyclone causes enhanced O3 and nitrogen oxides. The 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] value was used to investigate O3 sources and chemistry in different transport patterns. The transport pattern affected by Fire had the lowest 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO], which was likely due to intense CO production and depressed O3 production in wildfire plumes. Slightly enhanced O3 and 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] were found in the background air, suggesting that weak downward mixing from the upper troposphere is common at PMO. Enhancements of both butane isomers were found during upslope flow periods, indicating contributions from local sources. The consistent ratio of butane isomers associated with the background air and NA-anthro implies no clear difference in the oxidation rates of the butane isomers during long transport. Based on observed relationships between non-methane hydrocarbons, the averaged photochemical age of the air masses at

  11. Modeling of long range transport pathways for radionuclides to Korea during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident and their association with meteorological circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Hong; Yun, Ju-Yong; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-10-01

    The Lagrangian FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Global Forecast System (NCEP/GFS) meteorological data were used to simulate the long range transport pathways of three artificial radionuclides: (131)I, (137)Cs, and (133)Xe, coming into Korean Peninsula during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident. Using emission rates of these radionuclides estimated from previous studies, three distinctive transport routes of these radionuclides toward the Korean Peninsula for a period from 10 March to 20 April 2011 were exploited by three spatial scales: 1) intercontinental scale - plume released since mid-March 2011 and transported to the North to arrive Korea on 23 March 2011, 2) global (hemispherical) scale - plume traveling over the whole northern hemisphere passing through the Pacific Ocean/Europe to reach the Korean Peninsula with relatively low concentrations in late March 2011 and, 3) regional scale - plume released on early April 2011 arrived at the Korean Peninsula via southwest sea of Japan influenced directly by veering mesoscale wind circulations. Our identification of these transport routes at three different scales of meteorological circulations suggests the feasibility of a multi-scale approach for more accurate prediction of radionuclide transport in the study area. In light of the fact that the observed arrival/duration time of peaks were explained well by the FLEXPART model coupled with NCEP/GFS input data, our approach can be used meaningfully as a decision support model for radiation emergency situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  13. Accurate transport simulation of electron tracks in the energy range 1 keV-4 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobut, V. E-mail: vincent.cobut@chim.u-cergy.fr; Cirioni, L.; Patau, J.P

    2004-01-01

    Multipurpose electron transport simulation codes are widely used in the fields of radiation protection and dosimetry. Broadly based on multiple scattering theories and continuous energy loss stopping powers with some mechanism taking straggling into account, they give reliable answers to many problems. However they may be unsuitable in some specific situations. In fact, many of them are not able to accurately describe particle transport through very thin slabs and/or in high atomic number materials, or also when knowledge of high-resolution depth dose distributions is required. To circumvent these deficiencies, we developed a Monte Carlo code simulating each interaction along electron tracks. Gas phase elastic cross sections are corrected to take into account solid state effects. Inelastic interactions are described within the framework of the Martinez et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 67 (1990) 2955] theory intended to deal with energy deposition in both condensed insulators and conductors. The model described in this paper is validated for some materials as aluminium and silicon, encountered in spectrometric and dosimetric devices. Comparisons with experimental, theoretical and other simulation results are made for angular distributions and energy spectra of transmitted electrons through slabs of different thicknesses and for depth energy distributions in semi-infinite media. These comparisons are quite satisfactory.

  14. Using Massive Vehicle Positioning Data to Improve Control and Planning of Public Road Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, Gabino; García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, A.; Alayón, Francisco; Pérez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a system for the automatic recording of positioning data for public transport vehicles used on roads. With the data provided by this system, transportation-regulatory authorities can control, verify and improve the routes that vehicles use, while also providing new data to improve the representation of the transportation network and providing new services in the context of intelligent metropolitan areas. The system is executed autonomously in the vehicles, by recording their massive positioning data and transferring them to remote data banks for subsequent processing. To illustrate the utility of the system, we present a case of application that consists of identifying the points at which vehicles stop systematically, which may be points of scheduled stops or points at which traffic signals or road topology force the vehicle to stop. This identification is performed using pattern recognition techniques. The system has been applied under real operating conditions, providing the results discussed in the present study. PMID:24763212

  15. From individual statements to market maps : a geomarketing approach to public transport Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Banos

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Since several decades, French urbanisation evolves in a way that can hardly be seen favourable to public transportation. Innovation is needed in this field, if the individual automobile is to be faced on its own territories. This need for innovation concerns the miscellaneous stages of the public transport production, including the preliminary analysis ones. Indeed, many work remains to be done to understand mobility behaviour, what is more if we are to propose versatile and viable alternatives to current trends. Geomarketing based surveys, combining revealed and stated preferences, are a powerful way of acquiring such an accurate information. From a qualitative point of view, this kind of information allows to calibrate public transport services adapted as much as possible to the targeted customers. However, the major problem of the spatial generalisation of this individual information remains often unsolved. In this context, a strategy is proposed, based on the combination of miscellaneous methods.

  16. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Planning, Modeling, and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC) provides free, web-based access to detailed transportation data from a variety of travel surveys conducted across the nation. Maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in partnership with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the TSDC houses data from travel surveys and studies conducted using GPS devices. It features millions of data points -- second-by-second GPS readings, vehicle characteristics (if applicable), and demographics -- for all modes of travel. NREL screens the initial data for quality control, translates each data set into a consistent format, and interprets the data for spatial analysis. NREL's processing routines add information on vehicle fuel economy and road grades and join data points to the road network.

  17. Transportes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento de materiales dentro de la Factoría está atendido por tres principales medios de transporte, en consonancia con las características del material y de los desplazamientos. Así se han establecido: sistemas de cintas transportadoras, una red ferroviaria de ancho normal y una completa malla de caminos enlazando funcionalmente las instalaciones.

  18. PROPOSAL FOR THE CREATION OF SECURITY PLANS FOR THE ROAD TRANSPORTATION OF HIGH CONSEQUENCE DANGEROUS GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina KOŁDYS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the list of dangerous goods, there are materials and articles, which, due to particular criteria stated in the European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Goods by Road (ADR, are treated as high consequence goods. High consequence dangerous goods are those whose misuse may lead to a terrorist event and therefore pose a serious threat of mass casualties, destruction or socio-economic disruption. All personnel responsible for the carriage of high consequence dangerous goods should comply with ADR requirements, as appropriate. Basic ADR requirements, which should lead to the elimination of potential safety violations hazards, is to acknowledge, implement and respect security plans. The ADR reflects overall security plan regulations, describing the elements of which such plans should be created. The ADR itself does not prescribe methods for preparing documentation, nor implementation details. This article is to elaborate on these aspects.

  19. Simulation of electron transport in GaAs/AlAs superlattices with a small number of periods for the THz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavelyev, D. G., E-mail: pavelev@rf.unn.ru, E-mail: obolensk@rf.unn.ru [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Vasilev, A. P., E-mail: vasiljev@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics, Research and Engineering Center (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. A., E-mail: kozlov@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Koschurinov, Yu. I.; Obolenskaya, E. S.; Obolensky, S. V. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V. M., E-mail: vmust@beam.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The electron transport in superlattices based on GaAs/AlAs heterostructures with a small number of periods (6 periods) is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. These superlattices are used in terahertz diodes for the frequency stabilization of quantum cascade lasers in the range up to 4.7 THz. The band structure of superlattices with different numbers of AlAs monolayers is considered and their current–voltage characteristics are calculated. The calculated current–voltage characteristics are compared with the experimental data. The possibility of the efficient application of these superlattices in the THz frequency range is established both theoretically and experimentally.

  20. Analysis of Long-Range Transport of Carbon Dioxide and Its High Concentration Events over East Asian Region Using GOSAT Data and GEOS-Chem Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the long-range transport of CO2 in East Asian region, using concentration data in a surface measurement site (Gosan Station, column averaged concentration data of satellite-borne instrument (GOSAT, and GEOS-Chem modeling results for the period of June 2009 to May 2011. We perform a validation of the data from GOSAT and GEOS-Chem with total column observations (TCCON. The analysis of the long-range transport and high concentration (HC events using surface/satellite observations and modeling results is conducted. During the HC events, the concentrations in CO2 and other air pollutants such as SO2 and CO are higher than that of all episodes. It means that CO2, known as a globally well-mixed gas, may also act as a fingerprint of human activity with unique regional characteristics like other air pollutants. This comprehensive analysis, in particular with GOSAT CO2 observation data, shows that CO2 plume with high concentration can be long-range transported with 1-2 days’ duration with regional scale. We can find out with GEOS-Chem tagging simulation that more than 45% of the elevated CO2 concentration over central/eastern China, Korea, and Japan on high concentration days can be explained by emission sources of East Asia mainland.