WorldWideScience

Sample records for range time frame

  1. Time Biases in laser ranging measurements; impacts on geodetic products (Reference Frame and Orbitography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, A.; Exertier, P.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Zelensky, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The GGOS objectives are to maintain a geodetic network with an accuracy of 1 mm and a stability of 0.1 mm per year. For years, the laser ranging technique, which provide very accurate absolute distances to geodetic targets enable to determine the scale factor as well as coordinates of the geocenter. In order to achieve this goal, systematic errors appearing in the laser ranging measurements must be considered and solved. In addition to Range Bias (RB), which is the primary source of uncertainty of the technique, Time Bias (TB) has been recently detected by using the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) space instrument capability on-board the satellite Jason-2. Instead of determining TB through the precise orbit determination that is applied to commonly used geodetic targets like LAGEOS to estimate global geodetic products, we have developed, independently, a dedicated method to transfer time between remote satellite laser ranging stations. As a result, the evolving clock phase shift to UTC of around 30 stations has been determined under the form of time series of time bias per station from 2008 to 2016 with an accuracy of 3-4 ns. It demonstrated the difficulty, in terms of Time & Frequency used technologies, to locally maintain accuracy and long term stability at least in the range of 100 ns that is the current requirement for time measurements (UTC) for the laser ranging technique. Because some laser ranging stations oftently exceed this limit (from 100 ns to a few μs) we have been studying these effects first on the precision orbit determination itself, second on the station positioning. We discuss the impact of TB on LAGEOS and Jason-2 orbits, which appears to affect the along-track component essentially. We also investigate the role of TB in global geodetic parameters as the station coordinates. Finally, we propose to provide the community with time series of time bias of laser ranging stations, under the form of a data- handling-file in order to be included in

  2. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  3. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing the...

  4. Framing-camera tube developed for sub-100-ps range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A new framing-camera tube, developed by Electronics Engineering, is capable of recording two-dimensional image frames with high spatial resolution in the sub-100-ps range. Framing is performed by streaking a two-dimensional electron image across narrow slits; the resulting electron-line images from the slits are restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operating synchronously with the dissector deflector. We have demonstrated its performance in a prototype tube by recording 125-ps-duration framed images of 2.5-mm patterns. The limitation in the framing speed is in the external electronic drivers for the deflectors and not in the tube design characteristics. Shorter frame durations (below 100 ps) can be obtained by use of faster deflection drivers

  5. Framing effects over time: comparing affective and cognitive news frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.; Matthes, J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of scholars examine the duration of framing effects. However, duration is likely to differ from frame to frame, depending on how strong a frame is. This strength is likely to be enhanced by adding emotional components to a frame. By means of an experimental survey design (n = 111),

  6. Time and outcome framing in intertemporal tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    A robust anomaly in intertemporal choice is the delay-speedup asymmetry: Receipts are discounted more, and payments are discounted less, when delayed than when expedited over the same interval. We developed 2 versions of the tradeoff model (Scholten & Read, 2010) to address such situations, in which an outcome is expected at a given time but then its timing is changed. The outcome framing model generalizes the approach taken by the hyperbolic discounting model (Loewenstein & Prelec, 1992): Not obtaining a positive outcome when expected is a worse than expected state, to which people are over-responsive, or hypersensitive, and not incurring a negative outcome when expected is a better than expected state, to which people are under-responsive, or hyposensitive. The time framing model takes a new approach: Delaying a positive outcome or speeding up a negative one involves a loss of time to which people are hypersensitive, and speeding up a positive outcome or delaying a negative one involves a gain of time to which people are hyposensitive. We compare the models on their quantitative predictions of indifference data from matching and preference data from choice. The time framing model systematically outperforms the outcome framing model. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be exceeded...

  8. Time reversibility in the quantum frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masot-Conde, Fátima [Escuela Superior Ingenieros, Dpt. Física Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla Isla Mágica, 41092- Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-12-04

    Classic Mechanics and Electromagnetism, conventionally taken as time-reversible, share the same concept of motion (either of mass or charge) as the basis of the time reversibility in their own fields. This paper focuses on the relationship between mobile geometry and motion reversibility. The goal is to extrapolate the conclusions to the quantum frame, where matter and radiation behave just as elementary mobiles. The possibility that the asymmetry of Time (Time’s arrow) is an effect of a fundamental quantum asymmetry of elementary particles, turns out to be a consequence of the discussion.

  9. News Framing in a Time of Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    the attacks at the Charlie Hebdo office in Paris in January 2015. This article analyses how the Danish television channel DR1 framed the attacks in the newscast from the first shot at Krudttønden and for the following week. Furthermore, the analysis will discuss how the framing of the shooting as a “terror...

  10. Time frames and uncertainty in assessment of geoscientific environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunose, Kinichiro; Koide, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the Geological Disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan was published in 2000 by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. The issue presents basic technical feasibility of safe HLW disposal on Japan. The issue, however, lacks discussion about realistic time frame for geological stability assessment, and treating of instability in geoscientific models, because candidate repository sites have not yet selected in Japan. This paper present short conceptional discussion of the time frames and instability in geoscientific models and propose some time frames and instability treating process. Methods of geological prediction are classified into seven groups: (1) Prediction by extrapolation, (2) Prediction by analogy, (3) Prediction by probability, (4) Prediction by experiment, (5) Prediction by conceptual model, (6) Prediction by numerical simulation, and (7) Prediction by safety assessment model. Geologic future prediction should be cross-checked by several different methods. However, only geological evidence from the earth's history of nearly five billion years can verify long-range predictions for subterranean containment of waste which are usually based on short-range experiments and numerical modeling. On the geologically unstable Japanese archipelago, Japan is making extensive efforts for prediction of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions to reduce geological hazards. Long-range geological prediction is investigated for safe disposal of nuclear waste and for subterranean sequestration of CO 2 . (author)

  11. Time delay control of power converters: Mixed frame and stationary-frame variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, P.C.; Tang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a mixed-frame and a stationary-frame time delay current controller are proposed for high precision reference tracking and disturbance rejection of power converters. In particular, the controllers use a proportional-resonant regulator in the stationary frame for regulating...... the positive and negative-sequence fundamental currents, which are known to directly influence the flow of active and reactive power in most energy conversion systems. Moreover, for the tracking or compensation of harmonics, the controllers include a time delay control path in either the synchronous...... or stationary frame, whose inherent feedback and feedforward structure can be proven to resemble a bank of resonant filters in either reference frames. Unlike other existing controllers, the proposed time delay controllers function by introducing multiple resonant peaks at only those harmonic frequencies...

  12. The effects of the framing of time on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHart, William Brady; Odum, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of the framing of time on delay discounting. Delay discounting is the process by which delayed outcomes are devalued as a function of time. Time in a titrating delay discounting task is often framed in calendar units (e.g., as 1 week, 1 month, etc.). When time is framed as a specific date, delayed outcomes are discounted less compared to the calendar format. Other forms of framing time; however, have not been explored. All participants completed a titrating calendar unit delay-discounting task for money. Participants were also assigned to one of two delay discounting tasks: time as dates (e.g., June 1st, 2015) or time in units of days (e.g., 5000 days), using the same delay distribution as the calendar delay-discounting task. Time framed as dates resulted in less discounting compared to the calendar method, whereas time framed as days resulted in greater discounting compared to the calendar method. The hyperboloid model fit best compared to the hyperbola and exponential models. How time is framed may alter how participants attend to the delays as well as how the delayed outcome is valued. Altering how time is framed may serve to improve adherence to goals with delayed outcomes. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. Time and Outcome Framing in Intertemporal Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A robust anomaly in intertemporal choice is the delay-speedup asymmetry: Receipts are discounted more, and payments are discounted less, when delayed than when expedited over the same interval. We developed 2 versions of the tradeoff model (Scholten & Read, 2010) to address such situations, in which an outcome is expected at a given time but…

  14. Framing and time-inconsistent preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsma, P.; Keren, G.; Caverni, J.-P.; Bar-Hillel, M.; Hutton Barron, F.; Jungermann, H.

    1995-01-01

    Recent research on intertemporal choice (e.g., Ainslie, 1991; Herrnstein, 1990; Loewenstein & Elster, 1992) exhibits several pervasive effects that are Incompatible with the basic tenets of the "rational’ or "normative" economic theory. In particular, people show time-inconsistent preferences when

  15. Molecular Frame Reconstruction Using Time-Domain Photoionization Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Claude; Makhija, Varun; Platzer, Dominique; Naumov, A Yu; Corkum, P B; Stolow, Albert; Villeneuve, D M; Hockett, Paul

    2017-08-25

    Photoionization of molecular species is, essentially, a multipath interferometer with both experimentally controllable and intrinsic molecular characteristics. In this work, XUV photoionization of impulsively aligned molecular targets (N_{2}) is used to provide a time-domain route to "complete" photoionization experiments, in which the rotational wave packet controls the geometric part of the photoionization interferometer. The data obtained is sufficient to determine the magnitudes and phases of the ionization matrix elements for all observed channels, and to reconstruct molecular frame interferograms from lab frame measurements. In principle, this methodology provides a time-domain route to complete photoionization experiments and the molecular frame, which is generally applicable to any molecule (no prerequisites), for all energies and ionization channels.

  16. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Jeremy; Rand, David G

    2014-01-01

    What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy). Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect.

  17. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Cone

    Full Text Available What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy. Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect.

  18. Spontaneous Lorentz violation and the long-range gravitational preferred-frame effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graesser, Michael L.; Jenkins, Alejandro; Wise, Mark B.

    2005-01-01

    Lorentz-violating operators involving Standard Model fields are tightly constrained by experimental data. However, bounds are more model-independent for Lorentz violation appearing in purely gravitational couplings. The spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance by the vacuum expectation value of a vector field selects a universal rest frame. This affects the propagation of the graviton, leading to a modification of Newton's law of gravity. We compute the size of the long-range preferred-frame effect in terms of the coefficients of the two-derivative operators in the low-energy effective theory that involves only the graviton and the Goldstone bosons

  19. Frame based Motion Detection for real-time Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Brajesh Patel; Neelam Patel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a series of algorithm has been formed to track the feature of motion detection under surveillance system. In the proposed work a pixel variant plays a vital role in detection of moving object of a particular clip. If there is a little bit motion in a frame then it is detected very easily by calculating pixel variance. This algorithm detects the zero variation only when there is no motion in a real-time video sequence. It is simple and easier for motion detection in the fames of ...

  20. Post-Newtonian reference frames for advanced theory of the lunar motion and for a new generation of Lunar laser ranging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yi.; Kopeikin, S.

    2010-01-01

    We overview a set of post-Newtonian reference frames for a comprehensive study of the orbital dynamics and rotational motion of Moon and Earth by means of lunar laser ranging. We employ a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two post-Newtonian parameters, and utilize the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat at infinity. The primary reference frame covers the entire space-time, has its origin at the solar-system barycenter and spatial axes stretching up to infinity. The solar-system barycenter frame is not rotating with respect to a set of distant quasars that are forming the International Celestial Reference Frame. The secondary reference frame has its origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter. The Earth-Moon barycenter frame is locally-inertial and is not rotating dynamically in the sense that equation of motion of a test particle moving with respect to the Earth-Moon barycenter frame, does not contain the Coriolis and centripetal forces. Two other local frames-geocentric and seleno centric-have their origins at the center of mass of Earth and Moon respectively and do not rotate dynamically. Each local frame is subject to the geodetic precession both with respect to other local frames and with respect to the International Celestial Reference Frame because of their relative motion with respect to each other. Theoretical advantage of the dynamically non-rotating local frames is in a more simple mathematical description. Each local frame can be aligned with the axes of International Celestial Reference Frame after applying the matrix of the relativistic precession. The set of one global and three local frames is introduced in order to fully decouple the relative motion of Moon with respect to Earth from the orbital motion of the Earth-Moon barycenter as well as to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion

  1. What a difference a day makes? The effects of repetitive and competitive news framing over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a "classic" framing experiment (N = 1,324), this study empirically mimics the dynamic nature of framing effects over time. We integrate (a) multiple frame exposures as well as (b) various tests for duration of framing effects into our study design. Our results show that exposure to

  2. Application of the reduction of scale range in a Lorentz boosted frame to the numerical simulation of particle acceleration devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.; Fawley, W.M.; Geddes, C.G.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that the ratio of longest to shortest space and time scales of a system of two or more components crossing at relativistic velocities is not invariant under Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference minimizing an aggregate measure of the ratio of space and time scales. It was demonstrated that this translated into a reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times, using methods based on first principles (e.g., Particle-In-Cell), for particle acceleration devices and for problems such as: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. Since then, speed-ups ranging from 75 to more than four orders of magnitude have been reported for the simulation of either scaled or reduced models of the above-cited problems. In it was shown that to achieve full benefits of the calculation in a boosted frame, some of the standard numerical techniques needed to be revised. The theory behind the speed-up of numerical simulation in a boosted frame, latest developments of numerical methods, and example applications with new opportunities that they offer are all presented

  3. A consistent time frame for Chaucer's Canterbury Pilgrimage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerer, K. R.

    2001-08-01

    A consistent time frame for the pilgrimage that Geoffrey Chaucer describes in The Canterbury Tales can be established if the seven celestial assertions related to the journey mentioned in the text can be reconciled with each other and the date of April 18 that is also mentioned. Past attempts to establish such a consistency for all seven celestial assertions have not been successful. The analysis herein, however, indicates that in The Canterbury Tales Chaucer accurately describes the celestial conditions he observed in the April sky above the London(Canterbury region of England in the latter half of the fourteenth century. All seven celestial assertions are in agreement with each other and consistent with the April 18 date. The actual words of Chaucer indicate that the Canterbury journey began during the 'seson' he defines in the General Prologue and ends under the light of the full Moon on the night of April 18, 1391.

  4. Post-Newtonian Reference Frames For Advanced Theory Of The Lunar Motion And For A New Generation Of Lunar Laser Ranging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.; Kopeikon, S.

    2010-01-01

    We overview a set of post-Newtonian reference frames for a comprehensive study of the orbital dynamics and rotational motion of Moon and Earth by means of lunar laser ranging (LLR). We employ a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two post-Newtonian parameters, and , and utilize the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat at infinity. The primary reference frame covers the entire space-time, has its origin at the solar-system barycenter (SSB) and spatial axes stretching up to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to a set of distant quasars that are forming the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The secondary reference frame has its origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is locally-inertial and is not rotating dynamically in the sense that equation of motion of a test particle moving with respect to the EMB frame, does not contain the Coriolis and centripetal forces. Two other local frames geocentric (GRF) and selenocentric (SRF) have their origins at the center of mass of Earth and Moon respectively and do not rotate dynamically. Each local frame is subject to the geodetic precession both with respect to other local frames and with respect to the ICRF because of their relative motion with respect to each other. Theoretical advantage of the dynamically non-rotating local frames is in a more simple mathematical description. Each local frame can be aligned with the axes of ICRF after applying the matrix of the relativistic precession. The set of one global and three local frames is introduced in order to fully decouple the relative motion of Moon with respect to Earth from the orbital motion of the Earth-Moon barycenter as well as to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion, an observer on Earth, and a retro-reflector on Moon to directly measurable

  5. Time-frames and the demonstration of safety for HLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, B.; Kessler, J.

    1999-01-01

    An important principle which is often embodied in the criteria for the safe disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes is that a similar level of radiation protection should be provided to future generations as that provided for those alive today. This has resulted in the development of performance assessment methodologies to evaluate the potential long term impacts of HLW disposal on humans, usually in terms of individual dose or risk. However, the actual periods of time over which it is expected that there will be full control over high level waste disposals are extremely short in comparison with the times over which radionuclides in the wastes could potentially move from the deep repository and emerge into the surface environment. This leads to problems in setting quantitative dose or risk based standard appropriate for the short and long term, and in setting the time-frames for which calculations should be carried out. This is especially difficult in view of the uncertainty in predicting changes in human behaviour and changes in the biosphere and geosphere over the time-scales involved. Different assessment time-frames and approaches proposed by IAEA, Nordic countries, Britain and US guidance documents are briefly reviewed. Whilst accepting the basic radiation protection objective of protecting future generations, no international consensus bas been agreed on what time-frames should be used in performance assessments. It is recommended that different time-frames should be associated with different quantitative or qualitative performance measures. As a result, a range of indicators of safety may be appropriate in demonstrating compliance with regulatory performance criteria and the consequent overall assessment context. It is argued that what is required is a simple, robust yet defensible approach to time-frames and performance indicators which can be accepted by the public, regulators and the nuclear industry

  6. Wide-field time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) microscopy with time resolution below the frame exposure time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M. [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Petrášek, Zdeněk [Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biophysics, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany); Suhling, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.suhling@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Fast frame rate CMOS cameras in combination with photon counting intensifiers can be used for fluorescence imaging with single photon sensitivity at kHz frame rates. We show here how the phosphor decay of the image intensifier can be exploited for accurate timing of photon arrival well below the camera exposure time. This is achieved by taking ratios of the intensity of the photon events in two subsequent frames, and effectively allows wide-field TCSPC. This technique was used for measuring decays of ruthenium compound Ru(dpp) with lifetimes as low as 1 μs with 18.5 μs frame exposure time, including in living HeLa cells, using around 0.1 μW excitation power. We speculate that by using an image intensifier with a faster phosphor decay to match a higher camera frame rate, photon arrival time measurements on the nanosecond time scale could well be possible.

  7. Directional Time-frequency Analysis via Continuous Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Forster, Birgitte; Massopust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    spaces. The first step allows us to apply the theory to several other classes of frames, for example wavelet frames and shift-invariant systems, and the second one significantly extends the class of examples and applications. We consider applications to the Meyer wavelet and complex B...

  8. LCFM - LIVING COLOR FRAME MAKER: PC GRAPHICS GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, L. V.

    1994-01-01

    Computer graphics are often applied for better understanding and interpretation of data under observation. These graphics become more complicated when animation is required during "run-time", as found in many typical modern artificial intelligence and expert systems. Living Color Frame Maker is a solution to many of these real-time graphics problems. Living Color Frame Maker (LCFM) is a graphics generation and management tool for IBM or IBM compatible personal computers. To eliminate graphics programming, the graphic designer can use LCFM to generate computer graphics frames. The graphical frames are then saved as text files, in a readable and disclosed format, which can be easily accessed and manipulated by user programs for a wide range of "real-time" visual information applications. For example, LCFM can be implemented in a frame-based expert system for visual aids in management of systems. For monitoring, diagnosis, and/or controlling purposes, circuit or systems diagrams can be brought to "life" by using designated video colors and intensities to symbolize the status of hardware components (via real-time feedback from sensors). Thus status of the system itself can be displayed. The Living Color Frame Maker is user friendly with graphical interfaces, and provides on-line help instructions. All options are executed using mouse commands and are displayed on a single menu for fast and easy operation. LCFM is written in C++ using the Borland C++ 2.0 compiler for IBM PC series computers and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The program requires a mouse and an EGA/VGA display. A minimum of 77K of RAM is also required for execution. The documentation is provided in electronic form on the distribution medium in WordPerfect format. A sample MS-DOS executable is provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools

  9. Real-time range acquisition by adaptive structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koninckx, Thomas P; Van Gool, Luc

    2006-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a "self-adaptive" system for real-time range acquisition. Reconstructions are based on a single frame structured light illumination. Instead of using generic, static coding that is supposed to work under all circumstances, system adaptation is proposed. This occurs on-the-fly and renders the system more robust against instant scene variability and creates suitable patterns at startup. A continuous trade-off between speed and quality is made. A weighted combination of different coding cues--based upon pattern color, geometry, and tracking--yields a robust way to solve the correspondence problem. The individual coding cues are automatically adapted within a considered family of patterns. The weights to combine them are based on the average consistency with the result within a small time-window. The integration itself is done by reformulating the problem as a graph cut. Also, the camera-projector configuration is taken into account for generating the projection patterns. The correctness of the range maps is not guaranteed, but an estimation of the uncertainty is provided for each part of the reconstruction. Our prototype is implemented using unmodified consumer hardware only and, therefore, is cheap. Frame rates vary between 10 and 25 fps, dependent on scene complexity.

  10. Framing the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident: An international, comparative study of news frames in Der Spiegel, the Japan Times and the Los Angeles Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannakopoulos, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated into the news frames employed in reporting on the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, explored the maintenance of the radiation reporting standard, and assessed the overall tone for the local government, the Japanese Government, and the IAEA. Based on content from Der Spiegel, the Japan Times and the Los Angeles Times (n=60), it was found that media evoked 'conflict', 'responsibility attribution', and 'human interest' frames, radiation reporting standard was marginally maintained, and the overall tone was neutral (local government, IAEA) or negative (Japanese Government). Variances across countries were observed, but results coincided with the country's nuclear energy policy. (author)

  11. When frames align: The interplay between PR, news media, and the public in times of crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, T.G.L.A.; Verhoeven, P.; Beentjes, H.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the frame-building process of organizational-crisis situations in the interplay between the domains public relations (PR), news media, and the public. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the crisis frames of the domains align over time. To empirically analyze

  12. Multi-frame pyramid correlation for time-resolved PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sciacchitano, A.; Scarano, F.; Wieneke, B.

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique is introduced to increase the precision and robustness of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements. The innovative element of the technique is the linear combination of the correlation signal computed at different separation time intervals. The domain of the

  13. Space-time encoding for high frame rate ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanssis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    dynamically focused in both transmit and receive with only two firings. This reduces the problem of motion artifacts. The method has been tested with extensive simulations using Field II. Resolution and SNR are compared with uncoded STA imaging and conventional phased-array imaging. The range resolution...... remains the same for coded STA imaging with four emissions and is slightly degraded for STA imaging with two emissions due to the −55 dB cross-talk between the signals. The additional proposed temporal encoding adds more than 15 dB on the SNR gain, yielding a SNR at the same order as in phased-array...

  14. Dollars and Deadlines: Rule Reforms in Short Time Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: In "At Last! Aye, and there's the Rub" (i.e., the target article for this commentary), Capron describes challenges related to the timing for development, adoption, and revision of the Common Rule. Specifically, what the National Commission thought would be a...

  15. Computation Offloading for Frame-Based Real-Time Tasks under Given Server Response Time Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas S. M. Toma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Computation offloading has been adopted to improve the performance of embedded systems by offloading the computation of some tasks, especially computation-intensive tasks, to servers or clouds. This paper explores computation offloading for real-time tasks in embedded systems, provided given response time guarantees from the servers, to decide which tasks should be offloaded to get the results in time. We consider frame-based real-time tasks with the same period and relative deadline. When the execution order of the tasks is given, the problem can be solved in linear time. However, when the execution order is not specified, we prove that the problem is NP-complete. We develop a pseudo-polynomial-time algorithm for deriving feasible schedules, if they exist.  An approximation scheme is also developed to trade the error made from the algorithm and the complexity. Our algorithms are extended to minimize the period/relative deadline of the tasks for performance maximization. The algorithms are evaluated with a case study for a surveillance system and synthesized benchmarks.

  16. Geological storage of CO2 : time frames, monitoring and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalaturnyk, R.; Gunter, W.D.

    2005-01-01

    In order to ensure that carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) injection and storage occurs in an environmentally sound and safe manner, many organizations pursuing the development of a CO 2 geological storage industry are initiating monitoring programs that include operational monitoring; verification monitoring; and environmental monitoring. Each represents an increase in the level of technology used and the intensity and duration of monitoring. For each potential site, the project conditions must be defined, the mechanisms that control the fluid flow must be predicted and technical questions must be addressed. This paper reviewed some of the relevant issues in establishing a monitoring framework for geological storage and defined terms that indicate the fate of injected CO 2 . Migration refers to movement of fluids within the injection formation, while leakage refers to movement of fluids outside the injection formation, and seepage refers to movement of fluids from the geosphere to the biosphere. Currently, regulatory agencies focus mostly on the time period approved for waste fluid injection, including CO 2 , into depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or deep saline aquifers, which is in the order of 25 years. The lifetime of the injection operation is limited by reservoir capacity and the injection rate. Monitoring periods can be divided into periods based on risk during injection-operation (10 to 25 years), at the beginning of the storage period during pressure equilibration (up to 100 years), and over the long-term (from 100 to 1000 years). The 42 commercial acid gas injection projects currently in operation in western Canada can be used to validate the technology for the short term, while validation of long-term storage can be based on natural geological analogues. It was concluded that a monitored decision framework recognizes uncertainties in the geological storage system and allows design decisions to be made with the knowledge that planned long-term observations and their

  17. Research and Realization of the HJ-1C Real-time Software Frame Synchronization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Hou Yang-shuan; Shi Tao; Hu Yu-xin

    2014-01-01

    Conventional software frame synchronization methods are inefficient in processing huge continuous data without synchronization words. To improve the processing speed, a real-time synchronization algorithm is proposed based on reverse searching. Satellite data are grouped and searched in the reverse direction to avoid searching for synchronization words in huge continuous invalid data; thus, the frame synchronization speed is improved enormously. The fastest processing speed is up to 15445.9 M...

  18. The relative value of safety and performance indicators and qualitative arguments in different time frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Rohlig, K.J.; Batandjieva, B.; Griffault, L.; Regent, A.; Schneider, J.; Storck, R.; Umeki, H.

    2002-01-01

    Indicators complementary to dose or risk are of great importance for the provision of multiple lines of reasoning at different time frames and therefore for the building of confidence within a safety case and that regulations should acknowledge this fact. They are also of great value with regard to the understanding of the safety case by and the communication to different audiences. The relative value of such indicators changes with time. For longer timescales qualitative information becomes more important. The meaning of calculated dose or risk is different for different timescales (ranging from expected performance to illustration) but dose or risk remains a valuable and central information for any time considered in a Safety Assessment. Certain indicators (concentrations and fluxes) can provide information by avoiding certain uncertainties which increase remarkably with time (biosphere, dilution) but apart from that no generic opinion or recommendation can be derived since the value of specific indicators and the required degree of aggregation (over different nuclides or even of consequence and probability) strongly depends on the many parameter. (authors)

  19. Efficient and Fast Implementation of Embedded Time-of-Flight Ranging System Based on FPGAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Weiguo; Lyu, Congyi; Jiang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Time-of-flight cameras perceive depth information about the surrounding environment with an amplitude-modulated near-infrared light source. The distance between the sensor and objects is calculated through measuring the time the light needs to travel. To be used in fast and embedded applications......, such as 3-D reconstruction, visual SLAM, human-robot interactions, and object detection, the 3-D imaging must be performed at high frame rates and accuracy. Thus, this paper presents a real-time field programmable gate arrays platform that calculates the phase shift and then the distance. Experimental...... results shown that the platform can acquire ranging images at the maximum frame rate of 131fps with a fine measurement precision (appropriately 5.1mm range error at 1.2m distance with the proper integration time). Low resource utilization and power consumption of the proposed system make it very suitable...

  20. Research and Realization of the HJ-1C Real-time Software Frame Synchronization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Yang-shuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional software frame synchronization methods are inefficient in processing huge continuous data without synchronization words. To improve the processing speed, a real-time synchronization algorithm is proposed based on reverse searching. Satellite data are grouped and searched in the reverse direction to avoid searching for synchronization words in huge continuous invalid data; thus, the frame synchronization speed is improved enormously. The fastest processing speed is up to 15445.9 Mbps when HJ-1C data are tested. This method is presently applied to the HJ-1C quick-look system in remote sensing satellite ground stations.

  1. Exploring students' understanding of reference frames and time in Galilean and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Hosson, C; Kermen, I; Parizot, E

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring prospective physics teachers' reasoning associated with the concepts of reference frame, time and event which form the framework of the classical kinematics and that of the relativistic kinematics. About 100 prospective physics teachers were surveyed by means of a questionnaire involving classical kinematics situations and relativistic ones. The analysis of the answers shows a deep lack of understanding of both concepts of reference frame and event. Some students think that events may be simultaneous for an observer and not simultaneous for another one, even when both observers are located in the same reference frame. Most of the students surveyed cannot give an answer only depending on the location of the observer when his/her velocity is mentioned as if the movement contaminated the event. This lack of understanding is embodied in reasoning implemented by the population surveyed to address classical kinematics questions and seems to form a major obstacle to grasping relativistic kinematics.

  2. Hybrid state‐space time integration in a rotating frame of reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre

    2011-01-01

    displacements and the global velocities are represented by the same shape functions. This leads to a simple generalization of the corresponding equations of motion in a stationary frame in which all inertial effects are represented via the classic global mass matrix. The formulation introduces two gyroscopic......A time integration algorithm is developed for the equations of motion of a flexible body in a rotating frame of reference. The equations are formulated in a hybrid state‐space, formed by the local displacement components and the global velocity components. In the spatial discretization the local...... terms, while the centrifugal forces are represented implicitly via the hybrid state‐space format. An angular momentum and energy conserving algorithm is developed, in which the angular velocity of the frame is represented by its mean value. A consistent algorithmic damping scheme is identified...

  3. Real-Time Hand Posture Recognition Using a Range Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, Herve

    The basic goal of human computer interaction is to improve the interaction between users and computers by making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs. Within this context, the use of hand postures in replacement of traditional devices such as keyboards, mice and joysticks is being explored by many researchers. The goal is to interpret human postures via mathematical algorithms. Hand posture recognition has gained popularity in recent years, and could become the future tool for humans to interact with computers or virtual environments. An exhaustive description of the frequently used methods available in literature for hand posture recognition is provided. It focuses on the different types of sensors and data used, the segmentation and tracking methods, the features used to represent the hand postures as well as the classifiers considered in the recognition process. Those methods are usually presented as highly robust with a recognition rate close to 100%. However, a couple of critical points necessary for a successful real-time hand posture recognition system require major improvement. Those points include the features used to represent the hand segment, the number of postures simultaneously recognizable, the invariance of the features with respect to rotation, translation and scale and also the behavior of the classifiers against non-perfect hand segments for example segments including part of the arm or missing part of the palm. A 3D time-of-flight camera named SR4000 has been chosen to develop a new methodology because of its capability to provide in real-time and at high frame rate 3D information on the scene imaged. This sensor has been described and evaluated for its capability for capturing in real-time a moving hand. A new recognition method that uses the 3D information provided by the range camera to recognize hand postures has been proposed. The different steps of this methodology including the segmentation, the tracking, the hand

  4. Decisions, decisions: analysis of age, cohort, and time of testing on framing of risky decision options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhorn, Christopher B; Fisk, Arthur D; Whittle, Justin D

    2002-01-01

    Decision making in uncertain environments is a daily challenge faced by adults of all ages. Framing decision options as either gains or losses is a common method of altering decision-making behavior. In the experiment reported here, benchmark decision-making data collected in the 1970s by Tversky and Kahneman (1981, 1988) were compared with data collected from current samples of young and older adults to determine whether behavior was consistent across time. Although differences did emerge between the benchmark and the present samples, the effect of framing on decision behavior was relatively stable. The present findings suggest that adults of all ages are susceptible to framing effects. Results also indicated that apparent age differences might be better explained by an analysis of cohort and time-of-testing effects. Actual or potential applications of this research include an understanding of how framing might influence the decision-making behavior of people of all ages in a number of applied contexts, such as product warning interactions and medical decision scenarios.

  5. Classical field theory in the space of reference frames. [Space-time manifold, action principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, M [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Libera Universita, Trento (Italy)

    1978-03-11

    The formalism of classical field theory is generalized by replacing the space-time manifold M by the ten-dimensional manifold S of all the local reference frames. The geometry of the manifold S is determined by ten vector fields corresponding to ten operationally defined infinitesimal transformations of the reference frames. The action principle is written in terms of a differential 4-form in the space S (the Lagrangian form). Densities and currents are represented by differential 3-forms in S. The field equations and the connection between symmetries and conservation laws (Noether's theorem) are derived from the action principle. Einstein's theory of gravitation and Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism are reformulated in this language. The general formalism can also be used to formulate theories in which charge, energy and momentum cannot be localized in space-time and even theories in which a space-time manifold cannot be defined exactly in any useful way.

  6. Quantum frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  7. Does the time frame between exercise influence the effectiveness of hydrotherapy for recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halson, Shona L

    2011-06-01

    An increase in research investigating recovery strategies has occurred alongside the increase in usage of recovery by elite athletes. Because there is inconsistent evidence regarding the benefits of recovery on performance, it is necessary to examine research design to identify possible strategies that enhance performance in different athlete settings. The purpose of this review is to examine available recovery literature specifically related to the time frame between performance assessments to identify considerations for both research design and practical use of recovery techniques.

  8. Prospects for Measuring Planetary Spin and Frame-Dragging in Spacecraft Timing Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schärer, Andreas; Bondarescu, Ruxandra [Department of Physics, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Saha, Prasenjit [Department of Physics, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Angélil, Raymond [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Helled, Ravit [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Jetzer, Philippe, E-mail: andreas.schaerer@physik.uzh.ch [Department of Physics, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-09-05

    Satellite tracking involves sending electromagnetic signals to Earth. Both the orbit of the spacecraft and the electromagnetic signals themselves are affected by the curvature of spacetime. The arrival time of the pulses is compared to the ticks of local clocks to reconstruct the orbital path of the satellite to high accuracy, and implicitly measure general relativistic effects. In particular, Schwarzschild space curvature (static) and frame-dragging (stationary) due to the planet's spin affect the satellite's orbit. The dominant relativistic effect on the path of the signal photons is Shapiro delays due to static space curvature. We compute these effects for some current and proposed space missions, using a Hamiltonian formulation in four dimensions. For highly eccentric orbits, such as in the Juno mission and in the Cassini Grand Finale, the relativistic effects have a kick-like nature, which could be advantageous for detecting them if their signatures are properly modeled as functions of time. Frame-dragging appears, in principle, measurable by Juno and Cassini, though not by Galileo 5 and 6. Practical measurement would require disentangling frame-dragging from the Newtonian “foreground” such as the gravitational quadrupole which has an impact on both the spacecraft's orbit and the signal propagation. The foreground problem remains to be solved.

  9. ESTIMATION MODEL OF RESIDUAL LIFE-TIME OF LOCOMOTIVE FRAME BOGIE WITH ALLOWANCE FOR CREEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Skalskyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The problem of determining the residual life of frame bogie elements of locomotives is a great importance for predicting their work safely and avoidance potential failures on the track. This especially concern cases when such elements have creep-fatigue cracks which grow under action of cyclic loading with excerpts T1 in the cycle and reach their critical size. Here the question of the propagation of such defects (cracks arises, their kinetics and about the period of subcritical cracks growth. The aim is to develop a calculation model for determination the period of subcritical creep-fatigue cracks growth in the bogies frames of electric locomotive. The model takes into account the basic parameters of load, geometry of the construction element and cracks. Methodology. The calculation model for determination the period of subcritical creep-fatigue cracks growth in structural elements of frame under conditions of variable load time has been formulated. It is based on the first law of thermodynamics concerning to mechanics of solids slow fracture at low temperature creep and variable loadings. It is assumed that the period of unsteady creep dominates here (the first section of the creep curve. Low-temperature creep is creep of materials at temperatures T0 < 0,5Tmp, where Tmp − the melting point of the material. Findings. The analytical formula for the determination of the stress intensity factor of truck bolster with technological hole has been obtained. It is shown that by experimentally established constants of the material using the proposed analytical relations can easily determine residual resource of the bogie frame elements. Originality. The new mathematical model for describing the kinetics of creep-fatigue cracks growth in the frames bogies of electric locomotive under variable in time loadings with various time excerpts and on this base the period determination of subcritical crack growth has been proposed. Practical value

  10. A Novel Real-Time Reference Key Frame Scan Matching Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haytham Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles represent an effective technology for indoor search and rescue operations. Typically, most indoor missions’ environments would be unknown, unstructured, and/or dynamic. Navigation of UAVs in such environments is addressed by simultaneous localization and mapping approach using either local or global approaches. Both approaches suffer from accumulated errors and high processing time due to the iterative nature of the scan matching method. Moreover, point-to-point scan matching is prone to outlier association processes. This paper proposes a low-cost novel method for 2D real-time scan matching based on a reference key frame (RKF. RKF is a hybrid scan matching technique comprised of feature-to-feature and point-to-point approaches. This algorithm aims at mitigating errors accumulation using the key frame technique, which is inspired from video streaming broadcast process. The algorithm depends on the iterative closest point algorithm during the lack of linear features which is typically exhibited in unstructured environments. The algorithm switches back to the RKF once linear features are detected. To validate and evaluate the algorithm, the mapping performance and time consumption are compared with various algorithms in static and dynamic environments. The performance of the algorithm exhibits promising navigational, mapping results and very short computational time, that indicates the potential use of the new algorithm with real-time systems.

  11. Analysis of a time-lens based optical frame synchronizer and retimer for 10G Ethernet aiming at a Tb/s optical router/switch design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes experimentally and by numerical simulations an optical frame retimer and synchronizer unit for 10 Gbit/s Ethernet input frames. The unit is envisaged to be applied in the design of an optically transparent router for Optical Time Division Multiplexed (OTDM) links, aggregating...... traffic from several 10 Gbit/s Ethernet (10 GE) links. The scheme is based on time-lenses implemented through a combination of a sinusoidally driven optical phase modulation and linear dispersion. Our analysis extracts the operation range of the scheme used for synchronization and retiming in the context...

  12. Application of the Reduction of Scale Range in a Lorentz Boosted Frame to the Numerical Simulation of Particle Acceleration Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.-L.; Fawley, W.M.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown (1) that it may be computationally advantageous to perform computer simulations in a boosted frame for a certain class of systems: particle beams interacting with electron clouds, free electron lasers, and laser-plasma accelerators. However, even if the computer model relies on a covariant set of equations, it was also pointed out that algorithmic difficulties related to discretization errors may have to be overcome in order to take full advantage of the potential speedup (2) . In this paper, we focus on the analysis of the complication of data input and output in a Lorentz boosted frame simulation, and describe the procedures that were implemented in the simulation code Warp(3). We present our most recent progress in the modeling of laser wakefield acceleration in a boosted frame, and describe briefly the potential benefits of calculating in a boosted frame for the modeling of coherent synchrotron radiation.

  13. Nature, nurture, or that fast food hamburger: media framing of diabetes in the New York Times from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanik-Sidener, Kelsey

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a growing yet misunderstood health concern in the United States. This study examined the ways in which diabetes has been framed by the New York Times over the past decade. The public's perception of the causes and solutions to complex problems such as diabetes has significant implications for the way public policy interventions are viewed; therefore, understanding how diabetes is being framed in the media can be an important first step in shifting public opinion about ways to combat the disease. A content analysis of 239 articles published in the New York Times between 2000 and 2010 revealed that nearly one-third of articles failed to differentiate between type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes, which may cause confusion given substantial differences in the root cause and treatment of each. An examination of frames used within each type of diabetes showed that the overall dominant frame across types was either a medical frame or a behavioral frame, with deficient use of a societal frame. The limited use of societal-level framing may make it difficult for the public to see the wider consequences of diabetes and decreases the likelihood of public support for policy solutions to combat the disease.

  14. Neutron Spectroscopy for pulsed beams with frame overlap using a double time-of-flight technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrig, K. P.; Goldblum, B. L.; Brown, J. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bevins, J.; Harasty, M.; Laplace, T. A.; Matthews, E. F.

    2018-01-01

    A new double time-of-flight (dTOF) neutron spectroscopy technique has been developed for pulsed broad spectrum sources with a duty cycle that results in frame overlap, where fast neutrons from a given pulse overtake slower neutrons from previous pulses. Using a tunable beam at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, neutrons were produced via thick-target breakup of 16 MeV deuterons on a beryllium target in the cyclotron vault. The breakup spectral shape was deduced from a dTOF measurement using an array of EJ-309 organic liquid scintillators. Simulation of the neutron detection efficiency of the scintillator array was performed using both GEANT4 and MCNP6. The efficiency-corrected spectral shape was normalized using a foil activation technique to obtain the energy-dependent flux of the neutron beam at zero degrees with respect to the incoming deuteron beam. The dTOF neutron spectrum was compared to spectra obtained using HEPROW and GRAVEL pulse height spectrum unfolding techniques. While the unfolding and dTOF results exhibit some discrepancies in shape, the integrated flux values agree within two standard deviations. This method obviates neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy challenges posed by pulsed beams with frame overlap and opens new opportunities for pulsed white neutron source facilities.

  15. Intelligent Stale-Frame Discards for Real-Time Video Streaming over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheu Tsang-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents intelligent early packet discards (I-EPD for real-time video streaming over a multihop wireless ad hoc network. In a multihop wireless ad hoc network, the quality of transferring real-time video streams could be seriously degraded, since every intermediate node (IN functionally like relay device does not possess large buffer and sufficient bandwidth. Even worse, a selected relay node could leave or power off unexpectedly, which breaks the route to destination. Thus, a stale video frame is useless even if it can reach destination after network traffic becomes smooth or failed route is reconfigured. In the proposed I-EPD, an IN can intelligently determine whether a buffered video packet should be early discarded. For the purpose of validation, we implement the I-EPD on Linux-based embedded systems. Via the comparisons of performance metrics (packet/frame discards ratios, PSNR, etc., we demonstrate that video quality over a wireless ad hoc network can be substantially improved and unnecessary bandwidth wastage is greatly reduced.

  16. Evaluating the Human Damage of Tsunami at Each Time Frame in Aggregate Units Based on GPS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ogawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of the human damage caused by the tsunami are required in order to consider disaster prevention at such a regional level. Hence, there is an increasing need for the assessments of human damage caused by earthquakes. However, damage assessments in japan currently usually rely on static population distribution data, such as statistical night time population data obtained from national census surveys. Therefore, human damage estimation that take into consideration time frames have not been assessed yet. With these backgrounds, the objectives of this study are: to develop a method for estimating the population distribution of the for each time frame, based on location positioning data observed with mass GPS loggers of mobile phones, to use a evacuation and casualties models for evaluating human damage due to the tsunami, and evaluate each time frame by using the data developed in the first objective, and 3 to discuss the factors which cause the differences in human damage for each time frame. By visualizing the results, we clarified the differences in damage depending on time frame, day and area. As this study enables us to assess damage for any time frame in and high resolution, it will be useful to consider provision for various situations when an earthquake may hit, such as during commuting hours or working hours and week day or holiday.

  17. Fatigue characteristics of high strength fire resistance steel for frame structure and time-frequency analysis its acoustic emission signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Nam, Ki Woo; Kang, Chang Young

    2000-01-01

    Demand for now nondestructive evaluation are growing to detect fatigue crack growth behavior to predict long term performance of materials and structure in aggressive environments, especially when they are in non-visible area. Acoustic emission technique is well suited to these problems and has drawn a keen interests because of its dynamic detection ability, extreme sensitivity and location of growing defects. In this study, we analysed acoustic emission signals obtained in fatigue and tensile test of high strength fire resistance steel for frame structure with time-frequency analysis methods. The main frequency range is different in the noise and the fatigue crack propagation. It could be classified that it were also generated by composite fracture mechanics of cleavage, dimple, inclusion separation etc

  18. Unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost laser range finder for real-time range imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Isa; Nakhmani, Arie

    2017-06-01

    Range imaging plays an essential role in many fields: 3D modeling, robotics, heritage, agriculture, forestry, reverse engineering. One of the most popular range-measuring technologies is laser scanner due to its several advantages: long range, high precision, real-time measurement capabilities, and no dependence on lighting conditions. However, laser scanners are very costly. Their high cost prevents widespread use in applications. Due to the latest developments in technology, now, low-cost, reliable, faster, and light-weight 1D laser range finders (LRFs) are available. A low-cost 1D LRF with a scanning mechanism, providing the ability of laser beam steering for additional dimensions, enables to capture a depth map. In this work, we present an unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost LRF to decrease scanning period and reduce vibrations caused by stop-scan in synchronized scanning. Moreover, we developed an algorithm for alignment of unsynchronized raw data and proposed range image post-processing framework. The proposed technique enables to have a range imaging system for a fraction of the price of its counterparts. The results prove that the proposed method can fulfill the need for a low-cost laser scanning for range imaging for static environments because the most significant limitation of the method is the scanning period which is about 2 minutes for 55,000 range points (resolution of 250x220 image). In contrast, scanning the same image takes around 4 minutes in synchronized scanning. Once faster, longer range, and narrow beam LRFs are available, the methods proposed in this work can produce better results.

  19. How Partner Characteristics Can Affect Performance of Alliances with Different Time Frames?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein JALALI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Firms increasingly adopt cooperative strategies and form strategic alliances with foreign partners to be prosperous in entering to international market. Most of scholars have typically focused on generic, conceptual models for alliances partner selection, addressing only limited dimensions of the partner characteristics. This paper presents a new empirical framework that considering the effect of partner characteristics on export performance of alliances, in the case of short/mediumterm alliances and long-term ones. The study explores the effective partner characteristics for each type of alliances based on a sample of 540 alliances which rooted in East European region and also, have at least one Iranian partner. The findings stress the differences between varied partner characteristics in short/medium-term and long-term alliances. More specifically, results introduce a framework that addresses certain and specific partner characteristics to improve the export performance of alliances, due to the time frame of strategic alliances.

  20. Real-time high dynamic range laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegoni, C.; Leon Swisher, C.; Fumene Feruglio, P.; Giedt, R. J.; Rousso, D. L.; Stapleton, S.; Weissleder, R.

    2016-04-01

    In conventional confocal/multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, images are typically acquired under ideal settings and after extensive optimization of parameters for a given structure or feature, often resulting in information loss from other image attributes. To overcome the problem of selective data display, we developed a new method that extends the imaging dynamic range in optical microscopy and improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Here we demonstrate how real-time and sequential high dynamic range microscopy facilitates automated three-dimensional neural segmentation. We address reconstruction and segmentation performance on samples with different size, anatomy and complexity. Finally, in vivo real-time high dynamic range imaging is also demonstrated, making the technique particularly relevant for longitudinal imaging in the presence of physiological motion and/or for quantification of in vivo fast tracer kinetics during functional imaging.

  1. Time course of dynamic range adaptation in the auditory nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace I.; Dean, Isabel; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Auditory adaptation to sound-level statistics occurs as early as in the auditory nerve (AN), the first stage of neural auditory processing. In addition to firing rate adaptation characterized by a rate decrement dependent on previous spike activity, AN fibers show dynamic range adaptation, which is characterized by a shift of the rate-level function or dynamic range toward the most frequently occurring levels in a dynamic stimulus, thereby improving the precision of coding of the most common sound levels (Wen B, Wang GI, Dean I, Delgutte B. J Neurosci 29: 13797–13808, 2009). We investigated the time course of dynamic range adaptation by recording from AN fibers with a stimulus in which the sound levels periodically switch from one nonuniform level distribution to another (Dean I, Robinson BL, Harper NS, McAlpine D. J Neurosci 28: 6430–6438, 2008). Dynamic range adaptation occurred rapidly, but its exact time course was difficult to determine directly from the data because of the concomitant firing rate adaptation. To characterize the time course of dynamic range adaptation without the confound of firing rate adaptation, we developed a phenomenological “dual adaptation” model that accounts for both forms of AN adaptation. When fitted to the data, the model predicts that dynamic range adaptation occurs as rapidly as firing rate adaptation, over 100–400 ms, and the time constants of the two forms of adaptation are correlated. These findings suggest that adaptive processing in the auditory periphery in response to changes in mean sound level occurs rapidly enough to have significant impact on the coding of natural sounds. PMID:22457465

  2. Inclusion of mobile telephone numbers into an ongoing population health survey in New South Wales, Australia, using an overlapping dual-frame design: impact on the time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Margo L; Ferguson, Raymond A; Steel, David G

    2014-08-12

    Since 1997, the NSW Population Health Survey (NSWPHS) had selected the sample using random digit dialing of landline telephone numbers. When the survey began coverage of the population by landline phone frames was high (96%). As landline coverage in Australia has declined and continues to do so, in 2012, a sample of mobile telephone numbers was added to the survey using an overlapping dual-frame design. Details of the methodology are published elsewhere. This paper discusses the impacts of the sampling frame change on the time series, and provides possible approaches to handling these impacts. Prevalence estimates were calculated for type of phone-use, and a range of health indicators. Prevalence ratios (PR) for each of the health indicators were also calculated using Poisson regression analysis with robust variance estimation by type of phone-use. Health estimates for 2012 were compared to 2011. The full time series was examined for selected health indicators. It was estimated from the 2012 NSWPHS that 20.0% of the NSW population were mobile-only phone users. Looking at the full time series for overweight or obese and current smoking if the NSWPHS had continued to be undertaken only using a landline frame, overweight or obese would have been shown to continue to increase and current smoking would have been shown to continue to decrease. However, with the introduction of the overlapping dual-frame design in 2012, overweight or obese increased until 2011 and then decreased in 2012, and current smoking decreased until 2011, and then increased in 2012. Our examination of these time series showed that the changes were a consequence of the sampling frame change and were not real changes. Both the backcasting method and the minimal coverage method could adequately adjust for the design change and allow for the continuation of the time series. The inclusion of the mobile telephone numbers, through an overlapping dual-frame design, did impact on the time series for some of

  3. Prospects of India's energy and emissions for a long time frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Ullash K.

    2011-01-01

    For any nation, sector-wise forecasts of energy demand and emissions are becoming valuable elements in devising its national and international policies relating to energy security, local environment, and global climate change. It is in this context that this work attempts to forecast India's possible energy demands and emissions adopting a key indicator approach on least cost generation expansion optimization methodology for a long time frame. This study developed key indicators for useful-energy demand for end-use sectors such as industry, commerce, and residence. Key indicators for transport sector and non-energy use sectors were developed on transport mobility demand and end-use fuel demand. The main drivers of these key indicators are socio-economic parameters. This work was conducted in a linear programmed (LP) TIMES G5 model on TIMES modeling framework for model horizon of 1990-2100. By the end of the 21st-century, India's energy demands are projected to be about 1825 Mtoe of primary energy, 1263 Mtoe of final energy consumption, 4840 TWh of electricity generations, 723 Mtoe of energy import, and 4414 Mt of CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: → This work is carried out for India. → It is a long horizon study. → Sectoral energy demand and emissions are projected in this work.

  4. The spin project: safety and performance indicators in different time frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.; Becker, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Safety and performance indicators have been under discussion for many years in several countries and international organisations. If those indicators refer to the long term safety of the total disposal system, they are often called safety indicators. If they refer to the performance of subsystems or the total system from a more technical point of view, they are sometimes called performance indicators. The need for indicators other than dose rates derives e.g. from the long time frames involved in safety assessments of waste disposal systems and the increasing uncertainty in dose rate calculations over time due to uncertainty in evolution of the surface environment and of behaviour of man. Before introducing additional indicators into a safety case of a potential repository site, the applicability and usefulness of different indicators have to be investigated and evaluated. The systematic analysis and testing of safety and performance indicators for use in different time horizons after closure of the disposal facility is the task of the SPIN project. This is done by re-calculating four recent studies concerning repository projects in granite formations. (authors)

  5. Pulse Based Time-of-Flight Range Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbolandi, Hamed; Plack, Markus; Kolb, Andreas

    2018-05-23

    Pulse-based Time-of-Flight (PB-ToF) cameras are an attractive alternative range imaging approach, compared to the widely commercialized Amplitude Modulated Continuous-Wave Time-of-Flight (AMCW-ToF) approach. This paper presents an in-depth evaluation of a PB-ToF camera prototype based on the Hamamatsu area sensor S11963-01CR. We evaluate different ToF-related effects, i.e., temperature drift, systematic error, depth inhomogeneity, multi-path effects, and motion artefacts. Furthermore, we evaluate the systematic error of the system in more detail, and introduce novel concepts to improve the quality of range measurements by modifying the mode of operation of the PB-ToF camera. Finally, we describe the means of measuring the gate response of the PB-ToF sensor and using this information for PB-ToF sensor simulation.

  6. Characterization of modulated time-of-flight range image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Andrew D.; Dorrington, Adrian A.; Cree, Michael J.; Carnegie, Dale A.

    2009-01-01

    A number of full field image sensors have been developed that are capable of simultaneously measuring intensity and distance (range) for every pixel in a given scene using an indirect time-of-flight measurement technique. A light source is intensity modulated at a frequency between 10-100 MHz, and an image sensor is modulated at the same frequency, synchronously sampling light reflected from objects in the scene (homodyne detection). The time of flight is manifested as a phase shift in the illumination modulation envelope, which can be determined from the sampled data simultaneously for each pixel in the scene. This paper presents a method of characterizing the high frequency modulation response of these image sensors, using a pico-second laser pulser. The characterization results allow the optimal operating parameters, such as the modulation frequency, to be identified in order to maximize the range measurement precision for a given sensor. A number of potential sources of error exist when using these sensors, including deficiencies in the modulation waveform shape, duty cycle, or phase, resulting in contamination of the resultant range data. From the characterization data these parameters can be identified and compensated for by modifying the sensor hardware or through post processing of the acquired range measurements.

  7. Investigation on Reference Frames and Time Systems in Multi-GNSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Nicolini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Receivers able to track satellites belonging to different GNSSs (Global Navigation Satellite Systems are available on the market. To compute coordinates and velocities it is necessary to identify all the elements that contribute to interoperability of the different GNSSs. For example the timescales kept by different GNSSs have to be aligned. Receiver-specific biases, or firmware-dependent biases, need to be calibrated. The reference frame used in the representation of the orbits must be unique. In this paper we address the interoperability issues from the standpoint of a Single Point Positioning (SPP user, i.e., using pseudoranges and broadcast ephemeris. The biases between GNSSs timescales and receiver-dependent biases are analyzed for a set of 31 MGEX (Multi-GNSS Experiment stations over a time span of more than three years. Time series of biases between timescales of GPS (Global Positioning System, GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS (Quasi-Zenith Satellite System, SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System and NAVIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation are investigated, in addition to the identification of events like discontinuity of receiver-dependent biases due to firmware updating. The GPS broadcast reference frame is shown to be aligned to the one (IGS14 realized by the precise ephemeris of CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe to within 0.1 m and 2 milliarcsec, with values dependent on whether IIR-A, IIR-B/M or IIF satellite blocks are considered. Larger offsets are observed for GLONASS, up to 1 m for GLONASS K satellites. For Galileo the alignment of the broadcast orbit to IGS14/CODE is again at the 0.1 m and several milliarcsec level, with the FOC (Full Operational Capability satellites slightly better than IOV (In Orbit Validation. For BeiDou an alignment of the broadcast frame to IGS14/CODE comparable to GLONASS is observed, regardless of whether IGSO (Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit or MEO

  8. Time-of-flight range imaging for underwater applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Hannes; Catregn, Gion-Pol; Leutenegger, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    Precise and low-cost range imaging in underwater settings with object distances on the meter level is demonstrated. This is addressed through silicon-based time-of-flight (TOF) cameras operated with light emitting diodes (LEDs) at visible, rather than near-IR wavelengths. We find that the attainable performance depends on a variety of parameters, such as the wavelength dependent absorption of water, the emitted optical power and response times of the LEDs, or the spectral sensitivity of the TOF chip. An in-depth analysis of the interplay between the different parameters is given and the performance of underwater TOF imaging using different visible illumination wavelengths is analyzed.

  9. Optimal Frequency Ranges for Sub-Microsecond Precision Pulsar Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael Timothy; McLaughlin, Maura; Cordes, James; Chatterjee, Shami; Lazio, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Precision pulsar timing requires optimization against measurement errors and astrophysical variance from the neutron stars themselves and the interstellar medium. We investigate optimization of arrival time precision as a function of radio frequency and bandwidth. We find that increases in bandwidth that reduce the contribution from receiver noise are countered by the strong chromatic dependence of interstellar effects and intrinsic pulse-profile evolution. The resulting optimal frequency range is therefore telescope and pulsar dependent. We demonstrate the results for five pulsars included in current pulsar timing arrays and determine that they are not optimally observed at current center frequencies. We also find that arrival-time precision can be improved by increases in total bandwidth. Wideband receivers centered at high frequencies can reduce required overall integration times and provide significant improvements in arrival time uncertainty by a factor of $\\sim$$\\sqrt{2}$ in most cases, assuming a fixed integration time. We also discuss how timing programs can be extended to pulsars with larger dispersion measures through the use of higher-frequency observations.

  10. Precise Time Synchronisation and Ranging in Nano-Satellite Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabs, Martin; Plettemeier, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Precise time synchronization and ranging is very important for a variety of scientific experiments with more than two nano-satellites: For synthetic aperture radar (SAR) applications, for example, the radar signal phase (which corresponds to a synchronized time) as well as the location must be known on each satellite forming synthetic antenna. Also multi-static radar systems, MIMO radar systems or radio tomography applications will take advantage from highly accurate synchronization and position determination. We propose a method for synchronizing the time as well as measuring the distance between nano-satellites very precisely by utilizing mm-wave radio links. This approach can also be used for time synchronization of more than two satellites and accordingly determinating the precise relative location of nano-satellites in space. The time synchronization signal is modulated onto a mm-wave carrier. In the simplest form it is a harmonic sinusoidal signal with a frequency in the MHz range. The distance is measured with a frequency sweep or short pulse modulated onto a different carrier frequency. The sweep or pulse transmission start is synchronized to the received time synchronization. The time synchronization transmitter receives the pulse/sweep signal and can calculate the (double) time of flight for both signals. This measurement can be easily converted to the distance. The use of a mm-wave carrier leads to small antennas and the free space loss linked to the high frequency reduces non line of sight echoes. It also allows a high sweep/pulse bandwidth enabling superior ranging accuracy. Additionally, there is also less electromagnetic interference probability since telemetry and scientific applications typically do not use mm-wavefrequencies. Since the system is working full-duplex the time synchronization can be performed continuously and coherently. Up to now the required semiconductor processes did not achieve enough gain/bandwidth to realize this concept at

  11. Framing the frame

    OpenAIRE

    Todd McElroy; John J. Seta

    2007-01-01

    We examined how the goal of a decision task influences the perceived positive, negative valence of the alternatives and thereby the likelihood and direction of framing effects. In Study 1 we manipulated the goal to increase, decrease or maintain the commodity in question and found that when the goal of the task was to increase the commodity, a framing effect consistent with those typically observed in the literature was found. When the goal was to decrease, a framing effect opposite to the ty...

  12. AFFECT AND THE FRAMING EFFECT WITHIN INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME: RISK TAKING IN A DYNAMIC INVESTMENT SIMULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Myeong-Gu; Goldfarb, Brent; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2010-04-01

    We examined the role of affect (pleasant or unpleasant feelings) and decision frames (gains or losses) in risk taking in a 20-day stock investment simulation in which 101 participants rated their current feelings while making investment decisions. As predicted, affect attenuated the relationships between decision frames and risk taking. After experiencing losses, individuals made more risky choices, in keeping with the framing effect. However, this tendency decreased and/or disappeared when loss was simultaneously experienced with either pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Similarly, individuals' tendency to avoid risk after experiencing gains disappeared or even reversed when they simultaneously experienced pleasant feelings.

  13. Extending the Dynamic Range of a Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estee, Justin; S πRIT Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The use of Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) in intermediate heavy ion reactions faces some challenges in addressing the energy losses that range from the small energy loss of relativistic pions to the large energy loss of slow moving heavy ions. A typical trade-off can be to set the smallest desired signals to be well within the lower limits of the dynamic range of the electronics while allowing for some larger signals to saturate the electronics. With wire plane anodes, signals from readout pads further away from the track remain unsaturated and allow signals from tracks with saturated pads to be accurately recovered. We illustrate this technique using data from the SAMURAI Pion-Reconstruction and Ion-Tracker (S πRIT) TPC , which recently measured pions and light charged particles in collisions of Sn+Sn isotopes. Our method exploits knowledge of how the induced charge distribution depends on the distance from the track to smoothly extend dynamic range even when some of the pads in the track are saturated. To accommodate the analysis of slow moving heavy ions, we have extended the Bichsel energy loss distributions to handle slower moving ions as well. In this talk, I will discuss a combined approach which successfully extends the dynamic range of the TPC electronics. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant Nos. DE-SC0014530, DE-NA0002923, US NSF Grant No. PHY-1565546 and the Japan MEXT KAKENHI Grant No. 24105004.

  14. Chinese wood frame buildings and the changing dimensions of their structural components in different time periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nujaba Binte Kabir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Features of the Chinese wood frame buildings are same in character from dynasty to dynasty. The study concentrates on 9 Chinese wood frame buildings from Tang to Yuan dynasty and tries to relate these buildings with the text described in a building manual book published in Song dynasty Yingzao fashi. The features of some buildings match with the text described in the book some do not. But on the other hand Liang Sicheng, scholar of Chinese architecture in his book claimed that Chinese wood frame architecture has a unique system of characteristics (Liang, 1984. The system of wood frame Chinese architecture did not change but the proportion of the features has changed in different dynasty. The aim of the paper is to compare the features of the buildings those have been studied according to Yingzao fashi with Liang's observation on the change of building style in different periods.

  15. Frame-Transfer Gating Raman Spectroscopy for Time-Resolved Multiscalar Combustion Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Fischer, David G.; Kojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Accurate experimental measurement of spatially and temporally resolved variations in chemical composition (species concentrations) and temperature in turbulent flames is vital for characterizing the complex phenomena occurring in most practical combustion systems. These diagnostic measurements are called multiscalar because they are capable of acquiring multiple scalar quantities simultaneously. Multiscalar diagnostics also play a critical role in the area of computational code validation. In order to improve the design of combustion devices, computational codes for modeling turbulent combustion are often used to speed up and optimize the development process. The experimental validation of these codes is a critical step in accepting their predictions for engine performance in the absence of cost-prohibitive testing. One of the most critical aspects of setting up a time-resolved stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) diagnostic system is the temporal optical gating scheme. A short optical gate is necessary in order for weak SRS signals to be detected with a good signal- to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of strong background optical emissions. This time-synchronized optical gating is a classical problem even to other spectroscopic techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Traditionally, experimenters have had basically two options for gating: (1) an electronic means of gating using an image intensifier before the charge-coupled-device (CCD), or (2) a mechanical optical shutter (a rotary chopper/mechanical shutter combination). A new diagnostic technology has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center that utilizes a frame-transfer CCD sensor, in conjunction with a pulsed laser and multiplex optical fiber collection, to realize time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of turbulent flames that is free from optical background noise (interference). The technology permits not only shorter temporal optical gating (down

  16. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaola-Galván, P.; Oliver, J.L.; Hackenberg, M.; Coronado, A.V.; Ivanov, P.Ch.; Carpena, P.

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome. PMID:23645997

  17. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaola-Galván, P; Oliver, J L; Hackenberg, M; Coronado, A V; Ivanov, P Ch; Carpena, P

    2012-06-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome.

  18. Individual differences in long-range time representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Camila S; Caetano, Marcelo S; Balci, Fuat; Claessens, Peter M E; Zana, Yossi

    2017-04-01

    On the basis of experimental data, long-range time representation has been proposed to follow a highly compressed power function, which has been hypothesized to explain the time inconsistency found in financial discount rate preferences. The aim of this study was to evaluate how well linear and power function models explain empirical data from individual participants tested in different procedural settings. The line paradigm was used in five different procedural variations with 35 adult participants. Data aggregated over the participants showed that fitted linear functions explained more than 98% of the variance in all procedures. A linear regression fit also outperformed a power model fit for the aggregated data. An individual-participant-based analysis showed better fits of a linear model to the data of 14 participants; better fits of a power function with an exponent β > 1 to the data of 12 participants; and better fits of a power function with β discount rates in intertemporal choice to the compressed nature of subjective time must entail the characterization of subjective time on an individual-participant basis.

  19. Precise digital integration in wide time range: theory and realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, A.M.; Pavlenko, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    The digital integration method based on using high-speed precision analog-to-digital converters (ADC) has become widely used over the recent years. The paper analyzes the limitations of this method that are caused by the signal properties, ADC sampling rate and noise spectral density of the ADC signal path. This analysis allowed creating digital integrators with accurate synchronization and achieving an integration error of less than 10 −5 in the time range from microseconds to tens of seconds. The structure of the integrator is described and its basic parameters are presented. The possibilities of different ADC chips in terms of their applicability to digital integrators are discussed. A comparison with other integrating devices is presented.

  20. The Rheology of the Earth in the Intermediate Time Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. SCHEIDEGGER

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available The evidence bearing upon the rheology of the " tectonically
    significant layers" of the Earth (" tectonosphere " in the intermediate
    time range (4 hours to 15000 years is analyzed. This evidence is
    based upon observations of rock-behavior in the laboratory, of seismic
    aftershock sequences, of Earth tides and of the decay of the Chandler wobble.
    It is shown that of the rheological models (Maxwell-material, Kelvin-material,
    and logarithmically creeping material advocated in the literature, only that
    based on logarithmic creep does not contradict any of the observational
    evidence available to date. In addition, a strength limit may be present.

  1. Reusable frame greenhouse that saves money and erection time and reduces waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Ott, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    An improved greenhouse design has been proposed and tested for use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory for containing radioactive materials during decontamination, maintenance, and remodeling operations in nuclear facilities. The advantages of the greenhouse design include a reusable frame that is free standing and self-supporting and a plastic enclosure that is easily erected and attached to the frame. Manpower requirements appear to be about half that of the conventional greenhouse, the construction costs are approximately 20 to 40% lower, and the waste generated from the greenhouse is approximately 60% lower

  2. IAEA activities related to safety indicators, time frames and reference scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Hioki, K.; Metcalf, P.

    2002-01-01

    The fundamental principles for the safe management of radioactive waste have been agreed internationally and form the basis for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management that entered into force in June 2001. Protection of human health and the environment and safety of facilities (including radioactive waste disposal facilities) are widely recognised principles to be followed and demonstrated in post-closure safety assessment of waste repositories. Dose and risk are at present internationally agreed safety criteria, used for judging the acceptability of such facilities. However, there have been a number of activities initiated and co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) which have provided an international forum for discussion and consensus building on the use safety indicators which are complementary to dose and risk. The Agency has been working on the definition of other safety indicators, such as flux, time, environmental concentration, etc.; the desired characteristics, and use of these indicators in different time frames. The IAEA has focused on safety indicators related to geological disposal, exploring their role in the development of a safety case, evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of using other safety indicators and how they complement the dose and risk indicators. The use of these indicators have been discussed also from regulatory perspective, mainly in terms of achieving reasonable assurance and confidence in safety assessments for waste repositories and decision making in the presence of uncertainty in the context of disposal of long-lived waste. Considerable effort has also been expended by the Agency on the development and application of principles for defining critical groups and biospheres for deep geological repositories. One of the important and successful IAEA programmes in this field is the Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) project

  3. INVESTIGATING DURABILITY TIME INTERVAL OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STEEL FRAME WITH ANGLE CONNECTIONS UNDER ELEVATED TEMPRATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Rad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, much attention has been paid to the analysis of fire effect on steel structures because of fire importance and its effect on the stability of steel structures. Considering steel sensitivity to heat and high costs of steel frames retrofitting with the help of thermal covers, accurate behavior analysis of metal frames in elevated temperatures is required in order to reduce undesirable effects of temperature increase. To do so and taking into account the high costs of lab tests and their limitations in investigation of numerous parameters during any test, finite element method is used as a powerful and valuable tool in modeling of steel frames under thermal conditions. In this study, the fire effect on steel beams is studied considering the softening of connection and decrease of materials strength. Then, structure durability in fire will be analyzed in the ANSYS software. The analyzed frame is a single span three dimensional one and different conditions including connection type, longitudinal expansion effect, thermal loading and the kind of fire will be analyzed and compared. The obtained computer results will be compared with other researches results.

  4. Reliability of video-based identification of footstrike pattern and video time frame at initial contact in recreational runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Camma; Larsen, L H; Nielsen, R.O.

    2015-01-01

    and video time frame at initial contact during treadmill running using two-dimensional (2D) video recordings. METHODS: Thirty-one recreational runners were recorded twice, 1 week apart, with a high-speed video camera. Two blinded raters evaluated each video twice with an interval of at least 14 days....... RESULTS: Kappa values for within-day identification of footstrike pattern revealed intra-rater agreement of 0.83-0.88 and inter-rater agreement of 0.50-0.63. Corresponding figures for between-day identification of footstrike pattern were 0.63-0.69 and 0.41-0.53, respectively. Identification of video time...... in 36% of the identifications (kappa=0.41). The 95% limits of agreement for identification of video time frame at initial contact may, at times, allow for different identification of footstrike pattern. Clinicians should, therefore, be encouraged to continue using clinical 2D video setups for intra...

  5. Noninvariance of Space and Time Scale Ranges under a Lorentz Transformation and the Implications for the Numerical Study of Relativistic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.-L.; Vay, J.-L.

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis which shows that the ranges of space and time scales spanned by a system are not invariant under the Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference which minimizes an aggregate measure of the range of space and time scales. Such a frame is derived for example cases: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beam interacting with electron clouds. Implications for experimental, theoretical and numerical studies are discussed. The most immediate relevance is the reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times for such systems

  6. High dynamic range adaptive real-time smart camera: an overview of the HDR-ARTiST project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Heyrman, Barthélémy; Ginhac, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Standard cameras capture only a fraction of the information that is visible to the human visual system. This is specifically true for natural scenes including areas of low and high illumination due to transitions between sunlit and shaded areas. When capturing such a scene, many cameras are unable to store the full Dynamic Range (DR) resulting in low quality video where details are concealed in shadows or washed out by sunlight. The imaging technique that can overcome this problem is called HDR (High Dynamic Range) imaging. This paper describes a complete smart camera built around a standard off-the-shelf LDR (Low Dynamic Range) sensor and a Virtex-6 FPGA board. This smart camera called HDR-ARtiSt (High Dynamic Range Adaptive Real-time Smart camera) is able to produce a real-time HDR live video color stream by recording and combining multiple acquisitions of the same scene while varying the exposure time. This technique appears as one of the most appropriate and cheapest solution to enhance the dynamic range of real-life environments. HDR-ARtiSt embeds real-time multiple captures, HDR processing, data display and transfer of a HDR color video for a full sensor resolution (1280 1024 pixels) at 60 frames per second. The main contributions of this work are: (1) Multiple Exposure Control (MEC) dedicated to the smart image capture with alternating three exposure times that are dynamically evaluated from frame to frame, (2) Multi-streaming Memory Management Unit (MMMU) dedicated to the memory read/write operations of the three parallel video streams, corresponding to the different exposure times, (3) HRD creating by combining the video streams using a specific hardware version of the Devebecs technique, and (4) Global Tone Mapping (GTM) of the HDR scene for display on a standard LCD monitor.

  7. Framing the frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined how the goal of a decision task influences the perceived positive, negative valence of the alternatives and thereby the likelihood and direction of framing effects. In Study 1 we manipulated the goal to increase, decrease or maintain the commodity in question and found that when the goal of the task was to increase the commodity, a framing effect consistent with those typically observed in the literature was found. When the goal was to decrease, a framing effect opposite to the typical findings was observed whereas when the goal was to maintain, no framing effect was found. When we examined the decisions of the entire population, we did not observe a framing effect. In Study 2, we provided participants with a similar decision task except in this situation the goal was ambiguous, allowing us to observe participants' self-imposed goals and how they influenced choice preferences. The findings from Study 2 demonstrated individual variability in imposed goal and provided a conceptual replication of Study 1. %need keywords

  8. Real-time image processing of TOF range images using a reconfigurable processor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussmann, S.; Knoll, F.; Edeler, T.

    2011-07-01

    During the last years, Time-of-Flight sensors achieved a significant impact onto research fields in machine vision. In comparison to stereo vision system and laser range scanners they combine the advantages of active sensors providing accurate distance measurements and camera-based systems recording a 2D matrix at a high frame rate. Moreover low cost 3D imaging has the potential to open a wide field of additional applications and solutions in markets like consumer electronics, multimedia, digital photography, robotics and medical technologies. This paper focuses on the currently implemented 4-phase-shift algorithm in this type of sensors. The most time critical operation of the phase-shift algorithm is the arctangent function. In this paper a novel hardware implementation of the arctangent function using a reconfigurable processor system is presented and benchmarked against the state-of-the-art CORDIC arctangent algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is well suited for real-time processing of the range images of TOF cameras.

  9. Exploring inter-frame correlation analysis and wavelet-domain modeling for real-time caption detection in streaming video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Tian, Yonghong; Gao, Wen

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the amount of streaming video has grown rapidly on the Web. Often, retrieving these streaming videos offers the challenge of indexing and analyzing the media in real time because the streams must be treated as effectively infinite in length, thus precluding offline processing. Generally speaking, captions are important semantic clues for video indexing and retrieval. However, existing caption detection methods often have difficulties to make real-time detection for streaming video, and few of them concern on the differentiation of captions from scene texts and scrolling texts. In general, these texts have different roles in streaming video retrieval. To overcome these difficulties, this paper proposes a novel approach which explores the inter-frame correlation analysis and wavelet-domain modeling for real-time caption detection in streaming video. In our approach, the inter-frame correlation information is used to distinguish caption texts from scene texts and scrolling texts. Moreover, wavelet-domain Generalized Gaussian Models (GGMs) are utilized to automatically remove non-text regions from each frame and only keep caption regions for further processing. Experiment results show that our approach is able to offer real-time caption detection with high recall and low false alarm rate, and also can effectively discern caption texts from the other texts even in low resolutions.

  10. Partner Capabilities and Alliance Time Frame: An Analysis of International Strategic Alliances from the CEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hossein Jalali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Partner selecton is one of the most discussed issues in strategic alliances literature. However, the majority of research has typically focused on generic partner characteristcs and presented conceptual models for alliance partner selecton, addressing clan image but only limited pieces of the partner selecton puzzle. Rooted in the resource-based view, this paper suggests that partner selecton is contngent upon the intended tme frame of strategic alliances and presents a new and intensive conceptual framework that examines the appropriate partner capability for strategic alliances, in the case of short/medium-term alliances and long-term ones. Based on empirical evidences from 736 alliances in the CEE region, the fndings stress the differences between varied partner capabilites in short/medium-term and long-term alliances. Accordingly, the signifcance of technological capability increases with the number of year’s alliances endured. Moreover, the importance of market capability decreases signifcantly when alliances last for a longer tme frame.

  11. The Framing of Climate-Change Discourse by Shell and the Framing of Shell’s Climate Change-Related Activities by The Economist and The Financial Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Kapranov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a qualitative study of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group’s (further - Shell corporate image building in relation to climate change and how this image is represented in the British financial press. The material of the study involves the official 2014 Shell’s annual report (further - AR and online coverages of Shell’s climate change-related activities by the leading British financial newspapers, The Economist and The Financial Times (further – The FT. Shell’s image of climate change is investigated by means of identification of conceptual metaphors viewed through the lenses of the methodological apparatus of cognitive linguistics. Conceptual metaphors identified in the 2014 AR are subsequently juxtaposed with conceptual metaphors associated with Shell’s climate-change activities in The Economist and in The FT. The results reveal that Shell’s 2014 AR involves the following conceptual metaphors associated with climate change: ‘Climate Change as a Journey’, ‘Climate Change as a Battle’, ‘Shell as a Responsible Citizen’, ‘Shell as a Caring Corporation’, ‘Climate Change as Growth’, and ‘Climate Change as Money’. In contrast with these conceptual metaphors, The Economist represents Shell’s climate change activities in 2014 via ‘Shell as an Immoral Corporation’ and ‘Shell as a Sinner’. The FT frames Shell’s climate change agenda in 2014 by means of conceptual metaphors ‘Climate Change as Growth’, ‘Climate Change as a Journey’, and ‘Climate Change as Money’ respectively. The discrepancies between Shell’s self-image of climate change and its representations by The Economist and The FT are further presented and discussed in the article.

  12. Compliance Framing - Framing Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz-Ulrich Haack; Martin C. Reimann

    2012-01-01

    Corporations have to install various organizational measures to comply with legal as well as internal guidelines systematically. Compliance management systems have the challenging task to make use of an internal compliance-marketing approach in order to ensure not only an adequate but also effective compliance-culture. Compliance-literature and findings of persuasive goal-framing-theory give opposite implications for establishing a rather values- versus rule-based compliance-culture respectiv...

  13. The 2-MEV model: Constancy of adolescent environmental values within an 8-year time frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, F. X.; Johnson, B.; Buxner, S.; Felix, L.

    2015-08-01

    The 2-MEV model is a widely used tool to monitor children's environmental perception by scoring individual values. Although the scale's validity has been confirmed repeatedly and independently as well as the scale is in usage within more than two dozen language units all over the world, longitudinal properties still need clarification. The purpose of the present study therefore was to validate the 2-MEV scale based on a large data basis of 10,676 children collected over an eight-year period. Cohorts of three different US states contributed to the sample by responding to a paper-and-pencil questionnaire within their pre-test initiatives in the context of field center programs. Since we used only the pre-program 2-MEV scale results (which is before participation in education programs), the data were clearly unspoiled by any follow-up interventions. The purpose of analysis was fourfold: First, to test and confirm the hypothesized factorized structure for the large data set and for the subsample of each of the three states. Second, to analyze the scoring pattern across the eight years' time range for both preservation and utilitarian preferences. Third, to investigate any age effects in the extracted factors. Finally, to extract suitable recommendations for educational implementation efforts.

  14. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to recent DSDP Leg 42B Cores from the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baak, Christiaan G. C.; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan V.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the Late Neogene, the Black Sea experienced large paleoenvironmental changes, switching between (anoxic) marine conditions when connected to the Mediterranean Sea and (oxic) freshwater conditions at times of isolation. We create a magnetostratigraphic time frame for three sites drilled

  15. Fulfillment of the long-term safety functions by the different barriers during the main time frames after repository closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preter, P. de; Lalieux, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    In general terms the basis long-term safety functions of a disposal system (i.e. the engineered barrier system, including the waste forms and the host rock) are the functions that the system as a whole or its constituents must fulfill in order to assure an adequate level of long-term radiological safety. The long-term safety functions of a disposal system constitute a generic and methodological tool that can be used in a double sense. In the first place these functions provide an a priori instrument for designing the system: the implementer must ensure that these safety functions are fulfilled by a series of robust system barriers and components. These functions can also be used as an a posteriori means to describe and assess in general terms the functioning of the system. In this way they are an important qualitative element to help to support the safety case and to identify further R and D priorities. By providing a general description of system functioning they are also a communication tool to stakeholders who are less familiar with the details of a safety case. Instead of limiting the description to a multi-barrier system, the safety functions enable to better explain how the different barriers contribute to one or more safety functions and by which processes this is performed. By doing so the system description moves from multi-barrier to multi-function. The aim of this paper is to provide such a general description of the system functioning for the Belgian case of deep disposal of high-level waste (mainly spent fuel or vitrified waste from fuel reprocessing) in the Boom Clay, o poorly-indurated argillaceous formation. From the detailed safety and performance evaluations the main time frames after repository closure are identified. Each time frame relates to a period during which the successive safety functions play a key role. Also, in each time frame the radiological impact on the environment is distinctly different. (authors)

  16. Gain versus loss framing in adherence-promoting communication targeting patients with chronic diseases: the moderating effect of individual time perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Villagran, Melinda M; Kreps, Gary L; McHorney, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the joint effect of message framing and time perspective in adherence-promoting communication targeting patients with chronic diseases. Based on previous framing and time perspective research, it was hypothesized that the gain frame would show an advantage over the loss frame among future-oriented patients; for present-oriented patients, it was hypothesized that the framing effect would be relatively indistinct. In total, 1,108 currently nonadherent patients with chronic disease participated in an experiment where they were randomly assigned to either gain- or loss-framed messages addressing key beliefs underlying their nonadherence or a no-message control condition. Intention and attitude regarding future adherence as well as message perceptions were measured after message presentation. Results of this study generally supported the hypotheses. Message topics-whether the messages addressed patients' perceived need for medications or concerns about side effects-did not moderate the effect of framing or the interaction between framing and time perspective. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  17. Solution of the time-dependent inertial-frame equation of radiative transfer in moving media to O(v/c)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalas, D.; Klein, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A stable and efficient mixed-frame method has been formulated for the solution of the time-dependent equation of radiative transfer with full retention of all velocity dependent terms to O(ν/c). The method retains the simplicity of the differential operator found in the inertial frame while transforming the absorption and emission coefficients to the comoving frame keeping them isotropic. The method is ideally suited to continuum calculations. To correctly treat the time dependence of the radiation field over fluid-flow time increments, the velocity-dependent terms on the right-hand side of both the transfer and moment equations must be retained for consistency

  18. Frames and semi-frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Balazs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Loosely speaking, a semi-frame is a generalized frame for which one of the frame bounds is absent. More precisely, given a total sequence in a Hilbert space, we speak of an upper (resp. lower) semi-frame if only the upper (resp. lower) frame bound is valid. Equivalently, for an upper semi-frame, the frame operator is bounded, but has an unbounded inverse, whereas a lower semi-frame has an unbounded frame operator, with a bounded inverse. We study mostly upper semi-frames, both in the continuous and discrete case, and give some remarks for the dual situation. In particular, we show that reconstruction is still possible in certain cases.

  19. Valence and inner-valence shell dissociative photoionization of CO in the 26-33 eV range. II. Molecular-frame and recoil-frame photoelectron angular distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, M.; Houver, J.C.; Raseev, G.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results for molecular-frame photoemission are presented for inner-valence shell photoionization of the CO molecule induced by linearly and circularly polarized light. The experimental recoil frame photoelectron angular distributions (RFPADs) obtained from dissociative...... photoionization measurements where the velocities of the ionic fragment and photoelectron were detected in coincidence, are compared to RFPADs computed using the multichannel Schwinger configuration interaction method. The formalism for including a finite lifetime of the predissociative ion state is presented...... for the case of general elliptically polarized light, to obtain the RFPAD rather than the molecular frame photoelectron angular distribution (MFPAD), which would be obtained with the assumption of instantaneous dissociation. We have considered photoionization of CO for the photon energies of 26.0 eV, 29.5 e...

  20. Framing Health Messages for Adolescents: Should We Use Objective Time Periods, Temporal Benchmarks, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Goudie, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Time perspective is a cognitive-motivational construct, which has been shown to be related to decision-making, motivation and adjustment. The majority of research into time perspective has been conducted in college students and/or general population samples. Focus groups were held as part of a larger investigation into the relationship between…

  1. A study of three-half-turn and frame antennae for ion cyclotron range of frequency plasma heating in the URAGAN-3M torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysoivan, A.I.; Moiseenko, V.E.; Plyusnin, V.V.; Kasilov, S.V.; Bondarenko, V.N.; Chechkin, V.V.; Fomin, I.P.; Grigor'eva, L.I.; Konovalov, V.G.; Koval'ov, S.V.; Litvinov, A.P.; Mironov, Yu.K.; Nazarov, N.I.; Pavlichenko, O.S.; Pavlichenko, R.O.; Shapoval, A.N.; Skibenko, A.I.; Volkov, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Numerical and experimental results of Alfven wave heating of plasmas in the frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency (ω ci ) are presented. Two different types of antenna were used for plasma production and heating: a frame type antenna (FTA) conventionally used in the URAGAN-3M device and a three-half-turn antenna (THTA) proposed recently to avoid the deleterious effects of conversion of fast wave to slow wave in the plasma periphery and to perform plasma core heating more effectively. Numerical modeling of electromagnetic field excitation in the URAGAN-3M plasma by the FTA and THTA was performed using a one-dimensional code. The results of calculations showed better performance of the compact THTA compared with the FTA for the case of a high density plasma (approximately 10 13 cm -3 ). When using the THTA, the experiments performed showed the possibility of dense plasma production (more than 2x10 13 cm -3 ) and heating, which had not been obtained earlier in the URAGAN-3M. Shifting the power deposition profile deeper inside the plasma body with the THTA resulted in modification of the plasma density profile and an improvement in plasma confinement. ((orig.))

  2. Force Enhancement Packages for Countering Nuclear Threats in the 2022-2027 Time Frame: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    organization. The ten full-time personnel, assisted by part-time helpers , would fill, for example, the following functional billets: 1. Chief of Staff...FDT members would be selected based on the following criteria: past performance, leadership potential, language skills , and demonstrated willingness to...An additional advantage for the National Guard and the states of the units participating in this FEP component is the additional skill sets that are

  3. Time-Dependent Selection of an Optimal Set of Sources to Define a Stable Celestial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, Karine; Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    Temporal statistical position stability is required for VLBI sources to define a stable Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) and has been studied in many recent papers. This study analyzes the sources from the latest realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) with the Allan variance, in addition to taking into account the apparent linear motions of the sources. Focusing on the 295 defining sources shows how they are a good compromise of different criteria, such as statistical stability and sky distribution, as well as having a sufficient number of sources, despite the fact that the most stable sources of the entire ICRF2 are mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Nevertheless, the selection of a stable set is not unique: studying different solutions (GSF005a and AUG24 from GSFC and OPA from the Paris Observatory) over different time periods (1989.5 to 2009.5 and 1999.5 to 2009.5) leads to selections that can differ in up to 20% of the sources. Observing, recording, and network improvement are some of the causes, showing better stability for the CRF over the last decade than the last twenty years. But this may also be explained by the assumption of stationarity that is not necessarily right for some sources.

  4. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  5. Force Enhancement Packages for Countering Nuclear Threats in the 2022-2027 Time Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    personnel, assisted by part-time helpers , would fill, for example, the following functional billets: 1. Chief of Staff (COS) to oversee all aspects of...members would be selected based on the following criteria: past performance, leadership potential, language skills , and demonstrated willingness to advocate...states of the units participating in this FEP component is the additional skill sets that are useful were there ever to be a loose nuke search in the

  6. Media Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus T.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of media framing refers to the way in which the news media organize and provide meaning to a news story by emphasizing some parts of reality and disregarding other parts. These patterns of emphasis and exclusion in news coverage create frames that can have considerable effects on news...... consumers’ perceptions and attitudes regarding the given issue or event. This entry briefly elaborates on the concept of media framing, presents key types of media frames, and introduces the research on media framing effects....

  7. Time Frame Affects Vantage Point in Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory: Evidence from Response Latencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy J. Karylowski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that, with the passage of time, representations of self in episodic memory become less dependent on their initial (internal vantage point and shift toward an external perspective that is normally characteristic of how other people are represented. The present experiment examined this phenomenon in both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory using latency of self-judgments as a measure of accessibility of the internal vs. the external perspective. Results confirmed that in the case of representations of the self retrieved from recent autobiographical memories, trait-judgments regarding unobservable self-aspects (internal perspective were faster than trait judgments regarding observable self-aspects (external perspective. Yet, in the case of self-representations retrieved from memories of a more distant past, judgments regarding observable self-aspects were faster. Those results occurred for both self-representations retrieved from episodic memory and for representations retrieved from the semantic memory. In addition, regardless of the effect of time, greater accessibility of unobservable (vs. observable self-aspects was associated with the episodic rather than semantic autobiographical memory. Those results were modified by neither declared trait’s self-descriptiveness (yes vs. no responses nor by its desirability (highly desirable vs. moderately desirable traits. Implications for compatibility between how self and others are represented and for the role of self in social perception are discussed.

  8. Time Frame Affects Vantage Point in Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory: Evidence from Response Latencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karylowski, Jerzy J; Mrozinski, Blazej

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that, with the passage of time, representations of self in episodic memory become less dependent on their initial (internal) vantage point and shift toward an external perspective that is normally characteristic of how other people are represented. The present experiment examined this phenomenon in both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory using latency of self-judgments as a measure of accessibility of the internal vs. the external perspective. Results confirmed that in the case of representations of the self retrieved from recent autobiographical memories, trait-judgments regarding unobservable self-aspects (internal perspective) were faster than trait judgments regarding observable self-aspects (external perspective). Yet, in the case of self-representations retrieved from memories of a more distant past, judgments regarding observable self-aspects were faster. Those results occurred for both self-representations retrieved from episodic memory and for representations retrieved from the semantic memory. In addition, regardless of the effect of time, greater accessibility of unobservable (vs. observable) self-aspects was associated with the episodic rather than semantic autobiographical memory. Those results were modified by neither declared trait's self-descriptiveness ( yes vs. no responses) nor by its desirability (highly desirable vs. moderately desirable traits). Implications for compatibility between how self and others are represented and for the role of self in social perception are discussed.

  9. Integrated simulations for fusion research in the 2030's time frame (white paper outline)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); LoDestro, Lynda L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Parker, Jeffrey B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Xu, Xueqiao Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This white paper presents the rationale for developing a community-wide capability for whole-device modeling, and advocates for an effort with the expectation of persistence: a long-term programmatic commitment, and support for community efforts. Statement of 2030 goal (two suggestions): (a) Robust integrated simulation tools to aid real-time experimental discharges and reactor designs by employing a hierarchy in fidelity of physics models. (b) To produce by the early 2030s a capability for validated, predictive simulation via integration of a suite of physics models from moderate through high fidelity, to understand and plan full plasma discharges, aid in data interpretation, carry out discovery science, and optimize future machine designs. We can achieve this goal via a focused effort to extend current scientific capabilities and rigorously integrate simulations of disparate physics into a comprehensive set of workflows.

  10. Graphics processing unit accelerated intensity-based optical coherence tomography angiography using differential frames with real-time motion correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Takahashi, Yuhei; Numazawa, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate intensity-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography using the squared difference of two sequential frames with bulk-tissue-motion (BTM) correction. This motion correction was performed by minimization of the sum of the pixel values using axial- and lateral-pixel-shifted structural OCT images. We extract the BTM-corrected image from a total of 25 calculated OCT angiographic images. Image processing was accelerated by a graphics processing unit (GPU) with many stream processors to optimize the parallel processing procedure. The GPU processing rate was faster than that of a line scan camera (46.9 kHz). Our OCT system provides the means of displaying structural OCT images and BTM-corrected OCT angiographic images in real time.

  11. The motivation underlying adolescents׳ intended time-frame for driving licensure and car ownership: A socio-ecological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the adolescents׳ intended time-frame for obtaining a driving license and purchasing a car, as the delay of these decisions will likely affect the amount of travel and transport externalities. Semi-structured interviews with 50 Danish adolescents were analyzed by means...... are car enthusiasts who associate cars with high instrumental, affective, symbolic, and relational values, have car-oriented social networks, and imagine a car-oriented lifestyle. The second group are car pragmatists, who associate cars with high instrumental and relational values, perceive car expenses...... as a barrier, and imagine a car-oriented lifestyle only in the long-term. The third group are car skeptics, who have low interest in cars and imagine a cycling-oriented future. Policy implications concern (i) promoting shared-responsibility among individuals, public bodies, communities and policy makers...

  12. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Stereotactic Body Frame in Reducing Respiratory Intrafractional Organ Motion Using the Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiotherapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengua, Gerard; Ishikawa, Masayori; Sutherland, Kenneth; Horita, Kenji; Yamazaki, Rie; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Onimaru, Rikiya; Katoh, Noriwo; Inoue, Tetsuya; Onodera, Shunsuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the stereotactic body frame (SBF), with or without a diaphragm press or a breathing cycle monitoring device (Abches), in controlling the range of lung tumor motion, by tracking the real-time position of fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: The trajectories of gold markers in the lung were tracked with the real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The SBF was used for patient immobilization and the diaphragm press and Abches were used to actively control breathing and for self-controlled respiration, respectively. Tracking was performed in five setups, with and without immobilization and respiration control. The results were evaluated using the effective range, which was defined as the range that includes 95% of all the recorded marker positions in each setup. Results: The SBF, with or without a diaphragm press or Abches, did not yield effective ranges of marker motion which were significantly different from setups that did not use these materials. The differences in the effective marker ranges in the upper lobes for all the patient setups were less than 1mm. Larger effective ranges were obtained for the markers in the middle or lower lobes. Conclusion: The effectiveness of controlling respiratory-induced organ motion by using the SBF+diaphragm press or SBF + Abches patient setups were highly dependent on the individual patient reaction to the use of these materials and the location of the markers. They may be considered for lung tumors in the lower lobes, but are not necessary for tumors in the upper lobes.

  13. Taming the escape dynamics of nonadiabatic time-periodically driven quantum dissipative system within the frame of Wigner formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shit, Anindita [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sudip, E-mail: sudip_chattopadhyay@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Ray Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim, E-mail: jprc_8@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713130 (India)

    2014-03-18

    Highlights: • Nonadiabatic dynamics of quantum particle under the impact of high-frequency force. • Formulation of time-independent dynamics via Floquet and Kapitza schemes. • Manipulation of external force parameters allows us to control the escape rate. • Increase of (amplitudes/frequency) causes the system to decay faster, in general. • Crossover temperature increases in the presence of the field. - Abstract: Escape under the action of the external modulation constitutes a nontrivial generalization of an conventional Kramers rate because the system is away from thermal equilibrium. A derivation of this result from the point of view of Langevin dynamics in the frame of Floquet theorem in conjunction with the Kapitza–Landau time window (that leads to an attractive description of the time-dependent quantum dynamics in terms of time-independent one) has been provided. The quantum escape rate in the intermediate-to-high and very-high damping regime so obtained analytically using the phase space formalism associated with the Wigner distribution and path-integral formalism bears a quantum correction that depends strongly on the barrier height. It is shown that an increase of (amplitude/frequency) ratio causes the system to decay faster, in general. The crossover temperature between tunneling and thermal activation increases in the presence of field so that quantum effects in the escape are relevant at higher temperatures.

  14. Two-way laser ranging and time transfer experiments between LOLA and an Earth-based satellite laser ranging station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Sun, X.; Neumann, G. A.; Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E. M.; Hoffman, E.; Zagwodzki, T. W.; Torrence, M. H.; Mcgarry, J.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) has established time-of-flight measurements with mm precision to targets orbiting the Earth and the Moon using single-ended round-trip laser ranging to passive optical retro-reflectors. These high-precision measurements enable advances in fundamental physics, solar system dynamics. However, the received signal strength suffers from a 1/R4 decay, which makes it impractical for measuring distances beyond the Moon's orbit. On the other hand, for a two-way laser transponder pair, where laser pulses are both transmitted to and received from each end of the laser links, the signal strength at both terminals only decreases by 1/R2, thus allowing a greater range of distances to be covered. The asynchronous transponder concept has been previously demonstrated by a test in 2005 between the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) aboard the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft and NASA's Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) at a distance of ˜0.16 AU. In October 2013, regular two-way transponder-type range measurements were obtained over 15 days between the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and NASA's ground station at White Sands, NM. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) provides us a unique capability to test time-transfer beyond near Earth orbit. Here we present results from two-way transponder-type experiments between LOLA and GGAO conducted in March 2014 and 2017. As in the time-transfer by laser link (T2L2) experiments between a ground station and an earth-orbiting satellite, LOLA and GGAO ranged to each other simultaneously in these two-way tests at lunar distance. We measured the time-of-flight while cross-referencing the spacecraft clock to the ground station time. On May 4th, 2017, about 20 minutes of two-way measurements were collected. The

  15. Real-time MRI of the temporomandibular joint at 15 frames per second—A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krohn, Sebastian; Gersdorff, Nikolaus; Wassmann, Torsten [Department of Prosthodontics, University Medical Center, Göttingen (Germany); Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar [Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH am Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysikalische Chemie, Göttingen (Germany); Joseph, Arun A., E-mail: ajoseph@mpibpc.mpg.de [Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH am Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysikalische Chemie, Göttingen (Germany); Buergers, Ralf [Department of Prosthodontics, University Medical Center, Göttingen (Germany); Frahm, Jens [Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH am Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysikalische Chemie, Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel method for real-time MRI of TMJ function at high temporal resolution and with two different contrasts. Real-time MRI was based on undersampled radial fast low angle shot (FLASH) acquisitions with iterative image reconstruction by regularized nonlinear inversion. Real-time MRI movies with T1 contrast were obtained with use of a radiofrequency-spoiled FLASH sequence, while movies with T2/T1 contrast employed a gradient-refocused FLASH version. TMJ function was characterized in 40 randomly selected volunteers by sequential 20 s acquisitions of both the right and left joint during voluntary opening and closing of the mouth (in a medial, central and lateral oblique sagittal section perpendicular to the long axis of the condylar head). All studies were performed on a commercial MRI system at 3 T using the standard head coil, while online reconstruction was achieved with a bypass computer fully integrated into the MRI system. As a first result, real-time MRI studies of the right and left TMJ were successfully performed in all 40 subjects (80 joints) within a total examination time per subject of only 15 min. Secondly, at an in-plane resolution of 0.75 mm and 5 mm section thickness, the achieved temporal resolution was 66.7 ms per image or 15 frames per second. Thirdly, both T1-weighted and T2/T1-weighted real-time MRI movies provided information about TMJ function such as disc position, condyle mobility and disc-condyle relationship. While T1 contrast offers a better delineation of structures during rapid jaw movements, T2/T1 contrast was rated superior for characterizing the articular disc. In conclusion, the proposed real-time MRI method may become a robust and efficient tool for the clinical assessment of TMJ function.

  16. Real-time MRI of the temporomandibular joint at 15 frames per second—A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, Sebastian; Gersdorff, Nikolaus; Wassmann, Torsten; Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar; Joseph, Arun A.; Buergers, Ralf; Frahm, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel method for real-time MRI of TMJ function at high temporal resolution and with two different contrasts. Real-time MRI was based on undersampled radial fast low angle shot (FLASH) acquisitions with iterative image reconstruction by regularized nonlinear inversion. Real-time MRI movies with T1 contrast were obtained with use of a radiofrequency-spoiled FLASH sequence, while movies with T2/T1 contrast employed a gradient-refocused FLASH version. TMJ function was characterized in 40 randomly selected volunteers by sequential 20 s acquisitions of both the right and left joint during voluntary opening and closing of the mouth (in a medial, central and lateral oblique sagittal section perpendicular to the long axis of the condylar head). All studies were performed on a commercial MRI system at 3 T using the standard head coil, while online reconstruction was achieved with a bypass computer fully integrated into the MRI system. As a first result, real-time MRI studies of the right and left TMJ were successfully performed in all 40 subjects (80 joints) within a total examination time per subject of only 15 min. Secondly, at an in-plane resolution of 0.75 mm and 5 mm section thickness, the achieved temporal resolution was 66.7 ms per image or 15 frames per second. Thirdly, both T1-weighted and T2/T1-weighted real-time MRI movies provided information about TMJ function such as disc position, condyle mobility and disc-condyle relationship. While T1 contrast offers a better delineation of structures during rapid jaw movements, T2/T1 contrast was rated superior for characterizing the articular disc. In conclusion, the proposed real-time MRI method may become a robust and efficient tool for the clinical assessment of TMJ function.

  17. Framing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Lecheler, S.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2016-01-01

    Political issues can be viewed from different perspectives and they can be defined differently in the news media by emphasizing some aspects and leaving others aside. This is at the core of news framing theory. Framing originates within sociology and psychology and has become one of the most used

  18. On Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    On framing as artistic and conceptual tool in the works of Claudia Carbone. Contribution to exhibition at the Aarhus School of Architecture.......On framing as artistic and conceptual tool in the works of Claudia Carbone. Contribution to exhibition at the Aarhus School of Architecture....

  19. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  20. IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L1B Time-Tagged Laser Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L1B Time-Tagged Laser Ranges (ILUTP1B) data set contains laser ranges, returned pulses, and deviation for returned pulses in...

  1. Comprehensive synchronous reference frame discrete-time modelling of a grid-connected PV for fast DC-side voltage control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, P.M.; Barbosa, P.G.; Duarte, J.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel comprehensive discrete-time model of a three-phase single stage grid-connected photovoltaic generation system. The detailed model is carried out on synchronous reference frame. It is shown that both converter's AC and DC-side discrete time model differs from the

  2. Modal Identification of a Time-Invariant 6-Storey Model Test RC-Frame from Free Decay Tests using Multi-Variate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1997-01-01

    in the comparison. The data investigated are sampled from a laboratory model of a plane 6-storey, 2-bay RC-frame. The laboratory model is excited at the top storey where two different types of excitation where considered. In the first case the structure was excited in the first mode and in the second case......The scope of the paper is to apply multi-variate time-domain models for identification of eginfrequencies and mode shapes of a time- invariant model test Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame from measured decays. The frequencies and mode shapes of interest are the two lowest ones since they are normally...

  3. Modal Identification of a Time-Invariant 6-Storey Model Test RC-Frame from Free Decay Tests using Multi-Variate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    in the comparison. The data investigated are sampled from a laboratory model of a plane 6-storey, 2-bay RC-frame. The laboratory model is excited at the top storey where two different types of excitation where considered. In the first case the structure was excited in the first mode and in the second case......The scope of the paper is to apply multi-variate time-domain models for identification of eginfrequencies and mode shapes of a time- invariant model test Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame from measured decays. The frequencies and mode shapes of interest are the two lowest ones since they are normally...

  4. Optical timing receiver for the NASA laser ranging system. Part I. Constant-fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1975-01-01

    Position-resolution capabilities of the NASA laser ranging system are essentially determined by time-resolution capabilities of its optical timing receiver. The optical timing receiver consists of a fast photoelectric device, primarily a standard of microchannel-plate-type photomultiplier or an avalanche photodiode detector, a timing discriminator, a high-precision time-interval digitizer, and a signal-processing system. The time-resolution capabilities of the receiver are determined by the photoelectron time spread of the photoelectric device, the time walk and resolution characteristics of the timing discriminator, and the time-interval digitizer. It is thus necessary to evaluate available fast photoelectronic devices with respect to their time-resolution capabilities, and to design a very low time walk timing discriminator and a high-precision time digitizer which will be used in the laser ranging system receiver. (auth)

  5. Competitive Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Spiegler

    2014-01-01

    I present a simple framework for modeling two-firm market competition when consumer choice is "frame-dependent", and firms use costless "marketing messages" to influence the consumer's frame. This framework embeds several recent models in the "behavioral industrial organization" literature. I identify a property that consumer choice may satisfy, which extends the concept of Weighted Regularity due to Piccione and Spiegler (2012), and provide a characterization of Nash equilibria under this pr...

  6. Optimization of CMOS image sensor utilizing variable temporal multisampling partial transfer technique to achieve full-frame high dynamic range with superior low light and stop motion capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Salman; Smith, Craig; Armstrong, Frank; Barnard, Gerrit; Schneider, Alex; Guidash, Michael; Vogelsang, Thomas; Endsley, Jay

    2018-03-01

    Differential binary pixel technology is a threshold-based timing, readout, and image reconstruction method that utilizes the subframe partial charge transfer technique in a standard four-transistor (4T) pixel CMOS image sensor to achieve a high dynamic range video with stop motion. This technology improves low light signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by up to 21 dB. The method is verified in silicon using a Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company's 65 nm 1.1 μm pixel technology 1 megapixel test chip array and is compared with a traditional 4 × oversampling technique using full charge transfer to show low light SNR superiority of the presented technology.

  7. A systematic method for characterizing the time-range performance of ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, A D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental performance of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is linked to the ability to measure the signal time-of-flight in order to provide an accurate radar-to-target range estimate. Having knowledge of the actual time range and timing nonlinearities of a trace is therefore important when seeking to make quantitative range estimates. However, very few practical methods have been formally reported in the literature to characterize GPR time-range performance. This paper describes a method to accurately measure the true time range of a GPR to provide a quantitative assessment of the timing system performance and detect and quantify the effects of timing nonlinearity due to timing jitter. The effect of varying the number of samples per trace on the true time range has also been investigated and recommendations on how to minimize the effects of timing errors are described. The approach has been practically applied to characterize the timing performance of two commercial GPR systems. The importance of the method is that it provides the GPR community with a practical method to readily characterize the underlying accuracy of GPR systems. This in turn leads to enhanced target depth estimation as well as facilitating the accuracy of more sophisticated GPR signal processing methods. (paper)

  8. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  9. Real-time processing for full-range Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography with zero-filling interpolation using multiple graphic processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Maeno, Seiya; Aoshima, Kenji; Hasegawa, Haruyuki; Koseki, Hitoshi

    2010-09-01

    The real-time display of full-range, 2048?axial pixelx1024?lateral pixel, Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography (FD-OCT) images is demonstrated. The required speed was achieved by using dual graphic processing units (GPUs) with many stream processors to realize highly parallel processing. We used a zero-filling technique, including a forward Fourier transform, a zero padding to increase the axial data-array size to 8192, an inverse-Fourier transform back to the spectral domain, a linear interpolation from wavelength to wavenumber, a lateral Hilbert transform to obtain the complex spectrum, a Fourier transform to obtain the axial profiles, and a log scaling. The data-transfer time of the frame grabber was 15.73?ms, and the processing time, which includes the data transfer between the GPU memory and the host computer, was 14.75?ms, for a total time shorter than the 36.70?ms frame-interval time using a line-scan CCD camera operated at 27.9?kHz. That is, our OCT system achieved a processed-image display rate of 27.23 frames/s.

  10. Optical timing receiver for the NASA Spaceborne Ranging System. Part II: high precision event-timing digitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovar, Branko; Turko, Bojan

    1978-08-01

    Position-resolution capabilities of the NASA Spaceborne Laser Ranging System are essentially determined by the timeresolution capabilities of its optical timing receiver. The optical timing receiver consists of a fast photoelectric device; (e.g., photomultiplier or an avalanche photodiode detector), a timing discriminator, a high-precision event-timing digitizer, and a signal-processing system. The time-resolution capabilities of the receiver are determined by the photoelectron time spread of the photoelectric device, the time walk and resolution characteristics of the timing discriminator, and the resolution of the event-timing digitizer. It is thus necessary to evaluate available fast photoelectronic devices with respect to the time-resolution capabilities, and to develop a very low time walk timing discriminator and a high-resolution event-timing digitizer to be used in the high-resolution spaceborne laser ranging system receiver. This part of the report describes the development of a high precision event-timing digitizer. The event-timing digitizer is basically a combination of a very accurate high resolution real time digital clock and an interval timer. The timing digitizer is a high resolution multiple stop clock, counting the time up to 131 days in 19.5 ps increments.

  11. Wavelet frames and their duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    frames with good time localization and other attractive properties. Furthermore, the dual wavelet frames are constructed in such a way that we are guaranteed that both frames will have the same desirable features. The construction procedure works for any real, expansive dilation. A quasi-affine system....... The signals are then represented by linear combinations of the building blocks with coefficients found by an associated frame, called a dual frame. A wavelet frame is a frame where the building blocks are stretched (dilated) and translated versions of a single function; such a frame is said to have wavelet...... structure. The dilation of the wavelet building blocks in higher dimension is done via a square matrix which is usually taken to be integer valued. In this thesis we step away from the "usual" integer, expansive dilation and consider more general, expansive dilations. In most applications of wavelet frames...

  12. A prospective interrupted time series study of interventions to improve the quality, rating, framing and structure of goal-setting in community-based brain injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Leanne; Simpson, Grahame; Cotter, Rachel; Whiting, Diane; Hodgkinson, Adeline; Martin, Diane

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether the introduction of an electronic goals system followed by staff training improved the quality, rating, framing and structure of goals written by a community-based brain injury rehabilitation team. Interrupted time series design. Two interventions were introduced six months apart. The first intervention comprised the introduction of an electronic goals system. The second intervention comprised a staff goal training workshop. An audit protocol was devised to evaluate the goals. A random selection of goal statements from the 12 months prior to the interventions (Time 1 baseline) were compared with all goal statements written after the introduction of the electronic goals system (Time 2) and staff training (Time 3). All goals were de-identified for client and time-period, and randomly ordered. A total of 745 goals (Time 1 n = 242; Time 2 n = 283; Time 3 n = 220) were evaluated. Compared with baseline, the introduction of the electronic goals system alone significantly increased goal rating, framing and structure (χ(2) tests 144.7, 18.9, 48.1, respectively, p goal quality, which was only a trend at Time 2, was statistically significant at Time 3 (χ(2) 15.0, p ≤ 001). The training also led to a further significant increase in the framing and structuring of goals over the electronic goals system (χ(2) 11.5, 12.5, respectively, p ≤ 0.001). An electronic goals system combined with staff training improved the quality, rating, framing and structure of goal statements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. A Practical and Robust Execution Time-Frame Procedure for the Multi-Mode Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem with Minimal and Maximal Time Lags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Hsiang-Ling Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and optimizing organizational processes, such as the one represented by the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP, improve outcomes. Based on assumptions and simplification, this model tackles the allocation of resources so that organizations can continue to generate profits and reinvest in future growth. Nonetheless, despite all of the research dedicated to solving the RCPSP and its multi-mode variations, there is no standardized procedure that can guide project management practitioners in their scheduling tasks. This is mainly because many of the proposed approaches are either based on unrealistic/oversimplified scenarios or they propose solution procedures not easily applicable or even feasible in real-life situations. In this study, we solve a more true-to-life and complex model, Multimode RCPSP with minimal and maximal time lags (MRCPSP/max. The complexity of the model solved is presented, and the practicality of the proposed approach is justified depending on only information that is available for every project regardless of its industrial context. The results confirm that it is possible to determine a robust makespan and to calculate an execution time-frame with gaps lower than 11% between their lower and upper bounds. In addition, in many instances, the solved lower bound obtained was equal to the best-known optimum.

  14. Optical timing receiver for the NASA Spaceborne Ranging System. Part I. Dual peak-sensing timing discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.; Zizka, G.

    1978-01-01

    Position-resolution capabilities of the NASA Spaceborne Laser Ranging System are essentially determined by the time-resolution capabilities of its optical timing receiver. The optical timing receiver consists of a fast photoelectric device; (e.g., photomultiplier or an avalanche photodiode detector), a timing discriminator, a high-precision event-timing digitizer, and a signal-processing system. The time-resolution capabilities of the receiver are determined by the photoelectron time spread of the photoelectric device, the time walk and resolution characteristics of the timing discriminator, and the resolution of the event-timing digitizer. It is thus necessary to evaluate available fast photoelectronic devices with respect to their time-resolution capabilities, to design a very low time walk timing discriminator and to develop a high-resolution event-timing digitizer which will be used in the high-resolution spaceborne laser ranging system receiver. The development of a new dual-peak sensing timing discriminator is described. The amplitude dependent time walk is less than +-150 psec for a 100:1 dynamic range of Gaussian-shaped input signals having pulse widths between 11 and 17 nsec. The unit produces 800 mV negative output pulses, each 10 nsec wide, and 3V positive pulses with widths of 15 nsec. The time delay through the discriminator is approximately 37 nsec. In this discriminator the input signal is processed by a peak-crossing circuit which produces a bipolar pulse having its zero-crossing point at the peak of the input signal. All essential functions in the discriminator are performed by means of tunnel diodes with backward diodes as nonlinear loads. The discriminator is designed to be CAMAC compatible to a conventional time-interval unit or a high-precision event timing digitizer. The adjustment procedure for obtaining minimum time walk is also given

  15. Time-reversed lasing in the terahertz range and its preliminary study in sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yun, E-mail: shenyunoptics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Liu, Huaqing [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Deng, Xiaohua [Institute of Space Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Guoping [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2017-02-05

    Time-reversed lasing in a uniform slab and a grating structure are investigated in the terahertz range. The results show that both the uniform slab and grating can support terahertz time-reversed lasing. Nevertheless, due to the tunable effective refractive index, the grating structure can not only exhibit time-reversed lasing more effectively and flexibly than a uniform slab, but also can realize significant absorption in a broader operating frequency range. Furthermore, applications of terahertz time-reversed lasing for novel concentration/thickness sensors are preliminarily studied in a single-channel coherent perfect absorber system. - Highlights: • Time-reversed lasing are investigated in the terahertz range. • The grating structure exhibit time-reversed lasing more effectively and flexibly than a uniform slab. • THz time-reversed lasing for novel concentration/thickness sensors are studied.

  16. Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting Range Profiling of Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedborg Julia

    2016-01-01

    TCSPC is a statistic method that requires an acquisition time and therefore the range profile of a non-stationary object (target may be corrupted. Here, we present results showing that it is possible to reconstruct the range profile of a moving target and calculate the velocity of the target.

  17. Compensation for the distortion in satellite laser range predictions due to varying pulse travel times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunonen, Matti

    1993-01-01

    A method for compensating for the effect of the varying travel time of a transmitted laser pulse to a satellite is described. The 'observed minus predicted' range differences then appear to be linear, which makes data screening or use in range gating more effective.

  18. Time biases in laser ranging observations: A concerning issue of Space Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exertier, Pierre; Belli, A.; Lemoine, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Time transfer by Laser Ranging (LR) recently demonstrated a remarkable stability (a few ps over ∼1000 s) and accuracy (synchronizing both space and ground clocks over distances from a few thousands to tens of thousands kilometers. Given its potential role in navigation, fundamental physics and metrology, it is crucial that synergy between laser ranging and Time&Frequency (T/F) technologies improves to meet the present and future space geodesy requirements. In this article, we examine the behavior of T/F systems that are used in LR tracking stations of the international laser ranging service. The approach we investigate is to compute time synchronization between clocks used at LR stations using accurate data of the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment onboard the satellite Jason-2 (Samain et al., 2014). Systematic time biases are estimated against the UTC time scale for a set of 22 observing stations in 2013, in the range of zero to a few μ s. Our results suggest that the ILRS network suffers from accuracy issues, due to time biases in the laser ranging observations. We discuss how these systematic effects impact the precise orbit determination of LAGEOS geodetic satellites over a 1-year analysis, and additionally give a measure of the local effect into station coordinates, regarding in particular the effect in the east-west component that is of 2-6 mm for a typical systematic time bias of one μ s.

  19. Domain wall motion and magnetization reversal processes in a FeSi picture frame single crystal studied by the time-dependent neutron depolarization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaik, F.J. van.

    1979-01-01

    The three dimensional neutron depolarization technique, which gives detailed information about the static properties of ferromagnetic materials, has been extended to a method by means of which the time dependence of magnetic phenomena can be studied. The measurement of the neutron depolarization against time is made possible by applying a periodical magnetic field on the investigated specimen and by continuous sampling of the transmitted neutron intensity in time channels, which are started synchronously with the applied field. The technique has been used in the study of the magnetic domain structure at room temperature of a (010) [001] picture frame FeSi single crystal (3.5 wt.% Si) with outer dimensions of (15 x 10 x 0.26) mm and a frame width of 2.78 mm. (Auth.)

  20. The effect of large decoherence on mixing time in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, S; Radgohar, R, E-mail: shsalimi@uok.ac.i, E-mail: r.radgohar@uok.ac.i [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-28

    In this paper, we consider decoherence in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles (LRICs), which are the extensions of the cycle graphs. For this purpose, we use Gurvitz's model and assume that every node is monitored by the corresponding point-contact induced by the decoherence process. Then, we focus on large rates of decoherence and calculate the probability distribution analytically and obtain the lower and upper bounds of the mixing time. Our results prove that the mixing time is proportional to the rate of decoherence and the inverse of the square of the distance parameter (m). This shows that the mixing time decreases with increasing range of interaction. Also, what we obtain for m = 0 is in agreement with Fedichkin, Solenov and Tamon's results [48] for cycle, and we see that the mixing time of CTQWs on cycle improves with adding interacting edges.

  1. Framing scales and scaling frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, N.; Termeer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment

  2. Bacterial genomes lacking long-range correlations may not be modeled by low-order Markov chains: the role of mixing statistics and frame shift of neighboring genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocho, Germinal; Miramontes, Pedro; Mansilla, Ricardo; Li, Wentian

    2014-12-01

    We examine the relationship between exponential correlation functions and Markov models in a bacterial genome in detail. Despite the well known fact that Markov models generate sequences with correlation function that decays exponentially, simply constructed Markov models based on nearest-neighbor dimer (first-order), trimer (second-order), up to hexamer (fifth-order), and treating the DNA sequence as being homogeneous all fail to predict the value of exponential decay rate. Even reading-frame-specific Markov models (both first- and fifth-order) could not explain the fact that the exponential decay is very slow. Starting with the in-phase coding-DNA-sequence (CDS), we investigated correlation within a fixed-codon-position subsequence, and in artificially constructed sequences by packing CDSs with out-of-phase spacers, as well as altering CDS length distribution by imposing an upper limit. From these targeted analyses, we conclude that the correlation in the bacterial genomic sequence is mainly due to a mixing of heterogeneous statistics at different codon positions, and the decay of correlation is due to the possible out-of-phase between neighboring CDSs. There are also small contributions to the correlation from bases at the same codon position, as well as by non-coding sequences. These show that the seemingly simple exponential correlation functions in bacterial genome hide a complexity in correlation structure which is not suitable for a modeling by Markov chain in a homogeneous sequence. Other results include: use of the (absolute value) second largest eigenvalue to represent the 16 correlation functions and the prediction of a 10-11 base periodicity from the hexamer frequencies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Framing Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Louise Møller; Laursen, Linda Nhu

    2017-01-01

    Designing a remarkable product innovation is a difficult challenge, which businesses today continuously are striving to tackle. This challenge is particularly present in the early phase of innovation, where the main product concept and frames of the innovation is determined. As a main challenge...... in the early phase is the reasoning process; innovation team are faced with open-ended ill-defines problems, where they need to make decisions about an unknown future having only incomplete, ambiguous and contradicting insights available. We study the reasoning of experts, how they frame to make sense of all...... the insights and create a basis for decision making in relation to a new project. Based on case studies of five innovative products from various industries, we suggest a Product Reasoning Model for understanding reasoning and envisioning of new product innovations in the early phases...

  4. Framing Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Louise Møller; Laursen, Linda Nhu

    2017-01-01

    Designing a remarkable product innovation is a difficult challenge, which businesses today continuously are striving to tackle. This challenge is particularly present in the early phase of innovation, where the main product concept and frames of the innovation is determined. As a main challenge...... in the early phase is the reasoning process; innovation team are faced with open- ended ill-defines problems, where they need to make decisions about an unknown future having only incomplete, ambiguous and contradicting insights available. We study the reasoning of experts, how they frame to make sense of all...... the insights and create a basis for decision making in relation to a new project. Based on case studies of five innovative products from various industries, we suggest a Product Reasoning Model for understanding reasoning and envisioning of new product innovations in the early phases of innovation....

  5. Living Color Frame System: PC graphics tool for data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long V.

    1993-01-01

    Living Color Frame System (LCFS) is a personal computer software tool for generating real-time graphics applications. It is highly applicable for a wide range of data visualization in virtual environment applications. Engineers often use computer graphics to enhance the interpretation of data under observation. These graphics become more complicated when 'run time' animations are required, such as found in many typical modern artificial intelligence and expert systems. Living Color Frame System solves many of these real-time graphics problems.

  6. Variance based OFDM frame synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Fedra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a new frame synchronization scheme for OFDM systems and calculates the complexity of this scheme. The scheme is based on the computing of the detection window variance. The variance is computed in two delayed times, so a modified Early-Late loop is used for the frame position detection. The proposed algorithm deals with different variants of OFDM parameters including guard interval, cyclic prefix, and has good properties regarding the choice of the algorithm's parameters since the parameters may be chosen within a wide range without having a high influence on system performance. The verification of the proposed algorithm functionality has been performed on a development environment using universal software radio peripheral (USRP hardware.

  7. A new variable interval schedule with constant hazard rate and finite time range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugallo, Mehdi; Machado, Armando; Vasconcelos, Marco

    2018-05-27

    We propose a new variable interval (VI) schedule that achieves constant probability of reinforcement in time while using a bounded range of intervals. By sampling each trial duration from a uniform distribution ranging from 0 to 2 T seconds, and then applying a reinforcement rule that depends linearly on trial duration, the schedule alternates reinforced and unreinforced trials, each less than 2 T seconds, while preserving a constant hazard function. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. An Efficient Genetic Algorithm for Routing Multiple UAVs under Flight Range and Service Time Window Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    KARAKAYA, Murat; SEVİNÇ, Ender

    2017-01-01

    Recently using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) either for military or civilian purposes is getting popularity. However, UAVs have their own limitations which require adopted approaches to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) promised by the applications depending on effective use of UAVs. One of the important limitations of the UAVs encounter is the flight range. Most of the time, UAVs have very scarce energy resources and, thus, they have relatively short flight ranges. Besides, for the appl...

  9. Improving Delay-Range-Dependent Stability Condition for Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the delay-range-dependent stability for systems with interval time-varying delay. Through defining the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and estimating the derivative of the LKF by introducing new vectors, using free matrices and reciprocally convex approach, the new delay-range-dependent stability conditions are obtained. Two well-known examples are given to illustrate the less conservatism of the proposed theoretical results.

  10. A better understanding of long-range temporal dependence of traffic flow time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Wang, Xingmin; Sun, Haowei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Li

    2018-02-01

    Long-range temporal dependence is an important research perspective for modelling of traffic flow time series. Various methods have been proposed to depict the long-range temporal dependence, including autocorrelation function analysis, spectral analysis and fractal analysis. However, few researches have studied the daily temporal dependence (i.e. the similarity between different daily traffic flow time series), which can help us better understand the long-range temporal dependence, such as the origin of crossover phenomenon. Moreover, considering both types of dependence contributes to establishing more accurate model and depicting the properties of traffic flow time series. In this paper, we study the properties of daily temporal dependence by simple average method and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based method. Meanwhile, we also study the long-range temporal dependence by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). The results show that both the daily and long-range temporal dependence exert considerable influence on the traffic flow series. The DFA results reveal that the daily temporal dependence creates crossover phenomenon when estimating the Hurst exponent which depicts the long-range temporal dependence. Furthermore, through the comparison of the DFA test, PCA-based method turns out to be a better method to extract the daily temporal dependence especially when the difference between days is significant.

  11. Multi-configuration time-dependent density-functional theory based on range separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, E.; Knecht, S.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory is extended to the time-dependent regime. An exact variational formulation is derived. The approximation, which consists in combining a long-range Multi-Configuration- Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) treatment with an adiabatic short...... (srGGA) approximations. As expected, when modeling long-range interactions with the MCSCF model instead of the adiabatic Buijse-Baerends density-matrix functional as recently proposed by Pernal [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 184105 (2012)10.1063/1.4712019], the description of both the 1D doubly-excited state...

  12. Identifying issue frames in text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Sagi

    Full Text Available Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S.

  13. Time-delay interferometric ranging for space-borne gravitational-wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Vallisneri, Michele; Armstrong, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Space-borne interferometric gravitational-wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (mHz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors, the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel times will necessarily be unequal and time varying, and (because of aberration) will have different values on up- and down-links. In such unequal-armlength interferometers, laser-phase noise will be canceled by taking linear combinations of the laser-phase observables measured between pairs of spacecraft, appropriately time shifted by the light propagation times along the corresponding arms. This procedure, known as time-delay interferometry (TDI), requires an accurate knowledge of the light-time delays as functions of time. Here we propose a high-accuracy technique to estimate these time delays, and we study its use in the context of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. We refer to this ranging technique, which relies on the TDI combinations themselves, as time-delay interferometric ranging (TDIR). For every TDI combination, we show that, by minimizing the rms power in that combination (averaged over integration times ∼10 4 s) with respect to the time-delay parameters, we obtain estimates of the time delays accurate enough to cancel laser noise to a level well below the secondary noises. Thus TDIR allows the implementation of TDI without the use of dedicated interspacecraft ranging systems, with a potential simplification of the LISA design. In this paper we define the TDIR procedure formally, and we characterize its expected performance via simulations with the Synthetic LISA software package

  14. Fluid particles only separate exponentially in the dissipation range of turbulence after extremely long times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhariwal, Rohit; Bragg, Andrew D.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we consider how the statistical moments of the separation between two fluid particles grow with time when their separation lies in the dissipation range of turbulence. In this range, the fluid velocity field varies smoothly and the relative velocity of two fluid particles depends linearly upon their separation. While this may suggest that the rate at which fluid particles separate is exponential in time, this is not guaranteed because the strain rate governing their separation is a strongly fluctuating quantity in turbulence. Indeed, Afik and Steinberg [Nat. Commun. 8, 468 (2017), 10.1038/s41467-017-00389-8] argue that there is no convincing evidence that the moments of the separation between fluid particles grow exponentially with time in the dissipation range of turbulence. Motivated by this, we use direct numerical simulations (DNS) to compute the moments of particle separation over very long periods of time in a statistically stationary, isotropic turbulent flow to see if we ever observe evidence for exponential separation. Our results show that if the initial separation between the particles is infinitesimal, the moments of the particle separation first grow as power laws in time, but we then observe convincing evidence that at sufficiently long times the moments do grow exponentially. However, this exponential growth is only observed after extremely long times ≳200 τη , where τη is the Kolmogorov time scale. This is due to fluctuations in the strain rate about its mean value measured along the particle trajectories, the effect of which on the moments of the particle separation persists for very long times. We also consider the backward-in-time (BIT) moments of the article separation, and observe that they too grow exponentially in the long-time regime. However, a dramatic consequence of the exponential separation is that at long times the difference between the rate of the particle separation forward in time (FIT) and BIT grows

  15. Holovideo: Real-time 3D range video encoding and decoding on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinsky, Nikolaus; Zhang, Song

    2012-02-01

    We present a 3D video-encoding technique called Holovideo that is capable of encoding high-resolution 3D videos into standard 2D videos, and then decoding the 2D videos back into 3D rapidly without significant loss of quality. Due to the nature of the algorithm, 2D video compression such as JPEG encoding with QuickTime Run Length Encoding (QTRLE) can be applied with little quality loss, resulting in an effective way to store 3D video at very small file sizes. We found that under a compression ratio of 134:1, Holovideo to OBJ file format, the 3D geometry quality drops at a negligible level. Several sets of 3D videos were captured using a structured light scanner, compressed using the Holovideo codec, and then uncompressed and displayed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the codec. With the use of OpenGL Shaders (GLSL), the 3D video codec can encode and decode in realtime. We demonstrated that for a video size of 512×512, the decoding speed is 28 frames per second (FPS) with a laptop computer using an embedded NVIDIA GeForce 9400 m graphics processing unit (GPU). Encoding can be done with this same setup at 18 FPS, making this technology suitable for applications such as interactive 3D video games and 3D video conferencing.

  16. Western aeronautical test range real-time graphics software package MAGIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Jacqueline C.; Moore, Archie L.

    1988-01-01

    The master graphics interactive console (MAGIC) software package used on the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of the NASA Ames Research Center is described. MAGIC is a resident real-time research tool available to flight researchers-scientists in the NASA mission control centers of the WATR at the Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California. The hardware configuration and capabilities of the real-time software package are also discussed.

  17. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-12-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes.

  18. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A. Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes. PMID:27999250

  19. Do you want the good news or the bad news? Gain- versus loss-framed messages following health risk information: The effects on leisure time physical activity beliefs and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2013-12-01

    The primary purpose was to examine the relative effectiveness of chronic disease and psychological health risk information combined with gain- versus loss-framed leisure time physical activity (LTPA) messages for changing perceived personal risk, LTPA response efficacy (i.e., the belief that LTPA can effectively reduce risk), and LTPA intentions. A secondary purpose was to explore the relationship between message framing and cognitive processing. Baseline assessments of perceived risk for inactivity-related disease and psychological health problems, LTPA response efficacy, and intentions were measured among 96 individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Participants read population-specific information about the risk for inactivity-related disease and psychological health problems following SCI, and perceived risk was reassessed. Participants were then randomized to read LTPA response efficacy messages emphasizing the benefits of LTPA (gain framed) or the risks of inactivity (loss framed). Immediately following message exposure, cognitive processing (i.e., thought listing and message recall), LTPA response efficacy, and LTPA intentions were assessed. Changes in perceived risk were observed following exposure to health risk information. Changes in LTPA response efficacy and intentions were greater following loss-framed messages targeting psychological health compared with gain-framed messages. Greater cognitive processing was observed following loss-framed messages compared with gain-framed messages. Following exposure to psychological health risk information, loss-framed messages may be more effective than gain-framed messages for eliciting cognitive processing and changing LTPA beliefs and intentions.

  20. Long Range Dependence Prognostics for Bearing Vibration Intensity Chaotic Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the chaotic features and typical fractional order characteristics of the bearing vibration intensity time series, a forecasting approach based on long range dependence (LRD is proposed. In order to reveal the internal chaotic properties, vibration intensity time series are reconstructed based on chaos theory in phase-space, the delay time is computed with C-C method and the optimal embedding dimension and saturated correlation dimension are calculated via the Grassberger–Procaccia (G-P method, respectively, so that the chaotic characteristics of vibration intensity time series can be jointly determined by the largest Lyapunov exponent and phase plane trajectory of vibration intensity time series, meanwhile, the largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated by the Wolf method and phase plane trajectory is illustrated using Duffing-Holmes Oscillator (DHO. The Hurst exponent and long range dependence prediction method are proposed to verify the typical fractional order features and improve the prediction accuracy of bearing vibration intensity time series, respectively. Experience shows that the vibration intensity time series have chaotic properties and the LRD prediction method is better than the other prediction methods (largest Lyapunov, auto regressive moving average (ARMA and BP neural network (BPNN model in prediction accuracy and prediction performance, which provides a new approach for running tendency predictions for rotating machinery and provide some guidance value to the engineering practice.

  1. Time of flight and range of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Karkantzakos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the classical problem of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field under the influenceof a retarding force proportional to the velocity. Specifically, we express the time of flight, the time of fall and the range ofthe motion as a function of the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile. We also prove that the time of fall isgreater than the time of rise with the exception of the case of zero constant of resistance where we have equality. Finally weprove a formula from which we can compute the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile from time of flight andrange of the motion when the acceleration due to gravity and the initial velocity of the projectile are known.

  2. EyeFrame: Real-time memory aid improves human multitasking via domain-general eye tracking procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. eTaylor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We developed an extensively general closed-loop system to improve human interaction in various multitasking scenarios, with semi-autonomous agents, processes, and robots. BACKGROUND: Much technology is converging toward semi-independent processes with intermittent human supervision distributed over multiple computerized agents. Human operators multitask notoriously poorly, in part due to cognitive load and limited working memory. To multitask optimally, users must remember task order, e.g., the most neglected task, since longer times not monitoring an element indicates greater probability of need for user input. The secondary task of monitoring attention history over multiple spatial tasks requires similar cognitive resources as primary tasks themselves. Humans can not reliably make more than ~2 decisions/s. METHODS: Participants managed a range of 4-10 semi-autonomous agents performing rescue tasks. To optimize monitoring and controlling multiple agents, we created an automated short term memory aid, providing visual cues from users' gaze history. Cues indicated when and where to look next, and were derived from an inverse of eye fixation recency. RESULTS: Contingent eye tracking algorithms drastically improved operator performance, increasing multitasking capacity. The gaze aid reduced biases, and reduced cognitive load, measured by smaller pupil dilation. CONCLUSIONS: Our eye aid likely helped by delegating short-term memory to the computer, and by reducing decision making load. Past studies used eye position for gaze-aware control and interactive updating of displays in application-specific scenarios, but ours is the first to successfully implement domain-general algorithms. Procedures should generalize well to: process control, factory operations, robot control, surveillance, aviation, air traffic control, driving, military, mobile search and rescue, and many tasks where probability of utility is predicted by duration since last

  3. Simultaneous calibration of ensemble river flow predictions over an entire range of lead times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemri, S.; Fundel, F.; Zappa, M.

    2013-10-01

    Probabilistic estimates of future water levels and river discharge are usually simulated with hydrologic models using ensemble weather forecasts as main inputs. As hydrologic models are imperfect and the meteorological ensembles tend to be biased and underdispersed, the ensemble forecasts for river runoff typically are biased and underdispersed, too. Thus, in order to achieve both reliable and sharp predictions statistical postprocessing is required. In this work Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is applied to statistically postprocess ensemble runoff raw forecasts for a catchment in Switzerland, at lead times ranging from 1 to 240 h. The raw forecasts have been obtained using deterministic and ensemble forcing meteorological models with different forecast lead time ranges. First, BMA is applied based on mixtures of univariate normal distributions, subject to the assumption of independence between distinct lead times. Then, the independence assumption is relaxed in order to estimate multivariate runoff forecasts over the entire range of lead times simultaneously, based on a BMA version that uses multivariate normal distributions. Since river runoff is a highly skewed variable, Box-Cox transformations are applied in order to achieve approximate normality. Both univariate and multivariate BMA approaches are able to generate well calibrated probabilistic forecasts that are considerably sharper than climatological forecasts. Additionally, multivariate BMA provides a promising approach for incorporating temporal dependencies into the postprocessed forecasts. Its major advantage against univariate BMA is an increase in reliability when the forecast system is changing due to model availability.

  4. Empirical mode decomposition and long-range correlation analysis of sunspot time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yu; Leung, Yee

    2010-01-01

    Sunspots, which are the best known and most variable features of the solar surface, affect our planet in many ways. The number of sunspots during a period of time is highly variable and arouses strong research interest. When multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is employed to study the fractal properties and long-range correlation of the sunspot series, some spurious crossover points might appear because of the periodic and quasi-periodic trends in the series. However many cycles of solar activities can be reflected by the sunspot time series. The 11-year cycle is perhaps the most famous cycle of the sunspot activity. These cycles pose problems for the investigation of the scaling behavior of sunspot time series. Using different methods to handle the 11-year cycle generally creates totally different results. Using MF-DFA, Movahed and co-workers employed Fourier truncation to deal with the 11-year cycle and found that the series is long-range anti-correlated with a Hurst exponent, H, of about 0.12. However, Hu and co-workers proposed an adaptive detrending method for the MF-DFA and discovered long-range correlation characterized by H≈0.74. In an attempt to get to the bottom of the problem in the present paper, empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a data-driven adaptive method, is applied to first extract the components with different dominant frequencies. MF-DFA is then employed to study the long-range correlation of the sunspot time series under the influence of these components. On removing the effects of these periods, the natural long-range correlation of the sunspot time series can be revealed. With the removal of the 11-year cycle, a crossover point located at around 60 months is discovered to be a reasonable point separating two different time scale ranges, H≈0.72 and H≈1.49. And on removing all cycles longer than 11 years, we have H≈0.69 and H≈0.28. The three cycle-removing methods—Fourier truncation, adaptive detrending and the

  5. Stochastic calculus analysis of optical time-of-flight range imaging and estimation of radial motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Lee

    2017-07-01

    Time-of-flight range imaging is analyzed using stochastic calculus. Through a series of interpretations and simplifications, the stochastic model leads to two methods for estimating linear radial velocity: maximum likelihood estimation on the transition probability distribution between measurements, and a new method based on analyzing the measured correlation waveform and its first derivative. The methods are tested in a simulated motion experiment from (-40)-(+40)  m/s, with data from a camera imaging an object on a translation stage. In tests maximum likelihood is slow and unreliable, but when it works it estimates the linear velocity with standard deviation of 1 m/s or better. In comparison the new method is fast and reliable but works in a reduced velocity range of (-20)-(+20)  m/s with standard deviation ranging from 3.5 m/s to 10 m/s.

  6. Clever mothers balance time and effort in parental care: a study on free-ranging dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K.; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian offspring require parental care, at least in the form of suckling during their early development. While mothers need to invest considerable time and energy in ensuring the survival of their current offspring, they also need to optimize their investment in one batch of offspring in order to ensure future reproduction and hence lifetime reproductive success. Free-ranging dogs live in small social groups, mate promiscuously, and lack the cooperative breeding biology of other group livi...

  7. Acoustic time-of-flight for proton range verification in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kevin C.; Avery, Stephen, E-mail: Stephen.Avery@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Vander Stappen, François [Ion Beam Applications SA, Louvain-la-Neuve 1348 (Belgium); Sehgal, Chandra M. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: Measurement of the arrival times of thermoacoustic waves induced by pulsed proton dose depositions (protoacoustics) may provide a proton range verification method. The goal of this study is to characterize the required dose and protoacoustic proton range (distance) verification accuracy in a homogeneous water medium at a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. Methods: Gaussian-like proton pulses with 17 μs widths and instantaneous currents of 480 nA (5.6 × 10{sup 7} protons/pulse, 3.4 cGy/pulse at the Bragg peak) were generated by modulating the cyclotron proton source with a function generator. After energy degradation, the 190 MeV proton pulses irradiated a water phantom, and the generated protoacoustic emissions were measured by a hydrophone. The detector position and proton pulse characteristics were varied. The experimental results were compared to simulations. Different arrival time metrics derived from acoustic waveforms were compared, and the accuracy of protoacoustic time-of-flight distance calculations was assessed. Results: A 27 mPa noise level was observed in the treatment room during irradiation. At 5 cm from the proton beam, an average maximum pressure of 5.2 mPa/1 × 10{sup 7} protons (6.1 mGy at the Bragg peak) was measured after irradiation with a proton pulse with 10%–90% rise time of 11 μs. Simulation and experiment arrival times agreed well, and the observed 2.4 μs delay between simulation and experiment is attributed to the difference between the hydrophone’s acoustic and geometric centers. Based on protoacoustic arrival times, the beam axis position was measured to within (x, y) = (−2.0,  0.5) ± 1 mm. After deconvolution of the exciting proton pulse, the protoacoustic compression peak provided the most consistent measure of the distance to the Bragg peak, with an error distribution with mean = − 4.5 mm and standard deviation = 2.0 mm. Conclusions: Based on water tank measurements at a clinical hospital-based cyclotron

  8. Time delays of supernova neutrinos from new long-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaney, R.A.; Starkman, G.D.; Tremaine, S.

    1995-01-01

    A new long-range interaction between heavy neutrinos may solve some current problems in large-scale structure, if the new interaction mimics gravity. Assuming that the dark matter is dominated by ∼100 eV τ neutrinos, we investigate whether time delay measurements on supernova neutrinos can test this possibility. We find that such experiments can rule out or detect specific forms of the new interaction potential. In addition, we find the exact dispersive nature of the interacting medium to be critical in determining the time delay: even small corrections to the potential can dramatically alter the magnitude of the effect

  9. Concussions From Youth Football: Results From NEISS Hospitals Over an 11-Year Time Frame, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan A; Buzas, David; Morawa, Lawrence G

    2013-12-01

    Youth football programs across the United States represent an at-risk population of approximately 3.5 million athletes for sports-related concussions. The frequency of concussions in this population is not known. Descriptive epidemiology study. Over an 11-year span from January 2002 to December 2012, the authors reviewed the concussions sustained by athletes aged 5 to 13 years while playing football, as evaluated in emergency departments (EDs) in the United States and captured by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. There were 2028 (national estimate, 49,185) young football players evaluated in NEISS EDs with concussion from 2002 to 2012. There were 1987 (97.9%) males and 41 (2.1%) females, with a mean age of 11.2 years. The total number of concussions reported increased with age and by year. The majority of concussions were treated in the outpatient setting, with 1878 (91.7%) being treated and released. The total number of head-to-head injury mechanisms mirrored the total number of concussions by year, which increased throughout the 11-year span. The total number of players experiencing a loss of consciousness increased throughout the study period but did not match the total number of concussions over the 11-year time period. Fractures occurred in 11 (0.5%) patients, with 2 being severe (1 skull fracture and 1 thoracic compression fracture). Within the 5- to 13-year age range, there were a significant number of young athletes who presented to EDs with concussion as a result of playing organized football. Older children may be at greater risk for sustaining concussions, fractures, and catastrophic injuries while playing football when compared with younger children. Younger children are more susceptible to long-term sequelae from head injuries, and thus, improved monitoring systems for these athletes are needed to assist in monitoring patterns of injury, identifying risk factors, and

  10. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  11. ``Frames of Reference'' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn-Ross, Alistair; Ivey, Donald G.

    1992-12-01

    The PSSC teaching film, ``Frames of Reference,'' was made in 1960, and was one of the first audio-visual attempts at showing how your physical ``point of view,'' or frame of reference, necessarily alters both your perceptions and your observations of motion. The gentle humor and original demonstrations made a lasting impact on many audiences, and with its recent re-release as part of the AAPT Cinema Classics videodisc it is timely that we should review both the message and the methods of the film. An annotated script and photographs from the film are presented, followed by extension material on rotating frames which teachers may find appropriate for use in their classrooms: constructions, demonstrations, an example, and theory.

  12. Radio frequency (RF) time-of-flight ranging for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorbjornsen, B; White, N M; Brown, A D; Reeve, J S

    2010-01-01

    Position information of nodes within wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is often a requirement in order to make use of the data recorded by the sensors themselves. On deployment the nodes normally have no prior knowledge of their position and thus a locationing mechanism is required to determine their positions. In this paper, we describe a method to determine the point-to-point range between sensor nodes as part of the locationing process. A two-way time-of-flight (TOF) ranging scheme is presented using narrow-band RF. The frequency difference between the transceivers involved with the point-to-point measurement is used to obtain a sub-clock TOF phase offset measurement in order to achieve high resolution TOF measurements. The ranging algorithm has been developed and prototyped on a TI CC2430 development kit with no additional hardware being required. Performance results have been obtained for the line-of-sight (LOS), non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and indoor conditions. Accuracy is typically better than 7.0 m RMS for the LOS condition over 250.0 m and 15.8 m RMS for the NLOS condition over 120.0 m using a 100 sample average. Indoor accuracy is measured to 1.7 m RMS using a 1000 sample average over 8.0 m. Ranging error is linear and does not increase with the increased transmitter–receiver distance. Our TOA ranging scheme demonstrates a novel system where resolution and accuracy are time dependent in comparison with alternative frequency-dependent methods using narrow-band RF

  13. Timing of electromyographic activity and ranges of motion during simple motor tasks of upper extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syczewska Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Improvement of the upper extremities’ performance is one of the key aims in the rehabilitation process. In order to achieve high effectiveness of this process the amount of functional improvement achieved by a patient during the therapy needs to be assessed. The aim of this study was to obtain electromyographic (EMG activity profiles of the upper extremity muscles during execution of simple tasks in healthy subjects. Additionally the ranges of wrist, elbow and shoulder joints were measured and reported during performed trials. The second aim was to determine whether the movement execution and ranges of move­ments and muscular activity depend on age. Material and methods: Twenty-eight healthy adults, age range 21 to 65 years old, participated in the study. Surface electrodes were placed bilaterally on 7 upper extremity muscles. To obtain information about the beginning and end of the movement task and ranges of upper extremity joints, 13 markers were placed on the elbows and wrists of both upper extremities. The move­ments of the segments were calculated (distal vs proximal in five simple functional tasks (each task involved only one joint, performed while sitting. Kinematic data were collected by the VICON 460 system, and electromyographic data with the Mo­tion Lab EMG system. Results: Charts of timing of EMG activity of the upper extremity muscles together with ranges of upper extremity joint motion were obtained. Conclusion: The results show that the number of muscles activated and the time (or percentage of the task during which they are active depend on the type of the task and age. These data can be used as a reference in evaluation of functional deficits of patients.

  14. Phylogenetic heritability of geographic range size in haematophagous ectoparasites: time of divergence and variation among continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Boris R; Shenbrot, Georgy I; van der Mescht, Luther; Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S

    2018-04-12

    To understand existence, patterns and mechanisms behind phylogenetic heritability in the geographic range size (GRS) of parasites, we measured phylogenetic signal (PS) in the sizes of both regional (within a region) and continental (within a continent) geographic ranges of fleas in five regions. We asked whether (a) GRS is phylogenetically heritable and (b) the manifestation of PS varies between regions. We also asked whether geographic variation in PS reflects the effects of the environment's spatiotemporal stability (e.g. glaciation disrupting geographic ranges) or is associated with time since divergence (accumulation differences among species over time). Support for the former hypothesis would be indicated by stronger PS in southern than in northern regions, whereas support for the latter hypothesis would be shown by stronger PS in regions with a large proportion of species belonging to the derived lineages than in regions with a large proportion of species belonging to the basal lineages. We detected significant PS in both regional and continental GRSs of fleas from Canada and in continental GRS of fleas from Mongolia. No PS was found in the GRS of fleas from Australia and Southern Africa. Venezuelan fleas demonstrated significant PS in regional GRS only. Local Indicators of Phylogenetic Association detected significant local positive autocorrelations of GRS in some clades even in regions in which PS has not been detected across the entire phylogeny. This was mainly characteristic of younger taxa.

  15. NOAA's Strategy to Improve Operational Weather Prediction Outlooks at Subseasonal Time Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T.; Toepfer, F.; Stajner, I.; DeWitt, D.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA is planning to extend operational global numerical weather prediction to sub-seasonal time range under the auspices of its Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) and Extended Range Outlook Programs. A unification of numerical prediction capabilities for weather and subseasonal to seasonal (S2S) timescales is underway at NOAA using the Finite Volume Cubed Sphere (FV3) dynamical core as the basis for the emerging unified system. This presentation will overview NOAA's strategic planning and current activities to improve prediction at S2S time-scales that are ongoing in response to the Weather Research and Forecasting Innovation Act of 2017, Section 201. Over the short-term, NOAA seeks to improve the operational capability through improvements to its ensemble forecast system to extend its range to 30 days using the new FV3 Global Forecast System model, and by using this system to provide reforecast and re-analyses. In parallel, work is ongoing to improve NOAA's operational product suite for 30 day outlooks for temperature, precipitation and extreme weather phenomena.

  16. Application of lidar techniques to time-of-flight range imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Refael; Streeter, Lee; Cree, Michael J; Dorrington, Adrian A

    2015-11-20

    Amplitude-modulated continuous wave (AMCW) time-of-flight (ToF) range imaging cameras measure distance by illuminating the scene with amplitude-modulated light and measuring the phase difference between the transmitted and reflected modulation envelope. This method of optical range measurement suffers from errors caused by multiple propagation paths, motion, phase wrapping, and nonideal amplitude modulation. In this paper a ToF camera is modified to operate in modes analogous to continuous wave (CW) and stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) lidar. In CW operation the velocity of objects can be measured. CW measurement of velocity was linear with true velocity (R2=0.9969). Qualitative analysis of a complex scene confirms that range measured by SFCW is resilient to errors caused by multiple propagation paths, phase wrapping, and nonideal amplitude modulation which plague AMCW operation. In viewing a complicated scene through a translucent sheet, quantitative comparison of AMCW with SFCW demonstrated a reduction in the median error from -1.3  m to -0.06  m with interquartile range of error reduced from 4.0 m to 0.18 m.

  17. Real time analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, J.A.; Reyes L, P.; Yepez, E.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, we present an electronic apparatus that facilitates the monitoring and analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range. The device is a combination of real and virtual instruments, taking advantage of new hardware and software; the measurable range of frequencies depends on the speed of an analog/digital converter, reaching tens of Megahertz. The device has been successfully used to monitor the environmental electromagnetic radiation at very low frequency, a very useful parameter in the research of electromagnetic precursors of earthquakes. The apparatus is a new configuration and has advantages with respect to those previously used: when the attached computer is fast, Fourier analysis can be done in real time, can display simultaneously several bands, the digitized data allow a variety of methods of analysis, and the apparatus is very cheap. (Author)

  18. Real time analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, J.A.; Reyes L, P.; Yepez, E. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work, we present an electronic apparatus that facilitates the monitoring and analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range. The device is a combination of real and virtual instruments, taking advantage of new hardware and software; the measurable range of frequencies depends on the speed of an analog/digital converter, reaching tens of Megahertz. The device has been successfully used to monitor the environmental electromagnetic radiation at very low frequency, a very useful parameter in the research of electromagnetic precursors of earthquakes. The apparatus is a new configuration and has advantages with respect to those previously used: when the attached computer is fast, Fourier analysis can be done in real time, can display simultaneously several bands, the digitized data allow a variety of methods of analysis, and the apparatus is very cheap. (Author)

  19. Short-range correlations in an extended time-dependent mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madler, P.

    1982-01-01

    A generalization is performed of the time-dependent mean-field theory by an explicit inclusion of strong short-range correlations on a level of microscopic reversibility relating them to realistic nucleon-nucleon forces. Invoking a least action principle for correlated trial wave functions, equations of motion for the correlation functions and the single-particle model wave function are derived in lowest order of the FAHT cluster expansion. Higher order effects as well as long-range correlations are consider only to the extent to which they contribute to the mean field via a readjusted phenomenological effective two-body interaction. The corresponding correlated stationary problem is investigated and appropriate initial conditions to describe a heavy ion reaction are proposed. The singleparticle density matrix is evaluated

  20. Smothering in UK free-range flocks. Part 1: incidence, location, timing and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J; Rayner, A C; Gill, R; Willings, T H; Bright, A

    2014-07-05

    Smothering in poultry is an economic and welfare-related concern. This study presents the first results from a questionnaire addressing the incidence, location, timing and management of smothering of free-range farm managers from two commercial egg companies (representing 35 per cent of the UK free-range egg supply). Overall, nearly 60 per cent of farm mangers experienced smothering in their last flock, with an average of 25.5 birds lost per incidence, although per cent mortality due to smothering was low (x̄=1.6 per cent). The majority of farm managers also reported that over 50 per cent of all their flocks placed had been affected by smothering. The location and timing of smothering (excluding smothering in nest boxes) tended to be unpredictable and varied between farms. Blocking off corners/nest boxes and walking birds more frequently were identified as popular smothering reduction measures, although there was a wide variety of reduction measures reported overall. The motivation to implement reduction measures was related to a farm manager's previous experience of smothering. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a representative industry estimate on the incidence, location, timing and management of smothering. The results suggest that smothering is a common problem, unpredictable between flocks with no clear, effective reduction strategies. A follow-up study will investigate the correlations among smothering, disease and other welfare problems and may shed further light on management solutions. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Future time perspective and health behaviors: temporal framing of self-regulatory processes in physical exercise and dietary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, Paul; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    Limitations in perceived lifetime can undermine long-term goal striving. Planning is supposed to translate intentions into health behaviors and to operate as a compensatory strategy to overcome goal striving deficits associated with a limited time perspective. Two longitudinal studies were conducted examining the compensatory role of planning: an online survey on fruit and vegetable consumption (N = 909; 16-78 years; follow-up at 4 months) and a questionnaire study on physical exercise in older adults (N = 289; 60-95 years, over a half-year period). Intentions, planning, and behavior were measured in a behavior-specific, future time perspective in a generic manner. Planning mediated between intentions and both health behaviors. Time perspective operated as a moderator, indicating that in individuals with a more limited time perspective, a stronger effect of planning on health behaviors emerged. Planning as a self-regulatory strategy may compensate for a limited time perspective.

  2. Unattended real-time re-establishment of visibility in high dynamic range video and stills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, B.

    2014-05-01

    We describe a portable unattended persistent surveillance system that corrects for harsh illumination conditions, where bright sun light creates mixed contrast effects, i.e., heavy shadows and washouts. These effects result in high dynamic range scenes, where illuminance can vary from few luxes to a 6 figure value. When using regular monitors and cameras, such wide span of illuminations can only be visualized if the actual range of values is compressed, leading to the creation of saturated and/or dark noisy areas and a loss of information in these areas. Images containing extreme mixed contrast cannot be fully enhanced from a single exposure, simply because all information is not present in the original data. The active intervention in the acquisition process is required. A software package, capable of integrating multiple types of COTS and custom cameras, ranging from Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) data links to digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR), is described. Hardware and software are integrated via a novel smart data acquisition algorithm, which communicates to the camera the parameters that would maximize information content in the final processed scene. A fusion mechanism is then applied to the smartly acquired data, resulting in an enhanced scene where information in both dark and bright areas is revealed. Multi-threading and parallel processing are exploited to produce automatic real time full motion corrected video. A novel enhancement algorithm was also devised to process data from legacy and non-controllable cameras. The software accepts and processes pre-recorded sequences and stills, enhances visible, night vision, and Infrared data, and successfully applies to night time and dark scenes. Various user options are available, integrating custom functionalities of the application into intuitive and easy to use graphical interfaces. The ensuing increase in visibility in surveillance video and intelligence imagery will expand the performance and

  3. Improved measurement linearity and precision for AMCW time-of-flight range imaging cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Andrew D; Dorrington, Adrian A; Cree, Michael J; Carnegie, Dale A

    2010-08-10

    Time-of-flight range imaging systems utilizing the amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) technique often suffer from measurement nonlinearity due to the presence of aliased harmonics within the amplitude modulation signals. Typically a calibration is performed to correct these errors. We demonstrate an alternative phase encoding approach that attenuates the harmonics during the sampling process, thereby improving measurement linearity in the raw measurements. This mitigates the need to measure the system's response or calibrate for environmental changes. In conjunction with improved linearity, we demonstrate that measurement precision can also be increased by reducing the duty cycle of the amplitude modulated illumination source (while maintaining overall illumination power).

  4. Synchronization as a biological, psychological and social mechanism to create common time: A theoretical frame and a single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; Pöppel, Ernst; Wang, Lingyan; Lin, Xiaoxiong; Yang, Taoxi; Avram, Mihai; Blautzik, Janusch; Paolini, Marco; Silveira, Sarita; Vedder, Aline; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Zhou, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Synchronizing neural processes, mental activities, and social interactions is considered to be fundamental for the creation of temporal order on the personal and interpersonal level. Several different types of synchronization are distinguished, and for each of them examples are given: self-organized synchronizations on the neural level giving rise to pre-semantically defined time windows of some tens of milliseconds and of approximately 3 s; time windows that are created by synchronizing different neural representations, as for instance in aesthetic appreciations or moral judgments; and synchronization of biological rhythms with geophysical cycles, like the circadian clock with the 24-hr rhythm of day and night. For the latter type of synchronization, an experiment is described that shows the importance of social interactions for sharing or avoiding common time. In a group study with four subjects being completely isolated together for 3 weeks from the external world, social interactions resulted both in intra- and interindividual circadian synchronization and desynchronization. A unique phenomenon in circadian regulation is described, the "beat phenomenon," which has been made visible by the interaction of two circadian rhythms with different frequencies in one body. The separation of the two physiological rhythms was the consequence of social interactions, that is, by the desire of a subject to share and to escape common time during different phases of the long-term experiment. The theoretical arguments on synchronization are summarized with the general statement: "Nothing in cognitive science makes sense except in the light of time windows." The hypothesis is forwarded that time windows that express discrete timing mechanisms in behavioral control and on the level of conscious experiences are the necessary bases to create cognitive order, and it is suggested that time windows are implemented by neural oscillations in different frequency domains. © 2015 The

  5. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Joost M; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-21

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm(-2) in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  6. Analysis of short time-space range seismicity patterns in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imotof

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we analyze the data base obtained from the observations of the Italian Seismological Network from 1975 to 1994 by using a simple algotithm to determine the rate of occurrence of seismic events condi- tioned by the occurrence of previous events after a period of quiescence. The number of observed pairs of earthquakes depends on several parameters: the magnitude threshold of the two events, the spatial and tempo- ral ranges of the quiescence period preceding the first (non aftershock event, the time elapsed between the first and the second events and the spatial dimension of the alarm area. The Akaike information criterion was adopted to assess the optimal set of space-time parameters used in the definition of non-aftershock (events not related to a stronger previous one. In Central Italy, the rate of M ³3.8 earthquakes preceded by at least one M ~ 3.3 foreshock within 14.1 km and 2 days is 30%, while the rate of M ~ 3.3 earthquakes followed by a M ~ 3.8 mainshock in the same space time range is 7%. We observed that the probability that an earthquake of magnitude MI will be followed by an earthquake of magnitude M2 (success rate fits the law log À = a+b (Mi -M2 with b approximately equal to l. By computing the success rate for given values of magnitude threshold of the first and the second events over a dense grid of spatial coordinates, we obtained maps of this feature over the investigated area. The results of this process document variations larger than a factor of five in the success rate over the Italian territory.

  7. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  8. Quantum frames of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufherr, T.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that only relative variables have physical meaning came to be known as Mach's principle. Carrying over this idea to quantum theory, has led to the consideration of finite mass, macroscopic reference frames, relative to which all physical quantities are measured. During the process of measurement, a finite mass observer receives a kickback, and this reaction of the measuring device is not negligible in quantum theory because of the quantization of the action. Hence, the observer himself has to be included in the system that is being considered. Using this as the starting point, a number of thought experiments involving finite mass observers is discussed which have quantum uncertainties in their time or in their position. These thought experiments serve to elucidate in a qualitative way some of the difficulties involved, as well as pointing out a direction to take in seeking solutions to them. When the discussion is extended to include more than one observer, the question of the covariance of the theory immediately arises. Because none of the frames of reference should be preferred, the theory should be covariant. This demand expresses an equivalence principle which here is extended to include reference frames which are in quantum uncertainties relative to each other. Formulating the problem in terms of canonical variables, the ensueing free Hamiltonian contains vector and scalar potentials which represent the kick that the reference frame receives during measurement. These are essentially gravitational type potentials, resulting, as it were, from the extension of the equivalence principle into the quantum domain

  9. On frame multiresolution analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We use the freedom in frame multiresolution analysis to construct tight wavelet frames (even in the case where the refinable function does not generate a tight frame). In cases where a frame multiresolution does not lead to a construction of a wavelet frame we show how one can nevertheless...

  10. Auroral radar measurements at 16-cm wavelength with high range and time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, K.; Turunen, T.; Moorcroft, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Auroral radar measurements performed with the EISCAT facility are presented. Backscatter cross sections of the irregularities produced by the two-stream (Farley-Buneman) or gradient drift plasma instabilities have been recorded with a range separation of 1.5 km, corresponding to a spacing of successive values in height of about 0.4 km. The apparent height profiles of the backscatter have a width of about 5-6 km and occur between 95 and 112 km altitude, with a mean at 104 km. Very often, fast motions of the backscatter layers are observed which can be explained as fast moving ionospheric structures controlled by magnetospheric convection. The maximal time resolution of the measurements is 12.5 ms. The statistics of the backscatter amplitudes at this time resolution is close to a Rice distribution with a Rice parameter a ∼ 3.7. The observed backscatter spectra do not change significantly in shape when the integration time is reduced from 5 s to 100 ms

  11. Earthquake simulations with time-dependent nucleation and long-range interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Dieterich

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for rapid simulation of earthquake sequences is introduced which incorporates long-range elastic interactions among fault elements and time-dependent earthquake nucleation inferred from experimentally derived rate- and state-dependent fault constitutive properties. The model consists of a planar two-dimensional fault surface which is periodic in both the x- and y-directions. Elastic interactions among fault elements are represented by an array of elastic dislocations. Approximate solutions for earthquake nucleation and dynamics of earthquake slip are introduced which permit computations to proceed in steps that are determined by the transitions from one sliding state to the next. The transition-driven time stepping and avoidance of systems of simultaneous equations permit rapid simulation of large sequences of earthquake events on computers of modest capacity, while preserving characteristics of the nucleation and rupture propagation processes evident in more detailed models. Earthquakes simulated with this model reproduce many of the observed spatial and temporal characteristics of clustering phenomena including foreshock and aftershock sequences. Clustering arises because the time dependence of the nucleation process is highly sensitive to stress perturbations caused by nearby earthquakes. Rate of earthquake activity following a prior earthquake decays according to Omori's aftershock decay law and falls off with distance.

  12. 100-ps framing-camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.

    1978-01-01

    The optoelectronic framing-camera tube described is capable of recording two-dimensional image frames with high spatial resolution in the <100-ps range. Framing is performed by streaking a two-dimensional electron image across narrow slits. The resulting dissected electron line images from the slits are restored into framed images by a restorer deflector operating synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen equals the number of dissecting slits in the tube. Performance has been demonstrated in a prototype tube by recording 135-ps-duration framed images of 2.5-mm patterns at the cathode. The limitation in the framing speed is in the external drivers for the deflectors and not in the tube design characteristics. Faster frame speeds in the <100-ps range can be obtained by use of faster deflection drivers

  13. Processor for Real-Time Atmospheric Compensation in Long-Range Imaging, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-range imaging is a critical component to many NASA applications including range surveillance, launch tracking, and astronomical observation. However,...

  14. Nonmonotonic belief state frames and reasoning frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Herre, H.; Treur, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper five levels of specification of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. The notions of semantical frame, belief state frame and reasoning frame are introduced and used as a semantical basis for the first three levels. Moreover, the semantical connections between the levels are

  15. Clever mothers balance time and effort in parental care: a study on free-ranging dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K; Bhadra, Anindita

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian offspring require parental care, at least in the form of nursing during their early development. While mothers need to invest considerable time and energy in ensuring the survival of their current offspring, they also need to optimize their investment in one batch of offspring in order to ensure future reproduction and hence lifetime reproductive success. Free-ranging dogs live in small social groups, mate promiscuously and lack the cooperative breeding biology of other group-living canids. They face high early-life mortality, which in turn reduces fitness benefits of the mother from a batch of pups. We carried out a field-based study on free-ranging dogs in India to understand the nature of maternal care. Our analysis reveals that mothers reduce investment in energy-intensive active care and increase passive care as the pups grow older, thereby keeping overall levels of care more or less constant over pup age. Using the patterns of mother-pup interactions, we define the different phases of maternal care behaviour.

  16. Clinical Prediction Model for Time in Therapeutic Range While on Warfarin in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brent A; Evans, Michael A; Honushefsky, Ashley M; Berger, Peter B

    2017-10-12

    Though warfarin has historically been the primary oral anticoagulant for stroke prevention in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF), several new direct oral anticoagulants may be preferred when anticoagulation control with warfarin is expected to be poor. This study developed a prediction model for time in therapeutic range (TTR) among newly diagnosed AF patients on newly initiated warfarin as a tool to assist decision making between warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants. This electronic medical record-based, retrospective study included newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF patients with no recent warfarin exposure receiving primary care services through a large healthcare system in rural Pennsylvania. TTR was estimated as the percentage of time international normalized ratio measurements were between 2.0 and 3.0 during the first year following warfarin initiation. Candidate predictors of TTR were chosen from data elements collected during usual clinical care. A TTR prediction model was developed and temporally validated and its predictive performance was compared with the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score (sex, age, medical history, treatment, tobacco, race) using R 2 and c-statistics. A total of 7877 newly diagnosed AF patients met study inclusion criteria. Median (interquartile range) TTR within the first year of starting warfarin was 51% (32, 67). Of 85 candidate predictors evaluated, 15 were included in the final validated model with an R 2 of 15.4%. The proposed model showed better predictive performance than the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score ( R 2 =3.0%). The proposed prediction model may assist decision making on the proper mode of oral anticoagulant among newly diagnosed AF patients. However, predicting TTR on warfarin remains challenging. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  17. Determining timing of Alaska Range exhumation and glaciation through cosmogenic nuclide burial dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortor, R. N.; Goehring, B. M.; Bemis, S. P.; Ruleman, C.; Nichols, K. A.; Ward, D. J.; Frothingham, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska Range is a transpressional orogen with modern exhumation initiating 6 Ma. The stratigraphic record of unroofing and uplift of the foreland basin is largely preserved along the northern flank of the Alaska Range in the Pliocene-Pleistocene aged Nenana Gravel, an extensive alluvial fan and braidplain deposit. Chronometric control on the Nenana Gravel is largely lacking, with the limited available age control based on a single Ar-Ar tephra date in an underlying unit and via stratigraphic inferences for the upper portions. Higher-resolution dating of the Nenana Gravel unit is imperative in order to quantify deposition rates and the timing of uplift and deformation of the foreland basin. Furthermore, a glacial unit has been found to lie unconformably on top of the unit at Suntrana Creek and may represent the initiation of glacial advances in the Alaska Range. We present a suite of 26Al/10Be cosmogenic nuclide burial ages collected from the lower, middle, and upper sections of the Nenana Gravel at Suntrana Creek, as well as the overlying glacial unit. Three samples from the lower Nenana Gravel yield an isochron burial age of 4.42+0.67/-0.13 Ma, which represents initiation of Nenana Gravel deposition and may equate to early unroofing of the Alaska Range. Two samples collected from the middle of the Nenana Gravel unit produced an average simple burial age of 2.25+/-0.45 Ma, with a single sample stratigraphically above dating to 0.99 +/-1.60. Two samples from the upper-most portion of the Nenana Gravel yielded an average simple burial age of 1.27+/-0.22 Ma, and one sample from the glacial unit overlying the Nenana Gravel was dated to 0.97+/-0.06 Ma, representing one of the earliest glacial advances in the region. In addition, the age of the glacial unit provides a minimum age for inception of foreland basin uplift and abandonment of the Nenana Gravel in this region.

  18. Optical loop framing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.; Chong, Y.P.; Prono, D.S.; Cavagnolo, H.R.

    1984-06-01

    The ATA provides an electron beam pulse of 70-ns duration at a 1-Hz rate. Our present optical diagnostics technique involve the imaging of the visible light generated by the beam incident onto the plant of a thin sheet of material. It has already been demonstrated that the light generated has a sufficiently fast temporal reponse in performing beam diagnostics. Notwithstanding possible beam emittance degradation due to scattering in the thin sheet, the observation of beam spatial profiles with relatively high efficiencies has provided data complementary to that obtained from beam wall current monitors and from various x-ray probes and other electrical probes. The optical image sensor consists of a gated, intensified television system. The gate pulse of the image intensifier can be appropriately delayed to give frames that are time-positioned from the head to the tail of the beam with a minimum gate time of 5-ns. The spatial correlation of the time frames from pulse to pulse is very good for a stable electron beam; however, when instabilities do occur, it is difficult to properly assess the spatial composition of the head and the tail of the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Multiple gating within a pulse duration becomes desirable but cannot be performed because the recycle time (20-ms) of the TV system is much longer than the beam pulse. For this reason we have developed an optical-loop framing technique that will allow the recording of two frames within one pulse duration with our present gated/intensified TV system

  19. Density of Gabor Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Heil, C.; Deng, B.

    1997-01-01

    A Gabor system is a set of time-frequency shifts$S(g,\\Lambda) = \\{e^{2\\pi i b x} g(x-a)\\}_{(a,b) \\in \\Lambda}$of a function $g \\in L^2({\\bold R}^d)$.We prove that if a finite union of Gabor systems$\\bigcup_{k=1}^r S(g_k,\\Lambda_k)$, with arbitrary sequences $\\Lambda_k$,forms a frame for $L^2({\\bo...

  20. Returning to work - a long-term process reaching beyond the time frames of multimodal non-specific back pain rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Therese; Jensen, Irene; Bergström, Gunnar; Busch, Hillevi

    2015-01-01

    To explore and describe health professionals' experience of working with return to work (RTW) in multimodal rehabilitation for people with non-specific back pain. An interview study using qualitative content analysis. Fifteen participants were interviewed, all were working with multimodal rehabilitation for people with non-specific back pain in eight different rehabilitation units. The participants experienced RTW as a long-term process reaching beyond the time frames of the multimodal rehabilitation (MMR). Their attitudes and, their patients' condition, impacted on their work which focused on psychological and physical well-being as well as participation in everyday life. They often created an action plan for the RTW process, however the responsibility for its realisation was transferred to other actors. The participants described limited interventions in connection with patients' workplaces. Recommended support in the RTW process in MMR comprises the provision of continuous supervision of vocational issues for the health care professionals, the development of guidelines and a checklist for how to work in close collaboration with patients' workplaces and employers, the provision of long-term follow-up in relation to the patients' work, and the development of proper interventions in order to promote transitions between all the different actors involved. Rehabilitation programs targeting return to work (RTW) for people with non-specific back pain needs to include features concretely focusing on vocational issues. Health and RTW is often seen as a linear process in which health comes before RTW. Rehabilitation programs could be tailored to better address the reciprocal relationship between health and work, in which they are interconnected and affect each other. The RTW process is reaching beyond the time frames of the multimodal rehabilitation but further support from the patients are asked for. The rehabilitation programs needs to be designed to provide long

  1. Matching-range-constrained real-time loop closure detection with CNNs features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dongdong; Wang, Chaoqun; Zhang, Bo; Yi, Xiaodong; Tang, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    The loop closure detection (LCD) is an essential part of visual simultaneous localization and mapping systems (SLAM). LCD is capable of identifying and compensating the accumulation drift of localization algorithms to produce an consistent map if the loops are checked correctly. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have outperformed state-of-the-art solutions that use traditional hand-crafted features in many computer vision and pattern recognition applications. After the great success of CNNs, there has been much interest in applying CNNs features to robotic fields such as visual LCD. Some researchers focus on using a pre-trained CNNs model as a method of generating an image representation appropriate for visual loop closure detection in SLAM. However, there are many fundamental differences and challenges involved in character between simple computer vision applications and robotic applications. Firstly, the adjacent images in the dataset of loop closure detection might have more resemblance than the images that form the loop closure. Secondly, real-time performance is one of the most critical demands for robots. In this paper, we focus on making use of the feature generated by CNNs layers to implement LCD in real environment. In order to address the above challenges, we explicitly provide a value to limit the matching range of images to solve the first problem; meanwhile we get better results than state-of-the-art methods and improve the real-time performance using an efficient feature compression method.

  2. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing, E-mail: yqwang@nju.edu.cn; Li, Fenfang [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ∼15 cm and range accuracy is ∼4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ∼40 m.

  3. Mean transit times in headwater catchments: insights from the Otway Ranges, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Howcroft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the timescales of water flow through catchments and the sources of stream water at different flow conditions is critical for understanding catchment behaviour and managing water resources. Here, tritium (3H activities, major ion geochemistry and streamflow data were used in conjunction with lumped parameter models (LPMs to investigate mean transit times (MTTs and the stores of water in six headwater catchments in the Otway Ranges of southeastern Australia. 3H activities of stream water ranged from 0.20 to 2.14 TU, which are significantly lower than the annual average 3H activity of modern local rainfall, which is between 2.4 and 3.2 TU. The 3H activities of the stream water are lowest during low summer flows and increase with increasing streamflow. The concentrations of most major ions vary little with streamflow, which together with the low 3H activities imply that there is no significant direct input of recent rainfall at the streamflows sampled in this study. Instead, shallow younger water stores in the soils and regolith are most likely mobilised during the wetter months. MTTs vary from approximately 7 to 230 years. Despite uncertainties of several years in the MTTs that arise from having to assume an appropriate LPM, macroscopic mixing, and uncertainties in the 3H activities of rainfall, the conclusion that they range from years to decades is robust. Additionally, the relative differences in MTTs at different streamflows in the same catchment are estimated with more certainty. The MTTs in these and similar headwater catchments in southeastern Australia are longer than in many catchments globally. These differences may reflect the relatively low rainfall and high evapotranspiration rates in southeastern Australia compared with headwater catchments elsewhere. The long MTTs imply that there is a long-lived store of water in these catchments that can sustain the streams over drought periods lasting several years. However, the

  4. Mean transit times in headwater catchments: insights from the Otway Ranges, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howcroft, William; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the timescales of water flow through catchments and the sources of stream water at different flow conditions is critical for understanding catchment behaviour and managing water resources. Here, tritium (3H) activities, major ion geochemistry and streamflow data were used in conjunction with lumped parameter models (LPMs) to investigate mean transit times (MTTs) and the stores of water in six headwater catchments in the Otway Ranges of southeastern Australia. 3H activities of stream water ranged from 0.20 to 2.14 TU, which are significantly lower than the annual average 3H activity of modern local rainfall, which is between 2.4 and 3.2 TU. The 3H activities of the stream water are lowest during low summer flows and increase with increasing streamflow. The concentrations of most major ions vary little with streamflow, which together with the low 3H activities imply that there is no significant direct input of recent rainfall at the streamflows sampled in this study. Instead, shallow younger water stores in the soils and regolith are most likely mobilised during the wetter months. MTTs vary from approximately 7 to 230 years. Despite uncertainties of several years in the MTTs that arise from having to assume an appropriate LPM, macroscopic mixing, and uncertainties in the 3H activities of rainfall, the conclusion that they range from years to decades is robust. Additionally, the relative differences in MTTs at different streamflows in the same catchment are estimated with more certainty. The MTTs in these and similar headwater catchments in southeastern Australia are longer than in many catchments globally. These differences may reflect the relatively low rainfall and high evapotranspiration rates in southeastern Australia compared with headwater catchments elsewhere. The long MTTs imply that there is a long-lived store of water in these catchments that can sustain the streams over drought periods lasting several years. However, the catchments are likely

  5. Bacterial intelligence: imitation games, time-sharing, and long-range quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sarangam; Pal, Sukla

    2017-09-01

    Bacteria are far more intelligent than we can think of. They adopt different survival strategies to make their life comfortable. Researches on bacterial communication to date suggest that bacteria can communicate with each other using chemical signaling molecules as well as using ion channel mediated electrical signaling. Though in past few decades the scopes of chemical signaling have been investigated extensively, those of electrical signaling have received less attention. In this article, we present a novel perspective on time-sharing behavior, which maintains the biofilm growth under reduced nutrient supply between two distant biofilms through electrical signaling based on the experimental evidence reported by Liu et al., in 2017. In addition, following the recent work by Humphries et al. Cell 168(1):200-209, in 2017, we highlight the consequences of long range electrical signaling within biofilm communities through spatially propagating waves of potassium. Furthermore, we address the possibility of two-way cellular communication between artificial and natural cells through chemical signaling being inspired by recent experimental observation (Lentini et al. 2017) where the efficiency of artificial cells in imitating the natural cells is estimated through cellular Turing test. These three spectacular observations lead us to envisage and devise new classical and quantum views of these complex biochemical networks that have never been realized previously.

  6. Reduced Time in Therapeutic Range and Higher Mortality in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Taking Acenocoumarol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Roldán, Vanessa; Esteve-Pastor, María Asunción; Valdés, Mariano; Vicente, Vicente; Marín, Francisco; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2018-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) depends on the quality of anticoagulant control, reflected by the mean time in therapeutic range (TTR) of international normalized ratio 2.0 to 3.0. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between TTR and change in TTR (ΔTTR) with the risk of mortality and clinically significant events in a consecutive cohort of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. We included 1361 AF patients stable on VKAs (international normalized ratio 2.0-3.0) during at least the previous 6 months. After 6 months of follow-up we recalculated TTR, calculated ΔTTR (ie, the difference between baseline and 6-month TTRs) and investigated the association of both with the risk of mortality and "clinically significant events" (defined as the composite of stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, acute coronary syndrome, acute heart failure, and all-cause deaths). The median ΔTTR at 6 months of entry was 20% (interquartile range 0-34%), 796 (58.5%) patients had a TTR reduction of at least 20%, while 330 (24.2%) had a TTR <65%. During follow-up, 34 (2.5% [4.16% per year]) patients died and 61 (4.5% [7.47% per year]) had a clinically significant event. Median ΔTTR was significantly higher in patients who died (35.5% vs 20%; P = 0.002) or sustained clinically significant events (28% vs 20%; P = 0.022). Based on Cox regression analyses, the overall risk of mortality at 6 months for each decrease point in TTR was 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P = 0.003), and the risk of clinically significant events was 1.01 (95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P = 0.028). Patients with TTR <65% at 6 months had higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio = 2.96; 95% CI, 1.51-5.81; P = 0.002) and clinically significant events (hazard ratio = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.01-2.88; P = 0.046). Our findings suggest that in AF patients anticoagulated with VKAs, a change in TTR over 6 months (ie, ΔTTR) is an independent risk factor for mortality and clinically significant events

  7. Prime tight frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.

    2014-01-01

    to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two.......We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...

  8. Sequences and timing of dental eruption in semi-free-ranging mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Wickings, E Jean

    2004-01-01

    The chronology of tooth emergence is often used to examine the growth and development of individuals and to compare life histories across species. Emergence patterns are also used to age animals and to infer life history influences for extinct species. However, comparative studies of primates are hindered by a lack of dental development data for many species. Here we describe the sequences and timing of tooth emergence for a large sample of semi-free-ranging mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and compare this with other life history variables for this species. Deciduous dentition emerged in the sequence i1 i2 c p3 p4. The augmented sequence (including information about variability in emergence sequence) was i1 i2 [c p3] p4 for the female maxilla and the male mandible, and i1 i2 c p3 p4 for the female mandible and the male maxilla. Deciduous dentition was complete by 5.0 months in females and 6.4 months in males. The permanent dentition began to emerge at 26 months, and complete adult dentition had emerged by 68 months for males and 85 months for females. Sex differences occurred in the augmented eruption sequences: females M1 I1 I2 [M2 C] P3 P4 M3, males M1 I1 [I2 M2] [P4 = P3 = C] M3. The order of tooth eruption and the occurrence of sequence polymorphisms were very similar to those observed for baboons and macaques. Comparison with life history variables showed that mandrills have complete deciduous dentition at weaning, females possess both adult incisors and M1 when they first reproduce, but still have deciduous canines and premolars, and that both sexes have full adult dentition before they attain their full adult stature and mass.

  9. Development of a Nomarski-type multi-frame interferometer as a time and space resolving diagnostics for the free electron density of laser-generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, M.; Frank, A.; Pelka, A.; Schaumann, G.; Schoekel, A.; Schumacher, D.; Roth, M.; Fils, J.; Blazevic, A.; Hessling, T.; Basko, M. M.; Maruhn, J.; Tauschwitz, An.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the development and set-up of a Nomarski-type multi-frame interferometer as a time and space resolving diagnostics of the free electron density in laser-generated plasma. The interferometer allows the recording of a series of 4 images within 6 ns of a single laser-plasma interaction. For the setup presented here, the minimal accessible free electron density is 5 x 10 18 cm -3 , the maximal one is 2 x 10 20 cm -3 . Furthermore, it provides a resolution of the electron density in space of 50 μm and in time of 0.5 ns for one image with a customizable magnification in space for each of the 4 images. The electron density was evaluated from the interferograms using an Abel inversion algorithm. The functionality of the system was proven during first experiments and the experimental results are presented and discussed. A ray tracing procedure was realized to verify the interferometry pictures taken. In particular, the experimental results are compared to simulations and show excellent agreement, providing a conclusive picture of the evolution of the electron density distribution.

  10. Numerical investigation on lithium transport in the edge plasma of EAST real-time- Li-injection experiments in the frame of BOUT++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the transport of Li species in the plasma with real-time Li aerosol injection on EAST, a model has been developed by reducing Braginskii's equations, and implemented in the frame of BOUT++. The simulation results show that Li atoms propagate inwards since the Li injection, and their penetration depth depends on both the local plasma conditions along their path and initial injection velocity. It is also found that Li ions accumulate rapidly in the edge, and only a small fraction of Li species can transport cross the separatrix into the core. In the poloidal direction, Li ions drift swiftly downwards along the field lines, and transport much faster at the high field side than at the low field side. The interaction between background plasma and Li species plays a critical role in determining the edge plasma profile. It is found that real-time Li injection raises the plasma density in the pedestal region and reduces the plasma temperature, just as has been observed experimentally.

  11. Delayed Administration of VEGF Rescues Spinal Motor Neurons from Death with a Short Effective Time Frame in Excitotoxic Experimental Models in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis B Tovar-y-Romo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor prevents neuronal death in different models of ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but few studies have addressed the efficacy of VEGF to protect motor neurons after the onset of symptoms, a critical point when considering VEGF as a potential therapeutic target for ALS. We studied the capability of VEGF to protect motor neurons after an excitotoxic challenge in two models of spinal neurodegeneration in rats induced by AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid administered either chronically with osmotic minipumps or acutely by microdialysis. VEGF was administered through osmotic minipumps in the chronic model or injected intracerebroventricularly in the acute model, and its effects were assessed by immunohistochemical and histological analyses and motor performance tests. In the chronic model, VEGF stopped the progression of the paralysis and protected motor neurons when administered after AMPA before the onset of the motor symptoms, whereas no protection was observed when administered after the onset. VEGF was also protective in the acute model, but with a short time window, since the protection was effective when administered 1 h but not 2 h after AMPA. Our results indicate that while VEGF has an indubitable neuroprotective effect, its therapeutic potential for halting or delaying the progression of motor neuron loss in ALS would likely have a short effective time frame.

  12. Perioperative versus postoperative measurement of Taylor Spatial Frame mounting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökücü, Sami; Demir, Bilal; Lapçin, Osman; Yavuz, Umut; Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences, if any, between application parameters for the Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) system obtained during surgery under fluoroscopy and after surgery from digital radiography. This retrospective study included 17 extremities of 15 patients (8 male, 7 female; mean age: 21.9 years, range: 10 to 55 years) who underwent TSF after deformity and fracture. Application parameters measured by fluoroscopy at the end of surgery after mounting the fixator were compared with parameters obtained from anteroposterior and lateral digital radiographs taken 1 day after surgery. Fixator was applied to the femur in 8 patients, tibia in 6 and radius in 3. Mean time to removal of the frame was 3.5 (range: 3 to 7) months. Mean perioperative anteroposterior, lateral and axial frame offsets of patients were 9.1 (range: 3 to 20) mm, 18.1 (range: 5 to 37) mm and 95.3 (range: 25 to 155) mm, respectively. Mean postoperative anteroposterior, lateral and axial frame offset radiographs were 11.8 (range: 2 to 30) mm, 18 (range: 6 to 47) mm and 109.5 (range: 28 to 195) mm, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). While measurements taken during operation may lengthen the duration in the operation room, fluoroscopy may provide better images and is easier to perform than digital radiography. On the other hand, there is no difference between measurements taken during perioperative fluoroscopy and postoperative digital radiography.

  13. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  14. A comparative analysis of short-range travel time prediction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisken, Giovanni; van Berkum, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing car mobility has lead to an increasing demand for traffic information. This contribution deals with information about travel times. When car drivers are provided with this type of information, the travel times should ideally be the times that they will encounter. As a result travel times

  15. Wide-range time-to-digital converters with a high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aul'chenko, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    A combined time-number converter in which measurements of time intervals to within a period of clock frequency are made directly and those within a period are by a time-amplitude-code conversion is described. It allows time intervals up to 4 mcsec with a resolution of 100 psec to be measured. The differential nonlinearity of conversion is not greater than +-1.5%, and the integral error from measurements of time intervals is not greater than +-100 psec

  16. Mapping in inertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1989-05-01

    World space mapping in inertial frames is used to examine the Lorentz covariance of symmetry operations. It is found that the Galilean invariant concepts of simultaneity (S), parity (P), and time reversal symmetry (T) are not Lorentz covariant concepts for inertial observers. That is, just as the concept of simultaneity has no significance independent of the Lorentz inertial frame, likewise so are the concepts of parity and time reversal. However, the world parity (W) [i.e., the space-time reversal symmetry (P-T)] is a truly Lorentz covariant concept. Indeed, it is shown that only those mapping matrices M that commute with the Lorentz transformation matrix L (i.e., [M,L] = 0) are the ones that correspond to manifestly Lorentz covariant operations. This result is in accordance with the spirit of the world space Mach's principle. Since the Lorentz transformation is an orthogonal transformation while the Galilean transformation is not an orthogonal transformation, the formal relativistic space-time mapping theory used here does not have a corresponding non-relativistic counterpart. 12 refs

  17. Analysis of Costs and Time Frame for Reducing CO2 Emissions by 70% in the U.S. Auto and Energy Sectors by 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2017-10-03

    Using a least-cost optimization framework, it is shown that unless emissions reductions beyond those already in place begin at the latest by 2025 (±2 years) for the U.S. automotive sector, and by 2026 (-3 years) for the U.S. electric sector, 2050 targets to achieve necessary within-sector preventative CO 2 emissions reductions of 70% or more relative to 2010 will be infeasible. The analysis finds no evidence to justify delaying climate action in the name of reducing technological costs. Even without considering social and environmental damage costs, delaying aggressive climate action does not reduce CO 2 abatement costs even under the most optimistic trajectories for improvements in fuel efficiencies, demand, and technology costs in the U.S. auto and electric sectors. In fact, the abatement cost for both sectors is found to increase sharply with every year of delay beyond 2020. When further considering reasonable limits to technology turnover, retirements, and new capacity additions, these costs would be higher, and the feasible time frame for initiating successful climate action on the 70% by 2050 target would be shorter, perhaps having passed already. The analysis also reveals that optimistic business-as-usual scenarios in the U.S. will, conservatively, release 79-108 billion metric tons of CO 2 . This could represent up to 13% of humanity's remaining carbon budget through 2050.

  18. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan Gijsbert Cornelis Van Baak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the Late Neogene, the Black Sea experienced large paleoenvironmental changes, switching between (anoxic marine conditions when connected to the Mediterranean Sea and (oxic freshwater conditions at times of isolation. We create a magnetostratigraphic time frame for three sites drilled during Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP Leg 42B to the Black Sea (drilled in 1975. At the time, magnetostratigraphic dating was impossible because of the presence of the little understood iron sulfide mineral greigite (in sediments a precursor to pyrite as magnetic carrier. Our rock-magnetic results indicate that only anoxic conditions result in poor magnetic signal, likely as a result of pyrite formation in the water column rather than in the sediment. The magnetostratigraphic results indicate that Hole 379A, drilled in the basin center, has a continuous sedimentary record dating back to 1.3 Ma. Hole 380/380A is subdivided into three consistent intervals, 0-700 mbsf, 700-860 mbsf and 860-1075 mbsf. The top unit covers the Pleistocene but the magnetostratigraphy is likely compromised by the presence of mass transport deposits. The middle unit spans between 4.3 and 6.1 Ma and records continuous deposition at ~10 cm/kyr. The lower unit lacks the independent age constraints to correlate the obtained magnetostratigraphy. Hole 381 is drilled on the Bosporus slope and as a result, hiatuses are common. A correlation to the nearby Hole 380/380A is proposed, but indicates deposits cannot straightforwardly be traced across the slope. Our improved age model does not support the original interpretation based on these cores of a desiccation of the Black Sea during the Messinian salinity crisis.

  19. Time profile of type 3 bursts in decameter and hectometer range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, T.; Naito, Y.; Ohki, K.

    1973-01-01

    The following new hypothesis is proposed. The decay time of plasma waves is much shorter than the time scale of type 3 bursts especially at low frequencies. Accordingly, the time variation of radio flux at a given frequency merely corresponds to the flux of fast electrons passing through the corresponding plasma layer.

  20. Assessing behavior in Aseel pullets under free-range, part-time free-range, and cage system during growing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, M S; Mahmud, A; Mehmood, S; Pasha, T N; Khan, M T; Hussain, J

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of free-range (FR), part-time free-range (PTFR), and cage system (CS) on behavioral repertoire in Lakha (LK), Mushki (MS), Peshawari (PW), and Sindhi (SN) varieties of Aseel chicken during the growing phase (9 to 18 wk of age). In total, 144 Aseel pullets were allotted to 12 treatment groups in a 3 × 4 (rearing system × Aseel variety) factorial arrangement, according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Each treatment group was replicated 3 times with 4 birds in each replicate (12 birds per treatment group). The pullets were randomly marked weekly for identification, and their behavior was observed through the focal animal sampling method. Time spent on different behavioral activities was recorded and converted to a percentage. The data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA under a factorial arrangement using SAS 9.1, and the behavioral parameters were evaluated. The results indicated greater (P < 0.05) sitting, standing, drinking, preening, and aggressiveness in CS; walking, running, and jumping in PTFR; and foraging and dustbathing in both FR and PTFR, whereas feather pecking was found to be reduced in FR compared with PTFR and CS. Among varieties, PW showed the least feeding/foraging and feather pecking behavior, and greater standing, running, and jumping behavior (P < 0.05). However, SN spent less time in walking and preening, and more time in sitting, drinking, and aggressiveness. Dustbathing was found to be similar in all Aseel varieties (P = 0.135). In conclusion, the PTFR system could be suggested as a substitute for conventional housing systems because it better accommodates normal behavior in Aseel pullets.

  1. Evaluation of the appropriate time range for estimating the apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) in a transcellular transport study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Kazuhisa; Kato, Motohiro; Sakurai, Yuuji; Ishigai, Masaki; Kudo, Toshiyuki; Ito, Kiyomi

    2015-11-30

    In a transcellular transport study, the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of a compound is evaluated using the range by which the amount of compound accumulated on the receiver side is assumed to be proportional to time. However, the time profile of the concentration of the compound in receiver (C3) often shows a lag time before reaching the linear range and later changes from linear to steady state. In this study, the linear range needed to calculate Papp in the C3-time profile was evaluated by a 3-compartment model. C3 was described by an equation with two steady states (C3=A3(1-e(-αt))+B3(1-e(-βt)), α>β), and by a simple approximate line (C3=A3-A3×αt) in the time range of 3/αtime, defined as the interception of the x axis, was described as 1/α. The rate constant α was affected by the membrane permeability clearance and intracellular unbound fraction, while β was affected only by the former. The linear range that was approximated in the present study was not uniformly defined within the time interval in which C3 remains at time range to evaluate Papp was 3/α

  2. Rovibrational spectroscopy using a kinetic energy operator in Eckart frame and the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadri, Keyvan; Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Lauvergnat, David; Gatti, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    For computational rovibrational spectroscopy the choice of the frame is critical for an approximate separation of overall rotation from internal motions. To minimize the coupling between internal coordinates and rotation, Eckart proposed a condition [“Some studies concerning rotating axes and polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. 47, 552–558 (1935)] and a frame that fulfills this condition is hence called an Eckart frame. A method is developed to introduce in a systematic way the Eckart frame for the expression of the kinetic energy operator (KEO) in the polyspherical approach. The computed energy levels of a water molecule are compared with those obtained using a KEO in the standard definition of the Body-fixed frame of the polyspherical approach. The KEO in the Eckart frame leads to a faster convergence especially for large J states and vibrationally excited states. To provide an example with more degrees of freedom, rotational states of the vibrational ground state of the trans nitrous acid (HONO) are also investigated

  3. Real-Time Online Monitoring of the Ion Range by Means of Prompt Secondary Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimmer, J.; Balleyguier, L.; Caponetto, L.; Chen, X.; Dahoumane, M.; Dauvergne, D.; De Rydt, M.; Dedes, G.; Della Negra, R.; Deng, S.M.; Ley, J.L.; Mathez, H.; Pinto, M.; Ray, C.; Richard, M.H.; Reithinger, V.; Roellinghoff, F.; Testa, E.; Zoccarato, Y.; Baudot, J.; Winter, M.; Brons, S.; Chabot, M.; Force, P.; Joly, B.; Insa, C.; Lambert, D.; Lestand, L.; Magne, M.; Montarou, G.; Freud, N.; Letang, J.M.; Lojacono, X.; Maxim, V.; Prostk, R.; Herault, J.; La Tessa, C.; Pleskac, R.; Vanstalle, M.; Parodi, K.; Prieels, D.; Smeets, J.; Rinaldi, I.

    2013-06-01

    Prompt secondary radiations such as gamma rays and protons can be used for ion-range monitoring during ion therapy either on an energy-slice basis or on a pencil-beam basis. We present a review of the ongoing activities in terms of detector developments, imaging, experimental and theoretical physics issues concerning the correlation between the physical dose and hadronic processes. (authors)

  4. Creating historical range of variation (HRV) time series using landscape modeling: Overview and issues [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2012-01-01

    Simulation modeling can be a powerful tool for generating information about historical range of variation (HRV) in landscape conditions. In this chapter, I will discuss several aspects of the use of simulation modeling to generate landscape HRV data, including (1) the advantages and disadvantages of using simulation, (2) a brief review of possible landscape models. and...

  5. Real-time monitoring of Salmonella enterica in free-range geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Pedersen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Free-range geese were sampled longitudinally and Salmonella isolates characterized to reveal highly diverging colonization dynamics. One flock was intermittently colonized with one strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from 2 weeks of age, while in another, S. enterica serovar Mbandaka...

  6. Normative, gain and hedonic goal frames guiding environmental behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses new developments about goal-dependent framing and multiple goal frames (sometimes also called "multiple motives"), which are highly relevant for understanding environmental behavior. We introduce goal-framing theory, which postulates that goals "frame" the way people process information and act upon it. Three goal frames are distinguished: a hedonic, gain, and normative goal frame. In general, multiple goals are active at any given time, which may (or may not) be compat...

  7. Extending the range of real time density matrix renormalization group simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, D. M.; Karrasch, C.

    2016-03-01

    We discuss a few simple modifications to time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithms which allow to access larger time scales. We specifically aim at beginners and present practical aspects of how to implement these modifications within any standard matrix product state (MPS) based formulation of the method. Most importantly, we show how to 'combine' the Schrödinger and Heisenberg time evolutions of arbitrary pure states | ψ 〉 and operators A in the evaluation of 〈A〉ψ(t) = 〈 ψ | A(t) | ψ 〉 . This includes quantum quenches. The generalization to (non-)thermal mixed state dynamics 〈A〉ρ(t) =Tr [ ρA(t) ] induced by an initial density matrix ρ is straightforward. In the context of linear response (ground state or finite temperature T > 0) correlation functions, one can extend the simulation time by a factor of two by 'exploiting time translation invariance', which is efficiently implementable within MPS DMRG. We present a simple analytic argument for why a recently-introduced disentangler succeeds in reducing the effort of time-dependent simulations at T > 0. Finally, we advocate the python programming language as an elegant option for beginners to set up a DMRG code.

  8. Making students' frames explicit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Hansen, Poul Henrik Kyvsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Framing is a vital part of the design and innovation process. Frames are cognitive shortcuts (i.e. metaphors) that enable designers to connect insights about i.e. market opportunities and users needs with a set of solution principles and to test if this connection makes sense. Until now, framing...

  9. Population genomic scans suggest novel genes underlie convergent flowering time evolution in the introduced range of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Billie A; Stinchcombe, John R

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing question in evolutionary biology is whether the evolution of convergent phenotypes results from selection on the same heritable genetic components. Using whole-genome sequencing and genome scans, we tested whether the evolution of parallel longitudinal flowering time clines in the native and introduced ranges of Arabidopsis thaliana has a similar genetic basis. We found that common variants of large effect on flowering time in the native range do not appear to have been under recent strong selection in the introduced range. We identified a set of 38 new candidate genes that are putatively linked to the evolution of flowering time. A high degree of conditional neutrality of flowering time variants between the native and introduced range may preclude parallel evolution at the level of genes. Overall, neither gene pleiotropy nor available standing genetic variation appears to have restricted the evolution of flowering time to high-frequency variants from the native range or to known flowering time pathway genes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jon D

    2002-02-19

    The majority of numerical models in climatology and geomagnetism rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or geomagnetic dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's geomagnetic intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise geomagnetic intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with internal fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions.

  11. Nonlinearity, Breaks, and Long-Range Dependence in Time-Series Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Medeiros, Marcelo C.

    We study the simultaneous occurrence of long memory and nonlinear effects, such as parameter changes and threshold effects, in ARMA time series models and apply our modeling framework to daily realized volatility. Asymptotic theory for parameter estimation is developed and two model building...

  12. Look closer: Time sequence photography of Roosters Comb in the Sheep Creek Range, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of understanding natural landscape changes is key in properly determining rangeland ecology. Time sequence photography allows a snapshot of a landscape to be documented and enables the ability to compare natural changes overtime. Photographs of Roosters Comb were taken from the same v...

  13. Multivariate wavelet frames

    CERN Document Server

    Skopina, Maria; Protasov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a systematic study of multivariate wavelet frames with matrix dilation, in particular, orthogonal and bi-orthogonal bases, which are a special case of frames. Further, it provides algorithmic methods for the construction of dual and tight wavelet frames with a desirable approximation order, namely compactly supported wavelet frames, which are commonly required by engineers. It particularly focuses on methods of constructing them. Wavelet bases and frames are actively used in numerous applications such as audio and graphic signal processing, compression and transmission of information. They are especially useful in image recovery from incomplete observed data due to the redundancy of frame systems. The construction of multivariate wavelet frames, especially bases, with desirable properties remains a challenging problem as although a general scheme of construction is well known, its practical implementation in the multidimensional setting is difficult. Another important feature of wavelet is ...

  14. Physical processes affecting turbidity in a tidal marsh across a range of time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W.; Poindexter, C.

    2016-12-01

    The direction of net suspended sediment flux, whether into or out of a tidal marsh, can determine whether a marsh is aggrading or eroding. Measuring net suspended sediment fluxes or attributing trends in these fluxes to a particular physical processes is challenging because suspended sediment concentrations are highly variable in time. We used singular spectrum analysis for time series with missing data (SSAM) to observe the relative effects on turbidity of physical processes occurring on different time scales at the Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve. This Preserve covers the largest contiguous area of full-tidal marsh remaining within Suisun Bay, the eastern most subembayment of San Francisco Bay. A long-term monitoring station at First Mallard Slough within the Preserve measures turbidity. Our analysis of of this turbidity record isolated the contribution to total variance from different tides and from annual cycles of San Francisco Bay freshwater inflow, sediment deposition and wind-driven sediment resuspension. Surprisingly, the contribution from diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents (30%) was smaller than the contribution from annual cycles of freshwater inflow, sediment deposition and resuspension (38%). This result contrasts with the original implementation of SSAM to suspended sediment concentration, which was conducted in the central San Francisco Bay. This previous work indicated a significant yet smaller contribution (13%) to total suspended sediment concentration variance from annual cycles (Schoellhamer, D. H., 2002, Continental Shelf Research., 22, 1857-1866). The reason for the contrast relates in part to the location of the First Mallard Slough more than 10 km along the tidal channel network from Suisun Bay. At this location, the lowest frequency variation in suspended sediment is accentuated. Annual peaks in turbidity at First Mallard depend not only on spring and summer wind-driven resuspension of sediment in San Pablo Bay but also its co

  15. Renal function, time in therapeutic range and outcomes in warfarin-treated atrial fibrillation patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Anders Nissen; Lip, Gregory Y H; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Patients with severely reduced renal function have been excluded from randomized controlled trials of oral anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (AF). Warfarin treatment in this population is controversial and data on anticoagulation control and the impact on adverse outcomes are needed. By indi......Patients with severely reduced renal function have been excluded from randomized controlled trials of oral anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (AF). Warfarin treatment in this population is controversial and data on anticoagulation control and the impact on adverse outcomes are needed......) was calculated using the Rosendaal method. The risk of stroke and bleeding was estimated using multivariable Cox regression analyses with eGFR and TTR estimated time dependently throughout follow-up. We identified 10,423 warfarin-treated AF patients with available international normalized ratio and creatinine...

  16. Short-time dynamics of lysozyme solutions with competing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riest, Jonas; Nägele, Gerhard; Liu, Yun; Wagner, Norman J.; Godfrin, P. Douglas

    2018-02-01

    Recently, atypical static features of microstructural ordering in low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions have been extensively explored experimentally and explained theoretically based on a short-range attractive plus long-range repulsive (SALR) interaction potential. However, the protein dynamics and the relationship to the atypical SALR structure remain to be demonstrated. Here, the applicability of semi-analytic theoretical methods predicting diffusion properties and viscosity in isotropic particle suspensions to low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions is tested. Using the interaction potential parameters previously obtained from static structure factor measurements, our results of Monte Carlo simulations representing seven experimental lysoyzme samples indicate that they exist either in dispersed fluid or random percolated states. The self-consistent Zerah-Hansen scheme is used to describe the static structure factor, S(q), which is the input to our calculation schemes for the short-time hydrodynamic function, H(q), and the zero-frequency viscosity η. The schemes account for hydrodynamic interactions included on an approximate level. Theoretical predictions for H(q) as a function of the wavenumber q quantitatively agree with experimental results at small protein concentrations obtained using neutron spin echo measurements. At higher concentrations, qualitative agreement is preserved although the calculated hydrodynamic functions are overestimated. We attribute the differences for higher concentrations and lower temperatures to translational-rotational diffusion coupling induced by the shape and interaction anisotropy of particles and clusters, patchiness of the lysozyme particle surfaces, and the intra-cluster dynamics, features not included in our simple globular particle model. The theoretical results for the solution viscosity, η, are in qualitative agreement with our experimental data even at higher concentrations. We demonstrate that semi

  17. Development of an all-optical framing camera and its application on the Z-pinch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Peng, Bodong; Wang, Hong-Xing; Song, Guzhou; Li, Binkang; Yue, Zhiqin; Li, Yang; Sun, Tieping; Xu, Qing; Ma, Jiming; Sheng, Liang; Han, Changcai; Duan, Baojun; Yao, Zhiming; Yan, Weipeng

    2017-12-11

    An all-optical framing camera has been developed which measures the spatial profile of photons flux by utilizing a laser beam to probe the refractive index change in an indium phosphide semiconductor. This framing camera acquires two frames with the time resolution of about 1.5 ns and the inter frame separation time of about 13 ns by angularly multiplexing the probe beam on to the semiconductor. The spatial resolution of this camera has been estimated to be about 140 μm and the spectral response of this camera has also been theoretically investigated in 5 eV-100 KeV range. This camera has been applied in investigating the imploding dynamics of the molybdenum planar wire array Z-pinch on the 1-MA "QiangGuang-1" facility. This framing camera can provide an alternative scheme for high energy density physics experiments.

  18. Long-Range Untethered Real-Time Live Gas Main Robotic Inspection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf; Daphne D' Zurko

    2004-10-31

    Under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) developed an untethered, wireless remote controlled inspection robot dubbed Explorer. The project entailed the design and prototyping of a wireless self-powered video-inspection robot capable of accessing live 6- and 8-inch diameter cast-iron and steel mains, while traversing turns and Ts and elbows under real-time control with live video feedback to an operator. The design is that of a segmented actively articulated and wheel-leg powered robot design, with fisheye imaging capability and self-powered battery storage and wireless real-time communication link. The prototype was functionally tested in an above ground pipe-network, in order to debug all mechanical, electrical and software subsystems, and develop the necessary deployment and retrieval, as well as obstacle-handling scripts. A pressurized natural gas test-section was used to certify it for operation in natural gas at up to 60 psig. Two subsequent live-main field-trials in both cast-iron and steel pipe, demonstrated its ability to be safely launched, operated and retrieved under real-world conditions. The system's ability to safely and repeatably exidrecover from angled and vertical launchers, traverse multi-thousand foot long pipe-sections, make T and varied-angle elbow-turns while wirelessly sending live video and handling command and control messages, was clearly demonstrated. Video-inspection was clearly shown to be a viable tool to understand the state of this critical buried infrastructure, irrespective of low- (cast-iron) or high-pressure (steel) conditions. This report covers the different aspects of specifications, requirements, design, prototyping, integration and testing and field-trialing of the Explorer platform.

  19. Comparison of linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of Orbitrap and ion-mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Anton; Walker, Stephan

    2017-11-30

    The linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of mass spectrometers are important in metabolome and residue analysis. A large linear dynamic range is mandatory if both low- and high-abundance ions have to be detected and quantitated in heavy matrix samples. These performance criteria, as provided by modern high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), were systematically investigated. The comparison included two generations of Orbitraps, and an ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) system In addition, different scan modes, as provided by the utilized instruments, were investigated. Calibration curves of different compounds covering a concentration range of five orders of magnitude were measured to evaluate the linear interscan dynamic range. The linear intrascan dynamic range and the resulting mass accuracy were evaluated by repeating these measurements in the presence of a very intense background. Modern HRMS instruments can show linear dynamic ranges of five orders of magnitude. Often, however, the linear dynamic range is limited by the detection capability (sensitivity and selectivity) and by the electrospray ionization. Orbitraps, as opposed to TOF instruments, show a reduced intrascan dynamic range. This is due to the limited C-trap and Orbitrap capacity. The tested TOF instrument shows poorer mass accuracies than the Orbitraps. In contrast, hyphenation with an ion-mobility device seems not to affect the linear dynamic range. The linear dynamic range of modern HRMS instrumentation has been significantly improved. This also refers to the virtual absence of systematic mass shifts at high ion abundances. The intrascan dynamic range of the current Orbitrap technology may still be a limitation when analyzing complex matrix extracts. On the other hand, the linear dynamic range is not only limited by the detector technology, but can also be shortened by peripheral devices, where the ionization and transfer of ions take place. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  20. Snow Cover, Snowmelt Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather, including earlier snowmelt, has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (is greater than 70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for the management of streamflow. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work, such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud-gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period as a whole. The extent of snow-cover (percent of basin covered) derived from the lowest elevation zone (2500-3000 m) of the WRR, using MODIS CGF snow-cover maps, is strongly correlated with maximum monthly discharge on 30 April, where Spearman's Rank correlation, rs,=0.89 for the decade of the 2000s. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek above Bull Lake; and found a trend (significant at the 90% confidence level) toward reduced stream power from 1970 to 2009. Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature

  1. Changing climate, changing frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, Martinus J.; Boezeman, Daan; Dewulf, Art; Termeer, Catrien J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show development of flood policy frames in context of climate change attention. ► Rising attention on climate change influences traditional flood policy framing. ► The new framing employs global-scale scientific climate change knowledge. ► With declining attention, framing disregards climate change, using local knowledge. ► We conclude that frames function as sensemaking devices selectively using knowledge. -- Abstract: Water management and particularly flood defence have a long history of collective action in low-lying countries like the Netherlands. The uncertain but potentially severe impacts of the recent climate change issue (e.g. sea level rise, extreme river discharges, salinisation) amplify the wicked and controversial character of flood safety policy issues. Policy proposals in this area generally involve drastic infrastructural works and long-term investments. They face the difficult challenge of framing problems and solutions in a publicly acceptable manner in ever changing circumstances. In this paper, we analyse and compare (1) how three key policy proposals publicly frame the flood safety issue, (2) the knowledge referred to in the framing and (3) how these frames are rhetorically connected or disconnected as statements in a long-term conversation. We find that (1) framings of policy proposals differ in the way they depict the importance of climate change, the relevant timeframe and the appropriate governance mode; (2) knowledge is selectively mobilised to underpin the different frames and (3) the frames about these proposals position themselves against the background of the previous proposals through rhetorical connections and disconnections. Finally, we discuss how this analysis hints at the importance of processes of powering and puzzling that lead to particular framings towards the public at different historical junctures

  2. New tube fitting range can slash assembly time, reduce tube material costs and eliminate hot work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    Parker Instrumentation has developed a permanent tube connection technology known as Phastite for use in high pressure applications such as in the offshore oil and gas sector. The Phastite push-fit connector offers major savings over traditional permanent and higher pressure connection techniques such as welded or cone-and-thread tube fittings. It also reduces assembly times by 20-fold or more and eliminates the need for hot work permits. The fittings are designed to withstand working pressures up to 1,379 bar. Phastite tube fittings can be used on offshore platforms, as well as on support vessels,, subsea equipment and ROVs such as hydraulic systems for wellhead control, emergency shut down, chemical injection, pumping packages, gas booster systems and test equipment. The connectors offer considerable savings in material cost and weight because they do not need to be used with more expensive tubing with extra thickness to accommodate a thread. Phastite is also resistant to vibration and does not need any anti-vibration accessories. A joint can be made in a matter of seconds with a simple handheld hydraulic tool that makes the push-fit connection. A sealing mechanism based on a series of defined internal ridges creates a secure seal by radial compression. The ridges grip in a way that retains all of the tubing's strength. An additional characteristic is the maintenance free nature of the Phastite connection. 1 fig.

  3. Development and characterization of real-time wide-energy range personal neutron dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Tsujimura, Norio (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center); Yamano, Toshiya; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Okamoto, Eisuke

    1994-04-01

    The authors developed a real-time personal neutron dosimeter which could give neutron dose equivalent over wide energy region from thermal to 10 odd MeV by using 2 silicon detectors, fast neutron sensor and slow neutron sensor. The energy response of this dosimeter was evaluated under thermal neutron field, monoenergetic neutron field between 200 keV and 15 MeV, and moderated [sup 252]Cf neutron field. The neutron dose equivalent was estimated by adding neutron dose equivalent below 1 MeV given by slow neutron sensor and that above 1 MeV by fast neutron sensor. It was verified from various field tests that this dosimeter is able to give neutron dose equivalent within a factor of 2 margin of accuracy in reactor, accelerator, fusion research and nuclear fuel handling facilities. This dosimeter has more than one order higher sensitivity than conventional personal neutron dosimeters and is insensitive to [gamma]-rays up to about 500 mSv/h. This dosimeter will soon be commercially available as a personal dosimeter which gives neutron and [gamma]-ray dose equivalents simultaneously by installing [gamma]-ray silicon sensor. (author).

  4. Changes of the fluid regime behaviour through time in fault zones (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Irene; Lanari, Pierre; Alías, Gemma; Travé, Anna; Vidal, Olivier; Baqués, Vinyet

    2013-04-01

    Most Neogene normal faults of the central Catalan Coastal Ranges are the reactivation of previous normal Mesozoic faults and Paleogene thrust faults. These faults, such as the Vallès and the Hospital faults, are characterised by developing polyphasic fault-fluid systems. These systems have been inferred from regional to thin section scale observations combined with geochemical analyses. Moreover, the neoformation of chlorite and K-white mica in fault rocks has allowed us to constrain the P-T conditions during fault evolution using thermodynamic modelling. In these two faults, deformation is mainly localized in the basement granodiorite from the footwall. As a whole, four tectonic events have been distinguished. The first event corresponds to the Hercynian compression, which is characterised by mylonite bands in the Hospital fault. After this first compressional event and during the exhumation of the pluton, crystallization of M1 and M2 muscovite and microcline occurred in the Vallès fault as result of deuteric alteration, at temperatures between 330°C and 370°C. The second event, attributed to the Mesozoic rifting, is characterized by precipitation of M3 and M4 phengite together with chlorite and calcite C1 at temperatures between 190 and 310°C. These minerals precipitated from a fluid resulting from the mixing between marine waters and meteoric waters, which had been warmed at depth, upflowing along the faults. The third event, corresponding to the Paleogene compression, is characterised by low-temperature meteoric fluids, responsible of precipitation of calcite C2, in the Hospital fault. In the Vallès fault, the Paleogene compression generated a shortcut that produced a blue gouge and the uplift of the Mesozoic structures, avoiding the formation of new minerals within them. Finally, the fourth event, related to the Neogene extension, was responsible of syn-rift cements such as chlorite, calcite C4 and laumontite in the Vallès fault and calcite C3 in the

  5. TOPLAR: Time of Flight with Larmor Precessions - or - How to extend the dynamic range of NSE spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Well, A.A.; Bleuel, M.; Pappas, C.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) spectrometers typically cover a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude at a given wavelength. At long Fourier times the limits are given by the homogeneity of precession fields. At short Fourier times, the quasi-elastic approximation and the NSE formalism mark a methodological limit. We propose to overcome this limitation and by combining Time Of Flight with Larmor precession to extend the capabilities of Neutron Spin Echo spectrometers towards short Fourier times. TOFLAR should be easily implemented on NSE spectrometers equipped with a chopper system such as IN15 or the planned WASP. (authors)

  6. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of semiconductors for optical applications beyond the visible spectral range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernikov, Alexey A.

    2011-07-01

    The work discussed in this thesis is focused on the experimental studies regarding these three steps: (1) investigation of the fundamental effects, (2) characterization of new material systems, and (3) optimization of the semiconductor devices. In all three cases, the experimental technique of choice is photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The thesis is organized as follows. Chapter 2 gives a summary of the PL properties of semiconductors relevant for this work. The first section deals with the intrinsic processes in an ideal direct band gap material, starting with a brief summary of the theoretical background followed by the overview of a typical PL scenario. In the second part of the chapter, the role of the lattice-vibrations, the internal electric fields as well as the influence of the band-structure and the dielectric environment are discussed. Finally, extrinsic PL properties are presented in the third section, focusing on defects and disorder in real materials. In chapter 3, the experimental realization of the spectroscopic studies is discussed. The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) setup is presented, focusing on the applied excitation source, non-linear frequency mixing, and the operation of the streak camera used for the detection. In addition, linear spectroscopy setup for continous-wave (CW) PL and absorption measurements is illustrated. Chapter 4 aims at the study of the interactions between electrons and lattice-vibrations in semiconductor crystals relevant for the proper description of carrier dynamics as well as the heat-transfer processes. The presented discussion covers the experimental studies of many-body effects in phonon-assisted emission of semiconductors due to the carriercarrier Coulomb-interaction. The corresponding theoretical background is discussed in detail in chapter 2. The investigations are focused on the two main questions regarding electron-hole plasma contributions to the phonon-assisted light-matter interaction as well as

  7. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  8. Intelligibility and Clarity of Reverberant Speech: Effects of Wide Dynamic Range Compression Release Time and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Paul N.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varying wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) release time on intelligibility and clarity of reverberant speech. The study also considered the role of individual working memory. Method: Thirty older listeners with mild to moderately-severe sloping sensorineural hearing loss…

  9. Nonlinear optical response of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors in the IR and THz ranges studied with the femtosecond resolution in time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romanova, E.; Guizard, S.; Wang, Tianwu

    2017-01-01

    Two time-resolved experimental methods have been used for characterization of the non-linear optical response of chalcogenide glasses of the system As-S-Se-Te in IR and THz ranges upon excitation by femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm wavelength. Photoinduced conductivity and refractivity were stu...

  10. Communication: Orbital instabilities and triplet states from time-dependent density functional theory and long-range corrected functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, John S.; Koerzdoerfer, Thomas; Zhang, Cai-Rong; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2011-10-01

    Long-range corrected hybrids represent an increasingly popular class of functionals for density functional theory (DFT) that have proven to be very successful for a wide range of chemical applications. In this Communication, we examine the performance of these functionals for time-dependent (TD)DFT descriptions of triplet excited states. Our results reveal that the triplet energies are particularly sensitive to the range-separation parameter; this sensitivity can be traced back to triplet instabilities in the ground state coming from the large effective amounts of Hartree-Fock exchange included in these functionals. As such, the use of standard long-range corrected functionals for the description of triplet states at the TDDFT level is not recommended.

  11. Frame on frames: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, T.; Tsao, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The success or failure of any sample survey of a finite population is largely dependent upon the condition and adequacy of the list or frame from which the probability sample is selected. Much of the published survey sampling related work has focused on the measurement of sampling errors and, more recently, on nonsampling errors to a lesser extent. Recent studies on data quality for various types of data collection systems have revealed that the extent of the nonsampling errors far exceeds that of the sampling errors in many cases. While much of this nonsampling error, which is difficult to measure, can be attributed to poor frames, relatively little effort or theoretical work has focused on this contribution to total error. The objective of this paper is to present an annotated bibliography on frames with the hope that it will bring together, for experimenters, a number of suggestions for action when sampling from imperfect frames and that more attention will be given to this area of survey methods research

  12. Photonics-based real-time ultra-high-range-resolution radar with broadband signal generation and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Guo, Qingshui; Pan, Shilong

    2017-10-23

    Real-time and high-resolution target detection is highly desirable in modern radar applications. Electronic techniques have encountered grave difficulties in the development of such radars, which strictly rely on a large instantaneous bandwidth. In this article, a photonics-based real-time high-range-resolution radar is proposed with optical generation and processing of broadband linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals. A broadband LFM signal is generated in the transmitter by photonic frequency quadrupling, and the received echo is de-chirped to a low frequency signal by photonic frequency mixing. The system can operate at a high frequency and a large bandwidth while enabling real-time processing by low-speed analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing. A conceptual radar is established. Real-time processing of an 8-GHz LFM signal is achieved with a sampling rate of 500 MSa/s. Accurate distance measurement is implemented with a maximum error of 4 mm within a range of ~3.5 meters. Detection of two targets is demonstrated with a range-resolution as high as 1.875 cm. We believe the proposed radar architecture is a reliable solution to overcome the limitations of current radar on operation bandwidth and processing speed, and it is hopefully to be used in future radars for real-time and high-resolution target detection and imaging.

  13. Explaining variation in life history timing across a species range: Effects of climate on spawning time in an exploited marine fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuheimer, Anna; MacKenzie, Brian

    . Combined, these results shed light on the adaptive capacity of the species in the face of changing climate. We use our results to estimate expected spawning time under future climate regimes, and discuss the implications for codecology and management across the species’ range, and in the greater ecosystem......The capacity of a species to tolerate and/or adapt to environmental conditions will shape its response to future climate change including climate extremes. Of the many life-history processes affected by climate change, timing of reproduction greatly influences offspring success and resulting...... population production. Here we explore temporal and spatial changes in spawning time for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the species’ range (4 to 80°N). We estimate spawning time using a physiologically relevant metric that includes information on fish thermal history (degree days, DD). First, we estimate...

  14. A methodology for direct quantification of over-ranging length in helical computed tomography with real-time dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Christopher J; Winslow, James F; Hintenlang, David E

    2011-01-31

    In helical computed tomography (CT), reconstruction information from volumes adjacent to the clinical volume of interest (VOI) is required for proper reconstruction. Previous studies have relied upon either operator console readings or indirect extrapolation of measurements in order to determine the over-ranging length of a scan. This paper presents a methodology for the direct quantification of over-ranging dose contributions using real-time dosimetry. A Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 multislice helical CT scanner is used with a novel real-time "point" fiber-optic dosimeter system with 10 ms temporal resolution to measure over-ranging length, which is also expressed in dose-length-product (DLP). Film was used to benchmark the exact length of over-ranging. Over-ranging length varied from 4.38 cm at pitch of 0.5 to 6.72 cm at a pitch of 1.5, which corresponds to DLP of 131 to 202 mGy-cm. The dose-extrapolation method of Van der Molen et al. yielded results within 3%, while the console reading method of Tzedakis et al. yielded consistently larger over-ranging lengths. From film measurements, it was determined that Tzedakis et al. overestimated over-ranging lengths by one-half of beam collimation width. Over-ranging length measured as a function of reconstruction slice thicknesses produced two linear regions similar to previous publications. Over-ranging is quantified with both absolute length and DLP, which contributes about 60 mGy-cm or about 10% of DLP for a routine abdominal scan. This paper presents a direct physical measurement of over-ranging length within 10% of previous methodologies. Current uncertainties are less than 1%, in comparison with 5% in other methodologies. Clinical implantation can be increased by using only one dosimeter if codependence with console readings is acceptable, with an uncertainty of 1.1% This methodology will be applied to different vendors, models, and postprocessing methods--which have been shown to produce over-ranging lengths

  15. Coupling between feedback loops in autoregulatory networks affects bistability range, open-loop gain and switching times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Abhinav; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical regulatory networks governing diverse cellular processes such as stress-response, differentiation and cell cycle often contain coupled feedback loops. We aim at understanding how features of feedback architecture, such as the number of loops, the sign of the loops and the type of their coupling, affect network dynamical performance. Specifically, we investigate how bistability range, maximum open-loop gain and switching times of a network with transcriptional positive feedback are affected by additive or multiplicative coupling with another positive- or negative-feedback loop. We show that a network's bistability range is positively correlated with its maximum open-loop gain and that both quantities depend on the sign of the feedback loops and the type of feedback coupling. Moreover, we find that the addition of positive feedback could decrease the bistability range if we control the basal level in the signal-response curves of the two systems. Furthermore, the addition of negative feedback has the capacity to increase the bistability range if its dissociation constant is much lower than that of the positive feedback. We also find that the addition of a positive feedback to a bistable network increases the robustness of its bistability range, whereas the addition of a negative feedback decreases it. Finally, we show that the switching time for a transition from a high to a low steady state increases with the effective fold change in gene regulation. In summary, we show that the effect of coupled feedback loops on the bistability range and switching times depends on the underlying mechanistic details. (paper)

  16. Reliability Analysis of a Steel Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sýkora

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A steel frame with haunches is designed according to Eurocodes. The frame is exposed to self-weight, snow, and wind actions. Lateral-torsional buckling appears to represent the most critical criterion, which is considered as a basis for the limit state function. In the reliability analysis, the probabilistic models proposed by the Joint Committee for Structural Safety (JCSS are used for basic variables. The uncertainty model coefficients take into account the inaccuracy of the resistance model for the haunched girder and the inaccuracy of the action effect model. The time invariant reliability analysis is based on Turkstra's rule for combinations of snow and wind actions. The time variant analysis describes snow and wind actions by jump processes with intermittencies. Assuming a 50-year lifetime, the obtained values of the reliability index b vary within the range from 3.95 up to 5.56. The cross-profile IPE 330 designed according to Eurocodes seems to be adequate. It appears that the time invariant reliability analysis based on Turkstra's rule provides considerably lower values of b than those obtained by the time variant analysis.

  17. Modern frame structure buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Першаков

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the design, construction and implementation of reinforced concrete frame structures with span 18, 21 m for agricultural production buildings, hall-premises of public buildings and buildings of agricultural aviation. Structures are prefabricated frame buildings and have such advantages as large space inside the structure and lower cost compared with other facilities with same purpose

  18. Multimodal news framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Visuals in news media play a vital role in framing citizens’ political preferences. Yet, compared to the written word, visual images are undervalued in political communication research. Using framing theory, this thesis redresses the balance by studying the combined, or multimodal, effects of visual

  19. The Frame Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael Todd; Cox, Dana C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore framing, a non-multiplicative technique commonly employed by students as they construct similar shapes. When students frame, they add (or subtract) a "border" of fixed width about a geometric object. Although the approach does not yield similar shapes in general, the mathematical underpinnings of…

  20. Traditional timber frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hamer, den J.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Salenikovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to new possibilities traditional timber framing has become increasingly popular since the beginning of the 21e century. Although traditional timber framing has been used for centuries, the expected mechanical behaviour is not dealt with in great detail in building codes, guidelines or text

  1. Three explanations for biodiversity hotspots: small range size, geographical overlap and time for species accumulation. An Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lyn G; Hardy, Nate B; Crisp, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    To understand the generation and maintenance of biodiversity hotspots, we tested three major hypotheses: rates of diversification, ecological limits to diversity, and time for species accumulation. Using dated molecular phylogenies, measures of species' range size and geographical clade overlap, niche modelling, and lineages-through-time plots of Australian Fabaceae, we compared the southwest Australia Floristic Region (SWAFR; a global biodiversity hotspot) with a latitudinally equivalent non-hotspot, southeast Australia (SEA). Ranges of species (real and simulated) were smaller in the SWAFR than in SEA. Geographical overlap of clades was significantly greater for Daviesia in the SWAFR than in SEA, but the inverse for Bossiaea. Lineage diversification rates over the past 10 Myr did not differ between the SWAFR and SEA in either genus. Interaction of multiple factors probably explains the differences in measured diversity between the two regions. Steeper climatic gradients in the SWAFR probably explain the smaller geographical ranges of both genera there. Greater geographical overlap of clades in the SWAFR, combined with a longer time in the region, can explain why Daviesia is far more species-rich there than in SEA. Our results indicate that the time for speciation and ecological limits hypotheses, in concert, can explain the differences in biodiversity. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Evaluation of Real-Time Hand Motion Tracking Using a Range Camera and the Mean-Shift Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, H.; Lichti, D.

    2011-09-01

    Several sensors have been tested for improving the interaction between humans and machines including traditional web cameras, special gloves, haptic devices, cameras providing stereo pairs of images and range cameras. Meanwhile, several methods are described in the literature for tracking hand motion: the Kalman filter, the mean-shift algorithm and the condensation algorithm. In this research, the combination of a range camera and the simple version of the mean-shift algorithm has been evaluated for its capability for hand motion tracking. The evaluation was assessed in terms of position accuracy of the tracking trajectory in x, y and z directions in the camera space and the time difference between image acquisition and image display. Three parameters have been analyzed regarding their influence on the tracking process: the speed of the hand movement, the distance between the camera and the hand and finally the integration time of the camera. Prior to the evaluation, the required warm-up time of the camera has been measured. This study has demonstrated the suitability of the range camera used in combination with the mean-shift algorithm for real-time hand motion tracking but for very high speed hand movement in the traverse plane with respect to the camera, the tracking accuracy is low and requires improvement.

  3. Dragging of inertial frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2007-09-06

    The origin of inertia has intrigued scientists and philosophers for centuries. Inertial frames of reference permeate our daily life. The inertial and centrifugal forces, such as the pull and push that we feel when our vehicle accelerates, brakes and turns, arise because of changes in velocity relative to uniformly moving inertial frames. A classical interpretation ascribed these forces to acceleration relative to some absolute frame independent of the cosmological matter, whereas an opposite view related them to acceleration relative to all the masses and 'fixed stars' in the Universe. An echo and partial realization of the latter idea can be found in Einstein's general theory of relativity, which predicts that a spinning mass will 'drag' inertial frames along with it. Here I review the recent measurements of frame dragging using satellites orbiting Earth.

  4. The European tracer experiment ETEX: a real-time long range atmospheric dispersion model exercise in different weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; )

    1998-01-01

    Two long-range tracer experiments were conducted. An inert, non-depositing tracer was being released at Rennes in France for 12 hours. The 168 sampling ground stations were run by the National Meteorological Services. Twenty-four institutions took part in the real-time forecasting of the cloud evolution using 28 long-range dispersion models. The horizontal projection of the cloud evolution over Europe was combined with real-time aerial chemical analysis. The results of the comparison indicate that a limited group of models (7-8) were capable of obtaining a good reproduction of the cloud movement throughout Europe for the first release. Large differences were, however, found in the predicted tracer concentration at a particular location. For the second release, there were large differences between the measured and calculated cloud, particularly after a front passage, which indicates that some efforts have still to be spent before consensus on the model reliability is achieved. (P.A.)

  5. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eHerrojo Ruiz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback.As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS.Overall, the present investigations are the first to demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN

  6. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sissay, Adonay [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Lopata, Kenneth, E-mail: klopata@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  7. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  8. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  9. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes “bad news” for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  10. Patients' time in therapeutic range on warfarin among US patients with atrial fibrillation: Results from ORBIT-AF registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorney, Sean D; Simon, DaJuanicia N; Thomas, Laine; Fonarow, Gregg C; Kowey, Peter R; Chang, Paul; Singer, Daniel E; Ansell, Jack; Blanco, Rosalia G; Gersh, Bernard; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Hylek, Elaine M; Go, Alan S; Piccini, Jonathan P; Peterson, Eric D

    2015-07-01

    Time in therapeutic range (TTR) of international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0 to 3.0 is important for the safety and effectiveness of warfarin anticoagulation. There are few data on TTR among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in community-based clinical practice. Using the US Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF), we examined TTR (using a modified Rosendaal method) among 5,210 patients with AF on warfarin and treated at 155 sites. Patients were grouped into quartiles based on TTR data. Multivariable logistic regression modeling with generalized estimating equations was used to determine patient and provider factors associated with the lowest (worst) TTR. Overall, 59% of the measured INR values were between 2.0 and 3.0, with an overall mean and median TTR of 65% ± 20% and 68% (interquartile range [IQR] 53%-79%). The median times below and above the therapeutic range were 17% (IQR 8%-29%) and 10% (IQR 3%-19%), respectively. Patients with renal dysfunction, advanced heart failure, frailty, prior valve surgery, and higher risk for bleeding (ATRIA score) or stroke (CHA2DS2-VASc score) had significantly lower TTR (P range. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Parkinson's Disease on Time Estimation as a Function of Stimulus Duration Range and Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jared G.; Harper, David N.; Gittings, David; Abernethy, David

    2007-01-01

    The present research sought to investigate the role of the basal ganglia in timing of sub- and supra-second intervals via an examination of the ability of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) to make temporal judgments in two ranges, 100-500 ms, and 1-5 s. Eighteen non-demented medicated patients with PD were compared with 14 matched controls on a…

  12. A re-evaluation of the initial yield of the hydrated electron in the picosecond time range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroya, Yusa; Lin Mingzhang; Wu, Guozhong; Iijima, Hokuto; Yoshii, Koji; Ueda, Toru; Kudo, Hisaaki; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2005-01-01

    The yield of the hydrated electron in the picosecond time range has been re-evaluated with an ultrafast pulse radiolysis system using a laser photocathode RF-gun in combination with a conventional one, and a value of 4.1±0.2 per 100 eV of absorbed energy at 20 ps was derived. This is consistent with recent experimental results using a time correlation method [Bartels et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1686-1691 (2000)] and with Monte-Carlo calculations [Muroya et al., Can. J. Chem. 80 1367-1374 (2002)

  13. Time Delay and Long-Range Connection Induced Synchronization Transitions in Newman-Watts Small-World Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks (SWNNs) induced by time delay and long-range connection (LRC) probability have been investigated by synchronization parameter and space-time plots. Four distinct parameter regions, that is, asynchronous region, transition region, synchronous region, and oscillatory region have been discovered at certain LRC probability as time delay is increased. Interestingly, desynchronization is observed in oscillatory region. More importantly, we consider the spatiotemporal patterns obtained in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs are the competition results between long-range drivings (LRDs) and neighboring interactions. In addition, for moderate time delay, the synchronization of neuronal network can be enhanced remarkably by increasing LRC probability. Furthermore, lag synchronization has been found between weak synchronization and complete synchronization as LRC probability is a little less than 1.0. Finally, the two necessary conditions, moderate time delay and large numbers of LRCs, are exposed explicitly for synchronization in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs. PMID:24810595

  14. Real-time multi-target ranging based on chaotic polarization laser radars in the drive-response VCSELs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dongzhou; Xu, Geliang; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Zhenzhen

    2017-09-04

    According to the principle of complete chaos synchronization and the theory of Hilbert phase transformation, we propose a novel real-time multi-target ranging scheme by using chaotic polarization laser radar in the drive-response vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). In the scheme, to ensure each polarization component (PC) of the master VCSEL (MVCSEL) to be synchronized steadily with that of the slave VCSEL, the output x-PC and y-PC from the MVCSEL in the drive system and those in the response system are modulated by the linear electro-optic effect simultaneously. Under this condition, by simulating the influences of some key parameters of the system on the synchronization quality and the relative errors of the two-target ranging, related operating parameters can be optimized. The x-PC and the y-PC, as two chaotic radar sources, are used to implement the real-time ranging for two targets. It is found that the measured distances of the two targets at arbitrary position exhibit strong real-time stability and only slight jitter. Their resolutions are up to millimeters, and their relative errors are very small and less than 2.7%.

  15. Framing Gangnam Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsun Catherine Yoon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the way in which news about Gangnam Style was framed in the Korean press. First released on 15th July 2012, it became the first video to pass two billion views on YouTube. 400 news articles between July 2012 and March 2013 from two South Korean newspapers - Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh were analyzed using the frame analysis method in five categories: industry/economy, globalization, cultural interest, criticism, and competition. The right-left opinion cleavage is important because news frames interact with official discourses, audience frames and prior knowledge which consequently mediate effects on public opinion, policy debates, social movement and individual interpretations. Whilst the existing literature on Gangnam Style took rather holistic approach, this study aimed to fill the lacuna, considering this phenomenon as a dynamic process, by segmenting different stages - recognition, spread, peak and continuation. Both newspapers acknowledged Gangnam Style was an epochal event but their perspectives and news frames were different; globalization frame was most frequently used in Chosun Ilbo whereas cultural interest frame was most often used in Hankyoreh. Although more critical approaches were found in Hankyoreh, reflecting the right-left opinion cleavage, both papers lacked in critical appraisal and analysis of Gangnam Style’s reception in a broader context of the new Korean Wave.

  16. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  17. Framing in criminal investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Failures in criminal investigation may lead to wrongful convictions. Insight in the criminal investigation process is needed to understand how these investigative failures may rise and how measures can contribute to the prevention of this kind of failures. Some of the main findings of an empirical study of the criminal investigation process in four cases of major investigations are presented here. This criminal investigation process is analyzed as a process of framing, using Goffman's framing (Goffman, 1975) and interaction theories (Goffman, 1990). It shows that in addition to framing, other substantive and social factors affect the criminal investigation. PMID:29046594

  18. Improving long-range dispersion predictions with ETEX real-time and a-posteriori model evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desiato, F.

    1997-01-01

    The Italian environmental Protection Agency (ANPA), which is responsible for the evaluation of the consequences of accidental releases into the atmosphere, has participated to both the real-time (phase-1) and a-posteriori (phase-2) ETEX model evaluations. The double benchmark actually constituted an invaluable experience for better understanding the skill and limits of the present long-range dispersion modelling capabilities. In particular, the strong difference between phase-1 and phase-2 model performance emphasised the opportunity to modify, improve or tune a number of specific aspects of the overall simulation. ETEX model runs were carried out with the Lagrangian particle model APOLLO. The meteorological input was constituted by ECMWF fields. Three-hourly average concentrations paired in space and time and time-integrated concentrations were used in the evaluation of the results, based on a set of statistical indexes and concentration contour lines and scatter diagrams

  19. Method of moving frames to solve time-dependent Maxwell's equations on anisotropic curved surfaces: Applications to invisible cloak and ELF propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sehun

    2017-07-01

    Applying the method of moving frames to Maxwell's equations yields two important advancements for scientific computing. The first is the use of upwind flux for anisotropic materials in Maxwell's equations, especially in the context of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. Upwind flux has been available only to isotropic material, because of the difficulty of satisfying the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions in anisotropic media. The second is to solve numerically Maxwell's equations on curved surfaces without the metric tensor and composite meshes. For numerical validation, spectral convergences are displayed for both two-dimensional anisotropic media and isotropic spheres. In the first application, invisible two-dimensional metamaterial cloaks are simulated with a relatively coarse mesh by both the lossless Drude model and the piecewisely-parametered layered model. In the second application, extremely low frequency propagation on various surfaces such as spheres, irregular surfaces, and non-convex surfaces is demonstrated.

  20. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. Correlated continuous time random walks: combining scale-invariance with long-range memory for spatial and temporal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Johannes H P; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Standard continuous time random walk (CTRW) models are renewal processes in the sense that at each jump a new, independent pair of jump length and waiting time are chosen. Globally, anomalous diffusion emerges through scale-free forms of the jump length and/or waiting time distributions by virtue of the generalized central limit theorem. Here we present a modified version of recently proposed correlated CTRW processes, where we incorporate a power-law correlated noise on the level of both jump length and waiting time dynamics. We obtain a very general stochastic model, that encompasses key features of several paradigmatic models of anomalous diffusion: discontinuous, scale-free displacements as in Lévy flights, scale-free waiting times as in subdiffusive CTRWs, and the long-range temporal correlations of fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We derive the exact solutions for the single-time probability density functions and extract the scaling behaviours. Interestingly, we find that different combinations of the model parameters lead to indistinguishable shapes of the emerging probability density functions and identical scaling laws. Our model will be useful for describing recent experimental single particle tracking data that feature a combination of CTRW and FBM properties. (paper)

  2. On transforms between Gabor frames and wavelet frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2013-01-01

    We describe a procedure that enables us to construct dual pairs of wavelet frames from certain dual pairs of Gabor frames. Applying the construction to Gabor frames generated by appropriate exponential Bsplines gives wavelet frames generated by functions whose Fourier transforms are compactly...... supported splines with geometrically distributed knot sequences. There is also a reverse transform, which yields pairs of dual Gabor frames when applied to certain wavelet frames....

  3. Modular 125 ps resolution time interval digitizer for 10 MHz stop burst rates and 33 ms range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.

    1978-01-01

    A high resolution multiple stop time interval digitizer is described. It is capable of resolving stop burst rates of up to 10 MHz with an incremental resolution of 125 ps within a range of 33 ms. The digitizer consists of five CAMAC modules and uses a standard CAMAC crate and controller. All the functions and ranges are completely computer controlled. Any two subsequent stop pulses in a burst can be resolved within 100 ns due to a new dual interpolation technique employed. The accuracy is maintained by a high stability 125 MHz reference clock. Up to 131 stop events can be stored in a 48-bit, 10 MHz derandomizing storage register before the digitizer overflows. The experimental data are also given

  4. Delay-Range-Dependent H∞ Control for Automatic Mooring Positioning System with Time-Varying Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the economy and security of the positioning system in semi-submersible platform, the paper presents a new scheme based on the mooring line switching strategy. Considering the input delay in switching process, H∞ control with time-varying input delay is designed to calculate the control forces to resist disturbing forces. In order to reduce the conservativeness, the information of the lower bound of delay is taken into account, and a Lyapunov function which contains the range of delay is constructed. Besides, the input constraint is considered to avoid breakage of mooring lines. The sufficient conditions for delay-range-dependent stabilization are derived in terms of LMI, and the controller is also obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by a realistic design example.

  5. Frames for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Deguang; Larson, David; Weber, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Frames for Undergraduates is an undergraduate-level introduction to the theory of frames in a Hilbert space. This book can serve as a text for a special-topics course in frame theory, but it could also be used to teach a second semester of linear algebra, using frames as an application of the theoretical concepts. It can also provide a complete and helpful resource for students doing undergraduate research projects using frames. The early chapters contain the topics from linear algebra that students need to know in order to read the rest of the book. The later chapters are devoted to advanced topics, which allow students with more experience to study more intricate types of frames. Toward that end, a Student Presentation section gives detailed proofs of fairly technical results with the intention that a student could work out these proofs independently and prepare a presentation to a class or research group. The authors have also presented some stories in the Anecdotes section about how this material has moti...

  6. Ambiguities in the deduction of rest frame fluctuation spectrums from spectrums computed in moving frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredericks, R.W.; Coroniti, F.V.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of interpretation of power spectrums computed by Fourier analysis of data time series taken in frames moving with respect to the medium containing the fluctuations is examined. It is found that no unique connection exists between the rest frame power spectrum as a function of scale length and the derived power spectrum as a function 'frequency' computed from the time series data taken in the moving frame. This caused by a complex Doppler-shifting phenomenon that leads to a basically aliased frequency spectrum in the moving frame. Examples of nonuniqueness are given for various types of rest frame density or wave turbulence that lead to the same frequency dependence of the power spectrum computed in the moving frame. This has implications for the past interpretations of power spectrums of density or magnetic field fluctuations from satellites or interplanetary probes

  7. Some remarks on the time of flight and range of a projectile in a linear resisting medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the recent work by Karkantzakos [Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 2 (2009 76–81], anumber of remarks highlighting the connection between the Lambert W function and the time of flight and range of a projectilemoving in a resisting medium where the retarding force acting on the projectile is proportional to its velocity are made.In particular, we show how each of these quantities can be expressed in closed form in terms of the Lambert W function andindicate how the analysis of the motion becomes greatly simplified by its introduction.

  8. Weaving Hilbert space fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Neyshaburi, Fahimeh Arabyani; Arefijamaal, Ali Akbar

    2018-01-01

    A new notion in frame theory, so called weaving frames has been recently introduced to deal with some problems in signal processing and wireless sensor networks. Also, fusion frames are an important extension of frames, used in many areas especially for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we survey the notion of weaving Hilbert space fusion frames. This concept can be had potential applications in wireless sensor networks which require distributed processing using different fusion frames...

  9. Climatic associations of British species distributions show good transferability in time but low predictive accuracy for range change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rapacciuolo

    Full Text Available Conservation planners often wish to predict how species distributions will change in response to environmental changes. Species distribution models (SDMs are the primary tool for making such predictions. Many methods are widely used; however, they all make simplifying assumptions, and predictions can therefore be subject to high uncertainty. With global change well underway, field records of observed range shifts are increasingly being used for testing SDM transferability. We used an unprecedented distribution dataset documenting recent range changes of British vascular plants, birds, and butterflies to test whether correlative SDMs based on climate change provide useful approximations of potential distribution shifts. We modelled past species distributions from climate using nine single techniques and a consensus approach, and projected the geographical extent of these models to a more recent time period based on climate change; we then compared model predictions with recent observed distributions in order to estimate the temporal transferability and prediction accuracy of our models. We also evaluated the relative effect of methodological and taxonomic variation on the performance of SDMs. Models showed good transferability in time when assessed using widespread metrics of accuracy. However, models had low accuracy to predict where occupancy status changed between time periods, especially for declining species. Model performance varied greatly among species within major taxa, but there was also considerable variation among modelling frameworks. Past climatic associations of British species distributions retain a high explanatory power when transferred to recent time--due to their accuracy to predict large areas retained by species--but fail to capture relevant predictors of change. We strongly emphasize the need for caution when using SDMs to predict shifts in species distributions: high explanatory power on temporally-independent records

  10. Real-Time Adaptive Control of a Magnetic Levitation System with a Large Range of Load Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhou; Li, Xiaolong

    2018-05-11

    In an idle light-load or a full-load condition, the change of the load mass of a suspension system is very significant. If the control parameters of conventional control methods remain unchanged, the suspension performance of the control system deteriorates rapidly or even loses stability when the load mass changes in a large range. In this paper, a real-time adaptive control method for a magnetic levitation system with large range of mass changes is proposed. First, the suspension control system model of the maglev train is built up, and the stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed. Then, a fast inner current-loop is used to simplify the design of the suspension control system, and an adaptive control method is put forward to ensure that the system is still in a stable state when the load mass varies in a wide range. Simulations and experiments show that when the load mass of the maglev system varies greatly, the adaptive control method is effective to suspend the system stably with a given displacement.

  11. Direct Observation of Long-Range Transport Using Continuously Sounding Balloons and Near-Real-Time Trajectory Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, P. B.; Zaveri, R. A.; Berkowitz, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloons have been used in several recent studies to measure long-range transport over periods as long as 30 hours and distances up to 1000 kilometers. By repeatedly performing shallow soundings as they drift, CMET balloons can quantify evolving atmospheric structure, mixing events, shear advection, and dispersion during transport. In addition, the quasi-Lagrangian wind profiles can be used to drive a multi-layer trajectory model in which the advected air parcels follow the underlying terrain, or are constrained by altitude, potential temperature, or tracer concentration. Data from a coordinated balloon-aircraft study of long range transport over Texas (SETTS 2005) show that the reconstructed trajectories accurately track residual-layer urban outflow (and at times even its fine-scale structure) over distances of many hundreds of kilometers. The reconstructed trajectories and evolving profile visualizations are increasingly being made available in near-real time during balloon flights, supporting data-driven flight planning and sophisticated process studies relevant to atmospheric chemistry and climate. Multilayer trajectories (black grids) derived from CMET balloon flight paths (grey lines) for a transport event across Texas in 2005.

  12. Poster - 16: Time-resolved diode dosimetry for in vivo proton therapy range verification: calibration through numerical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toltz, Allison; Hoesl, Michaela; Schuemann, Jan; Seuntjens, Jan; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Paganetti, Harald [McGill University, Harvard University, Massachusetts General Hospital, McGill University, Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: A method to refine the implementation of an in vivo, adaptive proton therapy range verification methodology was investigated. Simulation experiments and in-phantom measurements were compared to validate the calibration procedure of a time-resolved diode dosimetry technique. Methods: A silicon diode array system has been developed and experimentally tested in phantom for passively scattered proton beam range verification by correlating properties of the detector signal to the water equivalent path length (WEPL). The implementation of this system requires a set of calibration measurements to establish a beam-specific diode response to WEPL fit for the selected ‘scout’ beam in a solid water phantom. This process is both tedious, as it necessitates a separate set of measurements for every ‘scout’ beam that may be appropriate to the clinical case, as well as inconvenient due to limited access to the clinical beamline. The diode response to WEPL relationship for a given ‘scout’ beam may be determined within a simulation environment, facilitating the applicability of this dosimetry technique. Measurements for three ‘scout’ beams were compared against simulated detector response with Monte Carlo methods using the Tool for Particle Simulation (TOPAS). Results: Detector response in water equivalent plastic was successfully validated against simulation for spread out Bragg peaks of range 10 cm, 15 cm, and 21 cm (168 MeV, 177 MeV, and 210 MeV) with adjusted R{sup 2} of 0.998. Conclusion: Feasibility has been shown for performing calibration of detector response for a given ‘scout’ beam through simulation for the time resolved diode dosimetry technique.

  13. Patient-Specific Tailored Intervention Improves INR Time in Therapeutic Range and INR Variability in Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsman, Israel; Ezra, Orly; Hirsh Raccah, Bruria; Admon, Dan; Lotan, Chaim; Dekeyser Ganz, Freda

    2017-08-01

    Many patients with heart failure need anticoagulants, including warfarin. Good control is particularly challenging in heart failure patients, with range, thereby increasing the risk of complications. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a patient-specific tailored intervention on anticoagulation control in patients with heart failure. Patients with heart failure taking warfarin therapy (n = 145) were randomized to either standard care or a 1-time intervention assessing potential risk factors for lability of INR, in which they received patient-specific instructions. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) using Rosendaal's linear model was assessed 3 months before and after the intervention. The patient-tailored intervention significantly increased anticoagulation control. The median TTR levels before intervention were suboptimal in the interventional and control groups (53% vs 45%, P = .14). After intervention the median TTR increased significantly in the interventional group compared with the control group (80% [interquartile range, 62%-93%] vs 44% [29%-61%], P <.0001). The intervention resulted in a significant improvement in the interventional group before versus after intervention (53% vs 80%, P <.0001) but not in the control group (45% vs 44%, P = .95). The percentage of patients with a TTR ≥60%, considered therapeutic, was substantially higher in the interventional group: 79% versus 25% (P <.0001). The INR variability (standard deviation of each patient's INR measurements) decreased significantly in the interventional group, from 0.53 to 0.32 (P <.0001) after intervention but not in the control group. Patient-specific tailored intervention significantly improves anticoagulation therapy in patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart; Jugo chart jo deno kyokuchi gensho jikan contour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kametani, T

    1997-05-27

    Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart is examined for further improvement on the result of the ultimate interpretation in the seismic reflection survey. The policy is made clear from the beginning that local phenomena are to be discussed, and data prior CMP stacking is interpreted in detail. For this purpose, it is effective to make use of the time contour expression in the midpoint-offset plane simultaneously with the CMP and COP panels. For the review of data prior to CMP stacking, it is convenient to use the CMP (CDP) stacking chart in which the data is arranged methodically. In this chart, all the channels which are crude data prior to stacking are plotted on midpoint-offset coordinates, which plane is called the MOD (Midpoint Offset Domain) panel. Various panels can be chosen unrestrictedly, and their mutual relations can be easily grasped. When data points are given a time axis, they can be expressed in a time contour. Studies are conducted about the underground structure, multiple reflection paths divided by it, and characteristics of detour reflection attributable to faults. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Self-produced Time Intervals Are Perceived as More Variable and/or Shorter Depending on Temporal Context in Subsecond and Suprasecond Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita eMitani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of time intervals is fundamental for sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Perceptual and motor timing are often performed concurrently (e.g., playing a musical instrument. Although previous studies have shown the influence of body movements on time perception, how we perceive self-produced time intervals has remained unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timing mechanisms are distinct for the sub- and suprasecond ranges. Here, we compared perceptual performances for self-produced and passively presented time intervals in random contexts (i.e., multiple target intervals presented in a session across the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 1 and within the sub- (Experiment 2 and suprasecond (Experiment 3 ranges, and in a constant context (i.e., a single target interval presented in a session in the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 4. We show that self-produced time intervals were perceived as shorter and more variable across the sub- and suprasecond ranges and within the suprasecond range but not within the subsecond range in a random context. In a constant context, the self-produced time intervals were perceived as more variable in the suprasecond range but not in the subsecond range. The impairing effects indicate that motor timing interferes with perceptual timing. The dependence of impairment on temporal contexts suggests multiple timing mechanisms for the subsecond and suprasecond ranges. In addition, violation of the scalar property (i.e., a constant variability to target interval ratio was observed between the sub- and suprasecond ranges. The violation was clearer for motor timing than for perceptual timing. This suggests that the multiple timing mechanisms for the sub- and suprasecond ranges overlap more for perception than for motor. Moreover, the central tendency effect (i.e., where shorter base intervals are overestimated and longer base intervals are underestimated disappeared with subsecond

  16. Operator representations of frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Hasannasab, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    of the properties of the operator T requires more work. For example it is a delicate issue to obtain a representation with a bounded operator, and the availability of such a representation not only depends on the frame considered as a set, but also on the chosen indexing. Using results from operator theory we show......The purpose of this paper is to consider representations of frames {fk}k∈I in a Hilbert space ℋ of the form {fk}k∈I = {Tkf0}k∈I for a linear operator T; here the index set I is either ℤ or ℒ0. While a representation of this form is available under weak conditions on the frame, the analysis...... that by embedding the Hilbert space ℋ into a larger Hilbert space, we can always represent a frame via iterations of a bounded operator, composed with the orthogonal projection onto ℋ. The paper closes with a discussion of an open problem concerning representations of Gabor frames via iterations of a bounded...

  17. Thinking Fast Increases Framing Effects in Risky Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lisa; Trueblood, Jennifer S; Diederich, Adele

    2017-04-01

    Every day, people face snap decisions when time is a limiting factor. In addition, the way a problem is presented can influence people's choices, which creates what are known as framing effects. In this research, we explored how time pressure interacts with framing effects in risky decision making. Specifically, does time pressure strengthen or weaken framing effects? On one hand, research has suggested that framing effects evolve through the deliberation process, growing larger with time. On the other hand, dual-process theory attributes framing effects to an intuitive, emotional system that responds automatically to stimuli. In our experiments, participants made decisions about gambles framed in terms of either gains or losses, and time pressure was manipulated across blocks. Results showed increased framing effects under time pressure in both hypothetical and incentivized choices, which supports the dual-process hypothesis that these effects arise from a fast, intuitive system.

  18. Framing (implicitly) matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Joel; Antalikova, Radka

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit...... and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified...... by the participants’ religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion...

  19. Individual memory and collective nostalgia in Uruguay: the fragmentation of time in the short framed stories of Tijeras de Plata by Hugo Burel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Gatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the role of the process of memory recovery in the Uruguayan contemporary literary space. The article focuses on the dynamics of recovery of the past in the work of the Montevidean Hugo Burel (born in 1951, especially in his novel Tijeras de Plata (2003. The first part of our study analyses how the novel describes – in a symbolic form – the geo-social changes that have characterised the Uruguayan space from the second half of the 20th century (decentralization of urban population; gradual decline in the social, cultural and economic structure of many central neighbourhoods. We examine the narrative forms used by Burel (short stories within a frame in the light of these phenomena, and consider in turn another type of fragmentation, of an extra-literary nature:  investigating nature of the relationship between literature and the idiosyncrasy of Uruguayan social world: we refer to a frequent sensation of “fracture with the past” that envelops Uruguayan society. In the second part of the article we demonstrate why Tijeras de Plata can be considered as a “literary tool” to recover a missing past: the novel develops as a “story of past memories”, focusing on the process of impoverishment that affects many urban zones of Montevideo. On the other hand, the double operation of rescue (first the restoration of the individual memories related to the neighbourhood, then the revival of the prosperity once banished from the city suggests an evocation of a past of happiness and can be considered as literary means of rescuing that old world form oblivion. In conclusion, it is possible to read the novel as a metaphorical reflection on the decline of a “lost country”.

  20. Tropospheric Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical, Microphysical and Concentration Properties in the Frame of the Hygra-CD Campaign (Athens, Greece 2014: A Case Study of Long-Range Transport of Mixed Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papayannis Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar and sun photometry measurements were performed during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece during May-June 2014. The retrieved aerosol optical properties (3 aerosol backscatter at 355-532-1064 nm and 2 aerosol extinction profiles at 355-532 nm were used as input to an inversion code to retrieve the aerosol microphysical properties (effective radius reff and number concentration N using regularization techniques. Additionally, the volume concentration profile was derived for fine particles using the LIRIC code. In this paper we selected a complex case study of long-range transport of mixed aerosols (biomass burning particles mixed with dust arriving over Athens between 10-12 June 2014 in the 1.5-4 km height. Between 2-3 km height we measured mean lidar ratios (LR ranging from 45 to 58 sr (at 355 and 532 nm, while the Ångström exponent (AE aerosol extinction-related values (355nm/532nm ranged between 0.8-1.3. The retrieved values of reff and N ranged from 0.19±0.07 to 0.22±0.07 μm and 460±230 to 2200±2800 cm-3, respectively. The aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ at 532 nm was lower than 5-7% (except for the Saharan dust cases, where δ~10-15%.

  1. Video frame processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.M.; Agashe, Alok; Bairi, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides technical description regarding the Video Frame Processor (VFP) developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The instrument provides capture of video images available in CCIR format. Two memory planes each with a capacity of 512 x 512 x 8 bit data enable storage of two video image frames. The stored image can be processed on-line and on-line image subtraction can also be carried out for image comparisons. The VFP is a PC Add-on board and is I/O mapped within the host IBM PC/AT compatible computer. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 19 photographs

  2. What's in a Frame?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    Maintaining a good image and reputation in the eyes of stakeholders is vital to the organisation. Thus, in its corporate communication and discourse the organisation will seek to present or frame itself as favourably as possible while observing regulations stipulating accuracy and precision...... an organisation, and hence in shaping the image projected to the public. Framing is here understood as the selection of ‘some aspects of perceived reality … [making] them more salient in the communication text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation...

  3. Thinking inside the frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    directed at the humanities. The purpose of this study is to argue the case for further research of public understanding of the humanities and to take a first step in that direction by presenting a study of the framing of the humanities in Danish print news media. Different framings of the humanities......The humanities, the natural and social sciences all represent advanced and systematic knowledge production—and they all receive public funding for doing so. However, although the field of public understanding of science has been well established for decades, similar research attention has not been...

  4. Framing financial culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm; Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.

    2014-01-01

    between competing frames leads to the conclusion that this political “blame game” is related to struggles over how to define the scandal, how to conceptualize its causes, and policy recommendations. Banks may have lost the battle of “Liborgate,” but the war over the meaning of financial culture is far...... from over. Originality/value – The paper is theoretically and methodologically original in its combination of the theories of framing and stasis, and it provides analytical insights into how sense is made of financial culture in the wake of the financial crisis....

  5. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....

  6. Video digitizer (real time-frame grabber) with region of interest suitable for quantitative data analysis used on the infrared and H alpha cameras installed on the DIII-D experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, S.W.; Kevan, D.K.; Hill, D.N.; Allen, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a CAMAC based video digitizer with region of interest (ROI) capability that was designed for use with the infrared and H alpha cameras installed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the DIII-D experiment at G.A. Technologies in San Diego, California. The video digitizer uses a custom built CAMAC video synchronizer module to clock data into a CAMAC transient recorder on a line-by-line basis starting at the beginning of a field. The number of fields that are recorded is limited only by the available transient recorder memory. In order to conserve memory, the CAMAC video synchronizer module provides for the alternative selection of a specific region of interest in each successive field to be recorded. Memory conservation can be optimized by specifying lines in the field, start time, stop time, and the number of data samples per line. This video frame grabber has proved versatile for capturing video in such diverse applications as recording video fields from a video tape recorder played in slow motion or recording video fields in real time during a DIII-D shot. In other cases, one or more lines of video are recorded per frame to give a cross sectional slice of the plasma. Since all the data in the digitizer memory is synchronized to video fields and lines, the data can be read directly into the control computer in the proper matrix format to facilitate rapid processing, display, and permanent storage

  7. Frame scaling function sets and frame wavelet sets in Rd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhanwei; Hu Guoen; Wu Guochang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we classify frame wavelet sets and frame scaling function sets in higher dimensions. Firstly, we obtain a necessary condition for a set to be the frame wavelet sets. Then, we present a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be a frame scaling function set. We give a property of frame scaling function sets, too. Some corresponding examples are given to prove our theory in each section.

  8. FonaDyn - A system for real-time analysis of the electroglottogram, over the voice range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternström, Sten; Johansson, Dennis; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    From soft to loud and low to high, the mechanisms of human voice have many degrees of freedom, making it difficult to assess phonation from the acoustic signal alone. FonaDyn is a research tool that combines acoustics with electroglottography (EGG). It characterizes and visualizes in real time the dynamics of EGG waveforms, using statistical clustering of the cycle-synchronous EGG Fourier components, and their sample entropy. The prevalence and stability of different EGG waveshapes are mapped as colored regions into a so-called voice range profile, without needing pre-defined thresholds or categories. With appropriately 'trained' clusters, FonaDyn can classify and map voice regimes. This is of potential scientific, clinical and pedagogical interest.

  9. Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anchi; Ye, Xiong; Ionascu, Dan; Cao, Wenxiang; Champion, Paul M.

    2005-11-01

    An electronically delayed two-color pump-probe instrument was developed using two synchronized laser systems. The instrument has picosecond time resolution and can perform scans over hundreds of nanoseconds without the beam divergence and walk-off effects that occur using standard spatial delay systems. A unique picosecond Ti :sapphire regenerative amplifier was also constructed without the need for pulse stretching and compressing optics. The picosecond regenerative amplifier has a broad wavelength tuning range, which suggests that it will make a significant contribution to two-color pump-probe experiments. To test this instrument we studied the rotational correlation relaxation of myoglobin (τr=8.2±0.5ns) in water as well as the geminate rebinding kinetics of oxygen to myoglobin (kg1=1.7×1011s-1, kg2=3.4×107s-1). The results are consistent with, and improve upon, previous studies.

  10. Analyses of kinetic glass transition in short-range attractive colloids based on time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumi, Takayuki; Tokuyama, Michio

    2017-03-01

    For short-range attractive colloids, the phase diagram of the kinetic glass transition is studied by time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory (TMCT). Using numerical calculations, TMCT is shown to recover all the remarkable features predicted by the mode-coupling theory for attractive colloids: the glass-liquid-glass reentrant, the glass-glass transition, and the higher-order singularities. It is also demonstrated through the comparisons with the results of molecular dynamics for the binary attractive colloids that TMCT improves the critical values of the volume fraction. In addition, a schematic model of three control parameters is investigated analytically. It is thus confirmed that TMCT can describe the glass-glass transition and higher-order singularities even in such a schematic model.

  11. Diagnosis of ventricular drainage-related bacterial meningitis by broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Susanna; Dahlberg, Daniel; Hedegaard, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic strategy with culture to evaluate additional effects on the etiological diagnosis and the quantification of the bacterial load during the course of ventricular drainage-related bacterial meningitis (VR......-BM). METHODS: We applied a PCR that targeted conserved regions of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with external ventricular drainage or a ventriculoperitoneal shunt during the course of VR-BM. We compared the PCR results with CSF cultures. A total...... of 350 routine CSF samples were consecutively collected from 86 patients. The CSF deoxyribonucleic acid was automatically purified and subjected to PCR. Amplicons from the PCR samples that were positive for VR-BM were subsequently deoxyribonucleic acid sequenced for final identification. Clinical data...

  12. Phylogenetic fields through time: temporal dynamics of geographical co-occurrence and phylogenetic structure within species ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Fabricio; Carotenuto, Francesco; Raia, Pasquale; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F

    2016-04-05

    Species co-occur with different sets of other species across their geographical distribution, which can be either closely or distantly related. Such co-occurrence patterns and their phylogenetic structure within individual species ranges represent what we call the species phylogenetic fields (PFs). These PFs allow investigation of the role of historical processes--speciation, extinction and dispersal--in shaping species co-occurrence patterns, in both extinct and extant species. Here, we investigate PFs of large mammalian species during the last 3 Myr, and how these correlate with trends in diversification rates. Using the fossil record, we evaluate species' distributional and co-occurrence patterns along with their phylogenetic structure. We apply a novel Bayesian framework on fossil occurrences to estimate diversification rates through time. Our findings highlight the effect of evolutionary processes and past climatic changes on species' distributions and co-occurrences. From the Late Pliocene to the Recent, mammal species seem to have responded in an individualistic manner to climate changes and diversification dynamics, co-occurring with different sets of species from different lineages across their geographical ranges. These findings stress the difficulty of forecasting potential effects of future climate changes on biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. A new capacitive long-range displacement nanometer sensor with differential sensing structure based on time-grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhicheng; Peng, Kai; Liu, Xiaokang; Pu, Hongji; Chen, Ziran

    2018-05-01

    High-precision displacement sensors, which can measure large displacements with nanometer resolution, are key components in many ultra-precision fabrication machines. In this paper, a new capacitive nanometer displacement sensor with differential sensing structure is proposed for long-range linear displacement measurements based on an approach denoted time grating. Analytical models established using electric field coupling theory and an area integral method indicate that common-mode interference will result in a first-harmonic error in the measurement results. To reduce the common-mode interference, the proposed sensor design employs a differential sensing structure, which adopts a second group of induction electrodes spatially separated from the first group of induction electrodes by a half-pitch length. Experimental results based on a prototype sensor demonstrate that the measurement accuracy and the stability of the sensor are substantially improved after adopting the differential sensing structure. Finally, a prototype sensor achieves a measurement accuracy of  ±200 nm over the full 200 mm measurement range of the sensor.

  14. Frames and extension problems I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....

  15. An Analysis of Environmental Advertising Frames from 1990 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    VanDyke, Matthew Steven

    2012-01-01

    Recent calls in environmental communication literature suggest researchers should understand the relationships between media message content, message construction, and audience effects. This thesis analyzed environmental advertising frames over time to inform strategic environmental communication research and practice. The study was a media content analysis guided by framing theory. Framing theory asserts the construction of media messages involves the selection and salience of particular mes...

  16. Quantum mechanics with respect to different reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G.

    2007-01-01

    Geometric (Schroedinger) quantization of nonrelativistic mechanics with respect to different reference frames is considered. In classical nonrelativistic mechanics, a reference frame is represented by a connection on a configuration space fibered over a time axis R. Under quantization, it yields a connection on the quantum algebra of Schroedinger operators. The operators of energy with respect to different reference frames are examined

  17. Sparse Matrices in Frame Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta

    2014-01-01

    Frame theory is closely intertwined with signal processing through a canon of methodologies for the analysis of signals using (redundant) linear measurements. The canonical dual frame associated with a frame provides a means for reconstruction by a least squares approach, but other dual frames...... yield alternative reconstruction procedures. The novel paradigm of sparsity has recently entered the area of frame theory in various ways. Of those different sparsity perspectives, we will focus on the situations where frames and (not necessarily canonical) dual frames can be written as sparse matrices...

  18. Quantum reference frames and quantum transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toller, M.

    1997-01-01

    A quantum frame is defined by a material object following the laws of quantum mechanics. The present paper studies the relations between quantum frames, which are described by some generalization of the Poincare' group. The possibility of using a suitable quantum group is examined, but some arguments are given which show that a different mathematical structure is necessary. Some simple examples in lower-dimensional space-times are treated. They indicate the necessity of taking into account some ''internal'' degrees of freedom of the quantum frames, that can be disregarded in a classical treatment

  19. The Cage; Framing Dad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Unfolding his story very gradually and arousing the viewer’s curiosity, Sitaru invites the audience to investigate the parents’ and the boy’s mutual positions in their small flat, as well as the various layers of their conversations, through such means as framing, editing style, and the use...

  20. Framing the Oscars live

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Helle Kannik

    2016-01-01

    How is the global media event of the Oscars localised through the talk show on Danish television? How are both the mediated film star and the special brand of Hollywood celebrity culture addressed by the cultural intermediaries in the Danish framing? These are the questions I propose to answer...

  1. Quotation and Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    . In Black Angels the composer – among other well-known pieces of music – quotes the medieval dies irae sequence and the second movement of Schubert’s string quartet in D minor (D. 810). The musical and intermedial references are framed with striking modernistic sounds exploring instrumental possibilities...

  2. Framing ‘fracking’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Philip; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public

  3. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    -, č. 5 (2009), s. 53-63 ISSN 1801-8483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sea surface topography * satellite altimetry * vertical frames Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  4. Institutional Justification in Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Christian; Schultz, Friederike

    consensus. It extents research on framing in mass communication by applying institutional theory and Boltanski and Thévenot’s (2006) theory on justification in order to explain how the success and failure of proposed interpretations depend on the mobilization of accepted social institutions to justify...

  5. Quantitative rotating frame relaxometry methods in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Irtiza Ali; Sepponen, Raimo

    2016-06-01

    Macromolecular degeneration and biochemical changes in tissue can be quantified using rotating frame relaxometry in MRI. It has been shown in several studies that the rotating frame longitudinal relaxation rate constant (R1ρ ) and the rotating frame transverse relaxation rate constant (R2ρ ) are sensitive biomarkers of phenomena at the cellular level. In this comprehensive review, existing MRI methods for probing the biophysical mechanisms that affect the rotating frame relaxation rates of the tissue (i.e. R1ρ and R2ρ ) are presented. Long acquisition times and high radiofrequency (RF) energy deposition into tissue during the process of spin-locking in rotating frame relaxometry are the major barriers to the establishment of these relaxation contrasts at high magnetic fields. Therefore, clinical applications of R1ρ and R2ρ MRI using on- or off-resonance RF excitation methods remain challenging. Accordingly, this review describes the theoretical and experimental approaches to the design of hard RF pulse cluster- and adiabatic RF pulse-based excitation schemes for accurate and precise measurements of R1ρ and R2ρ . The merits and drawbacks of different MRI acquisition strategies for quantitative relaxation rate measurement in the rotating frame regime are reviewed. In addition, this review summarizes current clinical applications of rotating frame MRI sequences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Some relationship between G-frames and frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proved that every g-Riesz basis for Hilbert space $H$ with respect to $K$ by adding a condition is a Riesz basis for Hilbert $B(K$-module $B(H,K$. This is an extension of [A. Askarizadeh,M. A. Dehghan, {em G-frames as special frames}, Turk. J. Math., 35, (2011 1-11]. Also, we derived similar results for g-orthonormal and orthogonal bases. Some relationships between dual frame, dual g-frame and exact frame and exact g-frame are presented too.

  7. Slow Speed--Fast Motion: Time-Lapse Recordings in Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2018-01-01

    Video analysis with a 30 Hz frame rate is the standard tool in physics education. The development of affordable high-speed-cameras has extended the capabilities of the tool for much smaller time scales to the 1 ms range, using frame rates of typically up to 1000 frames s[superscript -1], allowing us to study transient physics phenomena happening…

  8. Time range for accumulation of shell middens from Higashimyo (western Japan) and Kimhae (southern Korea) by AMS radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: nakamura@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsui, Akira [National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Nara, Nijyo-cho, Nara 630-8577 (Japan); Nishida, Iwao; Nakano, Mitsuru [Saga-City Board of Education, Sakae-machi, Saga 840-8501 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Numerous large and small shell middens have been reported throughout the world. An interesting question is when the huge and thick shell middens were formed, and how many years were required to build up the whole midden. Shell middens contain not only shell fragments but also organic substances such as bones, nuts, acorn, and plant residues, which are suitable substances with which to establish {sup 14}C chronology of the middens. We have conducted {sup 14}C dating on terrestrial and marine materials collected from two lowland shell middens, the Higashimyo site in Japan (the Earliest Jomon period) and the Kimhae site in Korea (the Proto-Three Kingdom period), to establish high precision {sup 14}C chronologies and determine the time required for shell accumulation. According to Bayesian analysis of {sup 14}C ages from terrestrial samples, accumulation of Midden No. 1 at Higashimyo (altitude from -1.1 to -2.3 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 1.2 m) started at around 8050-7950 cal BP and ended at 7950-7750 cal BP, lasting for ca. 100 cal yr, while accumulation of Midden No. 2 (altitude from -0.5 to -2.0 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 1.5 m) started at around 8050-7800 cal BP and ended at 7800-7650 cal BP, lasting for ca. 200 cal yr. Thus the Midden No. 1 was abandoned a bit earlier than Midden No. 2, but the time range for sediment accumulation overlaps each other. Accumulation at the Kimhae shell midden (altitude from 5 to 14 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 9 m) started at around the middle of the 1st C cal BC and ended at around the middle of the 3rd C cal AD, lasting for ca. 250 to 300 cal yr.

  9. An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame including addendum, liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Addison

    1990-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen will continue to be an integral element in virtually every major space program, and it has also become a significant merchant product for certain commercial markets. Liquid hydrogen is not a universally available commodity, and the number of supply sources historically have been limited to regions having concentrated consumption patterns. With the increased space program activity it becomes necessary to assess all future programs on a collective and unified basis. An initial attempt to identify projected requirements on a long range basis is presented.

  10. An Improved Continuous-Time Model Predictive Control of Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Motors for a Wide-Speed Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Su

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved continuous-time model predictive control (CTMPC of permanent magnetic synchronous motors (PMSMs for a wide-speed range, including the constant torque region and the flux-weakening (FW region. In the constant torque region, the mathematic models of PMSMs in dq-axes are decoupled without the limitation of DC-link voltage. However, in the FW region, the mathematic models of PMSMs in dq-axes are cross-coupled together with the limitation of DC-link voltage. A nonlinear PMSMs mathematic model in the FW region is presented based on the voltage angle. The solving of the nonlinear mathematic model of PMSMs in FW region will lead to heavy computation load for digital signal processing (DSP. To overcome such a problem, a linearization method of the voltage angle is also proposed to reduce the computation load. The selection of transiting points between the constant torque region and FW regions is researched to improve the performance of the driven system. Compared with the proportional integral (PI controller, the proposed CTMPC has obvious advantages in dealing with systems’ nonlinear constraints and improving system performance by restraining overshoot current under step torque changing. Both simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in achieving good steady-state performance and smooth switching between the constant torque and FW regions.

  11. Long-Term Statin Administration Does Not Affect Warfarin Time in Therapeutic Range in Australia or Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijole Bernaitis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Warfarin requires ongoing monitoring of the International Normalised Ratio (INR. This is because numerous factors influence the response, including drug interactions with commonly-prescribed medications, such as statins. The administration of statins with warfarin may change INR; however, there is limited information regarding the effects on warfarin control as measured by time in therapeutic range (TTR. Statins may also alter bleeds with warfarin, but there are conflicting reports demonstrating both increased and decreased bleeds, and limited data on diverse ethnic populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of statin administration on warfarin control and bleeds in patients in Australia and Singapore. Methods: Retrospective data were collected for patients on warfarin between January and June 2014 in Australia and Singapore. Patient data were used to calculate TTR and bleed events. Concurrent statin therapy was assessed and comparisons of TTR and bleed incidence were made across patient subgroups. Results: Warfarin control in Australia and Singapore was not significantly affected by statins, as measured by TTR (83% and 58%, respectively, frequency of testing, and warfarin doses. In Australia, statin use did not significantly affect bleeds, whilst in Singapore the bleed incidence was significantly lower for patients on statins. Conclusions: Chronic concurrent administration of statins with warfarin does not adversely affect warfarin TTR in Australia or Singapore. In Singapore, patients on statins, compared to no statins, had a lower bleed incidence and this requires further investigation, especially given the potential genetic influences of ethnicity on both statin and warfarin metabolism.

  12. Work and Inertial Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Richard

    2017-12-01

    A fairly recent paper resolves a large discrepancy in the internal energy utilized to fire a cannon as calculated by two inertial observers. Earth and its small reaction velocity must be considered in the system so that the change in kinetic energy is calculated correctly. This paper uses a car in a similar scenario, but considers the work done by forces acting over distances. An analysis of the system must include all energy interactions, including the work done on the car and especially the (negative) work done on Earth in a moving reference frame. This shows the importance of considering the force on Earth and the distance Earth travels. For calculation of work in inertial reference frames, the center of mass perspective is shown to be useful. We also consider the energy requirements to efficiently accelerate a mass among interacting masses.

  13. FishFrame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degel, Henrik; Jansen, Teunis

    2006-01-01

    . Development and test of software modules can be done once and reused by all. The biggest challenge in this is not technical – it is in organisation, coordination and trust. This challenge has been addressed by FishFrame - a web-based datawarehouse application. The “bottom-up” approach with maximum involvement...... of end users from as many labs and user groups as possible has been rather slow but quite successful in building international trust and cooperation around the system. This is mandatory prerequisites when our primary goal is not the programming project itself, but the creation of a tool that adds real...... value to users and in the end improves the way we work with our data. FishFrame version 4.2 is presented and the lessons learned from the process are discussed....

  14. Framing Light Rail Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process....... The article draws on the socio-technical approach to mobilities studies in order to reassemble the decision-making process in three European cases: Bergen, Angers, and Bern. This article provides insights into the political, discursive and material production of light rail mobilities in a European context....... It identifies the planning rationales behind the systems and the policies that have been supportive of this light rail vision. Finally, the article identifies the practical challenges and potentials that have been connected to the different local frames of light rail mobility which can be used in future...

  15. Framing a Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility...

  16. Pseudo-set framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasz, Kate; John, Leslie K; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Norton, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    Pseudo-set framing-arbitrarily grouping items or tasks together as part of an apparent "set"-motivates people to reach perceived completion points. Pseudo-set framing changes gambling choices (Study 1), effort (Studies 2 and 3), giving behavior (Field Data and Study 4), and purchase decisions (Study 5). These effects persist in the absence of any reward, when a cost must be incurred, and after participants are explicitly informed of the arbitrariness of the set. Drawing on Gestalt psychology, we develop a conceptual account that predicts what will-and will not-act as a pseudo-set, and defines the psychological process through which these pseudo-sets affect behavior: over and above typical reference points, pseudo-set framing alters perceptions of (in)completeness, making intermediate progress seem less complete. In turn, these feelings of incompleteness motivate people to persist until the pseudo-set has been fulfilled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Supporting Product Line Evolution with Framed Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loughran, Neil; Rashid, Awais; Zhang, Weishan

    2004-01-01

    , but there will eventually come a time when a certain feature or scenario appears which could not have been foreseen in the early stages of development. We argue that frames and aspects when used in isolation cannot overcome these weaknesses effectively. However, they can be addressed by using the respective strengths......This paper discusses how evolution in software product lines can be supported using framed aspects: a combination of aspect-oriented programming and frame technology. Product line architectures and assets are subject to maintenance and evolution throughout their lifetime due to the emergence of new...... of both technologies in combination. The amalgamation of framing and aspect-oriented techniques can help in the integration of new features and thus reduce the risk of architectural erosion....

  18. Attribute Framing and Goal Framing Effects in Health Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Parthasarathy; Carter, Patrick; Blair, Edward

    2001-07-01

    Levin, Schneider, and Gaeth (LSG, 1998) have distinguished among three types of framing-risky choice, attribute, and goal framing-to reconcile conflicting findings in the literature. In the research reported here, we focus on attribute and goal framing. LSG propose that positive frames should be more effective than negative frames in the context of attribute framing, and negative frames should be more effective than positive frames in the context of goal framing. We test this framework by manipulating frame valence (positive vs negative) and frame type (attribute vs goal) in a unified context with common procedures. We also argue that the nature of effects in a goal-framing context may depend on the extent to which the research topic has "intrinsic self-relevance" to the population. In the context of medical decision making, we operationalize low intrinsic self-relevance by using student subjects and high intrinsic self-relevance by using patients. As expected, we find complete support for the LSG framework under low intrinsic self-relevance and modified support for the LSG framework under high intrinsic self-relevance. Overall, our research appears to confirm and extend the LSG framework. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  19. A single-shot nonlinear autocorrelation approach for time-resolved physics in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rompotis, Dimitrios

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a single-shot temporal metrology scheme operating in the vacuum-extreme ultraviolet spectral range has been designed and experimentally implemented. Utilizing an anti-collinear geometry, a second-order intensity autocorrelation measurement of a vacuum ultraviolet pulse can be performed by encoding temporal delay information on the beam propagation coordinate. An ion-imaging time-of-flight spectrometer, offering micrometer resolution has been set-up for this purpose. This instrument enables the detection of a magnified image of the spatial distribution of ions exclusively generated by direct two-photon absorption in the combined counter-propagating pulse focus and thus obtain the second-order intensity autocorrelation measurement on a single-shot basis. Additionally, an intense VUV light source based on high-harmonic generation has been experimentally realized. It delivers intense sub-20 fs Ti:Sa fifth-harmonic pulses utilizing a loose-focusing geometry in a long Ar gas cell. The VUV pulses centered at 161.8 nm reach pulse energies of 1.1 μJ per pulse, while the corresponding pulse duration is measured with a second-order, fringe-resolved autocorrelation scheme to be 18 ± 1 fs on average. Non-resonant, two-photon ionization of Kr and Xe and three-photon ionization of Ne verify the fifth-harmonic pulse intensity and indicate the feasibility of multi-photon VUV pump/VUV probe studies of ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics. Finally, the extended functionally of the counter-propagating pulse metrology approach is demonstrated by a single-shot VUV pump/VUV probe experiment aiming at the investigation of ultrafast dissociation dynamics of O 2 excited in the Schumann-Runge continuum at 162 nm.

  20. Impact of diurnal temperature range on mortality in a high plateau area in southwest China: A time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zan; Guo, Pi; Xie, Fang; Chu, Huifang; Li, Kun; Pu, Jingbo; Pang, Shaojie; Dong, Hongli; Liu, Yahui; Pi, Fuhua; Zhang, Qingying

    2015-09-01

    Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important meteorological indicator that reflects weather stability and is associated with global climate change and urbanization. Previous studies have explored the effect of DTR on human health in coastal cities with small daily temperature variations, but we have little evidence for high plateau regions where large DTRs usually occur. Using daily mortality data (2007-2013), we conducted a time-series analysis to assess the effect of DTR on daily mortality in Yuxi, a high plateau city in southwest China. Poisson regression with distributed lag non-linear model was used to estimate DTR effects on daily mortality, controlling for daily mean temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, day of the week, and seasonal and long-term trends. The cumulative effects of DTR were J-shaped curves for non-accidental, cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular mortality, with a U-shaped curve for respiratory mortality. Risk assessments showed strong monotonic increases in mortality starting at a DTR of approximately 16 °C. The relative risk of non-accidental morality with extreme high DTR at lag 0 and 0-21 days was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.11) and 1.33 (0.94-1.89), respectively. The risk of mortality with extreme high DTR was greater for males and age <75 years than females and age ≥75 years. The effect of DTR on mortality was non-linear, with high DTR associated with increased mortality. A DTR of 16 °C may be a cut-off point for mortality prognosis and has implications for developing intervention strategies to address high DTR exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Deep structure of Pyrenees range (SW Europe) imaged by joint inversion of gravity and teleseismic delay time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufréchou, G.; Tiberi, C.; Martin, R.; Bonvalot, S.; Chevrot, S.; Seoane, L.

    2018-04-01

    We present a new model of the lithosphere and asthenosphere structure down to 300 km depth beneath the Pyrenees from the joint inversion of recent gravity and teleseismic data. Unlike previous studies, crustal correction were not applied on teleseismic data in order (i) to preserve the consistency between gravity data, which are mainly sensitive to the density structure of the crust.lithosphere, and travel time data, and (ii) to avoid the introduction of biases resulting from crustal reductions. The density model down to 100 km depth is preferentially used here to discuss the lithospheric structure of the Pyrenees, whereas the asthenospheric structure from 100 km to 300 km depth is discussed from our velocity model. The absence of a high density anomaly in our model between 30-100 km depth (except the Labourd density anomaly) in the northern part of the Pyrenees seems to preclude eclogitization of the subducted Iberian crust at the scale of the entire Pyrenean range. Local eclogitization of the deep Pyrenean crust beneath the western part of the Axial Zone (West of Andorra) associated with the positive Central density anomaly is proposed. The Pyrenean lithosphere in density and velocity models appears segmented from East to West. No clear relation between the along-strike segmentation and mapped major faults is visible in our models. The Pyrenees' lithosphere segments are associated to different seismicity pattern in the Pyrenees suggesting a possible relation between the deep structure of the Pyrenees and its seismicity in the upper crust. The concentration of earthquakes localized just straight up the Central density anomaly can result of the subsidence and/or delamination of an eclogitized Pyrenean deep root. The velocity model in the asthenosphere is similar to previous studies. The absence of a high-velocity anomaly in the upper mantle and transition zone (i.e. 125 to 225 km depth) seems to preclude the presence of a detached oceanic lithosphere beneath the

  2. Transitions in students’ epistemic framing along two axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Irving

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We use epistemological framing to interpret participants’ behavior during group problem-solving sessions in an intermediate mechanics course. We are interested in how students frame discussion and in how the groups shift discussion framings. Our analysis includes two framing axes, expansive vs narrow and serious vs silly, which together incorporate and extend prior work on how students frame discussions in physics education research. We present markers for where discussion falls on these axes. We support our conclusions with both microanalytic excerpts of discussion and overall analysis of 75 hours of video-based data. We find that the group spends most of its time in more serious framings, and slightly more than half of its time in more narrow ones. The teaching assistant is the participant who initiates the largest number of frame shifts, and her shifts include bids to all quadrants in the expansive or narrow and serious or silly plane.

  3. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  4. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-01-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case

  5. MedlinePlus FAQ: Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/faq/framing.html I'd like to link to MedlinePlus, ... M. encyclopedia. Our license agreements do not permit framing of their content from our site. For more ...

  6. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  7. Frames in super Hilbert modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define super Hilbert module and investigate frames in this space. Super Hilbert modules are  generalization of super Hilbert spaces in Hilbert C*-module setting. Also, we define frames in a super Hilbert module and characterize them by using of the concept of g-frames in a Hilbert C*-module. Finally, disjoint frames in Hilbert C*-modules are introduced and investigated.

  8. Framing and the health policy process: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Adam D; Hawkins, Benjamin; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-07-01

    Framing research seeks to understand the forces that shape human behaviour in the policy process. It assumes that policy is a social construct and can be cast in a variety of ways to imply multiple legitimate value considerations. Frames provide the cognitive means of making sense of the social world, but discordance among them forms the basis of policy contestation. Framing, as both theory and method, has proven to generate considerable insight into the nature of policy debates in a variety of disciplines. Despite its salience for understanding health policy debates; however, little is known about the ways frames influence the health policy process. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework was conducted. The literature on framing in the health sector was reviewed using nine health and social science databases. Articles were included that explicitly reported theory and methods used, data source(s), at least one frame, frame sponsor and evidence of a given frame's effect on the health policy process. A total of 52 articles, from 1996 to 2014, and representing 12 countries, were identified. Much of the research came from the policy studies/political science literature (n = 17) and used a constructivist epistemology. The term 'frame' was used as a label to describe a variety of ideas, packaged as values, social problems, metaphors or arguments. Frames were characterized at various levels of abstraction ranging from general ideological orientations to specific policy positions. Most articles presented multiple frames and showed how actors advocated for them in a highly contested political process. Framing is increasingly an important, yet overlooked aspect of the policy process. Further analysis on frames, framing processes and frame conflict can help researchers and policymakers to understand opaque and highly charged policy issues, which may facilitate the resolution of protracted policy controversies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  9. New avenues for framing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the studies in this special issue of the American Behavioral Scientist. It is a strong collection of articles reporting findings from an integrated project that looks at frame building, frames, and effects of frames. The project is part of an exciting large-scale

  10. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  11. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Influence of the Probability Level on the Framing Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Damnjanovic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research of the framing effect of risky choice mostly applies to the tasks where the effect of only one probability or risk level on the choice of non-risky or risky options was examined. The conducted research was aimed to examine the framing effect in the function of probability level in the outcome of a risk option in three decision-making domains: health, money and human lives. It has been confirmed that the decision-making domain moderates the framing effect. In the monetary domain, the general risk aversion has been confirmed as registered in earlier research. At high probability levels, the framing effect is registered in both frames, while no framing effect is registered at lower probability levels. In the domain of decision-making about human lives, the framing effect is registered at medium high and medium low probability levels. In the domain of decision-making about health, the framing effect is registered almost in the entire probability range while this domain differs from the former two. The results show that the attitude to risk is not identical at different probability levels, that the dynamics of the attitude to risk influences the framing effect, and that the framing effect pattern is different in different decision-making domains. In other words, linguistic manipulation representing the frame in the tasks affects the change in the preference order only when the possibility of gain (expressed in probability is estimated as sufficiently high.

  13. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  14. on Goal Framing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulàlia P. Abril

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En respuesta a la enorme y algunas veces conceptualmente inconsistente literatura sobre valence framing,Levin y sus colegas (1998 desarrollaron una tipología de encuadre de valencia que organiza los diferentesresultados a partir de elección arriesgada, atributo, y encuadre de los resultados (goal framing. Este estudiofavorece la literatura sobre encuadre de los resultados mediante (a su aplicación en el contexto de una cuestiónsocial como la pobreza infantil extrema; y (b el examen de los mecanismos afectivos sobre el cual el encuadrede los resultados es de eficacia persuasiva. Los resultados experimentales (N = 197 mostraron que la exposiciónal mensaje de encuadre de pérdida permitió un apoyo mayor hacia las políticas públicas que buscan erradicar lapobreza infantil, en comparación con el mensaje de encuadre de ganancia. Los resultados también revelaronque el afecto negativo sirve como herramienta mediadora de apoyo hacia las políticas públicas. Estos hallazgossugieren que, en el contexto del apoyo social hacia la población pobre, la capacidad de persuasión dentro delencuadre de pérdida se facilita cuando los participantes experimentan afectos negativos.

  15. Balinese Frame of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Aryawibawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Balinese Frame of Reference. Wassmann and Dasen (1998 did a study on the acquisition of Balinese frames of reference. They pointed out that, in addition to the dominant use of absolute system, the use of relative system was also observed. This article aims at verifying Wassmann and Dasen’ study. Employing monolingual Balinese speakers and using linguistic and non-linguistic tasks, Aryawibawa (2010, 2012, 2015 showed that Balinese subjects used an absolute system dominantly in responding the two tasks, e.g. The man is north/south/east/west of the car. Unlike Wassmann and Dasen’s results, no relative system was used by the subjects in solving the tasks. Instead of the relative system, an intrinsic system was also observed in this study, even though it was unfrequent. The article concludes that the absolute system was dominantly employed by Balinese speakers in describing spatial relations in Balinese. The use of the system seems to affect their cognitive functions.

  16. Cognitive framing in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Frame-Based Immobilization and Targeting for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Bryan C.; Forster, Kenneth; Timmerman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Frame-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), such as that conducted with Elekta's Stereotactic Body Frame, can provide an extra measure of precision in the delivery of radiation to extracranial targets, and facilitates secure patient immobilization. In this paper, we review the steps involved in optimal use of an extra-cranial immobilization device for SBRT treatments. Our approach to using frame-based SBRT consists of 4 steps: patient immobilization, tumor and organ motion control, treatment/planning correlation, and daily targeting with pretreatment quality assurance. Patient immobilization was achieved with the Vac-Loc bag, which uses styrofoam beads to conform to the patient's shape comfortably within the body frame. Organ and motion control was assessed under fluoroscopy and controlled via a frame-mounted abdominal pressure plate. The compression screw was tightened until the diaphragmatic excursion range was < 1 cm. Treatment planning was performed using the Philips Pinnacle 6.2b system. In this treatment process, a 20 to 30 noncoplanar beam arrangement was initially selected and an inverse beam weight optimization algorithm was applied. Those beams with low beam weights were removed, leaving a manageable number of beams for treatment delivery. After planning, daily targeting using computed tomography (CT) to verify x-, y-, and z-coordinates of the treatment isocenter were used as a measure of quality assurance. We found our daily setup variation typically averaged < 5 mm in all directions, which is comparable to other published studies on Stereotactic Body Frame. Treatment time ranged from 30 to 45 minutes. Results demonstrate that patients have experienced high rates of local control with acceptable rates of severe side effects-by virtue of the tightly constrained treatment fields. The body frame facilitated comfortable patient positioning and quality assurance checks of the tumor, in relation to another set of independent set of coordinates

  18. Improved quality of intrafraction kilovoltage images by triggered readout of unexposed frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Jonassen, Johnny; Jensen, Carsten; Schmidt, Mai Lykkegaard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The gantry-mounted kilovoltage (kV) imager of modern linear accelerators can be used for real-time tumor localization during radiation treatment delivery. However, the kV image quality often suffers from cross-scatter from the megavoltage (MV) treatment beam. This study investigates readout of unexposed kV frames as a means to improve the kV image quality in a series of experiments and a theoretical model of the observed image quality improvements. Methods: A series of fluoroscopic images were acquired of a solid water phantom with an embedded gold marker and an air cavity with and without simultaneous radiation of the phantom with a 6 MV beam delivered perpendicular to the kV beam with 300 and 600 monitor units per minute (MU/min). An in-house built device triggered readout of zero, one, or multiple unexposed frames between the kV exposures. The unexposed frames contained part of the MV scatter, consequently reducing the amount of MV scatter accumulated in the exposed frames. The image quality with and without unexposed frame readout was quantified as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold marker and air cavity for a range of imaging frequencies from 1 to 15 Hz. To gain more insight into the observed CNR changes, the image lag of the kV imager was measured and used as input in a simple model that describes the CNR with unexposed frame readout in terms of the contrast, kV noise, and MV noise measured without readout of unexposed frames. Results: Without readout of unexposed kV frames, the quality of intratreatment kV images decreased dramatically with reduced kV frequencies due to MV scatter. The gold marker was only visible for imaging frequencies ≥3 Hz at 300 MU/min and ≥5 Hz for 600 MU/min. Visibility of the air cavity required even higher imaging frequencies. Readout of multiple unexposed frames ensured visibility of both structures at all imaging frequencies and a CNR that was independent of the kV frame rate. The image lag was 12.2%, 2

  19. Framing climate change in a popularised setting:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Engberg, Jan

    of the conference. In our part of the project, we look at how knowledge is created via the choice of metaphors. On the basis of an analysis of the framing of the COP15 conference and its goals as presented in the introductory statements by the two Danish presidents of the conference we have found a range of salient......Framing climate change in a popularised setting: The case of the COP conferences The major project from which this presentation has emerged intends to analyze the media communication in connection with mainly the COP15 conference in Copenhagen on climate change 2009 in a number of European...... and with the introductory statement by the president of the Cancún conference in 2010 in order to assess possible influences in the framing from the national and the political setting....

  20. Message framing and perinatal decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haward, Marlyse F; Murphy, Ryan O; Lorenz, John M

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of information framing on parental decisions about resuscitation of extremely premature infants. Secondary outcomes focused on elucidating the impact of other variables on treatment choices and determining whether those effects would take precedence over any framing effects. This confidential survey study was administered to adult volunteers via the Internet. The surveys depicted a hypothetical vignette of a threatened delivery at gestational age of 23 weeks, with prognostic outcome information framed as either survival with lack of disability (positive frame) or chance of dying and likelihood of disability among survivors (negative frame). Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the positively or negatively framed vignette. They were then asked to choose whether they would prefer resuscitation or comfort care. After completing the survey vignette, participants were directed to a questionnaire designed to test the secondary hypothesis and to explore possible factors associated with treatment decisions. A total of 146 subjects received prognostic information framed as survival data and 146 subjects received prognostic information framed as mortality data. Overall, 24% of the sample population chose comfort care and 76% chose resuscitation. A strong trend was detected toward a framing effect on treatment preference; respondents for whom prognosis was framed as survival data were more likely to elect resuscitation. This framing effect was significant in a multivariate analysis controlling for religiousness, parental status, and beliefs regarding the sanctity of life. Of these covariates, only religiousness modified susceptibility to framing; participants who were not highly religious were significantly more likely to be influenced to opt for resuscitation by the positive frame than were participants who were highly religious. Framing bias may compromise efforts to approach prenatal counseling in a

  1. Framing the Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Genres are ways for organisations of discursively interacting with the surrounding world, with the aim of achieving specific disciplinary goals (Bhatia 2004). As such, the management job ad has the objective of finding the right candidate for the management job advertised (Norlyk 2006......). In this process, framing (Evans & Green 2006; Fillmore 1982; Kövecses 2006; Lakoff 1987, 1996) plays a salient role in conceptualising the profile and qualities of the preferred candidate, drawing on established cultural models of what constitutes the perfect leader. Thus, in a Danish setting we may talk of two...... in this realisation, the fact that one of the two models, the ‘goal-oriented motivator’ model, seems to be monopolising the genre raises a number of issues that need to be addressed: How is this model realised conceptually and linguistically? Why does this model continue to be the Danish business world’s preferred...

  2. Shield support frame. Schildausbaugestell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, K.

    1981-09-17

    A powered shield support frame for coal sheds is described comprising of two bottom sliding shoes, a large area gob shield and a larg area roof assembly, all joined movable together. The sliding shoes and the gob shield are joined by a lemniscate guide. Two hydraulic props are arranged at the face-side at one third of the length of the sliding shoes and at the goaf-side at one third of the length of the roof assembly. A nearly horizontal lying pushing prop unit joins the bottom wall sliding shoes to the goaf-side lemniscate guide. This assembly can be applied to seams with a thickness down to 45 cm. (OGR).

  3. Voz sobre frame relay

    OpenAIRE

    D´Elia, Gabriel Anibal

    2000-01-01

    Esta tesis trata el tema de VOFR, desde la digitalización de la voz hasta su transmisión a través de dicha red, así también como la comparación con otros medios de transporte como VOIP. Dada las características del protocolo frame relay y su disponibilidad se eligió como el medio más apropiado para la transmisión de voz y datos en forma integrada sobre una misma red. El trabajo comienza con una breve explicación de la voz, su digitalización y forma actual de transmisión a través de una red di...

  4. Riesz frames and approximation of the frame coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, P.; Christensen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A frame is a fmaily {f i } i=1 ∞ of elements in a Hilbert space with the property that every element in can be written as a (infinite) linear combination of the frame elements. Frame theory describes how one can choose the corresponding coefficients, which are called frame coefficients. From...... the mathematical point of view this is gratifying, but for applications it is a problem that the calculation requires inversion of an operator on . The projection method is introduced in order to avoid this problem. The basic idea is to consider finite subfamilies {f i } i=1 n of the frame and the orthogonal...... projection Pn onto its span. For has a representation as a linear combination of fi, i=1,2,..., n and the corresponding coefficients can be calculated using finite dimensional methods. We find conditions implying that those coefficients converge to the correct frame coefficients as n→∞, in which case we have...

  5. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanli Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  6. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, Mehmet; Unal, Alptug

    2017-10-01

    After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  7. High frame rate synthetic aperture duplex imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2013-01-01

    aperture flow imaging as demonstrated in this paper. Synthetic aperture, directional beamforming, and cross-correlation are used to produce B-mode and vector velocity images at high frame rates. The frame rate equals the effective pulse repetition frequency of each imaging mode. Emissions for making the B...... estimation is −1.8% and the relative standard deviation 5.4%. The approach can thus estimate both high and low velocities with equal accuracy and thereby makes it possible to present vector flow images with a high dynamic range. Measurements are made using the SARUS research scanner, a linear array......Conventional color flow images are limited in velocity range and can either show the high velocities in systole or be optimized for the lower diastolic velocities. The full dynamics of the flow is, thus, hard to visualize. The dynamic range can be significantly increased by employing synthetic...

  8. A Technique for Real-Time Ionospheric Ranging Error Correction Based On Radar Dual-Frequency Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jiang-Tao; Zhou, Chen

    2017-12-01

    Ionospheric refraction is one of the principal error sources for limiting the accuracy of radar systems for space target detection. High-accuracy measurement of the ionospheric electron density along the propagation path of radar wave is the most important procedure for the ionospheric refraction correction. Traditionally, the ionospheric model and the ionospheric detection instruments, like ionosonde or GPS receivers, are employed for obtaining the electron density. However, both methods are not capable of satisfying the requirements of correction accuracy for the advanced space target radar system. In this study, we propose a novel technique for ionospheric refraction correction based on radar dual-frequency detection. Radar target range measurements at two adjacent frequencies are utilized for calculating the electron density integral exactly along the propagation path of the radar wave, which can generate accurate ionospheric range correction. The implementation of radar dual-frequency detection is validated by a P band radar located in midlatitude China. The experimental results present that the accuracy of this novel technique is more accurate than the traditional ionospheric model correction. The technique proposed in this study is very promising for the high-accuracy radar detection and tracking of objects in geospace.

  9. Evaluation of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for extended spectral range of photon time-of-flight spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Anderson-Engels, Stefan

    This paper describe the performance of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for single photon counting, and investigates its performance for photon time-of-flight (PToF) spectroscopy. At first this report will serve as a summary to the group for PToF spectroscopy at the Department of Physics...

  10. Condensed tannins reduce browsing and increase grazing time of free-ranging goats in semi-arid savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkhize, N.R.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Scogings, P.F.; Dziba, L.E.; Prins, H.H.T.; Boer, de W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Tannin concentrations fluctuate spatially and temporally within and among plant species, with consequences for forage quality of herbivores. The extent to which these fluctuations influence foraging activities of goats is not fully understood. While accounting for the effects of the time of the day

  11. Frame Complexity and the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Jan; Schultz, Friederike; Oegema, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    . The financial crisis in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany (2007–2012) offers an example. An automated content analysis was applied to over 160,000 newspaper articles. Frame complexity decreased until the spotlight fell on the demise of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers (2008). The subsequent...... gradual recovery was only partly interrupted by the euro crisis. A Vector AutoRegression time series analysis shows that increasing frame complexity may indeed have fostered the recovery of financial markets and consumer confidence....

  12. An Affect-Responsive Interactive Photo Frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.; Kosunen, I.; Ortega Hortas, M.; Salah, A.A.; Zuzánek, P.; Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.

    2010-01-01

    We develop an interactive photo-frame system in which a series of videos of a single person are automatically segmented and a response logic is derived to interact with the user in real-time. The system is composed of five modules. The first module analyzes the uploaded videos and prepares segments

  13. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-01-01

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  14. Manufacturing of neutron reflector frame for JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawa, Yoshio; Tsuboi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kunihiro; Uchida, Munenori; Suzuki, Ken

    2010-03-01

    Beryllium has been used as the neutron reflector in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). A beryllium frame is arranged in the JMTR core and the frame consists of 3 sections (North, East and West). Each section has 7 stories of the beryllium blocks. Each block is connected by the aluminium joints. The capsule or the berylium plug is located in the inside of the beryllium frame. The first criticality achieved in 1968 and the frame has been replaced 6 times and now the 7th frame is being manufactured. The replacement is planned to be done in the spring of 2010. The design has been modified to decrease the swelling camber and the lifetime has been improved. The manufacturing procedure is severely controlled to assure the quality. The chemical composition must be specified to minimize the swelling and radiation. The machining procedure is highly controlled because beryllium is very brittle. And the environmental control is also important, because the beryllium is a toxic material. (author)

  15. Six problems in frame theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We discuss various problems in frame theory that have been open for some years. A short discussion of frame theory is also provided, but it only contains the information that is necessary in order to understand the open problems and their role.......We discuss various problems in frame theory that have been open for some years. A short discussion of frame theory is also provided, but it only contains the information that is necessary in order to understand the open problems and their role....

  16. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    The time–frequency analysis of a signal is often performed via a series expansion arising from well-localized building blocks. Typically, the building blocks are based on frames having either Gabor or wavelet structure. In order to calculate the coefficients in the series expansion, a dual frame...... is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  17. Frames, agency and institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Jensen, Per Langaa; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    This study examines change and the sources influencing the formulation and diffusion of policies in construction. The change examined is the introduction of a benchmarking policy initiative in the Danish construction industry. Using institutional theory with emphasis on the concepts of frames...... and framings, we show how strategically motivated actors are able to frame policy problems in ways that disclose the mixture of motives, interests and institutional mechanisms at play in change processes. In doing so, we contribute to the literature on the role of agency in institutional change and the framing...

  18. Time evolution of some quantum-mechanical systems. Wavefunction cloning in evolving rotating systems. Finite range boundary conditions for time dependent Schroedinger Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvieu, R.; Carbonell, J.; Gignoux, C.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Rozmej, P.

    1997-01-01

    The time evolution of coherent rotational wave packets associated to a diatomic molecule or to a deformed nucleus has been studied. Assuming a rigid body dynamics the J(J+1) law leads to a mechanism of cloning: the way function is divided into wave packets identical to the initial one at specific time. Applications are studied for a nuclear wave packed formed by Coulomb excitation. Exact boundary conditions at finite distance for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation are derived. A numerical scheme based on Crank-Nicholson method is proposed to illustrate its applicability in several examples. (authors)

  19. Impact of Glucose Meter Error on Glycemic Variability and Time in Target Range During Glycemic Control After Cardiovascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Bryant, Sandra C

    2015-08-25

    We retrospectively studied the impact of glucose meter error on the efficacy of glycemic control after cardiovascular surgery. Adult patients undergoing intravenous insulin glycemic control therapy after cardiovascular surgery, with 12-24 consecutive glucose meter measurements used to make insulin dosing decisions, had glucose values analyzed to determine glycemic variability by both standard deviation (SD) and continuous overall net glycemic action (CONGA), and percentage glucose values in target glucose range (110-150 mg/dL). Information was recorded for 70 patients during each of 2 periods, with different glucose meters used to measure glucose and dose insulin during each period but no other changes to the glycemic control protocol. Accuracy and precision of each meter were also compared using whole blood specimens from ICU patients. Glucose meter 1 (GM1) had median bias of 11 mg/dL compared to a laboratory reference method, while glucose meter 2 (GM2) had a median bias of 1 mg/dL. GM1 and GM2 differed little in precision (CV = 2.0% and 2.7%, respectively). Compared to the period when GM1 was used to make insulin dosing decisions, patients whose insulin dose was managed by GM2 demonstrated reduced glycemic variability as measured by both SD (13.7 vs 21.6 mg/dL, P meter error (bias) was associated with decreased glycemic variability and increased percentage of values in target glucose range for patients placed on intravenous insulin therapy following cardiovascular surgery. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. column frame for design of reinforced concrete sway frames

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adminstrator

    design of slender reinforced concrete columns in sway frames according .... concrete,. Ac = gross cross-sectional area of the columns. Step 3: Effective Buckling Length Factors. The effective buckling length factors of columns in a sway frame shall be computed by .... shall have adequate resistance to failure in a sway mode ...

  1. Power to the frame: bringing sociology back to frame analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; van Zoonen, L.

    2011-01-01

    This article critically reviews current frame and framing research in media and communication studies. It is first argued that most authors fail to distinguish between ‘frame’ and ‘framing’ and therewith produce a conceptual confusion and imprecision that is not conducive to the field. Second, it is

  2. Value Framing: A Prelude to Software Problem Framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Gordijn, Jaap; van Eck, Pascal; Cox, K.; Hall, J.G.; Rapanotti, L.

    2004-01-01

    Software problem framing is a way to find specifications for software. Software problem frames can be used to structure the environment of a software system (the machine) and specify desired software properties in such a way that we can show that software with these properties will help achieve the

  3. New characterizations of fusion frames (frames of subspaces)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theory (College Park, MD, 2003) Contemp. Math. 345, Amer. Math. Soc. (RI: Provi- dence) (2004) 87–113. [4] Casazza P G and Kutyniok G, Robustness of Fusion Frames under Erasures of sub- spaces and of Local Frame Vectors, Radon transforms, geometry, and wavelets (LA: New Orleans) (2006) Contemp. Math., Amer.

  4. Postural adaptation of the spatial reference frames to microgravity: back to the egocentric reference frame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Viel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to test how gravitational information would affect the choice of stable reference frame used to control posture and voluntary movement, we have analysed the forearm stabilisation during sit to stand movement under microgravity condition obtained during parabolic flights. In this study, we hypothesised that in response to the transient loss of graviceptive information, the postural adaptation might involve the use of several strategies of segmental stabilisation, depending on the subject's perceptual typology (dependence--independence with respect to the visual field. More precisely, we expected a continuum of postural strategies across subjects with 1 at one extreme the maintaining of an egocentric reference frame and 2 at the other the re-activation of childhood strategies consisting in adopting an egocentric reference frame. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To check this point, a forearm stabilisation task combined with a sit to stand movement was performed with eyes closed by 11 subjects during parabolic flight campaigns. Kinematic data were collected during 1-g and 0-g periods. The postural adaptation to microgravity's constraint may be described as a continuum of strategies ranging from the use of an exo- to an egocentric reference frame for segmental stabilisation. At one extremity, the subjects used systematically an exocentric frame to control each of their body segments independently, as under normogravity conditions. At the other, the segmental stabilisation strategies consist in systematically adopting an egocentric reference frame to control their forearm's stabilisation. A strong correlation between the mode of segmental stabilisation used and the perceptual typology (dependence--independence with respect to the visual field of the subjects was reported. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show different subjects' typologies from those that use the forearm orientation in a mainly exocentric reference frame to

  5. Experimental time resolved measurement of fluence and energy spectra of photons emitted by a pulsed X-ray generator in the range 5-300 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vie, M.; Baboulet, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed: - A sensor to measure locally X ray fluence rate amplitude and variation versus time during X ray pulses, - A spectrometer based on ROSS method to measure absolute X ray spectrum versus time during X ray pulses. This metrology is used to characterise single shot X ray pulsed sources emitting photons in the range of 5 to 300 keV. Fluence domain is between 10 -9 and 5 10 -4 J. cm -2 with a few nanoseconds time resolution [fr

  6. Body frames and frame singularities for three-atom systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohn, R.G.; Mitchell, K.A.; Aquilanti, V.; Cavalli, S.

    1998-01-01

    The subject of body frames and their singularities for three-particle systems is important not only for large-amplitude rovibrational coupling in molecular spectroscopy, but also for reactive scattering calculations. This paper presents a geometrical analysis of the meaning of body frame conventions and their singularities in three-particle systems. Special attention is devoted to the principal axis frame, a certain version of the Eckart frame, and the topological inevitability of frame singularities. The emphasis is on a geometrical picture, which is intended as a preliminary study for the more difficult case of four-particle systems, where one must work in higher-dimensional spaces. The analysis makes extensive use of kinematic rotations. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  7. Riesz Frames and Approximation of the Frame Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A frame is a familyof elements in a Hilbert space with the propertythat every element in the Hilbert space can be written as a (infinite)linear combination of the frame elements. Frame theory describes howone can choose the corresponding coefficients, which are calledframe coefficients. From...... the mathematical point of view this isgratifying, but for applications it is a problem that the calculationrequires inversion of an operator on the Hilbert space.The projection method is introduced in order to avoid this problem.The basic idea is to consider finite subfamiliesof the frame and the orthogonal...... projection onto its span. Forfin QTR H,P_nf has a representation as a linear combinationof f_i,i=1,2,..,n, and the corresponding coefficients can be calculatedusing finite dimensional methods. We find conditions implying that thosecoefficients converge to the correct frame coefficients as n goes...

  8. Use of real-time PCR to detect canine parvovirus in feces of free-ranging wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Almberg, Emily S; Smith, Douglas; Goyal, Sagar; Singer, Randall S

    2012-04-01

    Using real-time PCR, we tested 15 wolf (Canis lupus) feces from the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota, USA, and 191 from Yellowstone National Park (YNP), USA, collected during summer and 13 during winter for canine parvovirus (CPV)-2 DNA. We also tested 20 dog feces for CPV-2 DNA. The PCR assay was 100% sensitive and specific with a minimum detection threshold of 10(4) 50% tissue culture infective dose. Virus was detected in two winter specimens but none of the summer specimens. We suggest applying the technique more broadly especially with winter feces.

  9. Use of real-time PCR to detect canine parvovirus in feces of free-ranging wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Almberg, Emily S.; Smith, Douglas; Goyal, Sagar; Singer, Randall S.

    2012-01-01

    Using real-time PCR, we tested 15 wolf (Canis lupus) feces from the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota, USA, and 191 from Yellowstone National Park (YNP), USA, collected during summer and 13 during winter for canine parvovirus (CPV)-2 DNA. We also tested 20 dog feces for CPV-2 DNA. The PCR assay was 100% sensitive and specific with a minimum detection threshold of 104 50% tissue culture infective dose. Virus was detected in two winter specimens but none of the summer specimens. We suggest applying the technique more broadly especially with winter feces.

  10. Group Frames With Few Distinct Inner Products and Low Coherence

    KAUST Repository

    Thill, Matthew; Hassibi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Frame theory has been a popular subject in the design of structured signals and codes in recent years, with applications ranging from the design of measurement matrices in compressive sensing, to spherical codes for data compression and data

  11. Framing the frame: How task goals determine the likelihood and direction of framing effects

    OpenAIRE

    Todd McElroy; John J. Seta

    2007-01-01

    We examined how the goal of a decision task influences the perceived positive, negative valence of the alternatives and thereby the likelihood and direction of framing effects. In Study 1 we manipulated the goal to increase, decrease or maintain the commodity in question and found that when the goal of the task was to increase the commodity, a framing effect consistent with those typically observed in the literature was found. When the goal was to decrease, a framing effect opposite to the ty...

  12. Fibre-tree network for water-surface ranging using an optical time-domain reflectometry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Yamabayashi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To monitor water level at long distance, a fibre-based time-domain reflectometry network is proposed. A collimator at each fibre end of a tree-type network retrieves 1.55 μm wavelength pulses that are reflected back from remote surfaces. Since this enables a power-supply-free sensor network with non-metal media, this system is expected to be less susceptible to lightning strikes and power cuts than conventional systems that use electrically powered sensors and metal cables. In the present Letter, a successful simultaneous monitoring experiment of two water levels in the laboratory, as well as a trial for detecting a disturbed surface by beam-expanding is reported.

  13. How many times again will we examine the energy-income nexus using a limited range of traditional econometric tools?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    During the last three decades, following closely the developments in econometric theory, energy and environmental economists have empirically examined the energy-income nexus for different countries and time periods. However, today, in spite of the growing interest in this area, the state of knowledge is still controversial and unsettled. This viewpoint paper attempts to highlight some of the issues related to the existing literature on the long-run relationship and causality between energy consumption and economic growth. In particular, it discusses how it is difficult to make policy recommendations on the basis of inconsistent and conflicting results in the published literature on the subject. In order to do so, the paper first illustrates the increasing trend in the number of studies published in this area providing also a brief comparison of the conventional methods used to estimate the energy-income nexus. It then deals with new directions and different viewpoints on the same issue

  14. [The framing effect: medical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Ketti; Cherubini, Paolo; Rumiati, Rino

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, many studies explored how the way information is presented modifies choices. This sort of effect, referred to as "framing effects", typically consists of the inversion of choices when presenting structurally identical decision problems in different ways. It is a common assumption that physicians are unaffected (or less affected) by the surface description of a decision problem, because they are formally trained in medical decision making. However, several studies showed that framing effects occur even in the medical field. The complexity and variability of these effects are remarkable, making it necessary to distinguish among different framing effects, depending on whether the effect is obtained by modifying adjectives (attribute framing), goals of a behavior (goal framing), or the probability of an outcome (risky choice framing). A further reason for the high variability of the framing effects seems to be the domain of the decision problem, with different effects occurring in prevention decisions, disease-detection decisions, and treatment decisions. The present work reviews the studies on framing effects, in order to summarize them and clarify their possible role in medical decision making.

  15. FRAME CATAGORIZATION OF CONVERSATIONAL INTIMACY

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubov Kit

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the notion of intimacy. The frame of intimacy is studied on the basis of the linguistic parameters, analysis of text extracts and universal knowledge about intimacy. Frame analysis helped to establish the catagorization of types and nominators of intimate speech genres, their construction in static and dynamic aspects.

  16. Frame Catagorization of Conversational Intimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubov Kit

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the notion of intimacy. The frame of intimacy is studied on the basis of the linguistic parameters, analysis of text extracts and universal knowledge about intimacy. Frame analysis helped to establish the catagorization of types and nominators of intimate speech genres, their construction in static and dynamic aspects.

  17. Green frame aggregation scheme for Wi-Fi networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslani, Maha S.

    2015-07-01

    Frame aggregation is a major enhancement in the IEEE 802.11 family to boost the network performance. The increasing awareness about energy efficiency motivates the re-think of frame aggregation design. In this paper, we propose a novel Green Frame Aggregation (GFA) scheduling scheme that optimizes the aggregate size based on channel quality in order to minimize the consumed energy. GFA selects an optimal sub-frame size that satisfies the loss constraint for real-time applications as well as the energy budget of the ideal channel. This scheme is implemented and evaluated using a testbed deployment. The experimental analysis shows that GFA outperforms the conventional frame aggregation methodology in terms of energy efficiency by about 6x in the presence of severe interference conditions. Moreover, GFA outperforms the static frame sizing method in terms of network goodput while maintaining the same end-to-end latency.

  18. Conversion of asynchronous 10 Gbit/s Ethernet NRZ frame into a synchronous RZ frame and multiplexing to 170 Gbit/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an optical circuit for frame synchronization and pulse compression of 10G Ethernet frames with 12000 bits and multiplexing to a 170 Gbit/s optical time division multiplexed data stream.......This paper presents an optical circuit for frame synchronization and pulse compression of 10G Ethernet frames with 12000 bits and multiplexing to a 170 Gbit/s optical time division multiplexed data stream....

  19. Frames and outer frames for Hilbert C^*-modules

    OpenAIRE

    Arambašić, Ljiljana; Bakić, Damir

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to extend the theory of frames for countably generated Hilbert $C^*$-modules over arbitrary $C^*$-algebras. In investigating the non-unital case we introduce the concept of outer frame as a sequence in the multiplier module $M(X)$ that has the standard frame property when applied to elements of the ambient module $X$. Given a Hilbert $\\A$-module $X$, we prove that there is a bijective correspondence of the set of all adjointable surjections from the generalize...

  20. Framing of school violence in the South African printed media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... largely unnoticed by journalists. I argue that the main frames provided to readers in South African newspapers fail largely to elicit social responsibility, while at the same time promoting civic indifference. Keywords: emotional violence; media framing; physical violence; school violence; sexual violence; social responsibility ...

  1. A Systematic Method of Assessing the Durability of Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacasse, Michael A.; Morelli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The long-term performance in respect to moisture management within any wall assembly depends on the hygrothermal response of the wall. Critical factors in estimating the longevity of wood-frame structures include limiting the temperature range, wood moisture content, and time of exposure to condi......The long-term performance in respect to moisture management within any wall assembly depends on the hygrothermal response of the wall. Critical factors in estimating the longevity of wood-frame structures include limiting the temperature range, wood moisture content, and time of exposure...... to the effects of moisture accumulation in wall cavities. Several approaches to assessing the vulnerability of wood-frame structures to deterioration have been developed in recent years, some of which suggest applying a limit-states design approach to the performance assessment of the assembly. In this paper......, a limit-states design approach is described that forms the basis of a performance assessment method for wood-frame wall assemblies. The approach is based on the requirements set out in ISO 13823. The approach, developed for the Moisture Management of Exterior Wall Systems (MEWS) project, is described...

  2. Framed School--Frame Factors, Frames and the Dynamics of Social Interaction in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to show how the Goffman frame perspective can be used in an analysis of school and education and how it can be combined, in such analysis, with the frame factor perspective. The latter emphasizes factors that are determined outside the teaching process, while the former stresses how actors organize their experiences and define…

  3. serialising languages: satellite-framed, verb-framed or neither

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    George Saad

    Figure 2: Verb-framed construction type (Slobin 2000: 109). 2 ... 2 An anonymous reviewer asks why we have replaced Talmy's conflation term “Ground” with ..... an S-language may predispose speakers to pay more linguistic attention to.

  4. Serialising languages: Satellite-framed, verb-framed or neither ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity in the coding of the core schema of motion, i.e., Path, has led to a traditional typology of languages into verb-framed and satellite-framed languages. In the former Path is encoded in verbs and in the latter it is encoded in non-verb elements that function as sisters to co-event expressing verbs such as manner ...

  5. A framed, 16-image Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, F. J.; Bahr, R. E.; Goncharov, V. N.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Peng, B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2017-09-01

    A 16-image Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB)-type x-ray microscope consisting of compact KB mirrors [F. J. Marshall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E518 (2012)] has been assembled for the first time with mirrors aligned to allow it to be coupled to a high-speed framing camera. The high-speed framing camera has four independently gated strips whose emission sampling interval is ˜30 ps. Images are arranged four to a strip with ˜60-ps temporal spacing between frames on a strip. By spacing the timing of the strips, a frame spacing of ˜15 ps is achieved. A framed resolution of ˜6-μm is achieved with this combination in a 400-μm region of laser-plasma x-ray emission in the 2- to 8-keV energy range. A principal use of the microscope is to measure the evolution of the implosion stagnation region of cryogenic DT target implosions on the University of Rochester's OMEGA Laser System [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The unprecedented time and spatial resolutions achieved with this framed, multi-image KB microscope have made it possible to accurately determine the cryogenic implosion core emission size and shape at the peak of stagnation. These core size measurements, taken in combination with those of ion temperature, neutron-production temporal width, and neutron yield allow for inference of core pressures, currently exceeding 50 Gbar in OMEGA cryogenic target implosions [Regan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 025001 (2016)].

  6. High-frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicholas S. P.; Cverna, Frank H.; Albright, Kevin L.; Jaramillo, Steven A.; Yates, George J.; McDonald, Thomas E.; Flynn, Michael J.; Tashman, Scott

    1994-10-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100 microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  7. Framing of health information messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger

    2011-12-07

    The same information about the evidence on health effects can be framed either in positive words or in negative words. Some research suggests that positive versus negative framing can lead to different decisions, a phenomenon described as the framing effect. Attribute framing is the positive versus negative description of a specific attribute of a single item or a state, for example, "the chance of survival with cancer is 2/3" versus "the chance of mortality with cancer is 1/3". Goal framing is the description of the consequences of performing or not performing an act as a gain versus a loss, for example, "if you undergo a screening test for cancer, your survival will be prolonged" versus "if you don't undergo screening test for cancer, your survival will be shortened". To evaluate the effects of attribute (positive versus negative) framing and of goal (gain versus loss) framing of the same health information, on understanding, perception of effectiveness, persuasiveness, and behavior of health professionals, policy makers, and consumers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, issue 3 2007), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1966 to October 2007), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to October 2007), PsycINFO (Ovid) (1887 to October 2007). There were no language restrictions. We reviewed the reference lists of related systematic reviews, included studies and of excluded but closely related studies. We also contacted experts in the field. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, and cross-over studies with health professionals, policy makers, and consumers evaluating one of the two types of framing. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate and independently. We graded the quality of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. We standardized the outcome effects using standardized mean difference (SMD). We stratified the analysis by the type of framing (attribute, goal) and conducted pre

  8. Experimental and analytical investigation of an MHD channel window frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Krajcinovic, D.

    1977-01-01

    A common design of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator channel emphasizes a series of mutually connected window frames providing the support for electrodes and containing the jet of ionized gases. Structurally, a window frame is a rectangular frame with a cross section in the form of a quadrilateral weakened by one or more holes forming the cooling system. Window frames are joined together to make a beam with a box cross section by means of shear pins. A typical window frame is subjected to a rather severe environment characterized by large pressure and high temperatures. The main sources of stresses and strains would include static and dynamic gas pressures and thermal fields characterized by large gradients across the thickness of frame members. The authors consider only the stresses associated with thermal fields. The actual problem is still a very complex one involving analysis of the heat conduction through the electrode-frame system heated by the gas and cooled by the coolant fluid and determination of stresses (elastic and plastic) in a frame with an irregular cross section. In order to obtain a reasonable qualitative and quantitative insight into the phenomenon, three distinctly different approaches have been used: a large elasto-plastic finite element program was used to determine the stresses in the actual frame, an experiment was performed to establish the stress concentrations around holes needed for the passage of coolant, and a two-bar model was used in order to assess the time dependent behavior of the structure for various loading conditions. (Auth.)

  9. Group Frames With Few Distinct Inner Products and Low Coherence

    KAUST Repository

    Thill, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Frame theory has been a popular subject in the design of structured signals and codes in recent years, with applications ranging from the design of measurement matrices in compressive sensing, to spherical codes for data compression and data transmission, to spacetime codes for MIMO communications, and to measurement operators in quantum sensing. High-performance codes usually arise from designing frames whose elements have mutually low coherence. Building off the original “group frame” design of Slepian which has since been elaborated in the works of Vale and Waldron, we present several new frame constructions based on cyclic and generalized dihedral groups. Slepian\\'s original construction was based on the premise that group structure allows one to reduce the number of distinct inner pairwise inner products in a frame with n elements from [(n(n-1))/2] to n-1. All of our constructions further utilize the group structure to produce tight frames with even fewer distinct inner product values between the frame elements. When n is prime, for example, we use cyclic groups to construct m-dimensional frame vectors with at most [(n-1)/m] distinct inner products. We use this behavior to bound the coherence of our frames via arguments based on the frame potential, and derive even tighter bounds from combinatorial and algebraic arguments using the group structure alone. In certain cases, we recover well-known Welch bound achieving frames. In cases where the Welch bound has not been achieved, and is not known to be achievable, we obtain frames with close to Welch bound performance.

  10. Frames and counter-frames giving meaning to dementia: a framing analysis of media content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gorp, Baldwin; Vercruysse, Tom

    2012-04-01

    Media tend to reinforce the stigmatization of dementia as one of the most dreaded diseases in western society, which may have repercussions on the quality of life of those with the illness. The persons with dementia, but also those around them become imbued with the idea that life comes to an end as soon as the diagnosis is pronounced. The aim of this paper is to understand the dominant images related to dementia by means of an inductive framing analysis. The sample is composed of newspaper articles from six Belgian newspapers (2008-2010) and a convenience sample of popular images of the condition in movies, documentaries, literature and health care communications. The results demonstrate that the most dominant frame postulates that a human being is composed of two distinct parts: a material body and an immaterial mind. If this frame is used, the person with dementia ends up with no identity, which is in opposition to the Western ideals of personal self-fulfilment and individualism. For each dominant frame an alternative counter-frame is defined. It is concluded that the relative absence of counter-frames confirms the negative image of dementia. The inventory might be a help for caregivers and other professionals who want to evaluate their communication strategy. It is discussed that a more resolute use of counter-frames in communication about dementia might mitigate the stigma that surrounds dementia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Putting Safety in the Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Jean O’Keeffe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current patient safety policy focuses nursing on patient care goals, often overriding nurses’ safety. Without understanding how nurses construct work health and safety (WHS, patient and nurse safety cannot be reconciled. Using ethnography, we examine social contexts of safety, studying 72 nurses across five Australian hospitals making decisions during patient encounters. In enacting safe practice, nurses used “frames” built from their contextual experiences to guide their behavior. Frames are produced by nurses, and they structure how nurses make sense of their work. Using thematic analysis, we identify four frames that inform nurses’ decisions about WHS: (a communicating builds knowledge, (b experiencing situations guides decisions, (c adapting procedures streamlines work, and (d team working promotes safe working. Nurses’ frames question current policy and practice by challenging how nurses’ safety is positioned relative to patient safety. Recognizing these frames can assist the design and implementation of effective WHS management.

  12. Triple antithrombotic therapy is the independent predictor for the occurrence of major bleeding complications: analysis of percent time in therapeutic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Yoshihisa; Sato, Akira; Hoshi, Tomoya; Takeyasu, Noriyuki; Kakefuda, Yuki; Ishibashi, Mayu; Misaki, Masako; Abe, Daisuke; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2013-08-01

    Triple antithrombotic therapy increases the risk of bleeding events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, it remains unclear whether good control of percent time in therapeutic range is associated with reduced occurrence of bleeding complications in patients undergoing triple antithrombotic therapy. This study included 2648 patients (70 ± 11 years; 2037 men) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with stent in the Ibaraki Cardiovascular Assessment Study registry and received dual antiplatelet therapy with or without warfarin. Clinical end points were defined as the occurrence of major bleeding complications (MBC), major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event, and all-cause death. Among these 2648 patients, 182 (7%) patients received warfarin. After a median follow-up period of 25 months (interquartile range, 15-35 months), MBC had occurred in 48 (2%) patients, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event in 484 (18%) patients, and all-cause death in 206 (8%) patients. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that triple antithrombotic therapy was the independent predictor for the occurrence of MBC (hazard ratio, 7.25; 95% confidence interval, 3.05-17.21; Prange value did not differ between the patients with and without MBC occurrence (83% [interquartile range, 50%-90%] versus 75% [interquartile range, 58%-87%]; P=0.7). However, the mean international normalized ratio of prothrombin time at the time of MBC occurrence was 3.3 ± 2.1. Triple antithrombotic therapy did not have a predictive value for the occurrence of all-cause death (P=0.1) and stroke (P=0.2). Triple antithrombotic therapy predisposes patients to an increased risk of MBC regardless of the time in therapeutic range.

  13. Rotating frames in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.

    1979-01-01

    The transformation theory for rotating frames presented in a previous paper is generalized by replacing the usual condition r = R for ωR < c (invariance of radius) by r = Rg(βsub(R)) so that r is now defined for all values of R, 0 <= R <= infinity. This generalization does not affect the kinematic transformation bracetheta, T → bracethetasup(r), bracesup(r) and the result group structure required by the theoretical constraints previously established, provided the old parameter 'r' (=R) is now identified throughout with either r or R; for physical reasons it must be identified with R. The function g, which cannot be fixed by theoretical constraints, determines the degree of geometrical anisotropy in the rotating plane z = const. More specifically, since g enters the expression for the ratio C/D (circumference/diameter) its choice corresponds to the choice of a congruence definition for lengths in radial and tangential directions. While on this (purely geometrical) level g remains undetermined, it can be uniquely determined experimentally on the kinematic level, e.g. by observing in Σsup(ω) the motion of a free particle. Thus the supremacy of kinematics over geometry is explicated by a further instance. At the same time, special relativity theory (SRT) is shown to belong to the class of theories with theoretically unsolvable problems. (author)

  14. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamborini, D.; Portaluppi, D.; Villa, F.; Tosi, A.; Tisa, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically useful for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link

  15. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborini, D., E-mail: davide.tamborini@polimi.it; Portaluppi, D.; Villa, F.; Tosi, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Tisa, S. [Micro Photon Devices, via Stradivari 4, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically useful for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link.

  16. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, D; Portaluppi, D; Villa, F; Tisa, S; Tosi, A

    2014-11-01

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically useful for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link.

  17. Sporadic frame dropping impact on quality perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Vidal, Ricardo R.; Gicquel, Jean Charles; Colomes, Catherine; Cherifi, Hocine

    2004-06-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing interest in real time video services over packet networks. When considering quality, it is essential to quantify user perception of the received sequence. Severe motion discontinuities are one of the most common degradations in video streaming. The end-user perceives a jerky motion when the discontinuities are uniformly distributed over time and an instantaneous fluidity break is perceived when the motion loss is isolated or irregularly distributed. Bit rate adaptation techniques, transmission errors in the packet networks or restitution strategy could be the origin of this perceived jerkiness. In this paper we present a psychovisual experiment performed to quantify the effect of sporadically dropped pictures on the overall perceived quality. First, the perceptual detection thresholds of generated temporal discontinuities were measured. Then, the quality function was estimated in relation to a single frame dropping for different durations. Finally, a set of tests was performed to quantify the effect of several impairments distributed over time. We have found that the detection thresholds are content, duration and motion dependent. The assessment results show how quality is impaired by a single burst of dropped frames in a 10 sec sequence. The effect of several bursts of discarded frames, irregularly distributed over the time is also discussed.

  18. Estimating background denudation rates and delivery of landslide sediment from a time series of 10Be concentrations in landslide dominated basins in the southern Central Range of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Willett, S.; West, A. J.; Dadson, S. J.; Hovius, N.; Christl, M.; Shyu, J. B. H.

    2017-12-01

    The southern Central Range of Taiwan is located at a tectonic transition zone between an oceanic subduction zone and the arc-continent collision forming the Taiwan orogen. The rapidly evolving tectonic setting, tropical climate and frequent typhoons result in a complex uplift pattern, transient landscapes and extensive landslides. For this study, we obtained a series of 10Be concentrations over the last decade for 13 major drainage basins in the southern Central Range, bracketing the occurrence of a major typhoon, Morakot, which hit Taiwan in 2009 and triggered thousands of landslides. This time series allows us to simultaneously estimate the background erosion rate and assess the impact of Morakot-triggered landslides on 10Be concentrations. The time series of 10Be concentrations shows temporally lower concentrations of 10Be indicating dilution following the Morakot event in most basins. The diluted 10Be concentrations imply erosion rates up to three times higher than the lowest measured rates in the same basins. We constructed a simple sediment-mixing model parameterized by a sudden input of sediment supplied from landslides superimposed on a background denudation rate. This model was calibrated to measured landslide inventories and the series of 10Be data. We obtain a range of permissible background erosion rate and fraction of landslide sediments over time for each basin. The inferred background erosion rate reveals a northward increasing trend, reflecting the initial stage of the mountain building and indicating tectonic forcing is the main driver of the landscape evolution in the southern Central Range. The temporal changes in fraction of landslide sediments show that the available landslide material generated by the Morakot event is decreasing over time with a timescale of several years.

  19. A two-level model of rise time in quantum cascade laser materials applied to 5 micron, 9 micron and terahertz-range wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J F; Yong, K S C; Haldar, M K

    2014-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulation of a two-level rate equation model for quantum cascade laser (QCL) materials is used to study the turn on delay and rise time for three QCLs with 5 micron, 9 micron and terahertz-range wavelengths. In order to do this it is necessary that the model can deal with large signal responses and not be restricted to small signal responses; the model used here is capable of this. The effect of varying some of the characteristic times in the model is also investigated. The comparison of the terahertz wave QCL with the others is particularly important given the increased interest in terahertz sources which have a large range of important applications, such as in medical imaging

  20. Frame by frame stop motion non-traditional approaches to stop motion animation

    CERN Document Server

    Gasek, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In a world that is dominated by computer images, alternative stop motion techniques like pixilation, time-lapse photography and down-shooting techniques combined with new technologies offer a new, tangible and exciting approach to animation. With over 25 years professional experience, industry veteran, Tom Gasek presents a comprehensive guide to stop motion animation without the focus on puppetry or model animation. With tips, tricks and hands-on exercises, Frame by Frame will help both experienced and novice filmmakers get the most effective results from this underutilized branch of animation

  1. Monte Carlo steps per spin vs. time in the master equation II: Glauber kinetics for the infinite-range ising model in a static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Suhk Kun [Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    As an extension of our previous work on the relationship between time in Monte Carlo simulation and time in the continuous master equation in the infinit-range Glauber kinetic Ising model in the absence of any magnetic field, we explored the same model in the presence of a static magnetic field. Monte Carlo steps per spin as time in the MC simulations again turns out to be proportional to time in the master equation for the model in relatively larger static magnetic fields at any temperature. At and near the critical point in a relatively smaller magnetic field, the model exhibits a significant finite-size dependence, and the solution to the Suzuki-Kubo differential equation stemming from the master equation needs to be re-scaled to fit the Monte Carlo steps per spin for the system with different numbers of spins.

  2. Range-separated time-dependent density-functional theory with a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebolini, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.rebolini@kjemi.uio.no; Toulouse, Julien, E-mail: julien.toulouse@upmc.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-07

    We present a range-separated linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) which combines a density-functional approximation for the short-range response kernel and a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter approximation for the long-range response kernel. This approach goes beyond the adiabatic approximation usually used in linear-response TDDFT and aims at improving the accuracy of calculations of electronic excitation energies of molecular systems. A detailed derivation of the frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel is given using many-body Green-function theory. Preliminary tests of this range-separated TDDFT method are presented for the calculation of excitation energies of the He and Be atoms and small molecules (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}CO, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}). The results suggest that the addition of the long-range second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel overall slightly improves the excitation energies.

  3. Noise frame duration, masking potency and whiteness of temporal noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kukkonen, Helja; Rovamo, Jyrki; Donner, Kristian; Tammikallio, Marja; Raninen, Antii

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE. Because of the limited contrast range, increasing the duration of the noise frame is often the only option for increasing the masking potency of external, white temporal noise. This, however, reduces the high-frequency cutoff beyond which noise is no longer white. This study was conducted to determine the longest noise frame duration that produces the strongest masking effect and still mimics white noise on the detection of sinusoidal flicker. \\ud \\ud METHODS. Contrast energy thresho...

  4. Parametric Evaluation of Racking Performance of Platform Timber Framed Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Dhonju, R..; D’Amico, B..; Kermani, A..; Porteous, J..; Zhang, B..

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative assessment of the racking performance of partially anchored timber framed walls, based on experimental tests. A total of 17 timber framed wall specimens, constructed from a combination of materials under different load configurations, were tested. The experimental study was designed toexamine the influence of a range of geometrical parameters, such as fastener size and spacings, wall length, arrangement of studs and horizontal members, as well as the effect ...

  5. Reynolds Stress Closure for Inertial Frames and Rotating Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Charles; Benard, Andre

    2017-11-01

    In a rotating frame-of-reference, the Coriolis acceleration and the mean vorticity field have a profound impact on the redistribution of kinetic energy among the three components of the fluctuating velocity. Consequently, the normalized Reynolds (NR) stress is not objective. Furthermore, because the Reynolds stress is defined as an ensemble average of a product of fluctuating velocity vector fields, its eigenvalues must be non-negative for all turbulent flows. These fundamental properties (realizability and non-objectivity) of the NR-stress cannot be compromised in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of turbulent flows in either inertial frames or in rotating frames. The recently developed universal realizable anisotropic prestress (URAPS) closure for the NR-stress depends explicitly on the local mean velocity gradient and the Coriolis operator. The URAPS-closure is a significant paradigm shift from turbulent closure models that assume that dyadic-valued operators associated with turbulent fluctuations are objective.

  6. Four-frame gated optical imager with 120-ps resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Phillion, D.W.; Campbell, E.M.

    1988-04-01

    In this paper we describe the operation and applications of a framing camera capable of four separate two-dimensional images with each frame having a 120-ps gate width. Fast gating of a single frame is accomplished by using a wafer image intensifier tube in which the cathode is capacitively coupled to an external electrode placed outside of the photocathode of the tube. This electrode is then pulsed relative to the microchannel plate by a narrow (120 ps), high-voltage pulse. Multiple frames are obtained by using multiple gated tubes which share a single bias supply and pulser with relative gate times selected by the cable lengths between the tubes and the pulser. A beamsplitter system has been constructed which produces a separate image for each tube from a single scene. Applications of the framing camera to inertial confinement fusion experiments are discussed

  7. Seismic Performance of Steel Frames with Semirigid Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Faridmehr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear stiffness matrix method was incorporated to investigate the structural performance of steel portal frames with semirigid connections. A portal frame with unstiffened extended end-plate connection was designed to demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed method. Besides, the seismic performance of steel portal frames with semirigid connections was investigated through time history analysis where kinematic hysteresis model was assigned to semirigid connections to account for energy dissipation and unloading stiffness. Based on the results of the study, it was found that generally semirigid connections influenced the force distribution which resulted in the decrease in base shear and lighter frame compared to the rigid one. The results also indicated that there was no direct relationship between maximum displacement at the top and connection stiffness in high-rise frames.

  8. Influence of the story stiffness of reinforced concrete frame with proportional hysteretic dampers on the seismic response

    OpenAIRE

    Oviedo, J. A. (Juan Andrés)

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the story stiffness of reinforced concrete (R/C) frame on the seismic response of R/C buildings with proportional hysteretic dampers. For this purpose, non-linear time-history analyses were conducted on a series of multi-degree-of-freedom system models that include a wide range of structural parameters and vertical distributions of story stiffnesses and strengths of R/C main frame and dampers. Although the basic purpose of damper installation is to red...

  9. The influence of environment, sex, and innate timing mechanisms on body temperature patterns of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Erin M; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M; Van Horne, Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms that influence body temperature patterns in black-tailed prairie dogs are not well understood. Previous research on both free-ranging and laboratory populations of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) has suggested that reductions in ambient temperature and food and water deprivation are the primary factors that stimulate torpor in this species. In other species, however, torpor has been shown to be influenced by a multitude of factors, including innate circadian and circannual timing mechanisms, energy status, and reproductive behaviors. Our objective was to clarify the influence of weather, sex, and intrinsic timing mechanisms on the body temperature patterns of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs. We monitored body temperatures of eight adult (>1 yr) prairie dogs from November 1999 to June 2000. Prairie dogs showed distinct daily and seasonal body temperature patterns, which reflected changes in ambient temperatures that occurred during these periods. These patterns of daily and seasonal heterothermy suggest that body temperature patterns of black-tailed prairie dogs may be driven by an innate timing mechanism. All prairie dogs entered torpor intermittently throughout winter and spring. Torpor bouts appeared to be influenced by precipitation and reductions in ambient temperature. Our results also suggest that reproductive behaviors and circadian timing may influence torpor in this species.

  10. Integration of Reference Frames Using VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chopo; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) has the unique potential to integrate the terrestrial and celestial reference frames through simultaneous estimation of positions and velocities of approx. 40 active VLBI stations and a similar number of stations/sites with sufficient historical data, the position and position stability of approx. 150 well-observed extragalactic radio sources and another approx. 500 sources distributed fairly uniformly on the sky, and the time series of the five parameters that specify the relative orientation of the two frames. The full realization of this potential is limited by a number of factors including the temporal and spatial distribution of the stations, uneven distribution of observations over the sources and the sky, variations in source structure, modeling of the solid/fluid Earth and troposphere, logistical restrictions on the daily observing network size, and differing strategies for optimizing analysis for TRF, for CRF and for EOP. The current status of separately optimized and integrated VLBI analysis will be discussed.

  11. Contribution to time resolved X-ray fluence and differential spectra measurement method improvement in 5-200 KeV range. Application to pulsed emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vie, M.

    1983-09-01

    Two types of sensors have been developed to measure locally the time-resolved fluence and differential energetic spectrum of pulsed X-ray in the energy range 5 to 200 keV. Rise time of these sensors is very short (10 ns) in order to permit time-resolved measurements. Fluence sensors have been developed by putting filters in front of detector in order to make sensor response independent of X-ray energy and proportional to X-ray fluence. The energetic differential spectrum was calculated by way of a method similar to the ROSS method but using filters separated within a pair defining adjacent spectral width. A detailed analysis of uncertainties affecting calculated fluence and spectrum has been done [fr

  12. Frames of exponentials:lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies, and approximation of the inverse frame operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Lindner, Alexander M

    2001-01-01

    We give lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies of a frame of exponentials {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ in L-2(-pi,pi). We also present a method for approximation of the inverse frame operator corresponding to {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ, where knowledge of the frame bounds for...

  13. 10 ps resolution, 160 ns full scale range and less than 1.5% differential non-linearity time-to-digital converter module for high performance timing measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, B.; Tamborini, D.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    We present a compact high performance time-to-digital converter (TDC) module that provides 10 ps timing resolution, 160 ns dynamic range and a differential non-linearity better than 1.5% LSB{sub rms}. The TDC can be operated either as a general-purpose time-interval measurement device, when receiving external START and STOP pulses, or in photon-timing mode, when employing the on-chip SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector for detecting photons and time-tagging them. The instrument precision is 15 ps{sub rms} (i.e., 36 ps{sub FWHM}) and in photon timing mode it is still better than 70 ps{sub FWHM}. The USB link to the remote PC allows the easy setting of measurement parameters, the fast download of acquired data, and their visualization and storing via an user-friendly software interface. The module proves to be the best candidate for a wide variety of applications such as: fluorescence lifetime imaging, time-of-flight ranging measurements, time-resolved positron emission tomography, single-molecule spectroscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, diffuse optical tomography, optical time-domain reflectometry, quantum optics, etc.

  14. Another frame, another game? : Explaining framing effects in economic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, Philipp; Jaeger, B.; Hopfensitz, A.; Lori, E.

    2016-01-01

    Small changes in the framing of games (i.e., the way in which the game situation is described to participants) can have large effects on players' choices. For example, referring to a prisoner's dilemma game as the "Community Game" as opposed to the "Wall Street Game" can double the cooperation rate

  15. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L; Andersen, K E; Egsgaard, Helge

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri......-m-cresyl phosphate, but no reaction to tri-p-cresyl phosphate. Gas chromatography of the tricresyl phosphate 5% pet. patch test material supplied from Trolab showed that it contained a mixture of a wide range of triaryl phosphates, including 0.08% triphenyl phosphate which is above the threshold for detecting...

  16. C-connected frame congruences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmanand Baboolal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the congruences $theta$ that are connected as  elements of the (totally disconnected congruence frame $CF L$,  and show that they are in a one-to-one correspondence with the completely prime elements of $L$, giving an explicit formula. Then we investigate those frames $L$ with enough connected congruences to cover the whole of $CF L$. They are, among others, shown to be $T_D$-spatial;  characteristics for some special cases (Boolean, linear, scattered and Noetherian are presented.

  17. Ultrafast gated intensifier design for laser fusion x-ray framing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Kalibjian, R.; Thomas, S.W.; Cook, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    A major challenge for laser fusion is the study of the symmetry and the hydrodynamic stability of imploding fuel capsules. Streaked x-radiography, in one space and one time dimension, does not provide sufficient information. Two (spatial) dimensional frames of 10 to 100 ps duration are required with good image quality, minimum geometrical distortion (approximately 1%), dynamic range greater than 1000 and greater than 200 x 200 pixels. A gated transmission line imager (TLI) can meet these requirements with frame times between 30 and 100 ps. An instrument of this type is now being developed. Progress on this instrument including theory of operation, ultrafast pulse generation and propagation, component integration, and high resolution phosphor screen development are presented

  18. Sparsity and spectral properties of dual frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We study sparsity and spectral properties of dual frames of a given finite frame. We show that any finite frame has a dual with no more than $n^2$ non-vanishing entries, where $n$ denotes the ambient dimension, and that for most frames no sparser dual is possible. Moreover, we derive an expressio...

  19. Some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qianping; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Houbiao

    2016-01-01

    Fusion frames have some properties similar to those of frames in Hilbert spaces, but not all of their properties are similar. Some authors have established some equalities and inequalities for conventional frames. In this paper, we give some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames. Our results generalize and improve the remarkable results which have been obtained by Balan, Casazza and G?vruta etc.

  20. 49 CFR 393.201 - Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frames. 393.201 Section 393.201 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.201 Frames. (a) The frame or chassis of each commercial motor vehicle shall not be cracked, loose, sagging or...

  1. Key Frame Extraction in the Summary Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelong; Zhao, Bin; Lu, Xiaoqiang; Xuelong Li; Bin Zhao; Xiaoqiang Lu; Lu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuelong; Zhao, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Key frame extraction is an efficient way to create the video summary which helps users obtain a quick comprehension of the video content. Generally, the key frames should be representative of the video content, meanwhile, diverse to reduce the redundancy. Based on the assumption that the video data are near a subspace of a high-dimensional space, a new approach, named as key frame extraction in the summary space, is proposed for key frame extraction in this paper. The proposed approach aims to find the representative frames of the video and filter out similar frames from the representative frame set. First of all, the video data are mapped to a high-dimensional space, named as summary space. Then, a new representation is learned for each frame by analyzing the intrinsic structure of the summary space. Specifically, the learned representation can reflect the representativeness of the frame, and is utilized to select representative frames. Next, the perceptual hash algorithm is employed to measure the similarity of representative frames. As a result, the key frame set is obtained after filtering out similar frames from the representative frame set. Finally, the video summary is constructed by assigning the key frames in temporal order. Additionally, the ground truth, created by filtering out similar frames from human-created summaries, is utilized to evaluate the quality of the video summary. Compared with several traditional approaches, the experimental results on 80 videos from two datasets indicate the superior performance of our approach.

  2. High frame rate retrospectively triggered Cine MRI for assessment of murine diastolic function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Bram F.; Abdurrachim, Desiree; Motaal, Abdallah G.; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J.; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2013-01-01

    To assess left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in mice with Cine MRI, a high frame rate (>60 frames per cardiac cycle) is required. For conventional electrocardiography-triggered Cine MRI, the frame rate is inversely proportional to the pulse repetition time (TR). However, TR cannot be lowered

  3. Centre-of-mass frames in six-dimensional special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, E.A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Centre-of-mass frames are defined in six-dimensional special relativity. In particular, these frames are studied for various pairs of particles which can be any combination of bradyons, luxons and tachyons. These frames can be subluminal, superluminal or non-existent, depending on the angle between the particle time vectors. (author)

  4. Geologic history of Siletzia, a large igneous province in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range: correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale and implications for a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ray; Bukry, David; Friedman, Richard; Pyle, Douglas; Duncan, Robert; Haeussler, Peter J.; Wooden, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Siletzia is a basaltic Paleocene and Eocene large igneous province in coastal Oregon, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island that was accreted to North America in the early Eocene. New U-Pb magmatic, detrital zircon, and 40Ar/39Ar ages constrained by detailed field mapping, global nannoplankton zones, and magnetic polarities allow correlation of the volcanics with the 2012 geologic time scale. The data show that Siletzia was rapidly erupted 56–49 Ma, during the Chron 25–22 plate reorganization in the northeast Pacific basin. Accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon, based on CP11 (CP—Coccolith Paleogene zone) coccoliths in strata overlying onlapping continental sediments. Magmatism continued in the northern Oregon Coast Range until ca. 46 Ma with the emplacement of a regional sill complex during or shortly after accretion. Isotopic signatures similar to early Columbia River basalts, the great crustal thickness of Siletzia in Oregon, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with offshore formation as an oceanic plateau. Approximately 8 m.y. after accretion, margin parallel extension of the forearc, emplacement of regional dike swarms, and renewed magmatism of the Tillamook episode peaked at 41.6 Ma (CP zone 14a; Chron 19r). We examine the origin of Siletzia and consider the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot using the reconstruction in GPlates, an open source plate model. In most hotspot reference frames, the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) is on or near an inferred northeast-striking Kula-Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge between 60 and 50 Ma. In this configuration, the YHS could have provided a 56–49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which accreted to North America by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, formed contemporaneously on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to coastal British Columbia at about the same time

  5. Framing and misperception in public good experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    Earlier studies have found that framing has substantial impact on the degree of cooperation observed in public good experiments. We show that the way the public good game is framed affects misperceptions about the incentives of the game. Moreover, we show that such framing-induced differences...... in misperceptions are linked to the framing effect on subjects' cooperation behavior. When we do not control for the different levels of misperceptions between frames, we observe a significant framing effect on subjects’ cooperation preferences. However, this framing effect becomes insignificant once we remove...

  6. Framing of Ethical Issues in the Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael; Vestergaard Jørgensen, Anne

    Purpose: This study investigates the moral framing of an ethical issue by various actors and looks at the agenda setting effects between news media and the active online public as represented in social media. Design: We coded 4114 sentences manually and conducted an analysis of conditional...... probability of co-occurrence between actors and issues to identify associative frames. An ARIMA model and time series are applied to detect the interplay between the active online public and news media over a period of three months. Findings: The analysis reveals different framings of the ethical issue...

  7. Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.

  8. Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.

  9. Media framing and social movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Snow, D.A.; Della Porta, D.; Klandermans, B.; McAdam, D.

    2013-01-01

    In their study of media content, mass communication scholars commonly rely on Entman's (1993: 52) definition of framing: "[selecting] some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal

  10. On framed simple Lie groups

    OpenAIRE

    MINAMI, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    For a compact simple Lie group $G$, we show that the element $[G, \\mathcal{L}] \\in \\pi^S_*(S^0)$ represented by the pair $(G, \\mathcal{L})$ is zero, where $\\mathcal{L}$ denotes the left invariant framing of $G$. The proof relies on the method of E. Ossa [Topology, 21 (1982), 315–323].

  11. Handedness differences in information framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, John D; Fournier, Candice; Christman, Stephen D

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has shown that strength of handedness predicts differences in sensory illusions, Stroop interference, episodic memory, and beliefs about body image. Recent evidence also suggests handedness differences in the susceptibility to common decision biases such as anchoring and sunk cost. The present paper extends this line of work to attribute framing effects. Sixty-three undergraduates were asked to advise a friend concerning the use of a safe allergy medication during pregnancy. A third of the participants received negatively-framed information concerning the fetal risk of the drug (1-3% chance of having a malformed child); another third received positively-framed information (97-99% chance of having a normal child); and the final third received no counseling information and served as the control. Results indicated that, as predicted, inconsistent (mixed)-handers were more responsive than consistent (strong)-handers to information changes and readily update their beliefs. Although not significant, the data also suggested that only inconsistent handers were affected by information framing. Theoretical implications as well as ongoing work in holistic versus analytic processing, contextual sensitivity, and brain asymmetry will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Meta framing and polyphonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    in various ways in BT’s 2012 coverage of a doping case involving Riis. In this article I investigate the way in which BT meta frames itself and its own actions in order to show and underline the seriousness with which BT treats sports journalism. The study is part of a recurring Danish project harvesting...

  13. Reference frame for Product Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    2011-01-01

    a reference frame for configuration that permits 1) a more precise understanding of a configuration system, 2) a understanding of how the configuration system relate to other systems, and 3) a definition of the basic concepts in configuration. The total configuration system, together with the definition...

  14. Plasma physics in noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyagaraja, A.; McClements, K. G.

    2009-01-01

    Equations describing the nonrelativistic motion of a charged particle in an arbitrary noninertial reference frame are derived from the relativistically invariant form of the particle action. It is shown that the equations of motion can be written in the same form in inertial and noninertial frames, with the effective electric and magnetic fields in the latter modified by inertial effects associated with centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations. These modifications depend on the particle charge-to-mass ratio, and also the vorticity, specific kinetic energy, and compressibility of the frame flow. The Newton-Lorentz, Vlasov, and Fokker-Planck equations in such a frame are derived. Reduced models such as gyrokinetic, drift-kinetic, and fluid equations are then derivable from these equations in the appropriate limits, using standard averaging procedures. The results are applied to tokamak plasmas rotating about the machine symmetry axis with a nonrelativistic but otherwise arbitrary toroidal flow velocity. Astrophysical applications of the analysis are also possible since the power of the action principle is such that it can be used to describe relativistic flows in curved spacetime.

  15. Framing the future of fracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metze, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technology developed to improve and increase the production of natural gas. In many countries, including the Netherlands, it has caused environmental controversies. In these controversies, 'futurity framing' may open up debates for alternative paradigms such as

  16. Frames and generalized shift-invariant systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    With motivation from the theory of Hilbert-Schmidt operators we review recent topics concerning frames in L 2 (R) and their duals. Frames are generalizations of orthonormal bases in Hilbert spaces. As for an orthonormal basis, a frame allows each element in the underlying Hilbert space...... to be written as an unconditionally convergent infinite linear combination of the frame elements; however, in contrast to the situation for a basis, the coefficients might not be unique. We present the basic facts from frame theory and the motivation for the fact that most recent research concentrates on tight...... frames or dual frame pairs rather than general frames and their canonical dual. The corresponding results for Gabor frames and wavelet frames are discussed in detail....

  17. The tension of framed membranes from computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamkens, Daniel; Jeppesen, Claus; Ipsen, John H.

    2018-01-01

    the membranes display power-law characteristics for the equation of state, while higher tension levels includes both an extended linear (elastic) as well as a highly non-linear stretching regime. For semi-flexible membranes a transition from extended to buckled conformations takes place at negative frame......Abstract.: We have analyzed the behavior of a randomly triangulated, self-avoiding surface model of a flexible, fluid membrane subject to a circular boundary by Wang-Landau Monte Carlo computer simulation techniques. The dependence of the canonical free energy and frame tension on the frame area...... is obtained for flexible membranes. It is shown that for low bending rigidities the framed membrane is only stable above a threshold tension, suggesting a discontinuous transition from the collapsed (branched polymer) state to a finite tension extended state. In a tension range above this threshold tension...

  18. Updating long-range transport model predictions using real-time monitoring data in case of nuclear accidents with release to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raes, Frank; Tassone, Caterina; Grippa, Gianni; Zarimpas, Nicolas; Graziani, Giovanni

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is developed to reduce the uncertainties of long-range transport model predictions, in case of a large scale nuclear accident. It is based on the availability in 'real time' of the concentrations of airborne radioactive aerosols from automatic on-line monitors, which are presently being installed throughout Europe. Essentially, the procedure consists of: (1) constructing new (area) source terms from the measured field data as they become available; and (2) restart the prediction with these sources, rather than with the original (point) source. The procedure is applied to the Chernobyl accident. It is shown that the procedure is feasible and might result in an improvement of the prediction of the location of the cloud by several hundreds of kilometers and the actual levels with an order of magnitude. The weak point is the treatment of the vertical structure and transport of the cloud, which can only be solved when 'real-time' upper air observations are also available. (author)

  19. Investigating learners' epistemological framings of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Vesal

    Classical mechanics challenges students to use their intuitions and experiences as a basis for understanding, in effect to approach learning as "a refinement of everyday thinking'' (Einstein, 1936). Moving on to quantum mechanics (QM), students, like physicists, need to adjust this approach, in particular with respect to the roles that intuitive knowledge and mathematics play in the pursuit of coherent understanding (these are adjustments to aspects of their epistemologies). In this dissertation, I explore how some students manage the epistemological transition. I began this work by recruiting both graduate and undergraduate students, interviewing each subject several times as they moved through coursework in QM. The interviews featured, among other things, how students tried to fit ideas together in mutually consistent ways, including with respect to intuitive knowledge, mathematics and experiment, if at all. I modeled these dynamic cognitive processes as different epistemological framings (i.e., tacit, in-the-moment responses to the question "How should I approach knowledge?''). Through detailed qualitative analyses of students' reasoning and a systematic coding of their interviews, I explored how these coherence seeking related framings impacted their learning. The dissertation supports three main findings: (1) students' patterns of epistemological framing are mostly stable within a given course; (2) students who profess epistemologies aligned with the coordination of coherence seeking framings tend to be more stable in demonstrating them; and (3) students aware that their understanding of QM ultimately anchors in its mathematics tend to produce more coherent explanations and perform better in their courses. These findings are consistent with existing research on student epistemologies in QM and imply that epistemologies, in particular whether and how students seek coherence, require greater attention and emphasis in instruction.

  20. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  1. On the structures of Grassmannian frames

    OpenAIRE

    Haas IV, John I.; Casazza, Peter G.

    2017-01-01

    A common criterion in the design of finite Hilbert space frames is minimal coherence, as this leads to error reduction in various signal processing applications. Frames that achieve minimal coherence relative to all unit-norm frames are called Grassmannian frames, a class which includes the well-known equiangular tight frames. However, the notion of "coherence minimization" varies according to the constraints of the ambient optimization problem, so there are other types of "minimally coherent...

  2. A statistical frame based TDMA protocol for human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zedong; Li, Zhao; Huang, Renwei; Liu, Yuhang; Li, Jingzhen; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-09

    Human body communication (HBC) using the human body as the transmission medium, which has been regarded as one of the most promising short-range communications in wireless body area networks (WBAN). Compared to the traditional wireless networks, two challenges are existed in HBC based WBAN. (1) Its sensor nodes should be energy saving since it is inconvenient to replace or recharge the battery on these sensor nodes; (2) the coordinator should be able to react dynamically and rapidly to the burst traffic triggered by sensing events. Those burst traffic conditions include vital physical signal (electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram etc.) monitoring, human motion detection (fall detection, activity monitoring, gesture recognition, motion sensing etc.) and so on. To cope with aforementioned challenges, a statistical frame based TDMA (S-TDMA) protocol with multi-constrained (energy, delay, transmission efficiency and emergency management) service is proposed in this paper. The scenarios where burst traffic is often triggered rapidly with low power consumption and low delay is handled in our proposed S-TDMA. A beacon frame with the contained synchronous and poll information is designed to reduce the possibility of collisions of request frames. A statistical frame which broadcasts the unified scheduling information is adopted to avoid packet collisions, idle listening and overhearing. Dynamic time slot allocation mechanism is presented to manage the burst traffic and reduce the active period in each beacon period. An emergency mechanism is proposed for vital signals to be transmitted. The theory analysis is proceed and the result is evaluated in the hardware platform. To verify its feasibility, S-TDMA was fully implemented on our independently-developed HBC platform where four sensor nodes and a coordinator are fastened on a human body. Experiment results show that S-TDMA costs 89.397 mJ every 20 s when the payload size is 122 bytes, 9.51% lower than Lightweight MAC

  3. Extended Range of a Gun Launched Smart Projectile Using Controllable Canards

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Costello

    2001-01-01

    This effort investigates the extent to which moveable canards can extend the range of indirect fire munitions using both projectile body and canard lift. Implications on terminal velocity and time of flight using this mechanism to extend range are examined for various canard configurations. Performance predictions are conducted using a six-degree-of-freedom simulation model that has previously been validated against range data. The projectile dynamic equations are formed in the body frame and...

  4. A NOTE ON METHODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF THE AIRBORNE SOUND INSULATION OF TIMBER FRAME STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šlechta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic behavior of structures with wooden elements is nowadays of great interest. At the same time, the estimation of the airborne sound insulation of timber frame structures is a complex procedure which includes the prediction of several resonances and the analysis of a significant decrease of the transmission loss in the low frequency range. Three case studies are presented in the paper. The emphasis is put on the transmission loss in 1/3 octave frequency bands of double leaf structures with gypsum panels, wood studs and a well-damped cavity. Methods of Sharp and Davy are used for the transmission loss prediction. Particular issues are discussed for an asymmetrically sheathed timber frame structure, wood studs with resilient channels and staggered studs. The paper also presents that the weighted sound reduction index is not sufficient quantity for characterizing the airborne sound insulation of timber frame structures. Various methods are employed for the calculation of the transmission loss of a traditional structure on a silicate base. Characteristic differences between a silicate based structure and a timber frame structure are highlighted. The usage of the spectrum adaptation terms is encouraged. The paper intends to be helpful in the field of the transmission loss estimation of double leaf structures with wood studs. Since the acoustic behavior of double leaf structures with wood studs is certainly a complex phenomenon, there is a further need for an improvement of methods for the transmission loss estimation and single number quantities for the evaluation of the sound insulation.

  5. Measurement and uncertainties of energy loss in silicon over a wide Z sub 1 range using time of flight detector telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Whitlow, H J; Elliman, R G; Weijers, T D M; Zhang Yan Wen; O'connor, D J

    2002-01-01

    The energy loss of projectiles with Z sub 1 in the range 3-26 has been experimentally measured in the 0.1-0.7 MeV per nucleon energy range in the same Si stopping foil of 105.5 mu g cm sup - sup 2 thickness using a time of flight-energy (ToF-E) elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) setup. A detailed study of the experimental uncertainties for ToF-E and ToF-ToF-E configuration has been made. For ERDA configurations where the energy calibration is taken against the edge positions small uncertainties in the angle at which recoils are detected can introduce significant absolute uncertainty. The relative uncertainty contribution is dominated by the energy calibration of the Si E detector for the ToF-E configuration and the position of the second ToF detector in ToF-ToF-E measurements. The much smaller calibration uncertainty for ToF-ToF-E configuration implies this technique is superior to ToF-E measurements with Si E detectors. At low energies the effect of charge changing in the time detector foils can become...

  6. Time-resolved diode dosimetry calibration through Monte Carlo modeling for in vivo passive scattered proton therapy range verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toltz, Allison; Hoesl, Michaela; Schuemann, Jan; Seuntjens, Jan; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Paganetti, Harald

    2017-11-01

    Our group previously introduced an in vivo proton range verification methodology in which a silicon diode array system is used to correlate the dose rate profile per range modulation wheel cycle of the detector signal to the water-equivalent path length (WEPL) for passively scattered proton beam delivery. The implementation of this system requires a set of calibration data to establish a beam-specific response to WEPL fit for the selected 'scout' beam (a 1 cm overshoot of the predicted detector depth with a dose of 4 cGy) in water-equivalent plastic. This necessitates a separate set of measurements for every 'scout' beam that may be appropriate to the clinical case. The current study demonstrates the use of Monte Carlo simulations for calibration of the time-resolved diode dosimetry technique. Measurements for three 'scout' beams were compared against simulated detector response with Monte Carlo methods using the Tool for Particle Simulation (TOPAS). The 'scout' beams were then applied in the simulation environment to simulated water-equivalent plastic, a CT of water-equivalent plastic, and a patient CT data set to assess uncertainty. Simulated detector response in water-equivalent plastic was validated against measurements for 'scout' spread out Bragg peaks of range 10 cm, 15 cm, and 21 cm (168 MeV, 177 MeV, and 210 MeV) to within 3.4 mm for all beams, and to within 1 mm in the region where the detector is expected to lie. Feasibility has been shown for performing the calibration of the detector response for three 'scout' beams through simulation for the time-resolved diode dosimetry technique in passive scattered proton delivery. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. Gaining perspective: the effects of message frame on viewer attention to and recall of osteoporosis prevention print advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Deborah A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2013-11-01

    This study examined how framed messages affect viewer attention to and cognitive processing of osteoporosis prevention print ads. Attention was measured with eye tracking technology. Cognitive processing was assessed through masked recall. A total of 60 college-aged women viewed 12 gain-framed, 12 loss-framed, and 12 neutral-framed ads. Number of fixations, dwell time, and recall of gain-framed osteoporosis prevention ads were higher than loss-framed or neutral-framed ads, p < .01. Message recall was positively correlated with the number of fixations and dwell time for the gain-framed and neutral-framed messages, p < .01. These findings provide preliminary insight into potential mechanisms underlying message framing effects.

  8. Frames of Scale Challenges in Finnish and Greek Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Apostolopoulou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global conservation expansion has been associated with significant changes in cross-scale interactions and in the discourses surrounding them engendering new scale challenges in the field of biodiversity conservation. In this paper, we analyze frames of scale challenges by drawing on evidence from eight focus groups of stakeholders and scientists from Greece and Finland. By following a systematic frame analysis we found three dominant frames. First, framing scale challenges as mainly derived from knowledge gaps regarding ecological scale emphasizes the scale problems occurring when only limited consideration is given to the scale-dependence of ecological phenomena. This prioritizes the formulation of scientifically informed conservation policies, discounting the importance of governance by concentrating on specialized environmental administrations. Second, framing scale challenges as stemming from limited fit highlights the scale problems caused by discrepancies in the alignment of natural and social scales and underlines the need to optimize the match between ecological and governance levels with more or less fixed boundaries. Third, framing scale challenges as primarily derived from inequalities in existing power relationships and learning processes emphasizes scale problems resulting when the dominant perception of scale is seen as a neutral, technical issue. This calls for investigations focused explicitly on how conservation scaling contributes to the production of new social-ecological entities in space and time. Dialogues between aspects of the different frames offer a potential path toward deliberative learning aimed at resolving current contradictions in the spatial patterning of human-environment interactions produced by biodiversity conservation.

  9. Error framing effects on performance: cognitive, motivational, and affective pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-Johnson, Debra; Kalinoski, Zachary T

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine whether positive error framing, that is, making errors salient and cuing individuals to see errors as useful, can benefit learning when task exploration is constrained. Recent research has demonstrated the benefits of a newer approach to training, that is, error management training, that includes the opportunity to actively explore the task and framing errors as beneficial to learning complex tasks (Keith & Frese, 2008). Other research has highlighted the important role of errors in on-the-job learning in complex domains (Hutchins, 1995). Participants (N = 168) from a large undergraduate university performed a class scheduling task. Results provided support for a hypothesized path model in which error framing influenced cognitive, motivational, and affective factors which in turn differentially affected performance quantity and quality. Within this model, error framing had significant direct effects on metacognition and self-efficacy. Our results suggest that positive error framing can have beneficial effects even when tasks cannot be structured to support extensive exploration. Whereas future research can expand our understanding of error framing effects on outcomes, results from the current study suggest that positive error framing can facilitate learning from errors in real-time performance of tasks.

  10. The ICRF-3: Status, Plans, and Multi-wavelength Progress on the next generation Celestial Reference Frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    ICRF-3 seeks to improve upon the highly successful ICRF-2. Our goals are to improve the precision, spatial and frequency coverage relative to the ICRF-2 by 2018. This date is driven by the desire to create radio frames that are ready for comparison with the Gaia optical frame.Several specific actions are underway. A collaboration to improve at S/X-band precision of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) Calibrator Survey's ~2200 sources, which are typically 5 times less precise than the rest of the ICRF-2, is bearing fruit and is projected to yield a factor of 3 improvement in precision. S/X-band southern hemisphere precision improvements are underway with observations using southern antennas such as the AuScope, Warkworth, and HartRAO, South Africa.We also seek to improve radio frequency coverage with X/Ka-band and K-band work. An X/Ka frame of 660 sources now has full sky coverage from the addition of a 2nd southern station in Argentina which is strengthening the southern hemisphere in general. The X/Ka-band frame's precision is now comparable to the ICRF-2 for the 530 sources in common. A K-band collaboration has formed with similar coverage and southern precision goals. By the time of this meeting, we expect K-band to complete full sky coverage with south polar cap observations and to improve spatial density north of -30 deg declination with VLBA observations.On the analysis front, special attention is being given to combination techniques both of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) frames and of multiple data types. Consistency of the Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) with the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) and Earth Oreintation Parameters (EOP) is another area of concern. Comparison of celestial frame solutions from various groups is underway in order to identify and correct systematic errors. We will discuss evidence emerging for 100 µas zonal errors in the ICRF2 in the declination range from 0 to -30 deg.Finally, work is underway to identify and

  11. Dynamic response and stability of semi-rigid frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Yasein, Omar Ali

    This dissertation presents a method to determine the load capacity as well as end member forces and deformations of frames with partial rigid joint connections by using the direct stiffness method. The connections are modeled as rotational springs attached at the ends of framed members. The lumped mass method, which is an approximate method, and the distributed mass method, which is an exact method, are also presented to compute the natural frequency of frames. The effects of the axial forces and the flexibility of joint connections are both included. Furthermore, the time-dependent response of semi-rigid frames subjected to periodic axial forces is formulated. The harmonic function is approximated by dividing the periodic function into n intervals and the periodic axial forces are evaluated at each time interval as constant forces using 'piecewise approximation'. The regions of instability of frames with different joint stiffness were determined using the characteristic equation method. The time-dependent part of the differential equation for free vibration of a framed member subjected to a harmonic force can be written in the form of the Mathieu-Hill equation where all characteristics of the Mathieu-Hill equation solutions can be used to determine the boundaries of instability regions.

  12. Timing of mid-crustal ductile extension in the northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex, Nevada: Evidence from U/Pb zircon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Blackburn, T.; Johnston, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Metamorphic core complexes (Mccs) within the western U.S. record a history of Cenozoic ductile and brittle extensional deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism, and exhumation within the footwall of high-angle Basin and Range normal faults. Documenting these histories within Mccs have been topics of research for over 40 years, yet there remains disagreement about: 1) whether the detachment fault formed and moved at low angles or initiated at high angles and rotated to a low angle; 2) whether brittle and ductile extensional deformation were linked in space and time; and 3) the temporal relationship of both modes of extension to the development of the detachment fault. The northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex (NSR), Nevada has been central to this debate. To address these issues, we report new U/Pb dates from zircon in deformed and undeformed rhyolite dikes emplaced into ductilely thinned and horizontally stretched lower plate rocks that provide tight bounds on the timing of ductile extension at between 38.2 ± 0.3 Ma and 22.50 ± 0.36 Ma. The maximum age constraint is from the Northern dike swarm (NDS), which was emplaced in the northwest part of the range pre- to syn-tectonic with ductile extension. The minimum age constraint is from the Silver Creek dike swarm (SDS) that was emplaced in the southern part of the range post ductile extensional deformation. Our field observations, petrography, and U/Pb zircon ages on the dikes combined with published data on the geology and kinematics of extension, moderate and low temperature thermochronology on lower plate rocks, and age and faulting histories of Cenozoic sedimentary basins adjacent to the NSR are interpreted as recording an episode of localized upper crustal brittle extension during the Eocene that drove upward ductile extensional flow of hot middle crustal rocks from beneath the NSR detachment soon after, or simultaneous with, emplacement of the NDS. Exhumation of the lower plate continued in a rolling

  13. Framing of task performance strategies: effects on performance in a multiattribute dynamic decision making environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, T E

    1997-09-01

    It is well documented that the way a static choice task is "framed" can dramatically alter choice behavior, often leading to observable preference reversals. This framing effect appears to result from perceived changes in the nature or location of a person's initial reference point, but it is not clear how framing effects might generalize to performance on dynamic decision making tasks that are characterized by high workload, time constraints, risk, or stress. A study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that framing can introduce affective components to the decision making process and can influence, either favorably (positive frame) or adversely (negative frame), the implementation and use of decision making strategies in dynamic high-workload environments. Results indicated that negative frame participants were significantly impaired in developing and employing a simple optimal decision strategy relative to a positive frame group. Discussion focuses on implications of these results for models of dynamic decision making.

  14. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  15. Generalized frame of reference with null congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrarese, G.; Antonelli, R.

    2000-01-01

    The paper derives the main properties of a generalized frame of reference with a null congruence (light flux), by means of adapted non-holonomic techniques; then it studies the geometry of the space-time in terms of non-orthogonal projection: longitudinal and transverse covariant derivatives and corresponding commutation formulae, decomposition of the Riemann and gravitational tensors, lie derivatives of the Ricci rotation coefficients, transverse Bianchi identity. Application to the (absolute and relative) light flux: kinematical characteristics and screen, Sachs theorems etc. are also given

  16. Predicting the Strength of Online News Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jakopović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Framing theory is one of the most significant approaches to understanding media and their potential impact on publics. Leaving aside that fact, the author finds that publicity effects seem to be dispersed and difficult to catch for public relations. This article employs a specific research design, which could be applied to public relations practice, namely with a view to observing correlations between specific media frames and individual frames. The approach is based on the typology of news frames. The author attributes negative, positive and neutral determinants to the types of frames in his empirical research. Online news regarding three transport organizations and the accompanying user comments (identified as negative, positive and neutral are analysed by means of the method of content and sentiment analysis. The author recognizes user comments and reviews as individual frames that take part in the creation of online image. Furthermore, he identifies the types of media frames as well as individual frames manifested as image, and undertakes correlation research in order to establish their prediction potential. The results expose the most frequently used types of media frames concerning the transport domain. The media are keen to report through the attribution of responsibility frame, and after that, through the economic frame and the conflict frame, but, on the other hand, they tend to neglect the human interest frame and the morality frame. The results show that specific types of news frames enable better prediction of user reactions. The economic frame and the human interest frame therefore represent the most predictable types of frame.

  17. Sovereignty Frames and Sovereignty Claims

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that much of the contemporary confusion and controversy over the meaning and continuing utility of the concept of sovereignty stems from a failure to distinguish between sovereignty as a deep framing device for making sense of the modern legal and political word on the one hand, and the particular claims which are made on behalf of particular institutions, agencies, rules or other entities to possess sovereign authority on the other. The essay begins by providing a basic acc...

  18. A 1-V 60-μW 85-dB dynamic range continuous-time third-order sigma-delta modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanwen; Qi Da; Dong Yifeng; Xu Jun; Ren Junyan

    2009-01-01

    A 1-V third order one-bit continuous-time (CT) EA modulator is presented. Designed in the SMIC mixed-signal 0.13-μm CMOS process, the modulator utilizes active RC integrators to implement the loop filter. An efficient circuit design methodology for the CT ΣΔ modulator is proposed and verified. Low power dissipation is achieved through the use of two-stage class A/AB amplifiers. The presented modulator achieves 81.4-dB SNDR and 85-dB dynamic range in a 20-kHz bandwidth with an over sampling ratio of 128. The total power consumption of the modulator is only 60 μW from a 1-V power supply and the prototype occupies an active area of 0.12 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Climate change and Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris: shifts in distribution and advancement in spring departure times at Wexford versus elsewhere in the winter range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Merne, Oscar J; Walsh, Alyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Count data have shown that numbers of Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris wintering at their numerically most important site (Wexford Slobs in south east Ireland) have remained more or less constant over 30 years, in contrast to recent declines at their second most important...... site (Islay further north in south west Scotland), and declines in the population as a whole. There was no evidence to suggest a northwards shift in wintering geese as might be predicted under global climate change. Although Greenland White-fronted Geese now depart from Wexford in spring on average 22...... in migration timing. The more rapid advancement of spring migration at Wexford compared to elsewhere in the range and the retention of wintering geese there in contrast to declining trends amongst the population as a whole suggest that local management of the food resource at Wexford may be responsible...

  20. Local and distant residence times of contaminants in multi-compartment models. Part II: Application to assessing environmental mobility and long-range atmospheric transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Liisa; Mackay, Don

    2008-01-01

    In Part I, the concepts of inherent, local and distant residence times (DRTs) were reviewed as metrics of the extent to which chemical discharges or emissions in one region or box are transported to distant regions. In this second part, the concepts are applied to geographically relevant systems to illustrate their applicability to the assessment of chemicals for long-range transport potential (LRTP). It is shown that the relative ranking of chemicals as characterized by the DRT method is similar to that of the characteristic travel distance concept. A DRT source-receptor matrix is developed that can express the chemical-specific potential of source regions to contaminate a specific receptor region of concern such as the Arctic. The matrix can be modified to identify for a specific source region the likely destinations of emissions as well as to assess the relative vulnerability of regions in the global environment to contaminants of concern. - The DRT concept is applied to multi-box and geographically explicit models to assess the long-range transport potential of 10 chemicals

  1. Effects of sample injection amount and time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection dynamic range on metabolome analysis by high-performance chemical isotope labeling LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruokun; Li, Liang

    2015-04-06

    The effect of sample injection amount on metabolome analysis in a chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) platform was investigated. The performance of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers with and without a high-dynamic-range (HD) detection system was compared in the analysis of (12)C2/(13)C2-dansyl labeled human urine samples. An average of 1635 ± 21 (n = 3) peak pairs or putative metabolites was detected using the HD-TOF-MS, compared to 1429 ± 37 peak pairs from a conventional or non-HD TOF-MS. In both instruments, signal saturation was observed. However, in the HD-TOF-MS, signal saturation was mainly caused by the ionization process, while in the non-HD TOF-MS, it was caused by the detection process. To extend the MS detection range in the non-HD TOF-MS, an automated switching from using (12)C to (13)C-natural abundance peaks for peak ratio calculation when the (12)C peaks are saturated has been implemented in IsoMS, a software tool for processing CIL LC-MS data. This work illustrates that injecting an optimal sample amount is important to maximize the metabolome coverage while avoiding the sample carryover problem often associated with over-injection. A TOF mass spectrometer with an enhanced detection dynamic range can also significantly increase the number of peak pairs detected. In chemical isotope labeling (CIL) LC-MS, relative metabolite quantification is done by measuring the peak ratio of a (13)C2-/(12)C2-labeled peak pair for a given metabolite present in two comparative samples. The dynamic range of peak ratio measurement does not need to be very large, as only subtle changes of metabolite concentrations are encountered in most metabolomic studies where relative metabolome quantification of different groups of samples is performed. However, the absolute concentrations of different metabolites can be very different, requiring a technique to provide a wide detection dynamic range to allow the detection of as

  2. Orthogonal Multiwavelet Frames in L2Rd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhanwei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterize the orthogonal frames and orthogonal multiwavelet frames in L2Rd with matrix dilations of the form (Df(x=detAf(Ax, where A is an arbitrary expanding d×d matrix with integer coefficients. Firstly, through two arbitrarily multiwavelet frames, we give a simple construction of a pair of orthogonal multiwavelet frames. Then, by using the unitary extension principle, we present an algorithm for the construction of arbitrarily many orthogonal multiwavelet tight frames. Finally, we give a general construction algorithm for orthogonal multiwavelet tight frames from a scaling function.

  3. Spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Yaakov; Scarr, Tzvi

    2013-01-01

    We use the generalized Fermi–Walker transport to construct a one-parameter family of inertial frames which are instantaneously comoving to a uniformly accelerated observer. We explain the connection between our approach and that of Mashhoon. We show that our solutions of uniformly accelerated motion have constant acceleration in the comoving frame. Assuming the weak hypothesis of locality, we obtain local spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame K′ to an inertial frame K. The spacetime transformations between two uniformly accelerated frames with the same acceleration are Lorentz. We compute the metric at an arbitrary point of a uniformly accelerated frame. (paper)

  4. The timing and cause of glacial activity during the last glacial in central Tibet based on 10Be surface exposure dating east of Mount Jaggang, the Xainza range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guocheng; Zhou, Weijian; Yi, Chaolu; Fu, Yunchong; Zhang, Li; Li, Ming

    2018-04-01

    Mountain glaciers are sensitive to climate change, and can provide valuable information for inferring former climates on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The increasing glacial chronologies indicate that the timing of the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) recorded across the TP is asynchronous, implying different local influences of the mid-latitude westerlies and Asian Summer Monsoon in triggering glacier advances. However, the well-dated sites are still too few, especially in the transition zone between regions controlled by the two climate systems. Here we present detailed last glacial chronologies for the Mount Jaggang area, in the Xainza range, central Tibet, with forty-three apparent 10Be exposure-ages ranging from 12.4 ± 0.8 ka to 61.9 ± 3.8 ka. These exposure-ages indicate that at least seven glacial episodes occurred during the last glacial cycle east of Mount Jaggang. These include: a local LGM that occurred at ∼61.9 ± 3.8 ka, possibly corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 4 (MIS 4); subsequent glacial advances at ∼43.2 ± 2.6 ka and ∼35.1 ± 2.1 ka during MIS 3; one glacial re-advance/standstill at MIS3/2 transition (∼29.8 ± 1.8 ka); and three glacial re-advances/standstills that occurred following MIS 3 at ∼27.9 ± 1.7 ka, ∼21.8 ± 1.3 ka, and ∼15.1 ± 0.9 ka. The timing of these glacial activities is roughly in agreement with North Atlantic millennial-scale climate oscillations (Heinrich events), suggesting the potential correlations between these abrupt climate changes and glacial fluctuations in the Mount Jaggang area. The successively reduced glacial extent might have resulted from an overall decrease in Asian Summer Monsoon intensity over this timeframe.

  5. Time-resolved imaging of prompt-gamma rays for proton range verification using a knife-edge slit camera based on digital photon counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambraia Lopes, Patricia; Clementel, Enrico; Crespo, Paulo; Henrotin, Sebastien; Huizenga, Jan; Janssens, Guillaume; Parodi, Katia; Prieels, Damien; Roellinghoff, Frauke; Smeets, Julien; Stichelbaut, Frederic; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2015-08-01

    Proton range monitoring may facilitate online adaptive proton therapy and improve treatment outcomes. Imaging of proton-induced prompt gamma (PG) rays using a knife-edge slit collimator is currently under investigation as a potential tool for real-time proton range monitoring. A major challenge in collimated PG imaging is the suppression of neutron-induced background counts. In this work, we present an initial performance test of two knife-edge slit camera prototypes based on arrays of digital photon counters (DPCs). PG profiles emitted from a PMMA target upon irradiation with a 160 MeV proton pencil beams (about 6.5   ×   109 protons delivered in total) were measured using detector modules equipped with four DPC arrays coupled to BGO or LYSO : Ce crystal matrices. The knife-edge slit collimator and detector module were placed at 15 cm and 30 cm from the beam axis, respectively, in all cases. The use of LYSO : Ce enabled time-of-flight (TOF) rejection of background events, by synchronizing the DPC readout electronics with the 106 MHz radiofrequency signal of the cyclotron. The signal-to-background (S/B) ratio of 1.6 obtained with a 1.5 ns TOF window and a 3 MeV-7 MeV energy window was about 3 times higher than that obtained with the same detector module without TOF discrimination and 2 times higher than the S/B ratio obtained with the BGO module. Even 1 mm shifts of the Bragg peak position translated into clear and consistent shifts of the PG profile if TOF discrimination was applied, for a total number of protons as low as about 6.5   ×   108 and a detector surface of 6.6 cm  ×  6.6 cm.

  6. Mars Science Laboratory Frame Manager for Centralized Frame Tree Database and Target Pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won S.; Leger, Chris; Peters, Stephen; Carsten, Joseph; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The FM (Frame Manager) flight software module is responsible for maintaining the frame tree database containing coordinate transforms between frames. The frame tree is a proper tree structure of directed links, consisting of surface and rover subtrees. Actual frame transforms are updated by their owner. FM updates site and saved frames for the surface tree. As the rover drives to a new area, a new site frame with an incremented site index can be created. Several clients including ARM and RSM (Remote Sensing Mast) update their related rover frames that they own. Through the onboard centralized FM frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames. Important applications include target image pointing for RSM-mounted cameras and frame-referenced arm moves. The use of frame tree eliminates cumbersome, error-prone calculations of coordinate entries for commands and thus simplifies flight operations significantly.

  7. Case study of a framing effect in course evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynöe, Niels; Juth, Niklas; Helgesson, Gert

    2012-01-01

    When new elements are included in the medical curriculum and the total time frame remains unchanged, established disciplines have to shorten their courses. This might bring about frustration among the teachers and students concerned, which in turn might affect how other courses are perceived. Two course evaluations, one before and one after a major change in the curriculum were compared. Comments were also analysed. We found that the students' and teachers' frustration influenced the students' evaluations of a new course in the philosophy of medicine and accordingly brought about an unintended message effect referred to as a framing effect. The results of this observational study indicate that a negative framing effect might influence course-evaluations. We suggest that this study might be used as a point of departure for further empirical studies about negative framing effects.

  8. Strategic Organizational Discourse and Framing in Hypermodal Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Maier, Carmen Daniela

    2017-01-01

    spaces, the study examines in detail the discursive strategies and framing processes employed by a non-profit organization that faces local and global contestation of its corporate operations. Findings: Through a critical discourse analysis of the organization’s 385 Facebook posts during two periods......Purpose: This article explores how organizations can strategically frame their legitimate perspective on a specific issue in order to gain salience and public support in a social media context. Methodology: By means of framing theory and a critical perspective on strategic discourse in hypermodal...... of time, the results show how the corporate perspective is strategically framed and legitimized, but also challenged and consequently adapted in this hypermodal issue sub-arena. In addition to legitimizing the organizational perspective by providing evidence-based facts and external expert views...

  9. Memory-based frame synchronizer. [for digital communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A frame synchronizer for use in digital communications systems wherein data formats can be easily and dynamically changed is described. The use of memory array elements provide increased flexibility in format selection and sync word selection in addition to real time reconfiguration ability. The frame synchronizer comprises a serial-to-parallel converter which converts a serial input data stream to a constantly changing parallel data output. This parallel data output is supplied to programmable sync word recognizers each consisting of a multiplexer and a random access memory (RAM). The multiplexer is connected to both the parallel data output and an address bus which may be connected to a microprocessor or computer for purposes of programming the sync word recognizer. The RAM is used as an associative memory or decorder and is programmed to identify a specific sync word. Additional programmable RAMs are used as counter decoders to define word bit length, frame word length, and paragraph frame length.

  10. Noise frame duration, masking potency and whiteness of temporal noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Heljä; Rovamo, Jyrki; Donner, Kristian; Tammikallio, Marja; Raninen, Antti

    2002-09-01

    Because of the limited contrast range, increasing the duration of the noise frame is often the only option for increasing the masking potency of external, white temporal noise. This, however, reduces the high-frequency cutoff beyond which noise is no longer white. This study was conducted to determine the longest noise frame duration that produces the strongest masking effect and still mimics white noise on the detection of sinusoidal flicker. Contrast energy thresholds (E(th)) were measured for flicker at 1.25 to 20 Hz in strong, purely temporal (spatially uniform), additive, external noise. The masking power of white external noise, characterized by its spectral density at zero frequency N0, increases with the duration of the noise frame. For short noise frame durations, E(th) increased in direct proportion to N0, keeping the nominal signal-to-noise ratio [SNR = (E(th)/N0)(0.5)] constant at threshold. The masking effect thus increased with the duration of the noise frame and the noise mimicked white noise. When noise frame duration and N0 increased further, the nominal SNR at threshold started to decrease, indicating that noise no longer mimicked white noise. The minimum number of noise frames per flicker cycle needed to mimic white noise decreased with increasing flicker frequency from 8.3 at 1.25 Hz to 1.6 at 20 Hz. The critical high-frequency cutoff of detection-limiting temporal noise in terms of noise frames per signal cycle depends on the temporal frequency of the signal. This is opposite to the situation in the spatial domain and must be taken into consideration when temporal signals are masked with temporal noise.

  11. Low-Complexity Variable Frame Rate Analysis for Speech Recognition and Voice Activity Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    present a low-complexity and effective frame selection approach based on a posteriori signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) weighted energy distance: The use of an energy distance, instead of e.g. a standard cepstral distance, makes the approach computationally efficient and enables fine granularity search......Frame based speech processing inherently assumes a stationary behavior of speech signals in a short period of time. Over a long time, the characteristics of the signals can change significantly and frames are not equally important, underscoring the need for frame selection. In this paper, we......, and the use of a posteriori SNR weighting emphasizes the reliable regions in noisy speech signals. It is experimentally found that the approach is able to assign a higher frame rate to fast changing events such as consonants, a lower frame rate to steady regions like vowels and no frames to silence, even...

  12. Evaluation of a pharmacogenetic-based warfarin dosing algorithm in patients with low time in therapeutic range - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcatto, Leiliane Rodrigues; Sacilotto, Luciana; Bueno, Carolina Tosin; Facin, Mirella; Strunz, Celia Maria Cassaro; Darrieux, Francisco Carlos Costa; Scanavacca, Maurício Ibrahim; Krieger, Jose Eduardo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Santos, Paulo Caleb Junior Lima

    2016-11-17

    Time in therapeutic range (TTR) is a measurement of quality of warfarin therapy and lower TTR values (algorithm specifically calibrated for a Brazilian patient sample. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the impact of a genetic-based algorithm, compared to traditional anticoagulation, in the time to achieve the therapeutic target and in TTR percentage; and to assess the cost-effectiveness of genotype-guided warfarin dosing in a specific cohort of patients with low TTR (algorithm will be used. At the second, third, fourth and fifth consultations (with an interval of 7 days each) INR will be measured and, if necessary, the dose will be adjusted based on guidelines. Afterwards, patients who are INR stable will begin measuring their INR in 30 day intervals; if the patient's INR is not stable, the patient will return in 7 days for a new measurement of the INR. Outcomes measures will include the time to achieve the therapeutic target and the percentage of TTR at 4 and 12 weeks. In addition, as a secondary end-point, pharmacoeconomic analysis will be carried out. Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Committee for Medical Research on Human Beings of the Clinical Hospital of the University of São Paulo Medical School. This randomized study will include patients with low TTR and it will evaluate whether a population-specific genetic algorithm might be more effective than traditional anticoagulation for a selected group of poorly anticoagulated patients. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02592980 . Registered on 29 October 2015.

  13. Characterization of Oblique Dual Frame Pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Eldar, Yonina

    2006-01-01

    Given a frame for a subspace W of a Hilbert space H, we consider all possible families of oblique dual frame vectors on an appropriately chosen subspace V. In place of the standard description, which involves computing the pseudoinverse of the frame operator, we develop an alternative characteriz...... for the case of shift-invariant spaces with a single generator. The theory is also adapted to the standard frame setting in which the original and dual frames are defined on the same space. Copyright (C) 2006 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.......Given a frame for a subspace W of a Hilbert space H, we consider all possible families of oblique dual frame vectors on an appropriately chosen subspace V. In place of the standard description, which involves computing the pseudoinverse of the frame operator, we develop an alternative...

  14. Mercury's Reference Frames After the MESSENGER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, A.; Oberst, J.; Preusker, F.; Burmeister, S.; Steinbrügge, G.; Hussmann, H.

    2018-05-01

    We provide an overview of Mercury's reference frames based on MESSENGER observations. We discuss the dynamical, the principal-axes, the ellipsoid, as well as the cartographic frame, which was adopted for MESSENGER data products.

  15. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N. J.

    2014-02-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate constants. Modeling and physiological parameter estimation can be made more robust by consistent and reproducible injections through automation. An injection system previously developed by us was limited in the injectable volume to between 0.6 and 2.4 ml and injection was delayed due to a required syringe filling step. An improved MR-compatible injector system has been developed that measures the pH of injected substrate, uses flow control to reduce dead volume within the injection cannula and can be operated over a larger volume range. The delay time to injection has been minimized by removing the syringe filling step by use of a peristaltic pump. For 100 μl to 10.000 ml, the volume range typically used for mice to rabbits, the average delivered volume was 97.8% of the demand volume. The standard deviation of delivered volumes was 7 μl for 100 μl and 20 μl for 10.000 ml demand volumes (mean S.D. was 9 ul in this range). In three repeat injections through a fixed 0.96 mm O.D. tube the coefficient of variation for the area under the curve was 2%. For in vivo injections of hyperpolarized pyruvate in tumor-bearing rats, signal was first detected in the input femoral vein cannula at 3-4 s post-injection trigger signal and at 9-12 s in tumor tissue. The pH of the injected pyruvate was 7.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± S.D., n = 10). For small injection volumes, e.g. less than 100 μl, the internal diameter of the tubing contained within the peristaltic pump could be reduced to improve accuracy. Larger injection volumes are limited only by the size of the receiving vessel connected to the pump.

  16. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  17. Framing, intentions, and trust-choice incompatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keren, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper examines how framing of messages and the intentions inferred from different—positive vs. negative—framings, interact with the development of trust. Empirical evidence is presented showing that different, logically equivalent, frames are supposedly interpreted as implying different

  18. Inertial reference frames and gravitational forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santavy, I.

    1981-01-01

    The connection between different definitions of inertial, i.e. fundamental, reference frames and the corresponding characterisation of gravitational fields by gravitational forces are considered from the point of view of their possible interpretation in university introductory courses. The introduction of a special class of reference frames, denoted 'mixed reference frames' is proposed and discussed. (author)

  19. Computable Frames in Computable Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Kaushik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop some parts of the frame theory in Banach spaces from the point of view of Computable Analysis. We define computable M-basis and use it to construct a computable Banach space of scalar valued sequences. Computable Xd frames and computable Banach frames are also defined and computable versions of sufficient conditions for their existence are obtained.

  20. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…