WorldWideScience

Sample records for range sustainable transportation

  1. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  2. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  3. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  4. Transport and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Ph.D. study of the scope for sustainable transport in Denmark, and particularly of the role of the motor vehicle in this context. The distribution of groceries is used as case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark, concluding that this has resulted in increases of the transport...

  5. Benchmarking and Sustainable Transport Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Wyatt, Andrew; Gordon, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Order to learn from the best. In 2000 the European Commission initiated research to explore benchmarking as a tool to promote policies for ‘sustainable transport’. This paper reports findings and recommendations on how to address this challenge. The findings suggest that benchmarking is a valuable......’ evokes a broad range of concerns that are hard to address fully at the level of specific practices. Thirdly policies are not directly comparable across space and context. For these reasons attempting to benchmark ‘sustainable transport policies’ against one another would be a highly complex task, which...

  6. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    to support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One...... way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the socalled Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent......, Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts...

  7. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  8. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  9. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths......Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...

  10. Sustainable Transport Data Collection and Application: China Urban Transport Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport policy making process of national and local governments should be supported by a comprehensive database to ensure a sustainable and healthy development of urban transport. China Urban Transport Database (CUTD has been built to play such a role. This paper is to make an introduction of CUTD framework including user management, data warehouse, and application modules. Considering the urban transport development features of Chinese cities, sustainable urban transport development indicators are proposed to evaluate the public transport service level in Chinese cities. International urban transport knowledge base is developed as well. CUTD has been applied in urban transport data processing, urban transport management, and urban transport performance evaluation in national and local transport research agencies, operators, and governments in China, and it will be applied to a broader range of fields.

  11. Sustainable transport studies in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    This book aims to provide a good understanding of and perspective on sustainable transport in Asia by focusing on economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It is widely acknowledged that the current situation and trends in transport are not always sustainable in Asia, due in part to the fast-growing economy and the astounding speed of urbanization as well as least-mature governance. As essential research material, the book provides strong support for policy makers and planners by comprehensively covering three groups of strategies, characterized by the words “avoid” (e.g., urban form design and control of car ownership), “shift” (e.g., establishing comprehensive transportation systems and increasing public transportation systems for both intracity and intercity travel), and “improve” (e.g., redesign of paratransit system, low-emission vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, and eco-life). These are elaborated in the book alongside consideration of the uncertainty of policy effects ...

  12. Biofuels for sustainable transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, S.

    2000-05-23

    Biomass is an attractive energy source, and transportation fuels made from biomass offer a number of benefits. Developing the technology to produce and use biofuels will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, biocrude, and methane.

  13. Innovations for sustainable public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrelja, Robert; Hansson, Lisa; Richardson, Tim

    The aim of the project has been to analyse institutional and planning conditions for public transport in the Scandinavian countries from a comparative perspective, looking at the county of Skåne (Sweden) and the municipalities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Trondheim (Norway). The report considers...... qualitative case- studies of public transport in Skåne, Aarhus, and Trondheim, and uses an empirical material consisting of written material and interviews. It concludes that: (i) new forms of coordination between organizations and policy areas are called for in a number of critical areas, if public transport...... is to contribute effectively to the development of an efficient and sustainable transport system (for example, forms for the coordination of public transport, land use, and infrastructure planning); (ii) public transport must not be seen as an end in itself, or as merely a technical transport system; (iii...

  14. Social change and sustainable transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijst, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Black and Nijkamp deserve our thanks and our compliments for their efforts in stimulating researchers from so many different disciplines on both sides of the Atlantic to write papers on the various subjects related to the social dimension of sustainable transport. Although social issues are not

  15. Urban structure and sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane

    This PhD study explores the relationship between urban structure and travel behaviour and the role of urban planning in promoting more sustainable travel patterns. The study conceptualises the role of urban planning by means of a multiple-case study of the three medium-sized Northern European...... of compensatory leisure travel. Consequently, urban planning can optimise urban structure and cooperate in transport planning, but structural adaptations of travel behaviour require also the involvement of higher tiers of policymaking....

  16. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Laysan Albatrosses , and the recovery of a shoreline/littoral zone when human traffic is limited to security vehicles and personnel. This range...Requirements Module (ARRM) and feed the Installation Status C-8 July 2007 2007 SUSTAINABLE RANGES REPORT Report-Natural Infrastructure (see

  17. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    research, climate research, tsunami warning/ verification, and seismic /earthquake monitoring. The littoral nature of Navy training ranges and the unique...Mountainside Village) and 2 (Hillside Tunnels ) of four-phase urban training complex plan. Ongoing Progress continuing into 2014. 252014 Sustainable

  18. Accessibility as indicator in sustainable transport planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Currently efforts are made in many countries to develop transport planning in a more sustainable direction. In the international research project SUSTAIN national sustainable transport planning is developed in a research programme over four years from 2012 to 206. One of the important indicators...

  19. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Services (IGI&S) data proponency, Common Installation Picture, and Quality Assurance Plans ( QAPs ). Based on this guidance, all Army installations are...Sustainable Ranges Report July 2011 Support Center are defined in each layer’s geospatial data QAP . QAPs provide the definition, information about the...requirements for each of the data layers. QAPs are living documents and are maintained by the HQDA proponent with input from the installation data

  20. Planning and evaluation of sustainability in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Introduction and general approaches 2. Brief overview ofsome projects related to sustainability 3. Examples from research – Decision analysis and support – Policy Influence of indic ators – National Sustainable Transport Planning 4. Some perspectives......Introduction and general approaches 2. Brief overview ofsome projects related to sustainability 3. Examples from research – Decision analysis and support – Policy Influence of indic ators – National Sustainable Transport Planning 4. Some perspectives...

  1. Sustainable transportation for tourism : indicators and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The overall project goal of guiding planning and management of transportation to serve the needs of : sustainable tourism focused on three tourism-related transportation contexts. The first context was : selected types of roads important to tourism i...

  2. Sustainable transportation for tourism : green certification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The overall project goal of guiding planning and management of transportation to serve the needs of : sustainable tourism focused on three tourism-related transportation contexts. The first context was : selected types of roads important to tourism i...

  3. Framework for Sustainability Assessment by Transportation Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramani, Tara Lakshmi; Zietsman, Josias; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    promotes the consideration of transportation from a holistic sustainable development perspective. The framework defines broadly applicable transportation goals that can be broken down into a menu of objectives and performance measures to cover various transportation contexts. The framework is also designed...... transportation agencies with the tools required to understand what sustainability means and incorporate sustainability into the organizational culture. This approach and method can also help agencies lay the groundwork for the use of performance measures so the agencies can progress toward sustainability goals...... and outcomes. The framework development process was an extension of findings from literature review, case studies, and interviews conducted as part of ongoing research under the NCHRP project Sustainability Performance Measures for State Departments of Transportation and Other Transportation Agencies...

  4. Sustainable Transportation - Indicators, Frameworks, and Performance Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Hall, Ralph P.; Marsden, Greg

    This textbook provides an introduction to the concept of sustainability in the context of transportation planning, management, and decision-making. The book is divided into two parts. In the first part, indicators and frameworks for measuring sustainable development in the transportation sector...... are developed. In the second, the authors analyze actual planning and decision-making in transportation agencies in a variety of governance settings. This analysis of real-world case studies demonstrates the benefits and limitations of current approaches to sustainable development in transportation. The book...

  5. Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for any meaningful development in a given society and to a large extent, its success greatly depends on effective implementation of appropriate administrative machinery. The study examined roles and responsibilities of transport administrators in ...

  6. Integrated transport strategies for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Replogle, M. [Environmental Defense Fund Transportation Project, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Metropolitan transportation and land development patterns in most of the world are growing increasingly unsustainable. Many factors point to the need for adoption of a new paradigm for sustainable transportation and community development in both high and low income countries: overpopulation, growing air pollution, limited physical and economic capacity to expand automobile-based transportation systems without community destruction, growing inequality in the distribution of resources, and the urgent need to limit global CO{sub 2} emissions to slow the place of global warming. This paper discusses the new paradigm for integrated and sustainable transport strategies. (author) 9 refs.

  7. Sustainable consumption in the area of transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Branza Gratiela

    2013-01-01

    In the context in which sustainable development is one of the key objectives of the European Union, the need to develop and evolve towards more sustainable consumption and production patterns is a priority. Due to the fact that in the European Union and in the world the consumption sector related to food, housing and transport represents between 70% to 80% of all environmental impacts, promoting sustainable consumption is extremely important to limit negative environmental and social external...

  8. The road to sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Jo

    2017-07-01

    Since most modes of transportation rely on liquid energy carriers like gasoline or diesel, the approaching end of the fossil fuel era poses a special challenge. One should bear in mind that nothing matches the energy density of liquid fuels. It is, therefore, important to consider the efficiency of various modes of transportation and explore alternative options for energy carriers. This includes a feasibility study of the use of solar energy in transportation. In this perspective various modes of transportation are briefly reviewed and the possible alternative energy carriers assessed.

  9. Sustainable Low Carbon Transport Scenarios for India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash; Mittal, Shivika

    2014-01-01

    are delineated that would facilitate the sustainable low carbon transformation of India’s transport sector. The long term energy and emission trajectory of India’s transport sector is assessed under alternate scenarios using the integrated assessment modelling framework. Co-benefits like energy security...

  10. Building a Metaframework for Sustainable Transport Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers presented at TRB and elsewhere seek to make sustainability manageable by suggesting indicators and performance measures as key tools to help conceptualize and operationalize sustainability for various levels of transportation-related planning and decision-making. These studies...... often prescribe frameworks that will allow sustainability indicators and measures to be selected and included in, for example, agency strategies and practices. Moreover, some suggest criteria for selection of individual indicators and performance measures. The studies do however not always agree on what...... to guide the framing of indicators for sustainable transportation. The meta-framework is primarily intended as a basis for undertaking empirical analysis and evaluation of actual existing practice frameworks with regards to how strong a support for sustainability they are likely to provide. The approach...

  11. Building a Metaframework for Sustainable Transport Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers presented at the annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., and elsewhere have reported on efforts to make sustainability manageable. To this end, the papers suggested the use of indicators and performance measures to help conceptualize...... of individual indicators and performance measures. The studies, however, did not always agree on the definition of a framework or how to use one to make sustainability-based decisions, and they tended to differ on underscored aspects and concerns. The current study addressed the issue of frameworks more...... and operationalize sustainability for transportation-related planning and decision making. Often these studies presented frameworks that would allow sustainability indicators and measures to be included in, for example, agency strategies and practices. Moreover, some papers suggested criteria for the selection...

  12. Sustainable transportation initiatives in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J. [ed.

    2000-03-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to share experiences of sustainable transport practices from invited medium-sized cities in Latin America and Asia. The purpose was to learn how sustainable mechanisms have been incorporated into national planning and implementation systems. Emphasis was given to understand what concrete mechanism work to promote sustainable transport in the selected projects. The workshop included participation of transport economics and engineers, policy makers and policy-advisors, and key representatives from the transportation government and non-governmental sector in El Salvador. Among participants there were also members from academia, private consultants and international NGOs. The workshop provided a basis for outreach in terms of directly informing participants on the specific experiences brought in by the participating countries. The Workshop set out to address the following main objectives: To demonstrate successful examples of transportation initiatives that show positive sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits in selected developing countries; To provide a forum for discussion of sustainable transport paths; To develop a network for information exchange and capacity building; To gather information on concrete mechanisms to promote sustainable transportation; To demonstrate efficient mechanisms and tools for collection and analysis of data in transport; To create an inventory of success stories and alternative visions for the future. Several institutions collaborated in organising the event: the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG-Sri Lanka), The Peace and Development Research Group from Goeteborg University and institutions within El Salvador: Centro Salvadeoreno de Tecnologia Apropiada (CESTA), and the Climate Change Communication office of the Ministry of Environment in Salvador. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop in San Salvador. The agenda

  13. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Air Facility Quantico in FY2008. RAICUZ studies at Townsend Range, Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range, and Barry M Goldwater Range-West are on...representatives from Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah and other interested stakeholders. Part of the working group’s tactical

  14. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic Combat...range; some means of facilitating IO play but no organic capability. NTTR continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service to deploy at UOC ...no organic capability. Continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the UOC . Collective Ranges Information

  15. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    no organic capability. HQ NTTR continues to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ...NTTR continues to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic... UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic Combat Support h The range lacks a complete electronic target set. EA platforms do not get real-time feedback on their

  16. In search of sustainable transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, P.; Vleugel, J.

    1995-12-31

    Several options can be envisaged in order to alleviate the external costs of modern transport systems: moral conviction, strict regulations (including enforcement), user charge principles (e.g. road pricing, Pigovian taxation), sophisticated environment-friendly technologies (e.g. route guidance, zero-emission cars) and alternative modes of physical planning (e.g. compact city design). Any reduction target in environmental stress has to be assessed from both an environmental sustainability viewpoint and from a cost effectiveness viewpoint. Such an assessment may be based on evaluation criteria that are internal to the transport system or on criteria that mirror an overall systemic efficiency and sustainability. This provokes the question of the most appropriate level of reduction of environmental pollution by the transport sector compared to other economic sectors. A policy strategy aiming at a more sustainable transport system has to identify quantitative criteria which would offer guidelines on the maximum allowable contribution to environmental degradation by the transport sector. This presupposes knowledge on the total permissible pollution in a given area and in a given time frame, as well as knowledge on the share of the transport system in this total volume of pollution (for different pollutants). The aim of this paper is to develop some thoughts on the question of identifying the maximum allowable pollution share by the transport sector, assuming a critical level of maximum resource use, a maximum carrying capacity, a maximum environmental utilisation space, a maximum sustainable yield or some other critical threshold level for environmental decay. The notion of maximum environmental capacity use (MECU) is used to indicate the maximum resource use of a given environmental capital stock that - in a given time period - is compatible with both socio-economic objectives and environmental quality conditions now and in the future. 6 tabs., 24 refs.

  17. National sustainable transport planning - concepts and practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    the concept of ‘national sustainable transport planning’. This is done via selected literature within this and associated areas. A definition is provided and it is suggested that three interlinked dimensions are of importance for transitions, thus a normative, an analytic and a governance dimension...

  18. Transportation Research – Safety and Sustainability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transportation Research – Safety and Sustainability. FOREWORD. Most large cities in the world are already located in low and middle income countries and many more cities in these countries are expected to have populations of ten million or more in the next few decades. All these cities are faced with serious problems of ...

  19. New governance principles for sustainable urban transport

    OpenAIRE

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R.; Nijkamp, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper positions the communications and transport in the centre of a rejuvenation policy for a sustainable urban habitat, taking for granted the success of urban govemance will depend on the professionality of local/regional policy-making govemed by sound principles from business practice in corporate organizations.

  20. Transportation Sustainability on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to show the present level of sustainable transportation, mainly walking and bicycling, on a large campus in the US Midwest and then analyzes some of the opportunities and impediments in increasing the modal share. Design/methodology/approach: Three types of analysis are used. First, current level of walking and bicycling…

  1. Achiving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Michael; Schulze, Sven; Leschus, Leon [Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI), Hamburg (Germany); Perschon, Juergen; Hertel, Christof; Field, Simon; Foletta, Nicole [European Institute for Sustainable Transport (EURIST), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainable transport is an urging issue on a few accounts: The transport sector was responsible for 23% global CO{sub 2} emission in 2007. It also has a number of other effects like air and noise pollution, land use etc. These effects are especially relevant in cities, where already half of the world's population is living today. With a growing world population and ongoing urbanisation the number and share of city dwellers will rise considerably in the next decades. Thus, sustainability in urban transport becomes increasingly important. This report first provides a short overview of the most important data behind the sustainability problems in urban transport. Then the question is addressed, what sustainable mobility is and where the main obstacles are on the path to more sustainability. The central part of the study deals with the most important policies and instruments enhancing sustainable (urban) mobility. The main feature of each section within that part of the study is the combination of theoretical background information and arguments with case studies from developing and transition countries. Accordingly, the reader gets an idea of the vast range of available instruments in order to promote sustainable mobility. But it is also shown that it is not only necessary but also possible to introduce or enhance sustainable urban transport regardless of the income position of the specific region, country or city. Besides, success factors for different instruments are identified, thereby deriving promising routes for countries or a group of countries according to their state of economic development. (orig.)

  2. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    research, tsunami warning/verification, and seismic / earthquake monitoring. The littoral nature of Navy training ranges and the unique types of...training. `` Completed Phases 1 (Mountainside Village) and 2 (Hillside Tunnels ) of four-phase urban training complex plan. Ongoing Progress

  3. EST! environmentally sustainable transport issue paper : soft measures and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to help guide and even provoke discussion at the workshop to be held in Berlin on 5-6 December, 2002, entitled Communicating Environmentally Sustainable Transport-The roles of soft measures in achieving EST. It's easier ...

  4. Sustainable Transport in Romania vs. European Union. Analysis of Road Transport System from the Sustainable Transport Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitan Andrei - Florin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a term used more often lately, based on three factors: social, economic, and environmental. Sustainable transport systems increase social cohesion, reduce environmental problems and help create a more efficient economy. Sustainable transport consists in a complex system that is designed to ensure mobility needs of present generations without damaging the environment and health factors. By improving energy and material consumption, it must be capable to satisfy in optimum conditions the need for mobility for future generations. The current transportation system has not a character of sustainability.

  5. Modelling Transition Towards Sustainable Transportation Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson

    2016-01-01

    In a transition towards 100% renewable energy system, transportation sector is rarely dealt withusing the holistic approach and measuring its impact on the whole energy system. Furthermore, assolutions for power and heat sectors are clearer, it is a tendency of the researchers to focus on thelatter...... two energy sectors. In order to deal with the raised issue, authors of this paper developed amethodology for calculation of the transition towards sustainable transport sector, focusing on thesolutions that are already available. Furthermore, as a part of the model, a detailed mapping ofresources...... needed has been carried out for each of the alternatives. It was shown that theelectrification of the transportation sector is a crucial point in transition, while for the transportmodes that cannot be electrified, or shifted to different transportation modes, four alternatives weredefined: synthetic...

  6. Sustainable Transport Systems: Linkages Between Environmental Issues, Public Transport, Non-Motorized Transport And Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    A sustainable transport system must provide mobility and accessibility to all urban residents in a safe and end environmentally friendly mode of transport. This is a complex and difficult task when the needs and demands of people belonging to differe...

  7. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  8. Urban sustainable mobility. Part 1: Rationality in transport planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando CARTENÌ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the transport sector is in the range of 20%-40% in terms of consumption of fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases and particulate matter. In this context, policies aimed at reducing these effects are very important. Many urban areas are trying to adopt planning strategies aimed to a sustainable use of resources often referred to as sustainable mobility. These policies are very different in terms of costs and expected benefits, and the effects of these policies and their combinations are difficult to anticipate on a purely intuitive basis and sometimes the end effect could be contrary to intuitive expectations (e.g. policies aimed to reduce pollution, ending up in increasing it. In this context, the concept of eco-rational planning assumes a central role. This means identifying the right mixture of interventions to be implemented on the transport system that is: rational for the transport system (e.g. reduction in terms of congestion, traffic accidents, travel time and sustainable for people’s health and for the environmental (e.g. emissions reduction and requires minimal economic resources (e.g. lower monetary cost per unit of CO2 saved. The paper discusses the importance of rational decisions in transport planning.

  9. Indicators and beyond: Assessing the sustainability of transport projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    that bridge the techno-rationalist//instrumental approach of conventional impact assessment tools with a wider communicative planning rationality. This is needed because of the complex, dynamic and interdependent nature of transport planning and decision-making. Methods This thesis draws from multiple....... There is therefore a general need to improve processes, methods and tools applied in transport infrastructure decision making so as to make them more resonant to the needs of both current and future generations corresponding to the fundamental definition of sustainable development. The core focus of the thesis...... is on how to ensure project impacts in terms of sustainability are identified and become inputs to decision making. The benefits of increased mobility based on speed and capacity are significant and visible, creating a wide range of reachable activities for a great number of people. Negative externalities...

  10. Evaluation of issues around road materials for sustainable transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to a number of other factors (social, economic, etc) sustainable transport requires the sustainable supply and use of construction materials. This includes the use of marginal materials, waste materials, novel / innovative materials...

  11. Using Performance Indicators to Promote Sustainable Transport in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke; Cornet, Yannick

    The challenges associated with using performance measurement to steer transport policy towards sustainability include general aspects of measuring sustainability of transport systems with indicators as well as specific national and institutional conditions for adopting and responding...... to the information produced by such sustainability indicator systems. Japan is interesting in these regards, since the country has adopted strategies for achieving a more sustainable transport situation, as well as frameworks of policy performance measurement and management. The paper will describe a general...... framework for reviewing sustainable transport policy performance measurement and will apply it to Japanese transport policy, with a focus on two specific cases. The framework is based in current scholarly literature on performance indicators to support sustainable transport policy and more general...

  12. Analysis and Relevant Policy Research for Transport Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Guoli; Zhao, Zhao

    2003-01-01

    While it is an inevitable request of social economic development to establish a sustainable transport system, current transport developmental mode has a lot of contradictions with the sustainable principle. Transport is an industry with obvious externalities. Consequently, its negative influence on the development of economy and society will be more and more remarkable if we make no adjustment of the current system. This paper discussed the influence and function of establishing a sustainable...

  13. Building better understanding of sustainability and freight transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Public information on sustainability and freight transportation is difficult to find outside of technical research journals. Even among college curricula, the freight sector is often overlooked as a major transportation and environmental issue. To fi...

  14. Long-range spin transport in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Detlef; Wolf, Michael J. [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Huebler, Florian [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Recently, there has been some controversy about spin-polarized quasiparticle transport and relaxation in superconductors, with reports of both anomalously short or anomalously long relaxation times as compared to the normal state. Here, we report on non-local transport in multiterminal superconductor-ferromagnet structures. We find signatures of spin transport over distances much larger than the normal-state spin-diffusion length in the presence of a large Zeeman splitting of the quasiparticle states. The relaxation length shows a nearly linear increase with magnetic field, hinting at a freeze-out of spin relaxation by the Zeeman splitting.

  15. Sustainable Approaches for Surface Transportation Mortality in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines sustainable approach for surface transportation road mortality in Nigeria. Road transportation as a major mode of transportation and is the most used mode of transportation for the movement of people, goods and services from one place to another. As a result of this, major obstacles and problems have ...

  16. The dynamics of local processes towards environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    1999-01-01

    The paper explores and discusses the dynamics of local leading towards the creation of an environmentally sustainable transport system. processes......The paper explores and discusses the dynamics of local leading towards the creation of an environmentally sustainable transport system. processes...

  17. The YES2 Experience : Towards Sustainable Space Transportation using Tethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heide, E.J.; Kruijff, M.; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Today there is no common vision on sustainable space transportation. Rockets expel gasses and solid rockets often small particles. These have negative effect on the environment, but it is not understood to what extent. With ever growing demand for access to space, sustainable technology developments

  18. Sustainable transport in a compact city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Sytze A.; Nijkamp, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Transport policies in many countries seek to achieve a modal shift from the private car to public transport, in order to reduce environmental externalities like (local) air pollution, stench and visual annoyance, congestion etc. At the same time, the relationship between the spatial organisation and

  19. Project on environmentally sustainable transport (EST) : the economic and social implications of sustainable transportation : proceedings from the Ottawa workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that current transport systems are not environmentally, and, consequently, not socially or economically, sustainable over the long term. A new policy approach is needed that gives prominence to environmental criteria along wi...

  20. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes collaborative transportation into consideration. The model includes fixed cost, variable cost, berth cost, transport cost, penalty, compensation cost, and so on. To achieve the sustainable development of collaborative transportation, the shipping companies could make a selection between the internal routes and the external routes to serve each task by comparing the distance between the above routes. A real Asia-Europe-Oceania numerical experiment shows that the proposed sustainable collaborative transportation model can be efficiently solved by C++ calling ILOG CPLEX. Results demonstrate that the optimized shipping line network with sustainable collaborative transportation can improve the service efficiency, as well as the service level of shipping companies.

  1. Bicycles, transportation sustainability, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this report focuses on the exploration of a variety of objective and subjective quality of life indicators and approaches for bicycle transportation using a mixed methods approach. The authors have created a conceptual frame...

  2. Sustainable national transport planning: Managing multiple objectives and criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    useful for the handling and assessment of multiple, often conflicting objectives or criteria like environmental or social issues intrinsically difficult to quantify. Therefore, it is necessary to broaden the assessment and the decision making process beyond merely economic factors. The research project......-based software model. The latter employs the use of CBA, multi-criteria decision analysis and risk analysis techniques enabling the assessment of non-quantifiable impacts within a decision support context. The concept of a decision conference is introduced as relevant for dealing with the strategic elements...... on Sustainable National Transport Planning (SUSTAIN) seeks, among other things, to develop a flexible decision-support model to assess the sustainability of transport projects and policies, the SUSTAIN framework model. The SUSTAIN framework model consists of two parts, namely decision conferences and an Excel...

  3. Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World: Beyond Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Pojani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megacities have frequently received a disproportionate amount of attention over other sizes of cities in recent discourse on urban sustainability. In this article, the authors argue that a focus on smaller and medium-sized cities is crucial to achieving substantial progress towards more sustainable urban development, not only because they are home to at least a quarter of the world’s population but because they also offer great potential for sustainable transformations. In principle, their size allows for flexibility in terms of urban expansion, adoption of “green” travel modes, and environmental protection. At the same time, smaller and medium-sized cities often have fewer resources to implement new transport measures and can be more vulnerable to fluctuations in the world economy. This article critically reviews the potential role and impact of nine commonly considered options for sustainable urban transport in cities in developing countries: (1 road infrastructure; (2 rail-based public transport; (3 road-based public transport; (4 support for non-motorized travel modes; (5 technological solutions; (6 awareness-raising campaigns; (7 pricing mechanisms; (8 vehicle access restrictions; and (9 control of land-uses. Drawing on international research and examples of policies to reduce the environmental impacts of transport in urban areas, this article identifies some key lessons for sustainable urban transport in smaller and medium-sized cities in developing countries. These lessons are certainly not always identical to those for megacities in the global south.

  4. Sustainable transport project evaluation and decision support: indicators and planning criteria for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Pryn, Marie Ridley

    2015-01-01

    is adopted. The SUSTAIN-DSS model rests upon multi-criteria decision analysis and planning workshops in order to combine the use of qualitative and quantitative assessments. This article stresses the necessity of revising current planning paradigms such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA) but also to make clear......This article will expose the necessity for a sustainable planning and decision support framework for transport infrastructure assessment. This will be operationalized through a set of planning criteria and scenario alternatives, which is assessed in the SUSTAIN decision support system (SUSTAIN...... risk analysis as well as sustainable planning criteria in the assessment of the project uncovering new solutions. Thereof the decision support model reveals large potential for the inclusion of planning criteria if the overall objective of development toward a sustainable transportation system...

  5. Sustainable transport practices in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogat, J.; Hinostroza, M. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The rapid growth of Latin American cities beginning in the 70s has led to, among other things, growing mobility and demand for transportation. The lack of efficient, reliable and safe public transport systems has promoted the switch away from buses and trains towards private cars. Some of the impacts of a steadily increasing car fleet have been increased congestion, number of accidents and environmental deterioration. Recognising the potential implications of such a development, policy makers and officials found it necessary and went ahead to reformulate transport policies with the aim of providing safe, cost-effective and environmental-friendly public transport systems. Bus rapid transit (BRT) became the answer in a number of Latin American cities. The successful experiences of Curitiba in Brazil and Bogota in Colombia have served as the source of inspiration for other cities in Latin America, Asia, Europe and the USA. Thus, the BRT represents a unique example of South-South, South-North technology transfer. This paper presents some of the Latin American experiences and discusses their achievement and drawbacks. (au)

  6. Sustainable Transportation Program 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, Kathi H [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    Highlights of selected research and development efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory funded by the Vehicle Technologies Program, Biomass Program, and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program of the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; and the Department of Transportation.

  7. Energy policies for low carbon sustainable transport in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2015-01-01

    equivalent to 2 °C stabilization. Accounting for heterogeneity of national transport systems, these papers use diverse methods, frameworks and models to assess the response of the transport system to environmental policy, such as a carbon tax, as well as to a cluster of policies aimed at diverse development......Transformation of Asia's transport sector has vital implications for climate change, sustainable development and energy indicators. Papers in this special issue show how transport transitions in Asia may play out in different socio-economic and policy scenarios, including a low carbon scenario...... indicators. The analysis shows that CO2 mitigation in a transport system is achieved more effectively by aligning mitigation policies with sustainable development policies and measures such as mandates for mode share and choices such as urban design, information and communication systems, and behavioral...

  8. Sustainability assessment for the transportation environment of Darjeeling, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Dipanjan; Paul, Subrata Kr; Saha, Swati; Goswami, Arkopal K

    2018-02-02

    Darjeeling is an important tourist hill town of West Bengal, India. It suffers from an acute problem of transportation, particularly during its peak tourist seasons due to limited road space, inadequate public transport facilities and indiscriminate use of automobiles. This hill town was originally designed for a population of 10,000, but over the years, it has come face-to-face with rapid urbanization, a rising population of both tourists and residents and intensifying motor vehicle usage. These factors together are posing a threat to its transport environment. This study identifies the Sustainable Transport Indicators (STIs) available in the existing literature to identify the critical stretches using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based on experts' consensus. It was found that the experts placed emphasis on the mobility of the town, talking about vehicular impact on air pollution and encroachment of roads as the main issues affecting the sustainability of the transport environment. Thereafter, policy-level interventions have been suggested in accordance with the identified sustainability issues. We trust that other tourist hill towns with issues similar to Darjeeling could easily emulate the study methodology to assess their transport environment sustainability, or replicate on the lines of the recommended policy interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beyond sustainable transport. Electric car features and services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, P.; Pirhonen, V.; Giesecke, R. [Aalto Univ. School of Science, Espoo (Finland). BIT Research Centre

    2011-07-01

    The overall aim of the Finnish SIMBe project (www.SIMBe.fi) is to significantly accelerate the introduction of sustainable electric mobility in Finland. SIMBe stands for Smart Infrastructures for Electric Mobility in Built Environments. The fundamental assumption of the project is that electric (e-) mobility is inherently more sustainable than mobility based on fossil fuels. However, as has been widely recognized in the e-mobility field, the currently used batteries are expensive, often more expensive than the rest of the particular electric vehicle (EV) that they propel. There are two opposite schools of thought how to address this problem, which can be summarized as follows: a) Leave the battery in peace, as it is precious. Use it only to propel the EV of which it is an integral part. Use it instead of fuel, and do not use it for any other applications. The EV's sole purpose is that of a transportation device. b) Make as much use of the battery as possible, as it is precious. Involve vehicle to grid (V2G) or vehicle to house charging. Additionally, invent new features, meanings and services for the battery driven EV, which go distinctively beyond transport. The SIMBe project decided to opt for school (b), based on the smart energy production and distribution scenario, in which electric and hybrid vehicles' batteries will deliver energy on demand to the grid. SIMBe aims to prepare key Finnish industrial players and consumers for the transition to this new energy-transportation paradigm. But how can we replace the conservative understanding of the 'transport only' school by a holistic view of what features, meanings and services are actually possible by using a large scale fleet of 'batteries on wheels'? The Nordic Climate Festival (at) Aalto provided the unique opportunity to tap into the knowledge and creativity of students within the Nordic countries. Being properly prepared and facilitated, a workshop may provide some insights and

  10. Indicators in the governance of sustainable transport policies in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke

    The paper addresses the role of indicators to promote transitions towards a more sustainable transportation future in Japan. Existing international literature suggests a potential key role for performance measurement and indicator systems to strengthen such policies. The research explores to what...... extent governance frameworks associated with ‘new public management’ reforms in Japan also provide an enhanced basis to promote sustainability within transportation. A framework is derived based on the assumption that the effectiveness of such frameworks in this regard depends on the way sustainability...... evaluation framework for the road sector used by the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). The second is the so-called ‘Eco-model’ cities program, also undertaken by the MLIT, using the case of Toyama City for illustration. In each case the approach to performance...

  11. Indicators: reliable signposts on the road to sustainable transportation. The partnership for sustainable urban transport in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Lee; Ng, Wei-Shiuen [EMBARQ - The World Resources Inst. Center for Transport and the Environment, Washington, DC (United States); Huizenga, Cornelius [Clean Air Initiative, Manila (Philippines)

    2005-07-01

    Is transportation getting more sustainable? If not, would we know what to do? This paper defines sustainable transport and describes indicators of sustainable transport, which measure the environment impacts of transport (including green-house gas emissions), the financial health of the system, safety, and access. Indicators are particularly important for developing countries because congestion, safety, air pollution, and the economic health of transport providers are usually poor. Illustrative examples are given from cites in the Partnership for Sustainable Urban Transport in Asia, or PSUTA . Future work will reveal the full quantitative picture of these three cities. As tools, indicators summarize trends and relationships among quantities that describe the most important activities, outputs, and side effects - both positive and negative - of transportation activity. Indicators permit diagnosis, evaluation of costs, benefits, and time frame of cures, prognosis based on the cures implemented, evaluation of progress against a base line, rebalancing of the system if goals are not being achieved, and marketing of results. Indicators also draw stakeholders into an objective discussion of each of these steps. Indicators of governance map their roles in solving problems. Indicators of sustainable passenger transport are being developed and deployed with authorities in Pune (India), Hanoi (Viet Nam), and Xi'an (China). The paper describes how authorities assess needs to determine what indicators are necessary (at what precision), mapping the gap of information required to develop indicators, bridging the gap of information and funding data and analysis, and crossing the bridge to commit to a quantitative approach to policymaking and evaluation. The paper concludes with recommendations on both the most important indicators required for the cities, and the most important policy steps required to improve transportation, focusing on emissions (including green-house gases

  12. Indicators of environmental sustainability in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? This book contains the results of an interdisciplinary group...... of cultural heritage. Finally it includes an extensive analysis and evaluation of methods to build composite indicators as well as multi-criteria methods for assessment. The authors give a state-of-the-art overview for those interested in methods to evaluate simply, accurately and efficiently the impact...

  13. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable transport” has become a headline for transport planning and policy making around the world. While there are many different definitions of what Sustainable Transport means, it commonly includes efforts to improve the environmental performance of transport systems, and to promote...... depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes......: Public bus transport in England, exemplified by Greater Manchester. England represents a situation where - compared to continental Europe including Denmark - the NPM reforms have been particularly radical. In no other European country the market forces has achieved a role as dominant as in England...

  14. Sustainable Transport Development for Accra: Critiquing Ideologies and Unraveling Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Anyetei-Anum, Dzifa

    2012-01-01

    It is questionable whether decentralization or economic liberalization policies form good foundations for good governance in a developing country. Ghana’s first National Transport Policy was drafted in 2008. A prominent theme in this policy document is ensuring sustainable development of urban public transportation, through, among other things, good governance. The document, however, is built within the contextual frameworks of Ghana’s Poverty Strategy Papers, which espouse decentralization a...

  15. Fleet renewal: An approach to achieve sustainable road transport

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlović Aleksandar V.; Papić Vladimir D.; Filipović Snežana M.; Jovanović Vojkan D.

    2011-01-01

    With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail...

  16. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2013-01-01

    Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport...... in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13...

  17. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Delgass, W. Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H2CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H2 and CO2 recycled from the H2-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H2CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is H2 storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H2CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H2 in the H2CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H2CAR is that there is no additional CO2 release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO2. PMID:17360377

  18. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    In our rapidly urbanizing world, sustainable transportation presents a major challenge. Transportation decisions have considerable direct impacts on urban society, both positive and negative, for example through changes in transit times and economic productivity, urban connectivity, tailpipe emissions and attendant air quality concerns, traffic accidents, and noise pollution. Much research has been dedicated to quantifying these direct impacts for various transportation modes. Transportation planning decisions also result in a variety of indirect environmental and human health impacts, a portion of which can accrue outside of the transit service area and so outside of the local decision-making process. Integrated modeling of direct and indirect impacts over the life cycle of different transportation modes provides decision support that is more comprehensive and less prone to triggering unintended consequences than a sole focus on direct tailpipe emissions. The recent work of Chester et al (2013) in this journal makes important contributions to this research by examining the environmental implications of introducing bus rapid transit and light rail in Los Angeles using life cycle assessment (LCA). Transport in the LA region is dominated by automobile trips, and the authors show that potential shifts to either bus or train modes would reduce energy use and emissions of criteria air pollutants, on an average passenger mile travelled basis. This work compares not just the use of each vehicle, but also upstream impacts from its manufacturing and maintenance, as well as the construction and maintenance of the entire infrastructure required for each mode. Previous work by the lead author (Chester and Horvath 2009), has shown that these non-operational sources and largely non-local can dominate life cycle impacts from transportation, again on an average (or attributional) basis, for example increasing rail-related GHG emissions by >150% over just operational emissions

  19. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  20. Energy, Transport, & the Environment Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    King, Sir

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable mobility is a highly complex problem as it is affected by the interactions between socio-economic, environmental, technological and political issues. Energy, Transport, & the Environment: Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm brings together leading figures from business, academia and governments to address the challenges and opportunities involved in working towards sustainable mobility. Key thinkers and decision makers approach topics and debates including:   ·         energy security and resource scarcity ·         greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions ·         urban planning, transport systems and their management ·         governance and finance of transformation ·         the threats of terrorism and climate change to our transport systems.   Introduced by a preface from U.S. Secretary Steven Chu and an outline by the editors, Dr Oliver Inderwildi and Sir David King, Energy, Transport, & the Environment is divided into six secti...

  1. Sustainable logistics and transportation optimization models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos

    2017-01-01

    Focused on the logistics and transportation operations within a supply chain, this book brings together the latest models, algorithms, and optimization possibilities. Logistics and transportation problems are examined within a sustainability perspective to offer a comprehensive assessment of environmental, social, ethical, and economic performance measures. Featured models, techniques, and algorithms may be used to construct policies on alternative transportation modes and technologies, green logistics, and incentives by the incorporation of environmental, economic, and social measures. Researchers, professionals, and graduate students in urban regional planning, logistics, transport systems, optimization, supply chain management, business administration, information science, mathematics, and industrial and systems engineering will find the real life and interdisciplinary issues presented in this book informative and useful.

  2. An environmentally sustainable transport system in Sweden. A scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokking, P.; Emmelin, L.; Engstroem, M-G.; Nilsson, Jan-Evert; Eriksson, Gunnar; Wikberg, O.

    1997-02-01

    This is a short version of a scenario study concerning the possibilities to reach an Environmentally Sustainable Transport system in Sweden in a perspective of 30 years. The aim of the scenario study has been to describe one of several possible paths from today`s transport system to an environmentally adopted one. However, this does not imply that the task is to predict how such a transformation can be accomplished. The aim is rather to illustrate what such transformation require in the form of political decisions. The transformation of the transport system in to an environmentally adopted one, is primarily treated as a political problem, and a political perspective has accordingly been chosen for the study. In this English version of the scenario, the carbon dioxide problem is used to illuminate the many conflicts in goals and other problem that will attend an environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, and to highlight the analytical points of departure for the scenario study. The analysis shows that it is possible to reach the national environmental goals that characterise, with given definitions, an environmentally sustainable transport system. However, this implies many severe political decisions over a long period of time, which in turn, implies a long term national consensus about the importance to reach the overall goal. Other results the scenario points out, is the risk that a policy focused on one sector leads to `solving` a problem by moving it outside systems limitations, and the limitations on a national environmental policy: Being able to count on assistance from other countries through an environmental adoption of the transport system in the European Union or globally, would drastically facilitate the environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, through, among other things, a more rapid technological development. This indicates the necessity of promoting issues involving transportation and the environment in international

  3. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Ni, Ling-lin; Shi, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%. PMID:23476142

  4. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  5. Piloting of educational material (Educational project on sustainable transportation)

    OpenAIRE

    Pírková, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Annotation: Bachelor thesis Pilot testing of educational material, describes the process of creating educational activities targeted at sustainable transport, preparation of pilot testing and subsequent evaluation of the obtained knowledge and insight of the piloting process. The theoretical part presents examples of piloting process carried out in the Czech Republic. Then the author presents a list of selected teaching methods that have been chosen to create the educational activities. And f...

  6. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Julian I; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Frommer, Wolf B; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harrison, Maria J; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Horie, Tomoaki; Kochian, Leon V; Munns, Rana; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Sanders, Dale

    2013-05-02

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land.

  7. Hypersonic Propulsion Requirements for Sustained Hypersonic Flight for Air Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Rate, J; Pesiridis, A

    2017-01-01

    n this paper the propulsion requirements required to achieve sustained hypersonic flight for commercial air transportation are evaluated. In addition, a design methodology is developed and used to determine the propulsive capabilities of both ramjet and scramjet engines. Twelve configurations are proposed for hypersonic flight using varying combinations of turbojet, turbofan, ramjet and scramjet engines. The optimal configuration was determined based on how well each of the configurations met...

  8. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  9. Energy transport in the presence of long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Debarshee

    2017-10-01

    We study energy transport in the paradigmatic Hamiltonian mean-field (HMF) model and other related long-range interacting models using molecular dynamics simulations. We show that energy diffusion in the HMF model is subdiffusive in nature, which confirms a recently obtained intriguing result that, despite being globally interacting, this model is a thermal insulator in the thermodynamic limit. Surprisingly, when additional nearest-neighbor interactions are introduced to the HMF model, an energy superdiffusion is observed. We show that these results can be consistently explained by studying energy localization due to thermally generated intrinsic localized excitation modes (discrete breathers) in nonlinear discrete systems. Our analysis for the HMF model can also be readily extended to more generic long-range interacting models where the interaction strength decays algebraically with the (shortest) distance between two lattice sites. This reconciles many of the apparently counterintuitive results presented recently [C. Olivares and C. Anteneodo, Phys. Rev. E 94, 042117 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.042117; D. Bagchi, Phys. Rev. E 95, 032102 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevE.95.032102] concerning energy transport in two such long-range interacting models.

  10. BEST Project: bioethanol for sustainable transportation; Projeto BEST: bioetanol para o transporte sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J.R.; Velazquez, S.M.S.G.; Apolinario, S.M.; Melo, E.H.; Elmadjian, P.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa

    2008-07-01

    The BEST Project BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  11. Indicators for sustainable transport policy in Denmark - why, what and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Cornet, Yannick

    in the Danish transport policy, using policy goals, sustainability indicators and performance measures. The paper represents a first step in the SUSTAIN project aiming to develop a framework for national sustainable transport planning. The paper will draw on analysis of experience with the development and use......Denmark and other countries have the ambition to move towards a sustainable transport system. However it is challenging to achieve and credibly demonstrate progress towards sustainability in transport. The paper will specify foundations for monitoring and reporting progress towards sustainability...... of sustainability indicators to report transport policy performance, in Europe, North America and other parts of the world. The experience will be connected to critical literature in the areas of sustainability theory, knowledge utilization, and implementation in order to identify challenges to overcome...

  12. Future Transportation with Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav R. Grob

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is facing fundamental change due to the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, environmental and health problems, the growing world population, rising standards of living with more individual mobility and the globalization of trade with its increasing international transport volume. To cope with these serious problems benign, renewable energy systems and much more efficient drives must be multiplied as rapidly as possible to replace the polluting combustion engines with their much too low efficiency and high fuel logistics cost. Consequently the vehicles of the future must be non-polluting and super-efficient, i.e. electric. The energy supply must come via smart grids from clean energy sources not affecting the health, climate and biosphere. It is shown how this transition to the clean, sustainable energy age is possible, feasible and why it is urgent. The important role of international ISO, IEC and ITU standards and the need for better legislation by means of the Global Energy Charter for Sustainable Development are also highlighted.

  13. Impact of public transportation market share and other transportation and environmental policy variables on sustainable transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Policies that encourage reduced travel, such as traveling shorter distances, and increased use of more efficient transportation modes, such as public transportation and high-occupancy private automobiles, are often considered one of several possible ...

  14. Criteria for Sustainable Transport Planning - what, how and why to measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    for a sustainable society. Criteria for sustainability need to be adapted to the transport system specific context and to distinct policyapplications such as problem identification, goal setting, ex ante assessment, monitoring and ex postevaluation for accountability, while maintaining a holistic overarching...... perspective.The research project SUSTAIN has the double aim to help establish National Sustainable Transport Planningas an international research topic connecting transportation engineering and governance scholars around the world, and to develop a practice framework for National Sustainable Transport...... disconnected research topics like alternative fuel systems,engine optimization, green logistics, infrastructure design, life cycle analysis, and other transport related features contribute to a system for measuring the sustainability of urban, national or global, transport systems?...

  15. Long-range transported Asian Dust and emergency ambulance dispatches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kayo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Nitta, Hiroshi; Inoue, Kenichiro

    2012-10-01

    Asian Dust (AD) particles transported from source areas contribute to sharp increases in coarse particles in Japan. We examined the association of exposure to AD events with emergency ambulance dispatches in Nagasaki city. We also examined whether AD transported at different altitude routes from source areas influenced dispatch rates. Using lidar (light detection and ranging), we determined moderate AD days (0.066/km dust extinction coefficient ≤0.105/km) and heavy AD days (0.105/km dust extinction coefficient). We applied a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to estimate the association between AD days and emergency ambulance dispatches. There were 9,070 dispatches from March to May during 2003-2007. The heavy AD events at cumulative lag0-3 were associated with an increase in emergency dispatches due to all causes by 12.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3, 22.9) and an increase for those due to cardiovascular diseases by 20.8% (95% CI: 3.5, 40.9). We categorized 31 AD days based on backward trajectory analyses into AD days with lower altitude routes and those with higher altitude routes. We observed a greater increase in emergency ambulance dispatches on AD days with lower altitude routes compared with those on AD days with higher altitude routes although the difference was not significant (p for interaction 0.49). These results have shown that exposure to high AD particle levels could increase emergency ambulance dispatches due to illnesses such as cardiovascular stress, and that AD traveling through different routes may have different health effects.

  16. The need for performance governance to reach sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    , ‘Performance governance’ is what they call the most advanced form of public performance management. In simple models a government collects only sporadic information on performance to satisfy internal reporting. In the performance governance model, performance management is systematic, continuous...... are then designed to fulfill those targets in the best way, rather than being necessarily focused on building new infrastructure projects. New links are only built if they are better in terms of the politically defined indicators for economic, social and environmental performance indicators than other solutions......, such as improving the use of existing systems, or measures to manage demand and mobility. A key element in performance governance is thus the use of indicators to track progress, and to give feedback on the achievement of performance goals. Sustainable transport is a typical area where there is a strong need...

  17. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil) consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels), Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  18. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Erickson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  19. Fleet renewal: An approach to achieve sustainable road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Aleksandar V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail in this paper. Afore mentioned calculation comprises the costs for: vehicle ownership, energy, carbon dioxide and pollutants emissions. Implementation of this methodology allows making the choice of energy efficient vehicles and vehicles with notable positive environmental effects. The objective of the research is to assess the influence of specific parameters of vehicle operational lifecycle costs, especially energy costs and estimated vehicle energy consumption, on vehicle choice in the procurement procedure. The case of urban bus fleet in Serbia was analyzed. Their operational lifecycle costs were calculated and differently powered vehicles were assessed. Energy consumption input values were defined. It was proved that defined fleet renewal scenarios could influence unquestionable decrease in energy consumption.

  20. A GIS-based performance measurement system for assessing transportation sustainability and community livability : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Sustainability and livability in transportation, as the concepts referring to the capability of transportation systems to maintain the well being of our society, have been widely : accepted as the critical principles to improve quality of life and he...

  1. Social dimensions and the impact of sustainable transport and mobility on social development.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes the relationship between transport, mobility and society. This is achieved by means of linking the social dimensions and impact of sustainable transport and mobility with approaches, principles and values of social development...

  2. The Environment, Tourist Transport and the Sustainable Development of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ioncică

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the complex relationships between the natural environment , tourist transport and sustainable tourism development. In order to research the impact of natural resources on tourism activity, on the one hand, and the influences of tourism on the environment, on the other hand, statistical and mathematical methods of analysis and forecast were used, namely, the analysis of the dynamics of significant indicators of the natural environment and of tourist activity, the correlation method, the Markov chains method. The analyses made lead us to the conclusion of the existence of a positive evolution of significant indicators of the natural environment, with an impact on tourist activity, such as natural parks. It has been emphasized; also, that this positive evolution has a direct influence on the attraction of visitors, specifically, foreign ones, but the intensity of this influence is average. The intensification of the actions of promotion of natural parks and, generally, of protected areas in Romania, would be a direction for attracting an increased number of visitors, with all the favourable economic consequences. On the other hand, the research has outlined the fact that, as far as the means of transportation used by tourists to visit Romania are concerned, on the first places we can see road and air transport, means of transportation which, aside from the obvious advantages for tourists, have a strong negative impact on the environment. The forecast made with the help of the Markov chains method has shown a negative trend, from the point of view of the impact on the environment, namely an increase in the share of road and air transport in the preference of foreign visitors to Romania. The current research represents a contribution to the efforts of measuring, through statistical and mathematical models, of the complex influences, in both senses, between the environment and tourist activity. Thus, an objective radiography has

  3. The impact of governance modes on sustainable transport - the case of bus transport in Greater Manchester, UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    'Sustainable transport' has become a priority for transport planning and policy making around the world. Sustainable transport plans often promote efforts to shift passengers from private cars to other modes such as public transport. However, the actual success of such efforts is likely to depend...... pursued in a deregulated context. We focus on bus transport in Greater Manchester as the case in point. First, we study the effects of the NPM reforms on modal shift. We find that the reforms generally have contributed to a decline in bus passengers, while some reform elements have made positive...

  4. Applying a Transportation Rating System to Advance Sustainability Evaluation, Planning and Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrella, Elise; Lineburg, Kelsey; Hurley, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a pilot application of the Sustainable Transportation Analysis & Rating System (STARS), and highlight how a sustainability rating system can be used to promote sustainable urban development through a university-city partnership. STARS is an example of a second-generation "green"…

  5. National sustainable transport planning - what it is and what it should be?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    Sustainability has become a significant ambition for transport planners and policy-makers around the world. However, a transition to sustainable transport is a challenging, long term process, which raises important questions concerning how national, planning processes could support the integration...... of sustainability. This is the topic of the research project SUSTAIN. Internationally, research on national transport planning is limited, and not well established as a coherent field of research. This paper presents preliminary results within SUSTAIN. The aim of the paper is to discuss how to conceive and define...... the concept of ‘national sustainable transport planning’. This is done via selected literature within this and associated areas. A definition is provided and it is suggested that three interlinked dimensions are of importance for transitions, thus a normative, an analytic and a governance dimension...

  6. Tennessee long-range transportation plan : financial plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Meeting Tennessees transportation requirements over the next 25 years is a major challenge. The infrastructure demands associated with building and maintaining the states aviation, bicycle and pedestrian, rail, water, highway, and public transp...

  7. National Sustainable Transport Planning – What is it and what should it be?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    transport raises important questions concerning the organization of national, planning processes integrating sustainability. In Denmark the effectiveness of the previous ‘ad hoc’ approach has been questioned, and some planning innovations have been adopted, like longer time frames, fixed planning cadences...... and coherent, strategic analyses. Internationally, transdisciplinary research on national, sustainable transport planning is limited and it is not established as a coherent field of research. The ambition of this paper is to contribute to this new field of research by establishing understandings...... and definitions of national sustainable transport planning. This will be done by distinguishing between existing national transport planning frameworks; those frameworks that attempt to incorporate sustainability; and a more elaborate and or ideal concept of national sustainable transport planning. Selected...

  8. Investigation of RFID Based Sensors for Sustainable Transportation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    Through support of a University Transportation Research Center Faculty Development Minigrant an investigation was made into the use of RFID based sensing technologies for transportation purposes. Transportation applications would potentially include ...

  9. Use of the historic range of variability to evaluate ecosystem sustainability [Chapter 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn B. Meyer; Dennis H. Knight; Greg K. Dillon

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystems are not static, having evolved with disturbances such as fire, windstorms, floods, disease, and animal activity. The natural variability imposed by such disturbances must be included when defining sustainability goals. One approach is to target the historic range of variability (HRV), determining if current management maintains the ecosystem within its HRV....

  10. 2010 Winter Olympics transportation legacies : steps towards sustainability in the GVRD and the Sea to Sky Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washbrook, K. [Better Environmentally Sound Transportation (BEST), Vancouver, BC (Canada). Impact of Olympics on Communities Coalition

    2003-06-01

    This paper outlines several broad actions that the Organizing Committee for the 2010 Winter Olympic games in Whistler, British Columbia could undertake to develop a leadership role in bringing sustainable, long term benefits to the regional transportation system. The Bid Corporation placed emphasis on the use of public and active transportation to move spectators during the two week event. The emphasis was on transportation demand management measures to mitigate traffic impacts on regional residents during the games. The Corporation also committed to use alternative fuel and zero emission technology to reduce air pollution. Currently, there is no long range strategic transportation plan for the Sea to Sky Corridor. The author emphasized that the Organizing Committee should work with other agencies to immediately implement permanent public transit and active transportation improvements with investment in active transport and public transit. Other actions that should be implemented include: investment in alternatives to private automobile travel to offset games-related emissions; committing to sustainable use of the Olympic Lane on the Sea to Sky Highway; endowing a sustainable transportation investment fund; promote research into the long term benefits associated with ferry and rail services; developing affordable housing in Whistler to reduce corridor commuting; and, investment in alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure to reduce public transit emissions. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 appendices.

  11. COMPARISON OF SUSTAINABILITY BETWEEN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC TRANSPORT CONSIDERING URBAN STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu KII

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present the interaction between urban structure and transport using a simple urban-transport model. We also examine the sustain ability, measured by economic efficiency and environmental impact, of private and public transport in a hypothetical urban space. In this regard, it is specially focused on the path dependence of urban-transport interactions, and showed the possibility of multiple urban and transport situations. Several policy implications are proposed for utilizing the results of the models.

  12. Half-range acceleration for one-dimensional transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zika, M.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Larsen, E.W. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Researchers have devoted considerable effort to developing acceleration techniques for transport iterations in highly diffusive problems. The advantages and disadvantages of source iteration, rebalance, diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA), transport synthetic acceleration (TSA), and projection acceleration methods are documented in the literature and will not be discussed here except to note that no single method has proven to be applicable to all situations. Here, the authors describe a new acceleration method that is based solely on transport sweeps, is algebraically linear (and is therefore amenable to a Fourier analysis), and yields a theoretical spectral radius bounded by one-third for all cases. This method does not introduce spatial differencing difficulties (as is the case for DSA) nor does its theoretical performance degrade as a function of mesh and material properties (as is the case for TSA). Practical simulations of the new method agree with the theoretical predictions, except for scattering ratios very close to unity. At this time, they believe that the discrepancy is due to the effect of boundary conditions. This is discussed further.

  13. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  14. Trends in statewide long-range transportation plans : core and emerging topics in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report synthesizes key findings and trends from the 2017 Statewide Long-Range Transportation Plan (SLRTP) Database, which represents key observations identified through a review of all 52 SLRTPs and Statewide Transportation Improvement Programs ...

  15. The Contribution of Natural Gas Vehicles to Sustainable Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The transport sector is currently responsible for 23% of energy-related CO2 emissions, and transport associated CO2 emissions will more than double by 2050. This working paper evaluates the potential costs and benefits of using natural gas as a vehicle fuel for road transportation, as well as the policy related to its market development.

  16. PUBLIC TRANSPORT INTERCHANGES FUNCTIONING FROM A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naumov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport interchange functioning has been presented as a gray box cybernetic model. The identified input data characterizes the transport interchange as an infrastructure object and influence the processes both for public transport and passengers. An integrated indicator has been chosen as the efficiency criterion, combining economic, environmental and social costs.

  17. Applying sustainability theory to transport infrastructure assessment using a multiplicative ahp decision support model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryn, Marie Ridley; Cornet, Yannick; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    of sustainability supported by ecological economists. This conceptualisation is operationalized by the use of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and a multiplicative version of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The planning and decision-making process related to a new connection across the Roskilde Fjord...... to sustainability based on the nested model is therefore presented seeking to provide an alternative approach to sustainable transportation assessment, namely the SUSTAIN Decision Support System (DSS) model. This model is based on a review of basic notions of sustainability presented by the Brundtland Commission...

  18. Energy for road passenger transport and sustainable development: assessing policies and goals interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    2013-01-01

    Development that is sustainable requires an operational, efficient and safe transportation system fueled by clean, low-carbon, secure and affordable energy. The energy used in road passenger transport enables social and economic development and is the target of interventions to fight pressing urban...... environmental problems, energy security concerns and dangerous climate change. This review explores a systematic approach to describe interactions documented in the literature, between policies targeting energy use in road passenger transport to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions...... measures and goals as exemplified in this approach can help inform practical transport energy policy that better match an agenda for sustainable development....

  19. Rational and Safe Design of Concrete Transportation Structures for Size Effect and Multi-Decade Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project was to improve the safety and sustainability in the design of large : prestressed concrete bridges and other transportation structures. The safety of large concrete : structures, including bridges, has been insufficie...

  20. SmartTrips Ithaca : encouraging sustainable transportation options through a personalized educational campaign : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    SmartTrips Ithaca is a neighborhood-based personalized educational campaign that encouraged residents : of downtown Ithaca to try out sustainable modes of transportation such as walking, biking, transit, and : carsharing through incentives and commun...

  1. Developing sustainable transportation performance measures for TXDOT's strategic plan : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    For this research project, sustainable transportation can be viewed as the provision of safe, effective, and : efficient access and mobility into the future while considering economic, social, and environmental needs. : This project developed a perfo...

  2. Avoiding, transforming, transitioning: pathways to sustainable low carbon passenger transport in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Fulton, Lewis; Tiwari, Geetam

    2013-01-01

    This review examines conditions affecting road passenger transport in developing countries that can be instrumental to building a pathway for reducing carbon emissions while concurrently meeting sustainable development goals. By contrasting present and future status of these conditions a vision...

  3. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally......This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport. Promoting environmentally sustainable transport is defined as follows: (1) Reducing the volume of motorised travel; (2) Transferring travel to modes...

  4. Energy conservation in urban areas in the framework of a sustainable transportation concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahin, M.

    2001-07-01

    The widespread of transport is recognized as a major contributor to an extensive range of undesirable side effects, covering all stages, from production to use and disposal. The transport sector is one of the major consumers of energy mainly fossil fuels and therefore contributes adverse emissions with local direct health effects as well as a significant share of 'greenhouse gases' (GHGs), which play a crucial role in determining the earth's climate. Moreover, the transportation sector is implicated in causing some social problems such as intensive use of public space. Present growth in vehicle ownership and use in urban areas, is unsustainable. Petroleum fuels, which are the main energy source for the transport sector, are essentially non-renewable. In short, the transportation system is unsustainable and is becoming more unsustainable. Measures need to be taken at a number of levels to mitigate the negative effects of transport and to reduce the increasing dependence on the fossil fuels as a main transportation energy soruce. The main objectives of this study are: (a) analyzing the transportation's role in the energy markets and its related environmental problems and defining the sustainable transport in urban areas, (b) analyzing alternative urban planning philosophies, (c) presenting a suggested procedure for sustainable develop ment of urban transport and energy consumption, (d) identifying the potential impacts of this procedure by being applied to Alexandria city, as a case study. The identification is based on evaluating four different scenarios for the year 2015 which are compared to each other, as well as with a business-as usual scenario (Do-Nothing Solution). These scenarios are based on the proposed sustainable transport and energy systems started from (Do-Minimum Solution) until (Do-Maximum Solution). To facilitate the calculations, an interactive computer program called 'TraEnergy' is developed in the framework of this

  5. Cooperation between Logistic Service Providers and Shippers on making transportation sustainable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stef Weijers; Reinder Pieters; Onno Omta; Hans-Heinrich Glöckner

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes Dutch Logistic Service Providers attitudes towards sustainability and how they translate this into business practise. This is done by looking at what Logistic Service Providers say what they are doing or intend to do to improve sustainability for their transport services.

  6. Transport infrastructure and the environment: Sustainable mobility and urbanism

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The urban transportation sector’s environmental, economic, and social footprint is immense and expanding. Many of the world’s most vexing and pressing problems – fossil fuel dependency, global warming, poverty, and social exclusion – are inextricably tied to the transportation sector. Much of the blame for the transportation sector’s inordinate environmental footprint lies in the increasing automobile-dependency of cities. Rapid motorization unavoidably shifts future travel from the most sust...

  7. On Production and Green Transportation Coordination in a Sustainable Global Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Guo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a coordination problem of production and green transportation and the effects of production and transportation coordination on supply chain sustainability in a global supply chain environment with the consideration of important realistic characteristics, including parallel machines, different order processing complexities, fixed delivery departure times, green transportation and multiple transportation modes. We formulate the measurements for carbon emissions of different transportation modes, including air, sea and land transportation. A hybrid genetic algorithm-based optimization approach is developed to handle this problem, in which a hybrid genetic algorithm and heuristic procedures are combined. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated by means of various problem instances. We observe that the coordination of production and green transportation has a large effect on the overall supply chain sustainability, which can reduce the total supply chain cost by 9.60% to 21.90%.

  8. Empowering individuals to make environmentally sustainable and healthy transportation choices in mega-cities through a smartphone app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    A paradox of industrialized society is the overreliance on unsustainable fossil fuel energy for transportation and insufficient use of sustainable : bodily energy for more physically active modes of transport. Different modes of transportation requir...

  9. A transition towards sustainable strategy making: integrating land use and transport knowledge types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brömmelstroet, M.; Bertolini, L.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.; Huijbregts, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2011-01-01

    As extensively discussed by other scholars, there is a growing awareness that the integration of land use and transport (LUT) planning is a crucial prerequisite for the transition towards more sustainable transport patterns and urban development that foster interaction between people, support a

  10. USING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES TO ASSESS THE EFFICIENCY OF TRANSPORT INTERCHANGES FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Samchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The expediency of using the sustainable development principles for assessing the efficiency of public transport interchange functioning is shown. The passenger waiting time, the probable number of accidents in the area of transport interchanges, the queuing delay, and the amount of total emissions as CO2 equivalent were chosen as indicators that the efficiency criterion includes.

  11. Sustainable fuels for the transport and maritime sector : A blueprint of the LNG distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunnissen, Simon K.; Van De Bunt, Luke G.; Vis, Iris F A; Zijm, Henk; Klump, Matthias; Clausen, Uwe; ten Hompel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is one of the alternative sustainable fuels available to the transportation sector. A new distribution network needs to be in place to enable better accessibility and more efficient usage of this fuel type for all modes of transport. Currently, a chicken-and-egg problem

  12. Environmentally Sustainable Transport: Implementation and Impacts for the Netherlands for 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs KT; Wee GP van; LAE

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the Dutch transport scenarios for the OECD project on Environmental Sustainable Transport (EST). The EST project contains a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) and three EST scenarios which attain the EST criteria (i.e. a reduction of CO2 by 80%, NOx by 90%, VOC by 90%, PM10 by

  13. Smogbusters: Grassroots Action for Clean Air and Sustainable Transport in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Eric; Wake, David; Carlisle, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Smogbusters was a national, community-based, government-funded community education program promoting clean air and sustainable transport in Australia from 1994 to 2002. Smogbusters aimed to improve air quality primarily by raising awareness about motor vehicle transport and its negative impacts on health, the environment and communities, and by…

  14. On the road to sustainability -- the case of the Romanian transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L. Email: david_larry@hotmail.com [University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Ontario Institute for Studies in Education; Fistung, F.D. Email: dfistung@yahoo.com [Romanian Academy, Bucharest (Romania). Economics Center of Industry and Services

    2010-07-01

    This paper undertakes a macro-level analysis of the present transportation sector in Romania while exploring potential strategic options within the context of integrating the existing European environmental policies that address the sustainability factor. The intention is to develop a framework that will help the Romanian sector of transport to identify the targets and strategies for the development and deployment of such policies in order to minimize the effects of the existing pollutant modes of transportation. The fast adoption of such pertinent strategies for the development and implementation of a public transportation, rail, naval and multimodal transportation seems to be the key factor in the introduction of a sustainable transport system in Romania. Despite some very serious obstacles that are presently challenging the Romanian transport system, the development of a transportation infrastructure that is built upon the principles of sustainable development will ask for a reorientation in favor of new transportation modes that are less pollutant and much more energy efficient. It is assumed that in order to allow for such retrenchment to occur some key changes in the Romanian transport policy priorities will need to take place.

  15. Mass transport in reverse electrodialysis for sustainable energy generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlugolecki, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a promising and potentially attractive technology for the generation of sustainable energy from the mixing of salt and fresh water. It uses the free energy of mixing two solutions of different salinity (e.g. river and sea water) to generate power. In RED, a

  16. Sustainability for road infrastructure : transportation responds to environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Safety was, until very recently, the prime : guiding criterion of road transport development. : Environmental impacts enjoyed scant regard, being : seen as a necessary evil if life and commerce were to : go on. A few, more progressive regional and na...

  17. How SmartWay Advances Sustainable Transportation Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides information on how the SmartWay program has achieved reductions in freight transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions and how it will continue to do so with its Vision 2020 strategies.

  18. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  19. Multiple criteria decision making for sustainable energy and transportation systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrgott, Matthias [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Engineering Science; Naujoks, Boris [Login GmbH, Schwelm (Germany).; Stewart, Theodor J. [Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Statistical Sciences; Wallenius, Jyrki (eds.) [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland). Dept. of Business Technology

    2010-07-01

    In the twenty-first century the sustainability of energy and transportation systems is on the top of the political agenda in many countries around the world and governments are establishing policies towards a sustainable, low emissions energy future. Environmental impacts of human economic activity necessitate the consideration of conflicting goals in decision making processes to develop sustainable systems. Any sustainable development has to reconcile conflicting economic and environmental objectives and criteria. The science of multiple criteria decision making has a lot to offer in addressing this need. Decision making with multiple (conflicting) criteria is the topic of research that is at the heart of the International Society of Multiple Criteria Decision Making. This book is based on selected papers presented at the societies 19th International Conference, held at The University of Auckland, New Zealand, from 7th to 12th January 2008 under the theme ''MCDM for Sustainable Energy and Transportation Systems''. (orig.)

  20. Sustainable Transport: BRT experiences from Mexico and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogat, Jorge; Dhar, Subash; Joshi, Rutul

    2015-01-01

    Increasing population and urbanization is creating a steadily increasing demand for transportation in the cities of many developing countries, coinciding with rapid economic growth leading to increasing demand for higher standards of living and faster and more efficient modes of transportation. T...... transit (BRT). The BRT systems of Curitiba and Bogotá have subsequently been adopted all over the world with some variations. Implementation of two recent BRTs, Mexico City and Ahmedabad in India, are examined in this paper....

  1. Sustainable production and sales of meat from free-range pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Andersen, Lone Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    These years, the consumption of pork is not only stagnating in Denmark but also on many other European markets. This coincides with a rise in consumer demand for increased welfare among farm animals. In a project about sustainable production and sales of meat from free-range pigs, guidelines...... are developed on a European level for the production of pork from outdoors production systems, which combine animal welfare with high quality of consumption and high quality of health. In cooperation with colleagues in France, Great Britain and Sweden, MAPP is examining the market potential of this type of meat...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF TROLLEYBUS PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN GDYNIA AS PART OF A SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof GRZELEC; Krystian BIRR

    2016-01-01

    In many EU cities, trolleybuses are experiencing a period of revitalization. New lines, state-of-the-art designs, the use of auxiliary propulsion batteries, ecological values and other factors offer great opportunities for this kind of public transport as an effective tool to shape transport policy in accordance with the principles of sustainable mobility. Gdynia is one of three cities in Poland with a trolleybus public transport subsystem. Since the beginning of political and economic tra...

  3. Some use—Little influence? On the roles of indicators in European sustainable transport policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2013-01-01

    transport agenda. The first case concerns indicators tracking the fulfillment of national transport policy objectives in Sweden. The case explores the use and influence of an annual monitoring and evaluation report produced for this purpose, within a general ‘Management-by-Objectives’ regime. The second......The paper focuses on the use and influence of indicators in European sustainable transport policy from a ‘knowledge utilization’ research point of view. The starting point is the contrast between the widely held idea that indicators are important tools for sustainable transport policy making......, versus ‘knowledge utilization’ oriented research, which has often demonstrated that formal technical knowledge is used much less, or at least differently, than expected in policy and decision making.The paper looks at two cases of indicators applied for strategic policy making within the sustainable...

  4. Modelling atmospheric chemistry and long-range transport of emerging Asian pollutants

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Modeling is a very important tool for scientific processes, requiring long-term dedication, desire, and continuous reflection. In this work, we discuss several aspects of modeling, and the reasons for doing it. We discuss two major modeling systems that have been built by us over the last 10 years. It is a long and arduous process but the reward of understanding can be enormous, as demonstrated in the examples shown in this work. We found that long-range transport of emerging Asian pollutants can be interpreted using a Lagrangian framework for wind analysis. More detailed processes still need to be modeled but an accurate representation of the wind structure is the most important thing above all others. Our long-term chemistry integrations reveal the capability of the IMS model in simulating tropospheric chemistry on a climate scale. These long-term integrations also show ways for further model development. Modeling is a quantitative process, and the understanding can be sustained only when theories are vigor...

  5. Observations of bromine monoxide transport in the Arctic sustained on aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter K.; Pöhler, Denis; Sihler, Holger; Zielcke, Johannes; General, Stephan; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich; Simpson, William R.; Nghiem, Son V.; Shepson, Paul B.; Stirm, Brian H.; Dhaniyala, Suresh; Wagner, Thomas; Caulton, Dana R.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-06-01

    The return of sunlight in the polar spring leads to the production of reactive halogen species from the surface snowpack, significantly altering the chemical composition of the Arctic near-surface atmosphere and the fate of long-range transported pollutants, including mercury. Recent work has shown the initial production of reactive bromine at the Arctic surface snowpack; however, we have limited knowledge of the vertical extent of this chemistry, as well as the lifetime and possible transport of reactive bromine aloft. Here, we present bromine monoxide (BrO) and aerosol particle measurements obtained during the March 2012 BRomine Ozone Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) near Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK. The airborne differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements provided an unprecedented level of spatial resolution, over 2 orders of magnitude greater than satellite observations and with vertical resolution unable to be achieved by satellite methods, for BrO in the Arctic. This novel method provided quantitative identification of a BrO plume, between 500 m and 1 km aloft, moving at the speed of the air mass. Concurrent aerosol particle measurements suggest that this lofted reactive bromine plume was transported and maintained at elevated levels through heterogeneous reactions on colocated supermicron aerosol particles, independent of surface snowpack bromine chemistry. This chemical transport mechanism explains the large spatial extents often observed for reactive bromine chemistry, which impacts atmospheric composition and pollutant fate across the Arctic region, beyond areas of initial snowpack halogen production. The possibility of BrO enhancements disconnected from the surface potentially contributes to sustaining BrO in the free troposphere and must also be considered in the interpretation of satellite BrO column observations, particularly in the context of the rapidly changing Arctic sea ice and snowpack.

  6. Observations of bromine monoxide transport in the Arctic sustained on aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Peterson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The return of sunlight in the polar spring leads to the production of reactive halogen species from the surface snowpack, significantly altering the chemical composition of the Arctic near-surface atmosphere and the fate of long-range transported pollutants, including mercury. Recent work has shown the initial production of reactive bromine at the Arctic surface snowpack; however, we have limited knowledge of the vertical extent of this chemistry, as well as the lifetime and possible transport of reactive bromine aloft. Here, we present bromine monoxide (BrO and aerosol particle measurements obtained during the March 2012 BRomine Ozone Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX near Utqiaġvik (Barrow, AK. The airborne differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS measurements provided an unprecedented level of spatial resolution, over 2 orders of magnitude greater than satellite observations and with vertical resolution unable to be achieved by satellite methods, for BrO in the Arctic. This novel method provided quantitative identification of a BrO plume, between 500 m and 1 km aloft, moving at the speed of the air mass. Concurrent aerosol particle measurements suggest that this lofted reactive bromine plume was transported and maintained at elevated levels through heterogeneous reactions on colocated supermicron aerosol particles, independent of surface snowpack bromine chemistry. This chemical transport mechanism explains the large spatial extents often observed for reactive bromine chemistry, which impacts atmospheric composition and pollutant fate across the Arctic region, beyond areas of initial snowpack halogen production. The possibility of BrO enhancements disconnected from the surface potentially contributes to sustaining BrO in the free troposphere and must also be considered in the interpretation of satellite BrO column observations, particularly in the context of the rapidly changing Arctic sea ice and snowpack.

  7. Envisioning Parking Strategies in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Circella

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Monetary instruments to regulate parking are often used in central areas of cities to discourage long term parking of vehicles. The availability of parking facilities, and its cost, in fact represents an important element in the decision to operate private vehicles in urban areas. The availability of instruments and tools to check the outcome of modification in parking regulations, in terms of modification of car use, successfully support planners in the determination of the best policies to decrease congestion, and regulate the use of transportation in cities. Integrated land use transportation models may successfully contribute to the assessment of such policy packages. This contribution discusses the use of the model MARS-Bari (Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator for the analysis of future scenarios of development of land use and transportation. MARS-Bari is a fast integrated land use transportation model, which is designed for applications in strategic planning of urban and metropolitan areas. The model was developed as a decision support tool, to help planners in the definition of sets of policies on land use and transportation, and promote equilibrated growth of the urban system (smart growth. MARS-Bari shares the basic assumptions of the Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator (MARS modeling system, so far successfully applied to many cities of both Europe and Asia. The structure of MARS-Bari is highly flexible on purpose, allowing multiple hypothesis tests of future scenarios and policies. MARS-Bari works at a high level of spatial aggregation, and its simulations are developed on a long-term time horizon (30-years in the current version. Two main sub-models run in MARS-Bari: they respectively simulate the development of land use, and the transportation system. Four different classes of users are distinguished in the transportation model, depending on the possible access to one or more of the five transportation modes: car

  8. Indicators and Performance Measures for Transportation, Environment and Sustainability in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    A study trip to USA and Canada was undertaken in October 2000 with support from the German Marshall Fund. The purpose of the trip was to learn about performance planning and performance indicators in the area of transportation and environment. The report describe findings from the trip in the fol......A study trip to USA and Canada was undertaken in October 2000 with support from the German Marshall Fund. The purpose of the trip was to learn about performance planning and performance indicators in the area of transportation and environment. The report describe findings from the trip...... in the following areas: how performance planning for transportation and environment is conducted in the US and Canada at federal, state and municipal level, to what extent performance planning serve as an instrument to integrate environmental and sustainability goals in transportation policy which specific...... indicators are used to measure the environmental sustainability of transportation systems and policies in the two North American countries....

  9. Developing a Collaborative Planning Framework for Sustainable Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Örsan Özener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, as being the highest petroleum consuming sector in the world, transportation significantly contributes to the total greenhouse gas emissions in the world. Road transportation not only is responsible for approximately 20% of the total emissions of carbon dioxide in the EU and in the US but also has a steadily increasing trend in contributing to global warming. Initiatives undertaken by authorities, such as Emission cap and trade in the EU, limit the emissions resulted from the actions of the companies and also give economic incentives to companies to reduce their emissions. However, in logistics systems with multiple entities, it is difficult to assess the responsibilities of the companies both in terms of costs and emissions. In this study, we consider a delivery network with multiple customers served by a single carrier, which executes a delivery plan with the minimum transportation cost, and allocate the resulting costs and the emissions among the customers in a fair manner. We develop allocation mechanisms for both costs and emissions. In order to develop a mechanism that provides further reduction of the emissions, we study a setting where the carrier takes the responsibility of the emissions and reflects the resulting inefficiencies while charging the customers.

  10. Strategy research of harbin city green transport and sustainable development from low carbon ecological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiao-jie, Qi

    2017-04-01

    With quick development of urbanization and mechanization, there exist some problems in the cities, such as traffic jam, traffic safety, and traffic pollution and so on. It is extremely urgent for the city to develop green transport, in order to relieve these problems and push forward low carbon ecological construction in Harbin. Strategy research of Harbin city green transport and sustainable development is done from the eight aspects of building public transport system of integration, bicycle, walking, and slow-moving system and so on based on analyzing demands of low carbon ecology on city green transport development, and Harbin traffic development state.

  11. The modal shift to sustainable railway transport in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zdenka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with actual European “modal shift to rail transport” concept and related environmental issues and experience in the Republic of Serbia. The planned increase in volume of railway transport and planned railway electrification should reduce air pollution in Serbia, particularly in the urban environment. On the other hand, achieving this goal would lead to the increase in noise level in the urban environment and environmental issues in the region of thermal power plants, which are the main sources of electricity in Serbia. This paper suggests concrete measures to reduce the railway carbon footprint and noise level during the planning, design and service life of railway infrastructure.

  12. International Perspectives and Implementation of Sustainability Criteria in the Development of Biofuels for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    Establishing sustainability criteria for the development of biofuels is an important step for the consolidation of an international market on biofuels for transport for several reasons: Biofuels are expected to play a significant role in a transition to low carbon future in transport in particula...... to supply long-haul heavy trucks and aviation modes that require energy intensive liquid fuels (IEA, 2009). Sustainability criteria can help create a clear framework to producers/business/ investors necessary to help minimize threads and to maximize opportunities for market development...

  13. Quantifying a Financially Sustainable Strategy of Public Transport: Private Capital Investment Considering Passenger Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Xue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Releaving traffic congestion by developing public transport as an alternative mode of travel is a common practice all over the world. However, the increasing public transport subsidies have created a financial burden for governments. Encouragingly, private capital supplies an opportunity for public transport in sustainable finance. Previous research mainly focuses on qualitative analysis and money-for-value (MFV analysis. In this paper, a new investment model is proposed based on the concept ‘passenger value’, and a bi-level programming model (BLPM is constructed as a quantitative analysis tool. The upper target of BLPM is the total surplus (including the value of time (VOT of passengers of the public transport system and the upper constraint is the ticket price. The lower target of BLPM is passenger’s surplus, the lower constraints are service capability and the lowest return rate of the private sector. The public transport of Jinan City, China is taken as a case to quantify the impacts of private capital investment in public transport. Results show that the proposed investment model considering passenger value is superior to the traditional one, and effective private capital investment could increase the total societal benefit of the transportation system. The proposed investment strategy satisfies economic viability and is a financially sustainability strategy. Additionally, travelers should be encouraged to use public transport through improving the service quality and passenger returns. Only in this way can the success rate of the private sector investment in public transport be improved efficiently.

  14. Stable sustainment of plasmas with electron internal transport barrier by ECH in the LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Tokitani, M.; Sakamoto, R.; Ueda, Y.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Seki, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Makino, R.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Yamada, I.; Yamada, H.; Mutoh, T.; Takeiri, Y.; the LHD Experiment Group

    2018-02-01

    The long pulse experiments in the Large Helical Device has made progress in sustainment of improved confinement states. It was found that steady-state sustainment of the plasmas with improved confinement at the core region, that is, electron internal transport barrier (e-ITB), was achieved with no significant difficulty. Sustainment of a plasma having e-ITB with the line average electron density n e_ave of 1.1 × 1019 m‑3 and the central electron temperature T e0 of ∼3.5 keV for longer than 5 min only with 340 kW ECH power was successfully demonstrated.

  15. Sustained Spatial Attention to Vibrotactile Stimulation in the Flutter Range: Relevant Brain Regions and Their Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Dominique; Pleger, Burkhard; Thiel, Sabrina; Villringer, Arno; Müller, Matthias M.

    2013-01-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was designed to get a better understanding of the brain regions involved in sustained spatial attention to tactile events and to ascertain to what extent their activation was correlated. We presented continuous 20 Hz vibrotactile stimuli (range of flutter) concurrently to the left and right index fingers of healthy human volunteers. An arrow cue instructed subjects in a trial-by-trial fashion to attend to the left or right index finger and to detect rare target events that were embedded in the vibrotactile stimulation streams. We found blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) attentional modulation in primary somatosensory cortex (SI), mainly covering Brodmann area 1, 2, and 3b, as well as in secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), contralateral to the to-be-attended hand. Furthermore, attention to the right (dominant) hand resulted in additional BOLD modulation in left posterior insula. All of the effects were caused by an increased activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand, except for the effects in left SI and insula. In left SI, the effect was related to a mixture of both a slight increase in activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand as well as a slight decrease in activation when attention was paid to the ipsilateral hand (i.e., the tactile distraction condition). In contrast, the effect in left posterior insula was exclusively driven by a relative decrease in activation in the tactile distraction condition, which points to an active inhibition when tactile information is irrelevant. Finally, correlation analyses indicate a linear relationship between attention effects in intrahemispheric somatosensory cortices, since attentional modulation in SI and SII were interrelated within one hemisphere but not across hemispheres. All in all, our results provide a basis for future research on sustained attention to continuous vibrotactile stimulation in the range of flutter

  16. Transport and sustainability - with special emphasis on grocery distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Kaj

    1998-12-31

    The reduction of the number of retail shops, in principle, provide for better planning opportunities regarding the distribution of commodities to the shops. But this, according to the study is more than offset by the longer distances the goods have to travel before reaching the shops. The report investigates the potentials for reduction of the energy demand and emission by means of technical improvements of vehicles. The assessments are based on fuel cycle considerations covering both the energy system (that is, the system providing the fuel to the vehicle) and the vehicle system (the system on board the vehicle transforming the fuel to useful work). In general, there are substantial potentials for improvements of the energy efficiency of the transportation means - and even greater potentials for CO{sub 2}-reductions. The reap the full potentials, it is probably necessary to break with the present technological development trend. (au) 274 refs.

  17. An operational information systems architecture for assessing sustainable transportation planning: principles and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzacchiello, Maria Teresa; Torrieri, Vincenzo; Nijkamp, Peter

    2009-11-01

    This paper offers the description of an integrated information system framework for the assessment of transportation planning and management. After an introductory exposition, in the first part of the paper, a broad overview of international experiences regarding information systems on transportation is given, focusing in particular on the relationship between transportation system's performance monitoring and the decision-making process, and on the importance of this connection in the evaluation and planning process, in Italian and European cases. Next, the methodological design of an information system to support efficient and sustainable transportation planning and management aiming to integrate inputs from several different data sources is presented. The resulting framework deploys modular and integrated databases which include data stemming from different national or regional data banks and which integrate information belonging to different transportation fields. For this reason, it allows public administrations to account for many strategic elements that influence their decisions regarding transportation, both from a systemic and infrastructural point of view.

  18. Role of demonstration projects in innovation: transition to sustainable energy and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitkou, Antje; Coenen, Lars; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2013-01-01

    from road transport, and climate changes caused by greenhouse gas emissions, all these crises have contributed to a sense of urgency in political statements on the need for transition towards a sustainable society. Politicians have developed different types of instruments to achieve a development...

  19. Sustainable intermodal freight transportation: Applying the geospatial intermodal freight transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Bryan

    To study the energy and environmental impacts of emissions associated with freight transportation, the Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was created as a joint research collaborative between the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and the University of Delaware (UD). The GIFT model is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based model that links the U.S. and Canadian water, rail, and road transportation networks through intermodal transfer facilities to create an intermodal network. The purpose of my thesis is to apply the GIFT model to examine potential public policies related to intermodal freight transportation in the Great Lakes region of the United States. My thesis will consist of two papers. The first paper will examine the environmental, economic, and time-of-delivery tradeoffs associated with freight transportation in the Great Lakes region and examine opportunities for marine vessels to replace a portion of heavy-duty trucks for containerized freight transport. The second paper will explore the potential benefits of using the Great Lakes as a corridor for short-sea shipping as part of a longer intermodal route. The intent of my thesis is to shed light on the current issues associated with freight transport in the Great Lakes region and present public policy alternatives to address said issues. Ideally, this thesis will better inform policymakers on the impacts and tradeoffs associated with freight transportation.

  20. A review on utilization of textile composites in transportation towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Nermin M.

    2017-10-01

    Transportation industry is rapidly developing owing to its size and importance which affects on various aspects of life. It includes all the transport means that facilitate mobility of people or goods either by air, land or sea like aircrafts, automotives, ships, trains, etc. The utilization of textiles in this industry is increasing as a result of moving towards achieving sustainability and enhancing performance, comfort and safety. Through substituting heavier materials with textiles of high performance specifications and textile reinforced composites to reduce weight, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Composite materials can fulfil the demands for sustainability in the transportation sector through using renewable, recycled and lightweight materials, considering the requirements of each category of transport vehicles. Textiles used in reinforcing composites are diverse including fibers, yarns or fabric preforms such as woven, nonwoven, knitted, braided which varies from 2D to complex 3D structures. This paper presents a brief review on the utilization of textiles in reinforcing composites for various transportation applications to achieve sustainability. Also, discussing the influence of textiles structural parameters like fiber material properties, fabric production technique and construction on their mechanical behaviour. Focusing on researches findings in this area and highlighting some prospects for further developments domestically.

  1. Impact of traffic composition on accessibility as indicator of transport sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahdalina; Hadiwardoyo, S. P.; Nahry

    2017-05-01

    Sustainable transport is closely related to quality of life in the community at present and in the future. Some indicators of transport sustainability are accessibility measurement of origin/destination, the operating costs of transport (vehicle operating cost or VOC) and external transportation costs (emission cost). The indicators could be combined into accessibility measurement model. In other case, almost traffic congestion occurred on the condition of mixed traffic. This paper aimed to analyse the indicator of transport sustainability through simulation under condition of various traffic composition. Various composition of truck to total traffic flow are 0%, 10% and 20%. Speed and V/C are calculated from traffic flow to estimate the VOC and emission cost. 5 VOC components and 3 types of emission cost (CO2, CH4 and N2O) are counted to be a travel cost. Accessibility measurement was calculated using travel cost and gravity model approaches. Result of the research shows that the total traffic flow has indirect impact on accessibility measurement if using travel cost approach. Meanwhile, the composition of traffic flow has an affect on accessibility measurement if using gravity model approach.

  2. Transportation Electrification Education Partnership for Green Jobs and Sustainable Mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Huei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mi, Chris [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gover, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-06-28

    This collaborative educational project between the University of Michigan—Ann Arbor, University of Michigan—Dearborn and the Kettering University successfully executed almost all the elements we proposed to do. In the original proposal, we proposed to develop four graduate courses, six undergraduate courses, four professional short courses, a K-12 electric vehicle education kit, a Saturday morning seminar series, and a set of consumer education material to support the advancement of transportation electrification. The first four deliverables were all successfully developed and offered. When we held the kick-off meeting in NETL in Morgantown back in early 2010 with all the ten ARRA education teams, however, it quickly became clear that among the ten ARRA education grantee teams, our proposed “consume education” activities are not better or with the potential to create bigger impact than some of activities proposed in other teams. For example, the Odyssey 2010 event held by the West Virginia University team had planned and successfully reached to more than 230,000 attendees, which is way more than what our proposed 100k event could ever reach. It was under the suggestion of Joseph Quaranta, the ARRA education Program Director at that time, that we should coordinate and eliminate redundancy. The resources should then be focused on activities that have less overlap. Therefore, the originally proposed activities: Saturday morning seminar series, and a set of consumer education material were dropped from our scope. We expanded the scope of our “education kit” activity to include some educational materials, mainly in the form of videos. The target audience also changed from general public to K-12 students. The majority of the project cost (~70%) goes toward the establishment of three undergraduate laboratories, which provides critically needed hands-on learning experience for next-generation green mobility engineers. We are very proud that the ARRA money

  3. 25 CFR 170.413 - What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Roads Program Facilities Long-Range Transportation Planning § 170.413 What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan? BIA or the tribe must solicit public involvement. If there are... newspapers when the draft long-range transportation plan is complete. In the absence of local public...

  4. Bedload transport flux fluctuations over a wide range of time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Fu, X.; Ancey, C.

    2014-12-01

    Bedload transport is a highly fluctuating process. Our previous study (Ma et al., 2014) demonstrated a three-regime relation of the variance of bedload transport flux across a wide range of sampling time scales. This study further explored the fluctuation spectrum of at-a-point bedload transport flux with different sampling times. We derived out analytical solutions of the third- and fourth-order moments of bedload transport flux, based on a physically-based formulation (Ancey et al., 2008; Ma et al., 2014). A formulation of the probability density function of bedload transport flux was constructed based on the 1st through 4th order moments. Experimental data were used to test against the solutions of both the moments and PDF. Interestingly, the higher order statistical moments were found to exhibit the three-regime pattern as well. This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of bedload transport flux fluctuation and emphasizes its timescale-dependent features resulting from the discrete nature and correlated motion of bedload material. The correlated structures of bedload transport, such as bed forms and particle clusters, deserve to be further exploration in future studies. Keywords: bedload transport; stochastic theory; high order moment; fluctuation; time scale; PDF. Ancey, C., Davison, A. C., Bohm, T., Jodeau, M., and Frey, P. Entrainment and motion of coarse particles in a shallow water stream down a steep slope, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2008, 595, 83-114, doi: 10.1017/S0022112007008774. Ma, H. B., Heyman, J., Fu, X. D., Mettra, F., Ancey, C. and Parker, G. Bedload transport over a broad range of time scales: determination of three regimes of fluctuations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 2014. (under review)

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF TROLLEYBUS PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN GDYNIA AS PART OF A SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof GRZELEC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many EU cities, trolleybuses are experiencing a period of revitalization. New lines, state-of-the-art designs, the use of auxiliary propulsion batteries, ecological values and other factors offer great opportunities for this kind of public transport as an effective tool to shape transport policy in accordance with the principles of sustainable mobility. Gdynia is one of three cities in Poland with a trolleybus public transport subsystem. Since the beginning of political and economic transformation, Gdynia’s authority consistently implements measures aimed at balancing urban mobility, above all by improving the quality of public transport services and creating conditions for the development of alternatives forms of transport to private car travel. The experience of the development of trolleybuses in Gdynia as an element of sustainable mobility, the nature of this means of transport in both economic and operation terms, the implementation of original technological solutions in the trolleybuses’ construction and the impact on decision-making by marketing research are the areas of interest in this paper.

  6. The Integration of Sustainable Transport into Future Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen

    The transport sector has been recognised as one of the most challenging sectors with regard to ensuring energy security and combating climate change due to its high dependence on oil products and the lack of mature alternatives with low-carbon emissions. Such challenges of the energy use in trans......The transport sector has been recognised as one of the most challenging sectors with regard to ensuring energy security and combating climate change due to its high dependence on oil products and the lack of mature alternatives with low-carbon emissions. Such challenges of the energy use...... in transport have been clearly observed in China. Strategies in relation to sustainable transport development need to both stabilise the energy demand and replace the oil use by alternatives with low-carbon emissions. Electricity, hydrogen and biofuels derived from biomass are three potential alternative...... in transport may play a role in furthering such integration. The objective of this research is to make a contribution to the development of methodologies to identify and develop future sustainable transport systems as well as to apply such methodologies to the case of China. In particular, the methodological...

  7. Estimation of Performance Indices for the Planning of Sustainable Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of sustainable transportation systems, previous studies have either focused only on the transportation system or have not used a methodology that enables the treatment of incomplete, vague, and qualitative information associated with the available data. This study proposes a system of systems (SOS and a fuzzy logic modeling approach. The SOS includes the Transportation, Activity, and Environment systems. The fuzzy logic modeling approach enables the treatment of the vagueness associated with some of the relevant data. Performance Indices (PIs are computed for each system using a number of performance measures. The PIs illustrate the aggregated performance of each system as well as the interactions among them. The proposed methodology also enables the estimation of a Composite Sustainability Index to summarize the aggregated performance of the overall SOS. Existing data was used to analyze sustainability in the entire United States. The results showed that the Transportation and Activity systems follow a positive trend, with similar periods of growth and contractions; in contrast, the environmental system follows a reverse pattern. The results are intuitive and are associated with a series of historic events, such as depressions in the economy as well as policy changes and regulations.

  8. Approximate solutions of range for constant altitude - constant high subsonic speed flight of transport aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavcar, A.; Cavcar, M. [Anadolu Univ., School of Civil Aviation, Eskisehir, (Turkey)

    2004-09-01

    Approximate cruise range solutions are introduced for the constant altitude constant high subsonic speed flight of turbojet/fan transport aircraft with cambered wing design. The variation of the specific fuel consumption with Mach number is also considered in derivation of the approximate solutions. The method aims at estimation of the cruise range of aircraft during conceptual or preliminary design phase. An application of the solutions is also presented. (author)

  9. Transportation Big Data: Unbiased Analysis and Tools to Inform Sustainable Transportation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Today, transportation operation and energy systems data are generated at an unprecedented scale. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the go-to source for expertise in providing data and analysis to inform industry and government transportation decision making. The lab's teams of data experts and engineers are mining and analyzing large sets of complex data -- or 'big data' -- to develop solutions that support the research, development, and deployment of market-ready technologies that reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. 76 FR 64376 - Long Range Transportation Plan for Fish and Wildlife Service Lands in Hawai`i, Idaho, Northern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... principles have shaped the development, conclusions, and recommendations of the Draft LRTP. The mission of... Resources and Develop Integrated Transportation Solutions Objective 1: To the extent authorized by law... and Promote Sustainable Transportation Practices Objective 1: Address climate change and other...

  11. The impact of transport infrastructure projects on sustainable development within a major logistics gateway in North West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevadakis Dimitrios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the North West of England the issue of a perceived infrastructure gap is of increasing concern. Investment needs to be made to improve the transport infrastructure of the region if it is to be expected to promote the development of its own regional logistics gateway. Funding tools have been set up to address the challenges arising from the imbalance in infrastructure development that exists between regions in the north of the United Kingdom and those in the south. For regions with well developed economies the outlook is promising as the availability of modern transport infrastructure looks set to improve. However, some sources believe that the development of new transport infrastructure will have a negative impact upon sustainable development. It is expected that this will occur in a range of both direct and indirect ways. As a result, it is critical that planning for the creation of new intermodal transport infrastructure, or the upgrading of that which already exists, takes into account the impact that these developments will have on the sustainable development of the host region. A scenario based development methodology is proposed in this paper. It was developed to provide a way to identify potential scenarios that may arise within a given region as a result of transport infrastructure projects. To create significant scenarios the methodology is dependent on the availability of a sufficient quantity of quality data. For this paper that data was collected through a focus group composed of stakeholders from the region in question. This was further supported by the performance of an impact survey using the same group of stakeholders.

  12. Long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmierczyk-Michulec, J; Krysta, M; Kalinowski, M; Hoffmann, E; Baré, J

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the transport of xenon emissions, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) operates an Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) system based on the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. The air mass trajectory ideally provides a "link" between a radionuclide release and a detection confirmed by radionuclide measurements. This paper investigates the long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions, with special emphasis on evaluating the changes in the simulated activity concentration values due to the inclusion of the convective transport in the ATM simulations. For that purpose a series of 14 day forward simulations, with and without convective transport, released daily in the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 June 2013, were analysed. The release point was at the ANSTO facility in Australia. The simulated activity concentrations for the period January 2011 to February 2012 were calculated using the daily emission values provided by the ANSTO facility; outside the aforementioned period, the median daily emission value was used. In the simulations the analysed meteorological input data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used with the spatial resolution of 0.5°. It was found that the long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective conditions, where convection was included in the ATM simulation, led to a small decrease in the activity concentration, as compared to transport without convection. In special cases related to deep convection, the opposite effect was observed. Availability of both daily emission values and measured Xe-133 activity concentration values was an opportunity to validate the simulations. Based on the paired t-test, a 95% confidence interval for the true mean difference between simulations without convective transport and measurements was constructed. It was estimated that the overall uncertainty lies between 0.08 and 0.25 mBq/m3

  13. Urban Mobility Analysis on Efficiency and Sustainability by Means of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branea, Ana-Maria; Gaman, Marius; Badescu, Stefana

    2017-10-01

    Patterns of urban land use are inherently linked to the predominantly used means of transportation, both generating and being generated themselves. While each mode of transportation shapes a different development typology a clear understanding of their interrelations and dependencies is needed in order to create a comprehensive mobility strategy. The study proposes a 15-criteria analysis framework developed to identify and quantify the main modes of transportation’s key aspects. The analysis framework was applied to a yearlong research on Timisoara, Romania, comprising hard, quantitative data, digital simulations and mobility pattern analysis and soft data, quality assessment and perceived needs and satisfaction levels. The research was carried out in clear opposition to the national trend of official mobility strategies focusing on accommodating increased levels of car traffic on the underdeveloped existing roads infrastructure. By analysing the efficiency and sustainability of all four main modes of transportation the results offer a holistic comprehensive view. While, despite current practices, no mobility strategy can focus on a single means of transportation, the article will only present in detail the research on cycling, infrastructure and use, as it is the most underdeveloped and least discussed at the national level and proven through our study to be the most efficient for a city of Timisoara’s size and characteristics. By identifying a clear link between urban land use patterns, infrastructure quality and perceptions and the most efficient means of transportation for each particular city type mobility strategies could shift the trend of urban development towards a more sustainable one.

  14. Specific character of sustainable innovative development of transport construction in self-regulation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumba, Khuta; Belyaeva, Svetlana

    2017-10-01

    The providing of sustainable development is impossible without activating the innovative activity of backbone economical sectors, in particular of transport construction. The system of self-regulation of activities is a specific feature of the transport industry development. The authors carried out the correlation analysis of innovative activity of construction enterprises, which proved the necessity of improving the normative and technical documents. The authors proposed and calculated the index of the legislation stability in the industry. The article suggests recommendations on the activation of innovative development in construction industry basing on the results of the modeling.

  15. Sustainable EOQ under Lead-Time Uncertainty and Multi-Modal Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Kyo Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine a sustainable economic order quantity (S-EOQ problem with a stochastic lead-time and multi-modal transportation options. With the S-EOQ, decisions of order quantities, as well as a reorder point could be influenced by various factors, including unit price, stock-out cost, lead-time variability and emission costs. For a better understanding, we present a mathematical model of the concomitant S-EOQ problem and, using numerical experiments, explore various scenarios to determine the effects of incorporating sustainability considerations into the traditional inventory model on operational decisions including the choice of transportation modal combination and the sourcing decisions

  16. Matrix methods to analyze long-range transport of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, R H

    1981-01-01

    To assess air quality constraints and impacts of energy activities, models that account for long-range transport processes, as well as for local effects of meteorological dispersion, are required. At the present state of the art of modeling, separate models are used to estimate the detailed, rapidly varying effects of local sources and the long-term average effects of distant sources. Development of the air transport matrix method was undertaken to provide a simpler, faster method of analysis. The method represents results of comprehensive longrange transport models in a simple, easy to use form. The present report is a description of the concept and methodologies used in developing matrices, a preliminary analysis of those matrices and their properties, and a guide to the types of applications they can serve. Matrices have been generated by BNL for transport of sulfur oxide emissions among the 238 Air Quality Control Regions in the conterminous United States, using their AIRSOX model. PNL has used their long-range transport model and a streamlined calculation method to generate matrices for sulfur oxides and for emitted fine particulates. Matrices have been completed for 4 months of meterological data (one in each season) from 1974. BNL further separates matrices according to three categories of sources: utility, industrial, and area sources. They differ in terms of effective stack heights and detailed distribution of source locations within each AQCR. Matrices have also been calculated at the more aggregated levels of state and Federal region boundaries.

  17. 2005 Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Hazard

    2005-05-07

    This report gives a summary of the 2005Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition. It lists our objectives, what we did, and an analysis of how we met our objectives. An 80-page report with a list of verified print, radio and TV media coverage, and copies of selected news clips and web media coverage is available at the NESEA office for review.

  18. Identifying target groups for environmentally sustainable transport: assessment of different segmentation approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Hunecke, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of attitude-based market segmentation to promote environmentally sustainable transport has significantly increased. The segmentation of the population into meaningful groups sharing similar attitudes and preferences provides valuable information about how green measures should...... and behavioural segmentations are compared regarding marketing criteria. Although none of the different approaches can claim absolute superiority, attitudinal approaches show advantages in providing startingpoints for interventions to reduce car use....

  19. Transformation of Infrastructure Projects for the Sustainable Development of the Transport Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Irina; Vasilyeva, Elena; Vorontsova, Natalya

    2017-10-01

    The article contains actual data on the review of the performance of the transport infrastructure in Russia. The problems and restrictions, affecting its sustainable development, are identified; their interaction and interrelations are traced. The authors argue that the majority of the revealed restrictions are of internal character and mainly is the feature of the state contract scheme. According to the authors, the scheme of public-and-private partnership is an effective mechanism, which can be suggested for the existing problems solution.

  20. Impact of Long-Range Dust Transport on Northern California in Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Bergmann, D; Chuang, C; Bench, G; Cliff, S; Kelly, P; Perry, K; VanCuren, T

    2005-02-10

    It has been well documented that spectacular dust storms in Asia (e.g. the events in 1998 and 2001) can affect the USA through long-range transport of dust across the Pacific. However, our observations and modeling show that the majority of dust at sites in Lassen National Park and Trinity Alps (Northern California) in spring 2002 (a year with no spectacular Asian dust events) is still from long-range intercontinental transport across the Pacific. We implemented the interactive dust emission algorithm of Ginoux et al. (2004) into the LLNL 3-D global atmospheric chemistry and aerosol transport model (IMPACT), then ran the model using a separate tracer for each dust emission region, using hi-resolution (1 x 1 degree) meteorological data from the NASA GMAO GEOS-3 assimilation system for 2001 and 2002. We also experimentally analyzed size- and time-resolved aerosol samples at Lassen National Park and Trinity Alps in the spring of 2002, which were taken as part of NOAA's ITCT 2k2 measurement campaign. The model-predicted time-series of soil dust over Northern California agrees remarkably well with our measurements, with a strong temporal correlation between the observations and intercontinental transport of dust across the Pacific in the model. Hence, we conclude that the majority of dust we sampled in Northern California in spring 2002, with aerodynamic diameters of 0.56-5 microns, is from long-range intercontinental transport across the Pacific. The strong correlations also strongly validate atmospheric transport in the IMPACT model over the Northern Pacific in spring.

  1. Numerical Upscaling of Transport Through Obstructed Regions Over a Broad Range of Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, N. L.; Bolster, D.; Mattis, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    While historically flow and transport in porous media has focused on low Reynolds number and Peclet number regimes there are a variety of examples relevant to environmental fluid dynamics where higher Reynolds number flows are important. A common example might include flow and transport through wetlands where plants act as the solid phase of an effective porous medium. In particular, heterogeneity in the flow field due to presence of the solid phases gives rise to complex transport and mixing behaviors that cannot be upscaled at pre-asymptotic times using conventional approaches. We numerically simulate pore-scale flow and transport through obstructed domains over a range of Reynolds numbers from 15 to 280 and then upscale transport. We upscale using a correlated continuous time random walk (correlated CTRW) model, originally introduced in [1]. We then assess the correlated CTRW's ability to predict observables for both asymptotic and pre-asymptotic time scales and compare our results to those of a classical CTRW to determine when velocity correlations must be accounted for. REFERENCES[1] T.L. Borgne, M. Dentz, J. Carrera: Lagrangian statistical model for transport in highly heterogeneous velocity fields, Physical Review Letters 101 (2008) 090601.

  2. Sustainability of transport structures - some aspects of the nonlinear reliability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukl, Radomír; Sajdlová, Tereza; Strauss, Alfred; Lehký, David; Novák, Drahomír

    2017-09-01

    Efficient techniques for both nonlinear numerical analysis of concrete structures and advanced stochastic simulation methods have been combined in order to offer an advanced tool for assessment of realistic behaviour, failure and safety assessment of transport structures. The utilized approach is based on randomization of the non-linear finite element analysis of the structural models. Degradation aspects such as carbonation of concrete can be accounted in order predict durability of the investigated structure and its sustainability. Results can serve as a rational basis for the performance and sustainability assessment based on advanced nonlinear computer analysis of the structures of transport infrastructure such as bridges or tunnels. In the stochastic simulation the input material parameters obtained from material tests including their randomness and uncertainty are represented as random variables or fields. Appropriate identification of material parameters is crucial for the virtual failure modelling of structures and structural elements. Inverse analysis using artificial neural networks and virtual stochastic simulations approach is applied to determine the fracture mechanical parameters of the structural material and its numerical model. Structural response, reliability and sustainability have been investigated on different types of transport structures made from various materials using the above mentioned methodology and tools.

  3. Prehospital transportation decisions for patients sustaining major trauma in road traffic crashes in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candefjord, Stefan; Buendia, Ruben; Caragounis, Eva-Corina; Sjöqvist, Bengt Arne; Fagerlind, Helen

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the proportion and characteristics of patients sustaining major trauma in road traffic crashes (RTCs) who could benefit from direct transportation to a trauma center (TC). Currently, there is no national classification of TC in Sweden. In this study, 7 university hospitals (UHs) in Sweden were selected to represent a TC level I or level II. These UHs have similar capabilities as the definition for level I and level II TC in the United States. Major trauma was defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 15. A total of 117,730 patients who were transported by road or air ambulance were selected from the Swedish TRaffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA) database between 2007 to 2014. An analysis of the patient characteristics sustaining major trauma in comparison with patients sustaining minor trauma (ISS car, truck, or bus and to be involved in a crash in a rural location. Our results show that the majority of RTC major trauma patients are transported to a non-TC. This may cause unnecessary morbidity and mortality. These findings can guide the development of improved prehospital treatment guidelines, protocols and decision support systems.

  4. Resource Allocation for Sustainable Urban Transit from a Transport Diversity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Min Feng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Different transport stakeholders have different needs for transport infrastructure and services. Meeting the needs of all stakeholders implies a trade-off of benefits and costs between supply and demand and creates transport diversity issues. However, the literature has largely ignored these issues. Transport diversity can assess the level to which important needs are satisfied equitably, and monitor whether transportation systems are moving towards sustainability by confirming the targets and basic level of quality of life. Based on the concept of transport diversity, this study utilizes fuzzy multi-objective programming to solve non-linear multi-objective problems involving urban public transit systems to determine the impact of resource allocation on needs satisfaction in relation to stakeholder behaviors. The proposed approach avoids problems of inefficient and inequitable resource allocation. A real-life case is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed methodology. Furthermore, empirical outcomes show that recent investments allocated to public transit systems considered equitable stakeholder satisfaction for both mass rapid transit (MRT and bus, and also promoted transport diversity in the Taipei metropolitan area.

  5. Observed chemical characteristics of long-range transported particles at a marine background site in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayetano, Mylene G; Kim, Young J; Jung, Jin Sang; Batmunkh, Tsatsral; Lee, Kwang Yul; Kim, Sung Yong; Kim, Kwan Chul; Kim, Dong Gyu; Lee, Suk Jo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seek

    2011-11-01

    Deokjeok Island is located off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula and is a suitable place to monitor the long-range transport of air pollutants from the Asian continent. In addition to pollutants, Asian dust particles are also transported to the island during long-range transport events. Episodic transport of dust and secondary particles was observed during intensive measurements in the spring (March 31-April 11) and fall (October 13-26) of 2009. In this study, the chemical characteristics of long-range-transported particles were investigated based on highly time-resolved ionic measurements with a particle-into-liquid system coupled with an online ion chromatograph (PILS-IC) that simultaneously measures concentrations of cations (Li+, Na , NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and anions (F-, C1-, NO3-, SO42-). The aerosol optical thickness (AOT) distribution retrieved by the modified Bremen Aerosol Retrieval (M-BAER) algorithm from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data confirmed the presence of a thick aerosol plume coming from the Asian continent towards the Korean peninsula. Seven distinctive events involving the long-range transport (LRT) of aerosols were identified and studied, the chemical components of which were strongly related to sector sources. Enrichment of acidic secondary aerosols on mineral dust particles, and even of sea-salt components, during transport was observed in this study. Backward trajectory, chemical analyses, and satellite aerosol retrievals identified two distinct events: a distinctively high [Ca2++Mg2]/[Na+] ratio (>2.0), which was indicative of a preprocessed mineral dust transport event, and a low [Ca2++Mg2+]/[Na+] ratio (<2.0), which was indicative of severe aging of sea-salt components on the processed dust particles. Particulate C1- was depleted by up to 85% in spring and 50% in the fall. A consistent fraction of carbonate replacement (FCR) averaged 0.53 in spring and 0.55 in the fall. Supporting evidences of C1

  6. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT ON THE DANUBE – MEASURES FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE AND SAFE TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vasilj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Danube is the second longest European river that flows through ten countries and covers an area inhabited by 115 million people. It can be observed in geographical, transport, economic, historical and ecological terms. This paper analyses the environmental aspects with special reference to transport on inland waterways as well as pollution that can be result of such transport. The Danube is a specific river that, besides its size, is marked by the diversity in the morphology and hydrology. It is characterized by stunning landscape and unique biodiversity, rare natural habitats and it stands out as an ecologically important area of Europe. Since the subject of protection and improvement of the water status of the Danube is very extensive and requires analysis through multiple branches of law, after the definition of key concepts necessary for a better understanding of the paper, it analyses regulations of inland navigation, environmental provisions, and significant ecological norms of other areas of law, at national and international level. After analysing a number of norms related to the title of the article the author proposes concrete measures to improve the situation.

  7. Chemical Analysis of Aerosols for Characterization of Long-Range Transport at Mt. Lassen, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Waddell, J. A.; Cliff, S. S.; Perry, K. D.; Kelly, P. B.

    2004-12-01

    Effective regional air pollution regulation requires an understanding of long-range aerosol transport and natural aerosol chemistry. Sample collection was performed at the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sampling site on Mt. Lassen in the Sierra Nevada range at 1755 m elevation. The site is in Northern California at Longitude 121° 34' 40", Latitude 40° 32' 25". Size segregated and time resolved aerosol samples were collected with an 8 DRUM sampler from April 15th to May 24th 2002 as part of the NOAA Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation Experiment (ITCT). The samples were analyzed with Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (S-XRF) and Time of Flight mass spectroscopy (TOFMS). The total aerosol concentration exhibits a clear daily cycling of total mass, due to a nighttime down-slope air circulation from the free troposphere. The sulfate peaked in concentration during the night. Elemental data is suggestive of dust transport from continental Asia. The micron size ranges were dominated by nitrate, while the sub-micron size ranges had high levels of sulfate. Chemical analysis shows oceanic influence through strong correlations between methyl sulfonic acid (MSA), iodine, and oxalate. The appearance of the oceanic biogenic tracers in the sub-micron fraction is most likely a result of vertical mixing over the Pacific Ocean. MSA follows a diurnal pattern similar to sulfate, however the differences suggest both an oceanic and continental source for sulfate. The carbon particulate signal did not show any diurnal pattern during the measurement period.

  8. Electrical and thermoelectric transport by variable range hopping in reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min; Hong, Sung Ju; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hojin; Lee, Minwoo; Jeong, Dae Hong; Park, Yung Woo; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the transport properties of single-layer reduced graphene oxides (rGOs). The rGOs were prepared by the bubble deposition method followed by thermal reduction. The crossover of the transport mechanism from Efros-Shklovskii (ES) variable range hopping (VRH) between the localized states to Mott-VRH was observed near 70 K using the temperature-dependent conductance. The ES-VRH conduction below 70 K is apparent in the electric field dependence of the field-driven hopping transport in the high-electric field regime. We also figure out that the thermoelectric power is consistent with the 2D Mott VRH above 70 K. We argue that the VRH conduction results from the topological disorders of rGO as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. This infers that the average distance between defects is approximately 2.0 nm.

  9. An interpretive summary of the 1997 conference on policies for fostering sustainable transportation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    T.R. Lakshmanan, director of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, offered the following definition from the Bruntland Commission: ``Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations.`` The technologies and policies that received the most attention would provide per-unit-of-service reduction of three kinds of social costs (external costs, in economist`s terminology) with respect to light duty transportation. The main factors to be reduced were oil use, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. Undesirable side effects of continually expanding transportation activity, including congestion and habitat loss, were also discussed. The conference included debate about priorities among these five categories of social cost, about which organizations should take action to achieve the reductions needed in each, and about what specific actions these organizations should take.

  10. Optimization and Simulation of Collaborative Networks for Sustainable Production and Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liotta, Giacomo; Kaihara, Toshiya; Stecca, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Complex and delocalized manufacturing industries require high levels of integration between production and transportation in order to effectively implement lean and agile operations. There are, however, limitations in research and applications simultaneously embodying further sustainability...... dimensions. This paper presents a methodological framework based on optimization and simulation to integrate aggregate optimized plans for production and multimodal transportation with detailed dynamic distribution plans affected by demand uncertainty. The objective function of the optimization model...... considers supply, production, transportation, and CO2 emission costs, as well as collaboration over the multimodal network. Bill-of-materials and capacity constraints are included. A feedback between simulation and optimization is used to plan requirements for materials and components. Computational...

  11. Airmass Trajectories and Long Range Transport of Pollutants: Review of Wet Deposition Scenario in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kulshrestha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of airmass trajectories and their role in air pollution transport. It describes the concept, history, and basic calculation of air trajectories citing various trajectory models used worldwide. It highlights various areas of trajectory applications and errors associated with trajectory calculations. South Asian region receives airmasses from Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Indian Ocean, and so forth, depending upon the season. These airmasses are responsible for export and import of pollutants depositing in nearby states. Trajectory analysis revealed that soil is contributed by the dust storms coming from Oman through Gulf and Iran, while most of black carbon (BC sources are located in India. A detailed review of trajectories associated with wet deposition events indicated that airmasses coming from Europe and Middle East carry high concentration of acidic pollutants which are deposited in Himalayan ranges. Similarly, trajectory analysis revealed that acidic pollutants from continental anthropogenic sources are transported to an ecosensitive site in Western Ghats in India and the outward fluxes of anthropogenic activities of Indo-Gangetic region are transported towards Bay of Bengal. Hence, transboundary and long range transport of pollutants are very important issues in South Asia which need immediate attention of scientists and policy makers.

  12. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2016 Meteorological, Radiological, and Wind Transported Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if wind blowing across the Clean Slate sites is transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites.

  13. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals’ intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China’s three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  14. Enhanced SO2 Concentrations Observed over Northern India: Role of Long-range Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, C.; Lal, S.; Naja, M.; Chand, Duli; Venkataramani, S.; Joshi, H.; Pant, P.

    2013-01-17

    Volcanic emissions and coal burning are among the major sources of SO2 over the continental environment. In this study, we show episodes of long-range transport of volcanic SO2 from Africa to Northern India using satellite observations. Monthly averaged SO2 from OMI were of the order of 0.6-0.9 DU during November, 2008 over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), which far exceeded background values (<0.3 DU) retrieved from observations across different locations over North India during 2005-2010. The columnar SO2 loadings were much higher on November 6 over most of the IGP and even exceeded 6 DU, a factor of 10 higher than background levels at some places. These enhanced SO2 levels were, however, not reciprocated in satellite derived NO2 or CO columns, indicating transport from a non-anthropogenic source of SO2. Backward trajectory analysis revealed strong winds in the free troposphere, which originated from the Dalaffilla volcanic eruption over the Afar region of Ethiopia during November 4-6, 2008. Wind streams and stable atmospheric conditions were conducive to the long-range transport of volcanic plume into the IGP. As most of the local aerosols over IGP region are below 3 km, a well separated layer at 4-5 km is observed from CALIPSO, most likely as a result of this transport. Apart from known anthropogenic sources, the additional transport of volcanic SO2 over the IGP region would have implications to air quality and radiation balance over this region.

  15. Long range transport of mercury to the Arctic and across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Durnford

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is the most extensive study to date on the transport of mercury to the Arctic. Moreover, it is the first such study to use a fully-coupled, online chemical transport model, Environment Canada's Global/Regional Atmospheric Heavy Metals model (GRAHM, where the meteorology and mercury processes are fully integrated. It is also the only study to date on the transport of mercury across Canada. We estimated source attribution from Asia, North America, Russia and Europe at six arctic verification stations, as well as three subarctic and eight midlatitude Canadian stations.

    We have found that Asia, despite having transport efficiencies that were almost always lower than those of North America and often lower than those of Russia, was the dominant source of gaseous atmospheric mercury at all verification stations: it contributed the most mercury (29–37% at all stations, seasons and levels considered, its concentrations frequently explained nearly 100% of the variability in the concentrations produced by the simulation performed with full global emissions, particularly in the absence of local sources, and it generated the most long range transport (LRT events, causing 43%, 67% and 75% of the events at the arctic, subarctic and midlatitude stations, respectively. For the Arctic, Russian transport efficiencies tended to be the strongest, as expected, while European and Asian efficiencies were lower and higher, respectively, than those found in the literature. This disagreement is likely produced by mercury's long lifetime relative to that of other pollutants. The accepted springtime preference for the trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution was evident only in the midlatitude group of stations, being masked in the arctic and subarctic groups by the occurrence of atmospheric mercury depletion events. Some neighbouring arctic stations recorded dissimilar numbers of LRT events; despite their proximity, the behaviour of mercury at these

  16. Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

  17. Enhance the sustainability of private land transport system at Ayer Keroh, Melaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Heoy Shin; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Yang, Yu Xin Ou

    2017-03-01

    Ayer Keroh Toll that under the administration of Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (HTJMC) is the main entrance for the people to enter to the city from North-South Expressway. This situation causes congestion to happen in this area especially during weekend and holiday and lead to air pollution. Hence, it is important to solve this problem beginning with the transport system and brings the city toward the sustainable way by learning the foreign city experience. In this research, the researchers start to revise the case study from foreign city councils on what and how they improve their cities transport system in term of sustainability. There are total of 17 case studies been studied including the cities that recognize with Sustainable Transport Award (STA) and other special activity and event that held worldwide. These cases studied are merged with the behavioral modification. There are four methods of changing behavior: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. Besides, the data from the administrative staff (HTJMC's officer) also important to success the planning. There are 16 officers that involved in this research and the data that obtained is used as the primary data resources. By knowing the behavioral modification and suggestion that brought by each case studies, the researchers will conclude whether the solution practicable in Ayer Keroh, Melaka or not. Throughout the research, the researchers can conclude that the not all the foreign experience is practical in Ayer, Keroh, Melaka due to the problem of weather, culture and technology that available in the city. The experience from foreign city cannot be exactly to implement in the city but need to redesign to match culture in the city.

  18. Towards a relevant and sustainable R&D agenda for transport and transport infrastructure in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of transport and transport infrastructure was discussed in the previous chapter. Transport and transport infrastructure plays a significant role in both economic and social development. However, in the future transport officials...

  19. Dependence of simulations of long range transport on meteorology, model and dust size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, N. M.; Albani, S.; Smith, M.; Losno, R.; Marticorena, B.; Ridley, D. A.; Heald, C. L.; Qu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral aerosols interact with radiation directly, as well as modifying climate, and provide important micronutrients to ocean and land ecosystems. Mineral aerosols are transported long distances from the source regions to remote regions, but the rates at which this occurs can be difficult to deduce from either observations or models. Here we consider interactions between the details of the simulation of dust size and long-range transport. In addition, we compare simulations of dust using multiple reanalysis datasets, as well as different model basis to understand how robust the mean, seasonality and interannual variability are in models. Models can provide insight into how long observations are required in order to characterize the atmospheric concentration and deposition to remote regions.

  20. Transport phenomena in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in ethanol directly into electricity, are one of the most promising energy-conversion devices for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a carbon-neutral, sustainable fuel and the electrocatalytic and membrane materials that constitute the cell are relatively inexpensive. As a result, the alkaline DEFC technology has undergone a rapid progress over the last decade. This article provides a comprehensive review of transport phenomena of various species in this fuel cell system. The past investigations into how the design and structural parameters of membrane electrode assemblies and the operating parameters affect the fuel cell performance are discussed. In addition, future perspectives and challenges with regard to transport phenomena in this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  1. The role of policy-making and planning cultures for sustainable transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of culture in relation to policy-making and planning activities, exemplified through a discussion on how it may influence sustainable transport policy and planning. It is recognised that discourses and institutions play an essential part in framing problems...... and solutions, however an improved understanding of barriers and potentials in policy and planning deliberation is likely to be reached if underlying layers of values and perceptions are considered and illuminated more explicitly. Culture is also changeable, which means that it becomes relevant for policy...... and barriers. In conclusion, a culture focus recognises diversity inside and outside normal policy and planning settings and procedures and attempts to bring different cultures to interact and to learn from each other. A transport policy-making and planning process based in a culture approach may illuminate...

  2. Biogeochemical Impact of Long-Range Transported Dust over Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Wang, S. H.; Hsu, N. C.

    2011-01-01

    Transpacific transport and impact of Asian dust aerosols have been well documented (e.g., results from ACE-Asia and regional follow-on campaigns), but little is known about dust invasion to the South China Sea (SCS). On 19-21 March 2010, a fierce Asian dust storm affected large areas from the Gobi deserts to the West Pacific, including Taiwan and Hong Kong. As a pilot study of the 7-SEAS (Seven South East Asian Studies) in the northern SCS, detailed characteristics of long-range transported dust aerosols were first observed by a comprehensive set of ground-based instruments deployed at the Dongsha islands (20deg42'52" N, 116deg43'51" E). Aerosol measurements such as particle mass concentrations, size distribution, optical properties, hygroscopicity, and vertical profiles help illustrate the evolution of this dust outbreak. Our results indicate that these dust particles were mixed with anthropogenic and marine aerosols, and transported near the surface. Satellite assessment of biogeochemical impact of dust deposition into open oceans is hindered by our current inability in retrieving areal dust properties and ocean colors over an extensive period of time, particularly under the influence of cloudy conditions. In this paper, we analyze the changes of retrieved Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration over the northern SCS, considered as oligotophic waters in the spring, from long-term SeaWiFS measurements since 1997. Over the past decade, six long-range transported dust events are identified based on spatiotemporal evolutions of PM10 measurements from regional monitoring stations, with the aid of trajectory analysis. Multi-year composites of Chl-a imagery for dust event and non-dust background during March-April are applied to overcome insufficient retrievals of Chl-a due to cloudy environment. Due to anthropogenic modification within a shallow boundary layer off the densely populated and industrial southeast coast of China, the iron ion activation of deliquescent dust

  3. Improving urban freight transport sustainability by carriers - Best practices from The Netherlands and the EU project CityLog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Carriers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport

  4. Improving Urban Freight Transport Sustainability by Carriers : Best Practices from The Netherlands and the EU Project CityLog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    ers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport more

  5. Sustainable Systems Analysis of Production and Transportation Scenarios for Conventional and Bio-based Energy Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, E. M.; Golden, J. S.; Nowacek, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    International commerce places unique pressures on the sustainability of water resources and marine environments. System impacts include noise, emissions, and chemical and biological pollutants like introduction of invasive species into key ecosystems. At the same time, maritime trade also enables the sustainability ambition of intragenerational equity in the economy through the global circulation of commodities and manufactured goods, including agricultural, energy and mining resources (UN Trade and Development Board 2013). This paper presents a framework to guide the analysis of the multiple dimensions of the sustainable commerce-ocean nexus. As a demonstration case, we explore the social, economic and environmental aspects of the nexus framework using scenarios for the production and transportation of conventional and bio-based energy commodities. Using coupled LCA and GIS methodologies, we are able to orient the findings spatially for additional insight. Previous work on the sustainable use of marine resources has focused on distinct aspects of the maritime environment. The framework presented here, integrates the anthropogenic use, governance and impacts on the marine and coastal environments with the natural components of the system. A similar framework has been highly effective in progressing the study of land-change science (Turner et al 2007), however modification is required for the unique context of the marine environment. This framework will enable better research integration and planning for sustainability objectives including mitigation and adaptation to climate change, sea level rise, reduced dependence on fossil fuels, protection of critical marine habitat and species, and better management of the ocean as an emerging resource base for the production and transport of commodities and energy across the globe. The framework can also be adapted for vulnerability analysis, resilience studies and to evaluate the trends in production, consumption and

  6. Transport of pollutants considered from the point of view of a short and medium range-material balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel Benaire

    1976-01-01

    Episodical long-range transport is the quasi-instantaneous peak event. It does not express the total dosage of pollutant carried over from the source area to some distant place. The purpose of the present paper is to obtain an average material balance of a pollutant leaving a given area. Available information from the OECD "Long Range Transport of Air Pollutants...

  7. Study of the application of hydrogen fuel to long-range subsonic transport aircraft, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Lange, R. H.; Moore, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility, practicability, and potential advantages/disadvantages of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in long range, subsonic transport aircraft of advanced design were studied. Both passenger and cargo-type aircraft were investigated. To provide a valid basis for comparison, conventional hydrocarbon (Jet A) fueled aircraft were designed to perform identical missions using the same advanced technology and meeting the same operational constraints. The liquid hydrogen and Jet A fueled aircraft were compared on the basis of weight, size, energy utilization, cost, noise, emissions, safety, and operational characteristics. A program of technology development was formulated.

  8. Steady stokes flow with long-range correlations, fractal fourier spectrum, and anomalous transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, Michael A; Straube, Arthur V

    2002-12-09

    We consider viscous two-dimensional steady flows of incompressible fluids past doubly periodic arrays of solid obstacles. In a class of such flows, the autocorrelations for the Lagrangian observables decay in accordance with the power law, and the Fourier spectrum is neither discrete nor absolutely continuous. We demonstrate that spreading of the droplet of tracers in such flows is anomalously fast. Since the flow is equivalent to the integrable Hamiltonian system with 1 degree of freedom, this provides an example of integrable dynamics with long-range correlations, fractal power spectrum, and anomalous transport properties.

  9. Sustainable remote Australian transport for living on country and going out bush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Spandonide

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Both the domestic and international academic literature’s analysis of links between transport and wellbeing focuses mainly on urban settings and vulnerable population groups including older people, people with health issues, socio-economically disadvantaged people, or people undergoing more frequent extreme climatic events. While the relationship between remote Australians wellbeing and travelling activities is evident, its complexity still remains an under-researched topic. This is paradoxical when considering that extreme distances, high supply chain costs, limited access to services and to economic participation are well recognised obstacles for sustaining vibrant remote Australian communities. The latest accessibility-driven technological innovations in both the digital and the sharing economies are highly topical in transport projects in urban agglomerations but still a distant reality for remote Australia. There is a need for researching an appropriateness framework of such technologies because of the strong relevance of the multiple outcomes in terms of wellbeing that some of these innovations provide. Furthermore what defines a good quality of life can sometimes be very similar and other times greatly differ between remote and urban contexts. In the light of some recent transport and mobility research this paper analyses the potential connections between more appropriate transport innovations and increasingly resilient remote communities.

  10. Improving Understanding of the Fate and Transport of Munitions Constituents to Enhance Sustainability of Operational Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    n  Co nc en tr at io n  m g  L‐1 Log Hydration Time (Days) HMX RDX NG TNT 2,4‐DNT 18 Figure 8. Effect of mixing of 5 (HMX, RDX, NG, TNT and 2,4...Benson LV. 1982. A tabulation and evaluation of ion-exchange data on smectites. Environmental Geology . 4: 23-29. Birdwell J, Cook RL, Thibodeaux LJ

  11. Using GIS to Help Support and Sustain U.S. Army Ranges - A Global Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    dictionary • How to use the SRP QAP geodatabase  GIS for Range Staff Course • Range Safety Tools and basic GIS training  Workshops and Conferences...GIS Quality Assurance Plans ( QAPs ) – Defined by the HQ Proponency matrix (DPTMS/Range)  Created – SRP GIS Symbology – SRP GIS Map Templates – SRP GIS...Annually, the RSC averages over 600 GIS technical support calls  Topics include:  RMTK (All tools)  MIM Development  QAP /Data Development  Data

  12. Response of Fuel Subsidy Removal as Sustainable Transport Policy (Case Study: Workers in Jakarta Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octaviani Ariyanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motorization in urban areas contributes several problems such as congestion, accidents, gas emissions, noises, and infrastructure breakage. Meanwhile, most of the developing countries cannot overcome such growth activities, as well as in Jakarta. By December 2013, Vice Governor of Jakarta proposes fuel subsidy removal policy as one of sustainable transport policy. This study is intended to understand and investigate how fuel subsidy removal policy scenarios (25%, 50%, and 100% in Jakarta affects travelers’ behavior and analyze such policy to support sustainable transport by using qualitative research methodology. Interviews and questionnaires survey is conducted to workers in Jakarta, which includes ranking scale question for traveler response options. The result shows that half of the respondents are not affected and will only respond to fuel price increasing at IDR 31,400 for gasoline price and IDR 26,300 for ADO (Auto Diesel Oil. Moreover, there is a tendency of respondent's to the response by changing their travel mode choices into more fuel efficient private vehicle.

  13. Fractional quantum mechanics on networks: Long-range dynamics and quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, A P; Mateos, José L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the quantum transport on networks with a temporal evolution governed by the fractional Schrödinger equation. We generalize the dynamics based on continuous-time quantum walks, with transitions to nearest neighbors on the network, to the fractional case that allows long-range displacements. By using the fractional Laplacian matrix of a network, we establish a formalism that combines a long-range dynamics with the quantum superposition of states; this general approach applies to any type of connected undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, and can be implemented from the spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix. We study the fractional dynamics and its capacity to explore the network by means of the transition probability, the average probability of return, and global quantities that characterize the efficiency of this quantum process. As a particular case, we explore analytically these quantities for circulant networks such as rings, interacting cycles, and complete graphs.

  14. Fractional quantum mechanics on networks: Long-range dynamics and quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, A. P.; Mateos, José L.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the quantum transport on networks with a temporal evolution governed by the fractional Schrödinger equation. We generalize the dynamics based on continuous-time quantum walks, with transitions to nearest neighbors on the network, to the fractional case that allows long-range displacements. By using the fractional Laplacian matrix of a network, we establish a formalism that combines a long-range dynamics with the quantum superposition of states; this general approach applies to any type of connected undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, and can be implemented from the spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix. We study the fractional dynamics and its capacity to explore the network by means of the transition probability, the average probability of return, and global quantities that characterize the efficiency of this quantum process. As a particular case, we explore analytically these quantities for circulant networks such as rings, interacting cycles, and complete graphs.

  15. Long-range transport of sulfur in the western United States. [Projections for 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W. F.; Eadie, W. J.; Drewes, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Pollutants, such as SO/sub 2/ and sulfate, emitted from both utility and industrial coal burning processes have long residence time in the atmosphere. Therefore, the long-range atmospheric transport and diffusion of these pollutants must be considered in any environmental assessment of proposed plant operation. The most useful tool in predicting the long-range transport of pollutants is a computer simulation technique for the Gaussian diffusion equation. Information produced by the model includes: SO/sub 2/ and sulfate ground-level air concentrations, the amount of SO/sub 2/ and sulfate deposited on the ground surface, the minimum pH value in the rainfall, and the budget of SO/sub 2/ and sulfate material over the diffusion grid. Information on siting and emissions is also required. For this study, siting was based on projected coal use in 1985 and 1990 based on a two-thirds increase in coal production. Results of the modeling for the western United States indicate that the maximum incremental ground-level air concentrations for SO/sub 2/ are 8.4 and 14 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for utility and industrial sources, respectively. Maximum predicted incremental ground-level sulfate concentrations for utility and industrial sources are 0.8 and 1.2 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, respectively. The minimum calculated pH values for both utility and industrial sulfur emission were 5.3. Maximum SO/sub 2/ deposition amounts range from 0.5 to 0.8 gm/m/sup 2/ for both the utility and industrial coal use scenarios. The largest sulfate deposition amounts range from a factor of 55 to 24 smaller than SO/sub 2/ deposition amounts. (ERB)

  16. Flux-corrected transport algorithms preserving the eigenvalue range of symmetric tensor quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to constraining the eigenvalue range of symmetric tensors in numerical advection schemes based on the flux-corrected transport (FCT) algorithm and a continuous finite element discretization. In the context of element-based FEM-FCT schemes for scalar conservation laws, the numerical solution is evolved using local extremum diminishing (LED) antidiffusive corrections of a low order approximation which is assumed to satisfy the relevant inequality constraints. The application of a limiter to antidiffusive element contributions guarantees that the corrected solution remains bounded by the local maxima and minima of the low order predictor. The FCT algorithm to be presented in this paper guarantees the LED property for the maximal and minimal eigenvalues of the transported tensor at the low order evolution step. At the antidiffusive correction step, this property is preserved by limiting the antidiffusive element contributions to all components of the tensor in a synchronized manner. The definition of the element-based correction factors for FCT is based on perturbation bounds for auxiliary tensors which are constrained to be positive semidefinite to enforce the generalized LED condition. The derivation of sharp bounds involves calculating the roots of polynomials of degree up to 3. As inexpensive and numerically stable alternatives, limiting techniques based on appropriate estimates are considered. The ability of the new limiters to enforce local bounds for the eigenvalue range is confirmed by numerical results for 2D advection problems.

  17. Using local knowledge and sustainable transport to promote a greener city: The case of Bucharest, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niță, Mihai R; Badiu, Denisa L; Onose, Diana A; Gavrilidis, Athanasios A; Grădinaru, Simona R; Năstase, Irina I; Lafortezza, Raffaele

    2018-01-01

    Cities undergoing climate change and rapid urbanization are faced with significant transformational processes that affect the environment and society, challenging them to become more sustainable and resilient. The promotion of nature-based solutions represents an efficient approach to meet sustainability targets in cities and improve the quality of life of citizens. The association of large components of green infrastructure, such as urban parks, with physical activity can counteract the sedentary lifestyle endemic to cities and improve the overall health and well-being of individuals (Carrus et al., 2013; Scopelliti et al., 2016). By promoting a sustainable means of transport and connecting green spaces within a highly urbanized city, bicycle lanes represent an effective tool for associating physical activity with nature in cities allowing bicycle users to benefit from the positive health effects of nature-based solutions. Our study focuses on the potential of bicycle lanes to improve functional connectivity among green spaces. We administered 820 questionnaires in 34 green spaces (i.e., urban parks) in Bucharest, Romania, to identify the factors influencing the use of bicycle lanes connecting urban parks and to understand which planning criteria for bicycle lanes are considered as the most important by park visitors. We applied binary and ordinal logistic regressions and found that the factors affecting bicycle lane use are illegally parked cars and lack of accessibility to urban parks. The criteria preferred by park visitors for bicycle lane planning are determined by experience level and frequency of bicycle use. To develop a functional and integrated bicycle lane network that can make cities healthier and more sustainable, policy makers are advised to engage in a public participatory process and focus on the needs of bicycle users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-05-01

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current `metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  19. The future of transportation in sustainable energy systems: Opportunities and barriers in a clean energy transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, Ivan; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2017-01-01

    and energy resources. Especially challenging transition is envisaged for heavy-weight, long-range vehicles and airplanes. A detailed literature review was carried out in order to detect the current state of the research on clean transport sector, as well as to point out the gaps in the research. In order...... to calculate the resources needed for the transition towards completely renewable transport sector, four main alternatives to the current fossil fuel systems were assessed and their potential was quantified, i.e. biofuels, hydrogen, synthetic fuels (electrofuels) and electricity. Results showed that electric...

  20. Learning from experiences in sustainable transport practice: green freight europe and the implementation of a best cases database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kaledinova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: For many logistics service providers and shippers sustainable transport is still a relatively recent issue, even if almost every transportation company is engaged in sustainability. Each has had different experiences with making transportation more sustainable. By looking at the efforts and successes of others sharing these experiences could help shippers and logistics service providers to obtain new innovative ideas of how to become more sustainable. The certification organization Green Freight Europe (GFE wants to develop a database for these types of experiences in order to encourage its members to generate sustainable initiatives. Method: In support of this plan, we interviewed several logistics service providers and shippers and conducted a brief survey among GFE members. Results: Sustainability forms one of the goals for all interviewed companies mainly based on cost reduction but followed closely as a tool to attract new customers. At the moment, the information obtained to keep updated on sustainability comes mainly from truck producers and not from information from best cases from other logistics service providers. Conclusions: We have found that there is a willingness to submit best cases, but also a fear that the submitter will miss his competitive advantage by telling others about his innovations.

  1. Sustainability Measures of Urban Public Transport in Cities: A World Review and Focus on the Asia/Middle East Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris De Gruyter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of public transport sustainability in cities have been very limited to date, particularly in more developing countries located throughout Asia and the Middle East. This paper assesses the sustainability of urban public transport systems in cities by adopting a quantitative measurement framework containing 15 public transport sustainability indicators. It compares aggregate sustainability performance of urban public transport in international regions of cities, and then examines the relative sustainability of selected cities in the Asia and Middle East region. The world region analysis shows that Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America achieve the highest aggregate normalised scores for sustainable public transport, in that order. In general, the results suggest that western developed countries (Western Europe, North America, and Oceania have better performance on environmental and social indicators but poorer performance on system effectiveness and economic indicators. Asia and Latin America perform the other way round; better on economic and system effectiveness and worse on social and environmental indicators. Eastern Europe is one of the few regions with higher level performance all round. The city-based analysis of Asia/Middle East suggested that out of the 26 cities studied, the top 3 cities in terms of sustainable public transport in the Asia and Middle East Region are: 1st, Manila (Philippines; 2nd, Tokyo (Japan; and 3rd, Chennai (India. Dubai (United Arab Emirates (UAE, rated 26th, Shizuoka (Japan, rated 25th and Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia, rated 24th were the lowest rated cities. The paper explores the implications of the findings and makes suggestions for future research.

  2. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling the role of public transportation in sustaining tuberculosis transmission in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jason R; Morrow, Carl; Wood, Robin

    2013-03-15

    Current tuberculosis notification rates in South Africa are among the highest ever recorded. Although the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic has been a critical factor, the density of respiratory contacts in high-risk environments may be an important and underappreciated driver. Using a modified Wells-Riley model for airborne disease transmission, we estimated the risk of tuberculosis transmission on 3 modes of public transit (minibus taxis, buses, and trains) in Cape Town, South Africa, using exhaled carbon dioxide as a natural tracer gas to evaluate air exchange. Carbon dioxide measurements were performed between October and December of 2011. Environmental risk, reflected in the rebreathed fraction of air, was highest in minibus taxis and lowest in trains; however, the average number of passengers sharing an indoor space was highest in trains and lowest in minibus taxis. Among daily commuters, the annual risk of tuberculosis infection was projected to be 3.5%-5.0% and was highest among minibus taxi commuters. Assuming a duration of infectiousness of 1 year, the basic reproductive number attributable to transportation was more than 1 in all 3 modes of transportation. Given its poor ventilation and high respiratory contact rates, public transportation may play a critical role in sustaining tuberculosis transmission in South African cities.

  4. Very long range global population scenarios to 2300 and the implications of sustained low fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Basten

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Depending on whether the global level of fertility is assumed to converge to the current European TFR (~1.5 or that of Southeast Asia or Central America (~2.5, global population will either decline to 2.3-2.9 billion by 2200 or increase to 33-37 billion, if mortality continues to decline. Furthermore, sizeable human populations exist where the voluntarily chosen ideal family size is heavily concentrated around one child per woman with TFRs as low as 0.6-0.8. However, the UN population projections to 2300 use a much narrower band of possible future TFRs. OBJECTIVE If the two-child norm is not necessarily the end-point of transition, what would be the consequences of the currently reported low fertility rates being sustained and becoming widespread? METHODS We present new projections for 13 IPCC world regions with scenarios calculated on the basis of regular cohort-component projections by age and sex in single-year time steps up to 2300, each based upon a much broader set of fertility assumptions than currently employed. We create three mortality scenarios based upon maximum life expectancies of 90, 100, and 110, as well as a series of 'special' scenarios. RESULTS Even under conditions of further substantial increases in life expectancy, world population size would decline significantly if the world in the longer run followed the current examples of Europe and East Asia. CONCLUSIONS In contrast to Malthusian disaster scenarios, our exercise illustrates the distinct possibility of significant population shrinking associated with increasing life expectancy and human well-being.

  5. Researching design and transportation systems for sustainable communities : what can we learn and how can it be applied in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-29

    There has been a marked growth of interest in the topic of sustainable communities and sustainable transportation due to increased concerns about global warming and climate change. One of the leading causes is urbanization and its impacts on people a...

  6. ITS contribution to sustain ability and improvement of road transport; Aportacion de los ITS a la sostenibilidad y mejora del transporte por carretera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Alonso, F.; Aparicio Izquierdo, F.

    2008-07-01

    The road transport growth has increased those problems that threaten its sustainability: accidents exhaust emissions, congestion, etc. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) provide solutions based on electronics, automatic control and communications technologies. In this complex environment where users of different characteristics share the same infrastructure, improvements that cooperative systems (V2V, V2I and management centres) produce are evaluated. Furthermore, main obstacles that make their quick and wide implementation difficult are analyzed. (Author) 12 refs.

  7. Designing Sustainable Cold Chains for Long-Range Food Distribution: Energy-Effective Corridors on the Silk Road Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gallo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern food production-distribution processes represent a critical stressor for the environment and for natural ecosystems. The rising flows of food across growing and consumption areas couple with the higher expectations of consumers for the quality of products and compel the intensive use of refrigerated rooms and transport means throughout the food supply chain. In order to aid the design of sustainable cold chains that incorporate such aspects, this paper proposes a mixed integer linear programming model to minimize the total energy consumption associated with the cold operations experienced by perishable products. This model is intended for food traders, logistics practitioners, retail managers, and importers collaboratively called to design and plan a cost and environmentally effective supply strategy, physical channels, and infrastructures for cold chains. The proposed model is validated with a case study inspired by the distribution of two example food products, namely fresh apples and ice cream, along the New Silk Road connecting Europe and China. The illustrated analysis investigates the effect of alternative routes and transport modes on the sustainability of the cold chain. It is found that the most energy-efficient route for ice cream is via rail over a northern route and, for apples, is via a southern maritime route, and, for these two routes, the ratios of the total energy consumed to the energy content of the food are 760 and 913, respectively. By incorporating the energy lost due to the food quality decay, the model identifies the optimal route to adopt in accordance with the shelf life and the conservation temperature of each product.

  8. Long range transport of nitrate in the low atmosphere over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jikang; Xu, Jun; He, Youjiang; Chen, Yunbo; Meng, Fan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the source-relationships were established for surface nitrate concentrations in Northeast Asia, using the Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in the CAMx (a regional chemical transport model). Both of the local emissions and Chinese emissions were important among the sources of the particle nitrate in Japan and South Korea, accounting for 27.9-62.9% and 22.9-50.5% respectively. The local contributions of nitrate were 4-20% higher than the figures of sulfate, and this was caused by the different chemical processes and emissions involved. The seasonal variation of the nitrate concentration in East Asia led to different amounts of nitrate being attributed to long-range transport, and was higher in winter (>53%) than in summer (Japan and some regions of South Korea. And that was different in most parts of East Asia, where there were large quantities of ammonia. The ammonia from local emissions were most likely responsible for some particulate nitrate being transformed from trans-boundary gaseous nitric, which signified that local emissions of ammonia increased the contribution of China to the nitrate concentrations in Japan and South Korea.

  9. Correlation of Disorder and Charge Transport in a Range of Indacenodithiophene-Based Semiconducting Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Nikolka, Mark

    2017-12-13

    Over the past 25 years, various design motifs have emerged for the development of organic semiconductors for demanding applications in flexible organic light emitting diode display backplanes or even printed organic logic. Due to their large area uniformity paired with high charge carrier mobilities, conjugated polymers have attracted increasing attention in this respect. However, the performances delivered by current generation conjugated polymers still fall short of many industrial requirements demanding devices with ideal transistor characteristics and higher mobilities. The discovery of conjugated polymers with low energetic disorder, such as the indacenodithiophene-based polymer indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole, represent an exciting opportunity to breach this chasm if these materials can be further optimized while maintaining their low disorder. Here, it is shown how both the charge transport properties as well as the energetic disorder are affected by tuning the molecular structure of a large range of indacenodithiophene-based semiconducting polymer derivatives. This study allows to understand better the interplay between molecular design and structure of the polymer backbone and the degree of energetic disorder that governs the charge transport properties in thin polymer films.

  10. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  11. Use of ethanol in public urban transport: BEST (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) Project; Uso de etanol no transporte publico urbano: projeto BEST (Bio Ethanol para o Transporte Sustentavel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose Roberto; Apolinario, Sandra; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Velazquez, Silvia [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper present the BEST project - Bio Ethanol for Sustainable Transport, that aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  12. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): protocol for a multi-centre, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Evi; Götschi, Thomas; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; de Nazelle, Audrey; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Standaert, Arnout; Stigell, Erik; Uhlmann, Tina; Gerike, Regine; Int Panis, Luc

    2015-11-14

    Physical inactivity is one of the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases, yet many are not sufficiently active. The Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) study aims to better understand active mobility (walking and cycling for transport solely or in combination with public transport) as an innovative approach to integrate physical activity into individuals' everyday lives. The PASTA study will collect data of multiple cities in a longitudinal cohort design to study correlates of active mobility, its effect on overall physical activity, crash risk and exposure to traffic-related air pollution. A set of online questionnaires incorporating gold standard approaches from the physical activity and transport fields have been developed, piloted and are now being deployed in a longitudinal study in seven European cities (Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Oerebro, Rome, Vienna, Zurich). In total, 14000 adults are being recruited (2000 in each city). A first questionnaire collects baseline information; follow-up questionnaires sent every 13 days collect prospective data on travel behaviour, levels of physical activity and traffic safety incidents. Self-reported data will be validated with objective data in subsamples using conventional and novel methods. Accelerometers, GPS and tracking apps record routes and activity. Air pollution and physical activity are measured to study their combined effects on health biomarkers. Exposure-adjusted crash risks will be calculated for active modes, and crash location audits are performed to study the role of the built environment. Ethics committees in all seven cities have given independent approval for the study. The PASTA study collects a wealth of subjective and objective data on active mobility and physical activity. This will allow the investigation of numerous correlates of active mobility and physical activity using a data set that advances previous efforts in its richness, geographical coverage

  13. 23 CFR 450.214 - Development and content of the long-range statewide transportation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...., transportation, safety, economic development, social and environmental effects, or energy) that were relevant to... providers of transportation, representatives of users of public transportation, representatives of users of... freight transportation services, and other interested parties with a reasonable opportunity to comment on...

  14. Influence of tropical storms in the Northern Indian Ocean on dust entrainment and long-range transport.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.

    Ninety five tropical cyclonic events (tropical storms, depressions and cyclones) between 2001 and 2010 were studied to determine their impact on dust outbreaks and long-range transport over the northern Indian Ocean and south Asia. In addition...

  15. Trends, Long-range Transport and Lifetime of DDT in and over Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, G.; Dvorská, A.; Stohl, A.; Klánová, J.; Ries, L.

    2009-04-01

    Dichlorophenyltrichloroethane, DDT, and its major metabolites dichlorophenyldichloroethylene, DDE, and dichlorophenyldichloroethane, DDD, are long-lived in the environment (persistent) and circulate since the 1950s. They accumulate along food chains, cause detrimental effects in marine and terrestrial wild life, and pose a hazard for human health. DDT is a multicompartmental substance with only a small mass fraction residing in air. Decreasing concentration trends are recorded in Europe, where the substance has not been used since ?1988 (Holoubek et al., 2007). Transport in the free troposphere is expected by models (Lammel & Semeena, 2005; Semeena et al., 2006), but no observations in the free troposphere had been reported in Europe. The degradation rates of DDT, DDE and DDD are uncertain. In particular, the hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients in air are unknown. DDT monitoring data in air at a central European continental background station, Kosetice, Czech Republic, were used in combination with back-trajectories (HYSPLIT model, NOAA) to localize DDT sources in central, western and northern Europe. The decreasing trend continued during recent years, 2004-06. During 2 campaigns at a high mountain site in the Alps (Zugspitze, 2650 m a.s.l.) mean concentrations of 0.23, 0.63 and 0.08 pg m-3 of DDT, DDE and DDD, respectively, were measured in summer and 0.73, 2.22, and 0.52 pg m-3, respectively, in winter. The levels were not lower in free tropospheric air than in boundary layer air. Transport and residence times in air were quantified using Lagrangian particle dispersion model retroplume analyses (FLEXPART model; Stohl et al., 1998). During a stable anti-cyclonic situation photochemical lifetimes corresponded to kOH climate and substance properties on the fate and atmospheric long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants - examples of DDT and γ-HCH, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 1231-1248 Stohl A., Hittenberger M., Wotawa G. (1998): Validation of the

  16. Social learning by doing in sustainable transport innovations: ex-post analysis of common factors behind successes and failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; van Leeuwen, E.S.; Oosterhuis, F.H.; Rietveld, P.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study into the factors governing success and failure in innovative projects in the area of sustainable transport. This can be regarded as an important example of 'social learning by doing'. Data obtained through interviews with key players in eight ambitious

  17. A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident is modelled as an Eulerian diffusion process. From observations of the gross deposition pattern of particulate radiocaesium an effective long-range Eddy diffusivity K of the order of 10(6) m(2) s(-1) is inferred...

  18. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): a study protocol for a multicentre project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerike, Regine; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Panis, Luc Int; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Boschetti, Florinda; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dons, Evi; Eriksson, Ulf; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Racioppi, Francesca; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Schweizer, Christian; Standaert, Arnout; Uhlmann, Tina; Wegener, Sandra; Götschi, Thomas

    2016-01-07

    Only one-third of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Walking and cycling for transport (active mobility, AM) are well suited to provide regular PA. The European research project Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) pursues the following aims: (1) to investigate correlates and interrelations of AM, PA, air pollution and crash risk; (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of selected interventions to promote AM; (3) to improve health impact assessment (HIA) of AM; (4) to foster the exchange between the disciplines of public health and transport planning, and between research and practice. PASTA pursues a mixed-method and multilevel approach that is consistently applied in seven case study cities. Determinants of AM and the evaluation of measures to increase AM are investigated through a large scale longitudinal survey, with overall 14,000 respondents participating in Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich. Contextual factors are systematically gathered in each city. PASTA generates empirical findings to improve HIA for AM, for example, with estimates of crash risks, factors on AM-PA substitution and carbon emissions savings from mode shifts. Findings from PASTA will inform WHO's online Health Economic Assessment Tool on the health benefits from cycling and/or walking. The study's wide scope, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and health and transport methods, the innovative survey design, the general and city-specific analyses, and the transdisciplinary composition of the consortium and the wider network of partners promise highly relevant insights for research and practice. Ethics approval has been obtained by the local ethics committees in the countries where the work is being conducted, and sent to the European Commission before the start of the survey. The PASTA website

  19. Transport Infrastructure and the Environment in the Global South: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cervero

    2015-04-01

    investments but city-shaping investments as well should not be squandered. Transit-oriented development is but one of a number of built forms that hold considerable promise toward placing cities of the Global South on more sustainable mobility and urbanization pathways.Keywords. Public Transport, bus rapid transit, land use, sustainability, transit oriented development

  20. Evaluation of long-range transport models in NOVANA; Evaluering af langtransportmodeller i NOVANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frohn, L.M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Geels, C.; Hertel, O.; Skjoeth, C.A.; Ellemann, T.

    2007-06-15

    obtained with ACDEP for 11 out of 16 chemical parameters. In general the performance of the DEHM model is at least as good as the performance of the ACDEP model, and for the majority of the chemical parameters the performance of DEHM is better than the performance of ACDEP when model results are compared to measurements. This result is expected since the description of the long-range transport of air pollution, which contributes significantly to the concentration levels in Denmark, is better in DEHM. (BA)

  1. Resource-efficient intelligent transportation systems as a basis for sustainable development. Overview of initiatives and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Vovk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems mostly operate on information exchange principle between vehicles and roadside infrastructure. They are commonly regarded as a base technology for persistent diminution of road accidents and traffic efficiency increase. However, intelligent transportation systems can also be used at all levels of transportation systems as a basis for stable development of cities, enterprises, regions, states, continents. According to the research, the existing intelligent transportation systems not only provide the considerable reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, fuel saving, time of travel cutting, but they don’t marginalize citizens’ mobility as well. Thus, the further development and introduction of modern transportation innovative technologies will allow to guarantee the energy- and resources efficiency and, therefore, the sustainable development of the whole society.

  2. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  3. Satellite observations of megacity air pollution, biomass burning emissions, and their long- range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, W. W.; Kollonige, D.; Yurganov, L.; Krueger, A.; Hoff, R.; Barnet, C.; Gleason, J.; Celarier, E.; Krotkov, N.; Liu, X.; Kurosu, T. P.; Osterman, G.; Torres, O.

    2008-12-01

    present satellite observations of long-range transport of air pollution and biomass burning emissions.

  4. Increasing cardiopulmonary emergency visits by long-range transported Asian dust storms in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Wen-Jone; Chang, Wei-Tien; Lee, Chung-Te; Peng, Chi-Ming

    2008-03-01

    This study aims to explore whether Asian dust storms can affect health after 4000 km long-range transport from their origins to downwind areas. Asian dust storms reaching Taipei, Taiwan are tracked by satellite images and confirmed by backward trajectory analysis and ground air pollution monitoring between 1995 and 2002. Our outcome variables include emergency visits for ischaemic heart diseases (ICD-9-CM 410-411, 414), cerebrovascular diseases (ICD-9-CM 430-437), and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) (ICD-9-CM 493, 496) from the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). We use simple paired t-test and Poisson regression models to compare difference in emergency visits, air pollution levels and meteorological conditions for the pairs of Asian dust events and pre-dust periods. There were 39 high dust events with PM(10) greater than 90 microg/m(3) and another 46 low dust events with PM(10) less than 90 microg/m(3). Compared to their pre-dust periods, PM(10) concentrations are significantly increased by 77 microg/m(3) per event for the high dust events. Asian dust storms increase cardiopulmonary emergency visits during storm-affecting periods in Taipei when ambient PM(10) concentrations are above 90 microg/m(3). Compared to their pre-dust periods, emergency visits for ischaemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and COPD during high dust events are increased by 0.7 case (35%), 0.7 case (20%), and 0.9 case (20%) per event, respectively, by paired t-tests. By comparing the model-predicted to the observed emergency visits, we find emergency visits for cardiovascular diseases (ICD-9-CM 410-411, 414, 430-437) were significantly increased by 2.9 cases (67%) per event for the 39 high Asian dust events.

  5. Is sustainability being a driver of service innovation in the public transport sector? : A case study of BRT in Changzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chaoren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The aim of the thesis is to examine whether the sustainability ideology in public transport service development can act as a driving force for the service oriented innovations. Design/methodology/approach – The study adopts a qualitative research approach, by using a case study to undertake the analysis of sustainability and service innovation in Changzhou (China) public transportation system. Findings – The study reveals and proposes a viable model of how sustainability could drive...

  6. Ice cloud formation potential by free tropospheric particles from long-range transport over the Northern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; Alpert, Peter A.; Zhang, Bo; Schum, Simeon; Dzepina, Katja; Wright, Kendra; Owen, R. Chris; Fialho, Paulo; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2017-03-01

    Long-range transported free tropospheric particles can play a significant role on heterogeneous ice nucleation. Using optical and electron microscopy we examine the physicochemical characteristics of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Particles were collected on substrates from the free troposphere at the remote Pico Mountain Observatory in the Azores Islands, after long-range transport and aging over the Atlantic Ocean. We investigate four specific events to study the ice formation potential by the collected particles with different ages and transport patterns. We use single-particle analysis, as well as bulk analysis to characterize particle populations. Both analyses show substantial differences in particle composition between samples from the four events; in addition, single-particle microscopy analysis indicates that most particles are coated by organic material. The identified INPs contained mixtures of dust, aged sea salt and soot, and organic material acquired either at the source or during transport. The temperature and relative humidity (RH) at which ice formed, varied only by 5% between samples, despite differences in particle composition, sources, and transport patterns. We hypothesize that this small variation in the onset RH may be due to the coating material on the particles. This study underscores and motivates the need to further investigate how long-range transported and atmospherically aged free tropospheric particles impact ice cloud formation.

  7. Sustaining Biodiversity in the Oregon Coast Range: Potential effects of Forest Policies in a Multi-ownership Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda C. McComb

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effects of forest policies on sustaining biological diversity at broad scales, we used spatial simulation models to evaluate current and potential future habitat availability over 100 yr for three focal species: Pacific Fisher (Martes pennanti, Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus, and Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus. The habitats of these species represent a broad range of spatial scales and forest types. Area of habitat for fishers and Pileated Woodpeckers is predicted to increase over time under current forest land management policies. Habitat for Warbling Vireos is predicted to decline. These patterns are consistent with past analyses that predicted declines in diverse early successional forests and hardwood forests and increases in late-successional forests under current and two alternative policies. Land ownership influenced the spatial arrangement of habitat for all three focal species. Public lands subsidized habitat for wide-ranging species on adjacent private lands. A land use policy that required greater green tree retention on private lands seemed to result in modest increases in habitat quality over 100 yr for Pileated Woodpeckers. Thinning of plantations on federal lands had little effect on these focal species. Policy analyses such as these highlight incongruities between historic habitat patterns and contemporary spatial and temporal scales of habitat in managed landscapes. This information can be used to assess risks and inform the policy debates surrounding biodiversity conservation.

  8. Merging long range transportation planning with public health: a case study from Utah's Wasatch Front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Shaunna K

    2010-01-01

    US transportation systems have been identified as a problem for public health, as they often encourage automobile transportation and discourage physical activity. This paper provides a case study examination of the Public Health Component of the Wasatch Front Regional Council's Regional Transportation Plan. This plan provides an example of what transportation planners at Utah's largest metropolitan planning organization (MPO) are doing to encourage physical activity through transportation. Existing active living research was used to guide recommendations using a process that included a comprehensive literature review and a review of existing state programs, advisory group and stakeholder meetings, and policy recommendations based on existing local conditions. Stakeholders from a diversity of background and interests came together with one common goal: to improve public health. Based on this collaborative process, nine policy approaches were specifically recommended for approval and integration in the Wasatch Front Regional Transportation Plan. By using current research as a guide and integrating a variety of interests, the Wasatch Front Regional Council is setting a new standard for a collaborative multi-modal focus in transportation planning, which can be replicated nationwide.

  9. Which Factors Can Protect Against Range Stress in Everyday Usage of Battery Electric Vehicles? Toward Enhancing Sustainability of Electric Mobility Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to advance understanding of factors that can protect against range anxiety, specifically range stress in everyday usage of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Range anxiety is a major barrier to the broad adoption of sustainable electric mobility systems. To develop strategies aimed at overcoming range anxiety, a clear understanding of this phenomenon and influencing factors is needed. We examined range anxiety in the form of everyday range stress (ERS) in a field study setting. Seventy-two customers leased a BEV for 3 months. The field study was specifically designed to enable examination of factors that can contribute to lower ERS. In particular, study design and sample recruitment were targeted at generating vehicle usage profiles that would lead to relatively frequent experience of situations requiring active management of range resources and thereby potentially leading to experienced range stress. Less frequent encounter with critical range situations, higher practical experience, subjective range competence, tolerance of low range, and experienced trustworthiness of the range estimation system were related to lower ERS. Moreover, range stress was found to be related to range satisfaction and BEV acceptance. The results underline the importance of the human factors perspective to overcome range anxiety and enhance sustainability of electric mobility systems. Trustworthiness should be employed as a key benchmark variable in the design of range estimation systems, and assistance systems should target increasing drivers' adaptive capacity (i.e., resilience) to cope with critical range situations. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  10. New Satellite Laser Ranging TRF and EOP Series for Mass Transport Studies in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, E. C.

    2001-12-01

    The new millennium has started on the right note for geodesy. We finally see a series of gravity mapping missions materialize. What now becomes important is that well-established geodetic techniques rise to the challenge of validating and complementing the data these new missions will deliver. An area where this is likely to be important is the temporal variations in the zonal gravitational field and its very low degree and order components in general. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) has for a long time monitored the continuous redistribution of mass within the Earth system through concomitant changes in the Stokes' coefficients of the terrestrial gravity field. Secular changes in J2 due to post-glacial relaxation have been observed since many years and similar changes in J3, J4 J5, etc. are attributed to changes in the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. Seasonal changes in these coefficients have also been closely correlated with mass transfer in the atmosphere and oceans. JCET's latest analysis of the 1993-present SLR data set from LAGEOS and LAGEOS 2 data for the IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) development, includes the weekly monitoring of such compound changes in the low degree and order harmonics. This latest solution (2001) incorporates several important changes in the modeling of SLR data with resulting improvements in the geophysical products. Along with the static parameters of the TRF we have determined a time series of variations of its origin with respect to the center of mass of the Earth system (geocenter). These estimates provide a measure of the total motion due to all sources of mass transport within the Earth system and can be used to either complement the estimates from the future missions or to validate them through comparisons with their estimates for the same quantities. The data were reduced using NASA Goddard's GEODYN/SOLVE II software, resulting to a final RMS error of ~8 mm - close to the

  11. Potentials for sustainable transportation in cities to alleviate climate change impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekh, Yeganeh; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Hendrickson, Chris T; Blackhurst, Michael; MacLean, Heather L; Matthews, H Scott

    2012-03-06

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) is an important social goal to mitigate climate change. A common mitigation paradigm is to consider strategy "wedges" that can be applied to different activities to achieve desired GHG reductions. In this policy analysis piece, we consider a wide range of possible strategies to reduce light-duty vehicle GHG emissions, including fuel and vehicle options, low carbon and renewable power, travel demand management and land use changes. We conclude that no one strategy will be sufficient to meet GHG emissions reduction goals to avoid climate change. However, many of these changes have positive combinatorial effects, so the best strategy is to pursue combinations of transportation GHG reduction strategies to meet reduction goals. Agencies need to broaden their agendas to incorporate such combination in their planning.

  12. Engineering America's Current and Future Space Transportation Systems: 50 Years of Systems Engineering Innovation for Sustainable Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States' (U.S.) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to' construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (Figure 1). The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair Lunar Lander and the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation (Figure 2), as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. These activities also will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development work being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments

  13. Long-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Mayol, Eva

    2017-07-28

    The atmosphere plays a fundamental role in the transport of microbes across the planet but it is often neglected as a microbial habitat. Although the ocean represents two thirds of the Earth\\'s surface, there is little information on the atmospheric microbial load over the open ocean. Here we provide a global estimate of microbial loads and air-sea exchanges over the tropical and subtropical oceans based on the data collected along the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition. Total loads of airborne prokaryotes and eukaryotes were estimated at 2.2 × 1021 and 2.1 × 1021 cells, respectively. Overall 33-68% of these microorganisms could be traced to a marine origin, being transported thousands of kilometres before re-entering the ocean. Moreover, our results show a substantial load of terrestrial microbes transported over the oceans, with abundances declining exponentially with distance from land and indicate that islands may act as stepping stones facilitating the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes.The extent to which the ocean acts as a sink and source of airborne particles to the atmosphere is unresolved. Here, the authors report high microbial loads over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans and propose islands as stepping stones for the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes..

  14. Symposium on intermediate-range atmospheric-transport processes and technology assessment. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 47 papers in this proceedings. The purpose of this meeting was to assess the state of the art of modeling atmospheric transport processes 10 to 100 km downwind of point and area sources of pollution. (KRM)

  15. Satellite observations of long range transport of a large BrO plume in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Begoin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ozone Depletion Events (ODE during polar springtime are a well known phenomenon in the Arctic and Antarctic boundary layer. They are caused by the catalytic destruction of ozone by halogens producing reactive halogen oxides like bromine monoxide (BrO. The key halogen bromine can be rapidly transferred into the gas phase in an autocatalytic process – the so called "Bromine Explosion". However, the exact mechanism, which leads to an initial bromine release as well as the influence of transport and chemical processes on BrO, is still not clearly understood.

    In this study, BrO measurements from the satellite instrument GOME-2 are used together with model calculations with the dispersion model FLEXPART to study an arctic BrO event in March 2007, which could be tracked over several days and a large area. Full BrO activation was observed within one day east of Siberia with subsequent transport to Hudson Bay. The event was linked to a cyclone with very high surface wind speeds, which could have been involved in the production and lifting of aerosols or blowing snow. Considering the short life time of BrO, transported aerosols or snow can also provide the surface for BrO recycling within the plume for several days. The evolution of the BrO plume could be reproduced by FLEXPART simulations of a passive tracer indicating that the activated air mass was transported all the way from Siberia to Hudson Bay. To localise the most probable transport height, model runs initialised in different heights have been performed showing similar transport patterns throughout the troposphere but best agreement with the measurements between the surface and 3 km. The influence of changes in tropopause height on measured BrO values has been considered, but cannot completely explain the observed high BrO values. Backward trajectories from the area of BrO initialisation show upward lifting from the surface up to 3 km and no indication for intrusion of stratospheric

  16. Building a sustainable GIS framework for supporting a tribal transportation problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Due to the recent oil boom, the Fort Berthold Reservation has experienced a dramatic increase in highway and local traffic. To support energy transportation and provide safe roads, the reservation needs cost-efficient and effective transportation pla...

  17. A multi-objective sustainable model for transportation asset management practices : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Transportation Asset Management (TAM) practices has gained popularity in the United States and worldwide with the aim to provide the required level of service for the transportation infrastructure network in the most cost-effective manner. However, T...

  18. Quantifying Benefits of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Towards Sustainable Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Transportation is a rapidly changing field that impacts all members of society in this country. One of the controversial and more dangerous ways in which transportation impacts society is through high carbon dioxide emissions and fuel consumption whi...

  19. Can clouds enhance long-range transport of low volatile, ionizable and surface-active chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Antonio; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric partitioning and transport of low volatile organic compounds is strongly influenced by the presence of water (e.g. clouds) and its deposition velocity (e.g. rainfall, snow). It was identified that the assumption of continuous rainfall underestimates the residence time and the transport...... potential of non-volatile substances. The liquid water content of clouds and the high specific surface of frozen or liquid cloud droplets can significantly contribute to the total activity capacity (i.e. the capacity to sorb chemicals) of the atmosphere for non-volatile, ionizable and surface active...... substances. A modified version of the regional multimedia activity model for ionics MAMI, including twolayered atmosphere with atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and lower/middle troposphere (LMT), interface partitioning, intermittent rainfall and variable cloud coverage was applied to a selection of ten low...

  20. Physiological Functions of Cyclic Electron Transport Around Photosystem I in Sustaining Photosynthesis and Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2016-04-29

    The light reactions in photosynthesis drive both linear and cyclic electron transport around photosystem I (PSI). Linear electron transport generates both ATP and NADPH, whereas PSI cyclic electron transport produces ATP without producing NADPH. PSI cyclic electron transport is thought to be essential for balancing the ATP/NADPH production ratio and for protecting both photosystems from damage caused by stromal overreduction. Two distinct pathways of cyclic electron transport have been proposed in angiosperms: a major pathway that depends on the PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5 (PGR5) and PGR5-LIKE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHENOTYPE 1 (PGRL1) proteins, which are the target site of antimycin A, and a minor pathway mediated by the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex. Recently, the regulation of PSI cyclic electron transport has been recognized as essential for photosynthesis and plant growth. In this review, we summarize the possible functions and importance of the two pathways of PSI cyclic electron transport.

  1. Long-range transport of Asian dust and air pollutants to Taiwan: observed evidence and model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of Asian dust and air pollutants are major environmental concerns of Taiwan during the winter monsoon season when northeasterly winds prevail following passages of cold fronts. Based on hourly measurements of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA air quality monitoring stations, Lidar and in-situ IC, a significant long-range transport dust and air pollutants event on 18 March 2005 has been identified. During this episode, drastically elevated concentrations of PM10, CO and SO2 along with the strong northeasterly on 18 March were observed over background Wanli station, with peaks of about 170 μgm−3, 1.0 ppm and 14 ppb, respectively. We have found that air masses of air pollutants and Asian dust are transported separately. Although the mixing takes place on the way to Taiwan, it mixes slightly when they arrived in Taiwan. The major component of the first PM10 peak were air pollutants, evidenced by the consistent peaks of SO42− and NO3 measured by in-situ IC, while no significant depolarization was measured by Lidar. In contrast, the evident non-spherical particles and hourly PM10 concentration consistently varied with Ca2+ indicating that mineral dust was the major component of the second peak. Trajectory analysis showed that these two peaks come from quite different sources areas. The air masses of the first peak mainly come from anthropogenic area and transport in the low boundary layer (<1500 m while the masses of the second peak originate from high altitude (>4000 m of desert areas. Numerical results showed significant agreement of temporal and vertical variation of aerosol concentration with observations. The phenomena of split air parcels between air pollutants and Asian dust transported to Taiwan are strongly associated with the transport paths and stable and dry atmospheric boundary conditions.

  2. Incorporating sustainability into TxDOT's transportation decision-making : interactive workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The workshop is intended for new and experienced technical staff in TxDOT headquarters, district, and area offices to better understand how sustainability performance measures can be used at the sketch-planning level of project consideration. The wor...

  3. Assessing sustainability effect of infrastructure transportation projects using systems-based analytic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Sustainability means providing for the necessities of today without endangering the necessities of tomorrow within the technical, environmental, economic, social/cultural, and individual contexts. However, the assessment tools available to study the ...

  4. A Decision Support Tool for Sustainable Land Use, Transportation, Buildings/Infrastructure, and Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    One issue for community groups, local and regional planners, and politicians, is that they require relevant information to develop programs and initiatives for incorporating sustainability principles into their physical infrastructure, operations, and decision-making processes. T...

  5. Network Northamptonshire: total transport smart city procurement theoretical framework for sustainable economic and social change

    OpenAIRE

    Fassam, Liam; Copsey, S; Gough, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Culture, governance and procurement remains under-researched in current academic literature within a smart city transportation context, with evidence suggesting that procurement is a much-needed aspect of bringing about change at local government level; however, little evidence exists to support this. This paper showcases the research based upon the “Network Northamptonshire” total transport project, whereby a review of the county’s transportation, both public and private, is being undertaken...

  6. River utilization and transportation for 21st century: experiences and recommendations for a sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    From ancient times, rivers play a very important role. They are utilized in various ways; drinking water, water distribution into agricultural area, catching river fish as food, transportation, hydroelectricity, etc. They are also important for culture and wildlife reservation. Some rivers such as Ganges in India are important from religious meaning, too. In China, due to the rapid development of economy the river transportation is almost at its maximum capacity. The river transportation near...

  7. The Design of an Ultra High Capacity Long Range Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Bucci, Gregory; Hare, Angela; Szolwinski, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the design of a 650 passenger aircraft with 8000 nautical mile range to reduce seat mile cost and to reduce airport and airway congestion. This design effort involves the usual issues that require trades between technologies, but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This paper will review the long range ultra high capacity or megatransport design problem and the variety of solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University.

  8. SOLUTIONS AND MEANS OF ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT IN THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALIN POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available act The paper aims to achieve an overview of innovative initiatives on alternative transport in recent years in the context of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context are presented the main problems caused by motorized traffic in the urban agglomerations. Also, there are mentioned measures that could be implemented in busy urban areas. On this occasion are mentioned both new technical solutions and new means of alternative transport type. Additional, specific projects and programs are highlighted using bicycle transportation. There are mentioned initiatives regarding urban transportation completed in European projects such as: CIVITAS, EFFECTS etc. The examples and figures are mainly focused on Romania.

  9. Analysis of transport eco-efficiency scenarios to support sustainability assessment: a study on Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Allan, Andrew; Afroze, Shirina

    2017-08-01

    The study focused to assess the level of efficiency (of both emissions and service quality) that can be achieved for the transport system in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. The assessment technique attempted to quantify the extent of eco-efficiency achievable for the system modifications due to planning or strategy. The eco-efficiency analysis was facilitated with a detailed survey data on Dhaka City transport system, which was conducted for 9 months in 2012-2013. Line source modelling (CALINE4) was incorporated to estimate the on-road emission concentration. The eco-efficiency of the transport systems was assessed with the 'multi-criteria analysis' (MCA) technique that enabled the valuation of systems' qualitative and quantitative parameters. As per the analysis, driving indiscipline on road can alone promise about 47% reductions in emissions, which along with the number of private vehicles were the important stressors that restrict achieving eco-efficiency in Dhaka City. Detailed analysis of the transport system together with the potential transport system scenarios can offer a checklist to the policy makers enabling to identify the possible actions needed that can offer greater services to the dwellers against lesser emissions, which in turn can bring sustainability of the system.

  10. Decision Simulation Technique (DST) as a scanning tool for exploring and explicating sustainability issues in transport decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Sara Lise

    2009-01-01

    new high speed rail line in Southern Sweden. The third part of the paper is concerned with a principal discussion of incorporation of sustainability in transport planning. It is argued that ‘explicating’-techniques such as the DST compared to more traditional ways of doing this – here denominated...... together with the principal steps that have to be followed when applying it on a concrete case. In the second part the potential of the DST is demonstrated by its use within an ongoing study. Thus the DST is applied on a new rail investment study on a section with four alternatives being part of a proposed...... implicit consideration of sustainability – can be useful for many different planning problems where the treated rail case is just one example. Finally, the paper offers some conclusions and a perspective on the future use and development of the DST....

  11. The Design, Planning and Execution of Sustainable Intermodal Port-hinterland Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Ypsilantis (Panagiotis)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractGlobalization has led to a tremendous growth of international trade over the last century amounting to $18.8 trillion in 2014. Approximately 90% of non-bulk cargo is transported in shipping containers. The dominant mode in container transportation is maritime, in which containers are

  12. Analysis Insights, August 2015: Sustainable Transportation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we examine transportation systems, alternative fuels, and implications of increasing electrification of transit. Moving people and goods from point A to B has never been easier, but our current transportation systems also take a toll on our environment. Transportation currently accounts for 71% of total U.S. petroleum use and 33% of the nation’s total carbon emissions. With new technology, can we make our transportation system cleaner and more cost effective? NREL is applying its analytical expertise and imagination to do just that. Solutions start with systems thinking. Connecting the dots between physical components - vehicles, fueling stations, and highways - and institutional components - traffic laws, regulations, and vehicle standards - helps illuminate solutions that address the needs of the transportation system's many stakeholders.

  13. Characteristics in the atmosphere of long-range transport aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillefond, H; Fourn, P; Auffret, R

    1977-06-01

    In the long run, the fatigue in aircrews performing frequent, long-range flights is linked to factors connected to the aircraft, such as noise, temperature, cabin pressure, atmosphere quality, and flight characteristics. These are the factors inherent to the aircraft which we have investigated during six long-range flights without time zone changes in DC-8 and DC-10 aircraft of the U.T.A. Cie. The results show that none of the pollutants researched reach doses considered hazardous by FAR 25 or by French legislation. This fact is due to the effective ventilation in the cabins. In flight, thermal comfort is limited by a too-low hygrometry RH = 12%. Even in a modern aircraft, the noise level remains high, but acoustical energy is spread over the less detrimental frequencies.

  14. Long-range correlations and charge transport properties of DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-liang; Ren, Yi; Xie, Qiong-tao; Deng, Chao-sheng; Xu, Hui

    2010-04-01

    By using Hurst's analysis and transfer approach, the rescaled range functions and Hurst exponents of human chromosome 22 and enterobacteria phage lambda DNA sequences are investigated and the transmission coefficients, Landauer resistances and Lyapunov coefficients of finite segments based on above genomic DNA sequences are calculated. In a comparison with quasiperiodic and random artificial DNA sequences, we find that λ-DNA exhibits anticorrelation behavior characterized by a Hurst exponent 0.5range correlation properties to some extent but the correlations are not strong enough to maintain the scale invariance properties.

  15. Long-range correlations and charge transport properties of DNA sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaoliang, E-mail: xlliucsu@yahoo.com.c [College of Physical Science and Technology and College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ren, Yi [College of Physical Science and Technology and College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xie, Qiong-tao [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education (Hunan Normal University), Changsha 410081 (China); Deng, Chao-sheng; Xu, Hui [College of Physical Science and Technology and College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2010-04-26

    By using Hurst's analysis and transfer approach, the rescaled range functions and Hurst exponents of human chromosome 22 and enterobacteria phage lambda DNA sequences are investigated and the transmission coefficients, Landauer resistances and Lyapunov coefficients of finite segments based on above genomic DNA sequences are calculated. In a comparison with quasiperiodic and random artificial DNA sequences, we find that lambda-DNA exhibits anticorrelation behavior characterized by a Hurst exponent 0.5range correlation properties to some extent but the correlations are not strong enough to maintain the scale invariance properties.

  16. Long-Range Charge Transport in Adenine-Stacked RNA:DNA Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanhui; Artés, Juan M; Hihath, Joshua

    2016-01-27

    An extremely important biological component, RNA:DNA can also be used to design nanoscale structures such as molecular wires. The conductance of single adenine-stacked RNA:DNA hybrids is rapidly and reproducibly measured using the break junction approach. The conductance decreases slightly over a large range of molecular lengths, suggesting that RNA:DNA can be used as an oligonucleotide wire. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The sustainable development of transports: the motors and the fuels; Le developpement durable des transports: quels moteurs, quels carburants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This panorama 2005 between politicians, industrialists and scientists discussed the following topics: exploration-production activities and markets, refining and petrochemistry, the future world gas market, the petroleum supply and demand, the new petroleum and gas reserves, the today and tomorrow alternative fuels, the biofuels in the world, the hybrid vehicles future, the energy consumption in the transport sector, the road fuels in europe and the increase of diesel fuel, the de-pollution techniques of industrial vehicles. The slides of the interventions are provided. The sheets ''le point sur'' of the year 2005 are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  18. Ecologically sustainable housing and transporting in Pune, India : Ekologiskt hållbar hus- och transportplanering i Pune, Indien

    OpenAIRE

    Friestedt, Anna; Sjövall, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a final project work carried out by Anna Friestedt and Kristin Sjövall during the spring semester of 2006. The purpose of this work is to investigate in what ways the Indian city Pune is working towards ecological sustainability within the fields of housing and transporting. The work contains a case study of an area in Pune called Magarpatta City. The report is split into four parts. First, laws and regulations both in Sweden and in India that concern ecologically...

  19. Sustainable transportation stage of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy scale development and validation in two university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Colleen A; Mundorf, Norbert; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Brick, Leslie; Horiuchi, Satoshi; Paiva, Andrea L; Prochaska, James O

    2015-01-01

    Single occupancy vehicle (SOV) transportation is a key contributor to climate change and air pollution. Sustainable transportation (ST), commuting by any means other than SOV, could both slow climate change and enhance public health. The transtheoretical model (TTM) provides a useful framework for examining how people progress towards adopting ST. Short valid and reliable measures for ST decisional balance, self-efficacy, and climate change doubt were developed and their relationship with stages of change was examined. Two large university-based volunteer samples participated in measurement studies. Using multiple procedures, three brief internally consistent measures were developed: decisional balance, self-efficacy, and climate change doubt. The stages of change correctly discriminated both decisional balance and self-efficacy, as well as replicated hypothesized relationships. Climate change doubt did not vary by stages; however, it may prove useful in future studies. Results support the validation of these measures and the application of the TTM to ST.

  20. Dynamic model for kinesin-mediated long-range transport and its local traffic jam caused by tau proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Woochul; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2017-01-01

    In neurons, several intracellular cargoes are transported by motor proteins (kinesins) which walk on microtubules (MTs). However, kinesins can possibly unbind from the MTs before they reach their destinations. The unbound kinesins randomly diffuse in neurons until they bind to MTs. Then, they walk again along the MTs to continue their tasks. Kinesins repeat this cycle of motion until they transport their cargoes to the destinations. However, most previous models mainly focused on the motion of kinesins when they walk on MTs. Thus, a new model is required to encompass the various types of kinesin motion. We developed a comprehensive model and studied the long-range axonal transport of neurons using the model. To enhance reliability of the model, it was constructed based on multiphysics on kinesin motion (i.e., chemical kinetics, diffusion, fluid dynamics, nonlinear dynamics, and stochastic characteristics). Also, parameter values for kinesin motions are carefully obtained by comparing the model predictions and several experimental observations. The axonal transport can be degraded when a large number of binding sites on MTs are blocked by excessive tau proteins. By considering the interference between walking kinesins and tau molecules on MTs, effects of tau proteins on the axonal transport are studied. One of the meaningful predictions obtained from the model is that the velocity is not an effective metric to estimate the degradation of the transport because the decrease in velocity is not noticeable when the concentration of tau protein is not high. However, our model shows that the transport locally changes near tau molecules on MTs even when the change in the velocity is not significant. Thus, a statistical method is proposed to detect this local change effectively. The advantage of this method is that a value obtained from this method is highly sensitive to the concentration of tau protein. Another benefit of this method is that this highly sensitive value can

  1. Fiscal instruments for regulating the sustainable development of urban transport systems in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayburov, I.; Leontyeva, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The article explains the role of public transport pricing. It proves the need for a systemic approach to building a modern public transit system. The authors argue that the main objective of the approach should be to reduce the use of private vehicles in the urban environment and increasing public transport use. It is proven that for the consumer of transport services the price per trip is an important factor when deciding whether to travel by car or by public transport. The authors analyze the available literature assessing the effects of widespread car ownership on users of the city transit system. Conflict situations that occur due to the unabated desire of city residents to travel by car are analyzed. A research method is proposed. It is shown that public transport fares have been growing in Russia at an accelerated pace when compared to the overall increase in prices of all goods and services, including motor vehicles, petrol and oils. The fare growth has resulted in a 3.6 fold drop in demand for public transport services over the 15 years being analyzed. Over the same period, the number of privately owned cars grew 120 percent. A conclusion is drawn that regular fare hikes have encouraged urban population to gradually opt against travelling by public transport. That resulted in higher demand for car travel and, eventually, in an accelerated growth in car usage. One can conclude that a persistent institutional trap has taken shape in Russian metropolises. Essentially, it means that higher public transport fares have led to lower demand for public transit services. As ridership goes down, public transport operators have to again increase prices, thus driving the demand for their services down. It is proven that escaping the trap will require restoring the ratio of prices to make sure that the price charged for a public transport trip is far lower than the cost of travelling by car. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of the factor of public

  2. Deploying liquid biomethane in the Dutch transport sector. Analysing economic, environmental and organisational sustainability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, Jelco

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The Dutch government has set sustainability goals for the year 2020. In that year, 16 % of the energy use must come from renewable sources and the emissions of greenhouse gasses must be reduced by 20 % with respect to 1990. These goals are part

  3. Structural determinants of electric vehicle market growth : a National Center for Sustainable Transportation research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Zero emission vehicles (ZEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are critical technologies to attain deep reductions in greenhouse gases from transportation. PEV markets, however, have grown more slowly than anticipated by many observers. In this stu...

  4. Sustainable transportation : technology, engineering, and science : summer camp instructor’s guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This document reproduces the instructors guide for a ten day transportation engineering summer camp that was held at the University of Idaho in July 2013. The instructors guide is split into three units: Unit 1: Vehicle Technology, Unit 2: Traf...

  5. ECOLOGICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL TRANSPORTATION BASED ON ADVANCED INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tibor Fazekaš; Dušan Bobera; Zoran Ćirić

    2017-01-01

    In the modern world there are lots of considerations about transportation in general, including analysis and decision making about the current situation and planning as well, that means preparation...

  6. Innovative bio-mediated particulate materials for sustainable maritime transportation infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The mechanical properties of sandy soils in the coastal area and beach sands often do not satisfy construction expectation for maritime transportation infrastructure. The salty, loose sand makes it difficult for quick construction of port, building a...

  7. Beyond the short term : transportation asset management for long-term sustainability, accountability and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Transportation Asset Management (TAM) has long been recognized as a sound, long-term approach to managing infrastructure. It provides decision makers with a rational, long-term systematic process for making difficult and complex decisions about how t...

  8. Composition and origin of PM10 in Cape Verde: Characterization of long-range transport episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, P.; Almeida, S. M.; Cardoso, J.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Nunes, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Alves, C.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Artíñano, B.; Pio, C.

    2016-02-01

    A receptor modelling study was performed to identify source categories and their contributions to the PM10 total mass at the Cape Verde archipelago. Trajectory statistical methods were also used to characterize the main atmospheric circulation patterns causing the transport of air masses and to geographically identify the main potential source areas of each PM10 source category. Our findings point out that the variability of the PM10 levels at Cape Verde was prompted by the advections of African mineral dust. The mineral dust load was mainly composed by clay-silicates mineral derived elements (22% of the PM10 total mass on average) with lower amounts of carbonates (9%). A clear northward gradient was observed in carbonates concentration that illustrates the differences in the composition according to the source regions of mineral dust. Mineral dust was frequently linked to industrial emissions from crude oil refineries, fertilizer industries as well as oil and coal power plants, located in the northern and north-western coast of the African continent (29%). Sea salt was also registered in the PM10 mass during most part of the sampling period, with a lower impact in the PM10 levels than the mineral dust one (26%). Combustion aerosols (6%) reached the highest mean values in summer as a consequence of the emissions from local-regional sources. Biomass burning aerosols produced from October to November in sub-sahelian latitudes, had a clear influence in the content of elemental carbon (EC) recorded at Cape Verde but a small impact in the PM10 total mass levels. A minor contribution to the PM10 mass has been associated to secondary inorganic compounds-SIC. Namely, ammonium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 1-5%) and calcium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 2-3%). The main origin of SIC 1 was attributed to emissions of SO2 and NOx from industrial sources located in the northern and north-western African coast and from wildfires produced in the continent. SIC 2 had a clear regional origin

  9. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); Kang, Shichang, E-mail: shichang.kang@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tian, Lide [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Junming [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); and others

    2016-10-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH{sub 4}{sup +} in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L{sup −1}, with an average of 12.5 ng L{sup −1}. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH{sub 4}{sup +} was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  10. Study of the application of hydrogen fuel to long-range subsonic transport aircraft. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Lange, R. H.; Moore, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in advanced designs of long range, subsonic transport aircraft is assessed. Both passenger and cargo type aircraft are investigated. Comparisons of physical, performance, and economic parameters of the LH2 fueled designs with conventionally fueled aircraft are presented. Design studies are conducted to determine appropriate characteristics for the hydrogen related systems required on board the aircraft. These studies included consideration of material, structural, and thermodynamic requirements of the cryogenic fuel tanks and fuel systems with the structural support and thermal protection systems.

  11. Isospin transport and reaction mechanism in nuclear reactions in the range 20–40 MeV/n

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlini, S., E-mail: barlini@fi.infn.it; Piantelli, S.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Bini, M.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Valdré, S.; Pastore, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell’Università and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bougault, R.; Lopez, O.; Le Neindre, N.; Parlog, M.; Vient, E. [LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN et Université de Caen, F-14050 Caen-Cedex (France); Bonnet, E.; Chibhi, A.; Frankland, J. D. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P.5027, F-14076 Caen cedex (France); Borderie, B.; Rivet, M. F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    In recent years, many efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the isospin degree of freedom in nuclear reactions. Comparing systems involving partners with different N/Z, it has been possible to investigate the isospin transport process and its influence on the final products population. This can be then related to the symmetry energy term of the nuclear EOS. From the experimental point of view, this task requires detectors able to measure both charge and mass of the emitted products, in the widest possible range of energy and size of the fragments. With this objective, the FAZIA and GARFIELD+RCo apparatus have been used with success in some recent experiments.

  12. Financing the construction of transport infrastructure as the basis for sustainable development of the regional economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidziy, Elena

    2017-10-01

    Dependence of the regional economic development from efficiency of financing of the construction of transport infrastructure is analyzed and proved in this article. Effective mechanism for infrastructure projects financing, public and private partnership, is revealed and its concrete forms are formulated. Here is proposed an optimal scenario for financing for the transport infrastructure, which can lead to positive transformations in the economy. Paper considers the advantages and risks of public and private partnership for subjects of contractual relations. At that, components for the assessment of economic effect of the implementation of infrastructure projects were proposed simultaneously with formulation of conditions for minimization risks. Results of the research could be used for solution of persistent problems in the development of transport infrastructure, issues of financial assurance of construction of infrastructure projects at the regional level.

  13. Possible half-metallicity and variable range hopping transport in Sb-substituted Fe2TiSn Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Bhobe, P. A.; Nigam, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    The investigation of the magnetotransport properties on Fe2 TiSn1-x Sb x with 0 ≤slant x ≤slant 0.6 are presented in this paper. The substitution of Sb in place of Sn decreases the anti-site disorder as evident from x-ray diffraction patterns as well as from transport properties measurement. The much-disputed upturn in low temperature electrical resistivity of Fe2 TiSn has been demonstrated to be a result of weak localization induced by anti-site disorder. With increased Sb substitution (⩾25%) the metallic transport behavior of Fe2 TiSn changes to semiconductor-like. At low temperature, carrier transport in such compositions occurs via the variable range hopping mechanism. Moreover, a systematic increase in the anomalous Hall voltage is observed with increasing Sb-content, attributable to a side jump or Berry phase curvature effect. Electrical resistivity in the entire temperature regime hints towards half metallicity of the system. Our ab initio electronic structure calculations using generalised gradient approximation formalism further supports the results of our magnetotransport study.

  14. Ab initio electronic transport and thermoelectric properties of solids from full and range-separated hybrid functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Giuseppe; Ferretti, Andrea; Maschio, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Within the semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory in the constant relaxation-time approximation, we perform an ab initio study of the transport properties of selected systems, including crystalline solids and nanostructures. A local (Gaussian) basis set is adopted and exploited to analytically evaluate band velocities as well as to access full and range-separated hybrid functionals (such as B3LYP, PBE0, or HSE06) at a moderate computational cost. As a consequence of the analytical derivative, our approach is computationally efficient and does not suffer from problems related to band crossings. We investigate and compare the performance of a variety of hybrid functionals in evaluating Boltzmann conductivity. Demonstrative examples include silicon and aluminum bulk crystals as well as two thermoelectric materials (CoSb3, Bi2Te3). We observe that hybrid functionals other than providing more realistic bandgaps—as expected—lead to larger bandwidths and hence allow for a better estimate of transport properties, also in metallic systems. As a nanostructure prototype, we also investigate conductivity in boron-nitride (BN) substituted graphene, in which nanoribbons (nanoroads) alternate with BN ones.

  15. Analysis for the application of hybrid laminar flow control to a long-range subsonic transport aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcara, P.C. Jr.; Bartlett, D.W.; Mccullers, L.A. (NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States) Vigyan, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The FLOPS aircraft conceptual design/analysis code has been used to evaluate the effects of incorporating hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) in a 300-passenger, 6500 n. mi. range, twin-engine subsonic transport aircraft. The baseline configuration was sized to account for 50 percent chord laminar flow on the wing upper surface as well as both surfaces of the empennage airfoils. Attention is given to the additional benefits of achieving various degrees of laminar flow on the engine nacelles, and the horsepower extraction and initial weight and cost increments entailed by the HLFC system. The sensitivity of the results obtained to fuel-price and off-design range are also noted. 6 refs.

  16. Sustainable Development and Strategic Transport Management in the Øresund Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Sara Lise; Leleur, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Traffic planning has developed over the years and has produced both longterm and short termed solutions of different kinds. In general, however, in many urban and regional areas, traffic planning has until now not been able to treat and resolve the increasing problems relating to uncurbed traffic...... regional transport planning. This is done by setting up a so-called holistic approach to planning and afterwards, based on holistic planning, by presenting the ideas of Strategic Transport Management (STM) as an important new planning and management concept. Finally some conclusions are given together...... with a perspective....

  17. Root ABA Accumulation in Long-Term Water-Stressed Plants is Sustained by Hormone Transport from Aerial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Matías; Lado, Joanna; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-12-01

    The reduced pool of the ABA precursors, β,β-carotenoids, in roots does not account for the substantial increase in ABA content in response to water stress (WS) conditions, suggesting that ABA could be transported from other organs. Basipetal transport was interrupted by stem-girdling, and ABA levels were determined in roots after two cycles of WS induced by transplanting plants to dry perlite. Leaf applications of isotope-labeled ABA and reciprocal grafting of ABA-deficient tomato mutants were used to confirm the involvement of aerial organs on root ABA accumulation. Disruption of basipetal transport reduced ABA accumulation in roots, and this decrease was more severe after two consecutive WS periods. This effect was linked to a sharp decrease in the β,β-carotenoid pool in roots in response to water deficit. Significant levels of isotope-labeled ABA were transported from leaves to roots, mainly in plants subjected to water dehydration. Furthermore, the use of different ABA-deficient tomato mutants in reciprocal grafting combinations with wild-type genotypes confirmed the involvement of aerial organs in the ABA accumulation in roots. In conclusion, accumulation of ABA in roots after long-term WS periods largely relies on the aerial organs, suggesting a reduced ability of the roots to synthesize ABA from carotenoids. Furthermore, plants are able to transport ABA basipetally to sustain high hormone levels in roots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Aromatic amino acids required for pili conductivity and long-range extracellular electron transport in Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Madeline; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Leang, Ching; Smith, Jessica A; Patel, Pranav; Snoeyenbos-West, Oona; Synoeyenbos-West, Oona; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

    2013-03-12

    It has been proposed that Geobacter sulfurreducens requires conductive pili for long-range electron transport to Fe(III) oxides and for high-density current production in microbial fuel cells. In order to investigate this further, we constructed a strain of G. sulfurreducens, designated Aro-5, which produced pili with diminished conductivity. This was accomplished by modifying the amino acid sequence of PilA, the structural pilin protein. An alanine was substituted for each of the five aromatic amino acids in the carboxyl terminus of PilA, the region in which G. sulfurreducens PilA differs most significantly from the PilAs of microorganisms incapable of long-range extracellular electron transport. Strain Aro-5 produced pili that were properly decorated with the multiheme c-type cytochrome OmcS, which is essential for Fe(III) oxide reduction. However, pili preparations of the Aro-5 strain had greatly diminished conductivity and Aro-5 cultures were severely limited in their capacity to reduce Fe(III) compared to the control strain. Current production of the Aro-5 strain, with a graphite anode serving as the electron acceptor, was less than 10% of that of the control strain. The conductivity of the Aro-5 biofilms was 10-fold lower than the control strain's. These results demonstrate that the pili of G. sulfurreducens must be conductive in order for the cells to be effective in extracellular long-range electron transport. Extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter species plays an important role in the biogeochemistry of soils and sediments and has a number of bioenergy applications. For example, microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxide is one of the most geochemically significant processes in anaerobic soils, aquatic sediments, and aquifers, and Geobacter organisms are often abundant in such environments. Geobacter sulfurreducens produces the highest current densities of any known pure culture, and close relatives are often the most abundant organisms colonizing anodes

  19. Analysis of aircraft and satellite measurements from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B to quantify long-range transport of East Asian sulfur to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van Donkelaar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We interpret a suite of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based measurements over the North Pacific Ocean and western North America during April–May 2006 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign to understand the implications of long-range transport of East Asian emissions to North America. The Canadian component of INTEX-B included 33 vertical profiles from a Cessna 207 aircraft equipped with an aerosol mass spectrometer. Long-range transport of organic aerosols was insignificant, contrary to expectations. Measured sulfate plumes in the free troposphere over British Columbia exceeded 2 μg/m3. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem and use it to interpret the observations. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD retrieved from two satellite instruments (MISR and MODIS for 2000–2006 are analyzed with GEOS-Chem to estimate an annual growth in Chinese sulfur emissions of 6.2% and 9.6%, respectively. Analysis of aircraft sulfate measurements from the NASA DC-8 over the central Pacific, the NSF C-130 over the east Pacific and the Cessna over British Columbia indicates most Asian sulfate over the ocean is in the lower free troposphere (800–600 hPa, with a decrease in pressure toward land due to orographic effects. We calculate that 56% of the measured sulfate between 500–900 hPa over British Columbia is due to East Asian sources. We find evidence of a 72–85% increase in the relative contribution of East Asian sulfate to the total burden in spring off the northwest coast of the United States since 1985. Campaign-average simulations indicate anthropogenic East Asian sulfur emissions increase mean springtime sulfate in Western Canada at the surface by 0.31 μg/m3 (~30% and account for 50% of the overall regional sulfate burden between 1 and 5 km. Mean measured daily surface sulfate concentrations taken in the Vancouver area increase by

  20. Role of soil organic carbon and colloids in sorption and transport of TNT, RDX and HMX in training range soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prasesh; Mayes, Melanie A; Tang, Guoping

    2013-08-01

    Contamination of soils and groundwater by munitions compounds (MCs) is of significant concern at many U.S. Department of Defense sites. Soils were collected from operational training ranges in Maryland (APG), Massachusetts (MMR-B and MMR-E) and Washington (JBLM) and sorption and transport studies were conducted to investigate the effects of soil organic carbon (OC) and textural clay content on fate of dissolved MCs (TNT, RDX, HMX). Sorption experiments showed higher distribution coefficients [TNT:42-68 L kg(-1), RDX:6.9-8.7 L kg(-1) and HMX:2.6-3.1 L kg(-1)] in OC rich soils (JBLM, MMR-E) compared to clay rich soils (MMR-B and APG) [TNT:19-21 L kg(-1), RDX:2.5-3.4 L kg(-1), HMX:0.9-1.2 L kg(-1)]. In column experiments, breakthrough of MCs was faster in MMR-B and APG compared to MMR-E and JBLM soils. Among TNT, RDX and HMX, breakthrough was fastest for RDX followed by HMX and TNT for all columns. Defining the colloidal fraction as the difference between unfiltered samples and samples filtered with a 3 kDa filter, ~36%, ~15% and ~9% of TNT, RDX and HMX were found in the colloidal fraction in the solutions from sorption experiments, and around 20% of TNT in the effluent from the transport experiments. Results demonstrate that OC rich soils may enhance sorption and delay transport of TNT, RDX and HMX compared to clay-rich soils. Further, transport of TNT may be associated with soil colloid mobilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - fate and long-range atmospheric transport studied using a global model, EMAC-SVOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octaviani, Mega; Tost, Holger; Lammel, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are emitted by incomplete combustion from fossil fuel, vehicles, and biomass burning. They may persist in environmental compartments, pose a health hazard and may bio accumulate along food chains. The ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model had been used to simulate global tropospheric, stratospheric chemistry and climate. In this study, we improve the model to include simulations of the transport and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC). The EMAC-SVOC model takes into account essential environmental processes including gas-particle partitioning, dry and wet deposition, chemical and bio-degradation, and volatilization from sea surface, soils, vegetation, and snow. The model was evaluated against observational data in the Arctic, mid-latitudes, and tropics, and further applied to study total environmental lifetime and long-range transport potential (LRTP) of PAHs. We selected four compounds for study, spanning a wide range of volatility, i.e., phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Several LRTP indicators were investigated, including the Arctic contamination potential, meridional spreading, and zonal and meridional fluxes to remote regions.

  2. Weathering and transport of chromium and nickel from serpentinite in the Coast Range ophiolite to the Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Breit, George N.; Hooper, Robert L.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Ranville, James F.

    2015-01-01

    A soil geochemical study in northern California was done to investigate the role that weathering and transport play in the regional distribution and mobility of geogenic Cr and Ni, which are both potentially toxic and carcinogenic. These elements are enriched in ultramafic rocks (primarily serpentinite) and the soils derived from them (1700–10,000 mg Cr per kg soil and 1300–3900 mg Ni per kg soil) in the Coast Range ophiolite. Chromium and Ni have been transported eastward from the Coast Range into the western Sacramento Valley and as a result, valley soil is enriched in Cr (80–1420 mg kg−1) and Ni (65–224 mg kg−1) compared to median values of U.S. soils of 50 and 15 mg kg−1, respectively. Nickel in ultramafic source rocks and soils is present in serpentine minerals (lizardite, antigorite, and chrysotile) and is more easily weathered compared to Cr, which primarily resides in highly refractory chromite ([Mg,Fe2+][Cr3+,Al,Fe3+]2O4). Although the majority of Cr and Ni in soils are in refractory chromite and serpentine minerals, the etching and dissolution of these minerals, presence of Cr- and Ni-enriched clay minerals and development of nanocrystalline Fe (hydr)oxides is evidence that a significant fractions of these elements have been transferred to potentially more labile phases.

  3. Performance based standards: A sustainable solution for transportation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berman, R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available the costs of transportation amongst heavy vehicles, but also to regulate safety of those vehicles. South Africa has one the highest rates of road deaths in the world, with the 2013 State of Logistics Survey estimating the cost of road accidents...

  4. A new composite decision support framework for strategic and sustainable transport appraisals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    . The proposed framework is based on the use of cost-benefit analysis featuring feasibility risk assessment in combination with multi-criteria decision analysis and is supported by the concept of decision conferencing. The framework is applied for a transport related case study dealing with the complex decision...

  5. Hydrogen , Hybrid and Electric Propulsion in a Strategy for Sustainable Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the scope for application of hydrogen and electric propulsion for improvement of the fuel cycle efficiency and introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector. The paper compares these fuels with each other as well as with other fuels (especially bio fuels) and outlines their...

  6. Energy Conversion Chain Analysis of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Transportation Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    In general terms there are only three primary energy sources: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear fission. For fueling road transportation, there has been much speculation about the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, which would usher in the "hydrogen economy." A parallel situation would use a simple battery to store electricity…

  7. Sustainable transportation in Argentina : Values, beliefs, norms and car use reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Steg, Linda

    Most Latin American countries face important environmental and societal problems associated with an increase in car traffic, and only recently, transport policies aimed at reducing these harmful consequences of car use have begun to be discussed and put on the public agenda of these countries.

  8. Building a sustainable land public transportation at Ayer Keroh, Malacca: Perspective view from hang tuah jaya municipal council (HTJMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, Fatin Hafizah; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Loo, Heoy Shin

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable land public transportation (SLPT) aims to promote a better and healthier ways of meeting individual and community needs. Even though sufficient land public transportation have been provided at Ayer Keroh, Malacca but the level of usage among the community is still low as there is the growth in traffic. Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (HTJMC) is responsible to identify the most appropriate strategies to manage the issues regarding SLPT in order to support of the Malacca state vision becoming Green Technology State in the year 2020. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine the strategies involve in building a SLPT, which may enhance the community's welfare. Thus, the proposed theoretical framework is to demonstrate the strategies towards building a SLPT, which can cater issues within the municipal council area. In this qualitative research, an in-depth focus group have been conducted to obtain the primary data. Thirteen (13) executives from HTJMC involved. This study brings a new paradigm in transforming land public transportation at Ayer Keroh to enhance the community welfare. The result found that land use development as the most significant strategy in SLPT, meanwhile the implementation program is the least strategy involved in building a SLPT at Ayer Keroh. Future research requires more information on the factors of implementing of SLPT so that HTJMC can plan an effective SLPT thorough the demand as the data may indicate numbers of passengers who really support to the implementation of SLPT.

  9. Analytical decision-making methods for evaluating sustainable transport in European corridors

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Eurocorridors are characterized by intensive transport flows and dynamic patterns of establishment and household locations. They are also considered the backbones of powerful spatial and economic forces in the areas that connect urban regions. One of the main difficulties in the spatial planning of eurocorridors has been the need to engage in different types of collective action. Such an approach can be extremely challenging in practice, useful to researchers in the field and to professionals as well. In the light of this, the book’s main objectives are:  - To define the problem by analyzing the key features, which include freight and passenger transport policies and issues; the territorial context, with its geographical, social, economic and cultural aspects; the plurality of subjects with different aims and resources and the lack of homogeneous information. - To illustrate assessment models and evaluation frameworks (MCDA; Discrete Choice Analysis; Collaborative Assessments; Geovisualization Technologi...

  10. Modeling the sustainable development of innovation in transport construction based on the communication approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revunova, Svetlana; Vlasenko, Vyacheslav; Bukreev, Anatoly

    2017-10-01

    The article proposes the models of innovative activity development, which is driven by the formation of “points of innovation-driven growth”. The models are based on the analysis of the current state and dynamics of innovative development of construction enterprises in the transport sector and take into account a number of essential organizational and economic changes in management. The authors substantiate implementing such development models as an organizational innovation that has a communication genesis. The use of the communication approach to the formation of “points of innovation-driven growth” allowed the authors to apply the mathematical tools of the graph theory in order to activate the innovative activity of the transport industry in the region. As a result, the authors have proposed models that allow constructing an optimal mechanism for the formation of “points of innovation-driven growth”.

  11. Solute transport characterization in karst aquifers by tracer injection tests for a sustainable water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, T.; Angulo, B.; Uriarte, J. A.; Olazar, M.; Arandes, J. M.; Antiguedad, I.

    2017-04-01

    Protection of water resources is a major challenge today, given that territory occupation and land use are continuously increasing. In the case of karst aquifers, its dynamic complexity requires the use of specific methodologies that allow establishing local and regional flow and transport patterns. This information is particularly necessary when springs and wells harnessed for water supply are concerned. In view of the present state of the art, this work shows a new approach based on the use of a LiCl based tracer injection test through a borehole for transport characterization from a local to a regional scale. Thus a long term tracer injection test was conducted in a particularly sensitive sector of the Egino karst massif (Basque Country, Spain). The initial displacement of tracer in the vicinity of the injection was monitored in a second borehole at a radial distance of 10.24 m. This first information, assessed by a radial divergent model, allows obtaining transport characteristic parameters in this immediate vicinity during injection. At a larger (regional) scale, the tracer reaches a highly transmissive network with mean traveling velocities to the main springs being from 4.3 to 13.7 m/h. The responses obtained, particularly clear in the main spring used for water supply, and the persistence of part of the tracer in the injection zone, pose reconsidering the need for their protection. Thus, although the test allows establishing the 24-h isochrone, which is the ceiling value in present European vulnerability approaches, the results obtained advise widening the zone to protect in order to guarantee water quality in the springs. Overall, this stimulus-response test allows furthering the knowledge on the dynamics of solute transport in karst aquifers and is a particularly useful tool in studies related to source vulnerability and protection in such a complex medium.

  12. Technological model of sustainable development: Example of TGV transport system in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonović Sanja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategy of transport system development based on real estimate of spatial and functional region possibilities, creates a communication web as an illustration of whole social needs trend, economical progress and planning policy. TGV system is considered as significant direction of France region development, designed by global time demands but proceeded by connecting local level potentials. The highest ambition in railway development project is Mediteranee line, linking Marseille - Lyon, demonstrating a step beyond speed limit, technological aesthetic and architecture.

  13. Implications of Sustainability for the United States Light-Duty Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Chris

    2017-01-12

    Climate change is a problem that must be solved. The primary cause of this problem is burning of fossil fuels to generate energy. A dramatic reduction in carbon emissions must happen soon, and a significant fraction of this reduction must come from the transportation sector. This paper reviews existing literature to assess the consensus of the scientific and engineering communities concerning the potential for the United States' light-duty transportation sector to meet a goal of 80 percent reduction in vehicle emissions and examine what it will take to meet this target. It is unlikely that reducing energy consumption in just vehicles with gasoline-based internal combustion drivetrains will be sufficient to meet GHG emission-reduction targets. This paper explores what additional benefits are possible through the adoption of alternative energy sources, looking at three possible on-vehicle energy carriers: carbon-based fuels, hydrogen, and batteries. potential for the United States' light-duty transportation sector to meet a goal of 80 percent reduction in vehicle emissions and examine what it will take to meet this target. It is unlikely that reducing energy consumption in just vehicles with gasoline-based internal combustion drivetrains will be sufficient to meet GHG emission-reduction targets. This paper explores what additional benefits are possible through the adoption of alternative energy sources, looking at three possible on-vehicle energy carriers: carbon-based fuels, hydrogen, and batteries.

  14. Transport and homeostasis of potassium and phosphate: limiting factors for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Mingda; Tang, Ren-Jie; Tang, Yumei; Tian, Wang; Hou, Congong; Zhao, Fugeng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Potassium (K) and phosphate (Pi) are both macronutrients essential for plant growth and crop production, but the unrenewable resources of phosphorus rock and potash have become limiting factors for food security. One critical measure to help solve this problem is to improve nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in plants by understanding and engineering genetic networks for ion uptake, translocation, and storage. Plants have evolved multiple systems to adapt to various nutrient conditions for growth and production. Within the NUE networks, transport proteins and their regulators are the primary players for maintaining nutrient homeostasis and could be utilized to engineer high NUE traits in crop plants. A large number of publications have detailed K+ and Pi transport proteins in plants over the past three decades. Meanwhile, the discovery and validation of their regulatory mechanisms are fast-track topics for research. Here, we provide an overview of K+ and Pi transport proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, which participate in the uptake, translocation, storage, and recycling of these nutrients in plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Long-range tropospheric transport of uranium and plutonium weapons fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site to Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Cato Christian; Fifield, L Keith; Oughton, Deborah H; Lind, Ole Christian; Skipperud, Lindis; Bartnicki, Jerzy; Tims, Stephen G; Høibråten, Steinar; Salbu, Brit

    2013-09-01

    A combination of state-of-the-art isotopic fingerprinting techniques and atmospheric transport modelling using real-time historical meteorological data has been used to demonstrate direct tropospheric transport of radioactive debris from specific nuclear detonations at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan to Norway via large areas of Europe. A selection of archived air filters collected at ground level at 9 stations in Norway during the most intensive atmospheric nuclear weapon testing periods (1957-1958 and 1961-1962) has been screened for radioactive particles and analysed with respect to the concentrations and atom ratios of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Digital autoradiography screening demonstrated the presence of radioactive particles in the filters. Concentrations of (236)U (0.17-23nBqm(-3)) and (239+240)Pu (1.3-782μBqm(-3)) as well as the atom ratios (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.237) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.7) varied widely indicating several different sources. Filter samples from autumn and winter tended to have lower atom ratios than those sampled in spring and summer, and this likely reflects a tropospheric influence in months with little stratospheric fallout. Very high (236)U, (239+240)Pu and gross beta activity concentrations as well as low (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.077), (241)Pu/(239)Pu (0.00025-0.00062) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.046) atom ratios, characteristic of close-in and tropospheric fallout, were observed in filters collected at all stations in Nov 1962, 7-12days after three low-yield detonations at Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan). Atmospheric transport modelling (NOAA HYSPLIT_4) using real-time meteorological data confirmed that long range transport of radionuclides, and possibly radioactive particles, from Semipalatinsk to Norway during this period was plausible. The present work shows that direct tropospheric transport of fallout from atmospheric nuclear detonations periodically may have

  16. Impact of long-range transport pollution on aerosol properties over West Africa: observations during the DACCIWA airborne campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, Cyrielle; Bourrianne, Thierry; Burnet, Frederic; Deroubaix, Adrien; Brito, Joel; Dupuy, Régis; Colomb, Aurélie; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Sellegri, Karine; Chazette, Patrick; Duplissy, Jonathan; Flamant, Cyrille

    2017-04-01

    Southern West Africa (SWA) is a region highly vulnerable to climate change. Emissions of anthropogenic pollution have increased substantially over the past decades in the region and are projected to keep increasing. The region is also strongly impacted by important natural pollution from distant locations. Biomass burning mainly from vegetation fires in Central Africa and mineral dust from the Saharan and Sahel-Sudan regions are advected by winds to the SWA region especially in summer. Both biomass burning and mineral dust aerosols scatter and absorb solar radiation and are able to significantly modify the regional radiative budget. Presently, the potential radiative impact of dust and biomass burning particles on SWA is unclear due to inadequate data information on the aerosols properties and vertical distribution. In the framework of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, an unprecedented field campaign took place in summer 2016 in West Africa. The ATR-42 research aircraft operated by SAFIRE performed twenty flights to sample the local air pollution from maritime traffic and coastal megacities, as well as regional pollution from biomass burning and desert dust. The aircraft was equipped with state of the art in situ instrumentation to measure the aerosol optical properties (CAPS, nephelometer, PSAP), the aerosol size distribution (SMPS, GRIMM, USHAS, PCASP, FSSP) and the aerosol chemical composition (SP2, AMS). A mini backscattered lidar system provided additional measurements of the aerosol vertical structure and the aerosol optical properties such as the particulate depolarization ratio. The CHIMERE chemistry and transport model has been used to characterize the source area and the long-range transport of dust and biomass burning plumes. Here, we investigate the aerosol microphysical, chemical and optical properties of biomass burning and dust aerosols transported in SWA. In particular the following questions will be

  17. Green Marine: An environmental program to establish sustainability in marine transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R

    2016-04-15

    European maritime companies have adopted programs to limit operational impacts on the environment. For maritime companies in North America, the Green Marine Environmental Program (GMEP) offers a framework to establish and reduce environmental footprints. Green Marine (GM) participants demonstrate annual improvements of specific environmental performance indicators (e.g., reductions in air pollution emissions) to maintain certification. Participants complete annual self-evaluations with results determining rankings for performance indicators on a 1-to-5 scale. Self-evaluations are independently verified every two years to ensure rigor and individual results are made publicly available annually to achieve transparency. GM benefits the marine industry across North America by encouraging sustainable development initiatives. GM's credibility is reflected through a diverse network of environmental groups and government agencies that endorse and help shape the program. Merits of this relatively new maritime certification (not previously described in the academic literature), are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

    2010-05-01

    Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

  19. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E.; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N.; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    A necessary prerequisite of cloud formation, aerosol particles represent one of the largest uncertainties in computer simulations of climate change1,2, in part because of a poor understanding of processes under natural conditions3,4. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions5-7. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in clean Amazonia are mostly produced by the growth of smaller particles in the boundary layer8-10, whereas these smaller particles themselves 31 appear to be produced elsewhere5,11. Key questions are in what part of the atmosphere they might 32 be produced and what could be the transport processes that deliver them to the boundary layer, where they grow into CCN. Here, using recent aircraft measurements above central Amazonia, we show high concentrations of small particles in the lower free troposphere. The particle size spectrum shifts towards larger sizes with decreasing altitude, implying particle growth as air descends from the free troposphere towards Earth's surface. Complementary measurements at ground sites show that free tropospheric air having high concentrations of small particles (diameters of less than 50 nm) is transported into the boundary layer during precipitation events, both by strong convective downdrafts and by weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This vertical transport helps maintain the population of small particles and ultimately CCN in the boundary layer, thereby playing an important role in controlling the climate state under natural conditions. In contrast, this mechanism becomes masked under polluted conditions, which sometimes prevail at times in Amazonia as well as over other tropical continental regions5,12.

  20. Energy transport in the three coupled α-polypeptide chains of collagen molecule with long-range interactions effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvogo, Alain; Ben-Bolie, G. H.; Kofané, T. C.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of three coupled α-polypeptide chains of a collagen molecule is investigated with the influence of power-law long-range exciton-exciton interactions. The continuum limit of the discrete equations reveal that the collagen dynamics is governed by a set of three coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, whose dispersive coefficient depends on the LRI parameter r. We construct the analytic symmetric and asymmetric (antisymmetric) soliton solutions, which match with the structural features of collagen related with the acupuncture channels. These solutions are used as initial conditions for the numerical simulations of the discrete equations, which reveal a coherent transport of energy in the molecule for r > 3. The results also indicate that the width of the solitons is a decreasing function of r, which help to stabilize the solitons propagating in the molecule. To confirm further the efficiency of energy transport in the molecule, the modulational instability of the system is performed and the numerical simulations show that the energy can flow from one polypeptide chain to another in the form of nonlinear waves.

  1. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Lee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul, Korea, is a megacity in Northeast Asia. Its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region, and in turn it is also affected by regional emissions. To understand the extent of these influences, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs in Seoul were identified and quantified based on measurements made between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG combustion. The major sources of particulate PAHs in Seoul during the whole measurement period were gasoline and diesel vehicles, together accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven were observed in fall and winter, accounting for 63% and 82% of the total concentration of PAHs, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, they are likely to be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. This implies that the air quality in a mega-city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  2. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  3. Incorporation of planetary boundary layer dynamics in a numerical model of long-range air-pollutant transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakov, D.; Djolov, G.; Yordanov, D.

    1983-05-01

    A numerical model of long-range air-pollutant transport is developed, in which a simple planetary boundary layer (PBL) is incorporated. The pollution field results from the superposition of discrete ‘puffs’ of pollutants which are emitted periodically in different regions. The instantaneous sources in the different cells are approximated by rotational ellipsoids with Gaussian concentration distributions. The puff movement due to the external flow is followed by the displacement of the centroid. The expansion of the puff is modelled by nonisotropic Fickian diffusion. A simple barotropic PBL model is used to study the PBL influence. This model gives the flow velocity and the vertical turbulent exchange coefficient, which depend on the external parameters Ro and S — Rossby number and stratification parameter. The model performance is investigated by special test runs. The dependence of the pollution field on source height, stability conditions and vertical motions is shown.

  4. Particle dynamics in self-generated dunes over a range of hydraulic and sediment transport conditions using LES--DEM

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Rui; Strom, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Direct measurement of vertical and longitudinal sediment fluxes on migrating sandy bedforms are extremely difficult to perform in both the field and laboratory. In this study we use the LES--DEM (large eddy simulation--discrete element method) solver SediFoam to examine the individual particle motions and resulting fluxes in a domain of self-generated dunes. In SediFoam, the motions of, and collisions among, the sediment grains as well as their interactions with surrounding turbulent flows are resolved. The numerical simulations are performed over a range of transport settings, spanning bedform inception through washout conditions, to examine the individual particle dynamics. The space-time evolution of dune surfaces is demonstrated. The self-generated dunes are stable at relatively low Reynolds numbers, but then become increasingly unstable at higher Reynolds numbers; eventually washing out as the number of bypass grains and particles in suspension increase. Data from the simulation are used to examine the v...

  5. Distinct synoptic patterns and air masses responsible for long-range desert dust transport and sea spray in Palermo, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, K.; Paschalidou, A. K.; Kassomenos, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    Undoubtedly, anthropogenic emissions carry a large share of the risk posed on public health by particles exposure in urban areas. However, natural emissions, in the form of desert dust and sea spray, are well known to contribute significantly to the PM load recorded in many Mediterranean environments, posing an extra risk burden on public health. In the present paper, we examine the synoptic climatology in a background station in Palermo, Italy, through K-means clustering of the mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) maps, in an attempt to associate distinct synoptic patterns with increased PM10 levels. Four-day backward trajectory analysis is then applied, in order to study the origins and pathways of air masses susceptible of PM10 episodes. It is concluded that a number of atmospheric patterns result in several kind of flows, namely south, west, and slow-moving/stagnant flows, associated with long-range dust transport and sea spray.

  6. Spectral optical properties of long-range transport Asian dust and pollution aerosols over Northeast Asia in 2007 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IGAC (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Mega-cities program, aerosol physical and optical properties were continuously measured from March 2007 to March 2008 at an urban site (37.57° N, 126.94° E in Seoul, Korea. Spectral optical properties of long-range transported Asian dust and pollution aerosols have been investigated based on the year long measurement data. Optically measured black carbon/thermally measured elemental carbon (BC/EC ratio showed clear monthly variation with high values in summer and low values in winter mainly due to the enhancement of light attenuation by the internal mixing of EC. Novel approach has been suggested to retrieve the spectral light absorption coefficient (babs from Aethalometer raw data by using BC/EC ratio. Mass absorption efficiency, σabs (=babs/EC at 550 nm was determined to be 9.0±1.3, 8.9±1.5, 9.5±2.0, and 10.3±1.7 m2 g−1 in spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively with an annual mean of 9.4±1.8 m2 g−1. Threshold values to classify severe haze events were suggested in this study. Increasing trend of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA with wavelength was observed during Asian dust events while little spectral dependence of SSA was observed during long-range transport pollution (LTP events. Satellite aerosol optical thickness (AOT and Hysplit air mass backward trajectory analyses as well as chemical analysis were performed to characterize the dependence of spectral optical properties on aerosol type. Results from this study can provide useful information for studies on regional air quality and aerosol's effects on climate change.

  7. Morphochemical characteristics and mixing state of long range transported wildfire particles at Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Beatrice; Cappelletti, David; Crocchianti, Stefano; Becagli, Silvia; Caiazzo, Laura; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto; Mazzola, Mauro; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Ritter, Christoph; Zielinski, Tymon

    2017-05-01

    A prolonged and exceptionally intense air mass advection event transporting biomass burning aerosols generated in Alaska affected Ny-Ålesund in the mid of July 2015. This paper reports the morphochemical characteristics and mixing state of individual aerosol particles collected during the event. To this aim aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore polycarbonate membrane filters using a DEKATI 12-stage low volume impactor and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Results of SEM investigations depict a complex aerosol characterized by an external mixing between a main part of carbonaceous organic particles (tar balls and organic particles), lower ammonium sulfate and minor potassium chloride and mineral dust amounts. The carbonaceous particles are spherical to slightly elongated and the organic particles show an internal mixing of low density organics and/or ammonium sulfate upon denser nuclei. Most particles are in the accumulation mode size range although the size and the morphology of the chloride and the sulfate salts evidence the growth of these species both in the air and upon the sampling membranes. Individual particle analyses were complemented by aerosol size distribution (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) and optical (Particle Soot Absorption Photometer, nephelometer) measurements at ground level in order to retrieve the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol in the atmosphere and to predict the fate and behaviour of particles upon deposition at ground level. Individual particle analyses were also compared with bulk chemical analyses on daily sampling filters and back-trajectory analyses of the air mass movement in order to enucleate distinct sources of the aerosol during the long range transport.

  8. Evaluation of long range transport of fossil fuel originated organic aerosol at a background site in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jin; Lee, Ji Yi; Park, Jin Soo; Lee, Seok Jo; Kim, Hyun Jae; Jeon, Ha Eun; Sung, Min Young

    2013-04-01

    Northeast Asia is heavy air pollution region due to usage of large amounts of fossil fuel. In addition, meteorological conditions represented as prevailing westerlies in Northeast Asia region causes long range transport of anthropogenic pollutants emitted from China to Korea and Japan and even the United States across the Pacific Ocean (Bey et al., 2001). The Baengnyeong Island of Korea is located at the northwestern part of the Korean peninsula and close by North Korea and China, thus this site is regarded as an ideal place for background air measurements in Northeast Asia. Also, it has low local anthropogenic emissions and is frequently influenced by various air masses from China and North Korea in the Island. In this study, we performed intensive sampling during summer and winter in the Baengnyeong Island and analyzed various organic compounds including fossil fuel originated organic markers such as hopanes and PAHs using thermal desorption two dimensional gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC×GC-TOFMS). We also analyzed ~20 urban aerosol samples collected at Seoul, a representative urban site in Northeast Asia region to compare organic compounds distributions of aerosol samples at the Baengnyeong Island. By applying air mass back trajectory analysis and comparing organic compounds distributions in aerosol samples of the Baengnyeong Island and Seoul, the impact of long-range transport of fossil fuel originated organic pollutants at a background site in Northeast Asia were evaluated. (References) Bey, I., Jacob, D.J., Logan, J.A., Yantosca, R.M., 2001. Asian chemical outflow to the Pacific in spring: origins, pathways, and budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere 106, 23097-23113.

  9. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  10. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Tomlinson, Jason M; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A T; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T

    2016-11-17

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.

  11. Analysis of Transportation Energy Consumption: En Route Towards Carbon Reduction for Sustainable Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul; Asmah Hassan, Sitti

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports the estimation of transportation energy consumption based on the travel behaviour characteristics of the population in the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The travel behaviour characteristics include the travel distance, travel speed, number of trips per day, and modal share of the transport, which only focused on the trips that were made inside the campus. The travel behaviour data were collected through online and pencil-and-paper questionnaire survey involving 1000 respondents including staffs and students, which is equivalent to 25% of the total population. The result from the survey showed that a total of 1897 trips per day were made by the motorised vehicle owners including car and motorcycle owners. The total trip length per day was 1056.29 km with an average speed of 45km/h. The average trip for each person was four trips per day. The estimate energy consumption from the motorised vehicles in this campus was reported to be 1.25E9 MJ.

  12. An Overview of the 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS): Impact of stratospheric intrusions and long-range transport on surface air quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Langford; C. J. Senff; R.J., Alvarez; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; J. S. Holloway; M. Lin; R. D. Marchbanks; Pierce, R. B.; Sandberg, S.P.; Weickmann, A.M.; Williams, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS) was conducted in the late spring and early summer of 2013 to assess the seasonal contribution of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) and long-range transport to surface ozone in Clark County, Nevada and determine if these processes directly contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. Secondary goals included the characterization of local ozone production, regional transport f...

  13. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  14. RESEARCH OF APPROACHES TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF FUNCTIONING OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT SUBDIVISIONS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kharchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Modern transport systems are not stable and can not stand up to the destabilizing factors. Global track record in the economic and commercial management systems is the use of the concept of sustainable development. It is necessary on the basis of analysis of literary sources to define the directions of efficiency increase of functioning of railway transport subdivisions from the point of view of sustainable development. Methodology. To achieve the purpose the features of the use of sustainable development conception and its realization were investigated at a management of the complex systems. The existent models were also analyzed in the field of efficiency increase of functioning of railway transport subdivisions. Findings. On the basis of literary sources analysis, keeping up the conceptual essence of the sustainable development, the main directions of efficiency increase of subdivisions functioning were selected. They take into account the basic requirements of steady development and should be considered as a complex. Originality. New directions to consider the efficiency increase issues from position of sustainable development were offered by the author. Three components of conceptions of sustainable development (economic, ecological and social should be examined in a balanced way. Thus, the above mentioned theoretical studies can promote the forming of new economy model corresponding to the purposes and principles of sustainable development. Practical value. The conducted analysis development confirms the necessity of researches on perspective directions of development of railway transport subdivisions, which are marked by the guidance of Ukrzaliznytsia. It enables to select basic directions for further research in the area of efficiency increase.

  15. Improving Log Loading Efficiency for Improved Sustainable Transport within the Irish Forest and Biomass Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Ireland, timber and biomass haulage faces the challenge of transporting enough material within strict legal dimensions and gross vehicle weights restrictions for trucks and trailers. The objective of this study was to develop a method to control payload weight by knowing the moisture content of the wood. Weights, volumes, and moisture content were gathered from 100 truckloads of Sitka spruce pulpwood. Truck volume and weight utilization patterns were analyzed based on stacked volume, truck volume, and weights recorded from the weighbridge. Solid/bulk volume conversion factors for the truckloads were estimated indicating the truck’s solid volume capacity to be filled. Trucks were grouped into five conditions based on their configuration—volume capacity and legal maximum payload. A loaded volume fraction was estimated to assess the optimal volume capacity and stanchion height at which the trucks should be loaded. Results showed that 100% of the trucks presented volume underutilization, with a maximum of 27.5 m3 (only 39.85% volume capacity. In contrast, 67% of trucks were overweight while the remaining 33% were under the legal maximum weight. The average solid/bulk volume conversion factor was 0.66 ± 0.013 at 95% confidence level. Depending on the conditions, trucks can be filled to 100% of their volume capacity with wood at an MC from 29% to 55%. The minimum truck volume capacity utilization was 45%. This methodology can be used by truck hauliers, enabling them to determine in-forest the optimum volume and weight of wood to be transported by knowing the moisture content (MC, the wood specie, and using the height of the stanchions of the trailer as reference when loading the truck.

  16. Techno-Economic Investigation of Solar Powered Electric Auto-Rickshaw for a Sustainable Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Reddy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Technologies influencing alternative means of transportation have been expanding in recent years due to increasing urbanization and motorization. In this paper, a solar powered electric auto-rickshaw (SPEA is designed and developed for Indian conditions. The vehicle developed is comprehensively analyzed techno-economically for its viability in the Indian market. The performance analysis of SPEA results in an optimal charging rate of 2 kWh per day with an average solar irradiance of 325 W/m2 on a typical sunny day. The discharging characteristics are studied based on different loading conditions. The vehicle achieved a maximum speed of 21.69 km/h with battery discharge rate of 296 W at 90 kg load and also reached a maximum discharge rate of 540 W at 390 kg loading with a maximum speed of 12.11 km/h. Environmental analysis of SPEA indicated that the yearly CO2 emissions of 1777 kg, 1987 kg and 1938 kg from using Compressed Natural Gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas and gasoline engines respectively can be mitigated using SPEA. The financial analysis of SPEA concluded that the investor’s payback duration is 24.44% less compared to a gasoline-run vehicle. Socio-Economic analysis of SPEA discussed its significant advantages and showed 15.74% and 0.85% increase in yearly income over gasoline driven and battery driven vehicles.

  17. Long-range Transport of Asian Dust Storms: A Satellite/Surface Perspective on Societal and Scientific Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Among the many components contributing to air pollution, airborne mineral dust plays an important role due to its biogeochemical impact on the ecosystem and its radiative forcing effect on the weather/climate system. As much as one-third to half of the global dust emissions, estimated about 800 Tg, are introduced annually into Earth's atmosphere from various deserts in China. Asian dust storm outbreaks are believed to have persisted for hundreds and thousands years over the vast territory of north and northwest China, but not until recent decades that many studies reveal the compelling evidence in recognizing the importance of these eolian dust particles for forming Chinese Loess Plateau and for biogeochemical cycling in the North Pacific Ocean to as far as in the Greenland ice-sheets through long-range transport. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites and its evolution monitored by satellite and surface network. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of a new satellite algorithm, called Deep Blue, to retrieve aerosol properties, particularly but not limited to, over bright-reflecting surfaces such as urban areas and deserts. Recently, many field campaigns were designed and executed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. We will provide an overview of the outbreak of Asian dust storms, near source/sink and their evolution along transport pathway, from space and surface observations. The climatic effects and societal impacts of the Asian dusts will be addressed in depth. (to be presented in the International Workshop on Semi-Arid Land Surface-

  18. Evaluation of long-range transport potential of selected brominated flame retardants with measured 1-octanol-air partition coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kwon, Jung Hwan [Div. of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Various alternative flame retardants are used in many countries since polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, difficulties in the evaluation of the long-range transport potential (LRTP) of the alternatives are related to the lack of information on their physicochemical properties, which govern their environmental fates and transport. Based on the simulation of LRTP using OECD P{sub OV} and LRTP Screening Tool, five alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (hexabromobenzene [HBB], 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene [PBT], 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene [PBEB], 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate [TBB], and 1,2,4,5-tetrabromo-3,6-dimethylbenzene [TBX]), and 3 PBDEs (BDE-28, BDE-47, and BDE-99) were chosen to perform a refined assessment. This was done using an experimentally measured 1-octanol–air partition coefficient (K{sub OA}) for the calculation of the air–water partition coefficient (K{sub AW}) required for the model. The four selected alternative BFRs (HBB, PBT, PBEB, TBX) have K{sub OA} values close to the in silico estimation used in the screening evaluation. On the other hand, the measured K{sub OA} value for TBB was two orders of magnitude lower than the estimated value used in the screening simulation. The refined simulation showed that characteristic travel distance (CTD) and transfer efficiency (TE) for HBB, PBT, PBEB, and TBX were greater than those for BDE-28, whereas CTD and TE for TBB were lower than those for BDE-28. This suggested that TBB has a lower LRTP than BDE-28, considering the refined partition coefficients.

  19. The long-range transport of aerosols from northern China to Hong Kong - a multi-technique study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; Chim, K. S.; Kot, S. C.

    The results of the inorganic and organic analyses of aerosol samples collected on the east and west sides of Hong Kong during a dust episode (9-10 May 1996) are reported. The origin of the dust was traced to Northern China. The dust reached Hong Kong by way of the East China Sea. The characteristics of the inorganic elements and organic compounds were quite different from the non-episodic samples collected on 1-2 April 1996, EPD (Environmental Protection Department, Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China) results for April-May 1994, and our early studies (Zheng et al., 1997. Atmospheric Environment 31(2), 227-237.). Results from X-ray spectrometry showed pronounced increase in the relative abundance of Al, Fe, Ca, S and Cl in the dust samples compared to the non-episodic samples. The high abundance of Cl in the dust samples suggested the aerosols experienced long-range transport by way of the sea. ICP-MS analysis revealed higher concentrations of Fe, Ca, S and Pb in the episodic samples relative to the values measured during April-May 1994 by EPD. The high Ca content in the soil samples is a characteristic of northern Chinese crustal material (Liu et al., 1985). Hong Kong aerosols are characterized by high octadecenoic acid concentration due to heavy urbanization and Chinese-style stir-fry cooking. A much lower C 18:1/C 18:0 ratio was found in the episodic samples, however, suggesting the aerosols were transported from a long distance. The high ratio of ⩾C 20/Asian Dust. This is the first scientific report of Asian Dust in Hong Kong.

  20. Microphysical characterization of long-range transported biomass burning particles from North America at three EARLINET stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Amezcua, Pablo; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; José Granados-Muñoz, María; Benavent-Oltra, José Antonio; Böckmann, Christine; Samaras, Stefanos; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Janicka, Łucja; Baars, Holger; Bohlmann, Stephanie; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2017-05-01

    Strong events of long-range transported biomass burning aerosol were detected during July 2013 at three EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) stations, namely Granada (Spain), Leipzig (Germany) and Warsaw (Poland). Satellite observations from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) instruments, as well as modeling tools such as HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System), have been used to estimate the sources and transport paths of those North American forest fire smoke particles. A multiwavelength Raman lidar technique was applied to obtain vertically resolved particle optical properties, and further inversion of those properties with a regularization algorithm allowed for retrieving microphysical information on the studied particles. The results highlight the presence of smoke layers of 1-2 km thickness, located at about 5 km a.s.l. altitude over Granada and Leipzig and around 2.5 km a.s.l. at Warsaw. These layers were intense, as they accounted for more than 30 % of the total AOD (aerosol optical depth) in all cases, and presented optical and microphysical features typical for different aging degrees: color ratio of lidar ratios (LR532 / LR355) around 2, α-related ångström exponents of less than 1, effective radii of 0.3 µm and large values of single scattering albedos (SSA), nearly spectrally independent. The intensive microphysical properties were compared with columnar retrievals form co-located AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) stations. The intensity of the layers was also characterized in terms of particle volume concentration, and then an experimental relationship between this magnitude and the particle extinction coefficient was established.

  1. Long-range transport of giant particles in Asian dust identified by physical, mineralogical, and meteorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, G. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Seo, J.; Kim, G. M.; Jin, H. C.; Chun, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Giant particles transported over long distances are generally of limited concern in atmospheric studies due to their low number concentrations in mineral dust and possible local origin. However, they can play an important role in regional circulation of earth materials due to their enormous volume concentration. Asian dust laden with giant particles was observed in Korea on 31 March 2012, after a migration of about 2000 km across the Yellow Sea from the Gobi Desert. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that 20% of the particles exceeded 10 μm in equivalent sphere diameter, with a maximum of 60 μm. The median diameter from the number distribution was 5.7 μm, which was larger than the diameters recorded of 2.5 and 2.9 μm in Asian dust storms in 2010 and 2011, respectively, and was consistent with independent optical particle counter data. Giant particles (>10 μm) contributed about 89% of the volume of the dust in the 2012 storm. Illite-smectite series clay minerals were the major mineral group followed by quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, and calcite. The total phyllosilicate content was ~52%. The direct long-range transport of giant particles was confirmed by calcite nanofibers closely associated with clays in a submicron scale identified by high-resolution SEM and transmission electron microscopy. Since giant particles consisted of clay agglomerates and clay-coated quartz, feldspars, and micas, the mineral composition varied little throughout the fine (20 μm) size bins. Analysis of the synoptic conditions of the 2012 dust event and its migration indicated that the mid-tropospheric strong wind belt directly stretching to Korea induced rapid transport of the dust, delivering giant particles. Giant dust particles with high settling velocity would be the major input into the terrestrial and marine sedimentary and ecological systems of East Asia and the western Pacific. Analysis of ancient aeolian deposits in Korea suggested the common deposition of giant

  2. Quantification of chemical and physical processes influencing ozone during long-range transport using a trajectory ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During long-range transport, many distinct processes – including photochemistry, deposition, emissions and mixing – contribute to the transformation of air mass composition. Partitioning the effects of different processes can be useful when considering the sensitivity of chemical transformation to, for example, a changing environment or anthropogenic influence. However, transformation is not observed directly, since mixing ratios are measured, and models must be used to relate changes to processes. Here, four cases from the ITCT-Lagrangian 2004 experiment are studied. In each case, aircraft intercepted a distinct air mass several times during transport over the North Atlantic, providing a unique dataset and quantifying the net changes in composition from all processes. A new framework is presented to deconstruct the change in O3 mixing ratio (Δ O3 into its component processes, which were not measured directly, taking into account the uncertainty in measurements, initial air mass variability and its time evolution.

    The results show that the net chemical processing (Δ O3chem over the whole simulation is greater than net physical processing (Δ O3phys in all cases. This is in part explained by cancellation effects associated with mixing. In contrast, each case is in a regime of either net photochemical destruction (lower tropospheric transport or production (an upper tropospheric biomass burning case. However, physical processes influence O3 indirectly through addition or removal of precursor gases, so that changes to physical parameters in a model can have a larger effect on Δ O3chem than Δ O3phys. Despite its smaller magnitude, the physical processing distinguishes the lower tropospheric export cases, since the net photochemical O3 change is −5 ppbv per day in all three cases.

    Processing is quantified using a Lagrangian

  3. Long- and/or short-range transportation of local Asian aerosols in DRAGON-Osaka Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    This work intends to demonstrate the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric particles in East Asia, especially around AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) -Osaka site during Dragon Asia period in the spring of 2012, named Dragon-Osaka. It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Thus the precise observations of atmospheric particles in East Asia are desired. Osaka is the second big city in Japan and a typical Asian urban area. The population of the region is around 20 millions including neighbor prefectures. Therefore, air quality in the region is slightly bad compared to remote area due to industries and auto mobiles. In recent years, Asian dusts and anthropogenic small particles transported from China and cover those cities throughout year. AERONET Osaka site was established in 2002 on the campus of Kinki University. Nowadays, LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), an SPM sampler (SPM-613D, Kimoto Electric, Japan) and others are available on the roof of a building. The site data are useful for algorithm development of aerosol retrieval over busy city. On the other hand, human activities in this region also emit the huge amount of pollutions, thus it is needed to investigate the local distribution of aerosols in this region. In order to investigate change of aerosol properties, PM-individual analysis is made with scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). SEM/EDX is an effective instrument to observe the surface microstructure and analyze the chemical composition of such materials as metals, powders, biological specimens, etc. We used sampling data from the SPM sampler at AERONET Osaka site. During a period of DRAGON-Asia, high concentrations of air pollutant were observed on the morning of March 11 in Fukue Island in the East China Sea. On the

  4. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the far infrasound range and emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, L A; Gorgo, Yu P; Dirckx, J J J; Bogdanov, V B; Buytaert, J A N; Lysenko, V A; Didyk, N P; Vershygora, A V; Erygina, V T

    2008-09-01

    This study examines whether a relation exists between rapid atmospheric pressure fluctuations, attributed to the far infrasound frequency range (APF), and a number of emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases (EEC). Over an entire year, the average integral amplitudes of APF in the range of periods from 3 s to 120 s over each hour (HA) were measured. Daily dynamics of HA averaged over the year revealed a wave shape with smooth increase from night to day followed by decrease from day to night. The total daily number of EEC within the city of Kiev, Ukraine, was related to the daily mean of HA (DHA) and to the ratio of HA averaged over the day time to HA averaged over the night time (Rdn), and was checked for confounding effects of classical meteorological variables through non-parametric regression algorithms. The number of EEC were significantly higher on days with high DHA (3.72-11.07 Pa, n = 87) compared to the low DHA (0.7-3.62 Pa, n = 260, p = 0.01), as well at days with low Rdn (0.21-1.64, n = 229) compared to the high Rdn (1.65-7.2, n = 118, p = 0.03). A difference between DHA and Rdn effects on the emergency events related to different categories of circulatory diseases points to a higher sensitivity of rheumatic and cerebro-vascular diseases to DHA, and ischaemic and hypertensive diseases to Rdn. Results suggest that APF could be considered as a meteorotropic factor capable of influencing circulatory system diseases.

  5. Fault-related dolomitization in the Orpesa Ranges (Iberian Chain, E Spain): reactive transport simulations and field data constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Rivas, E.; Martin-Martin, J. D.; Corbella, M.; Teixell, A.

    2009-04-01

    The relationships between hydrothermal fluid circulation and fracturing that lead to mineral dissolution and/or precipitation in carbonate rocks have direct impacts on the evolution and final distribution of hydrocarbon reservoir permeability. Understanding the coupling between these processes is important for predicting permeability and improving hydrocarbon recovery. We present a case study of dolomitization processes in Cretaceous limestone from the Orpesa Ranges (Iberian Chain, E Spain). Extending over part of the Maestrat Cretaceous Basin, the Orpesa area is deformed by extensional faults. These faults accommodated thick sequences of shallow marine limestone, mainly during Aptian times. The syn-rift carbonates are partially dolomitized due to the circulation and mixing of hydrothermal fluids along normal faults and bedding. Both Aptian and later Neogene extensional faults must have served as conduits for the circulation of fluids. MVT deposits of Paleocene age are well documented in the Maestrat basin and may also be related to dolomitization. Samples of host rocks and vein fillings have been collected along strike and analyzed in different fault sections to characterize fluid and rock composition, track flow pathways and map the relationships of fluid flow with respect to the main normal faults in the area. Using field and geochemical data from the Orpesa Ranges carbonates, we have developed reactive-transport models to study the influence of different parameters in the dolomitization of carbonates related to the circulation and mixing of hydrothermal fluids at the outcrop scale. We present results from models that were run with constant and non-constant permeability. The main parameters analyzed include: initial porosity and permeability of layers and fractures, composition of fluids, groundwater and brines flux, composition of layers, reactive surface of minerals, differences in vertical and horizontal permeability, and presence or absence of stratigraphic

  6. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Lou, Sijia; Zelenyuk-Imre, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-23

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on ecosystems and human health. Laboratory measurements show that one of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene, which is adsorbed on surfaces of soot particles, reacts very quickly with atmospheric oxidants like ozone within ~2 hours. Yet, field observations indicate that it actually persists for much longer periods in the atmosphere, and this large discrepancy is not well understood. Driven by novel experimental understanding, we develop a new modelling approach, whereby particle-bound BaP is shielded from oxidation by a coating of viscous organic aerosol (OA). We show that application of this new approach in a global climate model leads to higher atmospheric BaP concentrations that agree much better with measurements, compared to the default model, as well as stronger long-range transport and greater deposition fluxes. This new approach also predicts elevated lung-cancer risk from PAHs. Predicted oxidation of BaP is highest over a tropical belt where OA is liquid-like.

  7. Using background air pollutants levels correlation analysis to identify periods of long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkova, Elizaveta S.; Burtseva, Larisa V.; Gromov, Sergey A.; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing trends of airborne lead and cadmium at background station within the central region of European Russia have been identified previously (e.g., Gromov & Konkova, 2016). In order to reveal the possible drivers of these trends, a deeper investigation of correlation among these heavy metals (HM) and other co-measured pollutants is done in this study. Based on the data for the 2001-2012 period, calculations have been carried out for the period from 2006 onwards, when the growth of HM concentrations is observed. Pairwise correlations of individual species abundances were derived for the entire time series and subsets for each calendar year, including warm (April to September) and cold seasons (October to March). The calculated values for the seasons and the whole years vary substantially, suggesting that that variable ratios of atmospheric HM emission sources could affect the final air concentrations at measurement site in these periods. To distinguish the events of predominant influence of natural and anthropogenic sources, we assume that correlation between lead and cadmium levels must be greater in the case of natural sources being in effect. High values of the correlation coefficient are expected in cases when HM air abundances are induced by the long-range transport from the regions of anthropogenic sources (co-emission of these metals results from a number of same sources, and both of them are also present on same matrix aerosols). The results demonstrate a substantial correlation between Pb and Cd, with higher values for individual seasons (70% of 0.5 and higher) than for whole years. Higher mass concentrations of airborne dust (TSP) in remote areas are to large extent promoted by large particles blown away from the surface at local surroundings. Captured better by filters, such events could be a particular indicator of local (mostly natural) sources. Low or insignificant correlation with HM indicates prevalence of long-range transport of them and could

  8. Sustainable Vehicles-Based Alternatives in Last Mile Distribution of Urban Freight Transport: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Machado de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of new technologies in last mile deliveries is about to cause a disruption in the traditional business model applied in urban cargo transportation, thus presenting innumerous research opportunities in this field of knowledge. In this context, identifying new operation models and vehicles that could be applied for last mile deliveries in urban areas becomes crucial. Therefore, this paper aims to identify, through a systematic literature review, the main types of vehicles addressed in the literature that could be used in the last mile of urban freight distribution in order to increase the sustainability of this type of operation. The results indicate a trend for the implementation of smaller and lighter vehicles for last mile deliveries in urban areas: 47% of the studies suggest, among other alternatives, the use of bicycles and tricycles; while 53% of the articles support the use of light commercial vehicles. Another trend observed in this type of distribution, indicated in 64% of the studies, is the shift from conventional (fossil fuels to alternative sources of energy (electricity.

  9. STEEP STREAMS - Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Aronne; Cardoso, Antonio H.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Bellin, Alberto; Breinl, Korbinian; Canelas, Ricardo B.; Larcher, Michele; Majone, Bruno; Matos, Jorges; Meninno, Sabrina; Nucci, Elena; Rigon, Riccardo; Rosatti, Giorgio; Zardi, Dino

    2017-04-01

    The STEEP STREAMS (Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS) project consists of a collaboration among the Universities of Trento, Uppsala and Lisbon, who joined in a consortium within the ERANET Water JPI call WaterWorks2014. The aim of the project is to produce new rational criteria for the design of protection works against debris flows, a phenomenon consisting in hyper-concentrated flows of water and sediments, classified as catastrophic events typical of small mountainous basins (area risk of damage and even loss of human lives. These extreme events occur almost annually across Europe, though the formal return period in an exposed site is much larger. Recently, an increase in intensity and frequency of small-scale storm events, leading to extreme solid transport in steep channels, are recognized as one of the effects of climate change. In this context, one of the key challenges of this project is the use of comparatively coarse RCM projections to the small catchments examined in STEEP STREAMS. Given these changes, conventional protection works and their design criteria may not suffice to provide adequate levels of protection to human life and urban settlements. These structures create a storage area upstream the alluvial fans and the settlements, thereby reducing the need of channelization in areas often constrained by urban regulations. To optimize the lamination, and in particular to reduce the peak of solid mass flux, it is necessary that the deposition basin is controlled by a slit check dam, capable of inducing a controlled sedimentation of the solid mas flux. In order to achieve that, reliable design tools are needed. Driftwood represents another important factor increasing the risk, as clogging induced by the vegetal material represents a major problem for the operational reliability of slit check dams. Current procedures in compiling hazardous maps do not account for

  10. Incorporating sustainability into TxDOT's transportation decision making : summary of work performed, methods used, and results achieved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 and 2010 under TxDOT : Implementation Project 5-5541-01 Regional Workshops on Sustainability Enhancement : Tool. TxDOT Research Project 0-5541, Developing Sustainable Tra...

  11. The impact of local winds and long-range transport on the continuous carbon dioxide record at Mount Waliguan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingxi Zhou; Jie Tang; Yupu Wen; Peng Yan [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China); Jinlong Li [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center of Environmental Sciences; Xiaochun Zhang [Qinghai Meteorological Bureau, Xining (China)

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes the continuous measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mt. Waliguan (36 deg 17 min N, 100 deg 54 min E, 3816 m asl) in western China over the period 1994-2000. The CO{sub 2} hourly mixing ratios were segregated by horizontal wind direction/speed and vertical winds, respectively, merged by season over the entire measurement period. The short-term variability in CO{sub 2} was examined mainly from the point of view of local winds observed at this station and isobaric back trajectory cluster-concentration analysis as for local and long-range transport influence, to permit the selection of hourly average data that is representative of background conditions. From the selected hourly data, daily, monthly and annual averages that are not influenced by local CO{sub 2} sources and sinks be computed by discriminating the local and regional impact on the Waliguan CO{sub 2} records. On the basis of these results, background CO{sub 2} data were then analyzed to evaluate the averaged diurnal variation, monthly mean time series, CO{sub 2} mixing ratio distribution in different seasons as well as averaged seasonal cycle. Annual mean and growth rate of CO{sub 2} at Waliguan during the period of 1991 to 2000 were further discussed by supplement with NOAA/CMDL flask air sampling records at this station and other monitoring stations located at similar latitudinal band in the Northern Hemisphere. The results from this study can provide atmospheric CO{sub 2} characteristics in Asian inland regions, and be used in other studies to improve the understanding of carbon source and sink distributions.

  12. Aerosol content survey by mini N 2 -Raman lidar: Application to local and long-range transport aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Philippe; Chazette, Patrick; Lardier, Melody; Sauvage, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    This study shows an aerosol content survey in the low and middle troposphere over Paris with a compact and light Nitrogen-Raman lidar which has been recently developed by the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and LEOSPHERE company. This eye-safe and wide field-of-view system (full overlap between 150 and 200 m) is particularly well-adapted to air pollution survey in the vicinity of Megalopolis. Extinction-to-backscatter coefficient (so-called Lidar Ratio LR) profiles obtained with a Tikhonov regularization scheme are presented for long-range transport events of aerosols (volcanic ash plume LR = 48 ± 10 sr, and desert dust, LR = 45 ± 8 sr) which may contribute to the local load of aerosols emitted by traffic and industries in Megalopolis. Due to an insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR < 30), a new dichotomous algorithm has been developed to perform daytime inversions every hour which is in accordance with the typical time evolution of aerosols within the planetary boundary layer. This inversion scheme is based on the constraint of the elastic channel with the aerosol optical depth (between typically 0.2 and 0.7 km) determined with the N 2-Raman channel and thus only gives access to an equivalent LR between 0.2 and 0.7 km with a relative uncertainty lower than 15%. This approach has been applied to retrieve diurnal cycle of LR for polluted continental aerosols over Paris and is compared with Tikhonov regularization applied during the night. We found a mean value of 85 ± 18 sr for polluted continental aerosols which is in agreement with other studies performed around the Paris urban area. Results for aerosol optical properties are presented and the error sources are discussed for each approach.

  13. Injection in the lower stratosphere of biomass fire emissions followed by long-range transport: a MOZAIC case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Cammas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a stratospheric injection by deep convection of biomass fire emissions over North America (Alaska, Yukon and Northwest Territories on 24 June 2004 and its long-range transport over the eastern coast of the United States and the eastern Atlantic. The case study is based on airborne MOZAIC observations of ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and water vapour during the crossing of the southernmost tip of an upper level trough over the Eastern Atlantic on 30 June and on a vertical profile over Washington DC on 30 June, and on lidar observations of aerosol backscattering at Madison (University of Wisconsin on 28 June. Attribution of the observed CO plumes to the boreal fires is achieved by backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART. A simulation with the Meso-NH model for the source region shows that a boundary layer tracer, mimicking the boreal forest fire smoke, is lofted into the lowermost stratosphere (2–5 pvu layer during the diurnal convective cycle at isentropic levels (above 335 K corresponding to those of the downstream MOZAIC observations. It is shown that the order of magnitude of the time needed by the parameterized convective detrainment flux to fill the volume of a model mesh (20 km horizontal, 500 m vertical above the tropopause with pure boundary layer air would be about 7.5 h, i.e. a time period compatible with the convective diurnal cycle. Over the area of interest, the maximum instantaneous detrainment fluxes deposited about 15 to 20% of the initial boundary layer tracer concentration at 335 K. According to the 275-ppbv carbon monoxide maximum mixing ratio observed by MOZAIC over Eastern Atlantic, such detrainment fluxes would be associated with a 1.4–1.8 ppmv carbon monoxide mixing ratio in the boundary layer over the source region.

  14. Estimation of the effect of long-range transport on seasonal variation of aerosols over northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Gogoi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD at ten discrete channels in the visible and near IR regions were estimated over Dibrugarh, located in the northeastern part of India, using a ground-based multi-wavelength solar radiometer (MWR from October 2001 to February 2006. The observations reveal seasonal variations with low values of AODs in retreating monsoon and high values in the pre-monsoon season. Generally the AODs are high at shorter wavelengths and low at longer wavelengths. AOD spectra are relatively steep in winter compared to that in the monsoon period. The average value of AOD lies between 0.44±0.07 and 0.56±0.07 at 500 nm during the pre-monsoon season and between 0.19±0.02 and 0.22±0.02 during re-treating monsoon at the same wavelength. Comparison of MWR observation on Dibrugarh with satellite (MODIS observation indicates a good correspondence between ground-based and satellite derived AODs. The synoptic wind pattern obtained from National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF, India and back trajectory analysis using the NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT4 Model indicates that maximum contribution to aerosol extinction could be due to transport of pollutants from the industrialized and urban regions of India and large amounts of desert and mineral aerosols from the west Asian and Indian desert. Equal contributions from Bay-of-Bengal (BoB, in addition to that from the Indian landmass and west Asian desert leads to a further increase of AOD over the region of interest in the pre-monsoon seasons.

  15. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Weihua [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon ({sup 222}Rn), a radioactive noble gas occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium in soils and rocks. Due to the abundance of uranium, radon continuously emanates from continental land masses. With radon as the main source of naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment, one would think that the Arctic should be an area of low background radiation, because a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by glaciers and permafrost, and radon emanation rate has been reported to be negligible from those glacier and permafrost areas. However, available data have shown the opposite. The elevated level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the Arctic is due to natural sources outside of the Arctic, mainly through long-range atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny. In some cases, natural radioactivity can accumulate to relatively high levels and become a health concern or a limiting factor of country food consumption. By definition, contaminants are undesirable substances which can cause harm to the environment, the biota, and humans. We can call these naturally accumulating radiological burdens to the Arctic 'natural contaminants' to distinguish them from the traditional meaning of contamination, the 'artificial contaminants' which are attributable to industrial or man-made sources. This paper reviews information available in the literature, analyses long-term atmospheric monitoring data in the Canadian high Arctic, sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, and provides discussion on research needed to address questions, such as how heavily the Arctic has been impacted by the

  16. Long-range volcanic ash transport and fallout during the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Adam J.; Villarosa, Gustavo; Rose, William I.; Delmelle, Pierre; Prata, Alfred J.; Viramonte, José G.

    2012-01-01

    The May 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile, provided a rare opportunity to measure the long-range transport of volcanic emissions and characteristics of a widely-dispersed terrestrial ash deposit. Airborne ash mass, quantified using thermal infrared satellite remote sensing, ranged between 0.2 and 0.4 Tg during the period 3-7 May 2008. A high level of spatiotemporal correspondence was observed between cloud trajectories and changes in surface reflectivity, which was inferred to indicate ash deposition. The evolution of the deposit was mapped for the first time using satellite-based observations of surface reflectivity. The distal (>80 km) ash deposit was poorly sorted and fine grained, and mean particle size varied very little beyond a distance >300 km. There were three particle size subpopulations in fallout at distances >300 km which mirror those identified in fallout from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, known to have a high propensity for aggregation. Discrete temporal sampling and characterisation of fallout demonstrated contributions from specific eruptive phases. Samples collected at the time of deposition were compared to bulk samples collected months after deposition and provided some evidence for winnowing. Experimentally-derived ash leachates had near-neutral pH values and charge balance which indicates minimal quantities of adsorbed acids. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed surface enrichments in Ca, Na and Fe and the presence of coatings of mixed Ca-, Na- and Fe-rich salts on ash particles prior to deposition. Low S:Cl ratios in leachates indicate that the eruption had a low S content, and high Cl:F ratios imply gas-ash interaction within a Cl-rich environment. We estimate that ash fallout had potential to scavenge ∼42% of total S released into the atmosphere prior to deposition. XPS analyses also revealed ash particle surfaces were strongly enriched in Fe (in contrast to the results from bulk leachate

  17. Adsorption equilibrium and transport kinetics for a range of probe gases in Takeda 3A carbon molecular sieve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, S W; Coons, J E

    2005-04-15

    Measurements of adsorption equilibria and transport kinetics for argon, oxygen and nitrogen at 20, 50, and 80 degrees C on commercially derived Takeda carbon molecular sieve (CMS) employed for air separation have been undertaken in an effort to elucidate fundamental mechanisms of transport. Results indicate that micropore diffusion which is modeled by a Fickian diffusion process, governs the transport of oxygen molecules and the pore mouth barrier controls argon and nitrogen transport which is characterized by a linear driving force (LDF) model. For the three temperatures studied, the pressure dependence of the diffusivity and the LDF rate constant appear to be well characterized by a formulation based on the chemical potential as the driving force for transport. Isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading and activation energy measurements are compared with predictions made from a previously proposed molecular model for characterizing CMS.

  18. Transport and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Ph.D. thesis containing two principal parts: one investigating the background for the growth of mobility, especially the motor vehicle based mobility, in Denmark during the post war, and one analysing the scope for technical improvements of motor vehicles. The former is based on a case study of t...

  19. Processes Influencing Ozone Levels in Alaskan Forest Fires Plumes during Long-Range Transport over the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, E.; Law, K. S.; Wienzierl, B.; Fiebig, M.; Petzold, A.; Wild, O.; Methven, J.; Arnold, S.; Stohl, A.; Huntrieser, H.; hide

    2006-01-01

    A case of long-range transport of a biomass burning plume from Alaska to Europe is analyzed using a Lagrangian approach. This plume was sampled several times in the free troposphere over North America, the North Atlantic and Europe by 3 different aircraft during the IGAC Lagrangian 2K4 experiment which was part of the ICARTT/ITOP measurement intensive in summer 2004. Measurements in the plume showed enhanced values of CO, VOCs and NOy, mainly in form of PAN. Observed O3 levels increased by 17 ppbv over 5 days. A photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, is used to examine processes responsible for the chemical evolution of the plume. The model was initialized with upwind data, and compared with downwind measurements. The influence of high aerosol loading on photolysis rates in the plume is investigated using in-situ aerosol measurements in the plume and lidar retrievals of optical depth as input into a photolysis code (Fast-J), run in the model. Significant impacts on photochemistry are found with a decrease of 18 percent in O3 production and 24 percent in O3 destruction over 5 days when including aerosols. The plume is found to be chemically active with large O3 increases attributed primarily to PAN decomposition during descent of the plume towards Europe. The predicted O3 changes are very dependent on temperature changes during transport, and also, on water vapor levels in the lower troposphere which can lead to O3 destruction. Simulation of mixing/dilution was necessary to reproduce observed pollutants level in the plume. Mixing was simulated using background concentrations from measurements in air masses in close proximity to the plume, and mixing timescales (averaging 6.25 days) were derived from CO changes. Observed and simulated O3/CO correlations in the plume are also compared in order to evaluate the photochemistry in the model. Observed slopes changed from negative to positive over 5 days. This change, which can be attributed largely to photochemistry, is

  20. Sustainable transition of socio-technological systems: How can Governance Network Research and Transition Theory contribute to the transition to biofuel for transportation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Stærdahl, Jens; Søndergård, Bent

    and policymaking for sustainability has to work with issues of understanding how actors and networks configure, requirements to effective networks and metagovernance of governance networks. Research within innovation systems, transition management and technology systems combined with planning and experimental...... activities provides both a theoretical and empirical body of knowledge of such governance processes. The paper presents these approaches and demonstrates how they can be used in relation to the process of developing bio-fuel systems for transportation.......The paper suggests that the challenge of sustainability demands a shift of the attention of environmental planning and policy to the transition of socio-technological systems. Deliberate planning for sustainability then becomes a question of addressing governance structures of socio...

  1. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  2. The BEST project - BioEthanol for the Sustainable Transportation - a contribution to the environment of the metropolis; O projeto BEST - BioEtanol para o Transporte Sustentavel - uma contribuicao ao meio ambiente das metropoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Melo, Euler Hoffmann; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: silvia@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The BEST Project - Bio Ethanol for the Sustainable Transportation was an initiative of the European Union, coordinated by the Stockholm City Hall, at Sweden. This project gave incentives the use of ethanol, replacing the Diesel fuel, at the public transportation in Brazil and in the world. The used vehicles in the tests were monitored and evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency and environmental energy of the ethanol, and after the results, the BEST project and the European Union gave recommendations for the formulation of public politics of incentives to the use of technology.

  3. Effects of long-range transported acidification on the bio-diversity in terrestrial ecosystems; Effekter av langtransporterte forsuringer paa biodiversitet i terrestriske oekosystemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiland, K. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the environmental effects of long-range transported pollutants on the biodiversity in the terrestrial ecosystems. The paper discusses different chemical substances existing in the atmosphere and their influence on vegetation together with the effects on biodiversity from acidification. 4 refs.

  4. Impacts of long-range transports of PM10 on air quality in Gwangju, South Korea using satellite and in-situ measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R.; Han, K.; Song, C.; Kang, Y.; Jung, W.; Ahan, S.

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the impact of long-range transported particular matter on the city of Gwangju which is one of metropolitan cities in the South Korea and is located in the southwestern part of the Korean peninsula, the PM10 concentrations measured at six measurement sites in Gwangju area were used. A decadal trend (2002-2011) of PM10 was analyzed and then the monthly and daily variations of PM10 for the years of 2002, 2003, 2006, and 2011 were investigated. The events of long-range transport were selected from peaks of daily PM10 and were evaluated through 72-hours backward trajectory analysis using NOAA HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. In addition, the events were evaluated using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)-retrieved AI (Aerosol Index), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI)-retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). Then the daily PM10 influenced by the long-range transport was filtered and the monthly variations calculated from the filtered daily PM10 and the daily PM10 influenced by the long-range transport were compared. For the year of 2002, up to ~50% of the PM10 concentration was influenced by Asian dust in March and April, respectively. In contrast, for the year of 2003, the impact of LRT on the PM10 concentrations were relatively small in the Gwangju areas. The monthly variations and annual mean values for 2002, 2003, 2006, and 2011, calculated from the filtered daily PM10, were similar and therefore, the annual variations of PM10 in Gwangju could be mainly affected by the long-range transport.

  5. Long-range transported dissolved organic matter, ions and black carbon deposited on Central Asian snow covered glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Kang, Shichang; Peltier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ninety percent of the Central Asian population depend on water precipitated in the mountains stored in glaciers and snow cover. Accelerated melting of the snow and ice can be induced by the deposition of airborne impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon and co-emitted species leading to significant reductions of the surface albedo. However, Central Asia is a relatively understudied region and data on the source regions, chemical and microphysical characteristics as well as modelling studies of long-range transported air pollution and dust to the Tien Shan mountains is very scarce. We studied the atmospheric aerosol deposited most likely between summer 2012 and summer 2013on three different glaciers in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were taken from four snow pits on the glaciers Abramov (2 pits, 39.59 °N, 71.56 °E, 4390 m elevation, 240 cm deep, and 39.62°N, 71.52 °E, 4275 m elevation, 125 cm deep), Ak-Shiirak (41.80 °N, 78.18 °E, 4325 m elevation, 75 cm deep) and Suek (41.78 °N, 77.75 °E, 4341 m elevation, 200 cm deep). The latter two glaciers are located roughly within 6 and 38 km of an operating gold mine. The snow was analyzed for black carbon, ions, metals and organic carbon. We here focus on the results of inorganic ion measurements and organic carbon speciation based on analysis with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and potential pollution sources that can be deduced from the chemical information as well as back trajectories. Average contributions of snow impurities measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were dominated by organic carbon. Relative concentrations of organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in snow were 86 %, 3 %, 9 % and 2 % respectively for Abramov, 92 %, 1 %, 5 % and 1 % for Suek, and 95 %, 1 %, 3 % and 1 % for Ak-Shiirak. Generally, impurities on Suek and Ak-Shiirak were three and five times higher than on Abramov. Mass concentrations of organic carbon were on average 6 times higher in samples

  6. MDO and LNG as Fuels (Duel Fuel) to Support Sustainable Maritime Transport (A Case Study in KM. Ciremai)

    OpenAIRE

    JInca, Muhammad Yamin

    2014-01-01

    The development of urban areas cause a variety of problems and challenges as a direct impact of the development conditions of the region, including in terms of planning adequate transportation system, which is able to meet the needs of urban population movements, not only in terms of the amount of means of transport, but also should pay attention to and improve performance of public transport services, strategies to improve the performance of public transport in satisfaction of pu...

  7. Towards numerical forecasting of long-range air transport of birch pollen: theoretical considerations and a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiev, M; Siljamo, P; Ranta, H; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A

    2006-07-01

    This paper considers the feasibility of numerical simulation of large-scale atmospheric transport of allergenic pollen. It is shown that at least small grains, such as birch pollen, can stay in the air for a few days, which leads to a characteristic scale for their transport of approximately 10(3) km. The analytical consideration confirmed the applicability of existing dispersion models to the pollen transport task and provided some reference parameterizations of the key processes, including dry and wet deposition. The results were applied to the Finnish Emergency Dispersion Modelling System (SILAM), which was then used to analyze pollen transport to Finland during spring time in 2002-2004. Solutions of the inverse problems (source apportionment) showed that the main source areas, from which the birch flowering can affect Finnish territory, are the Baltic States, Russia, Germany, Poland, and Sweden-depending on the particular meteorological situation. Actual forecasting of pollen dispersion required a birch forest map of Europe and a unified European model for birch flowering, both of which were nonexistent before this study. A map was compiled from the national forest inventories of Western Europe and satellite images of broadleaf forests. The flowering model was based on the mean climatological dates for the onset of birch forests rather than conditions of any specific year. Utilization of probability forecasting somewhat alleviated the problem, but the development of a European-wide flowering model remains the main obstacle for real-time forecasting of large-scale pollen distribution.

  8. On the Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the sub-1 keV energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rowan M; Kawrakow, Iwan

    2011-08-01

    The validity of "classic" Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron and positron transport at sub-1 keV energies is investigated in the context of quantum theory. Quantum theory dictates that uncertainties on the position and energy-momentum four-vectors of radiation quanta obey Heisenberg's uncertainty relation; however, these uncertainties are neglected in "classical" MC simulations of radiation transport in which position and momentum are known precisely. Using the quantum uncertainty relation and electron mean free path, the magnitudes of uncertainties on electron position and momentum are calculated for different kinetic energies; a validity bound on the classical simulation of electron transport is derived. In order to satisfy the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, uncertainties of 5% must be assigned to position and momentum for 1 keV electrons in water; at 100 eV, these uncertainties are 17 to 20% and are even larger at lower energies. In gaseous media such as air, these uncertainties are much smaller (less than 1% for electrons with energy 20 eV or greater). The classical Monte Carlo transport treatment is questionable for sub-1 keV electrons in condensed water as uncertainties on position and momentum must be large (relative to electron momentum and mean free path) to satisfy the quantum uncertainty principle. Simulations which do not account for these uncertainties are not faithful representations of the physical processes, calling into question the results of MC track structure codes simulating sub-1 keV electron transport. Further, the large difference in the scale at which quantum effects are important in gaseous and condensed media suggests that track structure measurements in gases are not necessarily representative of track structure in condensed materials on a micrometer or a nanometer scale.

  9. Clustered long-range transport routes and potential sources of PM2.5 and their chemical characteristics around the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Wu, Shui-Ping; Tong, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the spatiotemporal variation, chemical characteristics, source apportionment, and their contribution for clustered transport routes of atmospheric fine particle (PM2.5) around the Taiwan Strait. Atmospheric PM2.5 was simultaneously collected at three selected sampling sites around the Taiwan Strait in the years of 2013-2015. Field sampling results showed that atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations varied with the clustered transport routes. Backward trajectory analyses suggested that PM2.5 concentrations under the northerly wind conditions were generally higher than those under the southerly wind conditions. Chemical analysis results showed that the most abundant chemical composition were secondary inorganic aerosols (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+), natural crustal materials (Mg, Ca, AL, K, and Fe), and anthropogenic metals (Pb, Ni, and Zn). Moreover, high OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 were commonly observed at the west-side site located at the downwind of major stationary sources. Furthermore, primary organic carbons (POC) were always higher than secondary organic carbons (SOC) on both sides of the Taiwan Strait. The concentrations of chemical species from the trajectory NWW (southern China) were much higher than other trajectories. Integrating the results obtained from receptor modeling and backward trajectory simulation indicated that high PM2.5 concentrations were transported from North China, the eastern coast of China, Korea Peninsula, and South Japan. It was mainly attributed to the combination of the relatively elevated emissions from coal burning for space heating, and long-range transport (LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT) of PM2.5 from upwind sources. The source apportionment of secondary aerosols were in order of east-side site > offshore site > west-side site, suggesting that aged secondary particles could be formed during the transportation process by longer range and duration toward the east-side site of Taiwan Strait and the offshore site.

  10. Interplanetary transport of solar near-relativistic electrons on 2014 August 1 over a narrow range of heliolongitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study two consecutive solar near-relativistic (>50 keV electron events observed on 2014 August 1 by both STEREO spacecraft with a longitudinal separation of only about 35°. The events were unambiguously associated with a solar source location and not accompanied by type II radio bursts or coronal mass ejections. Despite their close location, the two spacecraft were embedded in different solar wind streams and the electron intensities observed by the two STEREOs showed clear differences in onset times, peak intensities and pitch-angle distributions. The apparently better connected spacecraft, STEREO B, observed a smaller and more isotropic intensity increase and a later event onset time than STEREO A. Since the interplanetary transport conditions of solar energetic particles (SEPs have a direct influence on the characteristics of the observed temporal profiles and the particle anisotropies at the spacecraft location, our aim is to understand if the observations on 2014 August 1 could be explained by different interplanetary transport conditions along each flux tube connecting the spacecraft with the solar source. For that purpose, we use a Monte Carlo interplanetary transport model combined with an inversion procedure to fit the in-situ observations of the two near-relativistic multi-spacecraft electron events. This allows us to obtain the injection profiles at the Sun and infer the transport conditions, which are characterized by the electron radial mean free path, λr. We obtain an almost simultaneous release of electrons for both spacecraft in both events. The release is consistent with the timing and duration of the type III radio burst emission and it is larger for STEREO B, the better connected spacecraft. In addition, we obtain different transport conditions in different solar wind streams. We find that the stream in which STEREO B was embedded was more diffusive (λr = 0.1AU for Event I and λr = 0.06AU for Event II than the

  11. Interplanetary transport of solar near-relativistic electrons on 2014 August 1 over a narrow range of heliolongitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Daniel; Agueda, Neus; Gómez-Herrero, Raúl; Aran, Angels

    2017-11-01

    We study two consecutive solar near-relativistic (>50 keV) electron events observed on 2014 August 1 by both STEREO spacecraft with a longitudinal separation of only about 35°. The events were unambiguously associated with a solar source location and not accompanied by type II radio bursts or coronal mass ejections. Despite their close location, the two spacecraft were embedded in different solar wind streams and the electron intensities observed by the two STEREOs showed clear differences in onset times, peak intensities and pitch-angle distributions. The apparently better connected spacecraft, STEREO B, observed a smaller and more isotropic intensity increase and a later event onset time than STEREO A. Since the interplanetary transport conditions of solar energetic particles (SEPs) have a direct influence on the characteristics of the observed temporal profiles and the particle anisotropies at the spacecraft location, our aim is to understand if the observations on 2014 August 1 could be explained by different interplanetary transport conditions along each flux tube connecting the spacecraft with the solar source. For that purpose, we use a Monte Carlo interplanetary transport model combined with an inversion procedure to fit the in-situ observations of the two near-relativistic multi-spacecraft electron events. This allows us to obtain the injection profiles at the Sun and infer the transport conditions, which are characterized by the electron radial mean free path, λr. We obtain an almost simultaneous release of electrons for both spacecraft in both events. The release is consistent with the timing and duration of the type III radio burst emission and it is larger for STEREO B, the better connected spacecraft. In addition, we obtain different transport conditions in different solar wind streams. We find that the stream in which STEREO B was embedded was more diffusive (λr = 0.1AU for Event I and λr = 0.06AU for Event II) than the stream in which STEREO A

  12. Assessing the effect of long-range pollutant transportation on air quality in Seoul using the conditional potential source contribution function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ukkyo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Lee, Yun Gon

    2017-02-01

    It is important to estimate the effects of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants for efficient and effective strategies to control air quality. In this study, the contributions of trans-boundary transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul, Korea from 2001 to 2014 were estimated based on the conditional potential source contribution function (CPSCF) method. Eastern China was found to be the major source of trans-boundary pollution in Seoul, but moderate sources were also located in northeastern China. The contribution of long-range transport from Japan was negligible. The spatial distributions of the potential source contribution function (PSCF) values of each pollutant showed reasonable consistency with their emission inventory and satellite products. The PSCF values of SO2 and PM10 from eastern China were higher than those of NO2 and CO. The mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul for the period from 2001 to 2014 were 5.34, 37.0, and 619.1 ppb, and 57.4 4 μg/m3, respectively. The contributions of long-range transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul were 0.74, 3.4, and 39.0 ppb, and 12.1 μg/m3, respectively, which are 14%, 9%, 6%, and 21% of the mean concentrations, respectively. The annual mean concentrations of SO2 and NO2 followed statistically significant increasing linear trends (0.5 and 1.6 ppb per decade, respectively), whereas the trends in the annual mean concentrations of CO and PM10 were statistically insignificant. The trends in the ratio of the increased concentrations associated with long-range transport to the annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were statistically insignificant. However, the results indicate that the trans-boundary transport of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 from eastern China consistently affected air quality in Seoul over the study period (2001-2014). Regionally, the effects of the long-range transport of pollutants from Beijing and Harbin

  13. Investigating Sources of Ozone over California Using AJAX Airborne Measurements and Models: Assessing the Contribution from Long Range Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren

    2017-01-01

    High ozone (O3) concentrations at low altitudes (1.5e4 km) were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on 30 May 2012 off the coast of California (CA). We investigate the causes of those elevated O3 concentrations using airborne measurements and various models. GEOS-Chem simulation shows that the contribution from local sources is likely small. A back trajectory model was used to determine the air mass origins and how much they contributed to the O3 over CA. Low-level potential vorticity (PV) from Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data appears to be a result of the diabatic heating and mixing of airs in the lower altitudes, rather than be a result of direct transport from stratospheric intrusion. The Q diagnostic, which is a measure of the mixing of the air masses, indicates that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that O3 from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S.The back-trajectory model simulation demonstrates the air masses of interest came mostly from the mid troposphere (MT, 76), but the contribution of the lower troposphere (LT, 19) is also significant compared to those from the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS, 5). Air coming from the LT appears to be mostly originating over Asia. The possible surface impact of the high O3 transported aloft on the surface O3 concentration through vertical and horizontal transport within a few days is substantiated by the influence maps determined from the Weather Research and Forecasting Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) model and the observed increases in surface ozone mixing ratios. Contrasting this complex case with a stratospheric-dominant event emphasizes the contribution of each source to the high O3 concentration in the lower altitudes over CA. Integrated analyses using models, reanalysis, and diagnostic tools, allows high ozone values

  14. On the long-range offshore transport of organic carbon from the Canary Upwelling System to the open North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Elisa; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias; Lachkar, Zouhair

    2017-07-01

    A compilation of measurements of net community production (NCP) in the upper waters of the eastern subtropical North Atlantic had suggested net heterotrophic conditions, purportedly supported by the lateral export of organic carbon from the adjacent, highly productive Canary Upwelling System (CanUS). Here, we quantify and assess this lateral export using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a nutrient, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model. We employ a new Atlantic telescopic grid with a strong refinement towards the northwestern African shelf to combine an eddy-resolving resolution in the CanUS with a full Atlantic basin perspective. Our climatologically forced simulation reveals an intense offshore flux of organic carbon that transports about 19 Tg C yr-1 away from the nearshore 100 km over the whole CanUS, amounting to more than a third of the NCP in this region. The offshore transport extends beyond 1500 km into the subtropical North Atlantic, adding organic carbon along the way to the upper 100 m at rates of between 8 and 34 % of the alongshore average NCP as a function of offshore distance. Although the divergence of this lateral export of organic carbon enhances local respiration, the upper 100 m layer in our model remains net autotrophic in the entire eastern subtropical North Atlantic. However, the vertical export of this organic carbon and its subsequent remineralization at depth makes the vertically integrated NCP strongly negative throughout this region, with the exception of a narrow band along the northwestern African shelf. The magnitude and efficiency of the lateral export varies substantially between the different subregions. In particular, the central coast near Cape Blanc is particularly efficient in collecting organic carbon on the shelf and subsequently transporting it offshore. In this central subregion, the offshore transport adds as much organic carbon as nearly 60 % of the local NCP to the upper 100

  15. Investigating sources of ozone over California using AJAX airborne measurements and models: Assessing the contribution from long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren

    2017-04-01

    High ozone (O3) concentrations at low altitudes (1.5-4 km) were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on 30 May 2012 off the coast of California (CA). We investigate the causes of those elevated O3 concentrations using airborne measurements and various models. GEOS-Chem simulation shows that the contribution from local sources is likely small. A back-trajectory model was used to determine the air mass origins and how much they contributed to the O3 over CA. Low-level potential vorticity (PV) from Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data appears to be a result of the diabatic heating and mixing of airs in the lower altitudes, rather than be a result of direct transport from stratospheric intrusion. The Q diagnostic, which is a measure of the mixing of the air masses, indicates that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that O3 from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S. The back-trajectory model simulation demonstrates the air masses of interest came mostly from the mid troposphere (MT, 76%), but the contribution of the lower troposphere (LT, 19%) is also significant compared to those from the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS, 5%). Air coming from the LT appears to be mostly originating over Asia. The possible surface impact of the high O3 transported aloft on the surface O3 concentration through vertical and horizontal transport within a few days is substantiated by the influence maps determined from the Weather Research and Forecasting-Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) model and the observed increases in surface ozone mixing ratios. Contrasting this complex case with a stratospheric-dominant event emphasizes the contribution of each source to the high O3 concentration in the lower altitudes over CA. Integrated analyses using models, reanalysis, and diagnostic tools, allows high ozone values

  16. Conceptual modelling of the interaction between transportation, land use and the environment as a tool for selecting sustainability indicators of urban mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Fusco

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an internationally shared agreement on the use of indicators for evaluating the sustainability of the observed patterns of urban development. The most commonly used framework to organise and select such indicators is the Pressures-State-Responses scheme. First proposed by the OECD to organise environmental indicators, its inadequacy is increasingly evident. The weaknesses of the conceptual frameworks currently used in urban sustainability analysis induced us to develop a more coherent theoretical framework in the form of a systemic scheme. The new scheme combines the causal approach of the Pressures-State-Responses model and the focus on urban sustainability issues of the extended urban metabolism model by Newman and Kenworthy. In this paper, the new scheme was used to derive a systemic framework for the assessment of the sustainability of urban mobility. First, we adapted the general scheme to the analysis of urban mobility. Successively, using the cognitive mapping software Decision Explorer, we further developed this scheme to obtain a more disaggregated conceptual model. A selection table could be derived for every element of the model to guide the selection of pertinent indicators based on the systemic links of the element. We could thus define a set of some sixty system indicators to be used in the assessment of the sustainability of urban mobility. The selected set of indicators reflects the causal links between phenomena and can monitor the attainment of sustainability objectives for the urban mobility system. All indicators allow geographical comparison and integrate the role played by different urban actors and modes of transportation. This work has been carried out within the first year of a joint PhD research program at the University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis and at the Polytechnic of Milan.

  17. What is driving changes in long-range transport of dust from Africa to the Americas? A 30 year synthesis of the GEOS-Chem model and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, D. A.; Heald, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Sahara and Sahelian regions produce approximately half of the world's dust emissions, resulting in significant radiative effects, air quality issues and mineral deposition, not only in Africa, but across the Atlantic and in the Americas. Determining how these impacts may change in the future requires a thorough understanding of the processes controlling emission, transport and deposition of dust. Long-term records of dust concentration measured in the Caribbean have, until the nineties, correlated with Sahelian precipitation and climatic indicators, potentially providing ways to predict changes in dust. However, this relationship is no longer clear and there are significant changes in the seasonality of dust transported to the Americas currently with no obvious explanation. We use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with NASA GMAO meteorological re-analyses (MERRA) to simulate the 30 year period 1979 - 2008. A synthesis of observations from multiple satellite and surface-based platforms is used to evaluate the model, primarily in terms of its ability to simulate the long-range transport of mineral dust from Africa. We then investigate what drives the changes in long-range transport of African dust to the Americas over diurnal to decadal timescales. This enables understanding of the relative importance of the individual processes controlling these changes, and the sensitivity of air quality and dust deposition downwind. This work aims to determine 1) how sensitive air quality and dust deposition in the Americas is to changes in African dust emissions, 2) the role of meteorological variables affecting the inter-annual variability of dust emission and deposition, and 3) the impact that land use changes and desertification in the Sahel may have in terms of the influence on dust transported to the Americas.

  18. Trace gas composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia: Examining the influence of long-range transport and convection of local pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. K.; Traud, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Hoor, P. M.; Neumaier, M.; Oram, D.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schloegl, S.; Sprung, D.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P.; Wernli, H.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2013-12-01

    Between May 2005 and March 2008 the CARIBIC observatory (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) was deployed to make atmospheric observations during 21 round-trip flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Manila, the Philippines with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. This nearly 3 year flight series provides us with information about atmospheric composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia during all seasons and was used to investigate seasonal and regional differences in trace gas distributions and the relative influences of long range transport and convected local air masses on composition. The flight route was separated into three different regions having unique characteristics in transport and composition; these were Western Asia (5°E to 70°E), Central Asia (70°E to 100°E) and East Asia (100°E to 125°E). The region over Western Asia was heavily influenced by long range transport of air masses from North America and had elevated levels of NOy and acetone, while the region over East Asia was mostly influenced by convected local (South East Asian) pollution, particularly from biomass/biofuel burning as indicated by high levels of acetonitrile and carbon monoxide. Air masses over Central Asia were found to be influenced by both recently convected air masses from the Indian subcontinent and mid-range transport from Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Elevated levels of propane and other non-methane hydrocarbons, both with and without concommitant elevations in other trace gases (i.e. carbon monoxide, acetonitrile) were a persisent feature of this region in all seasons except summer, and were particularly prominent in fall. Influences on composition over Central Asia were investigated more thoroughly in a case study from a series of flights in October 2006, and elevated levels of pollutants were found to be the result of convective transport of both biomass/biofuel burning and urban emissions from

  19. Climate of Earth-Like Planets With and Without Ocean Heat Transport Orbiting a Range of M and K Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, N. Y.; Jablonski, Emma R.; Way, Michael J.; Del Genio, Anthony; Roberge, Aki

    2015-01-01

    The mean surface temperature of a planet is now acknowledged as insufficient to surmise its full potential habitability. Advancing our understanding requires exploration with 3D general circulation models (GCMs), which can take into account how gradients and fluxes across a planet's surface influence the distribution of heat, clouds, and the potential for heterogeneous distribution of liquid water. Here we present 3D GCM simulations of the effects of alternative stellar spectra, instellation, model resolution, and ocean heat transport, on the simulated distribution of heat and moisture of an Earth-like planet (ELP).

  20. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kan; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George; Zhang, Jiachen; Tao, Wei; Cheng, Yanli; Tao, Shu

    2017-07-01

    The response of surface ozone (O3) concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR) analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage between basin-scale SST

  1. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of surface ozone (O3 concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM. Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage

  2. Discrimination between long-range transport and local pollution sources and precise delineation of polluted soil layers using integrated geophysical-geochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Szuszkiewisz, Marcin; Szuszkiewicz, Maria; Żogała, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The primary goal of this work was to distinguish between soil pollution from long-range and local transport of atmospheric pollutants using soil magnetometry in combination with geochemical analyses and precise delineation of polluted soil layers by using integrated magnetic (surface susceptibility, gradiometric measurement) and other geophysical techniques (conductivity and electrical resistivity tomography). The study area was located in the Izery region of Poland (within the "Black Triangle" region, which is the nickname for one of Europe's most polluted areas, where Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic meet). The study area was located in the Forest Glade where the historical local pollution source (glass factory) was active since and of 18th until the end of 19th century. The magnetic signal here was the combination of long-range transport of magnetic particles, local deposition and anthropogenic layers containing ashes and slags and partly comprising the subsoil of modern soil. Application of the set of different geophysical techniques enabled the precise location of these layers. The effect of the long-range pollution transport was observed on a neighboring hill (Granicznik) of which the western, northwestern and southwestern parts of the slope were exposed to the transport of atmospheric pollutants from the Czech Republic and Germany and Poland. Using soil magnetometry, it was possible to discriminate between long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants and anthropogenic pollution related to the former glasswork located in the Forest Glade. The magnetic susceptibility values (κ) as well as the number of "hot-spots" of volume magnetic susceptibility is significantly larger in the Forest Glade than on the Granicznik Hill where the κ is pollution originating from lignite power plants along the Polish border, while the southeastern part of the hill was shielded by crag and tail formation. Also the set of chemical elements connected with magnetic particles

  3. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vanta, E.B. [Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  4. Ten-year chemical signatures associated with long-range transport observed in the free troposphere over the central North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten-year observations of trace gases at Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO, a free troposphere site in the central North Atlantic, were classified by transport patterns using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART. The classification enabled identifying trace gas mixing ratios associated with background air and long- range transport of continental emissions, which were defined as chemical signatures. Comparison between the chemical signatures revealed the impacts of natural and anthropogenic sources, as well as chemical and physical processes during long transport, on air composition in the remote North Atlantic. Transport of North American anthropogenic emissions (NA-Anthro and summertime wildfire plumes (Fire significantly enhanced CO and O3 at PMO. Summertime CO enhancements caused by NA-Anthro were found to have been decreasing by a rate of 0.67 ± 0.60 ppbv/year in the ten-year period, due possibly to reduction of emissions in North America. Downward mixing from the upper troposphere and stratosphere due to the persistent Azores-Bermuda anticyclone causes enhanced O3 and nitrogen oxides. The 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] value was used to investigate O3 sources and chemistry in different transport patterns. The transport pattern affected by Fire had the lowest 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO], which was likely due to intense CO production and depressed O3 production in wildfire plumes. Slightly enhanced O3 and 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] were found in the background air, suggesting that weak downward mixing from the upper troposphere is common at PMO. Enhancements of both butane isomers were found during upslope flow periods, indicating contributions from local sources. The consistent ratio of butane isomers associated with the background air and NA-anthro implies no clear difference in the oxidation rates of the butane isomers during long transport. Based on observed relationships between non-methane hydrocarbons, the averaged photochemical age of the air masses at

  5. Modeling of long range transport pathways for radionuclides to Korea during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident and their association with meteorological circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Hong; Yun, Ju-Yong; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-10-01

    The Lagrangian FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Global Forecast System (NCEP/GFS) meteorological data were used to simulate the long range transport pathways of three artificial radionuclides: (131)I, (137)Cs, and (133)Xe, coming into Korean Peninsula during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident. Using emission rates of these radionuclides estimated from previous studies, three distinctive transport routes of these radionuclides toward the Korean Peninsula for a period from 10 March to 20 April 2011 were exploited by three spatial scales: 1) intercontinental scale - plume released since mid-March 2011 and transported to the North to arrive Korea on 23 March 2011, 2) global (hemispherical) scale - plume traveling over the whole northern hemisphere passing through the Pacific Ocean/Europe to reach the Korean Peninsula with relatively low concentrations in late March 2011 and, 3) regional scale - plume released on early April 2011 arrived at the Korean Peninsula via southwest sea of Japan influenced directly by veering mesoscale wind circulations. Our identification of these transport routes at three different scales of meteorological circulations suggests the feasibility of a multi-scale approach for more accurate prediction of radionuclide transport in the study area. In light of the fact that the observed arrival/duration time of peaks were explained well by the FLEXPART model coupled with NCEP/GFS input data, our approach can be used meaningfully as a decision support model for radiation emergency situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accurate transport simulation of electron tracks in the energy range 1 keV-4 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobut, V. E-mail: vincent.cobut@chim.u-cergy.fr; Cirioni, L.; Patau, J.P

    2004-01-01

    Multipurpose electron transport simulation codes are widely used in the fields of radiation protection and dosimetry. Broadly based on multiple scattering theories and continuous energy loss stopping powers with some mechanism taking straggling into account, they give reliable answers to many problems. However they may be unsuitable in some specific situations. In fact, many of them are not able to accurately describe particle transport through very thin slabs and/or in high atomic number materials, or also when knowledge of high-resolution depth dose distributions is required. To circumvent these deficiencies, we developed a Monte Carlo code simulating each interaction along electron tracks. Gas phase elastic cross sections are corrected to take into account solid state effects. Inelastic interactions are described within the framework of the Martinez et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 67 (1990) 2955] theory intended to deal with energy deposition in both condensed insulators and conductors. The model described in this paper is validated for some materials as aluminium and silicon, encountered in spectrometric and dosimetric devices. Comparisons with experimental, theoretical and other simulation results are made for angular distributions and energy spectra of transmitted electrons through slabs of different thicknesses and for depth energy distributions in semi-infinite media. These comparisons are quite satisfactory.

  7. Transportes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento de materiales dentro de la Factoría está atendido por tres principales medios de transporte, en consonancia con las características del material y de los desplazamientos. Así se han establecido: sistemas de cintas transportadoras, una red ferroviaria de ancho normal y una completa malla de caminos enlazando funcionalmente las instalaciones.

  8. Simulation of electron transport in GaAs/AlAs superlattices with a small number of periods for the THz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavelyev, D. G., E-mail: pavelev@rf.unn.ru, E-mail: obolensk@rf.unn.ru [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Vasilev, A. P., E-mail: vasiljev@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics, Research and Engineering Center (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. A., E-mail: kozlov@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Koschurinov, Yu. I.; Obolenskaya, E. S.; Obolensky, S. V. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V. M., E-mail: vmust@beam.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The electron transport in superlattices based on GaAs/AlAs heterostructures with a small number of periods (6 periods) is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. These superlattices are used in terahertz diodes for the frequency stabilization of quantum cascade lasers in the range up to 4.7 THz. The band structure of superlattices with different numbers of AlAs monolayers is considered and their current–voltage characteristics are calculated. The calculated current–voltage characteristics are compared with the experimental data. The possibility of the efficient application of these superlattices in the THz frequency range is established both theoretically and experimentally.

  9. Analysis of Long-Range Transport of Carbon Dioxide and Its High Concentration Events over East Asian Region Using GOSAT Data and GEOS-Chem Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the long-range transport of CO2 in East Asian region, using concentration data in a surface measurement site (Gosan Station, column averaged concentration data of satellite-borne instrument (GOSAT, and GEOS-Chem modeling results for the period of June 2009 to May 2011. We perform a validation of the data from GOSAT and GEOS-Chem with total column observations (TCCON. The analysis of the long-range transport and high concentration (HC events using surface/satellite observations and modeling results is conducted. During the HC events, the concentrations in CO2 and other air pollutants such as SO2 and CO are higher than that of all episodes. It means that CO2, known as a globally well-mixed gas, may also act as a fingerprint of human activity with unique regional characteristics like other air pollutants. This comprehensive analysis, in particular with GOSAT CO2 observation data, shows that CO2 plume with high concentration can be long-range transported with 1-2 days’ duration with regional scale. We can find out with GEOS-Chem tagging simulation that more than 45% of the elevated CO2 concentration over central/eastern China, Korea, and Japan on high concentration days can be explained by emission sources of East Asia mainland.

  10. Developing a long-term global tourism transport model using a behavioural approach: implications for sustainable tourism policy making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the creation and use of a long-term global tourism transport model for private and public sector tourism policy makers. Given that technology is unlikely to reduce tourism transport's impact on climate change sufficiently to avoid serious dangers, behavioural change is necessary.

  11. Range expansion of the Bluetongue vector, Culicoides imicola, in continental France likely due to rare wind-transport events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Stéphanie; Huber, Karine; Pagès, Nonito; Talavera, Sandra; Burgin, Laura E; Carpenter, Simon; Sanders, Christopher; Dicko, Ahmadou H; Djerbal, Mouloud; Goffredo, Maria; Lhor, Youssef; Lucientes, Javier; Miranda-Chueca, Miguel A; Pereira Da Fonseca, Isabel; Ramilo, David W; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Bouyer, Jérémy; Chevillon, Christine; Balenghien, Thomas; Guis, Hélène; Garros, Claire

    2016-06-06

    The role of the northward expansion of Culicoides imicola Kieffer in recent and unprecedented outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in southern Europe has been a significant point of contention. We combined entomological surveys, movement simulations of air-borne particles, and population genetics to reconstruct the chain of events that led to a newly colonized French area nestled at the northern foot of the Pyrenees. Simulating the movement of air-borne particles evidenced frequent wind-transport events allowing, within at most 36 hours, the immigration of midges from north-eastern Spain and Balearic Islands, and, as rare events, their immigration from Corsica. Completing the puzzle, population genetic analyses discriminated Corsica as the origin of the new population and identified two successive colonization events within west-Mediterranean basin. Our findings are of considerable importance when trying to understand the invasion of new territories by expanding species.

  12. Assessment of the announced North Korean nuclear test using long-range atmospheric transport and dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meutter, Pieter; Camps, Johan; Delcloo, Andy; Termonia, Piet

    2017-08-18

    On 6 January 2016, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea announced to have conducted its fourth nuclear test. Analysis of the corresponding seismic waves from the Punggye-ri nuclear test site showed indeed that an underground man-made explosion took place, although the nuclear origin of the explosion needs confirmation. Seven weeks after the announced nuclear test, radioactive xenon was observed in Japan by a noble gas measurement station of the International Monitoring System. In this paper, atmospheric transport modelling is used to show that the measured radioactive xenon is compatible with a delayed release from the Punggye-ri nuclear test site. An uncertainty quantification on the modelling results is given by using the ensemble method. The latter is important for policy makers and helps advance data fusion, where different nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty monitoring techniques are combined.

  13. Contribution of long-range transported aerosols to aerosol optical and physical properties: 3-year measurements at Gosan, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, J.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Ogren, J. A.; Yoon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, more attentions have been paid to air quality in East Asia due to the enhanced loading of atmospheric pollutants related to rapid industrialization. Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO), Korea is regarded as an ideal site to study the transport of atmospheric pollutants because it is frequently influenced by various airmasses from China, Korea, Japan and Pacific Ocean. In order to understand aerosol optical and physical properties according to airmass transport routes, three-year (2012-2014) continuous measurements of aerosol scattering/absorption coefficient and number size distribution were analyzed, together with 48-hour backward trajectory calculations. The averaged aerosol absorption (σa) and scattering coefficient (σs) for airmasses transported from North China (NC; 36% of all trajectories) were 6.65 Mm-1 and 94.72 Mm-1 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively, which were similar to those for stagnant airmasses (ST; 22% of all trajectories; σa: 6.26 Mm-1, σs: 93.99 Mm-1). The highest values of σa (7.03 Mm-1) and σs (108.34 Mm-1) were observed when airmasses were traveled from South China (SC; 11% of all trajectories). σa and σs for airmasses from Korean Peninsula (KP; 7% of all trajectories) and Pacific Ocean (PO; 14% of all trajectories; in parenthesis) were 5.63 (2.76) Mm-1 and 73.63 (50.93) Mm-1, respectively. Compared to other airmasses, the higher values of Scattering Angstrom Exponent (SAE) for ST (1.65) is thought to be the build-up of anthropogenic fine particulate pollutants. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) was estimated to be 1.32 for NC airmass and 1.02 for SC airmass. Over the study period, 130 days of total 557 days were identified as new particle formation and growth event (NPF) from Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measurements by Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Function (CSEOF) approach. Especially, 55.4% (72 days) of total 130 NPF days were found when a cold and dry airmass comes from NC after passing the frontal

  14. Decision Simulation Technique (DST) as a scanning tool for exploring and explicating sustainability issues in transport decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Sara Lise

    2009-01-01

    the DST can indicate which one from the set of alternatives will in fact be the ‘best’ seen from the viewpoint of a sustainability strategy, before they are all scrutinised by the decision makers. The paper consists of three parts. The first part describes the various concepts and elements of the DST...

  15. Long-range pollution transport during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign: a case study of a major Mexico City outflow event using free-floating altitude-controlled balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Paul B.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Flocke, Frank M.; Mao, Huitimg; Hartley, Tom; DeAmicis, Pam; Deonandan, Indira; Contrerars-Jimenez, G.; Martinez-Antonio, O.; Figueroa Estrada, M.; Greenberg, David; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Montzka, DeeDee; Crounse, J. D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Apel, Eric; Madronich, Sasha; de Foy, B.

    2010-08-04

    One of the major objectives of the Megacities Initiative: Local And Global Research 3 Observations (MILAGRO 2006) campaign was to investigate the long-range transport of 4 Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) pollution outflow and its downwind impacts on air 5 quality and climate. Four aircraft (DOE G-1, NSF/NCAR C-130, NASA-J31, and NASA 6 DC-8) made extensive chemical, aerosol, and radiation measurements above MCMA and over 7 1000 km downwind in order to characterize the evolution of MCMA pollution as it aged and 8 dispersed over the central Mexican plateau and the Gulf of Mexico. As part of this effort, 9 free-floating Controlled-Meteorological (CMET) balloons, capable of changing altitude on 10 command via satellite, characterized the MCMA outflow by performing repeated soundings 11 during the transit. In this paper, we present an analysis based on the data from two CMET 12 balloons that were launched near Mexico City on the afternoon of 18 March 2006 and floated 13 downwind with the outflow for nearly 30 hours. Continuous profile measurements made by 14 the balloons show the evolving structure of the MCMA outflow in considerable detail: its 15 stability and stratification, interaction with other air masses, mixing episodes, and dispersion 16 into the regional background. Air parcel trajectories, computed directly from the balloon 17 wind profiles, show three different transport pathways for Mexico City outflow on 18-19 18 March: (a) high-altitude advection of the top of the MCMA mixed layer, (b) low-altitude flow 19 over the Sierra Madre Oriental followed by decoupling and isolated transport over the Gulf, 20 and (c) the same decoupling scenario with entrainment into a cleaner westerly jet below the 21 plateau. The C-130 intercepted the balloon-based trajectories three times on 19 March, once 22 along each transport pathway. In all three cases, distinct peaks in the urban tracer signature 23 and LIDAR backscatter imagery provided evidence for Mexico City air

  16. Quantification of the sources of long-range transport of PM2.5 pollution in the Ordos region, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuzestani, Reza Bashiri; Schauer, James J; Wei, Yongjie; Zhang, Lulu; Cai, Tianqi; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2017-10-01

    The Ordos region of Inner Mongolia is rapidly developing and suffers from poor air quality and unhealthy levels of fine particulate matter. PM2.5 concentrations in the Ordos region were found to exceed 75 μg/m(3) on average, annually, with peak pollution days in excess of 350 μg/m(3), but local air pollution emissions from surrounding sources are not sufficient to drive pollution levels to these concentrations. The current study was designed to quantify sources of PM2.5 and assess the local source contributions and effects of regional transport on local pollution. The results show that the Ordos region is primarily impacted by regional long-range transport of pollutants from anthropogenic sources located outside of the Inner Mongolia in Shanxi province areas but is also largely affected by regional dust transported from the deserts located in western Inner Mongolia. The analysis proved that approximately 77% of PM2.5 mass is transported long-range from the sites exterior to the study area and contributes 59.32 μg/m(3) on average, annually, while the local sources contribute 17.41 μg/m(3) (23%) on annual average to the PM2.5 mass in the study area. High spatial correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.6) were observed for most of the factors pointing to the transport of external emissions into the area. Spatial correlation analysis, bivariate polar plots and hybrid trajectory models for industrial and secondary inorganic factors provide evidence for the impact of long-range transport from Shanxi province areas. In addition, the deserts in western Inner Mongolia were found to be the source regions for dust. Finally, our analysis shows that the source of oil combustion and mobile factors are impacted by local sources in the Ordos region; however, some regional impacts from other regions were also observed for mobile source in the area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transportation costs impede sustained adherence and access to HAART in a clinic population in southwestern Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuller, David M; Bangsberg, David R; Senkungu, Jude; Ware, Norma C; Emenyonu, Nneka; Weiser, Sheri D

    2010-08-01

    The cost of transportation for monthly clinic visits has been identified as a potential barrier to antiretroviral (ARV) adherence in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere, although there is limited data on this issue. We conducted open-ended interviews with 41 individuals living with HIV/AIDS and attending a clinic in Mbarara, Uganda, to understand structural barriers to ARV adherence and clinical care. Almost all respondents cited the need to locate funds for the monthly clinic visit as a constant source of stress and anxiety, and lack of money for transportation was a key factor in cases of missed doses and missed medical appointments. Participants struggled with competing demands between transport costs and other necessities such as food, housing and school fees. Our findings suggest that transportation costs can compromise both ARV adherence and access to care. Interventions that address this barrier will be important to ensure the success of ARV programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. The long-range transport of Pinaceae pollen: an example in Kraków (southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanek, Kazimierz; Myszkowska, Dorota; Worobiec, Elżbieta; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Ziemianin, Monika; Bielec-Bąkowska, Zuzanna

    2017-01-01

    High Pinaceae pollen concentrations in the air and on the surface of puddles before the main pollen season started were observed in Kraków (southern Poland) in May 2013. The paper presents the results of detailed studies of the composition and source of the "yellow rain" in 2013, and as a comparison, the Pinaceae pollen concentrations and samples collected from the ground surface in 2014 were considered. The air samples were collected using the volumetric method (Hirst-type device), while pollen grains sampled from the ground surface were processed using a modified Erdtman acetolysis method. Finally, all samples were studied using a light microscope. In 2013, the period of higher Abies, Picea and Pinus pollen concentrations was observed from the 5 to 12 of May, earlier than the main pollen season occurred. The presence of rainfall on the 12 and 13 of May 2013 caused the pollen deposition on the ground surface, where the prevalence of Pinaceae pollen was found. The synoptic situation and the analysis of the back-trajectories and air mass advection at the beginning of May 2013 indicated that Pinaceae pollen grains could have been transported from Ukraine, Romania, Hungary and Slovakia. In contrast, Pinaceae pollen grains deposited on the ground surface as a "yellow" film in May 2014, originated from local sources.

  19. Long range transport and fate of a stratospheric volcanic cloud from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Prata

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions emit gases, ash particles and hydrometeors into the atmosphere, occasionally reaching heights of 20 km or more, to reside in the stratospheric overworld where they affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere and the Earth's climate. Here we use satellite measurements and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model to determine the mass loadings, vertical penetration, horizontal extent, dispersion and transport of volcanic gases and particles in the stratosphere from the volcanic cloud emitted during the 20 May 2006 eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies. Infrared, ultraviolet and microwave radiation measurements from two polar orbiters are used to quantify the gases and particles, and track the movement of the cloud for 23 days, over a distance of ~18 000 km. Approximately, 0.1±0.01 Tg(S was injected into the stratosphere in the form of SO2: the largest single sulphur input to the stratosphere in 2006. Microwave Limb Sounder measurements indicate an enhanced mass of HCl of ~0.003–0.01 Tg. Geosynchronous satellite data reveal the rapid nature of the stratospheric injection and indicate that the eruption cloud contained ~2 Tg of ice, with very little ash reaching the stratosphere. These new satellite measurements of volcanic gases and particles can be used to test the sensitivity of climate to volcanic forcing and assess the impact of stratospheric sulphates on climate cooling.

  20. Source Allocation of Long-Range Asian Dusts Transportation across the Taiwan Strait by Innovative Chemical-Assisted Identification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsiu Jen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used the backward trajectory calculation to obtain the transportation routes of Asian dusts and further combined the chemical composition with the enrichment factor (EF and the grey relational analysis (GR to identify the potential sources of eighteen Asian dust storm (ADS events. The results showed that the chemical compositions of atmospheric particles sampled at the Pescadores Islands were very similar to source soils fugitively emitted from Inner Mongolia, which could assist in identifying the source regions of Asian dusts. This study further compared the source allocation of Asian dusts obtained from EF, GR, and backward trajectory, which showed that the source regions of Asian dusts obtained from these three methods were quite similar. The similarity of backward trajectory and GR reached as high as 83.3%. Moreover, the similarity of backward trajectory calculation and EF or GR was up to 77.8% while that of the GR and EF was up to 83.3%. Overall, these three methods can successfully allocate the source regions of Asian dusts by 66.7%. Moreover, these innovative chemical-assisted methods can be successfully applied to identify the source regions of Asian dusts for 18 ADS events.

  1. Relative contributions of local sources vs. long-range transport to the atmospheric speciated mercury concentrations at a remote island off the coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, total gaseous mercury (TGM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate bound mercury (PBM) were measured on Yongheung Island off the coast of Korea between mainland Korea and Eastern China. Yongheung Island is a small island located about 15~20 km west from the mainland Korea. Because of the geographical location of the sampling site, the effect of long-range transport of Hg emitted from China could be observed with the westerly winds, and the effect of Korean domestic sources including inland industrial/metropolitan areas and coal-fired power plants could be also evaluated with the easterly and southerly winds, respectively. Average concentrations of TGM, GOM, and PBM were 2.8 ± 1.1 ng m-3, 9.8 ± 9.9 pg m-3,and 10.6 ± 12.0 pg m-3 at the sampling site, respectively. CPF plot shows that the top 25% of TGM concentrations were associated with the winds from NNW and ENE, pointing out the significance of Northeast Chinese emissions and inland Korean emissions; however, when the criterion was used as the top 10% TGM concentration the regional transport from China became less important and the sources located in southern and eastern areas were magnified as important source areas. For GOM, the highest concentration was observed with the wind direction from mainland Korean sources. On the other hand, it was presumed that long-range transport from North Korea and China significantly enhanced PBM concentrations. PSCF also identified Chinese sources for TGM and PBM while mainland Korean sources including coal power plants located in southern part of the sampling site were determined for possible source areas of GOM. Also, we found that the ratio of GOM/PBM was reduced with the increasing contribution of long-range transport and enhanced with the significant impact of local sources, suggesting that the ratio of GOM/PBM can be used as an indicator to determine the relative importance of long-range transport vs. local sources.

  2. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  3. Total and mesoscale long-range offshore transport of organic carbon from the Canary Upwelling System to the open North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Elisa; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias; Byrne, David; Lachkar, Zouhair

    2017-04-01

    activity to the offshore flux of organic carbon at every latitude. The mesoscale offshore transport ranges in intensity between 20% and 50% of the mean flux, reaching as far offshore as the mean transport. In its alongshore component, the mesoscale transport opposes the mean transport, recirculating laterally the organic carbon against the mean currents. Fundamental differences between the contributions of filaments, cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies to the transport of organic carbon are highlighted and discussed in a subregional perspective.

  4. Long-range transport of gaseous 131I and other radionuclides from Fukushima accident to Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W.; Kierepko, Renata; Brudecki, Kamil; Janowski, Paweł; Kleszcz, Krzysztof; Tomankiewicz, Ewa

    2014-07-01

    A serious accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi NPP triggered radioactive emission to the atmosphere on 12 March 2011. The results of gamma spectrometric measurements of both gaseous and aerosol fraction of the air, collected in Krakow over the period from March 21 till the end of May 2011, as well as wet and dry deposition recorded from March till the end of October 2011, are presented in this paper. Krakow happened to be the first Polish location where radioactive isotopes characteristic for reactor releases, such as 131I, 132I, 129mTe, 132Te, 134Cs, 136Cs, and 137Cs, were detected. The maximum activity for aerosols equal to (5.73 ± 0.35) mBq/m3, (0.461 ± 0.041) mBq/m3 and (0.436 ± 0.038) mBq/m3 for 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, respectively, was recorded for March 29, 2011. The data on the fallout are also given. The results of the radiochemical analysis of aerosol samples showed no traces of plutonium or americium isotopes associated with the disaster to be detected. The results of air activity concentration from Fukushima accident observed in Central Europe, Poland, in comparison to those of Chernobyl accident observed in Japan are presented and discussed. The comparison has revealed a discrepancy in the recognized relative scale of both accidents, and important difference in long distance transport of contamination, to exist. An attempt to explain the variation in the activity ratios between the aerosol fraction for 131I and 137Cs as resulting from exchange between the gaseous and aerosol fractions of 131I while the contamination had been propagating, is made.

  5. Investigation of Ozone Sources in California Using AJAX Airborne Measurements and Models: Implications for Stratospheric Intrusion and Long Range Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Gore, Warren

    2015-01-01

    High ozone concentrations at low altitudes near the surface were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on May 30, 2012. We investigate the causes of the elevated ozone concentrations using the airborne measurements and various models. GEOS-chem and WRF-STILT model simulations show that the contribution from local sources is small. From MERRA reanalysis, it is found that high potential vorticity (PV) is observed at low altitudes. This high PV appears to be only partially coming through the stratospheric intrusions because the air inside the high PV region is moist, which shows that mixing appears to be enhanced in the low altitudes. Considering that diabatic heating can also produce high PV in the lower troposphere, high ozone is partially coming through stratospheric intrusion, but this cannot explain the whole ozone concentration in the target areas of the western U.S. A back-trajectory model is utilized to see where the air masses originated. The air masses of the target areas came from the lower stratosphere (LS), upper (UT), mid- (MT), and lower troposphere (LT). The relative number of trajectories coming from LS and UT is low (7.7 and 7.6, respectively) compared to that from LT (64.1), but the relative ozone concentration coming from LS and UT is high (38.4 and 20.95, respectively) compared to that from LT (17.7). The air mass coming from LT appears to be mostly coming from Asia. Q diagnostics show that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that ozone from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S. This study shows that high ozone concentrations can be detected by airborne measurements, which can be analyzed by integrated platforms such as models, reanalysis, and satellite data.

  6. Assessing the Impacts of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation on the Dynamics of Urban Growth: A Case Study of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although China has promoted the construction of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation (CSGT to guide sustainable development, it may create substantial challenges, such as rapid urban growth and land limitations. This research assessed the effects of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge on impervious surface growth in Cixi County, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. Changes in impervious surfaces were mapped based on Landsat images from 1995, 2002, and 2009 using a combination of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA and landscape metrics. The results indicated that the area and density of impervious surfaces increased significantly during construction of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge (2002–2009. Additionally, the bridge and connected road networks promoted urban development along major roads, resulting in compact growth patterns of impervious surfaces in urbanized regions. Moreover, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge promoted the expansion and densification of impervious surfaces in Hangzhou Bay District, which surrounds the bridge. The bridge also accelerated socioeconomic growth in the area, promoting rapid urban growth in Cixi County between 2002 and 2009. Overall, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge is an important driver of urban growth in Cixi County, and policy suggestions for sustainable urban growth should be adopted in the future.

  7. Modeling Transport in Fractured Porous Media with the Random-Walk Particle Method: The Transient Activity Range and the Particle-Transfer Probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehua Pan; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2001-10-22

    Multiscale features of transport processes in fractured porous media make numerical modeling a difficult task, both in conceptualization and computation. Modeling the mass transfer through the fracture-matrix interface is one of the critical issues in the simulation of transport in a fractured porous medium. Because conventional dual-continuum-based numerical methods are unable to capture the transient features of the diffusion depth into the matrix (unless they assume a passive matrix medium), such methods will overestimate the transport of tracers through the fractures, especially for the cases with large fracture spacing, resulting in artificial early breakthroughs. We have developed a new method for calculating the particle-transfer probability that can capture the transient features of diffusion depth into the matrix within the framework of the dual-continuum random-walk particle method (RWPM) by introducing a new concept of activity range of a particle within the matrix. Unlike the multiple-continuum approach, the new dual-continuum RWPM does not require using additional grid blocks to represent the matrix. It does not assume a passive matrix medium and can be applied to the cases where global water flow exists in both continua. The new method has been verified against analytical solutions for transport in the fracture-matrix systems with various fracture spacing. The calculations of the breakthrough curves of radionuclides from a potential repository to the water table in Yucca Mountain demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method for simulating 3-D, mountain-scale transport in a heterogeneous, fractured porous medium under variably saturated conditions.

  8. The Best Project: bioethanol for sustainable transport and public policies to encourage the use of ethanol; O Projeto Best: bioetanol para o transporte sustentavel e as politicas publicas de incentivo ao uso do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Gonzalez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Melo, Euler Hoffmann [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The usage of ethanol in buses is a reality in cities from Sweden, such as Stockholm. The technology of diesel bus adapted to operate with ethanol has been used in that country since 1985, with great success, mainly in the environmental point of view. With the intent of encouraging ethanol usage in urban public transportation aiming, among other goals, at the reduction of atmospheric pollution in the big urban centers, the BEST Project - BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport was created. Besides Sao Paulo (pioneer in the Americas), this project, encouraged by the European Union, counts with eight other cities located in Europe and Asia. In Brazil, the project was developed and coordinated by CENBIO - Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass, from the Electrotechnics and Energy Institute of USP. With the partnership of other institutions, the project is developed since 2007 and currently counts on two diesel buses adapted to operate with ethanol. The buses circulate in operatives from EMTU - Sao Paulo Metropolitan Company for Urban Transports, in the Jabaquara - Sao Mateus line, and in operative from SPTrans - Sao Paulo Transportations, in the Lapa - Vila Mariana corridor. This paper has as its purpose to present the BEST Project in Brazil, its partners and, mainly, the results from the demonstration tests performed in field, as well as the proposals of public policies that were elaborated and are being implemented. It is worth remembering that the technology of the buses pays attention to the EURO 5 strict emission Standards, a norm that was recently invigorated in Europe. (author)

  9. Modelling the Contribution of Long-range Transport of Ammonium Nitrates to Urban Air Pollution and Human Exposure in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S.; Vieno, M.; Beck, R.; Ots, R.; Moring, A.; Steinle, S.; Heal, M. R.; Doherty, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urban air pollution and its effects on human health remain to be a challenge in spite of substantial reductions in the emissions of air pollutants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) over the past decades in Europe. While primary pollutants play a vital role in urban air pollution, recent model studies highlight and quantify the relevance of long-range transport of secondary pollution (e.g. secondary inorganic aerosols such as ammonium sulphates and nitrates, or ground level ozone) for the exceedance of local air quality limit values in urban areas across Europe. This contribution can be seen in recurring episodes, for instance in spring 2014, with very high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Paris, London and other European cities, as well as in elevated background levels throughout the year. While we will focus on the contribution to exceedances of PM2.5 limit values here, this transboundary transport has wider implications for the deposition of reactive nitrogen far from the source as well. As local authorities are tasked with ensuring the attainment of air quality limit values, exceedances caused by long-range transport, with emissions originating from sources outside of their jurisdiction present substantial challenges. Furthermore, while policy measures have successfully addressed emissions from large point sources in the past, and made progress towards reducing pollution from road vehicles, emissions of ammonia from agricultural sources - a key component for the long-range transport of secondary inorganic aerosols - have remained relatively stable in Europe. Using the example of Europe and the UK, we demonstrate in our presentation how atmospheric chemistry transport modelling across different scales (from regional to local) can provide vital insight in the mechanisms of and relative contributions to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols. In addition, we illustrate how this modelling capability can inform the design of efficient control

  10. Sustainability in logistics practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans-Heinrich Glöckner; Reinder Pieters; Stef Weijers

    2009-01-01

    This conceptual paper wants to emphasis the use of the concept of sustainability within logistics and especially transportation. While working on a new tool to help companies develop sustainable European networks, we discovered that we want to use a specific concept of sustainability: People, planet

  11. Long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial biomarkers by the Asian winter monsoon: Evidence from fresh snow from Sapporo, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Seki, Osamu

    2011-07-01

    Molecular distributions of terrestrial biomarkers were investigated in fresh snow samples from Sapporo, northern Japan, to better understand the long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial organic matter by the Asian winter monsoon. Stable carbon (δ 13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotope ratios of C 22-C 28n-alkanoic acids were also measured to decipher their source regions. The snow samples are found to contain higher plant-derived n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids as major components. Relative abundances of these three biomarker classes suggest that they are likely derived from higher plants in the Asian continent. The C 27/C 31 ratios of terrestrial n-alkanes in the snow samples range from 1.3 to 5.5, being similar to those of the plants growing in the latitudes >40°N of East Asia. The δ 13C values of the n-alkanoic acids in the snow samples (-33.4 to -27.6‰) are similar to those of typical C 3 gymnosperm from Sapporo (-34.9 to -29.3‰). However, the δD values of the n-alkanoic acids (-208 to -148‰) are found to be significantly depleted with deuterium (by ˜72‰) than those of plant leaves from Sapporo. Such depletion can be most likely interpreted by the long-range atmospheric transport of the n-alkanoic acids from vegetation in the latitudes further north of Sapporo because the δD values of terrestrial higher plants tend to decrease northward in East Asia reflecting the δD of precipitation. Together with the results of backward trajectory analyses, this study suggests that the terrestrial biomarkers in the Sapporo snow samples are likely transported from Siberia, Russian Far East and northeast China to northern Japan by the Asian winter monsoon.

  12. Influence of long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) on mono-to octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs levels and distributions in soil around Qinghai Lake, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) of persistent organic pollutants followed by their deposition in cold, arid regions is of wide concern. This problem occurs at Qinghai Lake in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, a sparsely populated area with extreme weather conditions and little current...... or historical anthropogenic pollution. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the mono-to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) congeners in surface soil samples collected from around Qinghai Lake were quantified. Concentration differences between low-(mono-to tri-) chlorinated...

  13. Transportation in megacities. Growing demand and emissions - a comparative analysis of sustainability in developed and developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, R.K. [Tata Energy Research Inst. (India)

    1996-12-01

    The urban transport problem is fundamentally similar in all large cities. The basic causes are the same and so are many of the consequences, although there are some differences in degree between cities in developed and developing economies. Transport systems in large cities of the developing economies as compared to the developed economies are characterized by: (a) much lower level of motorization of transport and travel requirement, (b) more rapid rates of economic growth, population growth, and the growth in number of motor vehicles, (c) higher population densities, (d) much lower per capita energy consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide, (e) reduced access to capital and to advanced environmental technologies. Despite greater level of vehicle ownership, higher rate of trip generation and increased use of energy on a per capita basis in cities of developed countries, it is the large cities in the developing countries that, in general suffer most from growing traffic congestion, road accidents, energy use and emissions, overcrowding of public transport, and poor conditions for pedestrians and cyclists. (au) 20 refs.

  14. The motorization of peoples' transportation in China. Between economic growth and sustainability; La motorisation du transport de personnes en Chine. Entre croissance economique et soutenabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaire, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting the origin of the boom of motorized individual transport in China, its already palpable consequences, and the adaptations of the government. The first part shows how the expansion of the automotive industry has been organized by the government. The second part presents the negative externalities linked with motorization: consumption of the urban space, social costs, local and global environmental costs, geo-strategical risks. Finally, the third part explains how the Chinese decision makers try to reduce the problems generated by the shift from a bicycle civilization to an automobile civilization. (J.S.)

  15. Technology and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.

    2011-01-01

    In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an

  16. PM(10) episodes in Greece: Local sources versus long-range transport-observations and model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaios, Vasileios N; Triantafyllou, Athanasios G; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Periods of abnormally high concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, defined as air pollution episodes, can cause adverse health effects. Southern European countries experience high particulate matter (PM) levels originating from local and distant sources. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and nature of extreme PM10 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution episodes in Greece. We examined PM10 concentration data from 18 monitoring stations located at five sites across the country: (1) an industrial area in northwestern Greece (Western Macedonia Lignite Area, WMLA), which includes sources such as lignite mining operations and lignite power plants that generate a high percentage of the energy in Greece; (2) the greater Athens area, the most populated area of the country; and (3) Thessaloniki, (4) Patra, and (5) Volos, three large cities in Greece. We defined extreme PM10 pollution episodes (EEs) as days during which PM10 concentrations at all five sites exceeded the European Union (EU) 24-hr PM10 standards. For each EE, we identified the corresponding prevailing synoptic and local meteorological conditions, including wind surface data, for the period from January 2009 through December 2011. We also analyzed data from remote sensing and model simulations. We recorded 14 EEs that occurred over 49 days and could be grouped into two categories: (1) Local Source Impact (LSI; 26 days, 53%) and (2) African Dust Impact (ADI; 23 days, 47%). Our analysis suggested that the contribution of local sources to ADI EEs was relatively small. LSI EEs were observed only in the cold season, whereas ADI EEs occurred throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the cold season. The EEs with the highest intensity were recorded during African dust intrusions. ADI episodes were found to contribute more than local sources in Greece, with ADI and LSI fraction contribution ranging from 1.1 to 3.10. The EE contribution during ADI fluctuated from 41 to 83 μg/m3

  17. IAEA education and training in radiation protection,transport and waste - new developments and challenges towards sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadagopan, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency (PPSS/NSRW/IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Mrabit, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency (PPSS/NSRW/IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    IAEA education and training activities follow the resolutions of its General Conferences and reflects the latest IAEA standards and guidance. IAEA prepared a 'Strategic Approach to Education and Training in Radiation and Waste Safety' (Strategy on Education and Training) aiming at establishing, by 2010, sustainable education and training programmes in Member States, which was endorsed by the GC(45)/R.E.S./10 C in 2001. In implementing the strategy, IAEA is organizing training events in the regional level and assisting the Member States at the national level by providing them with exemplary quality of training material developed at the Agency. This work will continue ensuring its completeness in all areas of radiation protection. An Inter Centre Network between the Agency and regional, collaborating national training centres is established to facilitate information exchange, improve communication and dissemination of training material. There is a challenge to enhance the technical capability of the Member States to reach sustainability. This is intended through organizing number of Train the Trainers workshops to develop a pool of qualified trainers. The syllabus for training of Radiation Protection Officers is developed and a protocol document for educational and training appraisal (E.d.u.T.A.) is developed. The new developments include web enabling the approved training packages and establish E.learning and carrying out E.d.u.T.A. missions, aimed at identifying training needs in Member States and support them to build their own training strategy. These activities are aimed at assisting Member States attain self sustainability. (authors)

  18. Long-range pollution transport during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign: a case study of a major Mexico City outflow event using free-floating altitude-controlled balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Voss

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major objectives of the Megacities Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO-2006 campaign was to investigate the long-range transport of polluted Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA outflow and determine its downwind impacts on air quality and climate. Six research aircraft, including the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C-130, made extensive chemical, aerosol, and radiation measurements above MCMA and more than 1000 km downwind in order to characterize the evolution of the outflow as it aged and dispersed over the Mesa Alta, Sierra Madre Oriental, Coastal Plain, and Gulf of Mexico. As part of this effort, free-floating Controlled-Meteorological (CMET balloons, commanded to change altitude via satellite, made repeated profile measurements of winds and state variables within the advecting outflow. In this paper, we present an analysis of the data from two CMET balloons that were launched near Mexico City on the afternoon of 18 March 2006 and floated downwind with the MCMA pollution for nearly 30 h. The repeating profile measurements show the evolving structure of the outflow in considerable detail: its stability and stratification, interaction with other air masses, mixing episodes, and dispersion into the regional background. Air parcel trajectories, computed directly from the balloon wind profiles, show three transport pathways on 18–19 March: (a high-altitude advection of the top of the MCMA mixed layer, (b mid-level outflow over the Sierra Madre Oriental followed by decoupling and isolated transport over the Gulf of Mexico, and (c low-level outflow with entrainment into a cleaner northwesterly jet above the Coastal Plain. The C-130 aircraft intercepted the balloon-based trajectories three times on 19 March, once along each of these pathways; in all three cases, peaks in urban tracer concentrations and LIDAR backscatter are consistent with MCMA pollution. In comparison with the transport models

  19. Investigation of the influence of transport from oil and natural gas regions on elevated ozone levels in the northern Colorado front range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jason M; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-02-01

    The Northern Colorado Front Range (NCFR) has been in exceedance of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) since 2004, which has led to much debate over the sources of ozone precursors to the region, as this area is home to both the Denver, CO, metropolitan area and the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which has experienced rapid growth of oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations and associated emissions. Several recent studies have reported elevated levels of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as a result of O&NG emissions and the potential for significant ozone production from these emissions, despite implementation of stricter O&NG VOC emissions regulations in 2008. Approximately 88% of 1-hr elevated ozone events (>75 ppbv) occur during June-August, indicating that elevated ozone levels are driven by regional photochemistry. Analyses of surface ozone and wind observations from two sites, namely, South Boulder and the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, both near Boulder, CO, show a preponderance of elevated ozone events associated with east-to-west airflow from regions with O&NG operations in the N-ESE, and a relatively minor contribution of transport from the Denver Metropolitan area to the SE-S. Transport from upwind areas associated with abundant O&NG operations accounts for on the order of 65% (mean for both sites) of 1-hr averaged elevated ozone levels, while the Denver urban corridor accounts for 9%. These correlations contribute to mounting evidence that air transport from areas with O&NG operation has a significant impact on ozone and air quality in the NCFR. This article builds on several previous pieces of research that implied significant contributions from oil and natural gas emissions on ozone production in the Northern Colorado Front Range. By correlating increased ozone events with transport analyses we show that there is a high abundance of transport events with elevated ozone originating from the Denver-Julesburg oil and natural gas

  20. Change of iron species and iron solubility in Asian dust during the long-range transport from western China to Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Takahashi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the North Pacific, transport and deposition of mineral dust from Asia appear to be one of major sources of iron which can regulate growth of phytoplankton in the ocean. In this process, it is essential to identify chemical species of iron contained in Asian dust, because bioavailability of iron in the ocean is strongly influenced by the solubility of iron, which in turn is dependent on iron species in the dust. Here, we report that clay minerals (illite and chlorite in the dusts near the source collected at Aksu (western China can be transformed into ferrihydrite by atmospheric chemical processes during their long-range transport to eastern China (Qingdao and Japan (Tsukuba based on the speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS and other methods such as X-ray diffraction and chemical extraction. As a result, Fe molar ratio in Aksu (illite : chlorite : ferrihydrite = 70 : 25 : 5 was changed to that in Tsukuba (illite : chlorite : ferrihydrite = 65 : 10 : 25. Moreover, leaching experiments were conducted to study the change of iron solubility. It was found that the iron solubility for the dust in Tsukuba (soluble iron fraction: 11.8 % and 1.10 % for synthetic rain water and seawater, respectively was larger than that in Aksu (4.1 % and 0.28 %, respectively, showing that iron in the dust after the transport becomes more soluble possibly due to the formation of ferrihydrite in the atmosphere. Our findings suggested that secondary formation of ferrihydrite during the transport should be considered as one of important processes in evaluating the supply of soluble iron to seawater.

  1. Reactivity, interactions and transport of trace elements, organic carbon and particulate material in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point, David; Bareille, Gilles; Amouroux, David; Etcheber, Henri; Donard, Olivier F X

    2007-02-01

    The background levels, variability, partitioning and transport of eleven trace elements-Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and U-were investigated in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France). This particular river system displayed a turbulent hydrodynamic regime, characterized by flash-transient discharge conditions leading to fast shifts in suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations as high as two orders of magnitude (12 to 600 mg l(-1)). The distribution of SPM was accurately predicted with a "hysteresis" transport model, indicating that about 75% of the annual solids load was exported within 20 to 40 days. Dissolved and particulate concentrations of most trace elements were low compared to their concentrations in other reference river systems expect for Pb and Cr, associated with historical anthropogenic activities. Although dissolved and particulate metal concentrations were steady for most elements during low and average discharge conditions, significant changes were observed with increasing river discharge. The changes in trace element concentrations in the two compartments was found to induce a partitioning anomaly referred to as the particulate concentration effect. This anomaly was significant for Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and organic carbon (p < 0.03). The processes driving this anomaly were possibly linked to the modification and/or increase of colloidal organic and inorganic vectors, suggested by the significant increase of DOC (p < 0.001) and dissolved Al concentrations (p < 0.05) during flood conditions. A complementary process linked to the influence of coarse particles of low complexation capacity and transported mainly during high discharge may also effect trace element concentrations. Annual metal fluxes transported by this river system were estimated using the hysteresis SPM model with consideration of these fate processes. Metals in the Adour River system are primarily exported into the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean).

  2. The Influence of Sandstorms and Long-Range Transport on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in PM2.5 in the High-Altitude Atmosphere of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 (Particulate Matter 2.5 samples were collected at Mount Heng and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. During sampling, a sandstorm from northern China struck Mount Heng and resulted in a mean PM2.5 concentration of 150.61 μg/m3, which greatly exceeded the concentration measured under normal conditions (no sandstorm: 58.50 μg/m3. The average mass of PAHs in PM2.5 was 30.70 μg/g, which was much lower than in the non-sandstorm samples (80.80 μg/g. Therefore, the sandstorm increased particle levels but decreased PAH concentrations due to dilution and turbulence. During the sandstorm, the concentrations of 4- and 5-ring PAHs were below their detection limits, and 6-ring PAHs were the most abundant. Under normal conditions, the concentrations of 2-, 3- and 6-ring PAHs were higher, and 4- and 5-ring PAHs were lower relative to the other sampling sites. In general, the PAH contamination was low to medium at Mount Heng. Higher LMW (low molecular weight concentrations were primarily linked to meteorological conditions, and higher HMW (high molecular weight concentrations primarily resulted from long-range transport. Analysis of diagnostic ratios indicated that PM2.5 PAHs had been emitted during the combustion of coal, wood or petroleum. The transport characteristics and origins of the PAHs were investigated using backwards Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling. Under normal conditions, the “footprint” retroplumes and potential source contributions of PAHs for the highest and lowest concentrations indicated that local sources had little effect. In contrast, long-range transport played a vital role in the levels of PM2.5 and PAHs in the high-altitude atmosphere.

  3. Evaluation of a peat moss plus soybean oil (PMSO) technology for reducing explosive residue transport to groundwater at military training ranges under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Mark E; Schaefer, Charles E; Steffan, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    An evaluation of peat moss plus crude soybean oil (PMSO) for mitigation of explosive contamination of soil at military facilities was performed using large soil lysimeters under field conditions. Actual range soils were used, and two PMSO preparations with different ratios of peat moss:soybean oil (1:1, PO1; 1:2, PO2) were compared to a control lysimeter that received no PMSO. PMSO was applied as a 10 cm layer on top of the soil, and Composition B detonation residues from a 55-mm mortar round were applied at the surface of each of the lysimeters. Dissolution of the residues occurred during natural precipitation events over the course of 18 months. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) emanating from the Composition B residues were significantly reduced by the PO2 PMSO material compared to the untreated control. Soil pore water RDX concentrations and RDX fluxes were reduced over 100-fold compared to the control plots at comparable depths. Residual RDX in the soil profile was also significantly lower in the PMSO treated plots. PO1 PMSO resulted in lower reductions in RDX transport than the PO2 PMSO. The transport of the RDX breakdown product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was also greatly reduced by the PMSO materials. Results were in general agreement with a previously developed fate and transport model describing PMSO effectiveness. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the inexpensive and environmentally benign PMSO technology for reducing the subsurface loading of explosives at training ranges and other military facilities.

  4. Methodical approaches to providing sustainable development of the transport industry management system based on self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyantseva, Oksana; Panenkov, Andrey; Safonova, Nataliya

    2017-10-01

    Current conditions of the cognitive economy formation demand to take into account the leading role of information, knowledge and human capital in the development of the transport industry management system. The article substantiates the conceptual approach to the self-organization of a management system on the basis of innovative changes. Human capital is the key aspect of self-organization, so the directions of improving the workforce quality are justified. Basing on the information-innovative genesis of the process of self-organization, the authors justified the necessity of preventing asymmetric information. For this pupose the actions against the resistance to innovations were proposed. The implementation of certain measures contributes to the effective development of the transport management system.

  5. Sustainability assessment of urban policy scenarios: analysing the impacts of land use-transportation interaction in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Campo, Sofía

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impacts of future urban policy scenarios in the Lisbon region with the support of the Land Use and Transportation Impact Assessment integrated modelling framework for Lisbon (LUTIA-Lx). Three policy scenarios are analysed: (i) a business as usual scenario, consisting of minimum policy controls; (ii) a medium impact control scenario which builds on the propositions of national and regional policies; and (iii) a high impact control scenario which buil...

  6. Thermochemical cycles for the heat and cold long-range transport. Final report of the PRI 9.2 Cold transport. Annual report of the PR 2-8; Cycles thermochimiques pour le transport de chaleur et de froid a longue distance. Rapport final du PRI 9.2. Transport de froid. Rapport annuel du PR 2-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, L.; Tondeur, D. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique (LSGC), 54 - Nancy (France); Mazet, N.; Neveu, P.; Stitou, D.; Spinner, B. [Institut de Science et de Genie des Materiaux et Procedes (IMP), 66 - Perpignan (France)

    2004-07-01

    This PRI deals with the use of thermochemical processes, based on solid-gas reversible transformation, to transfer heat of cold at long-range distance (> 10 km), in order to enhance the energy efficiency. Four main aspects have been studied to confirm the process feasibility: the process identification and the operating conditions, the selection of compatible reagents, the design of an auto-thermal reactor and the gas transport impact on the global performances. (A.L.B.)

  7. Towards a more sustainable transport infrastructure: how spatial geological data can be utilized to improve early stage Life cycle assessment of road infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Miliutenko, Sofiia; Björklund, Anna; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Toller, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Environmental impacts during the life cycle stages of transport infrastructure are substantial, including among other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as resource and energy use. For transport infrastructure to be sustainable, such issues need to be integrated in the planning process. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required by the European Union (EU) in order to ensure that all environmental aspects are considered during planning of road infrastructure projects. As a part of this process, the European Commission has suggested the use of the tool life cycle assessment (LCA) for assessing life cycle energy use and GHG emissions. When analyzing life cycle impacts of the road infrastructure itself, it was shown that earthworks and materials used for the road construction have a big share in the total energy use and GHG emissions. Those aspects are largely determined by the geological conditions at the site of construction: parameters such as soil thickness, slope, bedrock quality and soil type. The geological parameters determine the amounts of earthworks (i.e. volumes of soil and rock that will be excavated and blasted), transportation need for excavated materials as well as the availability of building materials. The study presents a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilizing spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) in order to improve estimates on earthworks during the early stages of road infrastructure planning. Three main methodological steps were undertaken: mass balance calculation, life cycle inventory analysis and spatial mapping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use. The proposed GIS-based approach was later evaluated by comparing with the actual values of extracted material of a real road construction project. The results showed that the estimate of filling material was the most accurate, while the estimate for excavated soil and blasted rock had a wide variation from

  8. An overview of the 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS): Impact of stratospheric intrusions and long-range transport on surface air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, A. O.; Senff, C. J.; Alvarez, R. J.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lin, M. Y.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Pierce, R. B.; Sandberg, S. P.; Weickmann, A. M.; Williams, E. J.

    2015-05-01

    The 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS) was conducted in the late spring and early summer of 2013 to assess the seasonal contribution of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) and long-range transport to surface ozone in Clark County, Nevada and determine if these processes directly contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. Secondary goals included the characterization of local ozone production, regional transport from the Los Angeles Basin, and impacts from wildfires. The LVOS measurement campaign took place at a former U.S. Air Force radar station ∼45 km northwest of Las Vegas on Angel Peak (∼2.7 km above mean sea level, asl) in the Spring Mountains. The study consisted of two extended periods (May 19-June 4 and June 22-28, 2013) with near daily 5-min averaged lidar measurements of ozone and backscatter profiles from the surface to ∼2.5 km above ground level (∼5.2 km asl), and continuous in situ measurements (May 20-June 28) of O3, CO, (1-min) and meteorological parameters (5-min) at the surface. These activities were guided by forecasts and analyses from the FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTticle) dispersion model and the Real Time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS), and the NOAA Geophysical Research Laboratory (NOAA GFDL) AM3 chemistry-climate model. In this paper, we describe the LVOS measurements and present an overview of the results. The combined measurements and model analyses show that STT directly contributed to each of the three O3 exceedances that occurred in Clark County during LVOS, with contributions to 8-h surface concentrations in excess of 30 ppbv on each of these days. The analyses show that long-range transport from Asia made smaller contributions (<10 ppbv) to surface O3 during two of those exceedances. The contribution of regional wildfires to surface O3 during the three LVOS exceedance events was found to be negligible, but wildfires were found to be a major factor during exceedance events

  9. Investigating the influence of long-range transport on surface O{sub 3} in Nevada, USA, using observations from multiple measurement platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, Rebekka, E-mail: rebekkafine@gmail.com [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Miller, Matthieu B. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T. [Atmospheric Science Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer, E-mail: mgustin@cabnr.unr.edu [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The current United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O{sub 3} (75 ppb) is expected to be revised to between 60 and 70 ppb. As the NAAQS becomes more stringent, characterizing the extent of O{sub 3} and precursors transported into the US is increasingly important. Given the high elevation, complex terrain, and location in the Intermountain West, the State of Nevada is ideally situated to intercept air transported into the US. Until recently, measurements of O{sub 3} and associated pollutants were limited to areas in and around the cities of Las Vegas and Reno. In 2011, the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative began and through this project 13 surface monitoring sites were established. Also in 2011, the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) began making routine aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} and other greenhouse gases in Nevada. The availability of aircraft and surface measurements in a relatively rural, remote setting in the Intermountain West presented a unique opportunity to investigate sources contributing to the O{sub 3} observed in Nevada. Our analyses indicate that stratosphere to troposphere transport, long-range transport of Asian pollution, and regional emissions from urban areas and wildfires influence surface observations. The complexity of sources identified here along with the fact that O{sub 3} frequently approaches the threshold being considered for a revised NAAQS indicate that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to achieve compliance with a more stringent regulatory standard. Further, on a seasonal basis we found no significant difference between daily 1-h maximum O{sub 3} at surface sites, which ranged in elevation from 888 to 2307 m, and aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} < 2500 m which suggests that similar processes influence daytime O{sub 3} across rural Nevada and indicates that column measurements from Railroad Valley, NV are useful in understanding these processes. - Highlights:

  10. Functionalized 2D-MoS2-Incorporated Polymer Ternary Solar Cells: Role of Nanosheet-Induced Long-Range Ordering of Polymer Chains on Charge Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Razi; Srivastava, Ritu; Yadav, Sushma; Chand, Suresh; Sapra, Sameer

    2017-10-04

    In this paper, we demonstrated the enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl C 71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) by incorporation of functionalized 2D-MoS 2 nanosheets (NSs) as an additional charge-transporting material. The enhancement in PCE of ternary solar cells arises due to the synergic enhancement in exciton dissociation and the improvement in mobility of both electrons and holes through the active layer of the solar cells. The improved hole mobility is attributed to the formation of the long-range ordered nanofibrillar structure of polymer phases and improved crystallinity in the presence of 2D-MoS 2 NSs. The improved electron mobility arises due to the highly conducting 2D network of MoS 2 NSs which provides additional electron transport channels within the active layer. The nanosheet-incorporated ternary blend solar cells exhibit 32% enhancement in PCE relative to the binary blend P3HT/PC 71 BM.

  11. Effect of local and long-range transport emissions on the elemental composition of PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5 in Beirut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Najat A.; Kouyoumdjian, Hovig; Roumié, Mohamad

    The elemental composition of PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5 were studied in winter, summer, stormy and non-stormy dates during a period extending from February 2004 till January 2005, in a populated area of Beirut. Results of PIXE analysis and enrichment factor (E.F.) calculation, using Si as a reference of crustal material, showed that crustal elements (E.F.10) like S, Cu, Zn and Pb predominated in PM 2.5. In PM 10-2.5, concentrations of crustal elements increased during stormy episodes, all time high Ca concentrations were due to the abundance of calcite and limestone rocks in Lebanon, and increased Cl levels correlated with marine air masses. In PM 2.5, sulfur concentrations were more prominent in the summer due to the enhancement of photochemical reactions. Sources of sulfur were attributed to local, sea-water and long-range transport from Eastern Europe, with the latter being the most predominate. Anthropogenic elements like Cu and Zn were generated from worn brakes and tires in high traffic density area and spikes of Pb were directly linked to a southerly wind originated from Egypt and/or Israel as determined by the air trajectory HYSPLIT model. In brief, elemental variations depended on the regional variability of the transport pattern and the different removal rates of aerosols.

  12. A physiological role of cyclic electron transport around photosystem I in sustaining photosynthesis under fluctuating light in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Makino, Amane; Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2016-02-02

    Plants experience a highly variable light environment over the course of the day. To reveal the molecular mechanisms of their photosynthetic response to fluctuating light, we examined the role of two cyclic electron flows around photosystem I (CEF-PSI)--one depending on PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5 (PGR5) and one on NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH)--in photosynthetic regulation under fluctuating light in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The impairment of PGR5-dependent CEF-PSI suppressed the photosynthetic response immediately after sudden irradiation, whereas the impairment of NDH-dependent CEF-PSI did not. However, the impairment of either PGR5-dependent or NDH-dependent CEF-PSl reduced the photosynthetic rate under fluctuating light, leading to photoinhibition at PSI and consequently a reduction in plant biomass. The results highlight that (1) PGR5-dependent CEF-PSI is a key regulator of rapid photosynthetic responses to high light intensity under fluctuating light conditions after constant high light; and (2) both PGR5-dependent and NDH-dependent CEF-PSI have physiological roles in sustaining photosynthesis and plant growth in rice under repeated light fluctuations. The highly responsive regulatory system managed by CEF-PSI appears able to optimize photosynthesis and plant growth under naturally fluctuating light conditions.

  13. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC emission in Europe: influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Elemental Carbon (EC has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model (WRF-Chem at a resolution of 2 km focusing on a region in Germany, in conjunction with a high-resolution EC emission inventory. The ground meteorology conditions, vertical structure and wind pattern were well reproduced by the model. The simulations of particle number and/or mass size distributions were evaluated with observations at the central European background site Melpitz. The fine mode particle concentration was reasonably well simulated, but the coarse mode was substantially overestimated by the model mainly due to the plume with high EC concentration in coarse mode emitted by a nearby point source. The comparisons between simulated EC and Multi-angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP measurements at Melpitz, Leipzig-TROPOS and Bösel indicated that the coarse mode EC (ECc emitted from the nearby point sources might be overestimated by a factor of 2–10. The fraction of ECc was overestimated in the emission inventory by about 10–30 % for Russia and 5–10 % for Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland and Belarus. This incorrect size-dependent EC emission results in a shorter atmospheric life time of EC particles and inhibits the long-range transport of EC. A case study showed that this effect caused an underestimation of 20–40 % in the EC mass concentration in Germany under eastern wind pattern.

  14. Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over a coastal/rural site downwind of East China: Temporal variation and long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Niu, Zhenchuan

    2011-05-01

    Although much attention has been paid to the mercury pollution in China, limited field studies have been conducted to explore the atmospheric behavior of mercury. To investigate the temporal variation and long-range transport of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0)), the GEM measurements covering four different seasons were performed at a coastal/rural site of the Yellow Sea downwind of East China. Hourly mean concentrations of GEM measured by RA-915+ mercury analyzer over the entire study (four different time periods between July 2007 and May 2009) were 2.31 ± 0.74 ng m -3 with a range of 1.12-7.01 ng m -3. The results showed moderate seasonal variations with high levels in cold seasons (winter: 2.53 ± 0.77 ng m -3 and spring: 2.34 ± 0.54 ng m -3) and low levels in warm seasons (summer: 2.28 ± 0.82 ng m -3 and fall: 2.16 ± 0.84 ng m -3). Over the each campaign a diurnal variation of GEM was observed consistently with peak levels in daytime and low levels in late night and early morning. The pollution rose and NOAA-HYSPLIT back-trajectory model analyses indicated that the elevated GEM was transported to the sampling site from the regional sources of East China and Korea peninsula-Japan. Air masses originated from the East China Sea and the regions of Continental East Asia with low emission strengths of atmospheric mercury (e.g., the east Russia, the north Inner Mongolia and the Bohai Sea) showed the decreased GEM levels.

  15. A transportable source of gamma rays with discrete energies and wide range for calibration and on-site testing of gamma-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granja, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.granja@utef.cvut.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Slavicek, Tomas; Kroupa, Martin [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Owens, Alan [European Space Technology Centre ESTEC, European Space Agency ESA, Keplerlaan 1, 2200AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Pospisil, Stanislav; Janout, Zdenek [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Kralik, Miloslav; Solc, Jaroslav [Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 3, 102 00 Prague 10 (Czech Republic); Valach, Ondrej [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-21

    We describe a compact and transportable wide energy range, gamma-ray station for the calibration of gamma-ray sensitive devices. The station was specifically designed for the on-site testing and calibration of gamma-ray sensitive spacecraft payloads, intended for space flight on the BepiColombo and SoIar Orbiter missions of the European Space Agency. The source is intended to serve as a calibrated reference for post test center qualification of integrated payload instruments and for preflight evaluation of scientific radiation sensors. Discrete gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV–9 MeV are produced in the station with reasonable intensity using a radionuclide neutron source and 100 l of distilled water with 22 kg salt dissolved. The gamma-rays generated contain many discrete lines conveniently evenly distributed over the entire energy range. The neutron and gamma-ray fields have been simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. Results of the numerical calculations are given in the form of neutron and gamma-ray spectra as well as dose equivalent rate. The dose rate was also determined directly by dedicated dosemetric measurements. The gamma-ray field produced in the station was characterized using a conventional HPGe detector. The application of the station is demonstrated by measurements taken with a flight-qualified LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillation detector. Gamma-ray spectra acquired by both detectors are presented. The minimum measuring times for calibration of the flight-version detector, was between 2 and 10 min (up to 6.2 MeV) and 20–30 min (up to 8 MeV), when the detector was placed at a distance 2–5 m from the station. - Highlights: • Transportable station of mono-energetic gamma rays has been built. • Produced neutron and gamma ray field simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. • Discrete gamma rays produced in wide energy range up to 9 MeV. • Produced gamma ray spectra measured by HPGe and scintillating LaBr{sub 3}Ce detectors. • Demonstration of

  16. Long-range transport and mixing of aerosol sources during the 2013 North American biomass burning episode: analysis of multiple lidar observations in the western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of biomass burning (BB aerosols between North America and the Mediterranean region took place in June 2013. A large number of ground-based and airborne lidar measurements were deployed in the western Mediterranean during the Chemistry-AeRosol Mediterranean EXperiment (ChArMEx intensive observation period. A detailed analysis of the potential North American aerosol sources is conducted including the assessment of their transport to Europe using forward simulations of the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model initialized using satellite observations by MODIS and CALIOP. The three-dimensional structure of the aerosol distribution in the ChArMEx domain observed by the ground-based lidars (Minorca, Barcelona and Lampedusa, a Falcon-20 aircraft flight and three CALIOP tracks, agrees very well with the model simulation of the three major sources considered in this work: Canadian and Colorado fires, a dust storm from western US and the contribution of Saharan dust streamers advected from the North Atlantic trade wind region into the westerlies region. Four aerosol types were identified using the optical properties of the observed aerosol layers (aerosol depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and the transport model analysis of the contribution of each aerosol source: (i pure BB layer, (ii weakly dusty BB, (iii significant mixture of BB and dust transported from the trade wind region, and (iv the outflow of Saharan dust by the subtropical jet and not mixed with BB aerosol. The contribution of the Canadian fires is the major aerosol source during this episode while mixing of dust and BB is only significant at an altitude above 5 km. The mixing corresponds to a 20–30 % dust contribution in the total aerosol backscatter. The comparison with the MODIS aerosol optical depth horizontal distribution during this episode over the western Mediterranean Sea shows that the Canadian fire contributions were as large as the direct

  17. Modeling regional aerosol and aerosol precursor variability over California and its sensitivity to emissions and long-range transport during the 2010 CalNex and CARES campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, J. D.; Allan, J.; Bahreini, R.; Craven, J.; Emmons, L.; Ferrare, R.; Hayes, P. L.; Hodzic, A.; Holloway, J.; Hostetler, C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jonsson, H.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Metcalf, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Nowak, J.; Pekour, M.; Perring, A.; Russell, L.; Sedlacek, A.; Seinfeld, J.; Setyan, A.; Shilling, J.; Shrivastava, M.; Springston, S.; Song, C.; Subramanian, R.; Taylor, J. W.; Vinoj, V.; Yang, Q.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-09-01

    The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting regional model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) in simulating the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol mass, composition, and size over California is quantified using the extensive meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected during the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Experiment (CalNex) and the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) conducted during May and June of 2010. The overall objective of the field campaigns was to obtain data needed to better understand processes that affect both climate and air quality, including emission assessments, transport and chemical aging of aerosols, aerosol radiative effects. Simulations were performed that examined the sensitivity of aerosol concentrations to anthropogenic emissions and to long-range transport of aerosols into the domain obtained from a global model. The configuration of WRF-Chem used in this study is shown to reproduce the overall synoptic conditions, thermally driven circulations, and boundary layer structure observed in region that controls the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols. Reducing the default emissions inventory by 50% led to an overall improvement in many simulated trace gases and black carbon aerosol at most sites and along most aircraft flight paths; however, simulated organic aerosol was closer to observed when there were no adjustments to the primary organic aerosol emissions. We found that sulfate was better simulated over northern California whereas nitrate was better simulated over southern California. While the overall spatial and temporal variability of aerosols and their precursors were simulated reasonably well, we show cases where the local transport of some aerosol plumes were either too slow or too fast, which adversely affects the statistics quantifying the differences between observed and simulated quantities. Comparisons with lidar and in situ measurements indicate

  18. Partnership for Sustainable Communities - Grants Map -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Partnership for Sustainable Communities is comprised of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the US Department of Transportation (DOT), and the...

  19. Effect of genotype and transport on tonic immobility and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio in two local Italian breeds and Isa Brown hens kept under free-range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele De Marco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of transport and genotype on the welfare and fear response of laying hens through a comparison of three breeds reared in free-range conditions: a commercial strain, the Isa Brown (IBh, and two local chicken breeds, the Bionda Piemontese (BPh and the Bianca di Saluzzo (BSh. After a journey of 67 km (75 min from the farmhouse of origin to the experimental station, ninety hens, divided according to breed, were free-range reared for two months. Body weight (BW, tonic immobility (TI, red and white blood cells, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratio and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP were assessed at four different sampling times: at the farmhouse of origin (T1, at 1 day (T2, 15 days (T3 and at 2 months (T4 after arrival at the experimental station. No statistical differences were found between the four sampling times for BW, total red and white blood parameters. cells or for AGP. An increase in the H/L ratio (P<0.05 was recorded at time T2 for IBh and BSh, compared to BPh (P<0.05. TI was significantly higher (P<0.05 for the local breeds, BPh and BSh, than for the commercial strain IBh. The results of this study suggest that genetic and adaptive differences can affect both, physiological and ethological parameters.

  20. Multi-Sector Sustainability Browser (MSSB) User Manual: A Decision Support Tool (DST) for Supporting Sustainability Efforts in Four Areas - Land Use, Transportation, Buildings and Infrastructure, and Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities (SHC) Research Program is developing methodologies, resources, and tools to assist community members and local decision makers in implementing policy choices that facilitate sustainable approaches in managing their resources affecti...

  1. Impacts of long-range transport of global pollutants and precursor gases on U.S. air quality under future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ho-Chun; Lin, Jintai; Tao, Zhining; Choi, Hyun; Patten, Kenneth; Kunkel, Kenneth; Xu, Min; Zhu, Jinhong; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Williams, Allen; Caughey, Michael; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Wang, Julian

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. air quality is impacted by emissions both within and outside the United States. The latter impact is manifested as long-range transport (LRT) of pollutants across the U.S. borders, which can be simulated by lateral boundary conditions (LBC) into a regional modeling system. This system consists of a regional air quality model (RAQM) that integrates local-regional source emissions and chemical processes with remote forcing from the LBC predicted by a nesting global chemical transport model (model for ozone and related chemical tracers (MOZART)). The present-day simulations revealed important LRT effects, varying among the five major regions with ozone problems, i.e., northeast United States, midwest United States, Texas, California, and southeast United States. To determine the responses of the LRT impacts to projected global climate and emissions changes, the MOZART and RAQM simulations were repeated for future periods (2048-2052 and 2095-2099) under two emissions scenarios (IPCC A1Fi and B1). The future U.S. air quality projected by the MOZART is less sensitive to the emissions scenarios than that simulated by the RAQM with or without incorporating the LRT effects via the LBC from the MOZART. The result of RAQM with the LRT effects showed that the southeast United States has the largest sensitivity of surface ozone mixing ratio to the emissions changes in the 2095-2099 climate (-24% to +25%) followed by the northeast and midwest United States. The net increase due to the LRT effects in 2095-2099 ranges from +4% to +13% in daily mean surface ozone mixing ratio and +4% to +11% in mean daily maximum 8-h average ozone mixing ratios. Correspondingly, the LRT effects in 2095-2099 cause total column O3 mixing ratio increases, ranging from +7% to +16%, and also 2 to 3 more days with the surface ozone exceeding the national standard. The results indicate that future U.S. air quality changes will be substantially affected by global emissions.

  2. A transportable source of gamma rays with discrete energies and wide range for calibration and on-site testing of gamma-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Carlos; Slavicek, Tomas; Kroupa, Martin; Owens, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Janout, Zdenek; Kralik, Miloslav; Solc, Jaroslav; Valach, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    We describe a compact and transportable wide energy range, gamma-ray station for the calibration of gamma-ray sensitive devices. The station was specifically designed for the on-site testing and calibration of gamma-ray sensitive spacecraft payloads, intended for space flight on the BepiColombo and SoIar Orbiter missions of the European Space Agency. The source is intended to serve as a calibrated reference for post test center qualification of integrated payload instruments and for preflight evaluation of scientific radiation sensors. Discrete gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV-9 MeV are produced in the station with reasonable intensity using a radionuclide neutron source and 100 l of distilled water with 22 kg salt dissolved. The gamma-rays generated contain many discrete lines conveniently evenly distributed over the entire energy range. The neutron and gamma-ray fields have been simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. Results of the numerical calculations are given in the form of neutron and gamma-ray spectra as well as dose equivalent rate. The dose rate was also determined directly by dedicated dosemetric measurements. The gamma-ray field produced in the station was characterized using a conventional HPGe detector. The application of the station is demonstrated by measurements taken with a flight-qualified LaBr3:Ce scintillation detector. Gamma-ray spectra acquired by both detectors are presented. The minimum measuring times for calibration of the flight-version detector, was between 2 and 10 min (up to 6.2 MeV) and 20-30 min (up to 8 MeV), when the detector was placed at a distance 2-5 m from the station.

  3. Modeling regional aerosol variability over California and its sensitivity to emissions and long-range transport during the 2010 CalNex and CARES campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, J. D.; Allan, J.; Bahreini, R.; Craven, J.; Emmons, L.; Ferrare, R.; Hayes, P. L.; Hodzic, A.; Holloway, J.; Hostetler, C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jonsson, H.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Metcalf, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Nowak, J.; Pekour, M.; Perring, A.; Russell, L.; Sedlacek, A.; Seinfeld, J.; Setyan, A.; Shilling, J.; Shrivastava, M.; Springston, S.; Song, C.; Subramanian, R.; Taylor, J. W.; Vinoj, V.; Yang, Q.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-03-01

    The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting regional model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) in simulating the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol mass, composition, and size over California is quantified using measurements collected during the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Experiment (CalNex) and the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) conducted during May and June of 2010. The extensive meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at surface sites and along aircraft and ship transects during CalNex and CARES were combined with operational monitoring network measurements to create a single dataset that was used to evaluate the one configuration of the model. Simulations were performed that examined the sensitivity of regional variations in aerosol concentrations to anthropogenic emissions and to long-range transport of aerosols into the domain obtained from a global model. The configuration of WRF-Chem used in this study is shown to reproduce the overall synoptic conditions, thermally-driven circulations, and boundary layer structure observed in region that controls the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols. However, sub-grid scale variability in the meteorology and emissions as well as uncertainties in the treatment of secondary organic aerosol chemistry likely contribute to errors at a primary surface sampling site located at the edge of the Los Angeles basin. Differences among the sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the aerosol layers over the central valley detected by lidar measurements likely resulted from lofting and recirculation of local anthropogenic emissions along the Sierra Nevada. Reducing the default emissions inventory by 50% led to an overall improvement in many simulated trace gases and black carbon aerosol at most sites and along most aircraft flight paths; however, simulated organic aerosol was closer to observed when there were no adjustments to the primary organic

  4. Effect of NOx emission controls from world regions on the long-range transport of ozone air pollution and human mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2007-12-01

    We model the influences of 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from each of nine world regions on surface ozone air quality in that region and all other regions, using the MOZART-2 model of tropospheric chemistry and transport. In doing so, we quantify the relative importance of long-range transport between different world regions for ozone. We find that the strongest inter-regional influences are for Europe to the Former Soviet Union (FSU), East Asia to Southeast Asia, and Europe to Africa. The largest influences per unit of NOx reduced, however, are seen for tropical source regions, due to greater sensitivity of ozone production to NOx emissions. Results show, for example, that NOx reductions in North America are about 20% as effective per ton at reducing ozone in Europe, as NOx reductions from Europe itself. In estimating the changes in cases of premature mortality associated with ozone, we find that NOx reductions in North America, Europe, and FSU reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, an average ton of NOx reduced in India causes the greatest number of avoided mortalities (mainly in India itself). We also assess the long-term increases in global ozone resulting from methane increases due to the regional NOx reductions. For many of the more distant source-receptor pairs, the long-term increase in ozone roughly negates the direct short-term ozone decrease. The increase in methane and long-term ozone per unit of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical source regions and varies among different regions by a factor of ten.

  5. The Impact of Uncertainties in African Biomass Burning Emission Estimates on Modeling Global Air Quality, Long Range Transport and Tropospheric Chemical Lifetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido R. van der Werf

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the troposphere in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere (SH is significantly influenced by gaseous emissions released from African biomass burning (BB. Here we investigate how various emission estimates given in bottom-up BB inventories (GFEDv2, GFEDv3, AMMABB affect simulations of global tropospheric composition using the TM4 chemistry transport model. The application of various model parameterizations for introducing such emissions is also investigated. There are perturbations in near-surface ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO of ~60–90% in the tropics and ~5–10% in the SH between different inventories. Increasing the update frequency of the temporal distribution to eight days generally results in decreases of between ~5 and 10% in near-surface mixing ratios throughout the tropics, which is larger than the influence of increasing the injection heights at which BB emissions are introduced. There are also associated differences in the long range transport of pollutants throughout the SH, where the composition of the free troposphere in the SH is sensitive to the chosen BB inventory. Analysis of the chemical budget terms reveals that the influence of increasing the tropospheric CO burden due to BB on oxidative capacity of the troposphere is mitigated by the associated increase in NOx emissions (and thus O3 with the variations in the CO/N ratio between inventories being low. For all inventories there is a decrease in the tropospheric chemical lifetime of methane of between 0.4 and 0.8% regardless of the CO emitted from African BB. This has implications for assessing the effect of inter-annual variability in BB on the annual growth rate of methane.

  6. Long-term high frequency measurements of ethane, benzene and methyl chloride at Ragged Point, Barbados: Identification of long-range transport events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Archibald

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHere we present high frequency long-term observations of ethane, benzene and methyl chloride from the AGAGE Ragged Point, Barbados, monitoring station made using a custom built GC-MS system. Our analysis focuses on the first three years of data (2005–2007 and on the interpretation of periodic episodes of high concentrations of these compounds. We focus specifically on an exemplar episode during September 2007 to assess if these measurements are impacted by long-range transport of biomass burning and biogenic emissions. We use the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model, NAME, run forwards and backwards in time to identify transport of air masses from the North East of Brazil during these events. To assess whether biomass burning was the cause we used hot spots detected using the MODIS instrument to act as point sources for simulating the release of biomass burning plumes. Excellent agreement for the arrival time of the simulated biomass burning plumes and the observations of enhancements in the trace gases indicates that biomass burning strongly influenced these measurements. These modelling data were then used to determine the emissions required to match the observations and compared with bottom up estimates based on burnt area and literature emission factors. Good agreement was found between the two techniques highlight the important role of biomass burning. The modelling constrained by in situ observations suggests that the emission factors were representative of their known upper limits, with the in situ data suggesting slightly greater emissions of ethane than the literature emission factors account for. Further analysis was performed concluding only a small role for biogenic emissions of methyl chloride from South America impacting measurements at Ragged Point. These results highlight the importance of long-term high frequency measurements of NMHC and ODS and highlight how these data can be used to determine sources of emissions

  7. Source identification and airborne chemical characterisation of aerosol pollution from long-range transport over Greenland during POLARCAT summer campaign 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We deployed an aerosol mass spectrometer during the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport summer campaign in Greenland in June/July 2008 on the research aircraft ATR-42. Online size resolved chemical composition data of submicron aerosol were collected up to 7.6 km altitude in the region 60 to 71° N and 40 to 60° W. Biomass burning (BB and fossil fuel combustion (FF plumes originating from North America, Asia, Siberia and Europe were sampled. Transport pathways of detected plumes included advection below 700 hPa, air mass uplifting in warm conveyor belts, and high altitude transport in the upper troposphere. By means of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, trace gas analysis of O3 and CO, particle size distributions and aerosol chemical composition 48 pollution events were identified and classified into five chemically distinct categories. Aerosol from North American BB consisted of 22% particulate sulphate, while with increasing anthropogenic and Asian influence aerosol in Asian FF dominated plumes was composed of up to 37% sulphate category mean value. Overall, it was found that the organic matter fraction was larger (85% in pollution plumes than for background conditions (71%. Despite different source regions and emission types the particle oxygen to carbon ratio of all plume classes was around 1 indicating low-volatility highly oxygenated aerosol. The volume size distribution of out-of-plume aerosol showed markedly smaller modes than all other distributions with two Aitken mode diameters of 24 and 43 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg of 1.12 and 1.22, respectively, while another very broad mode was found at 490 nm (σg = 2.35. Nearly pure BB particles from North America exhibited an Aitken mode at 66 nm (σg = 1.46 and an accumulation mode diameter of 392 nm (σg = 1

  8. Fine particulate matter events associated with synoptic weather patterns, long-range transport paths and mixing height in the Taipei Basin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Asian dust storms (ADS) and PM2.5 (particle pollution) events have an evident influence on air quality in Taiwan. However, the synoptic weather patterns and atmospheric conditions on ADS days are not entirely similar to those related to PM2.5 event days. The aim of this study is to clarify the weather characteristics such as synoptic weather patterns, long-range transport paths, and stagnant conditions that precipitate PM2.5 events. Air quality and meteorological data from 2006 to 2013 were obtained from government-owned observation stations, and the mixing height was estimated in relation to the Nozaki planetary boundary layer height. This study used back trajectories as simulated gridded analysis data, which were based on kinematic trajectory analysis using NASA's GMAO (Global Modeling Assimilation Office) and NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) analyses. For testing the differences between means of two large, independent samples, the confidence interval of a common statistical indicator was employed. The results show that in comparison to low PM2.5 level days, weather features such as stagnant conditions, including low mixing height and low wind speed, low rainfall amount, and high solar hours, are favorable for inducing PM2.5 events. Eighty percent of the synoptic weather patterns on PM2.5 days were associated with either polar continental high pressure, a high-pressure system in mainland China moving from the continent to the sea, or a stationary front stretching from southern China to the East Sea, and moving eastwards. More than 81% of the contributing factors of the causes of PM2.5 events were found to be related to stagnant conditions. The pattern of the contributing factors causing the maximum-recorded concentration of PM2.5, (73.90 μg/m3) was attributed to local emissions, and a long-range transport time that was extended for a longer period over the land than over the sea. The synoptic weather patterns were also found to affect the

  9. Aerosol Optical Properties at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station in Taiwan and the Influences of Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Wei-Nai; Ye, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lin, Tang-Huang; Lee, Chung-Te; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Pantina, Peter; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS, 23.47 deg. N 120.87 deg. E, 2862 m ASL) in Central Taiwan was constructed in 2006 and is the only high-altitude background station in the western Pacific region for studying the influence of continental outflow. In this study, extensive optical properties of aerosols, including the aerosol light scattering coefficient [Sigma(sub s)] and light absorption coefficient [Sigma(sub a)], were collected from 2013 to 2014. The intensive optical properties, including mass scattering efficiency [Sigma(sub s)], mass absorption efficiency [Sigma(sub a)] single scattering albedo (Omega), scattering Angstrom exponent (A), and backscattering fraction (b), were determined and investigated, and the distinct seasonal cycle was observed. The value of [Alpha(sub a)] began to increase in January and reached a maximum in April; the mean in spring was 5.89 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1) with a standard deviation (SD) of 4.54 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1) and a 4.48 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1) interquartile range (IQR: 2.95-7.43 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1). The trend was similar in [Sigma(sub a)], with a maximum in March and a monthly mean of 0.84 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1). The peak values of Omega (Mean = 0.92, SD = 0.03, IQR: 0.90 - 0.93) and A (Mean = 2.22, SD = 0.61, IQR: 2.12 = 2.47) occurred in autumn. These annual patterns of optical properties were associated with different long-range transport patterns of air pollutants such as biomass burning (BB) aerosol in spring and potential anthropogenic emissions in autumn. The optical measurements performed at LABS during spring in 2013 were compared with those simultaneously performed at the Doi Ang Kang Meteorology Station, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand (DAK, 19.93 deg. N, 99.05 deg. E, 1536 m a.s.l.), which is located in the Southeast Asia BB source region. Furthermore, the relationships among [Sigma(sub s)], [Sigma(sub a)], and (b) were used to characterize the potential aerosol types transported to LABS during different

  10. Longer and beavier on German roads. Do megatrucks contribute towards sustainable transport?; Laenger und schwerer auf Deutschlands Strassen. Tragen Riesen-Lkw zu einer nachhaltigen Mobilitaet bei?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    They are a familiar sight on roads in Sweden and Finland. The Dutch are testing them, and on just a few routes in Germany they are also being tested. We are talking about so-called megatrucks. With a maximum length of 25.25 metres and a permissible maximum loaded weight of 60 tonnes these are noticeably larger than standard 40-tonners, whose maximum length is restricted to 18.75 metres. Hauliers are presently testing operation of longer and heavier truck-trailer combinations in Germany. Some Laender - for example, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bremen, Lower Saxony and Saxony- Anhalt - have issued exemptions for the trial operation of megatrucks on clearly defined routes. In Bremen, special coffee transporters of the 60-tonne class have been on the road since mid 2005 between the inland port and a major coffee roaster. Permits in Lower Saxony are restricted to three routes and expire in the summer of 2007. During this time, experience should be gained with this new and - on German roads - unusual type of truck. Early results are already available. In the meantime, logistics companies are thinking ahead: they want to start a field trial in the medium term throughout the country with a large fleet of megatrucks. What are the implications for sustainable transport development of the introduction of longer and heavier vehicles (LHVs), which are up to 6.5 metres longer than standard heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs)? The Federal Environment Agency (UBA) addresses below a number of important questions concerning megatrucks from the environmental protection point of view: What effect do they have on fuel consumption as well as on emissions of air pollutants and traffic noise? What effects does their introduction have on other carriers? Do megatrucks reduce the demand for roadspace and the risk of traffic congestion? Is road infrastructure suitable for these longer and heavier vehicles? Answers to these questions are then summarized in the conclusion. (orig.)

  11. Radiological and Environmental Monitoring at the Clean Slate I and III Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, With Emphasis on the Implications for Off-site Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vic [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]) implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in the dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero (GZ). Three tests—Clean Slate I, II, and III—were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat. The fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. The Desert Research Institute (DRI) installed two monitoring stations in 2008, Station 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Center (ROC) and Station 401 at Clean Slate III. Station 402 was installed at Clean Slate I in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The monitoring activity was implemented to determine if radionuclide contamination in the soil at the Clean Slate sites was being transported beyond the contamination area boundaries. Some of the data collected also permits comparison of radiological exposure at the TTR monitoring stations to conditions observed at Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations around the NTTR. Annual average gross alpha values from the TTR monitoring stations are higher than values from the surrounding CEMP stations. Annual average gross beta values from the TTR monitoring stations are generally lower than values observed for the surrounding CEMP stations. This may be due to use of sample filters with larger pore space because when glass-fiber filters began to be used at TTR Station 400, gross beta values increased. Gamma spectroscopy typically identified only naturally

  12. The impact of North American anthropogenic emissions and lightning on long-range transport of trace gases and their export from the continent during summers 2002 and 2004

    KAUST Repository

    Martini, Matus

    2011-04-07

    We analyze the contribution of North American (NA) lightning and anthropogenic emissions to ozone concentrations, radiative forcing, and export fluxes from North America during summers 2002 and 2004 using the University of Maryland Chemical Transport Model (UMD-CTM) driven by GEOS-4 reanalysis. Reduced power plant emissions (NOx SIP Call) and cooler temperatures in 2004 compared to 2002 resulted in lower ambient ozone concentrations over the eastern United States. Lightning flash rates in early summer 2004 were 50% higher than 2002 over the United States. Over the North Atlantic, changes in ozone column between early summer 2002 and 2004 due to changes in lightning and meteorology exceeded the change due to emission reductions by a factor of 7. Late summer changes in lightning had a much smaller impact on ozone columns. In summer 2004, net downward radiative flux at the tropopause due to ozone produced from anthropogenic emissions ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 W m−2 across the North Atlantic, while that due to ozone produced from lightning NO emissions ranged from 0.20 to 0.50 W m−2. Enhanced lofting of polluted air followed by stronger westerly winds led to more net export of NOx, NOy, and ozone in early summer 2004 than 2002 despite reduced anthropogenic emissions. Ozone export fluxes across the eastern NA boundary due to anthropogenic emissions were factors of 1.6 and 2 larger than those due to lightning in 2004 and 2002, respectively. Doubling the NA lightning NO source increased downwind ozone enhancements due to lightning NO emissions by one third.

  13. Effects of long-range transported air pollution from vegetation fires on daily mortality and hospital admissions in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollanus, Virpi; Tiittanen, Pekka; Niemi, Jarkko V; Lanki, Timo

    2016-11-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from vegetation fires can be transported over long distances and may cause significant air pollution episodes far from the fires. However, epidemiological evidence on health effects of vegetation-fire originated air pollution is limited, particularly for mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. We examined association between short-term exposure to long-range transported PM2.5 from vegetation fires and daily mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory causes and daily hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. Days significantly affected by smoke from vegetation fires between 2001 and 2010 were identified using air quality measurements at an urban background and a regional background monitoring station, and modelled data on surface concentrations of vegetation-fire smoke. Associations between daily PM2.5 concentration and health outcomes on i) smoke-affected days and ii) all other days (i.e. non-smoke days) were analysed using Poisson time series regression. All statistical models were adjusted for daily temperature and relative humidity, influenza, pollen, and public holidays. On smoke-affected days, 10µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a borderline statistically significant increase in cardiovascular mortality among total population at a lag of three days (12.4%, 95% CI -0.2% to 26.5%), and among the elderly (≥65 years) following same-day exposure (13.8%, 95% CI -0.6% to 30.4%) and at a lag of three days (11.8%, 95% CI -2.2% to 27.7%). Smoke day PM2.5 was not associated with non-accidental mortality or hospital admissions due to cardiovascular causes. However, there was an indication of a positive association with hospital admissions due to respiratory causes among the elderly, and admissions due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma among the total population. In contrast, on non-smoke days PM2.5 was generally

  14. Quantifying the contribution of Long-Range Transport to PM, NOx, and SO2 loadings at a suburban site in the North-Western Indo Gangetic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harshita; Sachan, Himanshu; Garg, Saryu; Arya, Ruhani; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Sinha, Baerbel; Sinha, Vinayak

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the climatology of air masses arriving at the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry facility (30.67°N, 76.73°E; 310 m amsl) through 3-day backtrajectories arriving at 20 m above ground level for the period August 2011-November 2012. IISER Mohali is a suburban site in the North-Western Indo Gangetic Basin. The trajectories are computed in ensemble mode twice daily with an arrival time of 2:30 pm local time (daytime) and 4:30 am local time (nighttime) using the HYSPLIT 4 model with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's GDAS file as meterological input data. Due to the close proximity of the site to the Himalayan mountain range the trajectory output is found to be very sensitive to the models input data. IISER Air Quality station is located in the IGB at an altitude of 310 m amsl approximately 20 km south west of the Shivalik hills, but the model terrain height for the site in the ensemble run output varies between 200 m amsl and 3500 m amsl for the GDAS dataset and 200 m amsl to 5000 m amsl for the reanalysis dataset. We conclude that the GDAS dataset performs better than than reanalysis dataset for our site and selected only those trajectories from the trajectory ensemble for cluster analysis, for which the terrain height in the model output was 400 m amsl for Shimla (a site located at an altitude of 1000 m amsl in the mountains 60 km north east of Mohali). We subjected the trajectories to hierarchical, and non-hierarchical (K-means) clustering and found that the air mass transport to our station can be characterised by 10 distinct airflow patterns; 3 of which occur only during the monsoon season. For pre-monsoon season (March-June), post-monsoon season (Sept-Nov) and winter season (Dec-Feb), air mass transport to our site is predominantly from the west. Direct transport of north westerly air masses to our site is subdivided into three clusters (slow, medium and rapid) while other clusters are attributed to south westerly air currents

  15. POP and PAH contamination in the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (Himalaya, Nepal): Long-range atmospheric transport, glacier shrinkage, or local impact of tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzella, Licia; Salerno, Franco; Freppaz, Michele; Roscioli, Claudio; Pisanello, Francesca; Poma, Giulia

    2016-02-15

    Due to their physico-chemical properties, POPs and PAHs are subjected to long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and may be deposited in remote areas. In this study, the contamination with DDx, PCBs, PBDEs, and PAHs was investigated in sediments and soils collected on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (Himalaya, Nepal) in two different sampling campaigns (2008 and 2012). The results showed a limited contamination with POPs and PAHs in both soil and sediment samples. Therefore, the southern slopes of Mt. Everest can be considered a remote area in almost pristine condition. The LRAT mechanism confirmed its primary role in the transfer of contaminants to remote regions, while the gradual melting of glaciers, due to global warming, and the subsequent release of contaminants was suggested to be a secondary source of pollution of the lake sediments. In addition, the increase of tourism in this area during the last decades might have influenced the present concentrations of PAHs in the sediments and soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonal progression of atmospheric particulate matter over an urban coastal region in peninsular India: Role of local meteorology and long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, P. S.; Sinha, P. R.; Boopathy, R.; Das, T.; Mohanty, S.; Sahu, S. C.; Gurjar, B. R.

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of particulate matter (PM) over an urban site with relatively high concentration of aerosol particles is critically important owing to its adverse health, environmental and climate impact. Here we present a 3 years' worth of measurements (January 2012 to December 2014) of PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm) and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm) along with meteorological parameters and seasonal variations at Bhubaneswar an urban-coastal site, in eastern India. The concentrations of PM were determined gravimetrically from the filter samples of PM2.5 and PM10. It revealed remarkable seasonal variations with winter values (55.0 ± 23.4 μg/m3; 147.3 ± 42.4 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) about 3.5 times higher than that in pre-monsoon (15.7 ± 6.2 μg/m3; 41.8 ± 15.3 μg/m3). PM2.5 and PM10 were well correlated while PM2.5/PM10 ratios were found to be 0.38 and 0.32 during winter and pre-monsoon, indicating the predominance of coarse particles, mainly originating from long range transport of pollutants from northern and western parts of India and parts of west Asia as well. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis revealed the IGP and North Western Odisha as the most potential sources of PM2.5 and PM10 during winter. The PM concentrations at Bhubaneswar were comparable with those at other coastal sites of India reported in the literature, but were lower than few polluted urban sites in India and Asia. Empirical model reproduced the observed seasonal variation of PM2.5 and PM10 very well over Bhubaneswar.

  17. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, Allen B.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

    2014-01-03

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for

  18. Theory of box-model hyperfine couplings and transport signatures of long-range nuclear-spin coherence in a quantum-dot spin valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Stefano; Coish, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    We have theoretically analyzed coherent nuclear-spin dynamics induced by electron transport through a quantum-dot spin valve. The hyperfine interaction between electron and nuclear spins in a quantum dot allows for the transfer of angular momentum from spin-polarized electrons injected from ferromagnetic or half-metal leads to the nuclear spin system under a finite voltage bias. Accounting for a local nuclear-spin dephasing process prevents the system from becoming stuck in collective dark states, allowing a large nuclear polarization to be built up in the long-time limit. After reaching a steady state, reversing the voltage bias induces a transient current response as the nuclear polarization is reversed. Long-range nuclear-spin coherence leads to a strong enhancement of spin-flip transition rates (by an amount proportional to the number of nuclear spins) and is revealed by an intense current burst, analogous to superradiant light emission. The crossover to a regime with incoherent spin flips occurs on a relatively long-time scale, on the order of the single-nuclear-spin dephasing time, which can be much longer than the time scale for the superradiant current burst. This conclusion is confirmed through a general master equation. For the two limiting regimes (coherent/incoherent spin flips), the general master equation recovers our simpler treatment based on rate equations, but is also applicable at intermediate dephasing. Throughout this work, we assume uniform hyperfine couplings, which yield the strongest coherent enhancement. We propose realistic strategies, based on isotopic modulation and wave-function engineering in core-shell nanowires, to realize this analytically solvable "box-model" of hyperfine couplings.

  19. Long-range transport of dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and Indian region – A case study using satellite data and ground-based measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Badarinath, K.V.S.; Kharol, S.K.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Sharma, A.R.; Ramaswamy, V.; Kambezidis, H.D.

    reduction in solar irradiance on the dust-laden day (22 February 2008) over Hyderabad, while sun photometer derived AODs from six AERONET sites in south Asia verify the presence of dust and its transport from west to east....

  20. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 2: Steady-state changes in ozone air quality and impacts on human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale changes in ozone precursor emissions affect ozone directly in the short term, and also affect methane, which in turn causes long-term changes in ozone that affect surface ozone air quality. Here we assess the effects of changes in ozone precursor emissions on the long-term change in surface ozone via methane, as a function of the emission region, by modeling 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions. Reductions in NOx emissions from all world regions increase methane and long-term surface ozone. While this long-term increase is small compared to the intra-regional short-term ozone decrease, it is comparable to or larger than the short-term inter-continental ozone decrease for some source-receptor pairs. The increase in methane and long-term surface ozone per ton of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, exceeding that from temperate Northern Hemisphere regions by roughly a factor of ten. We also assess changes in premature ozone-related human mortality associated with regional precursor reductions and long-range transport, showing that for 10% regional NOx reductions, the strongest inter-regional influence is for emissions from Europe affecting mortalities in Africa. Reductions of NOx in North America, Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and Australia are shown to reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, NOx reductions in India cause the greatest number of avoided mortalities per ton, mainly in India itself. Finally, by increasing global methane, NOx reductions in one hemisphere tend to cause long-term increases in ozone concentration and mortalities in the opposite hemisphere. Reducing emissions of methane, and to a lesser extent carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds, alongside NOx reductions would

  1. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Islands National Marine Sanctuary, designation of new state marine protected areas around San Nicolas Island, proposed liquefied natural gas...restrictions on new activities in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, designation of new state marine protected areas around San Nicolas Island...Species/Critical Habitat Strategic Attack A proposal to establish Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) or Monuments in the northern Gulf of Mexico has the

  2. Flexitarianism : a range of sustainable food styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, M.C.D.; Dagevos, H.; Antonides, G.

    2015-01-01

    People who don’t abstain from meat as a matter of principle may still eat less of it. (Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of our Nature, 2011, p. 472). A shift in Western meat consumption patterns could significantly reduce the ecological effects of the food system. The consumption of meat accounts

  3. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Plans ( QAPs ) in August 2008 to improve consistency and coordination of all installation geospatial data. All Army installations are required to...Center) are defined in each layer’s geospatial data QAP . QAPs provide the definition, information about the functional and organizational proponent...layers. QAPs are living documents and are maintained by the HQDA proponent with input from the installation data stewards and other stakeholders

  4. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  5. Accumulation-mode aerosol number concentrations in the Arctic during the ARCTAS aircraft campaign: Long-range transport of polluted and clean air from the Asian continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, H.; Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Sahu, L. K.; Koike, M.; Zhao, Y.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Sessions, W. R.; Diskin, G.; Anderson, B. E.; Blake, D. R.; Wisthaler, A.; Cubison, M. J.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-10-01

    We evaluate the impact of transport from midlatitudes on aerosol number concentrations in the accumulation mode (light-scattering particles (LSP) with diameters >180 nm) in the Arctic during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign. We focus on transport from the Asian continent. We find marked contrasts in the number concentration (NLSP), transport efficiency (TEN_LSP, the fraction transported from sources to the Arctic), size distribution, and the chemical composition of aerosols between air parcels from anthropogenic sources in East Asia (Asian AN) and biomass burning sources in Russia and Kazakhstan (Russian BB). Asian AN air had lower NLSP and TEN_LSP (25 cm-3 and 18% in spring and 6.2 cm-3 and 3.0% in summer) than Russian BB air (280 cm-3 and 97% in spring and 36 cm-3 and 7.6% in summer) due to more efficient wet scavenging during transport from East Asia. Russian BB in this spring is the most important source of accumulation-mode aerosols over the Arctic, and BB emissions are found to be the primary source of aerosols within all the data in spring during ARCTAS. On the other hand, the contribution of Asian AN transport had a negligible effect on the accumulation-mode aerosol number concentration in the Arctic during ARCTAS. Compared with background air, NLSP was 2.3-4.7 times greater for Russian BB air but 2.4-2.6 times less for Asian AN air in both spring and summer. This result shows that the transport of Asian AN air decreases aerosol number concentrations in the Arctic, despite the large emissions of aerosols in East Asia. The very low aerosol number concentrations in Asian AN air were caused by wet removal during vertical transport in association with warm conveyor belts (WCBs). Therefore, this cleansing effect will be prominent for air transported via WCBs from other midlatitude regions and seasons. The inflow of clean midlatitude air can potentially have an important impact on

  6. The Effect of Air Density on Sand Transport Structures and the Adobe Abrasion Profile: A Field Wind-Tunnel Experiment Over a Wide Range of Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Dong, Zhibao; Zu, Ruiping; Zhang, Kecun; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Shengbo

    2013-11-01

    Aeolian sand transport results from interactions between the surface and the airflow above. Air density strongly constrains airflow characteristics and the resulting flow of sand, and therefore should not be neglected in sand transport models. In the present study, we quantify the influence of air density on the sand flow structure, sand transport rate, adobe abrasion profiles, and abrasion rate using a portable wind-tunnel in the field. For a given wind speed, the flow's ability to transport sand decreases at low air density, so total sand transport decreases, but the saltation height increases. Thus, the damage to human structures increases compared with what occurs at lower altitudes. The adobe abrasion rate by the cloud of blowing sand decreases exponentially with increasing height above the surface, while the wind erosion and dust emission intensity both increase with increasing air density. Long-term feedback processes between air density and wind erosion suggest that the development of low-altitude areas due to long-term deflation plays a key role in dust emission, and will have a profound significance for surface Aeolian processes and geomorphology.

  7. Environmental Sustainability Analysis of Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    Due to their generally positive carbon dioxide balance, biofuels are seen as one of the energy carriers in a more sustainable future transportation energy system, but how good is their environmental sustainability, and where lie the main potentials for improvement of their sustainability? Questions...... like these require a life cycle perspective on the biofuel - from the cradle (production of the agricultural feedstock) to the grave (use as fuel). An environmental life cycle assessment is performed on biodiesel to compare different production schemes including chemical and enzymatic esterification...... with the use of methanol or ethanol. The life cycle assessment includes all processes needed for the production, distribution and use of the biodiesel (the product system), and it includes all relevant environmental impacts from the product system, ranging from global impacts like climate change and loss...

  8. Origin and pathways of the mineral dust transport to two Spanish EARLINET sites: Effect on the observed columnar and range-resolved dust optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandija, Florian; Sicard, Michaël; Comerón, Adolfo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Barragan, Ruben; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Granados-Muñoz, Maria Jose; Lyamani, Hassan; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch, Francisco; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Valenzuela, Antonio; García Vizcaíno, David

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, is presented a method for estimation of the effect of the transport process to aerosol optical properties. Aerosol optical data retrieved by lidars and sun-photometer measurements, are applied to Saharan dust events observed simultaneously at the two EARLINET/AERONET sites of Barcelona and Granada during the periods of June-September of 2012 and 2013. For this purpose, elastic lidar profiles and sun-photometer columnar retrievals are analyzed together with satellite observations and dust forecast models. Granada presents more than twice Saharan dust outbreaks compared to Barcelona. The scenarios favoring the Saharan dust outbreaks are identified in both places. The mineral dust originating in the Sahara region and arriving at both stations is usually transport wither over the Atlas Mountains or through an Atlantic pathway. Analyses of dust events affecting both stations reveal how differences in the transport process lead to differences in the aerosol optical properties measured at each station. Mean dust related Ångström exponent is 1.8 times higher in Barcelona than in Granada. This difference is a result of the additional contribution of anthropogenic aerosol, mainly in the aerosol fine mode, during the transport of the mineral dust plume over the Iberian Peninsula.

  9. Long-range transport pathways of tropospheric source gases originating in Asia into the northern lower stratosphere during the Asian monsoon season 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vogel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS using artificial tracers of air mass origin are used to analyze transport mechanisms from the Asian monsoon region into the lower stratosphere. In a case study, the transport of air masses from the Asian monsoon anticyclone originating in India/China by an eastward-migrating anticyclone which broke off from the main anticyclone on 20 September 2012 and filaments separated at the northeastern flank of the anticyclone are analyzed. Enhanced contributions of young air masses (younger than 5 months are found within the separated anticyclone confined at the top by the thermal tropopause. Further, these air masses are confined by the anticyclonic circulation and, on the polar side, by the subtropical jet such that the vertical structure resembles a bubble within the upper troposphere. Subsequently, these air masses are transported eastwards along the subtropical jet and enter the lower stratosphere by quasi-horizontal transport in a region of double tropopauses most likely associated with Rossby wave breaking events. As a result, thin filaments with enhanced signatures of tropospheric trace gases were measured in the lower stratosphere over Europe during the TACTS/ESMVal campaign in September 2012 in very good agreement with CLaMS simulations. Our simulations demonstrate that source regions in Asia and in the Pacific Ocean have a significant impact on the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. Young, moist air masses, in particular at the end of the monsoon season in September/October 2012, flooded the extratropical lower stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphere with contributions of up to  ≈  30 % at 380 K (with the remaining fraction being aged air. In contrast, the contribution of young air masses to the Southern Hemisphere is much lower. At the end of October 2012, approximately 1.5 ppmv H2O is found in the lower

  10. Low-dose baclofen therapy raised plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations, but not into the normal range in a predictable and sustained manner in men with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William A; La Fountaine, Michael F; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Kirshblum, Steven C; Spungen, Ann M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate, whether once-daily oral baclofen administration increases and/or sustains plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration in 11 men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and IGF-1 deficiency (i.e. Plasma IGF-1 and self-reported side effects were measured at baseline and every other week for the duration of the study. The subjects were 43 ± 12 years old, had duration of injury of 20 ± 12 years; eight subjects had a complete motor injury, and eight had paraplegia. Nine of 11 subjects completed the 20 mg/day treatment and 5 subjects completed the 40 mg/day treatment. Plasma IGF-1 levels improved with each baclofen dose; however, only one subject increased from baseline and remained above the targeted physiological range of 250 ng/ml throughout treatment. A significant increase in IGF-1concentration was observed between baseline and week 2 (154 ± 63 vs. 217 ± 69 ng/ml; P plasma IGF-1 concentrations in the physiological range in men with chronic SCI.

  11. Saharan Dust Fertilizing Atlantic Ocean and Amazon Rainforest via Long-range Transport and Deposition: A Perspective from Multiyear Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Chin, M.; Yuan, T.; Bian, H.; Remer, L. A.; Prospero, J. M.; Omar, A. H.; Winker, D. M.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Massive dust emitted from Sahara desert is carried by trade winds across the tropical Atlantic Ocean, reaching the Amazon Rainforest and Caribbean Sea. Airborne dust degrades air quality and interacts with radiation and clouds. Dust falling to land and ocean adds essential nutrients that could increase the productivity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and modulate the biogeochemical cycles and climate. The resultant climate change will feed back on the production of dust in Sahara desert and its subsequent transport and deposition. Understanding the connections among the remote ecosystems requires an accurate quantification of dust transport and deposition flux on large spatial and temporal scales, in which satellite remote sensing can play an important role. We provide the first multiyear satellite-based estimates of altitude-resolved across-Atlantic dust transport and deposition based on eight-year (2007-2014) record of aerosol three-dimensional distributions from the CALIPSO lidar. On a basis of the 8-year average, 179 Tg (million tons) of dust leaves the coast of North Africa and is transported across Atlantic Ocean, of which 102, 20, and 28 Tg of dust is deposited into the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Amazon Rainforest, respectively. The dust deposition adds 4.3 Tg of iron and 0.1 Tg of phosphorus to the tropical Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea where the productivity of marine ecosystem depends on the availability of these nutrients. The 28 Tg of dust provides about 0.022 Tg of phosphorus to Amazon Rainforest yearly that replenishes the leak of this plant-essential nutrient by rains and flooding, suggesting an important role of Saharan dust in maintaining the productivity of Amazon rainforest on timescales of decades or centuries. We will also discuss seasonal and interannual variations of the dust transport and deposition, and comparisons of the CALIOP-based estimates with model simulations.

  12. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B

    2017-01-01

    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  13. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  14. Sustainability needs the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Nancy; van der Pluijm, Ben

    2012-10-01

    Science, Innovation, and Partnerships for Sustainable Solutions: A National Academies Symposium; Washington, D. C., 16-18 May 2012 It is no longer disputed that humanity has drastically changed the face of the planet and its life-support systems. The sustainability challenge is to meet people's needs today and in the future while sustaining life-support systems. This grand challenge demands a new scientific approach: use-inspired, solution-driven research that consciously links scientific research to societal decision-making and action. Sustainability science may help fulfill that need if it can engage communities of expertise across a wide range of disciplines and sectors, including the geosciences.

  15. Measuring sustainable accessibility potential using the mobility infrastructure's network configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, J.; Read, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an exploration into the analysis of public transport networks using space syntax approaches combined with concepts of sustainable accessibility. Present urban development policy aims to achieve sustainable mobility patterns, shifting mobility to soft transportation modes such as

  16. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in Ile-de-France: Local contribution and Long range transport; Caracteisation des aeosols atmospheiques en Ile-de-France: contribution locale et transport a longues distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, J.E

    2006-06-15

    Atmospheric aerosols interact directly in a great number of processes related to climate change and public health, modifying the energy budget and partly determining the quality of the air we breathe. In my PhD, I chose to study the perturbation, if not the aggravation, of the living conditions in Ile-de-France associated to aerosol transport episodes in the free troposphere. This situation is rather frequent and still badly known. To achieve my study, I developed the observation platform 'TReSS' Transportable Remote Sensing Station, whose instruments were developed at the Laboratoire de Meteorology Dynamique by the LiMAG team. 'TReSS' consists of a new high-performance 'Mini-Lidar' and of two standard radiometers: a sun photometer and a thermal infrared radiometer. The principle of my experimental approach is the synergy of the vertical Lidar profiles and the particle size distributions over the column, obtained by the 'Almucantar' inversion of sun photometer data. The new 'Lidar and Almucantar' method characterizes the vertical distribution by layer and the optical micro-physical properties of the local and transported aerosols. Firstly, I undertook the characterization of the Paris aerosol, mainly of anthropogenic origin. Their radiative properties were analyzed in the daily and yearly scales. Then, I conducted a statistical multi-year study of transport episodes and a two-week study case, representative of a succession of desert dust intrusion in Ile-de-France. My PhD work concludes by a study on the impact of biomass burning aerosols during the heat wave on August 2003. I study the impact of the transported aerosols into the local radiative budget and the possible consequences on the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer. (author)

  17. Electron transport simulation in the range 1 keV-4 MeV for the purpose of high-resolution dosimetric application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobut, V. [Univ. de Cergy-Pontoise, Neuville/Oise (France). Lab. Pharmacophores Redox, Phytochimie et Radiobiologie; Cirioni, L.; Patau, J.P. [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Faculte de Pharmacie

    2001-07-01

    Experimental spectrometry and dosimetry can offer some reliable answers. However, they are not easy to implement in some specific situations. Furthermore, information on dose distributions cannot always be obtained with the desirable geometrical resolution. A way to get rid of these disadvantages consist in simulating every successive individual interactions suffered by electrons and photons along their path. We applied this principle to simulate the response of a detector placed in the field of beta-gamma sources, which maximum energy does not exceed 4 MeV. A part of this work is presented here, which concerns Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in materials encountered in experimental dosimetric devices. Electrons were followed down to a cutoff energy of 1 keV. (orig.)

  18. Characterization, Long-Range Transport and Source Identification of Carbonaceous Aerosols during Spring and Autumn Periods at a High Mountain Site in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yan Jia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PM10 (particulate matter samples were collected at Mount Lu, a high elevation mountain site in south China (August and September of 2011; and March, April and May of 2012. Eight carbonaceous fractions of particles were analyzed to characterize the possible carbonaceous emission sources. During the sampling events, daily average concentrations of PM10 at Mount Lu were 97.87 μg/m3 and 73.40 μg/m3 in spring and autumn, respectively. The observed mean organic carbon (OC and element carbon (EC concentrations during spring in PM10 were 10.58 μg/m3 and 2.58 μg/m3, respectively, and those in autumn were 6.89 μg/m3 and 2.40 μg/m3, respectively. Secondary organic carbon concentration was 4.77 μg/m3 and 2.93 μg/m3 on average, accounting for 28.0% and 31.0% of the total OC in spring and autumn, respectively. Relationships between carbonaceous species and results of principal component analysis showed that there were multiple sources contributing to the carbonaceous aerosols at the observation site. Through back trajectory analysis, it was found that air masses in autumn were mainly transported from the south of China, and these have the highest OC but lowest EC concentrations. Air masses in spring transported from northwest China bring 7.77 μg/m3 OC and 2.28 μg/m3 EC to the site, with lower levels coming from other sites. These air mass sources were featured by the effective carbon ratio (ECR.

  19. 75 FR 57690 - Acquisition Regulation: Sustainable Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Environmental, Energy and Transportation Management, and Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in... Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings (Guiding Principles) shall be achieved through... Transportation Management, and Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic...

  20. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    As part of the major WEC study on Scenarios to 2050, a specific investigation was undertaken on measures required in the transport sector to secure sustainable energy and sustainable mobility in the future. This report outlines the results conducted by a study group of international WEC transport experts and gives concrete policy recommendations to develop sustainable transport systems.

  1. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  2. Aquarius - A Modelling Package for Groundwater Flow and Coupled Heat Transport in the Range 0.1 to 100 MPa and 0.1 to 1000 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S. J.

    2009-05-01

    Aquarius is a Windows application that models fluid flow and heat transport under conditions in which fluid buoyancy can significantly impact patterns and magnitudes of fluid flow. The package is designed as a visualization tool through which users can examine flow systems in environments, both low temperature aquifers and regions with elevated PT regimes such as deep sedimentary basins, hydrothermal systems, and contact thermal aureoles. The package includes 4 components: (1) A finite-element mesh generator/assembler capable of representing complex geologic structures. Left-hand, right-hand and alternating linear triangles can be mixed within the mesh. Planer horizontal, planer vertical and cylindrical vertical coordinate sections are supported. (2) A menu-selectable system for setting properties and boundary/initial conditions. The design retains mathematical terminology for all input parameters such as scalars (e.g., porosity), tensors (e.g., permeability), and boundary/initial conditions (e.g., fixed potential). This makes the package an effective instructional aide by linking model requirements with the underlying mathematical concepts of partial differential equations and the solution logic of boundary/initial value problems. (3) Solution algorithms for steady-state and time-transient fluid flow/heat transport problems. For all models, the nonlinear global matrix equations are solved sequentially using over-relaxation techniques. Matrix storage design allows for large (e.g., 20000) element models to run efficiently on a typical PC. (4) A plotting system that supports contouring nodal data (e.g., head), vector plots for flux data (e.g., specific discharge), and colour gradient plots for elemental data (e.g., porosity), water properties (e.g., density), and performance measures (e.g., Peclet numbers). Display graphics can be printed or saved in standard graphic formats (e.g., jpeg). This package was developed from procedural codes in C written originally to

  3. Impact of the regional climate and substance properties on the fate and atmospheric long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants - examples of DDT and γ-HCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Semeena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A global multicompartment model which is based on a 3-D atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM5 coupled to 2-D soil, vegetation and sea surface mixed layer reservoirs, is used to simulate the atmospheric transports and total environmental fate of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane. Emissions into the model world reflect the substance's agricultural usage in 1980 and 1990 and same amounts in sequential years are applied. Four scenarios of DDT usage and atmospheric decay and one scenario of γ-HCH are studied over a decade. The global environment is predicted to be contaminated by the substances within ca. 2a (years. DDT reaches quasi-steady state within 3-4a in the atmosphere and vegetation compartments, ca. 6a in the sea surface mixed layer and near to or slightly more than 10a in soil. Lindane reaches quasi-steady state in the atmosphere and vegetation within 2a, in soils within 8 years and near to or slightly more than 10a and in the sea surface mixed layer. The substances' differences in environmental behaviour translate into differences in the compartmental distribution and total environmental residence time, τoverall. τoverall≈0.8a for γ-HCH's and ≈1.0-1.3 a for the various DDT scenarios. Both substances' distributions are predicted to migrate in northerly direction, 5-12° for DDT and 6.7° for lindane between the first and the tenth year in the environment. Cycling in various receptor regions is a complex superposition of influences of regional climate, advection, and the substance's physico-chemical properties. As a result of these processes the model simulations show that remote boreal regions are not necessarily less contaminated than tropical receptor regions. Although the atmosphere accounts for only 1% of the total contaminant burden, transport and transformation in the atmosphere is key for the distribution in other compartments. Hence, besides the physico

  4. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  5. Sustainability Principles in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Wenzel, Henrik; Azapagic, Adisa

    2007-01-01

    generation, transport, heating and cooling, on the other hand, it has a considerable impact on the environment, via its resource consumption, its emissions and the impact of its products. New (sustainable) alternatives, for example, change of raw material base, use of renewable resources, efficient...... manufacture of chemical products and sustainable products and processes that can efficiently manufacture them, will need to be considered to meet the current and future challenges. Some of the important issues in this respect are how to generate/identify sustainable alternatives, how to analyze them, which...... criteria should be used to evaluate them, and how to implement them? The objective of this presentation is to highlight the use of systematic multidisciplinary approaches for generation of sustainable alternatives combined with methods/tools for analysis and evaluation. For generation of alternatives...

  6. The effects of the Mulligan Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glide (SNAG mobilisation in the lumbar flexion range of asymptomatic subjects as measured by the Zebris CMS20 3-D motion analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strimpakos Nikolaos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulligan's mobilisation techniques are thought to increase the range of movement (ROM in patients with low back pain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the application of the Mulligan's Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glide (SNAG technique on lumbar flexion ROM. The secondary aim was to measure the intra- and inter-day reliability of lumbar ROM employing the same procedure. Methods 49 asymptomatic volunteers participated in this double-blinded study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either SNAG mobilisation (n = 25, or a sham mobilisation (n = 24. The SNAG technique was applied at the L3and L4 spinal levels with active flexion in sitting by an experienced manual therapist. Three sets of 10 repetitions at each of the two spinal levels were performed. The sham mobilisation was similar to the SNAG but did not apply the appropriate direction or force. Lumbar ROM was measured by a three dimensional electronic goniometer (Zebris CMS20, before and after each technique. For the reliability, five measurements in two different days (one week apart were performed in 20 healthy subjects. Results When both interventions were compared, independent t tests yielded no statistically significant results in ROM between groups (p = 0.673. Furthermore no significant within group differences were observed: SNAG (p = 0.842, sham (p = 0.169. Intra- and inter-day reliability of flexion measurements was high (ICC1,1 > 0.82, SEM Conclusion While the Zebris proved to be a reliable device for measuring lumbar flexion ROM, SNAG mobilisation did not demonstrate significant differences in flexion ROM when compared to sham mobilisation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NCT00678093.

  7. Sustainability and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    The widely used concept of sustainability is seldom precisely defined, and its clarification involves making up one's mind about a range of difficult questions. One line of research (bottom-up) takes sustaining a system over time as its starting point and then infers prescriptions from...... this requirement. Another line (top-down) takes an economical interpretation of the Brundtland Commission's suggestion that the present generation's needsatisfaction should not compromise the need-satisfaction of future generations as its starting point. It then measures sustainability at the level of society...... a clarified ethical goal, disagreements can arise. At present we do not know what substitutions will be possible in the future. This uncertainty clearly affects the prescriptions that follow from the measure of sustainability. Consequently, decisions about how to make future agriculture sustainable...

  8. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...... sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability...

  9. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 20, No. 1, Summer 2016 - Tackling Transportation: Clean Cities and NPS Team Up to Steer National Parks Toward a Sustainable Future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  10. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass and Algal Residues via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, T. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Beginning in 2010, UOP, along with the Department of Energy and other project partners, designed a pathway for an integrated biorefinery to process solid biomass into transportation fuel blendstocks. The integrated biorefinery (IBR) would convert second generation feedstocks into pyrolysis oil which would then be upgraded into fuel blendstocks without the limitations of traditional biofuels.

  11. Exploring unintended environmental and social-equity consequences of transit oriented development : a research report from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Communities throughout the U.S. are pursuing land use and transportation plans that locate : high density, mixed-use development near high quality rail and bus transit service. The : objective of these plans is to meet important community goals, such...

  12. Assessing transition trajectories towards a sustainable energy system: A case study on the Dutch transition to climate-neutral transport fuel chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurs, R.A.A.; Hekkert, M.P.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Nieuwlaar, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the ex ante evaluation of technological trajectories. As a case we study the Dutch transport energy system and its transition to climate neutrality. Two technological trajectories are proposed: (i) a sequence of transition steps based on radical infrastructural

  13. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    infrastructures will reduce dependencies on changing priorities and sponsorship that may not continue. Implementing community-based appraisal criteria and selection procedures for data will ensure that limited resources for long-term data management are applied efficiently to data likely to have the most enduring value. Encouraging producers to provide rights for open access to data will support their replication, reuse, integration, and application in a range of SS research and applications in both the near and long term. Identifying modest changes to current data preparation activities to meet preservation goals should reduce expensive post-hoc data and documentation rescue efforts. The NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), an active archive in the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), established the SEDAC Long-Term Archive (LTA) in collaboration with the Columbia University Libraries to preserve selected data and information resources for future access and use. A case study of the LTA shows how archives can be organized to foster sustainable data stewardship in a university environment. Lessons learned from the organization planning and the preparation, appraisal, and selection of data for the LTA are described along with enhancements that have been applied to data management by the active archive.

  14. Towards sustainable sanitation management: Establishing the costs and willingness to pay for emptying and transporting sludge in rural districts with high rates of access to latrines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanya, Soumya; Evans, Barbara; Hardy, Richard; Ahmed, Rizwan; Habib, Ahasan; Asad, N S M; Rahman, Mominur; Hasan, M; Dey, Digbijoy; Fletcher, Louise; Camargo-Valero, Miller Alonso; Chaitanya Rao, Krishna; Fernando, Sudarshana

    2017-01-01

    Proper management of fecal sludge has significant positive health and environmental externalities. Most research on managing onsite sanitation so far either simulates the costs of, or the welfare effects from, managing sludge in situ in pit latrines. Thus, designing management strategies for onsite rural sanitation is challenging, because the actual costs of transporting sludge for treatment, and sources for financing these transport costs, are not well understood. In this paper we calculate the actual cost of sludge management from onsite latrines, and identify the contributions that latrine owners are willing to make to finance the costs. A spreadsheet-based model is used to identify a cost-effective transport option, and to calculate the cost per household. Then a double-bound contingent valuation method is used to elicit from pit-latrine owners their willingness-to-pay to have sludge transported away. This methodology is employed for the case of a rural subdistrict in Bangladesh called Bhaluka, a unit of administration at which sludge management services are being piloted by the Government of Bangladesh. The typical sludge accumulation rate in Bhaluka is calculated at 0.11 liters/person/day and a typical latrine will need to be emptied approximately once every 3 to 4 years. The costs of emptying and transport are high; approximately USD 13 per emptying event (circa 14% of average monthly income); household contributions could cover around 47% of this cost. However, if costs were spread over time, the service would cost USD 4 per year per household, or USD 0.31 per month per household-comparable to current expenditures of rural households on telecommunications. This is one of few research papers that brings the costs of waste management together with financing of that cost, to provide evidence for an implementable solution. This framework can be used to identify cost effective sludge management options and private contributions towards that cost in other

  15. Long-term (2001-2012) observation of the modeled hygroscopic growth factor of remote marine TSP aerosols over the western North Pacific: impact of long-range transport of pollutants and their mixing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Haque, Md Mozammel

    2015-11-21

    In order to assess the seasonal and annual variability of long-range transported anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia and their effect on the hygroscopicity and precipitation process over the western North Pacific, we conducted long-term calculations of bulk hygroscopicity, g(90%)ZSR, based on the ZSR model using chemical composition data from 2001-2012 at Chichijima Island. We found that sea-salts (Na(+) and Cl(-)) are the major mass fraction (65%) of the total water-soluble matter followed by SO4(2-) (20%) and WSOM (6%). The seasonal variation of g(90%)ZSR was high in summer to autumn and low in winter to spring months, probably due to the influence of the long-range transport of anthropogenic SO4(2-), dust, and organics from East Asia and their interaction with sea-salts through heterogeneous reactions. On the other hand, annual variations of g(90%)ZSR showed a decrease from 2001 to 2006 and then an increase from 2007 to 2012. Interestingly, the annual variations in SO4(2-) mass fractions showed an increase from 2001 to 2006 and then a decrease from 2007 to 2012, demonstrating that SO4(2-) seriously suppresses the hygroscopic growth of sea-salt particles over the western North Pacific. This is further supported by the strong negative correlation between SO4(2-) and g(90%)ZSR. Based on the MODIS satellite data, the present study demonstrates that long-range transported anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia to the North Pacific can act as efficient cloud condensation nuclei but significantly suppress the precipitation by reducing the size of cloud droplets over the western North Pacific.

  16. Beyond An Inconvenient Truth: The Army’s March Toward Operationalizing Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Command  Tanzania  Sustainable Ranges  Wildlife Conservation  Zambezi River Basin  Transportation  Water Resources Management  Remnants of War...use paths High use paths Animal Migration Paths Regional Water Resources Case Study The Zambezi River Basin demonstrates how the Army can contribute

  17. Aircraft-borne aerosol chemical composition measurements in the lower to middle troposphere over southern West Africa: Biomass burning, urban outflow plumes, and long-range transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Anneke; Schulz, Christiane; Schneider, Johannes; Sauer, Daniel; Schlager, Hans; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    During the DACCIWA field campaign in June and July 2016, aircraft-borne in-situ aerosol chemical composition measurements were performed over southern West Africa (SWA). This presentation will focus on the submicron particle measurements done with a Compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) on board of the DLR Falcon aircraft during twelve research flights from Lomé, Togo, covering the altitude range from the boundary layer (BL) to the middle troposphere (12 km). A preliminary analysis of the results shows typical baseline total non-refractory aerosol mass loadings of 1.5 to 2.8 μg m-3 in the BL, and 0.4 to 1.1 μg m-3above. Up to half of the baseline aerosol mass in the BL appears to consist of sulphate, compared to only 10 to 35 % above the BL; organic matter dominates in the middle troposphere. During several flights, the DLR Falcon crossed a pronounced and seemingly widespread aerosol layer at 2—4.5 km altitude, partly in or slightly above the BL. The AMS data indicate that about half of the non-refractory aerosol mass in the middle of this layer consisted of organic matter. We consider it likely that these aerosol particles were produced by biomass burning in Central Africa. Emissions from cities and industrial areas were also intercepted, as well as enhancements in some species at higher altitudes. Trajectory analysis suggests that an increase of the organics to more than 2.5 μg m-3 observed at 8 km during one flight came from the Arabian Peninsula. Several ammonium peaks during the same flight at higher altitudes were traced back to the Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone (ASMA).

  18. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  19. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  20. Electron Transport in a Dioxygenase-Ferredoxin Complex: Long Range Charge Coupling between the Rieske and Non-Heme Iron Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne K Dawson

    Full Text Available Dioxygenase (dOx utilizes stereospecific oxidation on aromatic molecules; consequently, dOx has potential applications in bioremediation and stereospecific oxidation synthesis. The reactive components of dOx comprise a Rieske structure Cys2[2Fe-2S]His2 and a non-heme reactive oxygen center (ROC. Between the Rieske structure and the ROC, a universally conserved Asp residue appears to bridge the two structures forming a Rieske-Asp-ROC triad, where the Asp is known to be essential for electron transfer processes. The Rieske and ROC share hydrogen bonds with Asp through their His ligands; suggesting an ideal network for electron transfer via the carboxyl side chain of Asp. Associated with the dOx is an itinerant charge carrying protein Ferredoxin (Fdx. Depending on the specific cognate, Fdx may also possess either the Rieske structure or a related structure known as 4-Cys-[2Fe-2S] (4-Cys. In this study, we extensively explore, at different levels of theory, the behavior of the individual components (Rieske and ROC and their interaction together via the Asp using a variety of density function methods, basis sets, and a method known as Generalized Ionic Fragment Approach (GIFA that permits setting up spin configurations manually. We also report results on the 4-Cys structure for comparison. The individual optimized structures are compared with observed spectroscopic data from the Rieske, 4-Cys and ROC structures (where information is available. The separate pieces are then combined together into a large Rieske-Asp-ROC (donor/bridge/acceptor complex to estimate the overall coupling between individual components, based on changes to the partial charges. The results suggest that the partial charges are significantly altered when Asp bridges the Rieske and the ROC; hence, long range coupling through hydrogen bonding effects via the intercalated Asp bridge can drastically affect the partial charge distributions compared to the individual isolated